497 1 fp0028412_497.htm
 
PROSPECTUS DATED OCTOBER 10, 2017
 
RiverNorth Opportunities Fund, Inc.

1,251,768 Shares of Common Stock Issuable Upon Exercise of Rights to Subscribe for Such Shares
 
RiverNorth Opportunities Fund, Inc. (the “Fund”) is issuing transferable subscription rights (“Rights”) to its common stockholders of record as of October 12, 2017 (the “Record Date” and such stockholders, “Record Date Stockholders”). These Rights will allow Record Date Stockholders to subscribe for new shares of common stock of the Fund in an aggregate amount of approximately 1,251,768 shares of common stock (the “Offer”). Record Date Stockholders will receive one Right for each share of common stock held on Record Date. For every three Rights held, a Record Date Stockholder is entitled to purchase one share of common stock of the Fund. Record Date Stockholders who fully exercise their Rights may also, in certain circumstances, purchase additional common stock pursuant to an over-subscription privilege. The number of Rights to be issued to a Record Date Stockholder will be rounded up to the nearest number of Rights evenly divisible by three. Fractional shares will not be issued upon the exercise of the Rights. Accordingly, new shares of common stock may be purchased only pursuant to the exercise of Rights in integral multiples of three.
 
The Rights are transferable and will be admitted for trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “RIV RT” during the course of the Offer. The Fund’s shares of common stock are currently listed, and the new shares of common stock issued in this Offer will also be listed, on the NYSE under the symbol “RIV.” On September 27, 2017, the last reported net asset value (“NAV”) per share of common stock was $20.62, and the last reported sales price per share of common stock on the NYSE was $20.18.
 
The Offer will expire at 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on November 9, 2017, unless the Offer is extended as described in this Prospectus (the “Expiration Date”). The subscription price per share of common stock will be determined based upon a formula equal to 92.5% of the reported NAV or 95% of the market price per share of common stock of the Fund on the NYSE on the Expiration Date, whichever is higher, unless the Offer is extended. Market price per share of common stock will be determined based on the average of the last reported sales prices of a share of common stock on the NYSE for the five trading days preceding the Expiration Date (not including sales price on the Expiration Date).
 
Rights holders will not know the subscription price at the time of exercise and will be required initially to pay for both the shares of common stock subscribed for pursuant to the primary subscription and, if eligible, any additional shares of common stock subscribed for pursuant to the over-subscription privilege, at the estimated subscription price of $19.38 per share of common stock and, except in limited circumstances, will not be able to rescind their subscription. Rights acquired in the secondary market may not participate in the over-subscription privilege.
 
Exercising your Rights and investing in the Fund involves a high degree of risk and may be considered speculative. Before exercising your Rights and investing in the Fund, you should read the discussion of the material risks in “Risk Factors” in the Prospectus.
 
In addition, you should consider the following:
 
Stockholders who do not exercise their Rights will, at the completion of the Offer, own a smaller proportional interest in the Fund than if they exercised their Rights, which will proportionately decrease the relative voting power of those shareholders. To the extent that the Fund determines to issue secondary over-subscription shares (discussed below), shareholders who do not exercise their Rights will be further diluted if the secondary over-subscription is fully subscribed.
 
Because the Subscription Price per share of common stock will be below the NAV per common share on the Expiration Date, you will experience an immediate substantial dilution of the aggregate NAV of your common stock if you do not participate in the Offer and you will experience a reduction in the NAV per share of your common stock whether or not you participate in the Offer.

All participating and non-participating shareholders will experience an immediate dilution of the aggregate NAV of your shares of common stock because all participating and non-participating shareholders will indirectly bear the expenses of the Offer. This dilution of NAV will disproportionately affect holders of common stock (“Common Stockholders”) who do not exercise their Rights.
 
The Fund cannot state precisely the extent of this dilution if you do not exercise your Rights because the Fund does not know what the NAV per share of common stock will be when the Offer expires, or what proportion of the Rights will be exercised. Assuming the full Primary Subscription and Secondary Over-Subscription Privilege (as discussed below) are exercised, the Fund’s NAV per share of common stock would be reduced by approximately $0.41 (2.01%) per share of common stock. Actual amounts may vary due to rounding.
 
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
 
 
Per share of
common stock
Total maximum4
Estimated subscription price1
$19.38
$30,324,000
Estimated sales load1
None
None
Estimated primary offering expenses2
$.05
$260,000
Estimated net proceeds to Fund1
$19.33
$30,064,000
Estimated secondary over-subscription offering expenses3
$-5
$6,000
Estimated net proceeds to Fund1,6
$19.33
$30,058,000
 
(1)
Estimated as of September 27, 2017. See “The Offer — The Subscription Price.”
 
(2)
Offering expenses payable by the Fund (and indirectly by all of the Fund’s Common Stockholders, including those who do not exercise their Rights) are estimated at approximately $260,000, which includes fees to the subscription agent and information agent estimated to be approximately $45,000 in the aggregate inclusive of out of pocket expenses.
 
(3)
Additional offering expenses payable by the Fund (and indirectly by all of the Fund’s Common Stockholders, including those who do not exercise their Rights) with respect to the secondary over-subscription offer are estimated at approximately $6,000, which includes fees to the subscription agent and information agent estimated to be approximately $6,000 in the aggregate inclusive of out of pocket expenses.
 
(4)
Assumes all Rights are exercised at the estimated subscription price per share of common stock. All of the Rights offered may not be exercised.
 
(5)
Amount rounds to less than $0.01.
 
(6)
Assumes all Rights are exercised and the secondary over-subscription offer is fully subscribed at the estimated subscription price per share of common stock. All of the Rights offered may not be exercised and the secondary over-subscription offer may not be fully subscribed.
 
Assuming all shares of common stock offered are purchased in the Offer, the proportionate interest held by non-exercising stockholders will decrease upon completion of the Offer. As with any common stock, the price of the Fund’s common stock fluctuates with market conditions and other factors. As of September 27, 2017, the shares of common were trading at a 2.13% discount to their NAV. Since the inception of the Fund, the common stock has traded at a discount of as much as (11.14)%. As described more fully in this Prospectus, Record Date Stockholders who fully exercise all Rights initially issued to them are entitled to buy those shares of common stock referred to as “primary over-subscription shares,” that were not purchased by other Rights holders. If enough primary over-subscription shares are available, all such requests will be honored in full. If the requests for primary over-subscription shares exceed the primary over-subscription shares available, the available primary over-subscription shares will be allocated pro rata among those fully exercising Record Date Stockholders who over-subscribe based on the number of Rights originally issued to them by the Fund.
 
In addition, the Fund, in its sole discretion, may determine to issue additional shares of common stock in an amount of up to 25% of the shares of common stock issued pursuant to the primary subscription, referred to as “secondary over-subscription shares.” The estimated subscription price for the secondary over-subscription shares is also $19.38. Should the Fund determine to issue some or all of the secondary over-subscription shares, they will be allocated only among Record Date Stockholders who submitted over-subscription requests. Secondary over-subscription shares will be allocated pro rata among those fully exercising Record Date Stockholders who over-subscribe based on the number of Rights originally issued to them by the Fund. If Common Stockholders do not participate in the secondary over-subscription offer (if any), their percentage ownership will be diluted.
 
The Fund is a diversified, closed-end management investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). The Fund’s investment objective is total return consisting of capital appreciation and current income. The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by pursuing a tactical asset allocation strategy and opportunistically investing under normal circumstances in closed-end funds and exchange-traded funds (“ETFs” and collectively, “Underlying Funds”). Underlying Funds may also include business development companies (“BDCs”). All Underlying Funds will be registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 65% of its Managed Assets in closed-end funds and at least 80% of its Managed Assets in Underlying Funds. “Managed Assets” means the total assets of the Fund, including assets attributable to leverage, minus liabilities (other than debt representing leverage and any preferred stock that may be outstanding). The Underlying Funds in which the Fund invests will not include those that are advised or subadvised by ALPS Advisors, Inc. (“the Adviser” or “ALPS”), RiverNorth Capital Management, LLC (the Subadviser” or “RiverNorth”) or their affiliates.

ALPS Advisors, Inc. serves as the Fund’s investment adviser and the Fund’s subadviser is RiverNorth Capital Management, LLC. As of August 31, 2017, ALPS had approximately $17.3 billion of assets under management. The Adviser’s address is 1290 Broadway, Suite 110, Denver, CO 80203. The Fund’s address is 1290 Broadway, Suite 1100, Denver, Colorado 80203, and its telephone number is (303) 623-2577. As of August 31, 2017, RiverNorth had approximately $3.63 billion of assets under management. The Subadviser’s address is 325 N. LaSalle Street, Suite 645, Chicago, Illinois 60654 and its telephone number is (312) 832-1440.
 
An investment in the Fund is not appropriate for all investors. No assurances can be given that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.
 
This Prospectus sets forth concisely the information about the Fund and the Offer that a prospective investor ought to know before investing in the Fund and participating in the Offer. You should read this Prospectus, which contains important information about the Fund, before deciding whether to invest in the Fund’s common stock, and retain it for future reference. A Statement of Additional Information dated October 10, 2017 (the “SAI”), containing additional information about the Fund, has been filed with the SEC and is incorporated by reference in its entirety into this Prospectus, which means that it is part of this prospectus for legal purposes. You may request a free copy of the SAI (the table of contents of which is on page 76 of this Prospectus), the Fund’s Annual and Semi-Annual Reports, request other information about the Fund and make shareholder inquiries by calling (855) 830-1222, (toll-free) or by writing to the Fund at 1290 Broadway, Suite 1100, Denver, Colorado 80203, or obtain a copy of such documents (and other information regarding the Fund) by visiting the Fund’s website at www.rivernorthcef.com (information included on the website does not form a part of this Prospectus), or from the SEC’s website (http://www.sec.gov). For additional information all holders of Rights should contact the Information Agent, Georgeson LLC (“Georgeson”) toll free at (877) 278-4774 or send a written request to the Information Agent at 1290 Avenue of the Americas, 9th Floor, New York, NY 10104.
 
Investing in Fund’s common stock involves certain risks. See “Risks” beginning on page 39 of this Prospectus.
 
Principal Investment Strategies. The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by pursuing a tactical asset allocation strategy and opportunistically investing under normal circumstances Underlying Funds. Underlying Funds also may include BDCs. All Underlying Funds will be registered under the Securities Act. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 65% of its Managed Assets in closed-end funds and at least 80% of its Managed Assets in Underlying Funds. “Managed Assets” means the total assets of the Fund, including assets attributable to leverage, minus liabilities (other than debt representing leverage and any preferred stock that may be outstanding). The Underlying Funds in which the Fund invests will not include those that are advised or subadvised by the Adviser, the Subadviser or their affiliates.
 
In selecting closed-end funds, the Subadviser will opportunistically utilize a combination of short-term and longer-term trading strategies to seek to derive value from the discount and premium spreads associated with closed-end funds. The Subadviser employs both a quantitative and qualitative approach in its selection of closed-end funds and has developed proprietary screening models and trading algorithms to trade closed-end funds. The Fund will invest in other Underlying Funds (that are not closed-end funds) to gain exposure to specific asset classes when the Subadviser believes closed-end fund discount or premium spreads are not attractive or to manage overall closed-end fund exposure in the Fund.
 
The Subadviser has the flexibility to change the Fund’s asset allocation based on its ongoing analysis of the equity, fixed income and alternative asset markets. The Subadviser considers various quantitative and qualitative factors relating to the domestic and foreign securities markets and economies when making asset allocation and security selection decisions. While the Subadviser continuously evaluates these factors, material shifts in the Fund’s asset class exposures will typically take place over longer periods of time.
 

Under normal market conditions, the Fund intends to maintain long positions in Underlying Funds, but may engage in short sales for investment purposes. When the Fund engages in a short sale, it sells a security it does not own and, to complete the sale, borrows the same security from a broker or other institution. The Fund may benefit from a short position when the shorted security decreased in value. The Fund may also at times establish hedging positions. Hedging positions may include short sales and derivatives, such as options and swaps. Under normal market conditions, no more than 30% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be in hedging positions. The Fund’s investments in derivatives will be included under the 65% and 80% policy noted above so long as the underlying asset of such derivatives is a closed-end fund or Underlying Fund, respectively.
 
The Fund also may invest up to 20% of its Managed Assets in exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”), certain derivatives, such as options and swaps, cash and cash equivalents.  Such investments will not be counted towards the Fund’s 80% policy.

The Fund’s NAV will vary and its distribution rate may vary and both may be affected by numerous factors, including changes in the market spread over a specified benchmark, market interest rates and performance. Fluctuations in NAV may be magnified as a result of the Fund's use of leverage. An investment in the Fund may not be appropriate for all investors.

Contingent Conversion Feature. The Fund’s Charter provides that, during calendar year 2021, the Fund will call a shareholder meeting for the purpose of voting to determine whether the Fund should convert to an open-end management investment company. If approved by shareholders, the Fund will seek to convert to an open-end management investment company within 12 months of such approval. If not approved by shareholders, the Fund will continue in operation as a closed-end management investment company.

Leverage. The Fund may borrow money and/or issue preferred stock, notes or debt securities for investment purposes. These practices are known as leveraging. Since the holders of common stock pay all expenses related to the issuance of debt or use of leverage, any use of leverage would create a greater risk of loss for the shares of common stock than if leverage is not used. The Fund may use leverage through borrowings or the issuance of preferred stock, in an aggregate amount of up to 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets immediately after such borrowings or issuance.  However, the Fund is not required to decrease its use of leverage if leverage exceeds 15% but is less than 20% of the Fund’s Managed Assets due solely to changes in market conditions.  Based on market conditions at the time, the Fund may instead use such leverage in amounts that represent less than 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets. The Fund currently anticipates that leverage will initially be obtained through the use of bank borrowings or other similar term loans.  The Underlying Funds that the Fund invests in may also use leverage; provided, however, it is the intention of the Fund that the Fund’s direct use of leverage and the Fund’s overall exposure to leverage utilized by all the Underlying Funds will not exceed 33 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets.  To the extent that the Fund’s exposure to leverage utilized by all the Underlying Funds is 33 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets, the Fund intends to not utilize leverage directly.  The Fund’s intention to limit leverage is contingent upon the Subadviser’s ability to adequately determine an Underlying Fund’s current amount of leverage, which may be severely limited, and ultimately unsuccessful.
 
The Fund’s common stock does not represent a deposit or obligation of, and is not guaranteed or endorsed by, any bank or other insured depository institution, and is not federally insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board or any other government agency.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Prospectus Summary
1
Summary Of Fund Expenses
21
Financial Highlights
24
The Fund
25
The Offer
25
Use Of Proceeds
34
Investment Objective, Strategies And Policies
34
Contingent Conversion Feature
37
Use Of Leverage
37
Risks
39
Management Of The Fund
56
Net Asset Value
58
Dividends And Distributions
59
Dividend Reinvestment Plan
60
Description Of The Common Shares
61
Certain Provisions Of The Fund’s Charter And Bylaws And Of Maryland Law
63
Repurchase Of Shares
70
Conversion To Open-End Fund
70
U.S. Federal Income Tax Matters
71
Custodian And Transfer Agent
75
Legal Matters
75
Control Persons
75
Additional Information
75
The Fund’s Privacy Policy
75
Table Of Contents For The Statement Of Additional Information
76
 
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this Prospectus. The Fund has not authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. The Fund is not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information provided by this Prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this Prospectus. The Fund’s business, financial condition and results of operations may have changed since that date.

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
 
The following summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to the more detailed information appearing elsewhere in this Prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in the Fund’s shares of common stock (the “Common Shares”). You should review the more detailed information contained in this Prospectus and in the Statement of Additional Information, especially the information set forth under the heading “Risk Factors.”

The Fund
RiverNorth Opportunities Fund, Inc. (the “Fund”) is a Maryland corporation registered as a diversified, closed-end management investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).  An investment in the Fund may not be appropriate for all investors. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.
The Purpose of the Offer
The Board of Directors of the Fund (the “Board”), based on the recommendation of ALPS Advisors, Inc. (the “Adviser” or “ALPS”), the Fund’s investment adviser, and RiverNorth Capital Management, LLC (the “Subadviser” or “RiverNorth”), has determined that it would be in the best interest of the Fund and its existing shareholders to increase the assets of the Fund so that the Fund may be in a better position to take advantage of investment opportunities that may arise without having to reduce existing Fund holdings. The Board also believes that a larger number of outstanding Common Shares and a larger number of holders of common stock (“Common Stockholders”) could increase the level of market interest in and visibility of the Fund, and improve the trading liquidity of the Fund’s shares on the NYSE. In making this determination, the Board considered a number of factors, including potential benefits and costs. This rights offering seeks to reward existing Common Stockholders by giving them the opportunity to purchase additional Common Shares at a price that may be below market and/or NAV without incurring any commission or charge. The distribution of these rights, which themselves may have intrinsic value, will also give non-participating common stockholders the potential of receiving a cash payment upon the sale of their rights, which may be viewed as partial compensation for the possible dilution of their interests in the Fund as a result of this offer.
 
The Board believes that increasing the size of the Fund may result in certain economies of scale which may lower the Fund’s expenses as a proportion of average net assets because the Fund’s fixed costs can be spread over a larger asset base. There can be no assurance that by increasing the size of the Fund, the Fund’s expense ratio will be lowered. There can be no assurance that this rights offering (or the investment of the proceeds of this rights offering) will be successful or that the level of trading on the Fund’s shares on the NYSE will increase.
Important Terms of the Offer
The Fund is issuing transferable subscription rights (“Rights”) to its common stockholders of record as of October 12, 2017 (the “Record Date” and such shareholders, “Record Date Stockholders”). These Rights will allow Record Date Stockholders to subscribe for new Common Shares of the Fund in an aggregate amount of approximately 1,251,768 Common Shares (the “Offer”). Record Date Stockholders will receive one Right for each share of common stock held on the Record Date. For every three Rights held, you are entitled to purchase one new share of common stock of the Fund. Record Date Stockholders who fully exercise their Rights may also, in certain circumstances, purchase additional Common Shares pursuant to an over-subscription privilege. The number of Rights to be issued to each Record Date Stockholder will be rounded up to the nearest number of Rights evenly divisible by three. Fractional shares will not be issued upon the exercise of the Rights. Accordingly, new Common Shares may be purchased only pursuant to the exercise of Rights in integral multiples of three.
1

 
The Rights are transferable and will be admitted for trading on the NYSE under the symbol “RIV RT” during the course of the Offer. The Fund’s Common Shares are currently listed, and the new Common Shares issued in this Offer will also be listed, on the NYSE under the symbol “RIV”. On September 27, 2017, the last reported NAV per Common Share was $20.62, and the last reported sales price per Common Share on the NYSE was $20.18.
 
The Offer will expire at 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on November 9, 2017, unless the Offer is extended as described in this Prospectus (the “Expiration Date”).
 
The subscription price (“Subscription Price”) per Common Share will be determined based upon a formula equal to 92.5% of the reported NAV or 95% of the market price per Common Share of the Fund on the NYSE on the Expiration Date, whichever is higher, unless the offer is extended. Common Shares of the Fund, as a closed-end fund, can trade at a discount to NAV. Upon expiration of the Offer, the Fund expects that Common Shares will be issued at a price below NAV per share.
 
Rights holders may not know the subscription price at the time of exercise and will be required initially to pay for both the Common Shares subscribed for pursuant to the primary subscription and, if eligible, any additional Common Shares subscribed for pursuant to the over-subscription privilege at the estimated Subscription Price of $19.38 per Common Share and, except in limited circumstances, will not be able to rescind their subscription.
 
Rights acquired in the secondary market may not participate in the over-subscription privilege.
 
The Rights exercisable for one Common Share for each three Rights exercised at the Subscription Price will be referred to in the remainder of this Prospectus as the “primary subscription.”
 
The Fund will not be issuing share certificates for the Common Shares issued pursuant to this Offer. Issuance of Common Shares will be made electronically via book entry by DST Systems, Inc. (“DST”), the Fund’s transfer agent.
Over-subscription Privilege
Record Date Stockholders who fully exercise all Rights initially issued to them are entitled to buy those Common Shares, referred to as “primary over-subscription shares,” that were not purchased by other Rights holders at the same Subscription Price. If enough primary over-subscription shares are available, all such requests will be honored in full. If the requests for primary over-subscription shares exceed the primary over-subscription shares available, the available primary over-subscription shares will be allocated pro rata among those fully exercising Record Date Stockholders who over-subscribe based on the number of Rights originally issued to them by the Fund. Common Shares acquired pursuant to the primary over-subscription privilege are subject to allotment.
 
In addition, the Fund, in its sole discretion, may determine to issue additional Common Shares in an amount of up to 25% of the Common Shares issued pursuant to the primary subscription, referred to as “secondary over-subscription shares.” The estimated subscription price for the secondary over-subscription shares is also $19.38. Should the Fund determine to issue some or all of the secondary over-subscription shares, they will be allocated only among Record Date Stockholders who submitted over-subscription requests. Secondary over-subscription shares will be allocated pro rata among those fully exercising Record Date Stockholders who over-subscribe based on the number of Rights originally issued to them by the Fund.
2

  Rights acquired in the secondary market may not participate in the over-subscription privilege.
 
If common stockholders do not participate in an over-subscription offer (if any), their percentage ownership may be diluted.
 
Notwithstanding the above, the Board has the right in its absolute discretion to eliminate the over-subscription privilege with respect to either or both primary over-subscription shares and secondary over-subscription shares if it considers it to be in the best interest of the Fund to do so. The Board may make that determination at any time, without prior notice to Rights holders or others, up to and including the seventh day following the Expiration Date. See “The Offer — Over-Subscription Privilege.”
Method for Exercising Rights
Rights may be exercised by completing and signing the reverse side of the subscription certificate evidencing the Rights (the “Subscription Certificate”) and mailing it in the envelope provided, or otherwise delivering the completed and signed Subscription Certificate to Computershare Tust Company, N.A. and Computershare Inc. (the “Subscription Agent”), together with payment for the Common Shares as described below under “Payment for Shares of Stock.” Rights may also be exercised through a Rights holder’s broker, who may charge the Rights holder a servicing fee in connection with such exercise. See “The Offer — Method for Exercising Rights” and “The Offer — Payment for Shares of Stock.”
Sale of Rights
The Rights are transferable until the completion of the Subscription Period and will be admitted for trading on the NYSE. Although no assurance can be given that a market for the Rights will develop, trading in the Rights on the NYSE will begin three Business Days (defined below) prior to the Record Date and may be conducted until the close of trading on the last NYSE trading day prior to the completion of the Subscription Period. For purposes of this Prospectus, a “Business Day” means any day on which trading is conducted on the NYSE.
 
The value of the Rights, if any, will be reflected by the market price. Rights may be sold by individual holders or may be submitted to the Subscription Agent for sale (please see “The Offer — Method of Transferring Rights”). Any Rights submitted to the Subscription Agent for sale must be received by the Subscription Agent on or before November 2, 2017, five Business Days prior to the completion of the Subscription Period, due to normal settlement procedures. Selling shareholders are responsible for all brokerage commissions incurred by the Subscription Agent as well as other fees and expenses associated with a transfer of Rights.
 
Rights that are sold will not confer any right to acquire any Common Shares in the primary or secondary over-subscription, and any Record Date Stockholder who sells any Rights will not be eligible to participate in the primary or secondary over-subscription.
 
Trading of the Rights on the NYSE will be conducted on a when-issued basis until and including the date on which the Subscription Certificates are mailed to Record Date Stockholders, and thereafter will be conducted on a regular way basis until and including the last NYSE trading day prior to the completion of the Subscription Period. Common Shares issued pursuant to the Offer will begin trading ex-Rights two Business Days prior to the Record Date.
3

  If the Subscription Agent receives Rights for sale in a timely manner, it will use its best efforts to sell the Rights on the NYSE. The Subscription Agent will also attempt to sell any Rights (i) a Rights holder is unable to exercise because the Rights represent the right to subscribe for less than one new Common Share or (ii) attributable to shareholders whose record addresses are outside the United States or who have an Army Post Office (“APO”) or Fleet Post Office (“FPO”) address. See “Restrictions on Foreign Shareholders” and “The Offer — Foreign Restrictions.”
 
Any commissions will be paid by the selling Rights holders. Neither the Fund nor the Subscription Agent will be responsible if Rights cannot be sold and neither has guaranteed any minimum sales price for the Rights. If the Rights can be sold, sales of these Rights will be deemed to have been effected at the weighted average price received by the Subscription Agent on the day such Rights are sold, less any applicable brokerage commissions, taxes and other expenses.
 
Shareholders are urged to obtain a recent trading price for the Rights on the NYSE from their broker, bank, financial advisor or the financial press.
 
Banks, broker-dealers and trust companies that hold Common Shares for the accounts of others are advised to notify those persons who purchase Rights in the secondary market that such Rights will not participate in the over-subscription privilege.
Offering Expenses
Offering expenses incurred by the Fund (and indirectly by all of the Fund’s common stockholders, including those who do not exercise their Rights) in connection with the Offer are estimated to be $260,000.
Restrictions on Foreign Shareholders
Subscription Certificates will only be mailed to Record Date Stockholders whose addresses are within the United States (other than an APO or FPO address). Record Date Stockholders whose addresses are outside the United States or who have an APO or FPO address and who wish to subscribe to the Offer either in part or in full should contact the Subscription Agent in writing or by recorded telephone conversation no later than five Business Days prior to the Expiration Date. The Fund will determine whether the Offer may be made to any such Record Date Stockholder. The Offer will not be made in any jurisdiction where it would be unlawful to do so. If the Subscription Agent has received no instruction by the fifth Business Day prior to the Expiration Date or the Fund has determined that the Offer may not be made to a particular Record Date Stockholder, the Subscription Agent will attempt to sell all of such shareholder’s Rights and remit the net proceeds, if any, to such shareholder. If the Rights can be sold, sales of these Rights will be deemed to have been effected at the weighted average price received by the Subscription Agent on the day the Rights are sold, less any applicable brokerage commissions, taxes and other expenses.
Use of Proceeds
The Fund estimates the net proceeds of the Offer to be approximately $30,064,000. This figure is based on an estimated Subscription Price per Common Share of $19.38 and assumes all new Common Shares offered are sold and that the expenses related to the Offer estimated at approximately $260,000 are paid.

The Adviser anticipates that investment of the proceeds will be made in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies as appropriate investment opportunities are identified, which is expected to be completed or substantially completed within approximately one month.  Pending such investment, the proceeds will be held in high quality short-term debt securities and instruments.
4

Important Dates to Remember  Please note that the dates in the table below may change if the Offer is extended.
 
Event
Date
 
Record Date
October 12, 2017
 
Subscription Period
October 16 to November 9, 2017*
 
Expiration Date
November 9, 2017*
 
Payment for Guarantees of Delivery Due
November 13, 2017*
 
Confirmation to Participants
November 17, 2017*
 
*   Unless the Offer is extended.
 
   
Investment Objective
The Fund’s investment objective is total return consisting of capital appreciation and current income. There is no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by pursuing a tactical asset allocation strategy and opportunistically investing under normal circumstances in closed-end funds and exchange-traded funds (“ETFs” and collectively, “Underlying Funds”). Underlying Funds also may include business development companies (“BDCs”). All Underlying Funds will be registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The Subadviser has the flexibility to change the Fund’s asset allocation based on its ongoing analysis of the equity, fixed income and alternative asset markets. The Subadviser considers various quantitative and qualitative factors relating to the domestic and foreign securities markets and economies when making asset allocation and security selection decisions. While the Subadviser continuously evaluates these factors, material shifts in the Fund’s asset class exposures will typically take place over longer periods of time.
 
Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 65% of its Managed Assets in closed-end funds and at least 80% of its Managed Assets in Underlying Funds. “Managed Assets” means the total assets of the Fund, including assets attributable to leverage, minus liabilities (other than debt representing leverage and any preferred stock that may be outstanding). The Underlying Funds in which the Fund invests will not include those that are advised or subadvised by the Adviser, the Subadviser or their affiliates.  The Fund directly, and therefore holders of Common Shares (“Common Stockholders”) indirectly, will bear the expenses of the Underlying Funds.
 
Under normal market conditions: (i) no more than 80% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “equity” Underlying Funds; (ii) no more than 60% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “fixed income” Underlying Funds; (iii) no more than 30% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “global equity” Underlying Funds; (iv) no more than 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “emerging market equity” Underlying Funds; (v) no more than 30% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “high yield” (also known as “junk bond”) and “senior loan” Underlying Funds; (vi) no more than 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “emerging market income” Underlying Funds; (vii) no more than 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “real estate” Underlying Funds; and (viii) no more than 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “energy master limited partnership” (“MLP”) Underlying Funds.  Underlying Funds included in the 30% limitation applicable to investments in “global equity” Underlying Funds may include Underlying Funds that invest a portion of their assets in emerging markets securities.  The Fund will also limit its investments in closed-end funds (including BDCs) that have been in operation for less than one year to no more than 10% of the Fund’s Managed Assets.  The Fund will not invest in inverse ETFs and leveraged ETFs.  The types of Underlying Funds referenced in this paragraph will be categorized in accordance with the fund categories established and maintained by Morningstar, Inc. The investment parameters stated above (and elsewhere in this Prospectus) apply only at the time of purchase.
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In selecting closed-end funds, the Subadviser opportunistically utilizes a combination of short-term and longer-term trading strategies to seek to derive value from the discount and premium spreads associated with closed-end funds. The Subadviser employs both a quantitative and qualitative approach in its selection of closed-end funds and has developed proprietary screening models and algorithms to trade closed-end funds. The Subadviser employs the following trading strategies, among others:
 
Statistical Analysis (Mean Reversion)
 
·        Using proprietary quantitative models, the Subadviser seeks to identify closed-end funds that are trading at compelling absolute and / or relative discounts.
 
·        The Fund will attempt to capitalize on the perceived mispricing if the Subadviser believes that the discount widening is irrational and expects the discount to narrow to longer-term mean valuations.
 
Corporate Actions
 
·        The Subadviser will pursue investments in closed-end funds that have announced, or the Subadviser believes are likely to announce, certain corporate actions that may drive value for their shareholders.
 
·       The Subadviser has developed trading strategies that focus on closed-end fund tender offers, rights offerings, shareholder distributions, open-endings and liquidations.
 
The Fund will invest in other Underlying Funds (that are not closed-end funds) to gain exposure to specific asset classes when the Subadviser believes closed-end fund discount or premium spreads are not attractive or to manage overall closed-end fund exposure in the Fund.
 
Under normal circumstances, the Fund intends to maintain long positions in Underlying Funds, but may engage in short sales for investment purposes.  When the Fund engages in a short sale, it sells a security it does not own and, to complete the sale, borrows the same security from a broker or other institution.  The Fund may benefit from a short position when the shorted security decreases in value.  The Fund may also at times establish hedging positions.  Hedging positions may include short sales and derivatives, such as options and swaps (“Hedging Positions”). Under normal market conditions, no more than 30% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be in Hedging Positions.  The Subadviser intends to use Hedging Positions to lower the Fund’s volatility but they may also be used to seek to enhance the Fund’s return.  The Fund’s investments in derivatives will be included under the 65% and 80% policy noted above so long as the underlying asset of such derivatives is a closed-end fund or Underlying Fund, respectively.
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The Fund also may invest up to 20% of its Managed Assets in exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”), certain derivatives, such as options and swaps, cash and cash equivalents.  Such investments will not be counted towards the Fund’s 80% policy.
 
There are no limits on the Fund’s portfolio turnover, and the Fund may buy and sell securities to take advantage of potential short-term trading opportunities without regard to length of time and when the Subadviser believes investment considerations warrant such action.
 
The Fund may attempt to enhance the return on the cash portion of its portfolio (and not for hedging purposes) by investing in a total return swap agreement. A total return swap agreement provides the Fund with a return based on the performance of an underlying asset, in exchange for fee payments to a counterparty based on a specific rate. The difference in the value of these income streams is recorded daily by the Fund, and is typically settled in cash at least monthly. If the underlying asset declines in value over the term of the swap, the Fund would be required to pay the dollar value of that decline plus any applicable fees to the counterparty. The Fund may use its own NAV or any other reference asset that the Subadviser chooses as the underlying asset in a total return swap. The Fund will limit the notional amount of all total return swaps in the aggregate to 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets. See “Investment Objective, Strategies and Policies—Principal Investment Strategies.”
Contingent Conversion Feature
The Fund’s Charter provides that, during calendar year 2021, the Fund will call a shareholder meeting for the purpose of voting to determine whether the Fund should convert to an open-end management investment company (such meeting date, as may be adjourned, the “Conversion Vote Date”).  Such shareholder meeting may be adjourned or postponed in accordance with the By-Laws of the Fund to a date in calendar year 2021.  A vote on such Conversion Vote Date to convert the Fund to an open-end management investment company under the Charter requires approval by a majority of the Fund’s total outstanding shares. A majority is defined as greater than 50% of the Fund’s total outstanding shares.  If approved by shareholders on the Conversion Vote Date, the Fund will seek to convert to an open-end management investment company within 12 months of such approval. If the requisite number of votes to convert the Fund to an open-end management investment company is not obtained on the Conversion Vote Date, the Fund will continue in operation as a closed-end management investment company. See “Conversion to Open-End Fund” and “Risks—Contingent Conversion Risk” below.
Use of Leverage
The Fund may borrow money and/or issue preferred stock, notes or debt securities for investment purposes. These practices are known as leveraging. The Fund may use leverage through borrowings or the issuance of preferred stock, in an aggregate amount of up to 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets immediately after such borrowings or issuance.  However, the Fund is not required to decrease its use of leverage if leverage exceeds 15%, but is less than 20% of the Fund’s Managed Assets due solely to changes in market conditions.  Based on market conditions at the time, the Fund may instead use such leverage in amounts that represent less than 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets. The Subadviser will assess whether or not to engage in leverage based on its assessment of conditions in the debt and credit markets. Leverage, if used, may take the form of a borrowing or the issuance of preferred stock. The Fund does not currently use leverage, however, it has entered into a credit facility agreement and may use leverage in the future. The Underlying Funds that the Fund invests in may also use leverage; provided, however, it is the intention of the Fund that the Fund’s direct use of leverage and the Fund’s overall exposure to leverage utilized by all the Underlying Funds will not exceed 33 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets.  To the extent that the Fund’s exposure to leverage utilized by all the Underlying Funds is 33 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets, the Fund intends to not utilize leverage directly.  The Fund’s intention to limit leverage is contingent upon the Subadviser’s ability to adequately determine an Underlying Fund’s current amount of leverage, which may be severely limited, and ultimately unsuccessful.
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  Notwithstanding the limits discussed above, the Fund may enter into derivatives or other transactions (e.g., total return swaps) that may provide leverage (other than through borrowings or the issuance of preferred stock), but which are not subject to the foregoing  limitations, if the Fund earmarks or segregates liquid assets (or enters into offsetting positions) in accordance with applicable Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regulations and interpretations to cover its obligations under those transactions and instruments. These additional transactions will not cause the Fund to pay higher advisory or administration fee rates than it would pay in the absence of such transactions. In addition, these transactions will entail additional expenses (e.g., transaction costs) which will be borne by the Fund.
 
If the net rate of return on the Fund’s investments purchased with the leverage proceeds exceeds the interest or dividend rate payable on the leverage, such excess earnings will be available to pay higher dividends to holders of the Fund’s Common Shares (the “Common Stockholders”). If the net rate of return on the Fund’s investments purchased with leverage proceeds does not exceed the costs of leverage, the return to Common Stockholders will be less than if leverage had not been used. The use of leverage magnifies gains and losses to Common Stockholders. Since the holders of Common Shares pay all expenses related to the issuance of debt or use of leverage, any use of leverage would create a greater risk of loss for the Common Shares than if leverage is not used.  There can be no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful during any period in which it is employed. See “Use of Leverage” and “Risks—Leverage Risks.”
Adviser and Subadviser
The Fund pays the Adviser a management fee payable on a monthly basis at the annual rate of 1.00% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets for the services and facilities it provides. The Adviser (not the Fund) has agreed to pay the Subadviser a subadvisory fee payable on a monthly basis at the annual rate of 0.85% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets for the services it provides. As a result, the Adviser and the Subadviser are paid more if the Fund uses leverage, which creates a potential conflict of interest for the Adviser and the Subadviser. The Subadviser will seek to manage that potential conflict by utilizing leverage only when it determines such action is in the best interests of the Fund. For more information on the Adviser and the Subadviser, as well as the fees and expenses, see “Summary of Fund Expenses” and “Management of the Fund.”
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Administrator
ALPS Fund Services, Inc. (“AFS”) is the Fund’s administrator. Under an Administration, Bookkeeping and Pricing Services Agreement (the “Administration Agreement”), AFS is responsible for calculating NAVs, providing additional fund accounting and tax services, and providing fund administration and compliance-related services. See “Management of the Fund.”
Dividends and Distributions
As of June 30, 2017 the Board approved the adoption of a managed distribution plan in accordance with ALPS’ Section 19(b) exemptive order (the “Managed Distribution Plan”). Beginning with the August 2017 distribution, the Fund makes monthly distributions to common shareholders set initially at a fixed monthly rate of $0.21 per Common Share.
 
Under the Managed Distribution Plan, to the extent that sufficient investment income is not available on a monthly basis, the Fund’s distributions may consist of long-term capital gains and/or return of capital in order to maintain the distribution rate. The amount of the Fund's distributions pursuant to the Managed Distribution Plan are not related to the Fund's performance and, therefore, investors should not make any conclusions about the Fund’s investment performance from the amount of the Fund’s distributions or from the terms of the Fund’s Managed Distribution Plan.
 
The Adviser has received an order granting an exemption from Section 19(b) of the 1940 Act and Rule 19b-1 thereunder to permit the Fund, subject to certain terms and conditions, to include realized long-term capital gains as a part of its regular distributions to Common Stockholders more frequently than would otherwise be permitted by the 1940 Act (generally once per taxable year). To the extent that the Adviser relies on the exemptive order, the Fund will be required to comply with the terms and conditions therein, which, among other things, requires the Fund to make certain disclosures to shareholders and prospective shareholders regarding distributions, and would require the Board to make determinations regarding the appropriateness of use of the distribution policy. Under such a distribution policy, it is possible that the Fund might distribute more than its income and net realized capital gains; therefore, distributions to shareholders may result in a return of capital. The amount treated as a return of capital will reduce a shareholder’s adjusted basis in the shareholder’s shares, thereby increasing the potential gain or reducing the potential loss on the sale of shares. There is no assurance that the Fund will rely on the exemptive order in the future.  See “Dividends and Distributions.”
Dividend Reinvestment Plan
The Fund has a dividend reinvestment plan (the “Plan”) commonly referred to as an “opt-out” plan. Each Common Stockholder who participates in the Plan will have all distributions of dividends and capital gains automatically reinvested in additional Common Shares. Shareholders who elect not to participate in the Plan will receive all distributions in cash. Stockholders whose Common Shares are held in the name of a broker or nominee should contact the broker or nominee to determine whether and how they may participate in the Plan. See “Dividend Reinvestment Plan” and “U.S. Federal Income Tax Matters.”
Listing of Common Shares
The Fund’s Common Shares are currently listed, and the new Common Shares issued pursuant to an exercise of Rights will also be listed in this Offer will also be listed, on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), under the symbol “RIV.”
Risk Considerations
Risk is inherent in all investing.  Investing in any investment company security involves risk, including the risk that you may receive little or no return on your investment or even that you may lose part or all of your investment. Therefore, before investing in the Common Shares, you should consider the following risks as well as the other information in this Prospectus. See “Risks” below for more information about risk.
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Structural Risks:
 
Not a Complete Investment Program.  The Fund is intended for investors seeking total return consisting of capital appreciation and current income over the long-term and is not intended to be a short-term trading vehicle. An investment in the Common Shares of the Fund should not be considered a complete investment program. Each investor should take into account the Fund’s investment objective and other characteristics, as well as the investor’s other investments, when considering an investment in the Common Shares. An investment in the Fund may not be appropriate for all investors.
 
Dilution. Stockholders who do not exercise their Rights will, at the completion of the Offer, own a smaller proportional interest in the Fund than if they exercised their Rights, which will proportionately decrease the relative voting power of those shareholders. Because the Subscription Price per Common Share will be below the NAV per Common Share on the Expiration Date, you will experience an immediate substantial dilution of the aggregate NAV of your Common Shares if you do not participate in the Offer and you will experience a reduction in the NAV per Common Share of your Common Shares whether or not you participate in the Offer. In addition, whether or not you exercise your Rights, you will experience a dilution of NAV of the Common Shares because you will indirectly bear the expenses of this Offer, which include, among other items, SEC registration fees, printing expenses and the fees assessed by service providers (including the cost of the Fund’s counsel and independent registered public accounting firm). This dilution of NAV will disproportionately affect Common Stockholders who do not exercise their Rights. The Fund cannot state precisely the extent of this dilution if you do not exercise your Rights because the Fund does not know what the NAV per Common Share will be when the Offer expires, or what proportion of the Rights will be exercised.
 
Assuming, for example, that all Rights are exercised, the Subscription Price is $19.38 and the Fund’s NAV per Common Share at the expiration of the Offer is $20.62, the Fund’s NAV per Common Share (after payment of estimated offering expenses) would be reduced by approximately $0.36 (1.76%) per Common Share. Assuming, for example, that all Rights are exercised and the secondary over-subscription offer is fully subscribed, the Subscription Price is $19.38 and the Fund’s NAV per Common Share at the expiration of the Offer is $20.62, the Fund’s NAV per Common Share (after payment of estimated offering expenses) would be reduced by approximately $0.41 (2.01%) per Common Share. See “Risk Factors — Dilution.”
 
If you do not wish to exercise your Rights, you should consider selling them as set forth in this Prospectus. The Fund cannot give any assurance, however, that a market for the Rights will develop or that the Rights will have any marketable value.
 
The offer may increase the volatility of the market price of the Common Shares. In addition, the Offer could be under-subscribed, in which case ALPS will not have as much proceeds to invest on behalf of the Fund (see “Use of Proceeds”).
 
Leverage Risks.  The Fund may borrow money, or issue debt or preferred stock in an aggregate amount of up to 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets immediately after such borrowings or issuance. The Underlying Funds that the Fund invests in may also use leverage; provided, however, it is the intention of the Fund that the Fund’s direct use of leverage and the Fund’s overall exposure to leverage utilized by all the Underlying Funds will not exceed 33 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets.  To the extent that the Fund’s exposure to leverage utilized by all the Underlying Funds is 33 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets, the Fund intends to not utilize leverage directly.  The Fund’s intention to limit leverage is contingent upon the Subadviser’s ability to adequately determine an Underlying Fund’s current amount of leverage, which may be severely limited, and ultimately unsuccessful.  Since Common Stockholders pay all expenses related to the issuance of debt or use of leverage, the use of leverage through borrowing of money, issuance of debt securities or the issuance of preferred stock for investment purposes creates risks for the holders of Common Shares. Leverage is a speculative technique that exposes the Fund to greater risk and increased costs than if it were not implemented. Increases and decreases in the value of the Fund’s portfolio will be magnified when the Fund uses leverage. As a result, leverage may cause greater changes in the Fund’s NAV. The Fund will also have to pay interest on its borrowings or dividends on preferred stock, if any, which may reduce the Fund’s return. The leverage costs may be greater than the Fund’s return on the underlying investment. The Fund’s leveraging strategy may not be successful.  Leverage risk would also apply to the Fund’s investments in Underlying Funds to the extent an Underlying Fund uses leverage.  See “Use of Leverage” and “Risks—Leverage Risks.”
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Market Discount.  Common stock of closed-end funds frequently trades at a discount from its NAV. This risk may be greater for investors selling their shares in a relatively short period of time after completion of the initial offering. The Common Shares may trade at a price that is less than the Fund’s NAV. This risk would also apply to the Fund’s investments in closed-end funds.
 
Anti-Takeover Provisions.  Maryland law and the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws include provisions that could limit the ability of other entities or persons to acquire control of the Fund or convert the Fund to open-end status. These provisions could deprive the holders of Common Shares of opportunities to sell their Common Shares at a premium over the then current market price of the Common Shares or at NAV. See “Certain Provisions of the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws and of Maryland Law.”  This risk would also apply to many of the Fund’s investments in closed-end funds.
 
Contingent Conversion Risk. The Fund will bear the costs associated with calling a shareholder meeting in 2021 for the purpose of voting to determine whether the Fund should convert to an open-end management investment company. In the event of conversion to an open-end management investment company, the shares would cease to be listed on the NYSE or other national securities exchange, and such shares would thereafter be redeemable at the Fund’s NAV at the option of the shareholder, rather than traded in the secondary market at market price, which, for closed-end fund shares, may at times be at a premium to the Fund’s NAV. Any borrowings (other than borrowings from a bank) or preferred shares of the Fund would need to be repaid or redeemed upon conversion and, accordingly, a portion of the Fund’s portfolio may need to be liquidated, potentially resulting in, among other things, lower current income. In addition, open-end management investment companies may be subject to continuous asset in-flows and out-flows that can complicate portfolio management and limit the Fund’s ability to make certain types of investments. As a result, the Fund may incur increased expenses and may be required to sell portfolio securities at inopportune times in order to accommodate such flows. See “Contingent Conversion Feature.”
 
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Investment-Related Risks:
 
The risks listed below are in alphabetical order. With the exception of Underlying Fund risk (and except as otherwise noted below), the following risks apply to the direct investments the Fund may make, and generally apply to the Fund’s investments in Underlying Funds. That said, each risk described below may not apply to each Underlying Fund investment. Similarly, an Underlying Fund may be subject to additional or different risks than those described below.
 
Asset Allocation Risks.  To the extent that the Subadviser’s asset allocation strategy may fail to produce the intended result, the Fund’s return may suffer. Additionally, the active asset allocation style of the Fund leads to changing allocations over time and represents a risk to investors who target fixed asset allocations. See “Risks—Asset Allocation Risks.”
 
Convertible Securities Risks.  The Underlying Funds may invest in convertible securities. The market value of convertible securities tends to fall when prevailing interest rates rise. The value of convertible securities also tends to change whenever the market value of the underlying common or preferred stock fluctuates. Convertible securities tend to be of lower credit quality. See “Risks—Convertible Securities Risks.”
 
Defensive Measures.  The Fund may invest up to 100% of its assets in cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments as a defensive measure in response to adverse market conditions or opportunistically at the discretion of the Subadviser. During these periods, the Fund may not be pursuing its investment objective. See “Risks—Defensive Measures.”
 
Derivatives Risks.  The Fund and the Underlying Funds may enter into derivatives transactions. Derivative transactions involve investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in Underlying Funds. Generally, a derivative is a financial contract the value of which depends upon, or is derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate, or index, and may relate to individual debt or equity instruments, interest rates, currencies or currency exchange rates, commodities, related indexes, and other assets. Derivatives can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risk, depending upon the characteristics of a particular derivative. Derivatives may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in a derivative could have a large potential impact on the performance of the Fund or an Underlying Fund. The Fund or an Underlying Fund could experience a loss if derivatives do not perform as anticipated, if they are not correlated with the performance of other investments which they are used to hedge or if the fund is unable to liquidate a position because of an illiquid secondary market. When used for speculative purposes, derivatives will produce enhanced investment exposure, which will magnify gains and losses. The Fund and the Underlying Funds also will be subject to credit risk with respect to the counterparties to the derivatives contracts purchased by such fund. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund or an Underlying Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. The Fund or an Underlying Fund may obtain only a limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances.  See “Risks—Derivatives Risks” and “Risks—Options and Futures Risks.”
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Defaulted and Distressed Securities Risks.  The Underlying Funds may invest directly in defaulted and distressed securities. Legal difficulties and negotiations with creditors and other claimants are common when dealing with defaulted or distressed companies. Defaulted or distressed companies may be insolvent or in bankruptcy. In the event of a default, an Underlying Fund may incur additional expenses to seek recovery.  The repayment of defaulted bonds is subject to significant uncertainties, and in some cases, there may be no recovery of repayment.  Defaulted bonds might be repaid only after lengthy workout or bankruptcy proceedings, during which the issuer might not make any interest or other payments.  With distressed investing, often there is a time lag between when a fund makes an investment and when an Underlying Fund realizes the value of the investment. In addition, an Underlying Fund may incur legal and other monitoring costs in protecting the value of the Underlying Fund’s claims. See “Risks—Defaulted and Distressed Securities Risks.”
 
Equity Securities Risks.  The Underlying Funds may invest in equity securities. While equity securities have historically generated higher average returns than fixed income securities, equity securities have also experienced significantly more volatility in those returns. An adverse event, such as an unfavorable earnings report, may depress the value of an issuer’s equity securities held by an Underlying Fund. Equity security prices fluctuate for several reasons, including changes in investors’ perceptions of the financial condition of an issuer or the general condition of the relevant stock market, or when political or economic events affecting the issuers occur. The value of an Underlying Fund’s shares will go up and down due to movement in the collective returns of the individual securities held by the Underlying Fund. Common stocks are subordinate to preferred stocks and debt in a company’s capital structure, and if a company is liquidated, the claims of secured and unsecured creditors and owners of preferred stocks take precedence over the claims of those who own Common Shares. In addition, equity security prices may be particularly sensitive to rising interest rates, as the cost of capital rises and borrowing costs increase See “Risks—Equity Securities Risks.”
 
Exchange-Traded Note Risks.  The Fund and the Underlying Funds may invest in ETNs, which are notes representing unsecured debt issued by an underwriting bank. ETNs are typically linked to the performance of an index plus a specified rate of interest that could be earned on cash collateral. The value of an ETN may be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying markets, changes in the applicable interest rates, changes in the issuer’s credit rating and economic, legal, political or geographic events that affect the referenced index. ETNs typically mature 30 years from the date of issue. There may be restrictions on a fund’s right to liquidate its investment in an ETN prior to maturity (for example, a fund may only be able to offer its ETN for repurchase by the issuer on a weekly basis), and there may be limited availability of a secondary market. See “Risks—Exchange-Traded Note Risks.”
 
Fixed Income Risks.  The Underlying Funds may invest in fixed income securities. Fixed income securities increase or decrease in value based on changes in interest rates. If rates increase, the value of a fund’s fixed income securities generally declines. On the other hand, if rates fall, the value of the fixed income securities generally increases.  This risk is increased in the case of issuers of high yield securities, also known as “junk bonds.” High yield securities are predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal in accordance with the terms of the obligation. In typical interest rate environments, the prices of longer-term fixed income securities generally fluctuate more than the prices of shorter-term fixed income securities as interest rates change.  These risks may be greater in the current market environment because certain interest rates are near historically low levels. The issuer of a fixed income security may not be able to make interest and principal payments when due.  In general, lower rated fixed income securities carry a greater degree of credit risk. See “Risks—Fixed Income Risks.”
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Foreign Investing Risks.  The Underlying Funds may invest in foreign securities. Investments in foreign securities may be affected by currency controls and exchange rates; different accounting, auditing, financial reporting, and legal standards and practices; expropriation; changes in tax policy; social, political and economic instability; greater market volatility; differing securities market structures; higher transaction costs; and various administrative difficulties, such as delays in clearing and settling portfolio transactions or in receiving payment of dividends. In addition, changes in government administrations or economic or monetary policies in the United States or abroad could result in appreciation or depreciation of the Fund’s securities.  These risks may be heightened in connection with investments in emerging or developing countries. To the extent that an Underlying Fund invests in depositary receipts, the Underlying Fund will be subject to many of the same risks as when investing directly in foreign securities.  The effect of recent, worldwide economic instability on specific foreign markets or issuers may be difficult to predict or evaluate, and some national economies continue to show profound instability, which may in turn affect their international trading partners. See “Risks—Foreign Investing Risks.”
 
Illiquid Securities Risks.  The Underlying Funds may invest in illiquid securities. It may not be possible to sell or otherwise dispose of illiquid securities both at the price and within the time period deemed desirable by the Fund. Illiquid securities also may be difficult to value. See “Risks—Illiquid Securities Risks.”
 
Initial Public Offerings Risks.  The Fund and the Underlying Funds may purchase securities in initial public offerings (IPOs). Investing in IPOs has added risks because the shares are frequently volatile in price. As a result, their performance can be more volatile and they face greater risk of business failure, which could increase the volatility of an Underlying Fund’s portfolio. See “Risks—Initial Public Offerings Risks.”
 
Investment and Market Risks.  An investment in Common Shares is subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal amount invested. An investment in Common Shares represents an indirect investment in the Underlying Funds owned by the Fund. The value of the Underlying Funds, like other market investments, may move up or down, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably. Overall stock market risks may also affect the value of the Fund or the Underlying Funds. Factors such as domestic and foreign economic growth and market conditions, interest rate levels and political events affect the securities markets. The Common Shares at any point in time may be worth less than the original investment, even after taking into account any reinvestment of dividends and distributions.
 
Legislation and Regulatory Risks. At any time after the date of this Prospectus, legislation or additional regulations may be enacted that could negatively affect the assets of the Fund or the issuers of such assets. Recent changes in the U.S. political landscape and changing approaches to regulation may have a negative impact on the entities and/or securities in which the Fund or an Underlying Fund invests. Legislation or regulation may also change the way in which the Fund or an Underlying Fund is regulated. New or amended regulations may be imposed by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), the SEC, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”) or other financial regulators, other governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations that supervise the financial markets that could adversely affect the Fund or the Underlying Funds. In particular, these agencies are empowered to promulgate a variety of new rules pursuant to financial reform legislation in the United States. There can be no assurance that future legislation, regulation or deregulation will not have a material adverse effect on the Fund or will not impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective. The Fund and the Underlying Funds also may be adversely affected by changes in the enforcement or interpretation of existing statutes and rules by these governmental agencies.   See “Risks—Legislation and Regulatory Risks.”
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Management Risks.  The Subadviser’s judgments about the attractiveness, value and potential appreciation of a particular asset class or individual security in which the Fund invests may prove to be incorrect and there is no guarantee that the Subadviser’s judgment will produce the desired results. Similarly, the Fund’s investments in Underlying Funds are subject to the judgment of the Underlying Funds’ managers which may prove to be incorrect. In addition, the Subadviser will have limited information as to the portfolio holdings of the Underlying Funds at any given time.  This may result in the Subadviser having less ability to respond to changing market conditions.  The Fund may allocate its assets so as to under-emphasize or over-emphasize ETFs or other investments under the wrong market conditions, in which case the Fund’s NAV may be adversely affected.  See “Risks—Management Risks.”
 
Market Disruption and Geopolitical Risks. The ongoing U.S. military and related action in Iraq and Afghanistan and events in the Middle East and Ukraine, as well as the continuing threat of terrorist attacks, could have significant adverse effects on the U.S. economy, the stock market and world economies and markets generally. A disruption of financial markets or other terrorist attacks could adversely affect the Fund’s or an Underlying Fund’s service providers and/or the Fund's or an Underlying Fund’s operations as well as interest rates, secondary trading, credit risk, inflation and other factors relating to the Common Shares. The Fund cannot predict the effects or likelihood of similar events in the future on the U.S. and world economies, the value of the Common Shares or the NAV of the Fund. Assets of companies, including those held in the Fund’s portfolio, could be direct targets, or indirect casualties, of an act of terrorism. See “Risks—Market Disruption and Geopolitical Risks.”
 
Master Limited Partnerships Risks. The Underlying Funds may invest in MLPs.  Investments in publicly traded MLPs, which are limited partnerships or limited liability companies taxable as partnerships, involve some risks that differ from an investment in the common stock of a corporation, including risks related to limited control and limited rights to vote on matters affecting MLPs, risks related to potential conflicts of interest between an MLP and the MLP’s general partner, cash flow risks, dilution risks and risks related to the general partner’s right to require unit-holders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price. MLPs may derive income and gains from the exploration, development, mining or production, processing, refining, transportation (including pipelines transporting gas, oil, or products thereof), or the marketing of any mineral or natural resources.  MLPs may be subject to legal and other restrictions on resale or will otherwise be less liquid than publicly traded securities. Certain MLP securities may trade in lower volumes due to their smaller capitalizations. Accordingly, those MLPs may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements and may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable an Underlying Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price. As a result, these investments may be difficult to dispose of at a fair price at the times when an Underlying Fund believes it is desirable to do so. MLPs are generally considered interest-rate sensitive investments. During periods of interest rate volatility, these investments may not provide attractive returns, which may adversely impact the overall performance of the Fund or an Underlying Fund. The benefit an Underlying Fund will derive from its investment in MLPs will be largely dependent on the MLPs being treated as partnerships and not as corporations for federal income tax purposes. Therefore, treatment of an MLP as a corporation for federal income tax purposes would result in a reduction in the after-tax return to an Underlying Fund, likely causing a reduction in the value of the Common Shares. See “Risks—Master Limited Partnerships Risks.”
15

  Micro-, Small- and Medium-Sized Company Risks.  The Underlying Funds may invest in securities without regard to market capitalization. Investments in securities of micro-, small- and medium-sized companies may be subject to more abrupt or erratic market movements than larger, more established companies, because these securities typically are traded in lower volume and issuers are typically more subject to changes in earnings and future earnings prospects. These risks are intensified for investments in micro-cap companies. See “Risks—Micro-, Small- and Medium-Sized Company Risks.”
 
Options and Futures Risks.  The Fund and the Underlying Funds may invest in options and futures contracts. The use of futures and options transactions entails certain special risks. In particular, the variable degree of correlation between price movements of futures contracts and price movements in the related securities position of the fund could create the possibility that losses on the hedging instrument are greater than gains in the value of the fund’s position. In addition, futures and options markets could be illiquid in some circumstances and certain over-the-counter options could have no markets. As a result, in certain markets, the fund might not be able to close out a transaction without incurring substantial losses. Although the fund’s use of futures and options transactions for hedging should tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged position, at the same time it will tend to limit any potential gain to the fund that might result from an increase in value of the position. There is also the risk of loss by the fund of margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of a broker with whom the Fund has an open position in a futures contract or option thereon. Finally, the daily variation margin requirements for futures contracts create a greater ongoing potential financial risk than would purchases of options, in which case the exposure is limited to the cost of the initial premium. See “Risks—Options and Futures Risks.”
 
Portfolio Turnover Risks.  The Fund may engage in short-term trading to try to achieve its investment objective and may have portfolio turnover rates in excess of 100% annually. Underlying Funds also may not be limited in their portfolio trading ability. Increased portfolio turnover results in higher brokerage costs which are borne by the Fund, directly or indirectly through the investments in Underlying Funds, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance, and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held by Common Stockholders in a taxable account. See “Risks—Portfolio Turnover Risks.”
16

 
REIT Risks.  The Underlying Funds may invest in equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest in real estate, and mortgage REITs invest in loans secured by real estate. The value of equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the REITs, while the value of mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. Investment in REITs involves risks similar to those associated with investing in small capitalization companies, and REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are subject to interest rate risks. See “Risks—REIT Risks.”
 
Securities Lending Risks.  The Underlying Funds may lose money when they loan portfolio securities if the borrower fails to return the securities and the collateral provided has declined in value and/or the Underlying Fund cannot convert the collateral to cash for any reason. See “Risks—Securities Lending Risks.”
 
Securities Risks.  The value of the Common Shares or the shares of an Underlying Fund may decrease in response to the activities and financial prospects of individual securities in the Fund’s or Underlying Fund’s portfolio. See “Risks—Securities Risks.”
 
Senior Loan Risks. The Underlying Funds may invest in senior secured floating rate and fixed-rate loans (“Senior Loans”).  There is less readily available and reliable information about most Senior Loans than is the case for many other types of instruments, including listed securities. Senior Loans are not listed on any national securities exchange or automated quotation system and as such, many Senior Loans are illiquid, meaning that the Fund or Underlying Fund may not be able to sell them quickly at a fair price. To the extent that a secondary market does exist for certain Senior Loans, the market is more volatile than for liquid, listed securities and may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. The market for Senior Loans could be disrupted in the event of an economic downturn or a substantial increase or decrease in interest rates. Senior Loans, like most other debt obligations, are subject to the risk of default. Default in the payment of interest or principal on a Senior Loan will result in a reduction of income to the Fund, a reduction in the value of the Senior Loan and a potential decrease in the Fund’s NAV of the Common Shares.
 
Short Sale Risks.  The Fund and the Underlying Funds may engage in short sales. A short sale is a transaction in which a fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation that the market price of that security will decline. To establish a short position, a fund must first borrow the security from a broker or other institution.  The fund may not always be able to borrow a security at a particular time or at an acceptable price.  Accordingly, there is a risk that a fund may be unable to implement its investment strategy due to the lack of available securities or for other reasons.  After selling a borrowed security, a fund is obligated to “cover” the short sale by purchasing and returning the security to the lender at a later date.  The Fund and the Underlying Funds cannot guarantee that the security will be available at an acceptable price. Positions in shorted securities are speculative and more risky than long positions (purchases) in securities because the maximum sustainable loss on a security purchased is limited to the amount paid for the security plus the transaction costs, whereas there is no maximum attainable price of the shorted security. Therefore, in theory, securities sold short have unlimited risk. Short selling will also result in higher transaction costs (such as interest and dividends), and may result in higher taxes, which reduce a fund’s return. See “Risks—Short Sale Risks.”
17

 
Special Purpose Acquisition Companies Risks: The Fund may invest in special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”). SPACs are collective investment structures that pool funds in order to seek potential acquisition opportunities. Unless and until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets (less an amount to cover expenses) in U.S. Government securities, money market fund securities and cash. SPACs and similar entities may be blank check companies with no operating history or ongoing business other than to seek a potential acquisition. Certain SPACs may seek acquisitions only in limited industries or regions. If an acquisition that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a predetermined period of time, the invested funds are returned to the entity’s shareholders. Investments in SPACs may be illiquid and/or be subject to restrictions on resale. See “Risks—Special Purpose Acquisition Companies Risks.”
 
Structured Notes Risks.  The Underlying Funds may invest in structured notes. Structured notes are subject to a number of fixed income risks including general market risk, interest rate risk, and the risk that the issuer on the note may fail to make interest and/or principal payments when due, or may default on its obligations entirely. In addition, because the performance of structured notes tracks the performance of the underlying debt obligation, structured notes generally are subject to more risk than investing in a simple note or bond issued by the same issuer. See “Risks—Structured Notes Risks.”
 
Swap Risks.  The Fund and the Underlying Funds may invest in interest rate, index, total return and currency swap agreements. All of these agreements are considered derivatives. Swaps could result in losses if interest or foreign currency exchange rates or credit quality changes are not correctly anticipated by the Subadviser or Underlying Fund manager. Total return swaps could result in losses if the reference index, security, or investments do not perform as anticipated. Total return swaps involve an enhanced risk that the issuer or counterparty will fail to perform its contractual obligations.  Total return swaps may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the full notional amount of the swap.  To the extent the Fund or an Underlying Fund enters into a total return swap on equity securities, the Fund or an Underlying Fund will receive the positive performance of a notional amount of such securities underlying the total return swap.  In exchange, the Fund or the Underlying Fund will be obligated to pay the negative performance of such notional amount of securities.  Therefore, the Fund or the Underlying Fund assumes the risk of a substantial decrease in the market value of the equity securities. The use of swaps may not always be successful; using them could lower Fund total return, their prices can be highly volatile, and the potential loss from the use of swaps can exceed the Fund’s initial investment in such instruments. Some, but not all, swaps may be cleared, in which case a central clearing counterparty stands between each buyer and seller and effectively guarantees performance of each contract, to the extent of its available resources for such purpose. As a result, the counterparty risk is now shifted from bilateral risk between the parties to the individual credit risk of the central clearing counterparty. Even in such case, there can be no assurance that a clearing house, or its members, will satisfy the clearing house’s obligations to the Fund or an Underlying Fund. See “Risks—Swap Risks.”
18

 
Underlying Fund Risks.  The Fund will incur the fees and expenses of its investments in Underlying Funds, which may be greater than if the Fund invested in the securities held by the Underlying Funds directly. There is also the risk that the Fund may suffer losses due to the investment practices or operations of the Underlying Funds. To the extent that the Fund invests in one or more Underlying Funds that concentrate in a particular industry, the Fund would be vulnerable to factors affecting that industry and the concentrating Underlying Funds’ performance, and that of the Fund, may be more volatile than Underlying Funds that do not concentrate. In addition, one Underlying Fund may purchase a security that another Underlying Fund is selling.
 
As the Fund will invest at least 65% of its Managed Assets in closed-end funds and at least 80% of its Managed Assets in Underlying Funds, the Fund’s performance will depend to a greater extent on the overall performance of closed-end funds, ETFs and BDCs generally, in addition to the performance of the specific Underlying Funds (and other assets) in which the Fund invests. The use of leverage by Underlying Funds magnifies gains and losses on amounts invested and increases the risks associated with investing in Underlying Funds.  Further, the Underlying Funds are not subject to the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions. The Fund generally receives information regarding the portfolio holdings of Underlying Funds only when that information is made available to the public. The Fund cannot dictate how the Underlying Funds invest their assets. The Underlying Funds may invest their assets in securities and other instruments, and may use investment techniques and strategies, that are not described in this prospectus. Common Stockholders will bear two layers of fees and expenses with respect to the Fund’s investments in Underlying Funds because each of the Fund and the Underlying Fund will charge fees and incur separate expenses.  In addition, subject to applicable 1940 Act limitations, the Underlying Funds themselves may purchase securities issued by registered and unregistered funds (e.g., common stock, preferred stock, auction rate preferred stock), and those investments would be subject to the risks associated with Underlying Funds and unregistered funds (including a third layer of fees and expenses, i.e., the Underlying Fund will indirectly bear fees and expenses charged by the funds in which the Underlying Fund invests, in addition to the Underlying Fund’s own fees and expenses). An Underlying Fund with positive performance may indirectly receive a performance fee from the Fund, even when the Fund’s overall returns are negative.  Additionally, the Fund’s investment in an Underlying Fund may result in the Fund’s receipt of cash in excess of the Underlying Fund’s earnings; if the Fund distributes these amounts, the distributions could constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for federal income tax purposes.  As a result of these factors, the use of the fund of funds structure by the Fund could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders.
 
The Fund may invest in BDCs.  BDCs generally invest in less mature U.S. private companies or thinly traded U.S. public companies which involve greater risk than well-established publicly-traded companies. While BDCs are expected to generate income in the form of dividends, certain BDCs during certain periods of time may not generate such income. The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other operating expenses incurred by the BDCs and of any performance-based or incentive fees payable by the BDCs in which it invests, in addition to the expenses paid by the Fund. The use of leverage by BDCs magnifies gains and losses on amounts invested and increases the risks associated with investing in BDCs. A BDC may make investments with a larger amount of risk of volatility and loss of principal than other investment options and may also be highly speculative and aggressive.
19

 
Index-based ETFs (and other index funds) in which the Fund may invest may not be able to replicate exactly the performance of the indices they track or benchmark due to transactions costs and other expenses of the ETFs. The Fund may also invest in actively managed ETFs that are subject to management risk as the ETF’s investment adviser will apply certain investment techniques and risk analyses in making investment decisions. There can be no guarantee that these will produce the desired results. The shares of closed-end funds frequently trade at a discount to their NAV. There can be no assurance that the market discount on shares of any closed-end fund purchased by the Fund will ever decrease, and it is possible that the discount may increase. Underlying Funds may not be able to match or outperform their benchmarks.
 
The Fund may be restricted by provisions of the 1940 Act that generally limit the amount the Fund and its affiliates can invest in any one Underlying Fund to 3% of the Underlying Fund’s outstanding voting stock. As a result, the Fund may hold a smaller position in an Underlying Fund than if it were not subject to this restriction. In addition, to comply with provisions of the 1940 Act, in any matter upon which Underlying Fund stockholders are solicited to vote, the Subadviser may be required to vote Underlying Fund shares in the same proportion as shares held by other stockholders of the Underlying Fund. However, pursuant to exemptive orders issued by the SEC to various ETF fund sponsors, the Fund is permitted to invest in such Underlying Funds in excess of the limits set forth in the 1940 Act subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in such exemptive orders. See “Risks—Underlying Fund Risks.”
 
Warrants Risks.  Warrants are securities giving the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy the stock of an issuer at a given price (generally higher than the value of the stock at the time of issuance) during a specified period or perpetually. Warrants do not carry with them the right to dividends or voting rights with respect to the securities that they entitle their holder to purchase and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. As a result, warrants may be considered to have more speculative characteristics than certain other types of investments. In addition, the value of a warrant does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities and a warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. See “Risks—Warrants Risks.”
Anti-Takeover Provisions in Maryland Law and the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws
Maryland law and the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws include provisions that could limit the ability of other entities or persons to acquire control of the Fund. These provisions could deprive the holders of Common Shares of opportunities to sell their Common Shares at a premium over the then current market price of the Common Shares or at NAV. See “Certain Provisions of the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws and of Maryland Law.”
Custodian and Transfer Agent
State Street Bank and Trust Company acts as the Fund’s custodian. DST Systems, Inc. (“DST”) acts as the Fund’s transfer agent and registrar. See “Custodian and Transfer Agent.”
20

SUMMARY OF FUND EXPENSES
 
The following table is intended to assist investors in understanding the fees and expenses (annualized) that an investor in Common Shares would bear, directly or indirectly, as a result of the Offer being fully subscribed and the receipt of net proceeds from the Offer of approximately $30,064,000. If the Fund issues fewer Common Shares in the Offer and the net proceeds to the Fund are less, all other things being equal, the expenses shown would increase.

The table assumes the use of leverage in an amount equal to 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets (or approximately 17.6% of the Fund’s net assets) and shows Fund expenses as a percentage of net assets attributable to Common Shares. The following table should not be considered a representation of the Fund’s future expenses. Actual expenses may be greater or less than those shown below.

Shareholder Transaction Expenses
As a Percentage of
Offering Price
Sales Load
None
Offering Expenses Borne by Common Stockholders of the Fund(1)
0.24%
Dividend Reinvestment Plan Fees
None(2)
 
 
As a Percentage
of Net Assets
Attributable to Common
Shares (Assuming the
Use of Leverage
Equal to 15%
of the Fund’s
Managed Assets)(1)(6)
Annual Expenses
Management Fees(3)
1.18%
Interest Payments on Borrowed Funds(4)
0.42%
Dividend and Interest Expense on Short Sales(8)
0.32%
Other Expenses(8)
0.76%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses(5)
2.83%
Total Annual Expenses(6)
5.51%
 
Example(7)
 
The purpose of the following table is to help a holder of Common Shares understand the fees and expenses that such holder would bear directly or indirectly. The following example illustrates the expenses that you would pay on a $1,000 investment in Common Shares, including the estimated costs of the Offer to be borne by the Common Stockholders of $260,000, assuming (1) that the Fund’s net assets following (and after giving effect to) the Offer do not increase or decrease, (2) that the Fund incurs total annual expenses of 5.51% of its net assets in years 1 through 10 (assuming borrowing equal to 15% of the Fund’s total assets) and (3) a 5% annual return.
 
 
1 year
3 years
5 years
10 years
Total Expenses Incurred
$57
$166
$274
$539
 
The example should not be considered a representation of future expenses. Actual expenses may be greater or less than those assumed.
 
(1)
The fees and expenses of the Offer will be borne by the Fund and indirectly by all of its Common Stockholders, including those who did not exercise their Rights. The offering costs to be paid by the Fund are not included in the Annual Expense table. Offering costs borne by Common Stockholders will result in a reduction of capital of the Fund and the NAV of the Common Shares.
21

(2)
There will be no brokerage charges with respect to Common Shares issued directly by the Fund under the dividend reinvestment plan. You will pay brokerage charges in connection with open market purchases or if you direct the plan agent to sell your Common Shares held in a dividend reinvestment account.
 
(3)
The management fee is charged as a percentage of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets, as opposed to net assets. With leverage, Managed Assets are greater in amount than net assets, because Managed Assets includes borrowings for investment purposes.  The management fee of 1.00% of the Fund’s Managed Assets represents 1.18% of net assets attributable to Common Shares assuming the use of leverage in an amount of 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets.
 
(4)
Assumes interest expense accrued at the rate 2.23% on borrowed funds used to employ leverage, which rate is subject to change based on prevailing market conditions.  Interest payments on borrowed funds also include the cost of issuing debt.
 
(5)
The “Acquired fund fees and expenses” disclosed above are based on the expense ratios for the most recent fiscal year of the Underlying Funds in which the Fund anticipates investing, which may change substantially over time and, therefore, significantly affect “Acquired fund fees and expenses.”  These amounts are based on the total expense ratio disclosed in each Underlying Fund’s most recent shareholder report.  Some of the Underlying Funds in which the Fund intends to invest charge incentive fees based on the Underlying Funds’ performance. The 2.83% shown as “Acquired fund fees and expenses” reflects estimated operating expenses of the Underlying Funds and transaction-related fees. Certain Underlying Funds in which the Fund intends to invest generally charge a management fee of 1.00% to 2.00% and up to a 20% incentive fee on income and/or capital gains, which are included in “Acquired fund fees and expenses,” as applicable. The “Acquired fund fees and expenses” disclosed above, however, do not reflect any performance-based fees or allocations paid by the Underlying Funds that are calculated solely on the realization and/or distribution of gains, or on the sum of such gains and unrealized appreciation of assets distributed in-kind, as such fees and allocations for a particular period may be unrelated to the cost of investing in the Underlying Funds.  Acquired fund fees and expenses are borne indirectly by the Fund, but they will not be reflected in the Fund’s financial statements; and the information presented in the table will differ from that presented in the Fund’s financial highlights.
 
 (6)
The table above assumes the use of leverage in an amount equal to 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets (or approximately 17.6% of the Fund’s net assets) and shows Fund expenses as a percentage of net assets attributable to Common Shares.  For purposes of this assumption, all leverage used is in the form of borrowings. The table presented below in this footnote 6 estimates what the Fund’s annual expenses would be, stated as percentages of the Fund’s net assets attributable to Common Shares, but, unlike the table above, assumes that the Fund does not utilize leverage. In accordance with these assumptions, the Fund’s expenses would be estimated to be as follows:
 
 
As a Percentage of
Net Assets
Attributable to
Common Shares
(Assuming
No Leverage)
Annual expenses (as a percentage of net assets attributable to Common Shares)
Management Fees
1.00%
Other Expenses(8)
0.74%
Dividend and Interest Expense on Short Sales(8)
0.32%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses
2.41%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
4.47%

22

(7)
The example should not be considered a representation of future expenses and includes the expenses of the offering. The example assumes that the estimated “Other expenses” set forth in the table are accurate and that all dividends and distributions are reinvested at the Common Share NAVs. Actual expenses may be greater or less than those assumed.  Moreover, the Fund’s actual rate of return may be greater or less than the hypothetical 5% annual return shown in the example.
 
(8)
Other Expenses and Dividend and Interest Expense on Short Sales are estimated using information from the Fund’s unaudited semi-annual report dated April 30, 2017.
23

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
 
Selected Per Share Data And Ratios
 
The selected financial data below sets forth per Common Share operating performance data, total investment return, ratios and supplemental data for each fiscal period since the Fund’s inception. The financial information set forth below for the period December 24, 2015 (commencement of operations) through October 31, 2016 was audited by Cohen & Company, Ltd., the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm. The financial information set forth below for the fiscal period ended April 30, 2017, is unaudited. This financial information should be read in conjunction with the financial statements of the Fund incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the SAI. See “Financial Statements” in the SAI.
 
   
For the
Six Months Ended
April 30, 2017
(Unaudited)
   
For the Period
December 24,
2015
(Commencement of Operations)
to October 31,
2016
 
             
Net asset value ‐ beginning of period
 
$
19.72
   
$
19.40
 
Income/(loss) from investment operations:
               
Net investment income(a)
   
0.69
     
0.68
 
Net realized and unrealized gain
   
1.32
     
1.86
 
Total income from investment operations
   
2.01
     
2.54
 
                 
Less distributions to shareholders:
               
From net investment income
   
(0.84
)
   
(1.73
)
From net realized gains
   
     
(0.45
)
Total distributions
   
(0.84
)
   
(2.18
)
                 
Capital share transactions:
               
Common share offering costs charged to paid‐in capital
   
     
(0.04
)
Total capital share transactions
   
     
(0.04
)
                 
Net increase in net asset value
   
1.17
     
0.32
 
Net asset value ‐ end of period
 
$
20.89
   
$
19.72
 
Market price ‐end of period
 
$
20.12
   
$
19.65
 
                 
Total Return(b)
   
10.59
%
   
13.67
%
Total Return ‐Market Price(b)
   
6.89
%
   
9.87
%
                 
Supplemental Data:
               
Net assets, end of period (in thousands)
 
$
78,452
   
$
74,036
 
Ratios to Average Net Assets (including dividend and interest expense on securities sold short)
               
Total expenses
   
2.10
%(c)
   
1.69
%(c)
Net investment income
   
6.93
%(c)
   
4.03
%(c)
Ratios to Average Net Assets (excluding dividend and interest expense on securities sold short)
               
Total Expenses
   
1.78
%(c)
   
N/A
%
Net investment income
   
6.61
%(c)
   
N/A
%
                 
Portfolio turnover rate
   
90
%(d)
   
113
%(d)
 
(a)
Calculated using average shares throughout the period.
(b)
Total investment return is calculated assuming a purchase of common share at the opening on the first day and a sale at closing on the last day of each period reported. For purposes of this calculation, dividends and distributions, if any, are assumed to be reinvested at prices obtained under the Funds dividend reinvestment plan. Total investment returns do not reflect brokerage commissions, if any. Periods less than one year are not annualized.
(c)
Annualized.
(d)
Not annualized.
 
24

THE FUND
 
The Fund is a diversified, closed-end management investment company registered under the 1940 Act. The Fund was organized as a Maryland corporation on September 9, 2010. The Fund’s principal office is located at 1290 Broadway, Suite 1100, Denver, CO 80203, and its telephone number is (855) 830-1222.
 
THE OFFER
 
Terms of the Offer
 
The Fund is issuing to Record Date Stockholders Rights to subscribe for additional Common Shares. Each Record Date Stockholder is being issued one transferable Right for each Common Share owned on the Record Date. The Offer entitles the holder to acquire at the Subscription Price one Common Share for each three Rights held, rounded up to the nearest number of Rights evenly divisible by three. Fractional shares will not be issued upon the exercise of the Rights. Accordingly, Common Shares may be purchased only pursuant to the exercise of Rights in integral multiples of three.
 
In the case of Common Shares held of record by Cede & Co. (“Cede”) as nominee for the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), or any other depository or nominee, the number of Rights issued to Cede or such other depository or nominee will be adjusted to permit rounding up (to the nearest number of Rights evenly divisible by three) of the Rights to be received by beneficial owners for whom it is the holder of record only if Cede or such other depository or nominee provides to the Fund on or before the close of business on October 19, 2017 a written representation to the number of Rights required for such rounding.
 
Rights may be exercised at any time during the period (the “Subscription Period”), which commences on October 12, 2017 and ends at 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on November 9, 2017, unless extended by the Fund. See “Expiration of the Offer.”
 
If all of the Rights are exercised in the primary subscription, the Fund will experience a 33% increase in Common Shares outstanding.
 
In addition, any Record Date Stockholder who fully exercises all Rights initially issued to him is entitled to subscribe for Common Shares available for Primary Subscription (the “Primary Subscription Shares”) that were not otherwise subscribed for by other Rights holders on the Primary Subscription. In the event that the Fund’s per Common Share NAV on the Expiration Date is equal to or less than the Subscription Price, the Fund, in its sole discretion, would also be able to issue additional Shares in an amount of up to 25% of the Primary Subscription Shares (the “Secondary Over-Subscription Shares”) to satisfy over-subscription requests in excess of the available Primary Subscription Shares.
 
The entitlement to subscribe for unsubscribed Primary Subscription Shares and any Secondary Over-Subscription Shares is available only to those Record Date Stockholders who fully exercise all Rights initially issued to them and only on the basis of their Record Date holdings and will be referred to in the remainder of this Prospectus as the “Over-Subscription Privilege.”
 
For purposes of determining the maximum number of Shares a Record Date Stockholder may acquire pursuant to the Offer, broker-dealers whose Common Shares are held of record by Cede, nominee for DTC, or by any other depository or nominee, will be deemed to be the holders of the Rights that are issued to Cede or such other depository or nominee on their behalf. Common shares acquired pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege are subject to allotment, which is more fully discussed below under “Over-Subscription Privilege.” Rights acquired in the secondary market may not participate in the Over-Subscription Privilege.
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The method by which Rights may be exercised and Common Shares paid for is set forth below in “Method of Exercising Rights” and “Payment for Shares of Stock.” A Rights holder will have no right to rescind a purchase after the Subscription Agent has received payment. See “Payment for Shares of Stock” below. Common Shares issued pursuant to an exercise of Rights will be listed on the NYSE. Common shares issued in connection with the Offer will not be evidenced by share certificates.
 
For purposes of determining the maximum number of Common Shares that may be acquired pursuant to the Offer, broker-dealers, trust companies, banks or others whose shares are held of record by Cede or by any other depository or nominee will be deemed to be the holders of the Rights that are held by Cede or such other depository or nominee on their behalf.
 
The Rights are transferable until the Expiration Date and will be admitted for trading on the NYSE. Although no assurance can be given that a market for the Rights will develop, trading in the Rights on the NYSE will begin three Business Days prior to the Record Date and may be conducted until the close of trading on the last NYSE trading day prior to the Expiration Date due to normal settlement procedures.
 
Rights that are sold will not confer any right to acquire any Common Shares in the Over-Subscription Privilege, and any Record Date Stockholder who sells any Rights will not be eligible to participate in the secondary over-subscription (the “Secondary Over-Subscription”). Trading of the Rights on the NYSE will be conducted on a when-issued basis until and including the date on which the Subscription Certificates are mailed to Record Date Stockholders and thereafter, will be conducted on a regular way basis until and including the last NYSE trading day prior to the Expiration Date. The method by which Rights may be transferred is set forth below under “Method of Transferring Rights.” The Shares will begin trading ex-Rights two Business Days prior to the Record Date.
 
Nominees who hold Common Shares for the account of others, such as banks, broker-dealers, or depositories for securities, should notify the respective beneficial owners of such Shares as soon as possible to ascertain such beneficial owners’ intentions and to obtain instructions with respect to the Rights. Nominees should also notify holders purchasing Rights in the secondary market that such Rights may not participate in the Over-Subscription Privilege. If the beneficial owner so instructs, the nominee will complete the Subscription Certificate and submit it to the Subscription Agent with proper payment. In addition, beneficial owners of the Common Shares or Rights held through such a nominee should contact the nominee and request the nominee to effect transactions in accordance with such beneficial owner’s instructions.
 
The Fund will not be issuing share certificates for the Common Shares issued pursuant to this Offer. Issuance of Common Shares will be made electronically via book entry by DST, the Fund’s transfer agent.
 
ALTHOUGH THE FUND HAS NO PRESENT INTENTION TO DO SO, THE FUND MAY, IN THE FUTURE AND IN ITS DISCRETION, CHOOSE TO MAKE ADDITIONAL RIGHTS OFFERINGS FROM TIME TO TIME FOR A NUMBER OF COMMON SHARES AND ON TERMS WHICH MAY OR MAY NOT BE SIMILAR TO THE OFFER.
 
Purpose of the Offer
 
The Board has determined, based on the recommendation of the Adviser and Subadviser, that it would be in the best interests of the Fund and its existing shareholders to increase the assets of the Fund available for investment, thereby permitting the Fund to be in a better position to more fully take advantage of investment opportunities that may arise without having to reduce existing Fund holdings. In making this determination, the Board considered a number of factors, including potential benefits and costs. The Offer seeks to reward existing shareholders by giving them the right to purchase additional Common Shares at a price that may be below market and/or NAV without incurring any commission charge. The distribution to Common Stockholders of transferable Rights, which themselves may have intrinsic value, will also afford non-subscribing shareholders the potential of receiving a cash payment upon sale of such Rights, receipt of which may be viewed as partial compensation for the possible dilution of their interests in the Fund.
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The Adviser and Subadviser will benefit from the Offer because the each firm’s fee is based on the Fund’s Managed Assets. See “Management of the Fund.” It is not possible to state precisely the amount of additional compensation the Adviser and Subadviser will receive as a result of the Offer because the proceeds of the Offer will be invested in additional portfolio securities, which will fluctuate in value. However, assuming all Rights are exercised at the estimated Subscription Price of $19.38 and that the Fund receives the maximum proceeds of the Offer, the annual compensation to be received by the Adviser would be increased by approximately $333,000 (42%). In determining that the Offer was in the best interest of shareholders, the Board was cognizant of this benefit.
 
This is the Fund’s first rights offering. Although the Fund has no present intention to do so, the Fund may, in the future and at its discretion, choose to make additional rights offerings from time to time for a number of shares and on terms which may or may not be similar to the Offer. Pursuant to applicable law, the Board is authorized to approve rights offerings without obtaining shareholder approval. The staff of the SEC has interpreted the 1940 Act as not requiring shareholder approval of a rights offering at a price below the then current NAV so long as certain conditions are met, including a good faith determination by the Board that such offering would result in a net benefit to existing shareholders. There can be no assurance that the Offer (or the investment of the proceeds of the Offer) will be successful or that the level of trading of the Common Shares on the NYSE will increase.
 
Over-Subscription Privilege
 
The Board has the right in its absolute discretion to eliminate the Primary Over-Subscription Privilege if it considers it to be in the best interest of the Fund to do so. The Board may make that determination at any time, without prior notice to Rights holders or others, up to and including the seventh day following the Expiration Date. If the Primary Over-Subscription Privilege is not eliminated, it will operate as set forth below.
 
Rights holders who are Record Date Stockholders are entitled to subscribe for additional Common Shares at the same Subscription Price pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege, subject to certain limitations and subject to allotment.
 
Record Date Stockholders who fully exercise all Rights initially issued to them are entitled to buy those Common Shares that were not purchased by other Rights holders at the same Subscription Price. If enough Primary Over-Subscription Shares are available, all such requests will be honored in full. If the requests for Primary Over-Subscription Shares exceed the Primary Over-Subscription Shares available, the available Primary Over-Subscription Shares will be allocated pro rata among those fully exercising Record Date Stockholders who over-subscribe based on the number of Rights originally issued to them by the Fund. Shares acquired pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege are subject to allotment.
 
In addition, the Fund, in its sole discretion, may determine to issue Secondary Over-Subscription Shares in an amount of up to 25% of the Primary Subscription Shares. Should the Board (or a designated committee thereof) determine to issue some or all of the Secondary Over-Subscription Shares, they will be allocated only among Record Date Stockholders who submitted over-subscription requests. Secondary Over-Subscription Shares will be allocated pro rata among those fully exercising Record Date Stockholders who over-subscribe based on the number of Rights originally issued to them by the Fund. Any Secondary Over-Subscription Shares issued by the Fund, collectively with any Primary Subscription Shares not subscribed for through the Primary Subscription, will be referred to in this Prospectus as the “Excess Shares.” If Common Stockholders do not participate in the Secondary Over-Subscription (if any), their percentage ownership may be diluted.
 
Record Date Stockholders who are fully exercising their Rights during the Subscription Period should indicate, on the Subscription Certificate that they submit with respect to the exercise of the Rights issued to them, how many Common Shares they are willing to acquire pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege. Rights acquired in the secondary market may not participate in the Over-Subscription Privilege.
 
To the extent sufficient Common Shares are not available to fulfill all over-subscription requests, the Excess Shares will be allocated pro-rata among those Record Date Stockholders who over-subscribe based on the number of the Common Shares owned on the Record Date. The allocation process may involve a series of allocations in order to assure that the total number of Common Shares available for over-subscriptions is distributed on a pro rata basis.
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The formula to be used in allocating the Excess Shares is as follows: (shareholder’s Record Date share position divided by total record date position of all over-subscribers) multiplied by Excess Shares remaining.
 
Banks, broker-dealers, trustees and other nominee holders of Rights will be required to certify to the Subscription Agent, before any Over-Subscription Privilege may be exercised with respect to any particular beneficial owner, as to the aggregate number of Rights exercised during the Subscription Period and the number of Common Shares subscribed for pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege by such beneficial owner and that such beneficial owner’s subscription was exercised in full. Nominee holder over-subscription forms and beneficial owner certification forms will be distributed to banks, broker-dealers, trustees and other nominee holders of rights with the Subscription Certificates. Nominees should also notify holders purchasing Rights in the secondary market that such Rights may not participate in the Over-Subscription Privilege.
 
The Fund will not offer or sell any Common Shares that are not subscribed for during the Subscription Period or pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege.
 
The Subscription Price
 
The Subscription Price will be determined based upon a formula equal to 92.5% of the reported NAV or 95% of the market price per Common Share of the Fund on the NYSE on the Expiration Date, whichever is higher. Market price per Common Share will be determined based on the average of the last reported sales price of a Common Share on the NYSE for the five trading days preceding the Expiration Date (not including sales price on the Expiration Date). Based on reported NAV and market price per Common Share as of September 27, 2017, the Subscription Price would be $19.38 (the “estimated Subscription Price”).
 
Because the expiration date of the subscription period will be November 9, 2017 (unless the Fund extends the Subscription Period), rights holders may not know the Subscription Price at the time of exercise and will be required initially to pay for both the Common Shares subscribed for pursuant to the Primary Subscription (i.e., the Rights to acquire new Common Shares during the Subscription Period) and, if eligible, any additional Common Shares subscribed for pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege at the estimated Subscription Price of $19.38 per Common Share (the “estimated Subscription Price”) and, except in limited circumstances, will not be able to rescind their subscription.
 
The Fund announced the Offer on August 24, 2017. The NAV per Common Share at the close of business on September 27, 2017 was $20.62. The last reported sale price of a Common Share on the NYSE on that date was $20.18, representing a 2.13% discount in relation to the then current NAV per Common Share and in relation to the estimated Subscription Price.
 
Common shares of the Fund, as a closed-end fund, can trade at a discount to NAV. Upon expiration of the Offer, Common Shares will be issued at a price below NAV per share.
 
Sales by Subscription Agent
 
Holders of Rights who are unable or do not wish to exercise any or all of their Rights may instruct the Subscription Agent to sell any unexercised Rights. The Subscription Certificates representing the Rights to be sold by the Subscription Agent must be received on or before November 2, 2017, the fifth business day before the Expiration Date. Upon the timely receipt of the appropriate instructions to sell Rights, the Subscription Agent will use its best efforts to complete the sale and will remit the proceeds of sale, net of commissions, to the holders. The Subscription Agent will also attempt to sell any Rights (i) a Rights holder is unable to exercise because the Rights represent the right to subscribe for less than one new Common Share or (ii) attributable to shareholders whose record addresses are outside the United States or who have an APO or FPO address.
 
If the Rights can be sold, sales of the Rights will be deemed to have been effected at the weighted average price received by the Subscription Agent on the day such Rights are sold, less any applicable brokerage commissions, taxes and other expenses. The selling Rights holder will pay all brokerage commissions incurred by the Subscription Agent.
 
The Subscription Agent will automatically attempt to sell any unexercised Rights that remain unclaimed as a result of Subscription Certificates being returned by the postal authorities as undeliverable as of the fifth Business Day prior to the Expiration Date. These sales will be made net of commissions on behalf of the nonclaiming Rights holders. Proceeds from those sales will be held by the Fund’s transfer agent, for the account of the nonclaiming Rights holder until the proceeds are either claimed or escheated. There can be no assurance that the Subscription Agent will be able to complete the sale of any of these Rights and neither the Fund nor the Subscription Agent has guaranteed any minimum sales price for the Rights. All of these Rights will be sold at the market price, if any, through an exchange or market trading the Rights.
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Common Stockholders are urged to obtain a recent trading price for the Rights on the NYSE from their broker, bank, financial advisor or the financial press.
 
Method of Transferring Rights
 
The value of the Rights, if any, will be reflected by the market price of the Rights. Rights may be sold by individual holders or may be submitted to the Subscription Agent for sale. Any Rights submitted to the Subscription Agent for sale must be received by the Subscription Agent on or before November 2, 2017, five Business Days prior to the completion of the Subscription Period, due to normal settlement procedures.
 
Rights that are sold will not confer any right to acquire any Common Shares in the Primary or Secondary Over-Subscription, and any Record Date Stockholder who sells any Rights will not be eligible to participate in the Primary or Secondary Over-Subscription.
 
The Rights evidenced by a single Subscription Certificate may be transferred in whole by endorsing the Subscription Certificate for transfer in accordance with the accompanying instructions. A portion of the Rights evidenced by a single Subscription Certificate (but not fractional Rights) may be transferred by delivering to the Subscription Agent a Subscription Certificate properly endorsed for transfer, with instructions to register the portion of the Rights evidenced thereby in the name of the transferee (and to issue a new Subscription Certificate to the transferee evidencing the transferred Rights). In this event, a new Subscription Certificate evidencing the balance of the Rights will be issued to the Rights holder or, if the Rights holder so instructs, to an additional transferee.
 
Holders wishing to transfer all or a portion of their Rights (but not fractional Rights) should allow at least five Business Days prior to the Expiration Date for (i) the transfer instructions to be received and processed by the Subscription Agent, (ii) a new Subscription Certificate to be issued and transmitted to the transferee or transferees with respect to transferred Rights, and to the transferor with respect to retained Rights, if any, and (iii) the Rights evidenced by the new Subscription Certificates to be exercised or sold by the recipients thereof. Neither the Fund nor the Subscription Agent shall have any liability to a transferee or transferor of Rights if Subscription Certificates are not received in time for exercise or sale prior to the Expiration Date.
 
Except for the fees charged by the Subscription Agent (which will be paid by the Fund as described below), all commissions, fees and other expenses (including brokerage commissions and transfer taxes) incurred in connection with the purchase, sale or exercise of Rights will be for the account of the transferor of the Rights, and none of these commissions, fees or expenses will be paid by the Fund or the Subscription Agent.
 
The Fund anticipates that the Rights will be eligible for transfer through, and that the exercise of the Offer may be effected through, the facilities of DTC.
 
Expiration of the Offer
 
The Offer will expire at 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on November 9, 2017, unless extended by the Fund (the “Expiration Date”). Rights will expire on the Expiration Date and thereafter may not be exercised.
 
Subscription Agent
 
The Subscription Agent is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. and Computershare Inc. The Subscription Agent will receive from the Fund an amount estimated to be $25,000, comprised of the fee for its services and the reimbursement for certain expenses related to the Offer.
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Information Agent
 
INQUIRIES BY ALL HOLDERS OF RIGHTS SHOULD BE DIRECTED TO: THE INFORMATION AGENT, GEORGESON, TOLL-FREE AT (877) 278-4774 OR PLEASE SEND WRITTEN REQUEST TO: 1290 AVENUE OF THE AMERICAS, 9TH FLOOR, NEW YORK, NY 10104; HOLDERS MAY ALSO CONSULT THEIR BROKERS OR NOMINEES.
 
Method of Exercising Rights
 
Rights may be exercised by completing and signing the reverse side of the Subscription Certificate and mailing it in the envelope provided, or otherwise delivering the completed and signed Subscription Certificate to the Subscription Agent, together with payment for the Shares as described below under “Payment for Shares of Stock.” Rights may also be exercised through a Rights holder’s broker, who may charge the Rights holder a servicing fee in connection with such exercise.
 
Completed Subscription Certificates must be received by the Subscription Agent prior to 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time, on the Expiration Date (unless payment is effected by means of a notice of guaranteed delivery as described below under “Payment for Shares of Stock”). The Subscription Certificate and payment should be delivered to the Subscription Agent at the following addresses:
 
If By Mail:
Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
Attn: Corporate Actions Voluntary Offer
P.O. Box 43011
Providence, RI 02940-3011
   
If By Overnight Courier:
Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
Attn: Corporate Actions Voluntary Offer
250 Royall Street
Suite V
Canton, MA 02021
 
Payment for Shares of Stock
 
Holders of Rights who acquire Common Shares on Primary Subscription or pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege may choose between the following methods of payment:
 
(1)
A subscription will be accepted by the Subscription Agent if, prior to 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the Expiration Date, the Subscription Agent has received a written notice of guaranteed delivery from a bank, a trust company, or an NYSE member, guaranteeing delivery of: (i) payment for the Common Shares subscribed for in the Primary Subscription and additional Common Shares subscribed for pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege to the Subscription Agent based on the estimated Subscription Price of $19.38 per Common Share, and (ii) a properly completed and executed Subscription Certificate.
 
The Subscription Agent will not honor a notice of guaranteed delivery if a properly completed and executed Subscription Certificate and full payment is not received by the Subscription Agent by the close of business on the second Business Day after the Expiration Date. The notice of guaranteed delivery may be delivered to the Subscription Agent in the same manner as Subscription Certificates at the addresses set forth above, or may be transmitted to the Subscription Agent by facsimile transmission to fax number (617) 360-6810; telephone number to confirm receipt (781) 575-2332.
 
(2)
Alternatively, a holder of Rights can send the Subscription Certificate together with payment in the form of a personal check drawn upon a U.S. bank payable to the Rights Agent. To be accepted, the payment, together with the executed Subscription Certificate, must be received by the Subscription Agent at the addresses noted above prior to 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the Expiration Date. The Subscription Agent will deposit all checks received by it prior to the Expiration Date into a segregated account pending proration and distribution of the Common Shares issued pursuant to the Offer. The Subscription Agent will not accept cash as a means of payment for Common Shares issued pursuant to the Offer.
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EXCEPT AS OTHERWISE SET FORTH BELOW, A PAYMENT PURSUANT TO THIS METHOD MUST BE IN UNITED STATES DOLLARS BY PERSONAL CHECK DRAWN UPON A U.S. BANK MUST BE PAYABLE TO THE RIGHTS AGENT, COMPUTERSHARE (ACTING ON BEHALF OF COMPUTERSHARE TRUST COMPANY, N.A), AND MUST ACCOMPANY AN EXECUTED SUBSCRIPTION CERTIFICATE TO BE ACCEPTED.
 
If the aggregate Subscription Price paid by a Record Date Stockholder is insufficient to purchase the number of Common Shares that the holder indicates are being subscribed for, or if a Record Date Stockholder does not specify the number of Common Shares to be purchased, then the Record Date Stockholder will be deemed to have exercised first, the Primary Subscription Rights (if not already fully exercised) and second, the Over-Subscription Privilege to the full extent of the payment tendered. If the aggregate Subscription Price paid by such holder is greater than the Common Shares he has indicated an intention to subscribe, then the Rights holder will be deemed to have exercised first, the Primary Subscription Rights (if not already fully subscribed) and second, the Over-Subscription Privilege to the full extent of the excess payment tendered.
 
Any payment required from a holder of Rights must be received by the Subscription Agent by the Expiration Date, or if the Rights holder has elected to make payment by means of a notice of guaranteed delivery, on the second Business Day after the Expiration Date. Whichever of the two methods of payment described above is used, issuance and delivery of the Common Shares purchased are subject to collection of checks and actual payment pursuant to any notice of guaranteed delivery.
 
Within six Business Days following the Expiration Date (the “Confirmation Date”), a confirmation will be sent by the Subscription Agent to each holder of Rights (or, if the Common Shares are held by Cede or any other depository or nominee, to Cede or such other depository or nominee), showing (i) the number of Common Shares acquired pursuant to the Primary Subscription, (ii) the number of Excess Shares, if any, acquired pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege, (iii) the per Common Share and total purchase price for the Common Shares and (iv) any excess to be refunded by the Fund to such holder as a result of payment for Common Shares pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege which the holder is not acquiring.
 
Any payment required from a holder of Rights must be received by the Subscription Agent on the Expiration Date, or if the Rights holder has elected to make payment by means of a notice of guaranteed delivery, on the second Business Day after the Expiration Date. Any excess payment to be refunded by the Fund to a holder of Rights, or to be paid to a holder of Rights as a result of sales of Rights on his behalf by the Subscription Agent or exercises by Record Date Stockholders of their Over-Subscription Privileges, will be mailed by the Subscription Agent to the holder within ten Business Days after the Expiration Date. If any Rights holder exercises its right to acquire Shares pursuant to the Over-Subscription Privilege, any excess payment which would otherwise be refunded to the Rights holder will be applied by the Fund toward payment for Common Shares acquired pursuant to exercise of the Over-Subscription Privilege, if any.
 
A Rights holder will have no right to rescind a purchase after the Subscription Agent has received payment either by means of a notice of guaranteed delivery or a check.
 
If a holder of Rights who acquires Common Shares pursuant to the Primary Subscription or the Over-Subscription Privilege does not make payment of any amounts due, the Fund reserves the right to take any or all of the following actions: (i) find other purchasers for such subscribed-for and unpaid-for Common Shares; (ii) apply any payment actually received by it toward the purchase of the greatest whole number of Common Shares which could be acquired by such holder upon exercise of the Primary Subscription or the Over-Subscription Privilege; (iii) sell all or a portion of the Common Shares purchased by the holder, in the open market, and apply the proceeds to the amounts owed; and (iv) exercise any and all other rights or remedies to which it may be entitled, including, without limitation, the right to set off against payments actually received by it with respect to such subscribed Common Shares and to enforce the relevant guaranty of payment.
 
Nominees who hold Common Shares for the account of others, such as brokers, dealers or depositories for securities, should notify the respective beneficial owners of the Common Shares as soon as possible to ascertain such beneficial owners’ intentions and to obtain instructions with respect to the Rights. If the beneficial owner so instructs, the record holder of the Rights should complete Subscription Certificates and submit them to the Subscription Agent with the proper payment. In addition, beneficial owners of Common Shares or Rights held through such a nominee should contact the nominee and request the nominee to effect transactions in accordance with the beneficial owner’s instructions. Banks, broker-dealers and trust companies that hold Common Shares for the accounts of others are advised to notify those persons that purchase Rights in the secondary market that such Rights may not participate in the Over-Subscription Privilege.
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THE INSTRUCTIONS ACCOMPANYING THE SUBSCRIPTION CERTIFICATES SHOULD BE READ CAREFULLY AND FOLLOWED IN DETAIL. DO NOT SEND SUBSCRIPTION CERTIFICATES TO THE FUND.
 
The method of delivery of Subscription Certificates and payment of the aggregate Subscription Price to the Subscription Agent will be at the election and risk of the Rights holders, but, if sent by mail, it is recommended that the certificates and payments be sent by registered mail, properly insured, with return receipt requested, and that a sufficient number of days be allowed to ensure delivery to the Subscription Agent and clearance of payment prior to 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the Expiration Date. Because uncertified personal checks may take at least five Business Days or more to clear, you are strongly urged to pay, or arrange for payment, by means of a certified bank check drawn off a personal bank account. Payments by cashier’s check or money order will not be accepted.
 
All questions concerning the timeliness, validity, form and eligibility of any exercise of Rights will be determined by the Fund, whose determinations will be final and binding. The Fund, in its sole discretion, may waive any defect or irregularity, or permit a defect or irregularity to be corrected within such time as it may determine, or reject the purported exercise of any Right. Subscriptions will not be deemed to have been received or accepted until all irregularities have been waived or cured within such time as the Fund determines in its sole discretion. Neither the Fund nor the Subscription Agent will be under any duty to give notification of any defect or irregularity in connection with the submission of Subscription Certificates or incur any liability for failure to give such notification.
 
Rights holders who have exercised their rights will have no right to rescind their subscription after receipt by the subscription agent of the completed Subscription Certificate together with payment for Common Shares, except as described under “Notice of net asset value decline.”
 
Foreign Restrictions
 
Subscription Certificates will only be mailed to Record Date Stockholders whose addresses are within the United States (other than an APO or FPO address). Record Date Stockholders whose addresses are outside the United States or who have an APO or FPO address and who wish to subscribe to the Offer either in part or in full should contact the Subscription Agent in writing or by recorded telephone conversation no later than five Business Days prior to the Expiration Date. The Fund will determine whether the Offer may be made to any such Record Date Stockholder. If the Subscription Agent has received no instruction by the fifth Business Day prior to the Expiration Date or the Fund has determined that the Offer may not be made to a particular shareholder, the Subscription Agent will attempt to sell all of such shareholder’s Rights and remit the net proceeds, if any, to such shareholder. If the Rights can be sold, sales of these Rights will be deemed to have been effected at the weighted average price received by the Subscription Agent on the day the Rights are sold, less any applicable brokerage commissions, taxes and other expenses.
 
Notice of Net Asset Value Decline
 
In accordance with SEC regulatory requirements, the Fund has undertaken to suspend the Offer until the Fund amends this Prospectus if, after the effective date of the Fund’s registration statement relating to this Offer, the Fund’s NAV declines more than 10% from the Fund’s NAV as of that date. If this occurs, the Expiration Date will be extended and the Fund will notify Record Date Stockholders of the decline and permit them to cancel their exercise of Rights.
 
Certain United States Federal Income Tax Consequences
 
The following is a general summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the Offer under the provisions of the Code, Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder (“Treasury regulations”), and other applicable authorities in effect as of the date of this Prospectus that are generally applicable to Record Date Stockholders and other Rights holders who are “United States persons” within the meaning of the Code, and does not address any foreign, state, local or other tax consequences. These authorities may be changed, possibly with retroactive effect, or subject to new legislative, administrative or judicial action. Record Date Stockholders and other rights holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the tax consequences, including U.S. federal, state, local, foreign or other tax consequences, relevant to their particular circumstances.
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The Fund believes that the value of a Right will not be includible in the income of a Record Date Stockholder at the time the Right is issued, and the Fund will not report to the IRS that a Record Date Stockholder has income as a result of the issuance of the Right; however, there is no guidance directly on point concerning certain aspects of the Offer. The remainder of this discussion assumes that the receipt of the Rights by Record Date Stockholders will not be a taxable event for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
 
The basis of a Right issued to a Record Date Stockholder will be zero, and the basis of the Common Share with respect to which the Right was issued (the “Old Common Share”) will remain unchanged. The Record Date Stockholder only is required to allocate the basis of the Old Common Share and the Right in proportion to their respective fair market values on the date of distribution if (i) either (a) the fair market value of the Right on the date of distribution is at least 15% of the fair market value of the Old Common Share on that date, or (b) the Record Date Stockholder affirmatively elects (in the manner set out in Treasury regulations) to allocate to the Right a portion of the basis of the Old Common Share and (ii) the Right does not expire unexercised in the hands of the Record Date Stockholder (i.e., the Record Date Stockholder either exercises or sells the Right following its issuance).
 
No loss will be recognized by a Record Date Stockholder if a Right distributed to such Record Date Stockholder expires unexercised in the hands of such Record Date Stockholder.
 
The basis of a Right purchased in the market will generally be its purchase price. If a Right that has been purchased in the market expires unexercised, the holder will recognize a loss equal to the basis of the Right.
 
Any gain or loss on the sale of a Right or, in the case of Rights purchased in the market, any loss from a Right that expires unexercised, will be a capital gain or loss if the Right is held as a capital asset (which in the case of Rights issued to Record Date Stockholders will depend on whether the Old Common Share is held as a capital asset), and will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the holding period of the Right exceeds (or is deemed to exceed) one year. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitation. The holding period of a Right issued to a Record Date Stockholder will include the holding period of the Old Common Share.
 
No gain or loss will be recognized by a Rights holder upon the exercise of a Right, and the basis of any share acquired upon exercise of the right (the “New Common Share”) will equal the sum of the basis, if any, of the Right and the subscription price for the New Common Share. When a Rights holder exercises a Right, the Rights holder’s holding period in the New Common Shares does not include the time during which the Rights holder held the unexercised Right; the holding period for the New Common Shares will begin no later than the date following the date of exercise of the Right.
 
You should consult a tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal tax consequences of acquiring, holding, disposing of and exercising Rights, and of allowing Rights to expire, in your particular circumstances, as well as any tax consequences that may arise under the laws of any state, local or foreign taxing jurisdiction.
 
Employee Plan Considerations
 
The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”) and the Code contain certain fiduciary responsibility and prohibited transaction provisions applicable to rights holders that are employee benefit plans subject to ERISA or Section 4915 of the Code, including corporate savings and 401(k) plans, Keogh Plans of self-employed individuals and Individual Retirement Accounts (“IRA”) (each, a “Benefit Plan” and collectively, “Benefit Plans”). Due to the complexity of these rules and the penalties for noncompliance, fiduciaries of Benefit Plans and other retirement plans should consult with their counsel and advisors regarding the consequences of their exercise or transfer of Rights under ERISA and the Code.
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As described above, existing shareholders who do not fully exercise their Rights will, at the completion of the Offer, own a smaller proportional interest in the Fund than they owned prior to the Offer. The exercise of Rights will require the future funding of cash. See “The Offer — Subscription Price.” Benefit Plans should be aware that additional contributions of cash to the Benefit Plan necessary in order to fund the exercise of Rights may be treated as Benefit Plan contributions and, particularly when taken together with contributions previously made, may result in issues under the rules governing contributions and reductions, and give rise to possible excise taxes. For example, in the case of Benefit Plans qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code, and certain other retirement plans, additional cash contributions could cause the maximum contribution limitations of Section 415 of the Code and other qualification rules to be violated. Benefit Plans contemplating making additional cash contributions to the Benefit Plan to fund the exercise of Rights should consult with their counsel prior to making such contributions. There may also be reportable distributions, and other adverse tax and ERISA consequences, if Rights are sold or transferred by a Benefit Plan. If any portion of an IRA is used as security for a loan, the portion so used could be treated as distributed to the IRA depositor, and other adverse consequences could arise.
 
Additional special issues may arise in the case of any Benefit Plan sponsored or maintained by the Fund or any affiliate thereof.
 
ERISA contains fiduciary responsibility requirements, and ERISA and the Code contain prohibited transaction rules, that may impact the exercise or transfer of Rights. Due to the complexity of these rules and the penalties for noncompliance, Benefit Plans should consult with their counsel and other advisors regarding the consequences of their exercise or transfer of Rights under ERISA and the Code.
 
USE OF PROCEEDS
 
The Fund estimates the net proceeds of the Offer to be approximately $30,064,000. This figure is based on an estimated Subscription Price per Common Share of $19.38 and assumes all new Common Shares offered are sold and that the expenses related to the Offer estimated at approximately $260,000 are paid.

The Adviser anticipates that investment of the proceeds will be made in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies as appropriate investment opportunities are identified, which is expected to be completed or substantially completed within approximately one month.  Pending such investment, the proceeds will be held in high quality short-term debt securities and instruments.

 
INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE, STRATEGIES AND POLICIES
Investment Objective
 
The Fund’s investment objective is total return consisting of capital appreciation and current income. There is no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.
 
Principal Investment Strategies
 
The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by pursuing a tactical asset allocation strategy and opportunistically investing under normal circumstances in closed-end funds and exchange-traded funds (“ETFs” and collectively, “Underlying Funds”).  Underlying Funds also may include business development companies (“BDCs”).  BDCs are a type of closed-end fund that invests in small companies in the initial stages of their development and are similar to venture capital funds. All Underlying Funds will be registered under the Securities Act. The Subadviser has the flexibility to change the Fund’s asset allocation based on its ongoing analysis of the equity, fixed income and alternative asset markets. The Subadviser considers various quantitative and qualitative factors relating to the domestic and foreign securities markets and economies when making asset allocation and security selection decisions. While the Subadviser continuously evaluates these factors, material shifts in the Fund’s asset class exposures will typically take place over longer periods of time.  In addition, the Fund, in seeking to achieve its investment objective, will not take activist positions in the Underlying Funds.
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Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 65% of its Managed Assets in closed-end funds and at least 80% of its Managed Assets in Underlying Funds. The Fund directly, and therefore Common Stockholders indirectly, will bear the expenses of the Underlying Funds.
 
Under normal market conditions: (i) no more than 80% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “equity” Underlying Funds; (ii) no more than 60% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “fixed income” Underlying Funds; (iii) no more than 30% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “global equity” Underlying Funds; (iv) no more than 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “emerging market equity” Underlying Funds; (v) no more than 30% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “high yield” (also known as “junk bond”) and “senior loan” Underlying Funds; (vi) no more than 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “emerging market income” Underlying Funds; (vii) no more than 10% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “real estate” Underlying Funds; and (viii) no more than 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be invested in “energy master limited partnership” (“MLP”) Underlying Funds. Underlying Funds included in the 30% limitation applicable to investments in “global equity” Underlying Funds may include Underlying Funds that invest a portion of their assets in emerging markets securities. The Fund will also limit its investments in closed-end funds (including BDCs) that have been in operation for less than one year to no more than 10% of the Fund’s Managed Assets.  The Fund will not invest in inverse ETFs and leveraged ETFs. The types of Underlying Funds referenced in this paragraph will be categorized in accordance with the fund categories established and maintained by Morningstar, Inc. The investment parameters stated above (and elsewhere in this Prospectus) apply only at the time of purchase. The Underlying Funds in which the Fund invests will not include those that are advised or subadvised by the Adviser, the Subadviser or their affiliates.
 
In selecting closed-end funds, the Subadviser opportunistically utilizes a combination of short-term and longer-term trading strategies to seek to derive value from the discount and premium spreads associated with closed-end funds. The Fund benefits if it purchases a closed-end fund at a discount and the discount narrows. In addition, the Fund may purchase closed-end funds at a premium if the Subadviser believes the premium will increase. The Subadviser employs both a quantitative and qualitative approach in its selection of closed-end funds and has developed proprietary screening models and trading algorithms to trade closed-end funds. The Subadviser employs the following trading strategies, among others:
 
Statistical Analysis (Mean Reversion)
 
·          Using proprietary quantitative models, the Subadviser seeks to identify closed-end funds that are trading at compelling absolute and / or relative discounts.
 
·          The Fund will attempt to capitalize on the perceived mispricing if the Subadviser believes that the discount widening is irrational and expects the discount to narrow to longer-term mean valuations.
 
Corporate Actions
 
·          The Subadviser will pursue investments in closed-end funds that have announced, or the Subadviser believes are likely to announce, certain corporate actions that may drive value for their shareholders.
 
·          The Subadviser has developed trading strategies that focus on closed-end fund tender offers, rights offerings, shareholder distributions, open-endings and liquidations.
 
The Fund will invest in other Underlying Funds (that are not closed-end funds) to gain exposure to specific asset classes when the Subadviser believes closed-end fund discount or premium spreads are not attractive or to manage overall closed-end fund exposure in the Fund.
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An index-based ETF is an investment company that seeks to track the performance of a particular market index. These indices include not only broad-market indices, but more specific indices as well, including those relating to particular sectors, markets, regions and industries. The Subadviser selects ETFs based on their ability to offer specific sector and style exposure in a cost and tax efficient manner. The Fund purchases ETF shares on the secondary market. Unlike a fund that allocates its assets among mutual funds based on the perceived ability of the advisers to those mutual funds, the Subadviser actively manages the Fund’s portfolio among the Underlying Funds based on the Subadviser’s research and analysis of the market and the investment merit of the Underlying Funds themselves. In evaluating the investment merit of Underlying Funds, the Subadviser analyzes the asset class, the portfolio manager(s) and the adviser, past performance, recent portfolio holdings and concentration risks.
 
Under normal circumstances, the Fund intends to maintain long positions in Underlying Funds, however, may engage in short sales for investment purposes.  When the Fund engages in a short sale, it sells a security it does not own and, to complete the sale, borrows the same security from a broker or other institution.  The Fund may benefit from a short position when the shorted security decreases in value.  The Fund may also at times establish hedging positions.  Hedging positions may include short sales and derivatives, such as options and swaps (“Hedging Positions”). Under normal market conditions, no more than 30% of the Fund’s Managed Assets will be in Hedging Positions. The Fund’s investments in derivatives will be included under the 65% and 80% policy noted above so long as the underlying asset of such derivatives is a closed-end fund or Underlying Fund, respectively. The Subadviser intends to use Hedging Positions to lower the Fund’s volatility but they may also be used to seek to enhance the Fund’s return. A short sale is a transaction in which the Fund sells a security that it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market price of the security. To complete the short sale, the Fund must arrange through a broker to borrow the security in order to deliver it to the buyer. The Fund is obligated to replace the borrowed security by purchasing it at a market price at or prior to the time it must be returned to the lender. The price at which the Fund is required to replace the borrowed security may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. The Fund will incur a loss if the price of the security sold short increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. The Fund will realize a gain if the price of the security declines between those dates.

The Fund also may invest up to 20% of its Managed Assets in exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”), certain derivatives, such as options and swaps, cash and cash equivalents.  Such investments will not be counted towards the Fund’s 80% policy. ETNs are debt securities whose returns are linked to a particular index.
 
The Fund may attempt to enhance the return on the cash portion of its portfolio by investing in a total return swap agreement. A total return swap agreement provides the Fund with a return based on the performance of an underlying asset, in exchange for fee payments to a counterparty based on a specific rate. The difference in the value of these income streams is recorded daily by the Fund, and is typically settled in cash at least monthly. If the underlying asset declines in value over the term of the swap, the Fund would be required to pay the dollar value of that decline plus any applicable fees to the counterparty. The Fund may use its own NAV or any other reference asset that the Subadviser chooses as the underlying asset in a total return swap. The Fund will limit the notional amount of all total return swaps in the aggregate to 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets. Using the Fund’s own NAV as the underlying asset in the total return swap serves to reduce cash drag (the impact of cash on the Fund’s overall return) by replacing it with the impact of market exposure based upon the Fund’s own investment holdings. This type of total return swap would provide the Fund with a return based on its NAV. Like any total return swap, the Fund would be subject to counterparty risk and the risk that its own NAV declines in value.

The Fund generally seeks to hold securities for the long term, but may liquidate positions in order to change the Fund’s asset allocation or to generate cash to invest in more attractive opportunities, which may result in a larger portion of any net gains being realized as short-term capital gains. In addition, a negative change in the fundamental or qualitative characteristics of the issuer may cause the Subadviser to sell a security. Finally, the Subadviser may sell a security when its price approaches, meets or exceeds the Subadviser’s target price. For instance, the Subadviser may sell shares of a closed-end fund when it is no longer selling at a discount. This may result in a high rate of portfolio turnover. See “Risks—Portfolio Turnover Risks.”
 
The Fund’s investment objective is non-fundamental and may be changed by the Board of Directors without Common Stockholder approval. Common Stockholders will, however, receive at least 60 days prior notice of any change in this investment objective.
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CONTINGENT CONVERSION FEATURE
 
The Fund’s Charter provides that, during calendar year  2021, the Fund will call a shareholder meeting for the purpose of voting to determine whether the Fund should convert to an open-end management investment company (such meeting date, as may be adjourned, the “Conversion Vote Date”).  Such shareholder meeting may be adjourned or postponed in accordance with the By-Laws of the Fund to a date in calendar year 2021.  A vote on such Conversion Vote Date to convert the Fund to an open-end management investment company under the Charter requires approval by a majority of the Fund’s total outstanding shares.  A majority is defined as greater than 50% of the Fund’s total outstanding shares.  If approved by shareholders on the Conversion Vote Date, the Fund will seek to convert to an open-end management investment company within 12 months of such approval. If the requisite number of votes to convert the Fund to an open-end management investment company is not obtained on the Conversion Vote Date, the Fund will continue in operation as a closed-end management investment company. See “Conversion to Open-End Fund” and “Risks—Contingent Conversion Risk” below.
 
USE OF LEVERAGE
 
The Fund may borrow money and/or issue preferred stock, notes or debt securities for investment purposes. These practices are known as leveraging. The Fund may use leverage through borrowings or the issuance of preferred stock, in an aggregate amount of up to 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets immediately after such borrowings or issuance.  However, the Fund is not required to decrease its use of leverage if leverage exceeds 15% but is less than 20% of the Fund’s Managed Assets due solely to changes in market conditions.  Based on market conditions at the time, the Fund may instead use such leverage in amounts that represent less than 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets.  The Fund may utilize leverage to purchase portfolio securities and for portfolio or cash management purposes. The Fund also may borrow money as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes, including settlement of securities transactions, which otherwise might require untimely dispositions of the Fund’s portfolio securities. The Fund currently anticipates that leverage will initially be obtained through the use of bank borrowings or other similar term loans. The Underlying Funds that the Fund invests in may also use leverage; provided, however, it is the intention of the Fund that the Fund’s direct use of leverage and the Fund’s overall exposure to leverage utilized by all the Underlying Funds will not exceed 33 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets.  To the extent that the Fund’s exposure to leverage utilized by all the Underlying Funds is 33 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets, the Fund intends to not utilize leverage directly.  The Fund’s intention to limit leverage is contingent upon the Subadviser’s ability to adequately determine an Underlying Fund’s current amount of leverage, which may be severely limited, and ultimately unsuccessful.
 
The Fund may be subject to certain restrictions on investments imposed by lenders or by one or more rating agencies that may issue ratings for any senior securities issued by the Fund. Borrowing covenants or rating agency guidelines may impose asset coverage or Fund composition requirements that are more stringent than those imposed on the Fund by the 1940 Act.
 
Notwithstanding the limits discussed above, the Fund may enter into derivatives or other transactions (e.g., total return swaps) that may provide leverage (other than through borrowings or the issuance of preferred stock), but which are not subject to the foregoing limitations, if the Fund earmarks or segregates liquid assets (or enters into offsetting positions) in accordance with applicable SEC regulations and interpretations to cover its obligations under those transactions and instruments. These additional transactions will not cause the Fund to pay higher advisory or administration fee rates than it would pay in the absence of such transactions, although the dollar amount of these fees payable by the Fund will increase and decrease along with increases to and decreases in the value of the Fund’s Managed Assets. In addition, these transactions will entail additional expenses (e.g., transaction costs) which will be borne by the Fund. These types of transactions have the potential to increase returns to Common Stockholders, but they also involve additional risks. This additional leverage will increase the volatility of the Fund’s investment portfolio and could result in larger losses than if the transactions were not entered into. However, to the extent that the Fund enters into offsetting transactions or owns positions covering its obligations, the leveraging effect is expected to be minimized or eliminated.

Under the 1940 Act, the Fund is not permitted to incur indebtedness unless immediately after doing so the Fund has an asset coverage of at least 300% of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of indebtedness (i.e., such indebtedness may not exceed 331/3% of the value of the Fund’s total assets including the amount borrowed). Additionally, under the 1940 Act, the Fund may not declare any dividend or other distribution upon any class of its shares, or purchase any such shares, unless the aggregate indebtedness of the Fund has, at the time of the declaration of any such dividend or distribution or at the time of any such purchase, asset coverage of at least 300% after deducting the amount of such dividend, distribution, or purchase price, at the case may be. Under the 1940 Act, the Fund is not permitted to issue preferred stock unless immediately after such issuance the total asset value of the Fund’s portfolio is at least 200% of the liquidation value of the outstanding preferred stock (i.e., such liquidation value may not exceed 50% of the Fund’s Managed Assets). In addition, the Fund is not permitted to declare any cash dividend or other distribution on its Common Shares unless, at the time of such declaration, the NAV of the Fund’s portfolio (determined after deducting the amount of such dividend or other distribution) is at least 200% of such liquidation value of the preferred stock. If preferred stock is issued, the Fund intends, to the extent possible, to purchase or redeem shares, from time to time, to maintain coverage of any preferred stock of at least 200%. Normally, holders of Common Shares will elect the directors of the Fund except that the holders of any preferred stock will elect two directors. In the event the Fund failed to pay dividends on its preferred stock for two years, holders of preferred stock would be entitled to elect a majority of the directors until the dividends are paid.
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Assuming the use of leverage in the amount of 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets and an annual interest rate on leverage of 2.23% payable on such leverage based on estimated market interest rates as of the date of this Prospectus, the additional income that the Fund must earn (net of estimated expenses related to leverage) in order to cover such interest payments is 0.39%. The Fund’s actual cost of leverage will be based on market interest rates at the time the Fund undertakes a leveraging strategy, and such actual cost of leverage may be higher or lower than that assumed in the previous example.
 
The following table is furnished in response to requirements of the SEC.  It is designed to illustrate the effect of leverage on total return on Common Shares, assuming investment portfolio total returns (comprised of income, net expenses and changes in the value of investments held in the Fund’s portfolio) of -10%, -5%, 0%, 5% and 10%. These assumed investment portfolio returns are hypothetical figures and are not necessarily indicative of what the Fund’s investment portfolio returns will be. In other words, the Fund’s actual returns may be greater or less than those appearing in the table below. The table further reflects the use of leverage representing approximately 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets after such issuance and the Fund’s currently projected annual interest rate of 2.23%. See “Risks—Leverage Risks.” The table does not reflect any offering costs of Common Shares or leverage.
 
Assumed Portfolio Return
-10.00%
-5.00%
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
Common Share Total Return
-12.16%
-6.28%
-0.39%
5.49%
11.37%
 
Total return is composed of two elements—the dividends on Common Shares paid by the Fund (the amount of which is largely determined by the Fund’s net investment income after paying the cost of leverage) and realized and unrealized gains or losses on the value of the securities the Fund owns. As the table shows, leverage generally increases the return to Common Stockholders when portfolio return is positive or greater than the costs of leverage and decreases return when the portfolio return is negative or less than the costs of leverage.
 
During the time in which the Fund is using leverage, the amount of the fees paid to the Adviser and the Subadviser for investment management services and subadvisory services, respectively, will be higher than if the Fund did not use leverage because the fees paid will be calculated based on the Fund’s Managed Assets. This may create a conflict of interest between the Adviser and the Subadviser, on the one hand, and the holders of Common Shares, on the other. Also, because the leverage costs will be borne by the Fund at a specified interest rate, only the Fund’s Common Stockholders will bear the cost of the Fund’s management fees and other expenses.  There can be no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful during any period in which it is employed.
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RISKS
 
Investing in any investment company security involves risk, including the risk that you may receive little or no return on your investment or even that you may lose part or all of your investment. Investors should consider the following risk factors and special considerations associated with investing in the Fund’s Common Shares.
 
Structural Risks:
 
Not a Complete Investment Program
 
The Fund is intended for investors seeking capital appreciation and current income over the long-term, and is not intended to be a short-term trading vehicle. An investment in the Common Shares of the Fund should not be considered a complete investment program. Each investor should take into account the Fund’s investment objective and other characteristics as well as the investor’s other investments when considering an investment in the Common Shares. An investment in the Fund may not be appropriate for all investors.
 
Dilution
 
Assuming, for example, that all Rights are exercised, the Subscription Price is $19.38 and the Fund’s NAV per Common Share at the expiration of the Offer is $20.62, the Fund’s NAV per Common Share (after payment of estimated offering expenses) would be reduced by approximately $0.36 (1.76%) per Common Share. Assuming, for example, that all Rights are exercised and the secondary over-subscription offer is fully subscribed, the Subscription Price is $19.38 and the Fund’s NAV per Common Share at the expiration of the Offer is $20.62, the Fund’s NAV per Common Share (after payment of estimated offering expenses) would be reduced by approximately $0.41 (2.01%) per Common Share. 
  
Stockholders who do not exercise their Rights will, at the completion of the Offer, own a smaller proportional interest in the Fund than if they exercised their Rights, which will proportionately decrease the relative voting power of those shareholders. Because the Subscription Price per Common Share will be below the NAV per Common Share on the Expiration Date, you will experience an immediate dilution of the aggregate NAV of your Common Shares if you do not participate in the Offer and you will experience a reduction in the NAV per share of Common Shares of your Common Shares whether or not you participate in the Offer. In addition, whether or not you exercise your Rights, you will experience a dilution of net asset of the Common Shares because you will indirectly bear the expenses of this Offer, which include, among other items, SEC registration fees, printing expenses and the fees assessed by service providers (including the cost of the Fund’s counsel and independent registered public accounting firm). This dilution of NAV will disproportionately affect Common Stockholders who do not exercise their Rights. The Fund cannot state precisely the extent of this dilution if you do not exercise your Rights because the Fund does not know what the NAV per share of Common Shares will be when the Offer expires, or what proportion of the Rights will be exercised.
 
Furthermore, if you do not participate in the Secondary Over-Subscription Privilege, (if any), your percentage ownership may be further diluted. The Fund cannot state precisely the amount of any dilution because it is not known at this time what the subscription price or NAV per share of Common Shares will be on the Expiration Date or what proportion of the Rights will be exercised. The offer may increase the volatility of the market price of the Fund’s Common Shares. In addition, the Offer could be under-subscribed, in which case ALPS will not have as much proceeds to invest on behalf of the Fund (see “Use of proceeds”). The likely impact of the Offer on NAV per share of Common Shares is shown by the following example, assuming a $19.38 estimated Subscription Price per Common Share:
 
Example (assumes that NAV per share is above Subscription Price per share)1

NAV2
$20.62
Subscription Price
$19.38
Reduction in NAV($)3
$0.36
Reduction in NAV(%)
1.76%
Secondary Over-Subscription Reduction in NAV($)4,5
$0.41
Secondary Over-Subscription Reduction in NAV(%)4
2.01%
 
(1)
This example assumes that the full Primary Subscription is exercised. Actual amounts may vary due to rounding.
 
(2)
This example assumes that the Fund’s NAV on the Expiration Date is $20.62 per share of Common Shares and that the Fund’s market price is greater than the NAV on that date. The Subscription Price used in this example was determined based on a formula equal 92.5% of the reported NAV of 95% of the market price per share of common stock of the Fund on the NYSE on the Expiration Date, whichever is higher, unless the Offer is extended.
 
(3)
Assumes $260,000 in estimated offering expenses.
 
(4)
Assumes the full Primary Subscription and Secondary Over-Subscription Privilege are exercised. Actual amounts may vary due to rounding.
 
(5)
Assumes $6,000 in estimated additional offering expenses.
 
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If you do not wish to exercise your Rights, you should consider selling them as set forth in this Prospectus. Any cash you receive from selling your Rights should serve as partial compensation for any possible dilution of your interest in the Fund. The Fund cannot give assurance, however, that a market for the Rights will develop or that the Rights will have any marketable value.
 
The Fund’s largest shareholders, Record Date Stockholders of more than 5% of the outstanding Common Shares of the Fund, could increase their percentage ownership in the Fund through the exercise of the Primary Subscription and Over-Subscription Privilege.

Leverage Risks
 
The Fund may borrow money, or issue debt or preferred stock in an aggregate amount of up to 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets immediately after such borrowings or issuance. The Underlying Funds that the Fund invests in may also use leverage; provided, however, it is the intention of the Fund that the Fund’s direct use of leverage and the Fund’s overall exposure to leverage utilized by all the Underlying Funds will not exceed 33 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets.  To the extent that the Fund’s exposure to leverage utilized by all the Underlying Funds is 33 1/3% of the Fund’s Managed Assets, the Fund intends to not utilize leverage directly.  The Fund’s intention to limit leverage is contingent upon the Subadviser’s ability to adequately determine an Underlying Fund’s current amount of leverage, which may be severely limited, and ultimately unsuccessful.  Since the holders of Common Shares pay all expenses related to the issuance of debt or use of leverage, the use of leverage through borrowing of money, issuance of debt securities or the issuance of preferred stock for investment purposes creates risks for the holders of Common Shares. Leverage is a speculative technique that exposes the Fund to greater risk and increased costs than if it were not implemented. Increases and decreases in the value of the Fund’s portfolio will be magnified when the Fund uses leverage. As a result, leverage may cause greater changes in the Fund’s NAV. The Fund will also have to pay interest on its borrowings or dividends on preferred stock, if any, which may reduce the Fund’s return. The leverage costs may be greater than the Fund’s return on the underlying investment. The Fund’s leveraging strategy may not be successful.
 
If the Fund were to utilize leverage in the form of borrowing, it anticipates that the money borrowed for investment purposes will incur interest based on shorter-term interest rates that would be periodically reset. So long as the Fund’s portfolio provides a higher rate of return, net of expenses, than the interest rate on borrowed money, as reset periodically, the leverage may cause the holders of Common Shares to receive a higher current rate of return than if the Fund were not leveraged. If, however, long-term and/or short-term rates rise, the interest rate on borrowed money could exceed the rate of return on securities held by the Fund, reducing return to the holders of Common Shares. Recent developments in the credit markets may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to borrow money for investment purposes and may increase the costs of such borrowings, which would reduce returns to the holders of Common Shares.
 
There is no assurance that a leveraging strategy, if the Fund decides to utilize leverage, will be successful. Leverage involves risks and special considerations for Common Stockholders, including:
 
·          the likelihood of greater volatility of NAV, market price and dividend rate of the Common Shares than a comparable portfolio without leverage;
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·          the risk that fluctuations in interest rates on borrowings or on short-term debt or in the interest or dividend rates on any debt securities or preferred shares that the Fund must pay will reduce the return to the Common Stockholders;
 
·          the effect of leverage in a declining market, which is likely to cause a greater decline in the NAV of the Common Shares than if the Fund were not leveraged, may result in a greater decline in the market price of the Common Shares;
 
·          when the Fund uses financial leverage, the investment management fees payable to the Adviser and the subadvisory fees payable by the Adviser to the Subadviser will be higher than if the Fund did not use leverage. This may create a conflict of interest between the Adviser and the Subadviser, on the one hand, and the holders of Common Shares, on the other; and
 
·          leverage may increase operating costs, which may reduce total return.
 
The use of leverage will require the Fund to segregate assets to cover its obligations (or, if the Fund borrows money or issues preferred shares, to maintain asset coverage in conformity with the requirements of the 1940 Act). While the segregated assets will be invested in liquid securities, they may not be used for other operational purposes. Consequently, the use of leverage may limit the Fund’s flexibility and may require that the Fund sell other portfolio investments to pay Fund expenses, to maintain assets in an amount sufficient to cover the Fund’s leveraged exposure or to meet other obligations at a time when it may be disadvantageous to sell such assets. Certain types of borrowings by the Fund may result in the Fund being subject to covenants in credit agreements relating to asset coverage and portfolio composition requirements. The Fund may be subject to certain restrictions on investments imposed by guidelines of one or more rating agencies, which may issue ratings for the short-term debt securities or preferred shares issued by the Fund. These guidelines may impose asset coverage or portfolio composition requirements that are more stringent than those imposed by the 1940 Act. The Subadviser does not believe that these covenants or guidelines will impede it from managing the Fund’s portfolio in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies if the Fund were to utilize leverage.
 
Leverage risk would also apply to the Fund’s investments in Underlying Funds to the extent an Underlying Fund uses leverage.
 
Market Discount
 
The stock of closed-end management investment companies often trade at a discount from their NAV, and the Fund’s Common Shares may likewise trade at a discount from NAV. The trading price of the Fund’s Common Shares may be less than the NAV. The returns earned by Common Stockholders who sell their Common Shares below NAV will be reduced. The Fund’s Common Shares is currently sold at a discount to NAV. This risk would also apply to the Fund’s investments in closed-end funds.
 
Anti-Takeover Provisions
 
Maryland law and the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws include provisions that could limit the ability of other entities or persons to acquire control of the Fund or to convert the Fund to open-end status. These provisions could deprive the holders of Common Shares of opportunities to sell their Common Shares at a premium over the then current market price of the Common Shares or at NAV. See “Certain Provisions of the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws and of Maryland Law.” This risk would also apply to many of the Fund’s investments in closed-end funds.
 
Contingent Conversion Risk
 
The Fund will bear the costs associated with calling a shareholder meeting for the purpose of voting to determine whether the Fund should convert to an open-end management investment company. In the event of conversion to an open-end management investment company, the shares would cease to be listed on the NYSE or other national securities exchange, and such shares would thereafter be redeemable at the Fund’s NAV at the option of the shareholder, rather than traded in the secondary market at market price, which, for closed-end fund shares, may at times be at a premium to the Fund’s NAV. Any borrowings (other than borrowings from a bank) or preferred stock of the Fund would need to be repaid or redeemed upon conversion and, accordingly, a portion of the Fund’s portfolio may need to be liquidated, potentially resulting in, among other things, lower current income. In addition, open-end management investment companies may be subject to continuous asset in-flows and out-flows that can complicate portfolio management and limit the Fund’s ability to make certain types of investments. As a result, the Fund may incur increased expenses and may be required to sell portfolio securities at inopportune times in order to accommodate such flows.
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Investment-Related Risks
 
The risks listed below are in alphabetical order. With the exception of Underlying Fund risk (and as otherwise noted below), the following risks apply to the direct investments the Fund may make, and generally apply to the Fund’s investments in Underlying Funds. That said, each risk described below may not apply to each Underlying Fund. Similarly, an Underlying Fund may be subject to additional or different risks than those described below.
 
Asset Allocation Risks
 
To the extent that the Subadviser’s asset allocation strategy may fail to produce the intended result, the Fund’s return may suffer. Additionally, the active asset allocation style of the Fund leads to changing allocations over time and represents a risk to investors who target fixed asset allocations.
 
Convertible Securities Risks
 
The market value of convertible securities tends to fall when prevailing interest rates rise. The value of convertible securities also tends to change whenever the market value of the underlying common or preferred stock fluctuates. Convertible securities tend to be of lower credit quality See “Fixed Income Risks—High Yield Securities Risk” below.
 
Defensive Measures
 
The Fund may invest up to 100% of its assets in cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments as a defensive measure in response to adverse market conditions or opportunistically at the discretion of the Subadviser. During these periods or during periods when an Underlying Fund invests defensively, the Fund may not be pursuing its investment objective.
 
Derivatives Risks
 
The Fund and the Underlying Funds may enter into derivatives. Derivative transactions involve investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in Underlying Funds.  Generally, a derivative is a financial contract the value of which depends upon, or is derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate, or index, and may relate to individual debt or equity instruments, interest rates, currencies or currency exchange rates, commodities, related indexes, and other assets.  Derivatives can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risk, depending upon the characteristics of a particular derivative. Derivatives may entail investment exposures that are greater than their cost would suggest, meaning that a small investment in a derivative could have a large potential impact on the performance of a fund. A fund could experience a loss if derivatives do not perform as anticipated, if they are not correlated with the performance of other investments which they are used to hedge or if the fund is unable to liquidate a position because of an illiquid secondary market. The market for many derivatives is, or can suddenly become, illiquid. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid and unpredictable changes in the prices of derivatives. When used for speculative purposes, derivatives will produce enhanced investment exposure, which will magnify gains and losses. Certain derivatives transactions may give rise to a form of leverage. The use of leverage may cause a fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it may not be advantageous to do so to satisfy its obligations or to meet segregation requirements. Leverage may cause a fund to be more volatile than if it had not been leveraged. This is because leverage tends to exaggerate the effect of any increase or decrease in the value of the fund’s portfolio securities. Further, using derivatives may include the risk of mispricing or improper valuation of derivatives and the inability of derivatives to correlate perfectly, or at all, with the value of the assets, reference rates or indexes they are designed to closely track. The Fund also will be subject to credit risk with respect to the counterparties to the derivatives contracts purchased by the Fund. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. The Fund may obtain only a limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances.
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Defaulted and Distressed Securities Risks
 
The Underlying Funds may invest in defaulted and distressed securities. Legal difficulties and negotiations with creditors and other claimants are common when dealing with defaulted or distressed companies. Defaulted or distressed companies may be insolvent or in bankruptcy. In the event of a default, an Underlying Fund may incur additional expenses to seek recovery.  The repayment of defaulted bonds is subject to significant uncertainties, and in some cases, there may be no recovery of repayment.  Defaulted bonds might be repaid only after lengthy workout or bankruptcy proceedings, during which the issuer might not make any interest or other payments. Because of the relative illiquidity of defaulted or distressed debt and equity securities, short sales are difficult, and most Underlying Funds primarily maintain long positions. Some relative value trades are possible, where an investor sells short one class of a defaulted or distressed company’s capital structure and purchases another. With distressed investing, often there is a time lag between when an Underlying Fund makes an investment and when the Underlying Fund realizes the value of the investment. In addition, an Underlying Fund may incur legal and other monitoring costs in protecting the value of the Underlying Fund’s claims.
 
Equity Securities Risks
 
While equity securities have historically generated higher average returns than fixed income securities, equity securities have also experienced significantly more volatility in those returns. An adverse event, such as an unfavorable earnings report, may depress the value of an issuer’s equity securities held by an Underlying Fund. Equity security prices fluctuate for several reasons, including changes in investors’ perceptions of the financial condition of an issuer or the general condition of the relevant stock market, or when political or economic events affecting the issuers occur.  The value of a particular equity security may fall in value. The prices of stocks change in response to many factors, including the historical and prospective earnings of the issuer, the value of its assets, management decisions, decreased demand for an issuer’s products or services, increased production costs, general economic conditions, interest rates, currency exchange rates, investor perceptions and market liquidity.  The value of an Underlying Fund’s shares will go up and down due to movement in the collective returns of the individual securities held by the Underlying Fund. Common stocks are subordinate to preferred stocks and debt in a company’s capital structure, and if a company is liquidated, the claims of secured and unsecured creditors and owners of preferred stocks take precedence over the claims of those who own common stocks. In addition, equity security prices may be particularly sensitive to rising interest rates, as the cost of capital rises and borrowing costs increase.
 
Exchange-Traded Note Risks
 
The Fund and the Underlying Funds may invest in ETNs, which are notes representing unsecured debt issued by an underwriting bank. ETNs are typically linked to the performance of an index plus a specified rate of interest that could be earned on cash collateral. The value of an ETN may be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying markets, changes in the applicable interest rates, changes in the issuer’s credit rating and economic, legal, political or geographic events that affect the referenced index. ETNs typically mature 30 years from the date of issue. The issuer’s credit rating will be investment grade at the time of investment, however, the credit rating may be revised or withdrawn at any time and there is no assurance that a credit rating will remain in effect for any given time period. If a rating agency lowers the issuer’s credit rating, the value of the ETN will decline and a lower credit rating reflects a greater risk that the issuer will default on its obligation. When a fund invests in ETNs, it will bear its proportionate share of any fees and expenses associated with investment in such securities. Such fees reduce the amount of return on investment at maturity or upon redemption. There may be restrictions on a fund’s right to liquidate its investment in an ETN prior to maturity (for example, a fund may only be able to offer its ETN for repurchase by the issuer on a weekly basis), since ETNs are meant to be held until maturity. A fund’s decision to sell its ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market.
 
Fixed Income Securities Risks
 
The Underlying Funds may invest in fixed income securities. Fixed income securities increase or decrease in value based on changes in interest rates. If rates increase, the value of an Underlying Fund’s fixed income securities generally declines. On the other hand, if rates fall, the value of the fixed income securities generally increases. The issuer of a fixed income security may not be able to make interest and principal payments when due. This risk is increased in the case of issuers of high yield securities, also known as “junk bonds.” If a U.S. Government agency or instrumentality in which an Underlying Fund invests defaults, and the U.S. Government does not stand behind the obligation, the Underlying Fund’s share price or yield could fall. Securities of certain U.S. Government sponsored entities are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Government. The Underlying Funds may invest in fixed income securities of any credit quality, maturity or duration. Fixed income securities risks include components of the following additional risks:
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·          Credit Risk. The issuer of a fixed income security may not be able to make interest and principal payments when due. Generally, the lower the credit rating of a security, the greater the risk that the issuer will default on its obligation, which could result in a loss to a fund. The Underlying Funds may invest in securities that are rated in the lowest investment grade category. Issuers of these securities are more vulnerable to changes in economic conditions than issuers of higher grade securities.
 
·          High Yield Securities Risk. The Underlying Funds may invest in high yield securities, also known as “junk bonds.” High yield securities provide greater income and opportunity for gain, but entail greater risk of loss of principal. High yield securities are predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal in accordance with the terms of the obligation. The market for high yield securities is generally less active than the market for higher quality securities. This may limit the ability of a fund to sell high yield securities at the price at which it is being valued for purposes of calculating NAV.
 
·          U.S. Government Securities Risk. The Underlying Funds may invest in U.S. Government securities. The U.S. Government’s guarantee of ultimate payment of principal and timely payment of interest on certain U.S. Government securities owned by an Underlying Fund does not imply that the Underlying Fund’s shares are guaranteed or that the price of the Underlying Fund’s shares will not fluctuate. In addition, securities issued by Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae and Federal Home Loan Banks are not obligations of, or insured by, the U.S. Government. If a U.S. Government agency or instrumentality in which an Underlying Fund invests defaults and the U.S. Government does not stand behind the obligation, the Fund’s NAV could fall.
 
·          Interest Rate Risk. An Underlying Fund’s NAV and total return will vary in response to changes in interest rates. If rates increase, the value of an Underlying Fund’s investments generally will decline, as will the Underlying Fund’s NAV. In typical interest rate environments, the prices of longer-term fixed income securities generally fluctuate more than the prices of shorter-term fixed income securities as interest rates change.  These risks may be greater in the current market environment because certain interest rates are near historically low levels.
 
·          Sovereign Obligation Risk. The Underlying Funds may invest in sovereign (i.e., foreign government) debt obligations. Investment in sovereign debt obligations involves special risks not present in corporate debt obligations. The issuer of the sovereign debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due, and the Underlying Funds may have limited recourse in the event of a default. During periods of economic uncertainty, the market prices of sovereign debt may be more volatile than prices of U.S. debt obligations. In the past, certain emerging markets have encountered difficulties in servicing their debt obligations, withheld payments of principal and interest, and declared moratoria on the payment of principal and interest on their sovereign debts. See also “Foreign Investing Risks” below.
 
Foreign Investing Risks
 
Because the Underlying Fund may hold foreign debt and equity securities, including the debt of foreign governments and supranational organizations, and ADRs, the Fund is subject to foreign investing risk.
 
Foreign investing involves risks not typically associated with U.S. investments. These risks include, among others, adverse fluctuations in foreign currency values as well as adverse political, social and economic developments affecting a foreign country. In addition, foreign investing involves less publicly available information, and more volatile or less liquid securities markets. Investments in foreign countries could be affected by factors not present in the U.S., such as restrictions on receiving the investment proceeds from a foreign country, foreign tax laws, and potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations. Foreign accounting may be less transparent than U.S. accounting practices and foreign regulation may be inadequate or irregular. Owning foreign securities could cause an Underlying Fund’s performance to fluctuate more than if it held only U.S. securities. The effect of worldwide or regional economic or political instability on specific foreign markets or issuers may be difficult to predict or evaluate, and some national economies continue to show profound instability, which may in turn affect their international trading partners.
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Investing in emerging market securities imposes risks different from, or greater than, risks of investing in foreign developed countries. These risks include (i) the smaller market capitalization of securities markets, which may suffer periods of relative illiquidity, (ii) significant price volatility, (iii) restrictions on foreign investment, and (iv) possible repatriation of investment income and capital. In addition, foreign investors may be required to register the proceeds of sales, and future economic or political crises could lead to price controls, forced mergers, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, seizure, nationalization, or the creation of government monopolies. The currencies of emerging market countries may experience significant declines against the U.S. dollar, and devaluation may occur subsequent to investments in these currencies by an Underlying Fund. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and may continue to have, negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries. Investments in emerging markets may be considered speculative.
 
Certain foreign markets may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. Economic sanctions could, among other things, effectively restrict or eliminate an Underlying Fund’s ability to purchase or sell securities or groups of securities for a substantial period of time, and may make  the Underlying Fund’s investments in such securities harder to value. Investments in foreign markets may also be adversely affected by governmental actions such as the imposition of capital controls, nationalization of companies or industries, expropriation of assets, or the imposition of punitive taxes. The governments of certain countries may prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on foreign investing in their capital markets or in certain sectors or industries. In addition, a foreign government may limit or cause delay in the convertibility or repatriation of its currency which would adversely affect the U.S. dollar value and/or liquidity of investments denominated in that currency. Certain foreign investments may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions, or become illiquid after purchase by an Underlying Fund, particularly during periods of market turmoil. 

Supranational entities are designated or supported by governmental entities to promote economic reconstruction or development of international banking institutions and related government agencies. Examples include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the “World Bank”), the European Coal and Steel Community, the Asian Development Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. Each supranational entity’s lending activities are limited to a percentage of its total capital (including “callable capital” contributed by its governmental members at the entity’s call), reserves and net income. There is no assurance that participating governments will be able or willing to honor their commitments to make capital contributions to a supranational entity.
 
Sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) are receipts issued by an American bank or trust company evidencing ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. ADRs, in sponsored form, are designed for use in U.S. securities markets. A sponsoring company provides financial information to the bank and may subsidize administration of the ADR. Unsponsored ADRs may be created by a broker-dealer or depository bank without the participation of the foreign issuer. Holders of these ADRs generally bear all the costs of the ADR facility, whereas foreign issuers typically bear certain costs in a sponsored ADR. The bank or trust company depositary of an unsponsored ADR may be under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the foreign issuer or to pass through voting rights. Unsponsored ADRs may carry more risk than sponsored ADRs because of the absence of financial information provided by the underlying company. Many of the risks described above regarding foreign securities apply to investments in ADRs.
 
Illiquid Securities Risks
 
The Underlying Funds may invest in illiquid securities. It may not be possible to sell or otherwise dispose of illiquid securities both at the price and within the time period deemed desirable by a fund. Illiquid securities also may be difficult to value.
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Initial Public Offerings Risks
 
The Fund and the Underlying Funds may purchase securities in initial public offerings (IPOs). Because securities sold in an IPO frequently are volatile in price, the Fund or an Underlying Fund may hold IPO shares for a very short period of time. This may increase the turnover of a fund’s portfolio and may lead to increased expenses to the fund, such as commissions and transaction costs. By selling shares, a fund may realize taxable capital gains that it will subsequently distribute to shareholders. Investing in IPOs has added risks because the shares are frequently volatile in price. As a result, their performance can be more volatile and they face greater risk of business failure, which could increase the volatility of a fund’s portfolio.
 
The Fund’s IPO investments may be in IPOs of Underlying Funds. There is a significant risk that the shares of closed-end funds purchased in an IPO will trade at a price below their IPO price.
 
Investment and Market Risks
 
An investment in Common Shares is subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the entire principal amount invested. An investment in Common Shares represents an indirect investment in the Underlying Funds owned by the Fund. The value of the Underlying Funds, like other market investments, may move up or down, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably. Overall stock market risks may also affect the NAV of the Fund or the Underlying Funds. Factors such as domestic and foreign economic growth and market conditions, interest rate levels and political events affect the securities markets. The Common Shares at any point in time may be worth less than the original investment, even after taking into account any reinvestment of dividends and distributions.
 
Legislation and Regulatory Risks
 
At any time after the date of this Prospectus, legislation or additional regulations may be enacted that could negatively affect the assets of the Fund or the issuers of such assets. Recent changes in the U.S. political landscape and changing approaches to regulation may have a negative impact on the entities and/or securities in which the Fund invests. Legislation or regulation may also change the way in which the Fund itself is regulated. New or amended regulations may be imposed by the CFTC, the SEC, the Federal Reserve or other financial regulators, other governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations that supervise the financial markets that could adversely affect the Fund. In particular, these agencies are empowered to promulgate a variety of new rules pursuant to recently enacted financial reform legislation in the United States. There can be no assurance that future legislation, regulation or deregulation will not have a material adverse effect on the Fund or will not impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective. The Fund also may be adversely affected by changes in the enforcement or interpretation of existing statutes and rules by these governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations.
 
The Dodd-Frank Act contains changes to the existing regulatory structure in the United States and is intended to establish rigorous oversight standards to protect the U.S. economy and American consumers, investors and businesses, including provisions that would significantly alter the regulation of commodity interests and comprehensively regulate the OTC derivatives markets for the first time in the United States. The Dodd-Frank Act and the rules that have been or will be promulgated thereunder by relevant regulators may negatively impact the ability of the Fund to meet its investment objectives either through limits or requirements imposed on it or upon its counterparties. The implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act will occur over a period of time, and it is unknown in what form, when and in what order significant regulatory initiatives may be implemented or the impact any such implemented regulations will have on the Fund, the markets or instruments in which the Fund invests or the counterparties with which the Fund conducts business. The effect of the Dodd-Frank Act or other regulatory changes on the Fund, while impossible to predict, could be substantial, adverse and potentially limit or completely restrict the ability of the Fund to use derivative instruments as a part of its investment strategy, increase the costs of using these instruments or make them less effective. In addition, the practice of short selling has been the subject of numerous temporary restrictions, and similar restrictions may be promulgated at any time. Such restrictions may adversely affect the returns of the Fund.
 
The Dodd-Frank Act and related regulatory developments ultimately will require the clearing and exchange-trading of many OTC derivative instruments that the CFTC and SEC recently defined as “swaps.” Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing will occur on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant and CFTC determination of contracts for central clearing. The Adviser and Subadviser will continue to monitor these developments, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect a Fund’s ability to enter into swap agreements.
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Management Risks
 
The Subadviser’s judgments about the attractiveness, value and potential appreciation of a particular asset class or individual security in which the Fund invests may prove to be incorrect and there is no guarantee that the Subadviser’s judgment will produce the desired results. Similarly, the Fund’s investments in Underlying Funds are subject to the judgment of the Underlying Funds’ managers which may prove to be incorrect. In addition, the Subadviser will have limited information as to the portfolio holdings of the Underlying Funds at any given time. This may result in the Subadviser having less ability to respond to changing market conditions.  The Fund may allocate its assets so as to under-emphasize or over-emphasize ETFs or other investments under the wrong market conditions, in which case the Fund’s NAV may be adversely affected.
 
Market Disruption and Geopolitical Risks
 
The ongoing U.S. military and related action in Iraq and Afghanistan and events in the Middle East and Ukraine, as well as the continuing threat of terrorist attacks, could have significant adverse effects on the U.S. economy, the stock market and world economies and markets generally. A disruption of financial markets or other terrorist attacks could adversely affect the Fund’s or an Underlying Fund’s service providers and/or the Fund's or an Underlying Fund’s operations as well as interest rates, secondary trading, credit risk, inflation and other factors relating to the Common Shares. The Fund cannot predict the effects or likelihood of similar events in the future on the U.S. and world economies, the value of the Common Shares or the NAV of the Fund. Assets of companies, including those held in the Fund’s portfolio, could be direct targets, or indirect casualties, of an act of terrorism. The U.S. government has issued warnings that assets of utility companies and energy sector companies, specifically the United States’ pipeline infrastructure, may be the future target of terrorist organizations.
 
The European financial markets have recently experienced volatility and have been adversely affected by concerns about economic downturns, credit rating downgrades, rising government debt levels and possible default on or restructuring of government debt in several European countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain. A default or debt restructuring by any European country would adversely impact holders of that country’s debt, and sellers of credit default swaps linked to that country’s creditworthiness (which may be located in countries other than those listed in the previous sentence). These events have adversely affected the value and exchange rate of the euro and may continue to significantly affect the economies of every country in Europe, including EU member countries that do not use the euro and non-EU member countries.
 
Responses to the financial problems by European governments, central banks and others, including austerity measures and reforms, may not work, may result in social unrest and may limit future growth and economic recovery or have other unintended consequences. Further defaults or restructurings by governments and other entities of their debt could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world. In addition, one or more countries may abandon the euro and/or withdraw from the EU. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear but could be significant and far-reaching. In a referendum held on June 23, 2016, citizens of the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU, creating economic and political uncertainty in its wake. Consequently, the United Kingdom government may, pursuant to the Treaty of Lisbon (the “Treaty”), give notice of its withdrawal and enter into negotiations with the EU Council to agree to terms for the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU. The Treaty provides for a two-year negotiation period, which may be shortened or extended by agreement of the parties. During, and possibly after, this period there is likely to be considerable uncertainty as to the position of the United Kingdom and the arrangements that will apply to its relationships with the EU and other countries following its anticipated withdrawal. This uncertainty may affect other countries in the EU, or elsewhere, if they are considered to be impacted by these events.

Master Limited Partnerships Risks
 
The Underlying Funds may invest in MLPs.  Investments in publicly traded MLPs, which are limited partnerships or limited liability companies taxable as partnerships, involve some risks that differ from an investment in the common stock of a corporation, including risks related to limited control and limited rights to vote on matters affecting MLPs, risks related to potential conflicts of interest between an MLP and the MLP’s general partner, cash flow risks, dilution risks and risks related to the general partner’s right to require unit-holders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price. MLPs may derive income and gains from the exploration, development, mining or production, processing, refining, transportation (including pipelines transporting gas, oil, or products thereof), or the marketing of any mineral or natural resources. MLPs generally have two classes of owners, the general partner and limited partners. When investing in an MLP, an Underlying Fund generally purchases publicly traded common units issued to limited partners of the MLP. The general partner is typically owned by a major energy company, an investment fund, the direct management of the MLP or is an entity owned by one or more of such parties. The general partner may be structured as a private or publicly traded corporation or other entity. The general partner typically controls the operations and management of the MLP through an up to 2% equity interest in the MLP plus, in many cases, ownership of common units and subordinated units. Limited partners own the remainder of the partnership, through ownership of common units, and have a limited role in the partnership’s operations and management. As compared to common stockholders of a corporation, holders of MLP common units have more limited control and limited rights to vote on matters affecting the partnership.
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MLPs are typically structured such that common units and general partner interests have first priority to receive quarterly cash distributions up to an established minimum amount (“minimum quarterly distributions” or “MQD”). Common and general partner interests also accrue arrearages in distributions to the extent the MQD is not paid. Once common and general partner interests have been paid, subordinated units receive distributions of up to the MQD; however, subordinated units do not accrue arrearages. Distributable cash in excess of the MQD paid to both common and subordinated units is distributed to both common and subordinated units generally on a pro rata basis. The general partner is also eligible to receive incentive distributions if the general partner operates the business in a manner which results in distributions paid per common unit surpassing specified target levels. As the general partner increases cash distributions to the limited partners, the general partner receives an increasingly higher percentage of the incremental cash distributions. A common arrangement provides that the general partner can reach a tier where it receives 50% of every incremental dollar paid to common and subordinated unit holders. These incentive distributions encourage the general partner to streamline costs, increase capital expenditures and acquire assets in order to increase the partnership’s cash flow and raise the quarterly cash distribution in order to reach higher tiers. Such results benefit all security holders of the MLP.
 
MLP common units represent a limited partnership interest in the MLP. MLP common units are listed and traded on U.S. securities exchanges, with their value fluctuating predominantly based on prevailing market conditions and the success of the MLP. An Underlying Fund may purchase MLP common units in market transactions. Unlike owners of common stock of a corporation, owners of MLP common units have limited voting rights and have no ability to elect directors. In the event of liquidation, MLP common units have preference over subordinated units, but not over debt or preferred units, to the remaining assets of the MLP.
 
MLPs may be subject to legal and other restrictions on resale or will otherwise be less liquid than publicly traded securities. Certain MLP securities may trade in lower volumes due to their smaller capitalizations. Accordingly, those MLPs may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements and may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable an Underlying Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price. As a result, these investments may be difficult to dispose of at a fair price at the times when an Underlying Fund believes it is desirable to do so. MLPs are generally considered interest-rate sensitive investments. During periods of interest rate volatility, these investments may not provide attractive returns, which may adversely impact the overall performance of the Fund or an Underlying Fund.
 
MLPs are subject to various risks related to the underlying operating companies they control, including dependence upon specialized management skills and the risk that those operating companies may lack or have limited operating histories. The success an Underlying Fund’s investments in an MLP will vary depending on the underlying industry represented by the MLP’s portfolio. Certain MLPs in which an Underlying Fund may invest depend upon their parent or sponsor entities for the majority of their revenues.
 
Certain MLPs in which an Underlying Fund may invest depend upon a limited number of customers for substantially all of their revenue. Similarly, certain MLPs in which an Underlying Fund may invest depend upon a limited number of suppliers of goods or services to continue their operations. The loss of those customers or suppliers could have a material adverse effect on an MLP’s results of operations and cash flow, and on its ability to make distributions to unit holders such as an Underlying Fund.
 
The benefit an Underlying Fund will derive from its investment in MLPs will be largely dependent on the MLPs being treated as partnerships and not as corporations for federal income tax purposes. As a partnership, an MLP generally has no tax liability at the entity level. If, as a result of a change in current law or a change in an MLP’s business, an MLP were treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, such MLP would be obligated to pay federal income tax on its income at the corporate tax rate. If an MLP were classified as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, the amount of cash available for distribution by the MLP would be reduced and distributions received by an Underlying Fund would be taxed under federal income tax laws applicable to corporate dividends (as dividend income, return of capital, or capital gain). Therefore, treatment of an MLP as a corporation for federal income tax purposes would result in a reduction in the after-tax return to an Underlying Fund, likely causing a reduction in the value of the Common Shares.
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Micro-, Small- and Medium-Sized Company Risks
 
The Underlying Funds may invest in securities without regard to market capitalization. Investments in securities of micro-, small- and medium-sized companies may be subject to more abrupt or erratic market movements than larger, more established companies, because these securities typically are traded in lower volume and issuers are typically more subject to changes in earnings and future earnings prospects. Small- and medium-sized companies often have narrower markets for their goods and/or services and more limited managerial and financial resources than larger, more established companies. Furthermore, these companies often have limited product lines, services, markets or financial resources, or are dependent on a small management group. Since these stocks are not well-known to the investing public, do not have significant institutional ownership and are followed by relatively few security analysts, there will normally be less publicly available information concerning these securities compared to what is available for the securities of larger companies. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, can decrease the value and liquidity of securities held by the Fund. As a result, small- and medium-sized companies’ performance can be more volatile and the companies face greater risk of business failure, which could increase the volatility of the Fund’s portfolio. The risks are intensified for investments in micro-cap companies.
 
Options and Futures Risks
 
The Fund and the Underlying Funds may invest in options and futures contracts. The use of futures and options transactions entails certain special risks. In particular, the variable degree of correlation between price movements of futures contracts and price movements in the related securities position of the Fund or an Underlying Fund could create the possibility that losses on the hedging instrument are greater than gains in the value of the Fund’s or Underlying Fund’s position. In addition, futures and options markets could be illiquid in some circumstances and certain over-the-counter options could have no markets. As a result, in certain markets, the Fund or an Underlying Fund might not be able to close out a transaction without incurring substantial losses. Although the Fund’s or an Underlying Fund’s use of futures and options transactions for hedging should tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged position, at the same time it will tend to limit any potential gain to the Fund or an Underlying Fund that might result from an increase in value of the position. There is also the risk of loss by the Fund or an Underlying Fund of margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of a broker with whom the Fund or Underlying Fund has an open position in a futures contract or option thereon. Finally, the daily variation margin requirements for futures contracts create a greater ongoing potential financial risk than would purchases of options, in which case the exposure is limited to the cost of the initial premium. However, because option premiums paid by the Fund or an Underlying Fund are small in relation to the market value of the investments underlying the options, buying options can result in large amounts of leverage. This leverage offered by trading in options could cause the Fund’s or an Underlying Fund’s NAV to be subject to more frequent and wider fluctuation than would be the case if the Fund or Underlying Fund did not invest in options.
 
Options transactions may be effected on securities exchanges or in the over-the-counter market. When options are purchased over-the-counter, the Fund or an Underlying Fund bears the risk that the counterparty that wrote the option will be unable or unwilling to perform its obligations under the option contract. The counterparties to these transactions typically will be major international banks, broker-dealers and financial institutions. Such options may also be illiquid, and in such cases, the Fund or an Underlying Fund may have difficulty closing out its position. Banks, broker-dealers or other financial institutions participating in such transactions may fail to settle a transaction in accordance with the terms of the option as written. In the event of default or insolvency of the counterparty, the Fund or an Underlying Fund may be unable to liquidate an over-the-counter option position.
 
The Fund may purchase put options.  An Underlying Fund may purchase and sell call and put options with respect to specific securities, and may write and sell covered or uncovered call and put options. A call option gives the purchaser of the call option, in return for a premium paid, the right to buy the security underlying the option from the writer of the call option at a specified exercise price within a specified time frame. A put option gives the purchaser of the put option, in return for a premium paid, the right to sell the underlying security to the writer of the put option at a specified price within a specified time frame. A covered call option is a call option with respect to an underlying security that a fund owns. A covered put option is a put option with respect to which a fund has segregated cash or liquid securities to fulfill the obligation of the option. The purchaser of a put or call option runs the risk of losing the purchaser’s entire investment, paid as the premium, in a relatively short period of time if the option is not sold at a gain or cannot be exercised at a gain prior to expiration. In selling put options, there is a risk that the Underlying Fund may be required to buy the underlying security at a disadvantageous price above the market price.  The un-covered writer of a call option is subject to a risk of loss if the price of the underlying security should increase, and the un-covered writer of a put option is subject to a risk of loss if the price of the underlying security should decrease. The Fund will not treat uncovered options as “senior securities” under the 1940 Act and instead, to address senior security concerns, will segregate cash or liquid securities to fulfill its obligation under the options.
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The Fund may invest a significant portion of its total assets in Underlying Funds that write covered call options. To the extent that an Underlying Fund writes a covered call option, it forgoes, during the option’s life, the opportunity to profit from increases in the market value of the security covering the call option above the sum of the premium and the strike price of the call, but has retained the risk of loss should the price of the underlying security decline. As the writer of the option, the Underlying Fund bears the market risk of an unfavorable change in the price of the security underlying a written option. As an Underlying Fund writes covered calls over more of its portfolio, its ability to benefit from capital appreciation becomes more limited and the risk of NAV erosion increases. To the extent an Underlying Fund experiences NAV erosion (which itself may have an indirect negative effect on the market price of interests in the Underlying Fund, the Underlying Fund will have a reduced asset base over which to write covered calls, which may eventually lead to reduced distributions to shareholders such as the Fund. The writer of an option has no control over the time when it may be required to fulfill its obligation as a writer of the option. Once an option writer has received an exercise notice, it cannot effect a closing purchase transaction in order to terminate its obligation under the option and must deliver the underlying security at the exercise price.
 
To the extent that an Underlying Fund engages in selling options that trade in over-the-counter markets, the Underlying Fund may be subject to additional risks. Participants in these markets are typically not subject to the same credit evaluation and regulatory oversight as members of “exchange based” markets. By engaging in option transactions in these markets, an Underlying Fund may take credit risk with regard to parties with which it trades and also may bear the risk of settlement default. These risks may differ materially from those involved in exchange-traded transactions, which generally are characterized by clearing organization guarantees, daily marking-to-market and settlement, and segregation and minimum capital requirements applicable to intermediaries. Transactions entered into directly between two counterparties generally do not benefit from these protections, which may subject an Underlying Fund to the risk that a counterparty will not settle a transaction in accordance with agreed terms and conditions because of a dispute over the terms of the contract or because of a credit or liquidity problem. Such “counterparty risk” is increased for contracts with longer maturities when events may intervene to prevent settlement.
 
The Fund or an Underlying Fund may enter into futures contracts in U.S. domestic markets or on exchanges located outside of the United States. Foreign markets may offer advantages, including trading opportunities or arbitrage possibilities, not available in the United States. Foreign markets, however, may have greater risk potential than domestic markets. For example, some foreign exchanges are principal markets, so that no common clearing facility exists and an investor may look only to the broker or counterparty for the performance of the contract. Unlike trading on domestic commodity exchanges, trading on foreign commodity exchanges is not regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
 
There can be no assurance that a liquid market will exist for any particular futures contract at any particular time. Many futures exchanges and boards of trade limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular contract, no trades may be made that day of a price beyond that limit or trading may be suspended for specified periods during the trading day.
 
The Fund or an Underlying Fund may purchase and sell single stock futures, stock index futures contracts, interest rate futures contracts, currency futures and other commodity futures. A stock index future obligates a fund to pay or receive an amount of cash based upon the value of a stock index at a specified date in the future, including the Standard & Poor’s 500 Composite Stock Price Index, NASDAQ High Technology Index or similar foreign indices. An interest rate futures contract obligates a fund to purchase or sell an amount of a specific debt security at a future date at a specified price. A currency futures contract obligates a fund to purchase or sell an amount of a specific currency at a future date at a future price.
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If the Fund or an Underlying Fund purchases an option and the price of the underlying stock fails to move in the expected direction, the Fund or Underlying Fund will lose most or all of the amount the fund paid for the option, plus commission costs. If an Underlying Fund writes (“sells”) an option and the price of the underlying stock fails to move in the expected direction, the Underlying Fund’s losses could easily exceed the proceeds it received when it wrote the options.
 
Portfolio Turnover Risks
 
The Fund may engage in short-term trading to try to achieve its objective and may have portfolio turnover rates in excess of 100% annually. Underlying Funds also may not be limited in their portfolio trading ability. An annual portfolio turnover rate of 100% is equivalent to a fund buying and selling all of the securities in its portfolio once during the course of a year. How long the Fund holds a security in its portfolio is generally not a factor in making buy and sell decisions. Increased portfolio turnover results in higher brokerage costs which are borne by the Fund, directly or indirectly through the investments in Underlying Funds, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance, and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held by Common Stockholders in a taxable account.
 
REIT Risks
 
The Underlying Funds may invest in equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest in real estate, and mortgage REITs invest in loans secured by real estate. Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks in addition to those risks associated with investing in the real estate industry in general. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, are not diversified, and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers and self-liquidation. REITs also are subject to the possibilities of failing to qualify for tax free pass-through of income under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and failing to maintain their exemption from registration under the 1940 Act. Investment in REITs involves risks similar to those associated with investing in small capitalization companies, and REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are subject to interest rate risks. When interest rates decline, the value of a REIT’s investment in fixed rate obligations can be expected to rise. Conversely, when interest rates rise, the value of a REIT’s investment in fixed rate obligations can be expected to decline. By investing in REITs directly or indirectly through the Underlying Funds, the Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of the expenses of the REITs. The expenses at the REIT level are not included in the Fund’s expense table as acquired fund fees and expenses.
 
Securities Lending Risks
 
The Underlying Funds may engage in securities lending. Securities lending involves counterparty risk, including the risk that the loaned securities may not be returned in a timely manner and/or a loss of rights in the collateral if the borrower or the lending agent defaults. This risk is increased when an Underlying Fund’s loans are concentrated with a single or limited number of borrowers. In addition, an Underlying Fund bears the risk of loss in connection with the investments of the cash collateral it receives from the borrower. To the extent that the value or return of an Underlying Fund’s investments of the cash collateral declines below the amount owed to a borrower, the Underlying Fund may incur losses that exceed the amount it earned in lending the security.
 
Securities Risks
 
The value of the Fund or an Underlying Fund may decrease in response to the activities and financial prospects of individual securities in the fund’s portfolio.
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Senior Loan Risks
 
The Underlying Funds may invest in senior secured floating rate and fixed-rate loans (“Senior Loans”).  There is less readily available and reliable information about most Senior Loans than is the case for many other types of instruments, including listed securities. Senior Loans are not listed on any national securities exchange or automated quotation system and as such, many Senior Loans are illiquid, meaning that an Underlying Fund may not be able to sell them quickly at a fair price. To the extent that a secondary market does exist for certain Senior Loans, the market is more volatile than for liquid, listed securities and may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. The market for Senior Loans could be disrupted in the event of an economic downturn or a substantial increase or decrease in interest rates. Senior Loans, like most other debt obligations, are subject to the risk of default. Default in the payment of interest or principal on a Senior Loan will result in a reduction of income to the Fund, a reduction in the value of the Senior Loan and a potential decrease in the Fund’s NAV of the Common Shares.  

The Underlying Funds may acquire or hold Senior Loans of borrowers that are experiencing, or are more likely to experience, financial difficulty, including Senior Loans issued to highly leveraged borrowers or borrowers that have filed for bankruptcy protection. Borrowers may have outstanding debt obligations, including Senior Loans, that are rated below investment grade. An Underlying Fund may invest a substantial portion of its assets in Senior Loans that are rated below investment grade or that are unrated at the time of purchase but are deemed by the Underlying Fund’s adviser’s to be of comparable quality. The values of Senior Loans of borrowers that have filed for bankruptcy protection or that are experiencing payment difficulty could be affected by, among other things, the assessment of the likelihood that the lenders ultimately will receive repayment of the principal amount of such Senior Loans, the likely duration, if any, of a lapse in the scheduled payment of interest and repayment of principal and prevailing interest rates. There is no assurance that an Underlying Fund will be able to recover any amount on Senior Loans of such borrowers or that sale of the collateral granted in connection with Senior Loans would raise enough cash to satisfy the borrower’s payment obligation or that the collateral can or will be liquidated. In the event of bankruptcy, liquidation may not occur and the bankruptcy court may not give lenders the full benefit of their senior position in the capital structure of the borrower.
 
Short Sale Risks
 
The Fund and Underlying Funds may sell securities short. Positions in shorted securities are speculative and more risky than long positions (purchases) in securities because the maximum sustainable loss on a security purchased is limited to the amount paid for the security plus the transaction costs, whereas there is no maximum attainable price of the shorted security. Therefore, in theory, securities sold short have unlimited risk. Short selling will also result in higher transaction costs (such as interest and dividends), directly or indirectly through the investments in Underlying Funds, and may result in higher taxes, which reduce the Fund’s return.
 
If a security sold short increases in price, a fund may have to cover its short position at a higher price than the short sale price, resulting in a loss. With respect to a fund’s short positions, the Fund must borrow those securities to make delivery to the buyer. A fund may not be able to borrow a security that it needs to deliver or it may not be able to close out a short position at an acceptable price and may have to sell related long positions before it had intended to do so. As a result, a fund may not be able to successfully implement its short sale strategy due to the limited availability of desired securities or for other reasons.
 
When borrowing a security for delivery to a buyer, a fund also may be required to pay a premium and other transaction costs, which would increase the cost of the security sold short. A fund must normally repay to the lender an amount equal to any dividends or interest earned while the loan is outstanding. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends, interest or expenses a fund may be required to pay in connection with the short sale. Also, the lender of a security may terminate the loan at a time when a fund is unable to borrow the same security for delivery. In that case, a fund would need to purchase a replacement security at the then current market price or “buy in” by paying the lender an amount equal to the costs of purchasing the security.
 
Until a fund replaces a borrowed security, it is required to maintain a segregated account of cash or liquid assets to cover the fund’s short position. Securities held in a segregated account cannot be sold while the position they are covering is outstanding, unless they are replaced with similar securities. Additionally, a fund must maintain sufficient liquid assets (less any additional collateral held by the broker), marked-to-market daily, to cover its short sale obligations. This may limit a fund’s investment flexibility, as well as its ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.
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In addition, until a fund replaces a borrowed instrument, a fund may also be required to maintain short sale proceeds with the lending broker as collateral. Moreover, a fund will be required to make margin payments to the lender during the term of the borrowing if the value of the security it borrowed (and sold short) increases. Thus, short sales involve credit exposure to the broker that executes the short sales. In the event of the bankruptcy or other similar insolvency with respect to a broker with whom a fund has an open short position, a fund may be unable to recover, or delayed in recovering, any margin or other collateral held with or for the lending broker.

Because a fund’s loss on a short sale arises from increases in the value of the security sold short, the loss is theoretically unlimited. In certain cases, purchasing a security to cover a short position can itself cause the price of the security to rise further, which would exacerbate the loss. Conversely, gains on short sales, after transaction and related costs, are generally the difference between the price at which a fund sold the borrowed security and the price it paid to purchase the security for delivery to the buyer. By contrast, a fund’s loss on a long position arises from decreases in the value of the security and is limited by the fact that a security’s value cannot drop below zero.

By investing the proceeds received from selling securities short, the Fund is using a form of leverage, which creates special risks. The use of leverage may increase the Fund’s exposure to long equity positions and make any change in the Fund’s NAV greater than it would be without the use of leverage. This could result in increased volatility of returns. There is no guarantee that the Fund will leverage its portfolio, or if it does, that the Fund’s leveraging strategy will be successful. The Fund also cannot guarantee that the use of leverage will produce a higher return on an investment.
 
Special Purpose Acquisition Companies Risks

The Fund may invest in special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”). SPACs are collective investment structures that pool funds in order to seek potential acquisition opportunities.  Unless and until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets (less an amount to cover expenses) in U.S. Government securities, money market fund securities and cash.  SPACs and similar entities may be blank check companies with no operating history or ongoing business other than to seek a potential acquisition.  Accordingly, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. Certain SPACs may seek acquisitions only in limited industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices.  If an acquisition that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a predetermined period of time, the invested funds are returned to the entity’s shareholders. Investments in SPACs may be illiquid and/or be subject to restrictions on resale. To the extent the SPAC is invested in cash or similar securities, this may impact a Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective.

Structured Notes Risks
 
The Underlying Funds may invest in structured notes. Structured notes are subject to a number of fixed income risks including general market risk, interest rate risk, and the risk that the issuer on the note may fail to make interest and/or principal payments when due, or may default on its obligations entirely. In addition, because the performance of structured notes tracks the performance of the underlying debt obligation, structured notes generally are subject to more risk than investing in a simple note or bond issued by the same issuer. It is impossible to predict whether the referenced factor (such as an index or interest rate) or prices of the underlying securities will rise or fall. To the extent that an Underlying Fund invests in structured notes, the Underlying Fund may be more volatile than other funds that do not invest in structured notes. The actual trading prices of structured notes may be significantly different from the principal amount of the notes. If an Underlying Fund sells the structured notes prior to maturity, it may suffer a loss of principal. At final maturity, structured notes may be redeemed in cash or in kind, which is at the discretion of the issuer. If the notes are redeemed in kind, a fund would receive shares of stock at a depressed price. To the extent that a structured note is not principal-protected through an insurance feature, the note’s principal will not be protected. In the case of a decrease in the value of the underlying asset, an Underlying Fund would receive shares at a value less than the original amount invested; while an increase in the value of an underlying asset will not increase the return on the note.
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Swap Risks
 
The Fund and the Underlying Funds may enter into interest rate, index, total return and currency swap agreements. Swap agreements are two-party contracts under which the fund and a counterparty, such as a broker or dealer, agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on an agreed-upon underlying asset or investment over the term of the swap. The use of swap transactions is a highly specialized activity which involves strategies and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio security transactions. If the Subadviser or an Underlying Fund’s investment adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of default risks, market spreads, liquidity or other applicable factors or events, the investment performance of the Fund or Underlying Fund would diminish compared with what it would have been if these techniques were not used. Swaps and swap options can be used for a variety of purposes, including: to manage fund exposure to changes in interest or foreign currency exchange rates and credit quality; as an efficient means of adjusting fund overall exposure to certain markets; in an effort to enhance income or total return or protect the value of portfolio securities; to serve as a cash management tool; and to adjust portfolio duration.

There are risks in the use of swaps. Swaps could result in losses if interest or foreign currency exchange rates or credit quality changes are not correctly anticipated. Total return swaps could result in losses if the reference index, security, or investments do not perform as anticipated.  Total return swaps involve an enhanced risk that the issuer or counterparty will fail to perform its contractual obligations.  Total return swaps may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the full notional amount of the swap.  To the extent the Fund or an Underlying Fund enters into a total return swap on equity securities, the Fund or the Underlying Fund will receive the positive performance of a notional amount of such securities underlying the total return swap.  In exchange, the Fund or the Underlying Fund will be obligated to pay the negative performance of such notional amount of securities.  Therefore, the Fund or the Underlying Fund assumes the risk of a substantial decrease in the market value of the equity securities. The use of swaps may not always be successful; using them could lower fund total return, their prices can be highly volatile, and the potential loss from the use of swaps can exceed the fund’s initial investment in such instruments. Also, the other party to a swap agreement could default on its obligations or refuse to cash out the fund’s investment at a reasonable price, which could turn an expected gain into a loss.

Currently, certain categories of interest rate swaps are subject to mandatory clearing, and more are expected to be cleared in the future. The counterparty risk for cleared derivatives is generally expected to be lower than for uncleared over-the-counter derivative transactions as each party to a transaction looks only to the central clearing house for performance of obligations under the transaction. However, there can be no assurance that a clearing house, or its members, will satisfy the clearing house’s obligations to the fund or that the fund’s use of swaps will be advantageous.

Underlying Fund Risks
 
The Fund will invest in Underlying Funds such as other closed-end funds and ETFs. The expenses of the Fund will generally be higher than the direct expenses of other fund shares. The Fund will indirectly bear fees and expenses charged by the Underlying Funds in which the Fund invests in addition to the Fund’s direct fees and expenses. The Fund may also incur brokerage costs when it purchases shares of Underlying Funds. Furthermore, investments in Underlying Funds could affect the timing, amount and character of distributions to Common Stockholders and therefore may increase the amount of taxes payable by investors in the Fund. The value of your investment in the Fund will go up and down with the prices of Underlying Fund shares (and other securities) in which the Fund invests. Similarly, the value of the Fund’s investments in Underlying Funds will go up and down with the prices of the securities in which the Underlying Funds invest.
 
There is also the risk that the Fund may suffer losses due to the investment practices or operations of the Underlying Funds. To the extent that the Fund invests in one or more Underlying Funds that concentrate in a particular industry, the Fund would be vulnerable to factors affecting that industry and the concentrating Underlying Funds’ performance, and that of the Fund, may be more volatile than Underlying Funds that do not concentrate.
 
As the Fund will invest at least 65% of its Managed Assets in closed-end funds and at least 80% of its Managed Assets in Underlying Funds, the Fund’s performance will depend to a greater extent on the overall performance of closed-end funds, ETFs and BDCs generally, in addition to the performance of the specific Underlying Funds (and other assets) in which the Fund invests.  The use of leverage by Underlying Funds magnifies gains and losses on amounts invested and increases the risks associated with investing in Underlying Funds.  Further, the Underlying Funds are not subject to the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions. The Fund generally receives information regarding the portfolio holdings of Underlying Funds only when that information is made available to the public. The Fund cannot dictate how the Underlying Funds invest their assets. The Underlying Funds may invest their assets in securities and other instruments, and may use investment techniques and strategies, that are not described in this prospectus. Common Stockholders will bear two layers of fees and expenses with respect to the Fund’s investments in Underlying Funds because each of the Fund and the Underlying Fund will charge fees and incur separate expenses.  In addition, subject to applicable 1940 Act limitations, the Underlying Funds themselves may purchase securities issued by registered and unregistered funds (e.g., common stock, preferred stock, auction rate preferred stock), and those investments would be subject to the risks associated with Underlying Funds and unregistered funds (including a third layer of fees and expenses, i.e., the Underlying Fund will indirectly bear fees and expenses charged by the funds in which the Underlying Fund invests, in addition to the Underlying Fund’s own fees and expenses). An Underlying Fund with positive performance may indirectly receive a performance fee from the Fund, even when the Fund’s overall returns are negative.  Additionally, the Fund’s investment in an Underlying Fund may result in the Fund’s receipt of cash in excess of the Underlying Fund’s earnings; if the Fund distributes these amounts, the distributions could constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for federal income tax purposes.  As a result of these factors, the use of the fund of funds structure by the Fund could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders.
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The Fund may invest in shares of closed-end funds that are trading at a discount to NAV or at a premium to NAV and closed-end funds may not be able to outperform their benchmarks. There can be no assurance that the market discount on shares of any closed-end fund purchased by the Fund will ever decrease. In fact, it is possible that this market discount may increase and the Fund may suffer realized or unrealized capital losses due to further decline in the market price of the securities of such closed-end funds, thereby adversely affecting the Fund’s NAV. The Fund’s investment in the Common Shares of closed-end funds that are financially leveraged may create an opportunity for greater total return on its investment, but at the same time may be expected to exhibit more volatility in market price and NAV than an investment in shares of investment companies without a leveraged capital structure.
 
The Fund may invest in BDCs.  BDCs generally invest in less mature U.S. private companies or thinly traded U.S. public companies which involve greater risk than well-established publicly-traded companies. While BDCs are expected to generate income in the form of dividends, certain BDCs during certain periods of time may not generate such income. The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other operating expenses incurred by the BDCs and of any performance-based or incentive fees payable by the BDCs in which it invests, in addition to the expenses paid by the Fund. A BDC’s incentive fee may be very high, vary from year to year and be payable even if the value of the BDC’s portfolio declines in a given time period. Incentive fees may create an incentive for a BDC’s manager to make investments that are risky or more speculative than would be the case in the absence of such compensation arrangements, and may also encourage the BDC’s manager to use leverage to increase the return on the BDC’s investments. The use of leverage by BDCs magnifies gains and losses on amounts invested and increases the risks associated with investing in BDCs. A BDC may make investments with a larger amount of risk of volatility and loss of principal than other investment options and may also be highly speculative and aggressive.

The 1940 Act imposes certain constraints upon the operations of a BDC. For example, BDCs are required to invest at least 70% of their total assets primarily in securities of U.S. private companies or thinly traded U.S. public companies, cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities and high quality debt investments that mature in one year or less. Generally, little public information exists for private and thinly traded companies in which a BDC may invest and there is a risk that investors may not be able to make a fully informed evaluation of a BDC and its portfolio of investments. With respect to investments in debt instruments, there is a risk that the issuers of such instruments may default on their payments or declare bankruptcy. Many debt investments in which a BDC may invest will not be rated by a credit rating agency and will be below investment grade quality. These investments are commonly referred to as “junk bonds” and have predominantly speculative characteristics with respect to an issuer’s capacity to make payments of interest and principal. Although lower grade securities are potentially higher yielding, they are also characterized by high risk. In addition, the secondary market for lower grade securities may be less liquid than that of higher rated securities.  Certain BDCs may also be difficult to value since many of the assets of BDCs do not have readily ascertainable market values.

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Additionally, a BDC may only incur indebtedness in amounts such that the BDC’s asset coverage ratio of total assets to total senior securities equals at least 200% after such incurrence. These limitations on asset mix and leverage may affect the way that the BDC raises capital. BDCs compete with other entities for the types of investments they make, and such entities are not necessarily subject to the same investment constraints as BDCs.

Index-based ETFs (and other index funds) in which the Fund may invest may not be able to replicate exactly the performance of the indices they track or benchmark because the total return generated by the securities will be reduced by transaction costs incurred in adjusting the actual balance of the securities. In addition, index-based ETFs (and other index funds) will incur expenses not incurred by their applicable indices. Certain securities comprising the indices tracked by these investments may, from time to time, temporarily be unavailable, which may further impede the ability of the index-based ETFs and other index funds to track their applicable indices. Underlying Funds may not be able to match or outperform their respective benchmarks. With sector ETFs, there is a risk that securities within the same group of industries will decline in price due to sector-specific market or economic developments.  The Fund may also invest in actively managed ETFs that are subject to management risk as the ETF’s investment adviser will apply certain investment techniques and risk analyses in making investment decisions.  There can be no guarantee that these will produce the desired results.
 
Certain of the Underlying Funds in which the Fund will invest may be taxed as regulated investment companies under Subchapter M of the Code.  To qualify and remain eligible for the special tax treatment accorded to regulated investment companies and their shareholders, such Underlying Funds must meet certain source-of-income, asset diversification and annual distribution requirements. If an Underlying Fund in which the Fund invests fails to qualify as a regulated investment company, such Underlying Fund would be liable for federal, and possibly state, corporate taxes on its taxable income and gains.  Such failure by an Underlying Fund could substantially reduce the Underlying Fund’s net assets and the amount of income available for distribution to the Fund, which would in turn decrease the total return of the Fund in respect of such investment.

The Fund’s investments in Underlying Funds may be limited by provisions of the 1940 Act, which generally limit the amount the Fund and its affiliates can invest in any one Underlying Fund to 3% of the Underlying Fund’s outstanding voting stock. As a result, the Fund may hold a smaller position in an Underlying Fund than if it were not subject to this restriction. In addition, to comply with provisions of the 1940 Act, in any matter upon which Underlying Fund stockholders are solicited to vote, the Subadviser may be required to vote Underlying Fund shares in the same proportion as shares held by other stockholders of the Underlying Fund. However, pursuant to exemptive orders issued by the SEC to various ETF sponsors, the Fund is permitted to invest in such Underlying Funds in excess of the limits set forth in the 1940 Act subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in such exemptive orders.
 
Warrant Risks
 
The Fund and the Underlying Funds may invest in warrants. Warrants are securities giving the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy the stock of an issuer at a given price (generally higher than the value of the stock at the time of issuance) during a specified period or perpetually. Warrants do not carry with them the right to dividends or voting rights with respect to the securities that they entitle their holder to purchase and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. The value of a warrant does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities and a warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date.
 
MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND
 
Board of Directors
 
The Board has overall responsibility for management of the Fund. The Board decides upon matters of general policy and generally oversees the actions of the Adviser, the Subadviser and other service providers of the Fund. The name and business address of the Board and officers of the Fund, and their principal occupations and other affiliations during the past five years, are set forth under “Board Members and Officers” in the SAI.
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Adviser
 
ALPS Advisors, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of ALPS Holdings, Inc., is the Fund’s investment adviser. The Adviser is responsible for, among other things, furnishing a continual investment program for the Fund in accordance with its investment objective and policies, coordinating and monitoring the investment activities of the Subadviser, and managing and administering the Fund’s business affairs, each subject to the general supervision and direction of the Board. The Adviser commenced business operations in December 2006 upon the acquisition of an existing investment advisory operation, is registered with the SEC and as of August 31, 2017, managed approximately $17.3 billion. The Adviser is located at 1290 Broadway, Suite 1100, Denver, CO 80203, and is affiliated with the Fund’s administrator and transfer agent. ALPS Holdings, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of DST Systems, Inc.
 
Subadviser
 
RiverNorth Capital Management, LLC, a majority owned subsidiary of RiverNorth Holding Co., is the Fund’s subadviser and makes the day-to-day investment decisions for the Fund. Founded in 2000, the Subadviser is located at 325 N. LaSalle Street, Suite 645, Chicago, Illinois 60654. The Subadviser is registered with the SEC and as of August 31, 2017, manages approximately $3.63 billion.
 
Portfolio Management
 
Patrick W. Galley, CFA, is the Fund’s co-portfolio manager. Mr. Galley is the Chief Investment Officer for the Subadviser. Mr. Galley heads the firm’s research and investment team and oversees all portfolio management activities at the Subadviser. Mr. Galley also serves as the President and Chairman of RiverNorth Funds. Prior to joining the Subadviser in 2004, he was most recently a Vice President at Bank of America in the Global Investment Bank’s Portfolio Management group, where he specialized in analyzing and structuring corporate transactions for investment management firms in addition to closed-end and open-end funds, hedge funds, funds of funds, structured investment vehicles and insurance/reinsurance companies. Mr. Galley graduated with honors from Rochester Institute of Technology with a B.S. in Finance. He has received the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation, is a member of the CFA Institute and is a member of the CFA Society of Chicago.
 
Stephen O’Neill, CFA, is the Fund’s other co-portfolio manager. Mr. O’Neill is a Portfolio Manager for the Subadviser. Mr. O’Neill conducts qualitative and quantitative analysis of closed-end funds and their respective asset classes. Prior to joining the Subadviser in 2007, he was most recently an Assistant Vice President at Bank of America in the Global Investment Bank’s Portfolio Management group. At Bank of America, he specialized in the corporate real estate, asset management, and structured finance industries. Mr. O’Neill graduated magna cum laude from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio with a B.S. in finance and a minor in economics. Mr. O’Neill has received the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation, is a member of the CFA Institute and is a member of the CFA Society of Chicago.
 
The Fund’s SAI provides information about the compensation received by Mr. Galley and Mr. O’Neill, other accounts that they manage and their ownership of the Fund’s equity securities.
 
Investment Advisory and Subadvisory Agreements
 
Pursuant to an Investment Advisory Agreement, the Adviser is responsible for managing the Fund’s affairs, subject at all times to the general oversight of the Fund’s Board. The Fund has agreed to pay the Adviser a management fee payable on a monthly basis at the annual rate of 1.00% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets for the service it provides.
 
In addition to the fees of the Adviser, the Fund pays all other costs and expenses of its operations, including, but not limited to, compensation of its directors (other than those affiliated with the Adviser or the Subadviser), custodial expenses, transfer agency and dividend disbursing expenses, legal fees, expenses of independent auditors, expenses of repurchasing shares, expenses of any leverage, expenses of preparing, printing and distributing prospectuses, stockholder reports, notices, proxy statements and reports to governmental agencies, and taxes, if any.
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Pursuant to a Subadvisory Agreement, the Adviser has delegated daily management of the Fund’s portfolio to the Subadviser, who is paid by the Adviser and not the Fund. The Adviser (and not the Fund) has agreed to pay the Subadviser a subadvisory fee payable on a monthly basis at the annual rate of 0.85% of the Fund’s average daily Managed Assets for the service it provides.
 
Because the fees received by the Adviser and the Subadviser are based on the Managed Assets of the Fund, the Adviser and the Subadviser have a financial incentive for the Fund to use leverage, which may create a conflict of interest between the Adviser and the Subadviser, on the one hand, and the holders of Common Shares, on the other. Because leverage costs will be borne by the Fund at a specified interest rate, the Fund’s investment management fees and other expenses, including expenses incurred as a result of any leverage, are paid only by the holders of Common Shares and not by holders of preferred stock or through borrowings. See “Use of Leverage.”
 
At the November 20, 2015, meeting of the Board, the Board approved the Investment Advisory Agreement and the Subadvisory Agreement, each for an initial two year term. A discussion of the basis for the Board’s approval is provided in the semi-annual report for the period ended April 30, 2016.

In addition, under a License Agreement, the Subadviser has consented to the use by the Fund of the identifying word or name “RiverNorth” in the name of the Fund, and to use of certain associated trademarks. Such consent is conditioned upon the employment of the Subadviser or an affiliate thereof as investment subadviser to the Fund. If at any time the Fund ceases to employ the Subadviser or an affiliate as investment subadviser of the Fund, the Fund may be required to cease using the word or name “RiverNorth” in the name of the Fund, and cease making use of the associated trademarks, as promptly as practicable.
 
Administrative Services
 
The Fund’s administrator is ALPS Fund Services, Inc. (“AFS”), an affiliate of the Adviser and the Fund’s transfer agent. AFS is a service company and SEC-registered transfer agent. Under the Administration Agreement, AFS is responsible for calculating NAVs, providing additional fund accounting and tax services, and providing fund administration and compliance-related services. The address of AFS is 1290 Broadway, Suite 1100, Denver, CO 80203. For its services, the Fund pays AFS customary fees based on the Fund’s Managed Assets plus out of pocket expenses.
 
NET ASSET VALUE
 
NAV is determined daily as of the close of the regular trading session on the NYSE (usually 4:00 p.m. Eastern time). NAV is calculated by dividing the value of all of the securities and other assets of the Fund, less the liabilities (including accrued expenses and indebtedness) and the aggregate liquidation value of any outstanding preferred shares, by the total number of Common Shares outstanding.
 
The Fund’s assets, including its investments in Underlying Funds, are generally valued at their market value using market quotations. The Fund may use pricing services to provide market quotations. If market quotations are not available or, in the Subadviser’s opinion, market quotations do not reflect market value, or if an event occurs after the close of trading on the domestic or foreign exchange or market on which the security is principally traded (but prior to the time the NAV is calculated) that materially affects market value, the security will be valued at fair value according to policies approved by the Fund’s Board. For example, if trading in a portfolio security is halted and does not resume before the Fund calculates its NAV, the security may need to be fair valued using the Fund’s fair value pricing policies. Fair valuation involves subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security may differ materially from the value that could be realized upon the sale of the security. The Fund will invest in Underlying Funds. The Fund’s NAV is calculated based, in part, upon the market prices of the Underlying Funds in its portfolio, and the prospectuses of those companies explain the circumstances under which they will use fair value pricing and the effects of doing so.
58

DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS
 
As of June 30, 2017 the Board approved the adoption of a managed distribution plan in accordance with ALPS’ Section 19(b) exemptive order (the “Managed Distribution Plan”). Beginning in August 2017, the Fund began making monthly distributions to Common Shareholders set initially at a fixed monthly rate of $0.21 per Common Share.
 
Under the Managed Distribution Plan, to the extent that sufficient investment income is not available on a monthly basis, the Fund’s distributions may consist of long-term capital gains and/or return of capital in order to maintain the distribution rate. Investors should not make any conclusions about the Fund’s investment performance from the amount of the Fund’s distributions or from the terms of the Fund’s Managed Distribution Plan. Dividends and distributions may be payable in cash or Common Shares, with shareholders having the option to receive additional Common Shares in lieu of cash. The Fund may at times, in its discretion, pay out less than the entire amount of net investment income earned in any particular period and may at times pay out such accumulated undistributed income in addition to net investment income earned in other periods in order to permit the Fund to maintain a more stable level of distributions. As a result, the dividend paid by the Fund to Common Stockholders for any particular period may be more or less than the amount of net investment income earned by the Fund during such period. The Fund’s ability to maintain a stable level of distributions to stockholders will depend on a number of factors, including the stability of income received from its investments. The amount of monthly distributions may vary depending on a number of factors, including the costs of any leverage. As portfolio and market conditions change, the amount of dividends on the Fund’s Common Shares could change. For federal income tax purposes, the Fund is required to distribute substantially all of its net investment income each year to both reduce its federal income tax liability and to avoid a potential federal excise tax. The Fund intends to distribute all realized net capital gains, if any, at least annually.
 
The Adviser has received an order granting an exemption from Section 19(b) of the 1940 Act and Rule 19b-1 thereunder to permit the Fund, subject to certain terms and conditions, to include realized long-term capital gains as a part of its regular distributions to Common Stockholders more frequently than would otherwise be permitted by the 1940 Act (generally once per taxable year). To the extent that the Adviser relies on the exemptive order, the Fund will be required to comply with the terms and conditions therein, which, among other things, requires the Fund to make certain disclosures to shareholders and prospective shareholders regarding distributions, and would require the Fund's Board to make determinations regarding the appropriateness of use of the distribution policy. Under such a distribution policy, it is possible that the Fund might distribute more than its income and net realized capital gains; therefore, distributions to shareholders may result in a return of capital. The amount treated as a return of capital will reduce a shareholder’s adjusted basis in the shareholder’s shares, thereby increasing the potential gain or reducing the potential loss on the sale of shares. There is no assurance that the Fund will rely on the exemptive order in the future.

Under the 1940 Act, the Fund is not permitted to incur indebtedness unless immediately after such incurrence the Fund has an asset coverage of at least 300% of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of indebtedness. Additionally, under the 1940 Act, the Fund may not declare any dividend or other distribution upon any class of its capital shares, or purchase any such capital shares, unless the aggregate indebtedness of the Fund has, at the time of the declaration of any such dividend or distribution or at the time of any such purchase, an asset coverage of at least 300% after deducting the amount of such dividend, distribution, or purchase price, as the case may be.
 
While any preferred stock is outstanding, the Fund may not declare any cash dividend or other distribution on its Common Shares, unless at the time of such declaration, (i) all accumulated preferred dividends have been paid and (ii) the NAV of the Fund’s portfolio (determined after deducting the amount of such dividend or other distribution) is at least 200% of the liquidation value of the outstanding preferred shares (expected to be equal to the original purchase price per share plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon).
 
In addition to the limitations imposed by the 1940 Act described above, certain lenders may impose additional restrictions on the payment of dividends or distributions on the Common Shares in the event of a default on the Fund’s borrowings. If the Fund’s ability to make distributions on its Common Shares is limited, such limitations could, under certain circumstances, impair the ability of the Fund to maintain its qualification for federal income tax purposes as a regulated investment company, which would have adverse tax consequences for shareholders. See “Use of Leverage” and “U.S. Federal Income Tax Matters.”
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DIVIDEND REINVESTMENT PLAN
 
The Fund has a dividend reinvestment plan commonly referred to as an “opt-out” plan. Unless the registered owner of Common Shares elects to receive cash by contacting DST Systems, Inc. (the “Plan Administrator”), all dividends declared on Common Shares will be automatically reinvested by the Plan Administrator for shareholders in the Fund’s Automatic Dividend Reinvestment Plan (the “Plan”), in additional Common Shares. Common Stockholders who elect not to participate in the Plan will receive all dividends and other distributions in cash paid by check mailed directly to the shareholder of record (or, if the Common Shares are held in street or other nominee name, then to such nominee) by the Plan Administrator as dividend disbursing agent. Participation in the Plan is completely voluntary and may be terminated or resumed at any time without penalty by notice if received and processed by the Plan Administrator prior to the dividend record date; otherwise such termination or resumption will be effective with respect to any subsequently declared dividend or other distribution. Such notice will be effective with respect to a particular dividend or other distribution (together, a “Dividend”). Some brokers may automatically elect to receive cash on behalf of Common Stockholders and may re-invest that cash in additional Common Shares.
 
Whenever the Fund declares a Dividend payable in cash, non-participants in the Plan will receive cash and participants in the Plan will receive the equivalent in Common Shares. The Common Shares will be acquired by the Plan Administrator for the participants’ accounts, depending upon the circumstances described below, either (i) through receipt of additional unissued but authorized Common Shares from the Fund (“Newly Issued Common Shares”) or (ii) by purchase of outstanding Common Shares on the open market (“Open-Market Purchases”) on the NYSE or elsewhere. If, on the payment date for any Dividend, the closing market price plus estimated brokerage commissions per Common Share is equal to or greater than the NAV per Common Share, the Plan Administrator will invest the Dividend amount in Newly Issued Common Shares on behalf of the participants. The number of Newly Issued Common Shares to be credited to each participant’s account will be determined by dividing the dollar amount of the Dividend by the Fund’s NAV per Common Share on the payment date. If, on the payment date for any Dividend, the NAV per Common Share is greater than the closing market value plus estimated brokerage commissions (i.e., the Fund’s Common Shares are trading at a discount), the Plan Administrator will invest the Dividend amount in Common Shares acquired on behalf of the participants in Open-Market Purchases.
 
In the event of a market discount on the payment date for any Dividend, the Plan Administrator will have until the last business day before the next date on which the Common Shares trade on an “ex-dividend” basis or 30 days after the payment date for such Dividend, whichever is sooner (the “Last Purchase Date”), to invest the Dividend amount in Common Shares acquired in Open-Market Purchases. It is contemplated that the Fund will pay monthly income Dividends. If, before the Plan Administrator has completed its Open-Market Purchases, the market price per Common Share exceeds the NAV per Common Share, the average per Common Share purchase price paid by the Plan Administrator may exceed the NAV of the Common Shares, resulting in the acquisition of fewer Common Shares than if the Dividend had been paid in Newly Issued Common Shares on the Dividend payment date. Because of the foregoing difficulty with respect to Open-Market Purchases, the Plan provides that if the Plan Administrator is unable to invest the full Dividend amount in Open-Market Purchases during the purchase period or if the market discount shifts to a market premium during the purchase period, the Plan Administrator may cease making Open-Market Purchases and may invest the uninvested portion of the Dividend amount in Newly Issued Common Shares at the NAV per Common Share at the close of business on the Last Purchase Date.
 
The Plan Administrator maintains all shareholders’ accounts in the Plan and furnishes written confirmation of all transactions in the accounts, including information needed by shareholders for tax records. Common Shares in the account of each Plan participant will be held by the Plan Administrator on behalf of the Plan participant, and each shareholder proxy will include those shares purchased or received pursuant to the Plan. The Plan Administrator will forward all proxy solicitation materials to participants and vote proxies for shares held under the Plan in accordance with the instructions of the participants.
 
Beneficial owners of Common Shares who hold their Common Shares in the name of a broker or nominee should contact the broker or nominee to determine whether and how they may participate in the Plan. In the case of Common Stockholders such as banks, brokers or nominees which hold shares for others who are the beneficial owners, the Plan Administrator will administer the Plan on the basis of the number of Common Shares certified from time to time by the record shareholder’s name and held for the account of beneficial owners who participate in the Plan.
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There will be no brokerage charges with respect to Common Shares issued directly by the Fund. However, each participant will pay a pro rata share of brokerage commissions incurred in connection with Open-Market Purchases. The automatic reinvestment of Dividends will not relieve participants of any federal, state or local income tax that may be payable (or required to be withheld) on such Dividends. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Matters” below. Participants that request a sale of Common Shares through the Plan Administrator are subject to brokerage commissions.
 
The Fund reserves the right to amend or terminate the Plan. There is no direct service charge to participants with regard to purchases in the Plan; however, the Fund reserves the right to amend the Plan to include a service charge payable by the participants.
 
All correspondence or questions concerning the Plan should be directed to the Plan Administrator at DST Systems, Inc., 333 West 11th Street, 5th Floor, Kansas City, Missouri 64105.
 
DESCRIPTION OF THE COMMON SHARES
 
The following summary of the terms of the Common Shares does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the Maryland General Corporation Law, and to the Fund’s Charter and the Fund’s Bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to this Registration Statement.
 
The Fund’s authorized capital stock consists of 37,500,000 Common Shares, $0.0001 par value per share, all of which are classified as Common Shares. As of the date of this Prospectus, ALPS Advisors, Inc. did not own of record or beneficially any of the Fund’s Common Shares.
 
In general, stockholders or subscribers for the Fund’s stock have no personal liability for the debts and obligations of the Fund because of their status as stockholders or subscribers, except to the extent that the subscription price or other agreed consideration for the stock has not been paid.
 
Under the Fund’s Charter, the Board is authorized to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of stock into other classes or series of stock and authorize the issuance of shares of stock without obtaining stockholder approval. Also, the Fund’s Board, with the approval of a majority of the entire Board, but without any action by the stockholders of the Fund, may amend the Fund’s Charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock of the Fund or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that the Fund has authority to issue.
 
Common Shares
 
The Common Shares to be issued in the offering will be, upon payment as described in this Prospectus, fully paid and non-assessable. The Common Shares have no preemptive, conversion, exchange, appraisal or redemption rights, and each share has equal voting, dividend, distribution and liquidation rights.
 
Common Stockholders are entitled to receive dividends if and when the Board declares dividends from funds legally available. Whenever Fund preferred stock or borrowings are outstanding, Common Stockholders will not be entitled to receive any distributions from the Fund unless all accrued dividends on the Fund preferred stock and interest and principal payments on borrowings have been paid, and unless the applicable asset coverage requirements under the 1940 Act would be satisfied after giving effect to the distribution as described above.
 
In the event of the Fund’s liquidation, dissolution or winding up, Common Shares would be entitled to share ratably in all of the Fund’s assets that are legally available for distribution after the Fund pays all debts and other liabilities and subject to any preferential rights of holders of Fund preferred stock, if any preferred stock is outstanding at such time.
 
Common Stockholders are entitled to one vote per share. All voting rights for the election of Directors are noncumulative, which means that, assuming there is no Fund preferred stock outstanding, the holders of more than 50% of the Common Shares will elect 100% of the Directors then nominated for election if they choose to do so and, in such event, the holders of the remaining Common Shares will not be able to elect any Directors.
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The Fund’s Charter authorizes the Board to classify and reclassify any unissued Common Shares into other classes or series of stock. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series, the Board is required by Maryland law and by the Fund’s Charter to set the terms, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series. Thus, the Board could authorize the issuance of Common Shares with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for holders of the Fund’s Common Shares or otherwise be in their best interest. As of the date of this Prospectus, the Fund has no plans to classify or reclassify any unissued Common Shares.
 
Under the rules of the NYSE applicable to listed companies, the Fund is required to hold an annual meeting of stockholders in each year.
 
The Fund has no present intention of offering additional Common Shares, except as described herein. Other offerings of its Common Shares, if made, will require approval of the Board. Any additional offering will not be sold at a price per Common Share below the then current NAV (exclusive of underwriting discounts and commissions) except in connection with an offering to existing Common Stockholders or with the consent of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding Common Shares. The Common Shares have no preemptive rights.
 
The Common Shares are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “RIV” and began trading on the NYSE on December 24, 2015. The average weekly trading volume of the Common Shares on the NYSE during the period from December 24, 2015 through October 31, 2016 was 21,245 Common Shares. Shares of closed-end investment companies often trade on an exchange at prices lower than NAV. The Fund’s Common Shares have traded in the market at both premiums to and discounts from NAV. The following table shows, for each fiscal quarter since the quarter ended January 31, 2016; (i) high and low NAVs per share of common stock, (ii) the high and low sale prices per share of common stock, as reported in the consolidated transaction reporting system, and (iii) the percentage by which the Common Shares traded at a premium over, or discount from, the high and low NAVs per shares of common stock. The Fund’s NAV per Common Share is determined on a daily basis.
 
Quarter Ended
Market Price
NAV at
Market Premium
(Discount)
to NAV at
   
High
Low
Market
High
Market
Low
Market
High
Market
Low
2017
July 31
21.57
19.42
20.99
20.64
2.76%
-5.91%
 
April 31
20.13
19.35
20.90
20.33
-3.68%
-4.80%
 
January 31
19.65
18.29
20.43
19.19
-3.82%
-4.69%
2016
October 31
20.92
18.97
20.88
19.72
0.17%
-3.83%
 
July 31
19.94
18.07
20.92
19.69
-4.67%
-8.23%
 
April 30
19.79
15.55
20.24
17.42
-2.23%
-10.73%
 
January 31
21.14
18.96
19.45
17.68
8.69%
7.24%
 
On September 27, 2017, the NAV per Common Share was $20.62, trading prices ranged between $20.17 and $20.44 (representing a discount to NAV of 2.18% and 0.87%, respectively) and the closing price per Common Share was $20.18 (representing a discount to NAV of (2.13)%).
 
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Preferred Stock
 
The Fund’s Charter authorizes the Board to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of stock into other classes or series of stock, including preferred stock, without the approval of the holders of the Common Shares. Prior to issuance of any shares of preferred stock, the Board is required by Maryland law and by the Fund’s Charter to set the terms, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for such shares. Thus, the Board could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for holders of the Fund’s Common Shares or otherwise be in their best interest. No shares of preferred stock are presently outstanding.
 
Any issuance of shares of preferred stock must comply with the requirements of the 1940 Act. Specifically, the Fund is not permitted under the 1940 Act to issue preferred stock unless immediately after such issuance the total asset value of the Fund’s portfolio is at least 200% of the liquidation value of the outstanding preferred stock. Among other requirements, including other voting rights, the 1940 Act requires that the holders of any preferred stock, voting separately as a single class, have the right to elect at least two Directors at all times. In addition, subject to the prior rights, if any, of the holders of any other class of senior securities outstanding, the holders of any preferred stock would have the right to elect a majority of the Fund’s Directors at any time two years’ dividends on any preferred stock are unpaid.
 
Outstanding Securities
 
As of September 27, 2017, the Fund’s Common Shares were the only outstanding securities issued by the Fund. As of the same date, the Fund had 3,755,304 Common Shares outstanding:

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Title of Class
Amount Authorized
Amount Held by Fund 
or for its account
Amount Outstanding Exclusive of Amount Shown under (3)  As of September 27, 2017
Common Stock
37,500,000
None
3,755,304
 
CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF THE FUND’S CHARTER AND BYLAWS
AND OF MARYLAND LAW
 
The following summary of certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and of the Charter and Bylaws of the Fund does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the Maryland General Corporation Law, and to the Fund’s Charter and the Fund’s Bylaws, copies of which are exhibits to the Registration Statement.
 
General
 
The Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”) and the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws contain provisions that could have the effect of limiting the ability of other entities or persons to acquire control of the Fund, to cause it to engage in certain transactions or to modify its structure.
 
These provisions could have the effect of depriving stockholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging a third party from seeking to obtain control of the Fund in a tender offer or similar transaction. On the other hand, since these provisions may require persons seeking control of the Fund to negotiate with the Fund’s management regarding the price to be paid for the shares required to obtain such control, they promote continuity and stability and they enhance the Fund’s ability to pursue long-term strategies that are consistent with its investment objective.
 
The Board has concluded that the potential benefits of these provisions outweigh their possible disadvantages.
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Classified Board of Directors
 
The Fund’s Board is divided into three classes of directors serving staggered three-year terms. The initial terms of the first, second and third classes will expire at the first, second and third annual meetings of stockholders, respectively, and, in each case, until their successors are duly elected and qualify. Upon expiration of their terms, directors of each class will be elected to serve for three-year terms and until their successors are duly elected and qualify and at each annual meeting one class of directors will be elected by the stockholders. A classified Board promotes continuity and stability of management but makes it more difficult for stockholders to change a majority of the directors because it generally takes at least two annual elections of directors for this to occur. The Fund believes that classification of the Board will help to assure the continuity and stability of the Fund’s strategies and policies as determined by the Board.
 
Election of Directors
 
The MGCL provides that unless the charter or bylaws of a corporation provide otherwise, which the Fund’s Charter and the Fund’s Bylaws do not, a plurality of all the votes cast at a meeting at which a quorum is present is sufficient to elect a director. Each Common Share may be voted for as many individuals as there are directors to be elected and for whose election the Common Share is entitled to be voted.
 
As a result of this requirement, it is possible that no nominee would receive the required vote in an election of directors. In the case of a failure to elect one or more directors because the nominees receive votes constituting less than the required vote, the incumbent directors would hold over and continue to serve until the next election of directors and until their successors are duly elected and qualify.
 
Number of Directors; Vacancies
 
The Fund’s Charter provides that the number of directors will be set only by the Board in accordance with the Bylaws. The Bylaws provide that a majority of the Fund’s entire Board may at any time increase or decrease the number of directors, provided that there may be no fewer than three directors and no more than 15 directors.
 
The Fund’s Charter provides that the Fund elects, at such time as the Fund becomes eligible to make such an election (i.e., when the Fund has at least three independent directors and the Common Shares are registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934), to be subject to the provision of Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL regarding the filling of vacancies on the Board. Accordingly, at such time, except as may be provided by the Board in setting the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, any and all vacancies on the Board may be filled only by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the remaining directors in office, and any director elected to fill a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies, subject to any applicable requirements of the 1940 Act.
 
Removal of Directors
 
The Fund’s Charter provides that, subject to the rights of the holders of one or more class or series of the Fund’s preferred stock to elect or remove directors, a director may be removed from office only for cause (as defined in the Charter) and then only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors.
 
Absence of Cumulative Voting
 
There is no cumulative voting in the election of the Fund’s directors. Cumulative voting means that holders of stock of a corporation are entitled, in the election of directors, to cast a number of votes equal to the number of shares that they own multiplied by the number of directors to be elected. Because a stockholder entitled to cumulative voting may cast all of his or her votes for one nominee or disperse his or her votes among nominees as he or she chooses, cumulative voting is generally considered to increase the ability of minority shareholders to elect nominees to a corporation’s Board. In general, the absence of cumulative voting means that the holders of a majority of the Fund’s shares can elect all of the directors then standing for election and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.
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Approval of Extraordinary Corporate Actions
 
The Fund’s Charter requires the favorable vote of two-thirds of the entire Board and the favorable vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the common stock and shares of preferred stock (if any) entitled to be voted on the matter, voting together as a single class, to advise, approve, adopt or authorize the following:
 
·          a “Business Combination,” which includes the following:
 
·
a merger, consolidation or statutory share exchange of the Fund with another corporation;
 
·
an issuance or transfer by the Fund (in one or a series of transactions in any 12 month period) of any securities of the Fund to any person or entity for cash, securities or other property (or combination thereof) having an aggregate fair market value of $1,000,000 or more, excluding issuances or transfers of debt securities of the Fund, sales of securities of the Fund in connection with a public offering, issuances of securities of the Fund pursuant to a dividend reinvestment plan adopted by the Fund, issuances of securities of the Fund upon the exercise of any stock subscription rights distributed by the Fund and portfolio transactions effected by the Fund in the ordinary course of business; or
 
·
a sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer or other disposition by the Fund (in one or a series of transactions in any 12 month period) to or with any person or entity of any assets of the Fund having an aggregate fair market value of $1,000,000 or more except for portfolio transactions (including pledges of portfolio securities in connection with borrowings) effected by the Fund in the ordinary course of its business;
 
·          the voluntary liquidation or dissolution of the Fund or charter amendment to terminate the Fund’s existence;
 
·          except as otherwise discussed under “Contingent Conversion Feature,” the conversion of the Fund from a closed-end company to an open-end company, and any amendments necessary to effect the conversion; or
 
·          unless the 1940 Act or federal law requires a lesser vote, any stockholder proposal as to specific investment decisions made or to be made with respect to the Fund’s assets as to which stockholder approval is required under federal or Maryland law.
 
However, the stockholder vote described above will not be required with respect to the foregoing transactions (other than those as to which stockholder approval is required under federal or Maryland law) if they are approved by a vote of two-thirds of the Continuing Directors (as defined below). In that case, if Maryland law requires stockholder approval, the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast thereon by stockholders of the Fund will be required. In addition, if the Fund has any preferred stock outstanding, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of the preferred stock, voting separately as a class, would be required under the 1940 Act to adopt any plan of reorganization that would adversely affect the holders of the preferred stock, to convert the Fund to an open-end investment company or to deviate from any of the Fund’s fundamental investment policies.
 
“Continuing Director” means any member of the Board who is not an Interested Party (as defined below) or an affiliate of an Interested Party and has been a member of the Board for a period of at least 12 months, or has been a member of the Board since December 2, 2013, or is a successor of a Continuing Director who is unaffiliated with an Interested Party and is recommended to succeed a Continuing Director by a majority of the Continuing Directors then on the Board.
 
“Interested Party” means any person, other than an investment company advised by the Adviser or any of its affiliates, which enters, or proposes to enter, into a Business Combination with the Fund.
 
In addition, the Fund’s Charter requires the favorable vote of two-thirds of the entire Board to advise, approve, adopt or authorize any of the following:
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·          the election and removal of officers;
 
·          the nomination of candidates to the Board (including the election of directors to fill vacancies on the Board resulting from the increase in size of the Board or the death, resignation or removal of a director, in which case the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the remaining directors in office shall be required);
 
·          the creation of and delegation of authority and appointment of members to committees of the Board;
 
·          amendments to the Fund’s Bylaws (which may only be effected by the Board, not the stockholders);
 
·          Charter amendments and any other action requiring stockholder approval; and
 
·          entering into, terminating or amending an investment advisory agreement.
 
The Charter provides that, during calendar year 2021, the Fund will call a shareholder meeting of the Fund for the purpose of voting to determine whether the Fund should convert to an open-end management investment company. Such provision in the Charter may be amended only upon the approval by a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities. If approved by shareholders on the Convention Vote Date, the Fund will seek to convert to an open-end management investment company within 12 months of such approval. See “Contingent Conversion Feature.”
 
The Board has determined that the foregoing supermajority requirements applicable to certain votes of the directors and the stockholders, which are greater than the minimum requirements permitted under Maryland law or the 1940 Act, are in the best interests of the Fund. Reference should be made to the Charter on file with the SEC for the full text of these provisions.
 
Action by Shareholders
 
Under the MGCL, stockholder action can be taken only at an annual or special meeting of stockholders or, unless the charter provides for stockholder action by less than unanimous written consent (which is not the case in the Fund’s Charter), by unanimous written consent in lieu of a meeting. These provisions, combined with the requirements of the Fund’s Bylaws regarding the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting, as discussed below, may have the effect of delaying consideration of a stockholder proposal until the next annual meeting.
 
Procedures for Stockholder Nominations and Proposals
 
The Fund’s Bylaws provide that any stockholder desiring to make a nomination for the election of directors or a proposal for new business at a meeting of stockholders must comply with the advance notice provisions of the Bylaws. Nominations and proposals that fail to follow the prescribed procedures will not be considered. The Board believes that it is in the Fund’s best interests to provide sufficient time to enable management to disclose to stockholders information about a slate of nominations for directors or proposals for new business. This advance notice requirement also may give management time to solicit its own proxies in an attempt to defeat any slate of nominations should management determine that doing so is in the best interest of stockholders generally. Similarly, adequate advance notice of stockholder proposals will give management time to study such proposals and to determine whether to recommend to the stockholders that such proposals be adopted. For stockholder proposals to be included in the Fund’s proxy materials, the stockholder must comply with all timing and information requirements of the Exchange Act.
 
Calling of Special Meetings of Shareholders
 
The Fund’s Bylaws provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called by the Board and certain of its officers. Additionally, the Fund’s Bylaws provide that, subject to the satisfaction of certain procedural and informational requirements by the stockholders requesting the meeting, a special meeting of stockholders will be called by the Fund’s Secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting.
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No Appraisal Rights
 
As permitted by the MGCL, the Fund’s Charter provides that stockholders will not be entitled to exercise appraisal rights, unless the Fund’s Board determines that such rights apply.
 
Limitations on Liabilities
 
The Fund’s Charter provides that the personal liability of the Fund’s directors and officers for monetary damages is eliminated to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law. Maryland law currently provides that directors and officers of corporations that have adopted such a provision will generally not be so liable, except to the extent that (i) it is proved that the person actually received an improper benefit or profit in money, property, or services for the amount of the benefit or profit in money, property, or services actually received; and (ii) a judgment or other final adjudication adverse to the person is entered in a proceeding based on a finding in the proceeding that the person’s action, or failure to act, was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty and was material to the cause of action adjudicated in the proceeding.
 
The Fund’s Charter authorizes the Fund, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law to obligate the Fund to indemnify and advance expenses to the Fund’s directors and officers. The Fund’s Bylaws provide that the Fund will indemnify its officers and directors against liabilities to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law and the 1940 Act, and that it shall advance expenses to such persons prior to a final disposition of an action. The rights of indemnification provided in the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws are not exclusive of any other rights which may be available under any insurance or other agreement, by resolution of shareholders or directors or otherwise.
 
Authorized Shares
 
The Fund’s Charter authorizes the issuance of 37,500,000 Common Shares, and authorizes a majority of the Fund’s Board, without shareholder approval, to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that the Fund has the authority to issue, to authorize the issuance of shares of the Fund’s common and preferred stock, and to classify and reclassify any unissued shares into one or more classes or series of stock and set the terms thereof. The authorization of Common Shares and shares of preferred stock in excess of the amount issued, and the authority of a majority of the Fund’s Board to increase the Fund’s authorized capital stock or any class or series thereof without shareholder approval, may be used by the Fund’s Board consistent with its duties to deter attempts to gain control of the Fund. Further, the Board could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of discouraging a takeover or other transaction that some of the Fund’s shareholders might believe to be in their best interests.
 
Anti-Takeover Provisions of Maryland Law
 
Maryland Business Combination Act
 
The provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act (the “MBCA”) do not apply to a closed-end investment company, such as the Fund, unless it has affirmatively elected to be subject to the MBCA by a resolution of its board of directors. To date, the Fund has not made such an election but may make such an election under Maryland law at any time. Any such election, however, could be subject to certain of the 1940 Act limitations discussed below under “Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act” and would not apply to any person who had become an interested stockholder (as defined below) before the time that the resolution was adopted.
 
Under the MBCA, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the MBCA, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:
 
·          any person who beneficially owns ten percent or more of the voting power of the corporation’s shares; or
 
·          an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of ten percent or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
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A person is not an interested stockholder under the MBCA if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which he otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving a transaction, the board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the board.
 
After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:
 
·          80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and
 
·          two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.
 
These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined in the MBCA, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.
 
The MBCA permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by the board of directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder.
 
Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act
 
The provisions of the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act (the “MCSAA”) do not apply to a closed-end investment company, such as the Fund, unless it has affirmatively elected to be subject to the MCSAA by a resolution of its board of directors. To date, the Fund has not made such an election but may make such an election under Maryland law at any time. Any such election, however, would be subject to the 1940 Act limitations discussed below and would not apply to any person who had become a holder of control shares (as defined below) before the time that the resolution was adopted.
 
The MCSAA provides that control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquirer, by officers of the acquirer or by an employee of the acquirer who is also a director of the acquirer are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. Control shares are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:
 
·          one-tenth or more but less than one-third,
 
·          one-third or more but less than a majority, or
 
·          a majority or more of all voting power.
 
Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A control share acquisition means the acquisition of control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
 
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition may compel the board of directors of the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. The right to compel the calling of a special meeting is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including an undertaking to pay the expenses of the meeting. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.
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If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the MCSAA, then the corporation may redeem for fair value any or all of the control shares, except those for which voting rights have previously been approved. The right of the corporation to redeem control shares is subject to certain conditions and limitations. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of the shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.
 
Section 18(i) of the 1940 Act provides that “every share of stock...issued by a registered management company...shall be a voting stock and have equal voting rights with every other outstanding voting stock.”
 
Therefore, the Fund is prevented by the 1940 Act from issuing a class of shares with voting rights that vary within that class. There are currently different views on whether or not the MCSAA conflicts with Section 18(i) of the 1940 Act. One view is that implementation of the MCSAA would conflict with the 1940 Act because it would deprive certain shares of their voting rights. Another view is that implementation of the MCSAA would not conflict with the 1940 Act because it would limit the voting rights of stockholders who choose to acquire shares of stock that put them within the specified percentages of ownership rather than limiting the voting rights of the shares themselves. In a November 15, 2010 letter, the staff of the SEC’s Division of Investment Management expressed the view that, based on the wording of, and purposes underlying, the 1940 Act generally, and Section 18(i) specifically, a closed-end fund, by opting in to the MCSAA, would be acting in a manner inconsistent with Section 18(i) of the 1940 Act. In light of the foregoing, the Fund will not elect to be subject to the MCSAA in the absence of a judgment of a federal court of competent jurisdiction or the issuance of a rule or regulation of the SEC or a published interpretation by the SEC or its staff that the provisions of the MCSAA are not inconsistent with the provisions of the 1940 Act, or a change to the provisions of the 1940 Act having the same effect.
 
Additionally, if the Fund elected to be subject to the MCSAA, it would not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the Fund is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the Fund’s Charter or the Fund’s Bylaws.
 
Maryland Unsolicited Takeovers Act
 
Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the Maryland General Corporation Law permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions:
 
·          a classified board;
 
·          a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;
 
·          a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of directors;
 
·          a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; and
 
·          a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.
 
The charter of a corporation may contain a provision or the board of directors may adopt a provision that prohibits the corporation from electing to be subject to any or all of the provisions of Subtitle 8.
 
The Subtitle 8 elections are not currently relevant to the Fund, because provisions in the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8 (except with respect to Board vacancies) already make the Fund subject to each of the five provisions set forth above.
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REPURCHASE OF SHARES
 
Shares of closed-end funds often trade at a discount to NAV, and the Fund’s shares may also trade at a discount to their NAV, although it is possible that they may trade at a premium above NAV. The market price of the Common Shares will be determined by such factors as relative demand for and supply of shares in the market, the Fund’s NAV, general market and economic conditions and other factors beyond the control of the Fund.
 
Although Common Stockholders will not have the right to redeem their shares, the Fund may (but is not obligated to) take action to repurchase shares in the open market or make tender offers for its shares at NAV. During the pendency of any tender offer, the Fund will publish how Common Stockholders may readily ascertain the NAV. For more information see “Repurchase of Shares” in the SAI. Repurchase of the Common Shares may have the effect of reducing any market discount to NAV.
 
There is no assurance that, if action is undertaken to repurchase or tender for shares, such action will result in the shares trading at a price which approximates their NAV. Although share repurchases and tenders could have a favorable effect on the market price of the shares, you should be aware that the acquisition of shares by the Fund will decrease the total assets of the Fund and, therefore, have the effect of increasing the Fund’s expense ratio and may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to pursue its investment objective. To the extent the Fund may need to liquidate investments to fund repurchases of shares, this may result in portfolio turnover which will result in additional expenses being borne by the Fund and its shareholders. The Board currently considers the following factors to be relevant to a potential decision to repurchase shares: the extent and duration of the discount, the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio, and the impact of any action on the Fund and market considerations. Any share repurchases or tender offers will be made in accordance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the 1940 Act.
 
CONVERSION TO OPEN-END FUND
 
The Fund may be converted to an open-end investment company at any time if approved by the Board and the stockholders. See “Certain Provisions of the Fund’s Charter and Bylaws and of Maryland Law” for a discussion of the voting requirements applicable to conversion of the Fund to an open-end investment company and any related Charter amendments. If the Fund converted to an open-end investment company, it would be required to redeem all preferred stock of the Fund then outstanding (requiring in turn that it liquidate a portion of its investment portfolio). Conversion to open-end status could also require the Fund to modify certain investment restrictions and policies. Shareholders of an open-end investment company may require the company to redeem their shares at any time (except in certain circumstances as authorized by or permitted under the 1940 Act) at their NAV, less such redemption charge, if any, as might be in effect at the time of redemption. In order to avoid maintaining large cash positions or liquidating favorable investments to meet redemptions, open-end investment companies typically engage in a continuous offering of their shares. Open-end investment companies are thus subject to periodic asset in-flows and out-flows that can complicate portfolio management. The Board may at any time (but is not required to) propose conversion of the Fund to open-end status, depending upon its judgment regarding the advisability of such action in light of circumstances then prevailing.
 
Contingent Conversion Feature
 
The Charter provides that, during calendar year  2021, the Fund will call a shareholder meeting for the purpose of voting to determine whether the Fund should convert to an open-end management investment company (such meeting date, as may be adjourned, the “Conversion Vote Date”).  Such shareholder meeting may be adjourned or postponed in accordance with the By-Laws of the Fund to a date in calendar year 2021.  A vote on such Conversion Vote Date to convert the Fund to an open-end management investment company under the Declaration requires approval by a majority of the Fund’s total outstanding shares.  A majority is defined as greater than 50% of the Fund’s total outstanding shares.  If approved by shareholders on the Conversion Vote Date, the Fund will seek to convert to an open-end management investment company within 12 months of such approval. If the requisite number of votes to convert the Fund to an open-end management investment company is not obtained on the Conversion Vote Date, the Fund will continue in operation as a closed-end management investment company.
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U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX MATTERS
 
The following is a summary discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences that may be relevant to a shareholder that acquires, holds and/or disposes of Common Shares of the Fund.  This discussion only addresses U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. shareholders who hold their shares as capital assets and does not address all of the U.S. federal income tax consequences that may be relevant to particular shareholders in light of their individual circumstances.  This discussion also does not address the tax consequences to shareholders who are subject to special rules, including, without limitation, banks and other financial institutions, insurance companies, dealers in securities or foreign currencies, traders in securities that have elected to mark-to-market their securities holdings, foreign holders, persons who hold their shares as or in a hedge against currency risk, or as part of a constructive sale, straddle or conversion transaction, or tax-exempt or tax-deferred plans, accounts, or entities.  In addition, the discussion does not address any state, local, or foreign tax consequences.  The discussion reflects applicable income tax laws of the United States as of the date hereof, which tax laws may be changed or subject to new interpretations by the courts or the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) retroactively or prospectively, which could affect the continued validity of this summary.  No attempt is made to present a detailed explanation of all U.S. federal income tax concerns affecting the Fund and its shareholders, and the discussion set forth herein does not constitute tax advice.  Investors are urged to consult their own tax advisors before making an investment in the Fund to determine the specific tax consequences to them of investing in the Fund, including the applicable federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences as well as the effect of possible changes in tax laws.
 
The Fund intends to elect to be treated, and to qualify each year, as a “regulated investment company” under Subchapter M of the Code, so that it will generally not pay U.S. federal income tax on income and capital gains timely distributed (or treated as being distributed, as described below) to shareholders. If the Fund qualifies as a regulated investment company and distributes to its shareholders at least 90% of the sum of (i) its “investment company taxable income” as that term is defined in the Code (which includes, among other things, dividends, taxable interest, the excess of any net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses and certain net foreign exchange gains as reduced by certain deductible expenses) without regard to the deduction for dividends paid, and (ii) the excess of its gross tax-exempt interest, if any, over certain disallowed deductions, the Fund will be relieved of U.S. federal income tax on any income of the Fund, including long-term capital gains, distributed to shareholders. However, if the Fund retains any investment company taxable income or “net capital gain” (i.e., the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss), it will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate federal income tax rates (currently at a maximum rate of 35%) on the amount retained. The Fund intends to distribute at least annually all or substantially all of its investment company taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid), net tax-exempt interest, if any, and net capital gain. Under the Code, the Fund will generally be subject to a nondeductible 4% federal excise tax on the portion of its undistributed ordinary income and capital gains if it fails to meet certain distribution requirements with respect to each calendar year. In order to avoid the 4% federal excise tax, the required minimum distribution is generally equal to the sum of 98% of the Fund’s ordinary income (computed on a calendar year basis, and taking into account certain deferrals and elections), plus 98.2% of the Fund’s capital gain net income (generally computed for the one-year period ending on October 31) plus undistributed amounts from prior years on which the Fund paid no federal income tax. The Fund generally intends to make distributions in a timely manner in an amount at least equal to the required minimum distribution and therefore, under normal circumstances, does not expect to be subject to this excise tax.  However, the Fund may also decide to distribute less and pay the federal excise taxes.
 
If, for any taxable year, the Fund did not qualify as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it would be treated as a U.S. corporation subject to U.S. federal income tax, and possibly state and local income tax, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income. In such event, the Fund’s distributions, to the extent derived from the Fund’s current or accumulated earnings and profits, would generally constitute ordinary dividends, which would generally be eligible for the dividends received deduction available to corporate shareholders, and non-corporate shareholders would generally be able to treat such distributions as “qualified dividend income” eligible for reduced rates of U.S. federal income taxation, provided in each case that certain holding period and other requirements are satisfied.
 
A Common Stockholder will have all dividends and distributions automatically reinvested in Common Shares of the Fund (unless the stockholder “opts out” of the Plan). For shareholders subject to U.S. federal income tax, all dividends will generally be taxable regardless of whether the shareholder takes them in cash or they are reinvested in additional shares of the Fund. Distributions of the Fund’s investment company taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid) will generally be taxable as ordinary income to the extent of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. However, a portion of such distributions derived from certain corporate dividends, if any, may qualify for either the dividends received deduction available to corporate shareholders under Section 243 of the Code or the reduced rates of U.S. federal income taxation for “qualified dividend income” available to non-corporate shareholders under Section 1(h)(11) of the Code, provided in each case certain holding period and other requirements are met. Distributions of net capital gain, if any, that are properly reported by the Fund are generally taxable as long-term capital gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes without regard to the length of time a shareholder has held shares of the Fund.  If the Fund received dividends from an Underlying Fund that qualifies as a regulated investment company, and the Underlying Fund designates such dividends as qualified dividend income or as eligible for the dividends received deduction, then the Fund is permitted in turn to designate a portion of its distributions as qualified dividend income and/or as eligible for the dividends received deduction, provided the Fund meets holding period and other requirements with respect to shares of the Underlying Fund.
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 A distribution of an amount in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits, if any, will be treated by a shareholder as a tax-free return of capital, which is applied against and reduces the shareholder’s basis in his, her or its shares. Distributions in excess of the Fund's current and accumulated earnings and profits may be more likely as a result of the Contingent Quarterly Special Distribution Program. To the extent that the amount of any such distribution exceeds the shareholder’s basis in his, her, or its shares, the excess will be treated by the shareholder as gain from the sale or exchange of such shares. The U.S. federal income tax status of all dividends and distributions will be designated by the Fund and reported to shareholders annually. The Fund can provide no assurance regarding the portion of its dividends that will qualify for the dividends received deduction or for qualified dividend income treatment.
 
The Fund intends to distribute all realized net capital gains, if any, at least annually. If, however, the Fund were to retain any net capital gain, the Fund may designate the retained amount as undistributed capital gains in a notice to shareholders who, if subject to U.S. federal income tax on long-term capital gains, (i) will be required to include in income as long-term capital gain, their proportionate share of such undistributed amount, and (ii) will be entitled to credit their proportionate share of the federal income tax paid by the Fund on the undistributed amount against their U.S. federal income tax liabilities, if any, and to claim refunds to the extent the credit exceeds such liabilities. If such an event occurs, the tax basis of shares owned by a shareholder of the Fund will, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, generally be increased by the difference between the amount of undistributed net capital gain included in the shareholder’s gross income and the tax deemed paid by the shareholder.
 
Any dividend declared by the Fund in October, November or December with a record date in such a month and paid during the following January will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as paid by the Fund and received by shareholders on December 31 of the calendar year in which it is declared.
 
If a shareholder’s distributions are automatically reinvested in additional Common Shares, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the shareholder will be treated as having received a taxable distribution in the amount of the cash dividend that the shareholder would have received if the shareholder had elected to receive cash, unless the distribution is in newly issued shares of the Fund that are trading at or above NAV, in which case the shareholder will be treated as receiving a taxable distribution equal to the fair market value of the stock the shareholder receives.
 
Certain of the investment practices of the Fund or an Underlying Fund are subject to special and complex federal income tax provisions that may, among other things, (i) disallow, suspend or otherwise limit the allowance of certain losses or deductions, (ii) convert tax-advantaged, long-term capital gains and qualified dividend income into higher taxed short-term capital gain or ordinary income, (iii) convert an ordinary loss or a deduction into a capital loss (the deductibility of which is more limited), (iv) cause the Fund or an Underlying Fund to recognize income or gain without a corresponding receipt of cash, (v) adversely affect the timing as to when a purchase or sale of stock or securities is deemed to occur, (vi) produce income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 90% income test and (vii) adversely alter the intended characterization of certain complex financial transactions. These rules could therefore affect the character, amount and timing of distributions to shareholders. The Fund will monitor its investments and transactions and may make certain federal income tax elections where applicable in order to mitigate the effect of these provisions, if possible.
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The Fund will not be able to offset gains distributed by one Underlying Fund in which it invests against losses realized by another Underlying Fund in which the Fund invests. Redemptions of shares in an Underlying Fund, including those resulting from changes in the allocation among Underlying Funds, could also cause additional distributable gains to shareholders of the Fund. A portion of any such gains may be short-term capital gains that would be distributable as ordinary income to shareholders of the Fund. Further, a portion of losses on redemptions of shares in the Underlying Funds may be deferred under the wash sale rules. Additionally, the Fund’s investment in an Underlying Fund may result in the Fund’s receipt of cash in excess of the Underlying Fund’s earnings; if the Fund distributes these amounts, the distributions could constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for federal income tax purposes.  As a result of these factors, the use of the fund of funds structure by the Fund could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders.
 
Investments in distressed debt obligations that are at risk of or in default may present special federal income tax issues for the Fund. The federal income tax consequences to a holder of such securities are not entirely certain. If the Fund’s characterization of such investments were successfully challenged by the IRS or the IRS issues guidance regarding investments in such securities, it may affect whether the Fund has made sufficient distributions or otherwise satisfied the requirements to maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company and avoid federal income and excise taxes.
 
The Fund or an Underlying Fund may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries, including taxes on interest, dividends and capital gains with respect to its investments in those countries, which would, if imposed, reduce the yield on or return from those investments. Tax treaties between certain countries and the U.S. may reduce or eliminate such taxes in some cases. If more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of its taxable year consists of stock or securities of foreign corporations, or if at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of each quarter of its taxable year is represented by interests in other regulated investment companies, the Fund may elect to “pass through” to its shareholders the amount of foreign taxes paid or deemed paid by the Fund. If the Fund so elects, each of its shareholders would be required to include in gross income, even though not actually received, its pro rata share of the foreign taxes paid or deemed paid by the Fund, but would be treated as having paid its pro rata share of such foreign taxes and would therefore be allowed to either deduct such amount in computing taxable income or use such amount (subject to various limitations) as a foreign tax credit against federal income tax (but not both).
 
Sales, exchanges and other dispositions of the Fund’s shares generally are taxable events for shareholders that are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisors with reference to their individual circumstances to determine whether any particular transaction in the Fund’s shares is properly treated as a sale or exchange for federal income tax purposes, as the following discussion assumes, and the tax treatment of any gains or losses recognized in such transactions. Gain or loss will generally be equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of other property received and the shareholder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares sold or exchanged. Such gain or loss will generally be characterized as capital gain or loss and will be long-term if the shareholder’s holding period for the shares is more than one year and short-term if it is one year or less. However, any loss realized by a shareholder upon the sale or other disposition of shares with a tax holding period of six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any amounts treated as distributions of long-term capital gain with respect to such shares. For the purposes of calculating the six-month period, the holding period is suspended for any periods during which the shareholder’s risk of loss is diminished as a result of holding one or more other positions in substantially similar or related property or through certain options, short sales or contractual obligations to sell. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited. In addition, losses on sales or other dispositions of shares may be disallowed under the “wash sale” rules in the event that substantially identical stock or securities are acquired (including those made pursuant to reinvestment of dividends) within a period of 61 days beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after a sale or other disposition of shares. In such a case, the disallowed portion of any loss generally would be included in the U.S. federal income tax basis of the shares acquired.
 
An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts. Because the Fund does not expect to distribute dividends that would give rise to an adjustment to an individual’s alternative minimum taxable income, an investment in the Common Shares should not, by itself, cause the holders of Common Shares to become subject to alternative minimum tax.
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The Fund is required in certain circumstances to backup withhold at a current rate of 28% on reportable payments including dividends, capital gain distributions, and proceeds of sales or other dispositions of the Fund’s shares paid to certain holders of the Fund’s shares who do not furnish the Fund with their correct social security number or other taxpayer identification number and certain certifications, or who are otherwise subject to backup withholding. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld from payments made to a shareholder may be refunded or credited against such shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
 
This Prospectus does not address the U.S. federal income tax consequences to a non-U.S. shareholder of an investment in Common Shares. Non-U.S. shareholders should consult their tax advisors concerning the tax consequences of ownership of shares of the Fund, including the possibility that distributions may be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax (or a reduced rate of withholding provided by an applicable treaty if the investor provides proper certification of its non-U.S. status).
 
The foregoing is a general and abbreviated summary of the provisions of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder currently in effect as they directly govern the taxation of the Fund and its shareholders. These provisions are subject to change by legislative or administrative action, and any such change may be retroactive. A more complete discussion of the federal income tax rules applicable to the Fund can be found in the SAI, which is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. Shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding specific questions as to U.S. federal, foreign, state, and local income or other taxes before making an investment in the Fund.
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CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT
 
State Street Bank and Trust Company, located at State Street Financial Center, One Lincoln Street, Boston, MA 02111, will serve as the Fund’s custodian and will maintain custody of the securities and cash of the Fund. For its services, the custodian will receive a monthly fee based upon, among other things, the average value of the total assets of the Fund, plus certain charges for securities transactions.
 
DST Systems, Inc., an affiliate of the Adviser and the Fund’s administrator, located at 333 West 11th Street, 5th floor, Kansas City, Missouri 64105, will serve as the Fund’s transfer agent and registrar.
 
LEGAL MATTERS
 
Certain legal matters in connection with the Common Shares will be passed upon for the Fund by Dechert LLP, New York, New York. Dechert LLP may rely as to certain matters of Maryland law on the opinion of Morrison & Foerster LLP.
 
CONTROL PERSONS
 
As of the date of this prospectus, there are no persons who control the Fund. For purposes of the foregoing statement, “control” means (1) the beneficial ownership, either directly or through one or more controlled companies, of more than 25% of the voting securities of a company; (2) the acknowledgment or assertion by either the controlled or controlling party of the existence of control; or (3) an adjudication under Section 2(a)(9) of the 1940 Act, which has become final, that control exists.
 
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 
The Fund will be subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the 1940 Act and in accordance therewith files reports and other information with the SEC. Reports, proxy statements and other information filed by the Fund with the SEC pursuant to the informational requirements of such Acts can be inspected and copied at the public reference facilities maintained by the SEC, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. The SEC maintains a web site at http://www.sec.gov containing reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants, including the Fund, that file electronically with the SEC.
 
This Prospectus constitutes part of a Registration Statement filed by the Fund with the SEC under the Securities Act and the 1940 Act. This Prospectus omits certain of the information contained in the Registration Statement, and reference is hereby made to the Registration Statement and related exhibits for further information with respect to the Fund and the Common Shares offered hereby. Any statements contained herein concerning the provisions of any document are not necessarily complete, and, in each instance, reference is made to the copy of such document filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement or otherwise filed with the SEC. Each such statement is qualified in its entirety by such reference. The complete Registration Statement may be obtained from the SEC upon payment of the fee prescribed by its rules and regulations or free of charge through the SEC’s website (http://www.sec.gov).
 
THE FUND’S PRIVACY POLICY
 
The Fund is committed to ensuring your financial privacy. This notice is being sent to comply with privacy regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Fund has in effect the following policy with respect to nonpublic personal information about its customers:
 
·          Only such information received from you, through application forms or otherwise, and information about your Fund transactions will be collected.
 
·          None of such information about you (or former customers) will be disclosed to anyone, except as permitted by law (which includes disclosure to employees necessary to service your account).
 
·          Policies and procedures (including physical, electronic and procedural safeguards) are in place that are designed to protect the confidentiality of such information.
 
·          The Fund does not currently obtain consumer information. If the Fund were to obtain consumer information at any time in the future, it would employ appropriate procedural safeguards that comply with federal standards to protect against unauthorized access to and properly dispose of consumer information.
 
For more information about the Fund’s privacy policies call (855) 830-1222 (toll-free).
75

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THE STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
 
Investment Restrictions
1
Investment Policies And Techniques
2
Management Of The Fund
25
Investment Adviser and Subadviser
25
Investment Advisory and Subadvisory Agreements
26
Compensation of Portfolio Managers
27
Portfolio Manager Ownership of Fund Shares
27
Conflicts of Interest
27
Other Accounts Managed
28
Administrator
28
Codes of Ethics
29
Fund Service Providers
29
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
29
Legal Counsel
29
Custodian and Transfer Agent
29
Portfolio Transactions
29
Dividends
30
Repurchase Of Shares
31
U.S. Federal Income Tax Matters
32
Fund Taxation
32
Shareholder Taxation
35
Other Taxes
38
Board Members And Officers
39
Independent Board Members
39
Interested Board Members and Officers
42
Securities Beneficially Owned
49
Proxy Voting Guidelines
47
Additional Information
50
Financial Statements And Report Of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
51
Appendix A: Proxy Voting Guidelines
52
76

RiverNorth Opportunities Fund, Inc.
______________________________
 
Prospectus
 
October 10, 2017
_____________________________
77

RIVERNORTH OPPORTUNITIES FUND, INC. (the “Fund”)
 
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATED OCTOBER 10, 2017
 
The Fund is a diversified, closed-end management investment company.  The Fund’s investment objective is total return consisting of capital appreciation and current income.  The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by pursuing a tactical asset allocation strategy and opportunistically investing under normal circumstances in closed-end funds and exchange-traded funds (“ETFs” and collectively, “Underlying Funds”).  Underlying Funds also may include business development companies.  There is no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.
 
This statement of additional information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus, but should be read in conjunction with the prospectus for the Fund dated October 10, 2017.  Investors should obtain and read the prospectus prior to purchasing shares of common stock.  A copy of the prospectus may be obtained without charge by calling the Fund at (855) 830-1222.
 
The prospectus and this SAI omit certain of the information contained in the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), Washington, D.C.  The Fund’s filings with the SEC also are available to the public on the SEC’s Internet web site at www.sec.gov. Copies of these filings, as well as the registration statement, may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by writing the SEC’s Public Reference Section, 100 F Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20549.
 
Capitalized terms used but not defined herein have the meanings ascribed to them in the prospectus.
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Investment Restrictions
1
Investment Policies And Techniques
2
Management Of The Fund
25
Adviser and Subadviser
25
Investment Advisory and Subadvisory Agreements
26
Compensation of Portfolio Managers
27
Portfolio Manager Ownership of Fund Shares
27
Conflicts of Interest
27
Other Accounts Managed
27
Administrator
28
Codes of Ethics
29
Fund Service Providers
29
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
29
Legal Counsel
29
Custodian and Transfer Agent
29
Portfolio Transactions
29

Dividends
30
Repurchase Of Shares
31
U.S. Federal Income Tax Matters
32
Fund Taxation
32
Shareholder Taxation
35
Other Taxes
38
Board Members And Officers
39
Independent Board Members
39
Interested Board Members and Officers
42
Securities Beneficially Owned
49
Proxy Voting Guidelines
49
Additional Information
50
Financial Statements And Report Of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
51
Appendix A: Proxy Voting Guidelines
52

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS
 
Except as otherwise indicated, the Fund’s investment policies are not fundamental and may be changed without a vote of shareholders.  There can be no assurance the Fund’s investment objective will be met.
 
Any investment restrictions herein that involve a maximum percentage of securities or assets shall not be considered to be violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after and is caused by an acquisition or encumbrance of securities or assets of, or borrowings by, the Fund.
 
As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund will not:
 
(1)          borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, and as interpreted or modified by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time;
 
(2)          issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act and as interpreted or modified by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time; 
 
(3)          concentrate its investments in a particular industry or group of industries (as the term “concentrate” is used in the 1940 Act, as interpreted or modified by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time), except to the extent that Underlying Funds in which the Fund invests concentrate their investments in a particular industry or group of industries;
 
(4)          engage in the business of underwriting securities issued by others, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter in connection with the disposition of portfolio securities;
 
(5)          purchase or sell real estate, which term does not include securities of companies which deal in real estate or mortgages or investments secured by real estate or interests therein, except that the Fund reserves freedom of action to hold and to sell real estate acquired as a result of the Fund’s ownership of securities;
 
(6)          purchase or sell commodities, unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments; provided that this restriction shall not prohibit the Fund from purchasing or selling options, future contracts and related options thereon, forward contracts, swaps, caps, floors collars and any other financial instruments or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities or as otherwise  permitted by the 1940 Act and as interpreted or modified by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time, or an exemption or other relief applicable to the Fund from the provisions of the 1940 Act, as amended from time to time;
 
(7)          With respect to 75% of the Fund’s total assets, purchase the securities of any issuer (except obligations of the United States Government and its instrumentalities and securities of other investment companies) if, as a result, (a) more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets would be invested in the securities of that issuer, or (b) the Fund would hold more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of that issuer; or
 
(8)          make loans except as permitted under the 1940 Act and as interpreted or modified by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
 
A fundamental policy may not be changed without the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund which, under the 1940 Act and the rules thereunder and as used in this SAI, means the lesser of (1) 67% or more of the voting securities present at such meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (2) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund. 
 
Fundamental Investment Restriction (1)

The 1940 Act permits the Fund to borrow money in an amount up to one-third of its total assets (including the amount borrowed) less its liabilities (not including any borrowings but including the fair market value at the time of computation of any other senior securities then outstanding). The Fund may also borrow an additional 5% of its total assets without regard to the foregoing limitation for temporary purposes such as clearance of portfolio transactions.  Practices and investments that may involve leverage but are not considered to be borrowings are not subject to the policy.  For more information on leverage and the risks relating thereto, see “Risks—Structural Risks—Leverage Risks” in the Prospectus.
1

Fundamental Investment Restriction (2)

The ability of a closed-end fund to issue senior securities is severely circumscribed by complex regulatory constraints under the 1940 Act that restrict, for instance, the amount, timing, and form of senior securities that may be issued. Certain portfolio management techniques, such as reverse repurchase agreements, credit default swaps, futures contracts, the purchase of securities on margin, short sales, or the writing of puts on portfolio securities, may be considered senior securities unless appropriate steps are taken to segregate assets or otherwise cover obligations. To the extent the Fund covers its commitment under these transactions, including by the segregation of liquid assets, such instrument will not be considered a “senior security” by the Fund and therefore will not be subject to the 300% asset coverage requirement otherwise applicable to borrowings by the Fund (or, as the case may be, the 200% asset coverage requirement applicable to preferred shares).

The Fund does not anticipate issuing any class of equity senior securities. Under the 1940 Act, the issuance of any other type of senior security by the Fund is subject to a requirement that provision is made that, (i) if on the last business day of each of 12 consecutive calendar months the asset coverage with respect to the senior security is less than 100%, the holders of such securities voting as a class shall be entitled to elect at least a majority of the Board with such voting right to continue until the asset coverage for such class of senior security is at least 110% on the last business day of each of 3 consecutive calendar months or, (ii) if on the last business day of each of 24 consecutive calendar months the asset coverage for such class of senior security is less than 100%, an event of default shall be deemed to have occurred.

Fundamental Investment Restriction (6)

The ability of the Fund to invest directly in commodities, and in certain commodity-related securities and other instruments, is subject to significant limitations in order to enable the Fund to maintain its status as a regulated investment company under the Code.
 
Fundamental Investment Restriction (8)

The 1940 Act does not prohibit a fund from making loans; however, SEC staff interpretations currently prohibit funds from lending more than one third of their total assets, except through the purchase of debt obligations or the use of repurchase agreements. A repurchase agreement is an agreement to purchase a security, coupled with an agreement to sell that security back to the original seller on an agreed-upon date at a price that reflects current interest rates. The SEC frequently treats repurchase agreements as loans.

INVESTMENT POLICIES AND TECHNIQUES
 
Descriptions in this SAI of a particular investment practice or technique in which the Fund may engage are meant to describe the spectrum of investments that RiverNorth Capital Management, LLC (“RiverNorth” or the “Subadviser”), in its discretion may, but is not required to, use in managing the Fund’s assets.  These same investment practices or techniques may be used by the Underlying Funds in which the Fund invests.  Furthermore, it is possible that certain types of financial instruments or investment techniques described herein may not be available, permissible, economically feasible or effective for their intended purposes in all markets.  Certain practices, techniques or instruments may not be principal activities of the Fund, but, to the extent employed, could from time to time have a material impact on the Fund’s performance.
 
Borrowing.  The Fund may borrow funds and/or issue preferred stock, notes or debt securities in an aggregate amount of up to 15% of the Fund’s Managed Assets immediately after such borrowings or issuance for investment purposes.  These practices are known as leveraging.  Currently, under the 1940 Act, the Fund may borrow up to one-third of its total assets (including the amount borrowed) provided that it maintains continuous asset coverage of 300% with respect to such borrowings and sells (within three days) sufficient portfolio holdings to restore such coverage if it should decline to less than 300% due to market fluctuations or otherwise, even if disadvantageous from an investment standpoint.  The Fund may borrow through other means to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, including through a line of credit with a bank or other financial institution.  In addition to borrowing for leverage purposes, the Fund also may borrow money to meet redemptions in order to avoid forced, unplanned sales of portfolio securities or for other temporary or emergency purposes.  This allows the Fund greater flexibility to buy and sell portfolio securities for investment or tax considerations, rather than for cash flow considerations.
2

The use of borrowing by the Fund involves special risk considerations that may not be associated with other funds having similar policies.  Because substantially all of the Fund’s assets fluctuate in value, whereas the interest obligation resulting from a borrowing may be fixed by the terms of the Fund’s agreement with its lender, the NAV per share of the Fund will tend to increase more when its portfolio securities increase in value and decrease more when its portfolio securities decrease in value than would otherwise be the case if the Fund did not borrow funds.  In addition, interest costs on borrowings may fluctuate with changing market rates of interest and may partially offset or exceed the return earned on borrowed funds.  Under adverse market conditions, the Fund might have to sell portfolio securities to meet interest or principal payments at a time when fundamental investment considerations would not favor such sales.  The interest that the Fund must pay on borrowed money, together with any additional fees to establish and maintain a borrowing facility, are additional costs that will reduce or eliminate any net investment income and may also offset any potential capital gains.  Unless appreciation and income, if any, on assets acquired with borrowed funds exceed the costs of borrowing, the use of leverage will diminish the investment performance of the Fund compared with what it would have been without leverage.
 
Cash Management.  The Fund may have cash balances that have not been invested in portfolio securities (“Uninvested Cash”).  Uninvested Cash may result from a variety of sources, including dividends or interest received from portfolio securities, unsettled securities transactions, reserves held for investment strategy purposes, assets to cover the Fund’s open derivatives positions, scheduled maturity of investments, liquidation of investment securities to meet anticipated redemptions and dividend payments, and new cash received from investors.  Uninvested Cash may be invested directly in money market instruments or other short-term debt obligations.
 
Certificates of Deposit, Bankers’ Acceptances and Time Deposits.  Certificates of deposit are receipts issued by a depository institution in exchange for the deposit of funds.  The issuer agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the bearer of the receipt on the date specified on the certificate.  The certificate usually can be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity.  Bankers’ acceptances typically arise from short-term credit arrangements designed to enable businesses to obtain funds to finance commercial transactions.  Generally, an acceptance is a time draft drawn on a bank by an exporter or an importer to obtain a stated amount of funds to pay for specific merchandise.  The draft is then “accepted” by a bank that, in effect, unconditionally guarantees to pay the face value of the instrument on its maturity date.  The acceptance may then be held by the accepting bank as an earning asset or it may be sold in the secondary market at the going rate of discount for a specific maturity.  Although maturities for acceptances can be as long as 270 days, most acceptances have maturities of six months or less.
 
The Fund may also invest in certificates of deposit issued by banks and savings and loan institutions which had, at the time of their most recent annual financial statements, total assets of less than $1 billion, provided that (i) the principal amounts of such certificates of deposit are insured by an agency of the U.S. Government, (ii) at no time will the Fund hold more than $100,000 principal amount of certificates of deposit of any one such bank, and (iii) at the time of acquisition, no more than 10% of the Fund’s assets (taken at current value) are invested in certificates of deposit of such banks having total assets not in excess of $1 billion.
 
Banker’s acceptances are credit instruments evidencing the obligations of a bank to pay a draft drawn on it by a customer.  These instruments reflect the obligation both of the bank and of the drawer to pay the face amount of the instrument upon maturity.
 
Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in a banking institution for a specified period of time at a stated interest rate.  Time deposits which may be held by the Fund will not benefit from insurance from the Bank Insurance Fund or the Savings Association Insurance Fund administered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.  Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties that vary with market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation.
3

Closed-End Funds.  Shares of closed-end funds are typically offered to the public in a one-time initial public offering by a group of underwriters who retain a spread or underwriting commission of between 3% and 6% of the initial public offering price. Such securities are then listed for trading on an exchange and, in some cases, may be traded in other over-the-counter markets. Because the shares of closed-end funds cannot be redeemed upon demand to the issuer like the shares of an open-end fund, investors seek to buy and sell shares of closed-end funds in the secondary market.
 
The Fund generally will purchase shares of closed-end funds only in the secondary market. The Fund will incur normal brokerage costs on such purchases similar to the expenses the Fund would incur for the purchase of securities of any other type of issuer in the secondary market. The Fund may, however, also purchase securities of a closed-end fund in an initial public offering when, in the opinion of the Subadviser, based on a consideration of the nature of the closed-end fund’s proposed investments, the prevailing market conditions and the level of demand for such securities, they represent an attractive opportunity for growth of capital. The initial offering price typically will include a dealer spread, which may be higher than the applicable brokerage cost if the Fund purchased such securities in the secondary market.
 
The shares of many closed-end funds, after their initial public offering, frequently trade at a price per share that is less than the NAV per share, the difference representing the “market discount” of such shares. This market discount may be due in part to the investment objective of long-term appreciation, which is sought by many closed-end funds, as well as to the fact that the shares of closed-end funds are not redeemable by the holder upon demand to the issuer at the next determined NAV, but rather, are subject to supply and demand in the secondary market. A relative lack of secondary market purchasers of closed-end fund shares also may contribute to such shares trading at a discount to their NAV.
 
The Fund may invest in shares of closed-end funds that are trading at a discount to NAV or at a premium to NAV. There can be no assurance that the market discount on shares of any closed-end fund purchased by the Fund will ever decrease. In fact, it is possible that this market discount may increase and the Fund may suffer realized or unrealized capital losses due to further decline in the market price of the securities of such closed-end funds, thereby adversely affecting the NAV of the Fund’s shares. Similarly, there can be no assurance that any shares of a closed-end fund purchased by the Fund at a premium will continue to trade at a premium or that the premium will not decrease subsequent to a purchase of such shares by the Fund.
 
Closed-end funds may issue senior securities (including preferred stock and debt obligations) for the purpose of leveraging the closed-end fund’s common shares in an attempt to enhance the current return to such closed-end fund’s common stockholders. The Fund’s investment in the common shares of closed-end funds that are financially leveraged may create an opportunity for greater total return on its investment, but at the same time may be expected to exhibit more volatility in market price and NAV than an investment in shares of investment companies without a leveraged capital structure.
 
Commercial Paper.  Commercial paper consists of short-term (usually from 1 to 270 days) unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations in order to finance current operations.
 
Common Stocks (Underlying Funds Only).  Common stock is issued by companies to raise cash for business purposes and represents a proportionate interest in the issuing companies.  Therefore, the Underlying Fund participates in the success or failure of any company in which it holds stock.  The market values of common stock can fluctuate significantly, reflecting the business performance of the issuing company, investor perception and general economic or financial market movements.  Smaller companies are especially sensitive to these factors and may even become valueless.
 
Convertible Securities (Underlying Funds Only).  Convertible securities include fixed income securities that may be exchanged or converted into a predetermined number of shares of the issuer’s underlying common stock at the option of the holder during a specified period.  Convertible securities may take the form of convertible preferred stock, convertible bonds or debentures, units consisting of “usable” bonds and warrants or a combination of the features of several of these securities.  Convertible securities are senior to common stocks in an issuer’s capital structure, but are usually subordinated to similar non-convertible securities.  While providing a fixed-income stream (generally higher in yield than the income derivable from common stock but lower than that afforded by a similar nonconvertible security), a convertible security also gives an investor the opportunity, through its conversion feature, to participate in the capital appreciation of the issuing company depending upon a market price advance in the convertible security’s underlying common stock.
4

Corporate Debt Securities (Underlying Funds Only).  Corporate debt securities are long- and short-term debt obligations issued by companies (such as publicly issued and privately placed bonds, notes and commercial paper).  The Adviser considers corporate debt securities to be of investment grade quality if they are rated BBB or higher by Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC or Baa or higher by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., or if unrated, determined by the Subadviser to be of comparable quality.  Investment grade debt securities generally have adequate to strong protection of principal and interest payments.  In the lower end of this category, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity to pay interest and repay principal than in higher rated categories.  An Underlying Fund may invest in both secured and unsecured corporate bonds.  A secured bond is backed by collateral and an unsecured bond is not. Therefore an unsecured bond may have a lower recovery value than a secured bond in the event of a default by its issuer.  The Subadviser may incorrectly analyze the risks inherent in corporate bonds, such as the issuer’s ability to meet interest and principal payments, resulting in a loss to the Fund.
 
Depositary Receipts (Underlying Funds Only).  Sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) are receipts issued by an American bank or trust company evidencing ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer.  ADRs, in sponsored form, are designed for use in U.S. securities markets.  A sponsoring company provides financial information to the bank and may subsidize administration of the ADR.  Unsponsored ADRs may be created by a broker-dealer or depository bank without the participation of the foreign issuer. Holders of these ADRs generally bear all the costs of the ADR facility, whereas foreign issuers typically bear certain costs in a sponsored ADR.  The bank or trust company depositary of an unsponsored ADR may be under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the foreign issuer or to pass through voting rights.  Unsponsored ADRs may carry more risk than sponsored ADRs because of the absence of financial information provided by the underlying company.  Many of the risks described below regarding foreign securities apply to investments in ADRs.
 
Defaulted and Distressed Securities (Underlying Funds Only).  Defaulted and distressed securities may include companies in bankruptcy, liquidation or those which may be in default on obligations.  Some of the risks involved with defaulted and distressed securities include legal difficulties and negotiations with creditors and other claimants that are common when dealing with defaulted and distressed companies.  In the event of a default, an Underlying Fund may incur additional expenses to seek recovery.  The repayment of defaulted bonds is subject to significant uncertainties, and in some cases, there may be no recovery of repayment.  Defaulted bonds might be repaid only after lengthy workout or bankruptcy proceedings, during which the issuer might not make any interest or other payments.  Because of the relative illiquidity of distressed debt and equity securities, short sales are difficult, and most funds primarily maintain long positions.  Some relative value trades are possible, where an investor sells short one class of a distressed company’s capital structure and purchases another.  Among the many risks associated with distressed investing are the time lag between when an investment is made and when the value of the investment is realized and the legal and other monitoring costs that are involved in protecting the value of an Underlying Fund’s claims.
 
Emerging Markets Securities (Underlying Funds Only).  Investing in emerging market securities imposes risks different from, or greater than, risks of investing in foreign developed countries.  These risks include (i) the smaller market capitalization of securities markets, which may suffer periods of relative illiquidity, (ii) significant price volatility, (iii) restrictions on foreign investment, and (iv) possible repatriation of investment income and capital.  In addition, foreign investors may be required to register the proceeds of sales, and future economic or political crises could lead to price controls, forced mergers, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, seizure, nationalization, or the creation of government monopolies.  The currencies of emerging market countries may experience significant declines against the U.S. dollar, and devaluation may occur subsequent to investments in these currencies by an Underlying Fund.  Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and may continue to have, negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries.
 
Certain emerging markets limit, or require governmental approval prior to, investments by foreign persons.  Repatriation of investment income and capital from certain emerging markets is subject to certain governmental consents.  Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect the operation of an Underlying Fund.
5

Investments in emerging markets may be considered speculative.  In addition, currency hedging techniques may be unavailable in certain emerging market countries. Further, any change in the leadership or politics of emerging market countries, or the countries that exercise a significant influence over those countries, may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities. The small size, limited trading volume and relative inexperience of the securities markets in these countries may make investments in securities traded in emerging markets illiquid and more volatile than investments in securities traded in more developed countries. In addition, an Underlying Fund may be required to establish special custodial or other arrangements before making investments in securities traded in emerging markets. The risk also exists that an emergency situation may arise in one or more emerging markets as a result of which trading of securities may cease or may be substantially curtailed and prices for an Underlying Fund’s securities in such markets may not be readily available.
 
Additional risks of emerging markets securities may include (i) greater social, economic and political uncertainty and instability (including amplified risk of war and terrorism), (ii) more substantial governmental involvement in the economy, (iii) less governmental supervision and regulation, (iv) the unavailability of currency hedging technique, (v) companies that are newly organized and small, (vi) differences in auditing and financial reporting standards, which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers, and (vii) less developed legal systems.  In addition, emerging securities markets may have different clearance and settlement procedures, which may be unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions or otherwise make it difficult to engage in such transactions.  Settlement problems may cause an Underlying Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities, hold a portion of its assets in cash pending investment, or be delayed in disposing of a portfolio security.  Such a delay could result in possible liability to a purchaser of the security.
 
Equity Securities (Underlying Funds Only).  Equity securities consist of common stock, convertible preferred stock, rights and warrants.  Common stocks, the most familiar type, represent an equity (ownership) interest in a corporation.  Warrants are options to purchase equity securities at a specified price for a specific time period.  Rights are similar to warrants, but normally have a short duration and are distributed by the issuer to its shareholders.  Although equity securities have a history of long term growth in value, their prices fluctuate based on changes in a company’s financial condition and on overall market and economic conditions.
 
Investments in equity securities are subject to inherent market risks and fluctuations in value due to earnings, economic conditions and other factors beyond the control of the Subadviser.  As a result, the return and NAV of the Fund will fluctuate.  Securities in the Fund’s portfolio may not increase as much as the market as a whole and some undervalued securities may continue to be undervalued for long periods of time.  Although profits in some Underlying Fund holdings may be realized quickly, it is not expected that most investments will appreciate rapidly.
 
Eurodollar Instruments (Underlying Funds Only).  Eurodollar instruments are U.S. dollar-denominated futures contracts or options thereon that are linked to the LIBOR, although foreign currency-denominated instruments are available from time to time.  Eurodollar futures contracts enable purchasers to obtain a fixed rate for the lending of funds and sellers to obtain a fixed rate for borrowings.  An Underlying Fund might use Eurodollar futures contracts and options thereon to hedge against changes in LIBOR, to which many interest rate swaps and fixed income instruments are linked.
 
Exchange-Traded Funds.  Exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) are funds whose shares are traded on securities exchanges, which seek to approximate the investment performance of their respective benchmarks by investing in a variety of U.S. and foreign equity, debt, commodities, money market securities, futures and other instruments.  The shares of an ETF may be assembled in a block (typically 50,000 shares) known as a creation unit and redeemed in —kind for a portfolio of the underlying securities (based on the ETF’s NAV) together with a cash payment generally equal to accumulated dividends as of the date of redemption.  Conversely, a creation unit may be purchased from the ETF by depositing a specified portfolio of the ETF’s underlying securities, as well as a cash payment generally equal to accumulated dividends of the securities (net of expenses) up to the time of deposit.  The Fund expects that it will purchase shares of ETFs on an exchange at market price rather than from the ETFs in creation units.
6

When the Fund invests in sector ETFs, there is a risk that securities within the same group of industries will decline in price due to sector-specific market or economic developments.  If the Fund invests more heavily in a particular sector, the value of its shares may be especially sensitive to factors and economic risks that specifically affect that sector.  As a result, the Fund’s share price may fluctuate more widely than the value of shares of a mutual fund that invests in a broader range of industries.  Additionally, some sectors could be subject to greater government regulation than other sectors.  Therefore, changes in regulatory policies for those sectors may have a material effect on the value of securities issued by companies in those sectors.  The sectors in which the Fund may be more heavily invested will vary.
 
Exchange-Traded Notes.  Exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”) are a type of unsecured, unsubordinated debt security.  ETNs combine certain aspects of bonds and ETFs.
 
Similar to ETFs, ETNs are traded on a major exchange (e.g., NYSE) during normal trading hours although trading volume can be limited.  However, investors can also hold the ETN until maturity.  At maturity, the issuer pays to the investor a cash amount equal to the principal amount, subject to the day’s index factor.  ETN returns are based upon the performance of a market index minus applicable fees.  ETNs do not make periodic coupon payments and provide no principal protection.  The value of an ETN may be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying markets, changes in the applicable interest rates, changes in the issuer’s credit rating and economic, legal, political or geographic events that affect the referenced index.  The value of the ETN may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating, despite the underlying index remaining unchanged.
 
Foreign Currencies (Underlying Funds Only).  Because investments in foreign securities usually will involve currencies of foreign countries, and because an Underlying Fund may hold foreign currencies and forward contracts, futures contracts and options on foreign currencies and foreign currency futures contracts, the value of the assets of the Underlying Fund as measured in U.S. dollars may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations, and  the Underlying Fund may incur costs and experience conversion difficulties and uncertainties in connection with conversions between various currencies.  Fluctuations in exchange rates may also affect the earning power and asset value of the foreign entity issuing the security.
 
The strength or weakness of the U.S. dollar against these currencies is responsible for part of an Underlying Fund’s investment performance.  If the dollar falls in value relative to the Japanese yen, for example, the dollar value of a Japanese stock held in the portfolio will rise even though the price of the stock remains unchanged.  Conversely, if the dollar rises in value relative to the yen, the dollar value of the Japanese stock will fall.  Many foreign currencies have experienced significant devaluation relative to the dollar.
 
Although an Underlying Fund may value its assets daily in terms of U.S. dollars, it may not convert its holdings of foreign currencies into U.S. dollars on a daily basis.  Investors should be aware of the costs of currency conversion.  Although foreign exchange dealers do not charge a fee for conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (the “spread”) between the prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies.  Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to an Underlying Fund at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the Fund desire to resell that currency to the dealer.  An Underlying Fund may conduct its foreign currency exchange transactions either on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market, or through entering into options or forward or futures contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies.
 
Foreign Investments (Underlying Funds Only).  When foreign securities are denominated and traded in foreign currencies, the value of an Underlying Fund’s foreign investments and the value of its shares may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar.  There may be less information publicly available about a foreign issuer than about a U.S. issuer, and foreign issuers may not be subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices comparable to those in the U.S.  The securities of some foreign issuers are less liquid and at times more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. issuers.  Foreign brokerage commissions and other fees are also generally higher than in the U.S. Foreign settlement procedures and trade regulations may involve certain risks (such as delay in payment or delivery of securities or in the recovery of the Fund’s assets held abroad) and expenses not present in the settlement of investments in U.S. markets.  Payment for securities without delivery may be required in certain foreign markets.
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In addition, foreign securities may be subject to the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets, imposition of currency exchange controls or restrictions on the repatriation of foreign currency, confiscatory taxation, political or financial instability and diplomatic developments which could affect the value of an Underlying Fund’s investments in certain foreign countries.  Governments of many countries have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector through the ownership or control of many companies, including some of the largest in these countries.  As a result, government actions in the future could have a significant effect on economic conditions which may adversely affect prices of certain portfolio securities.  There is also generally less government supervision and regulation of stock exchanges, brokers, and listed companies than in the U.S.  Dividends or interest on, or proceeds from the sale of, foreign securities may be subject to foreign withholding taxes, and special U.S. tax considerations may apply.  Moreover, foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position.
 
Legal remedies available to investors in certain foreign countries may be more limited than those available with respect to investments in the U.S. or in other foreign countries.  The laws of some foreign countries may limit an Underlying Fund’s ability to invest in securities of certain issuers organized under the laws of those foreign countries.
 
Many foreign countries are heavily dependent upon exports, particularly to developed countries, and, accordingly, have been and may continue to be adversely affected by trade barriers, managed adjustments in relative currency values, and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the U.S. and other countries with which they trade.  These economies also have been and may continue to be negatively impacted by economic conditions in the U.S. and other trading partners, which can lower the demand for goods produced in those countries.
 
Certain of the foregoing risks may also apply to some extent to securities of U.S. issuers that are denominated in foreign currencies or that are traded in foreign markets, or securities of U.S. issuers having significant foreign operations.
 
High Yield Securities (Underlying Funds Only).  High yield, high risk bonds are securities that are generally rated below investment grade by the primary rating agencies (BB+ or lower by S&P and Ba1 or lower by Moody’s).  Other terms used to describe such securities include “lower rated bonds,” “non-investment grade bonds,” “below investment grade bonds,” and “junk bonds.”  These securities are considered to be high-risk investments.  The risks include the following:
 
Greater Risk of Loss.  These securities are regarded as predominately speculative.  There is a greater risk that issuers of lower rated securities will default than issuers of higher rated securities.  Issuers of lower rated securities generally are less creditworthy and may be highly indebted, financially distressed, or bankrupt.  These issuers are more vulnerable to real or perceived economic changes, political changes or adverse industry developments.  In addition, high yield securities (also known as “junk bonds”) are frequently subordinated to the prior payment of senior indebtedness.  If an issuer fails to pay principal or interest, an Underlying Fund would experience a decrease in income and a decline in the market value of its investments.  An Underlying Fund also may incur additional expenses in seeking recovery from the issuer.
 
Sensitivity to Interest Rate and Economic Changes.  The income and market value of lower-rated securities may fluctuate more than higher rated securities.  Although non-investment grade securities tend to be less sensitive to interest rate changes than investment grade securities, non-investment grade securities are more sensitive to short-term corporate, economic and market developments.  During periods of economic uncertainty and change, the market price of the investments in lower-rated securities may be volatile.  The default rate for high yield bonds tends to be cyclical, with defaults rising in periods of economic downturn.
 
Valuation Difficulties.  It is often more difficult to value lower rated securities than higher rated securities.  If an issuer’s financial condition deteriorates, accurate financial and business information may be limited or unavailable.  In addition, the lower rated investments may be thinly traded and there may be no established secondary market.  Because of the lack of market pricing and current information for investments in lower rated securities, valuation of such investments is much more dependent on judgment than is the case with higher rated securities.
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Liquidity.  There may be no established secondary or public market for investments in lower rated securities.  Such securities are frequently traded in markets that may be relatively less liquid than the market for higher rated securities.  In addition, relatively few institutional purchasers may hold a major portion of an issue of lower-rated securities at times.  As a result, lower rated securities may be required to be sold at substantial losses or retained indefinitely even where an issuer’s financial condition is deteriorating.
 
Credit Quality.  Credit quality of non-investment grade securities can change suddenly and unexpectedly, and even recently-issued credit ratings may not fully reflect the actual risks posed by a particular high-yield security.
 
New Legislation.  Future legislation may have a possible negative impact on the market for high yield, high risk bonds, also known as “junk bonds.” As an example, in the late 1980’s, legislation required federally-insured savings and loan associations to divest their investments in high yield, high risk bonds.  New legislation, if enacted, could have a material negative effect on an Underlying Fund’s investments in lower rated securities.
 
High yield, high risk investments may include the following:
 
Straight fixed-income debt securities.  These include bonds and other debt obligations that bear a fixed or variable rate of interest payable at regular intervals and have a fixed or resettable maturity date.  The particular terms of such securities vary and may include features such as call provisions and sinking funds.
 
Zero-coupon debt securities.  These bear no interest obligation but are issued at a discount from their value at maturity.  When held to maturity, their entire return equals the difference between their issue price and their maturity value.
 
Zero-fixed-coupon debt securities.  These are zero-coupon debt securities that convert on a specified date to interest-bearing debt securities.
 
Pay-in-kind bonds.  These are bonds which allow the issuer, at its option, to make current interest payments on the bonds either in cash or in additional bonds.
 
Convertible Securities.  These are bonds or preferred stock that may be converted to common stock.
 
Preferred Stock.  These are stocks that generally pay a dividend at a specified rate and have preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and in liquidation.
 
Loan Participations and Assignments.  These are participations in, or assignments of all or a portion of loans to corporations or to governments, including governments of less developed countries.
 
Securities issued in connection with Reorganization and Corporate Restructurings.  In connection with reorganizing or restructuring of an issuer, an issuer may issue common stock or other securities to holders of its debt securities.  The Fund may hold such common stock and other securities even if they do not invest in such securities.
 
Illiquid Securities and Restricted Securities (Underlying Funds Only).  Certain securities may be subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale (“restricted securities”).  Generally speaking, restricted securities may be sold: (i) only to qualified institutional buyers; (ii) in a privately negotiated transaction to a limited number of purchasers; (iii) in limited quantities after they have been held for a specified period of time and other conditions are met pursuant to an exemption from registration; or (iv) in a public offering for which a registration statement is in effect under the Securities Act.  Issuers of restricted securities may not be subject to the disclosure and other investor protection requirements that would be applicable if their securities were publicly traded.
 
Restricted securities are often illiquid, but they may also be liquid.  For example, restricted securities that are eligible for resale under Rule 144A are often deemed to be liquid.  The Fund may also purchase securities that are not subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale, but that are deemed illiquid.  Such securities may be illiquid, for example, because there is a limited trading market for them.
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The Fund may be unable to sell a restricted or illiquid security.  In addition, it may be more difficult to determine a market value for restricted or illiquid securities.  Moreover, if adverse market conditions were to develop during the period between the Fund’s decision to sell a restricted or illiquid  security and the point at which the Fund is permitted or able to sell such security, the Fund might obtain a price less favorable than the price that prevailed when it decided to sell.
 
Indexed Securities.  The Fund may invest in indexed securities, the value of which is linked to currencies, interest rates, commodities, indices or other financial indicators (“reference instruments”).  Most indexed securities have maturities of three years or less.
 
Indexed securities differ from other types of debt securities in which the Fund may invest in several respects.  First, the interest rate or, unlike other debt securities, the principal amount payable at maturity of an indexed security may vary based on changes in one or more specified reference instruments, such as an interest rate compared with a fixed interest rate or the currency exchange rates between two currencies (neither of which need be the currency in which the instrument is denominated).  The reference instrument need not be related to the terms of the indexed security.  For example, the principal amount of a U.S. dollar denominated indexed security may vary based on the exchange rate of two foreign currencies.  An indexed security may be positively or negatively indexed; that is, its value may increase or decrease if the value of the reference instrument increases.  Further, the change in the principal amount payable or the interest rate of an indexed security may be a multiple of the percentage change (positive or negative) in the value of the underlying reference instrument(s).
 
Investment in indexed securities involves certain risks.  In addition to the credit risk of the security’s issuer and the normal risks of price changes in response to changes in interest rates, the principal amount of indexed securities may decrease as a result of changes in the value of reference instruments.  Further, in the case of certain indexed securities in which the interest rate is linked to a reference instrument, the interest rate may be reduced to zero, and any further declines in the value of the security may then reduce the principal amount payable on maturity.  Finally, indexed securities may be more volatile than the reference instruments underlying the indexed securities.
 
Initial Public Offerings.  Shares purchased in initial public offerings (IPOs) frequently are volatile in price, the Fund may hold IPO shares for a very short period of time.  This may increase the turnover of the Fund’s portfolio and may lead to increased expenses to the Fund, such as commissions and transaction costs.  By selling shares, the Fund may realize taxable capital gains that they will subsequently distribute to shareholders.  Investing in IPOs has added risks because their shares are frequently volatile in price.  As a result, their performance can be more volatile and they face greater risk of business failure, which could increase the volatility of the Fund’s portfolio.
 
Investment Grade Debt Securities (Underlying Funds Only).  “Investment-grade” bonds are those rated Aaa, Aa, A or Baa by Moody’s or AAA, AA, A or BBB by S&P or similar ratings of another NRSRO or, if unrated, judged to be of equivalent quality as determined by the Subadviser.  Moody’s considers bonds it rates Baa to have speculative elements as well as investment-grade characteristics.  To the extent that an Underlying Fund invests in higher-grade securities, the Underlying Fund will not be able to avail itself of opportunities for higher income which may be available at lower grades.
 
Money Market Instruments.  Money market instruments generally refer to high-quality, short-term debt instruments, such as U.S. Treasury securities, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, time deposits, shares of U.S. registered money market funds, and other similar investments.
 
Master Limited Partnerships (Underlying Funds Only).  The Underlying Funds may invest in master limited partnership (“MLP”) common units. MLPs are typically structured such that common units and general partner interests have first priority to receive quarterly cash distributions up to an established minimum amount (“minimum quarterly distributions” or “MQD”). Common and general partner interests also accrue arrearages in distributions to the extent the MQD is not paid. Once common and general partner interests have been paid, subordinated units receive distributions of up to the MQD; however, subordinated units do not accrue arrearages. Distributable cash in excess of the MQD paid to both common and subordinated units is distributed to both common and subordinated units generally on a pro rata basis.

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The general partner is also eligible to receive incentive distributions if the general partner operates the business in a manner that results in distributions paid per common unit surpassing specified target levels. As the general partner increases cash distributions to the limited partners, the general partner receives an increasingly higher percentage of the incremental cash distributions. A common arrangement provides that the general partner can reach a tier where it receives 50% of every incremental dollar paid to common and subordinated unit holders. These incentive distributions encourage the general partner to streamline costs, increase capital expenditures and acquire assets in order to increase the partnership’s cash flow and raise the quarterly cash distribution in order to reach higher tiers. Such results benefit all security holders of the MLP.

To qualify as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, an MLP must receive at least 90% of its income from qualifying sources such as interest, dividends, real estate rents, gain from the sale or disposition of real property, income and gain from mineral or natural resources activities, income and gain from the transportation or storage of certain fuels, gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for the production of income described in the foregoing and, in certain circumstances, income and gain from commodities or futures, forwards and options with respect to commodities. Mineral or natural resources activities include exploration, development, production, mining, refining, marketing and transportation (including pipelines), of oil and gas, minerals, geothermal energy, fertilizer, timber or industrial source carbon dioxide. Currently, most MLPs operate in the energy, natural resources or real estate sectors. Due to their partnership structure, MLPs generally do not pay income taxes. Thus, unlike investors in corporate securities, direct MLP investors are generally not subject to double taxation (i.e., corporate level tax and tax on corporate dividends).

MLP Common Units. MLP common units represent a limited partnership interest in the MLP. Common units are listed and traded on U.S. securities exchanges or OTC, with their value fluctuating predominantly based on prevailing market conditions and the success of the MLP. The Fund may purchase common units in market transactions as well as directly from the MLP or other parties. Unlike owners of common stock of a corporation, owners of common units have limited voting rights and have no ability annually to elect directors. MLPs generally distribute all available cash flow (cash flow from operations less maintenance capital expenditures) in the form of quarterly distributions. Common units along with general partner units, have first priority to receive quarterly cash distributions up to the MQD and have arrearage rights. In the event of liquidation, common units have preference over subordinated units, but not debt or preferred units, to the remaining assets of the MLP.

I-Shares. I-Shares represent an ownership interest issued by an affiliated party of an MLP. The MLP affiliate uses the proceeds from the sale of I-Shares to purchase limited partnership interests in the MLP in the form of i-units. I-units have similar features as MLP common units in terms of voting rights, liquidation preference and distributions. However, rather than receiving cash, the MLP affiliate receives additional i-units in an amount equal to the cash distributions received by MLP common units. Similarly, holders of I-Shares will receive additional I-Shares, in the same proportion as the MLP affiliates receipt of i-units, rather than cash distributions. I-Shares themselves have limited voting rights which are similar to those applicable to MLP common units. The MLP affiliate issuing the I-Shares is structured as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. I-Shares are traded on the NYSE.

Municipal Securities (Underlying Funds Only).  Municipal securities are securities issued by states, municipalities and other political subdivisions, agencies, authorities and instrumentalities of states and multi-state agencies or authorities.  Although the interest earned on many municipal securities is exempt from federal income tax, the Fund may invest in taxable municipal securities.
 
Municipal securities share the attributes of debt/fixed income securities in general, but are generally issued by states, municipalities and other political subdivisions, agencies, authorities and instrumentalities of states and multi-state agencies or authorities.  The municipal securities which the Fund may purchase include general obligation bonds and limited obligation bonds (or revenue bonds), including industrial development bonds issued pursuant to former federal tax law. General obligation bonds are obligations involving the credit of an issuer possessing taxing power and are payable from such issuer’s general revenues and not from any particular source.  Limited obligation bonds are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source.  Tax-exempt private activity bonds and industrial development bonds generally are also revenue bonds and thus are not payable from the issuer’s general revenues.  The credit and quality of private activity bonds and industrial development bonds are usually related to the credit of the corporate user of the facilities.  Payment of interest on and repayment of principal of such bonds is the responsibility of the corporate user (and/or any guarantor).
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Under the Code, certain limited obligation bonds are considered “private activity bonds” and interest paid on such bonds is treated as an item of tax preference for purposes of calculating federal alternative minimum tax liability.
 
Obligations of Supranational Entities (Underlying Funds Only).  The Fund may invest in an Underlying Fund that invests in obligations of supranational entities designated or supported by governmental entities to promote economic reconstruction or development and of international banking institutions and related government agencies.  Examples include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the “World Bank”), the European Coal and Steel Community, the Asian Development Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. Each supranational entity’s lending activities are limited to a percentage of its total capital (including “callable capital” contributed by its governmental members at the entity’s call), reserves and net income.  There is no assurance that participating governments will be able or willing to honor their commitments to make capital contributions to a supranational entity.
 
Preferred Stocks.  Preferred stocks pay fixed or floating dividends to investors, and have a “preference” over common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of a company’s assets.  This means that a company must pay dividends on preferred stock before paying any dividends on its common stock.  Preferred stockholders usually have no right to vote for corporate directors or on other matters.
 
Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”) (Underlying Funds Only).  REITs are sometimes informally characterized as equity REITs, mortgage REITs and hybrid REITs.  Investment in REITs may subject the Fund to risks associated with the direct ownership of real estate, such as decreases in real estate values, overbuilding, increased competition and other risks related to local or general economic conditions, increases in operating costs and property taxes, changes in zoning laws, casualty or condemnation losses, possible environmental liabilities, regulatory limitations on rent and fluctuations in rental income.  Equity REITs generally experience these risks directly through fee or leasehold interests, whereas mortgage REITs generally experience these risks indirectly through mortgage interests, unless the mortgage REIT forecloses on the underlying real estate.  Changes in interest rates may also affect the value of the Fund’s investment in REITs.  For instance, during periods of declining interest rates, certain mortgage REITs may hold mortgages that the mortgagors elect to prepay, which prepayment may diminish the yield on securities issued by those REITs.
 
Certain REITs have relatively small market capitalizations, which may tend to increase the volatility of the market price of their securities.  Furthermore, REITs are dependent upon specialized management skills, have limited diversification and are, therefore, subject to risks inherent in operating and financing a limited number of projects.  REITs are also subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers and the possibility of failing to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income under the Code, and to maintain exemption from the registration requirements of the 1940 Act.  By investing in REITs indirectly through an Underlying Fund, a shareholder will bear not only his or her proportionate share of the expenses of the Fund and the Underlying Fund, but also, indirectly, similar expenses of the REITs.  In addition, REITs depend generally on their ability to generate cash flow to make distributions to shareholders.
 
Repurchase Agreements.  In a repurchase agreement, the Fund acquires ownership of a security and simultaneously commits to resell that security to the seller, typically a bank or broker/dealer.
 
A repurchase agreement provides a means for the Fund to earn income on funds for periods as short as overnight.  It is an arrangement under which the purchaser (i.e., the Fund) acquires a security (“Obligation”) and the seller agrees, at the time of sale, to repurchase the Obligation at a specified time and price.  Securities subject to a repurchase agreement are held in a segregated account and, as described in more detail below, the value of such securities is kept at least equal to the repurchase price on a daily basis.  The repurchase price may be higher than the purchase price, the difference being income to the Fund, or the purchase and repurchase prices may be the same, with interest at a stated rate due to the Fund together with the repurchase price upon repurchase.  In either case, the income to the Fund is unrelated to the interest rate on the Obligation itself.  Obligations will be held by the custodian or in the Federal Reserve Book Entry System.
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It is not clear whether a court would consider the Obligation purchased by the Fund subject to a repurchase agreement as being owned by the Fund or as being collateral for a loan by the Fund to the seller.  In the event of the commencement of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings with respect to the seller of the Obligation before repurchase of the Obligation under a repurchase agreement, the Fund may encounter delay and incur costs before being able to sell the security.  Delays may involve loss of interest or decline in price of the Obligation.  If the court characterizes the transaction as a loan and the Fund has not perfected a security interest in the Obligation, the Fund may be required to return the Obligation to the seller’s estate and be treated as an unsecured creditor of the seller.  As an unsecured creditor, the Fund would be at risk of losing some or all of the principal and income involved in the transaction.  As with any unsecured debt obligation purchased for the Fund, the Subadviser seeks to reduce the risk of loss through repurchase agreements by analyzing the creditworthiness of the obligor, in this case the seller of the Obligation.  Apart from the risk of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, there is also the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the Obligation, in which case the Fund may incur a loss if the proceeds to the Fund of the sale to a third party are less than the repurchase price.  However, if the market value (including interest) of the Obligation subject to the repurchase agreement becomes less than the repurchase price (including interest), the Fund will direct the seller of the Obligation to deliver additional securities so that the market value (including interest) of all securities subject to the repurchase agreement will equal or exceed the repurchase price.
 
Reverse Repurchase Agreements.  Reverse repurchase agreements involve the sale of securities held by the Fund with an agreement by the Fund to repurchase the securities at an agreed upon price, date and interest payment.  At the time the Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it may designate on its books and records liquid instruments having a value not less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest).  If the Fund establishes and maintains such a segregated account, a reverse repurchase agreement will not be considered a borrowing by the Fund; however, under certain circumstances in which the Fund does not establish and maintain such a segregated account, such reverse repurchase agreement will be considered a borrowing for the purpose of the Fund’s limitation on borrowings.  The use by the Fund of reverse repurchase agreements involves many of the same risks of leverage since the proceeds derived from such reverse repurchase agreements may be invested in additional securities.  Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of the securities acquired in connection with the reverse repurchase agreement may decline below the price of the securities the Fund has sold but is obligated to repurchase.  Also, reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of the securities retained in lieu of sale by the Fund in connection with the reverse repurchase agreement may decline in price.
 
If the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, such buyer or its trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities, and the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision.  Also, the Fund would bear the risk of loss to the extent that the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement are less than the value of the securities subject to such agreement.
 
Rights.  Rights are usually granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued to the public. The right entitles its holder to buy common stock at a specified price.  Rights have similar features to warrants, except that the life of a right is typically much shorter, usually a few weeks.  The Subadviser believes rights may become underpriced if they are sold without regard to value and if analysts do not include them in their research.  The risk in investing in rights is that the Subadviser might miscalculate their value resulting in a loss to the Fund. Another risk is the underlying common stock may not reach the Subadviser’s anticipated price within the life of the right.
 
Short Sales.  The Fund may sell securities short.  When the Fund takes a long position, it purchases a stock outright.  When the Fund takes a short position, it sells at the current market price a stock it does not own but has borrowed in anticipation that the market price of the stock will decline.  To complete, or close out, the short sale transaction, the Fund buys the same stock in the market and returns it to the lender.  The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund.  Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to pay the lender amounts equal to any dividends or interest that accrue during the period of the loan.  To borrow the security, the Fund may also be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold.  The proceeds of the short sale will be retained by the broker to the extent necessary to meet the margin requirements, until the short position is closed out.  The Fund makes money when the market price of the borrowed stock goes down and the Fund is able to replace it for less than it earned by selling it short.  Alternatively if the price of the stock goes up after the short sale and before the short position is closed, the Fund will lose money because it will have to pay more to replace the borrowed stock than it received when it sold the stock short.
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The Fund may not always be able to close out a short position at a particular time or at an acceptable price.  A lender may request that the borrowed securities be returned to it on short notice, and the Fund may have to buy the borrowed securities at an unfavorable price.  If this occurs at a time that other short sellers of the same security also want to close out their positions, a “short squeeze” can occur.  A short squeeze occurs when demand is greater than supply for the stock sold short.  A short squeeze makes it more likely that the Fund will have to cover its short sale at an unfavorable price.  If that happens, the Fund will lose some or all of the potential profit from, or even incur a loss as a result of, the short sale.
 
Until the Fund closes its short position or replaces the borrowed security, the Fund will designate liquid assets it owns (other than the short sales proceeds) as segregated assets to the books of the broker and/or its custodian in an amount equal to its obligation to purchase the securities sold short, as required by the 1940 Act.  The amount segregated in this manner will be increased or decreased each business day equal to the change in market value of the Fund’s obligation to purchase the security sold short.  If the lending broker requires the Fund to deposit additional collateral (in addition to the short sales proceeds that the broker holds during the period of the short sale), which may be as much as 50% of the value of the securities sold short, the amount of the additional collateral may be deducted in determining the amount of cash or liquid assets the Fund is required to segregate to cover the short sale obligation pursuant to the 1940 Act.  The amount segregated must be unencumbered by any other obligation or claim other than the obligation that is being covered.  The Fund believes that short sale obligations that are covered, either by an offsetting asset or right (acquiring the security sold short or having an option to purchase the security sold short at exercise price that covers the obligation), or by the Fund’s segregated asset procedures (or a combination thereof), are not senior securities under the 1940 Act and are not subject to the Fund’s borrowing restrictions.  This requirement to segregate assets limits the Fund’s leveraging of its investments and the related risk of losses from leveraging.  The Fund also is required to pay the lender of the security any dividends or interest that accrue on a borrowed security during the period of the loan.  Depending on the arrangements made with the broker or custodian, the Fund may or may not receive any payments (including interest) on collateral it has deposited with the broker.
 
Moreover, the Fund will be required to make margin payments to the lender during the term of the borrowing if the value of the security it borrowed (and sold short) increases. Thus, short sales involve credit exposure to the broker that executes the short sales. In the event of the bankruptcy or other similar insolvency with respect to a broker with whom the Fund has an open short position, a fund may be unable to recover, or delayed in recovering, any margin or other collateral held with or for the lending broker.

Short sales involve the risk that the Fund will incur a loss by subsequently buying a security at a higher price than the price at which the Fund previously sold the security short.  Any loss will be increased by the amount of compensation, interest or dividends, and transaction costs the Fund must pay to a lender of the security.  In addition, because the Fund’s loss on a short sale stems from increases in the value of the security sold short, the extent of such loss, like the price of the security sold short, is theoretically unlimited.  By contrast, the Fund’s loss on a long position arises from decreases in the value of the security held by the Fund and therefore is limited by the fact that a security’s value cannot drop below zero.
 
The use of short sales, in effect, leverages the Fund’s portfolio, which could increase the Fund’s exposure to the market, magnify losses and increase the volatility of returns.
 
Although the Fund’s share price may increase if the securities in its long portfolio increase in value more than the securities underlying its short positions, the Fund’s share price may decrease if the securities underlying its short positions increase in value more than the securities in its long portfolio.
 
Senior Loans (Underlying Funds Only).  A Senior Loan is typically originated, negotiated and structured by a U.S. or foreign commercial bank, insurance company, finance company or other financial institution (the “Agent”) for a group of loan investors (“Loan Investors”).  The Agent typically administers and enforces the Senior Loan on behalf of the other Loan Investors in the syndicate.  In addition, an institution, typically but not always the Agent, holds any collateral on behalf of the Loan Investors.
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Senior Loans primarily include senior floating rate loans to corporations and secondarily institutionally traded senior floating rate debt obligations issued by an asset-backed pool and interests therein.  Loan interests primarily take the form of assignments purchased in the primary or secondary market.  Loan interests may also take the form of participation interests in a Senior Loan.  Such loan interests may be acquired from U.S. or foreign commercial banks, insurance companies, finance companies or other financial institutions who have made loans or are Loan Investors or from other investors in loan interests.
 
The Underlying Funds may purchase “assignments” from the Agent or other Loan Investors.  The purchaser of an assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the Loan Agreement (as defined herein) of the assigning Loan Investor and becomes a Loan Investor under the Loan Agreement with the same rights and obligations as the assigning Loan Investor.  Assignments may, however, be arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and potential assignors, and the rights and obligations acquired by the purchaser of an assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning Loan Investor.

The Underlying Funds also may invest in “participations.” Participations by an Underlying Fund in a Loan Investor’s portion of a Senior Loan typically will result in an Underlying Fund having a contractual relationship only with such Loan Investor, not with the borrower.  As a result, an Underlying Fund may have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled only from the Loan Investor selling the participation and only upon receipt by such Loan Investor of such payments from the borrower.  In connection with purchasing participations, an Underlying Fund generally will have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the Loan Agreement, nor any rights with respect to any funds acquired by other Loan Investors through set-off against the borrower and the Underlying Fund may not directly benefit from the collateral supporting the Senior Loan in which it has purchased the participation.  As a result, an Underlying Fund will assume the credit risk of both the borrower and the Loan Investor selling the participation.  In the event of the insolvency of the Loan Investor selling a participation, an Underlying Fund may be treated as a general creditor of such Loan Investor.  The selling Loan Investors and other persons interpositioned between such Loan Investors and the Underlying Fund with respect to such participations will likely conduct their principal business activities in the banking, finance and financial services industries.  Persons engaged in such industries may be more susceptible to, among other things, fluctuations in interest rates, changes in the Federal Open Market Committee’s monetary policy, governmental regulations concerning such industries and concerning capital raising activities generally and fluctuations in the financial markets generally.
 
In order to borrow money pursuant to a Senior Loan, a borrower will for the term of the Senior Loan, pledge collateral, including but not limited to, (i) working capital assets, such as accounts receivable and inventory; (ii) tangible fixed assets, such as real property, buildings and equipment; (iii) intangible assets, such as trademarks and patent rights (but excluding goodwill); and (iv) security interests in shares of stock of subsidiaries or affiliates.  In the case of Senior Loans made to non-public companies, the company’s shareholders or owners may provide collateral in the form of secured guarantees and/or security interests in assets that they own.  In many instances, a Senior Loan may be secured only by stock in the borrower or its subsidiaries.  Collateral may consist of assets that may not be readily liquidated, and there is no assurance that the liquidation of such assets would satisfy fully a borrower’s obligations under a Senior Loan.
 
In the process of buying, selling and holding Senior Loans, the Underlying Funds may receive and/or pay certain fees.  These fees are in addition to interest payments received and may include facility fees, commitment fees, amendment fees, commissions and prepayment penalty fees.  When an Underlying Fund buys a Senior Loan, it may receive a facility fee and when it sells a Senior Loan it may pay a facility fee.  On an ongoing basis, an Underlying Fund may receive a commitment fee based on the undrawn portion of the underlying line of credit portion of a Senior Loan.  In certain circumstances, an Underlying Fund may receive a prepayment penalty fee upon the prepayment of a Senior Loan by a borrower.  Other fees received by an Underlying Fund may include covenant waiver fees, covenant modification fees or other amendment fees.
 
 A borrower must comply with various restrictive covenants contained in a loan agreement or note purchase agreement between the borrower and the holders of the Senior Loan (the “Loan Agreement”).  Such covenants, in addition to requiring the scheduled payment of interest and principal, may include restrictions on dividend payments and other distributions to shareholders, provisions requiring the borrower to maintain specific minimum financial ratios and limits on total debt.  In addition, the Loan Agreement may contain a covenant requiring the borrower to prepay the Loan with any free cash flow.  Free cash flow is generally defined as net cash flow after scheduled debt service payments and permitted capital expenditures, and includes the proceeds from asset dispositions or sales of securities.  A breach of a covenant which is not waived by the Agent, or by the Loan Investors directly, as the case may be, is normally an event of acceleration; i.e., the Agent, or the Loan Investors directly, as the case may be, has the right to call the outstanding Senior Loan.  The typical practice of an Agent or a Loan Investor in relying exclusively or primarily on reports from the borrower to monitor the borrower’s compliance with covenants may involve a risk of fraud by the borrower.  In the case of a Senior Loan in the form of a participation, the agreement between the buyer and seller may limit the rights of the holder to vote on certain changes which may be made to the Loan Agreement, such as waiving a breach of a covenant.  However, the holder of the participation will, in almost all cases, have the right to vote on certain fundamental issues such as changes in principal amount, payment dates and interest rate.
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In a typical Senior Loan, the Agent administers the terms of the Loan Agreement.  In such cases, the Agent is normally responsible for the collection of principal and interest payments from the borrower and the apportionment of these payments to the credit of all institutions which are parties to the Loan Agreement.  The Underlying Funds will generally rely upon the Agent or an intermediate participant to receive and forward to the Fund or Underlying Fund its portion of the principal and interest payments on the Senior Loan.  Furthermore, unless under the terms of a participation agreement an Underlying Fund has direct recourse against the borrower, the Underlying Fund will rely on the Agent and the other Loan Investors to use appropriate credit remedies against the borrower.  The Agent is typically responsible for monitoring compliance with covenants contained in the Loan Agreement based upon reports prepared by the borrower.  The seller of the Senior Loan usually does, but is often not obligated to, notify holders of Senior Loans of any failures of compliance.  The Agent may monitor the value of the collateral and, if the value of the collateral declines, may accelerate the Senior Loan, may give the borrower an opportunity to provide additional collateral or may seek other protection for the benefit of the participants in the Senior Loan.  The Agent is compensated by the borrower for providing these services under a Loan Agreement, and such compensation may include special fees paid upon structuring and funding the Senior Loan and other fees paid on a continuing basis.  With respect to Senior Loans for which the Agent does not perform such administrative and enforcement functions, an Underlying Fund will perform such tasks on its own behalf, although a collateral bank will typically hold any collateral on behalf of an Underlying Fund and the other Loan Investors pursuant to the applicable Loan Agreement.
 
A financial institution’s appointment as Agent may usually be terminated in the event that it fails to observe the requisite standard of care or becomes insolvent, enters Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) receivership, or, if not FDIC insured, enters into bankruptcy proceedings.  A successor Agent would generally be appointed to replace the terminated Agent, and assets held by the Agent under the Loan Agreement should remain available to holders of Senior Loans.  However, if assets held by the Agent for the benefit of an Underlying Fund were determined to be subject to the claims of the Agent’s general creditors, the Underlying Fund might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a Senior Loan, or suffer a loss of principal and/or interest.  In situations involving intermediate participants, similar risks may arise.
 
Senior Loans will usually require, in addition to scheduled payments of interest and principal, the prepayment of the Senior Loan from free cash flow, as defined above.  The degree to which borrowers prepay Senior Loans, whether as a contractual requirement or at their election, may be affected by general business conditions, the financial condition of the borrower and competitive conditions among Loan Investors, among others.  As such, prepayments cannot be predicted with accuracy.  Upon a prepayment, either in part or in full, the actual outstanding debt on which the Fund or Underlying Fund derives interest income will be reduced.  However, an Underlying Fund may receive both a prepayment penalty fee from the prepaying borrower and a facility fee upon the purchase of a new Senior Loan with the proceeds from the prepayment of the former.
 
The Underlying Funds may acquire interests in Senior Loans which are designed to provide temporary or “bridge” financing to a borrower pending the sale of identified assets or the arrangement of longer-term loans or the issuance and sale of debt obligations.  The Underlying Funds may also invest in Senior Loans of borrowers that have obtained bridge loans from other parties.  A borrower’s use of bridge loans involves a risk that the borrower may be unable to locate permanent financing to replace the bridge loan, which may impair the borrower’s perceived creditworthiness.
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The Underlying Fund will be subject to the risk that collateral securing a loan will decline in value or have no value.  Such a decline, whether as a result of bankruptcy proceedings or otherwise, could cause the Senior Loan to be undercollateralized or unsecured.  In most credit agreements there is no formal requirement to pledge additional collateral.  In addition, an Underlying Fund may invest in Senior Loans guaranteed by, or secured by assets of, shareholders or owners, even if the Senior Loans are not otherwise collateralized by assets of the borrower; provided, however, that such guarantees are fully secured.  There may be temporary periods when the principal asset held by a borrower is the stock of a related company, which may not legally be pledged to secure a Senior Loan.  On occasions when such stock cannot be pledged, the Senior Loan will be temporarily unsecured until the stock can be pledged or is exchanged for or replaced by other assets, which will be pledged as security for the Senior Loan.  However, the Borrower’s ability to dispose of such securities, other than in connection with such pledge or replacement, will be strictly limited for the protection of the holders of Senior Loans and, indirectly, Senior Loans themselves.
 
The failure to perfect a security interest due to faulty documentation or faulty official filings could lead to the invalidation of an Underlying Fund’s security interest in loan collateral.  If an Underlying Fund’s security interest in loan collateral is invalidated or the Senior Loan is subordinated to other debt of a borrower in bankruptcy or other proceedings, the Underlying Fund would have substantially lower recovery, and perhaps no recovery, on the full amount of the principal and interest due on the Senior Loan.
 
Sovereign Obligations (Underlying Funds Only).  The Fund may invest in an Underlying Fund that invests in sovereign debt obligations.  Investment in sovereign debt obligations involves special risks not present in corporate debt obligations.  The issuer of the sovereign debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due, and the Underlying Fund may have limited recourse in the event of a default.  During periods of economic uncertainty, the market prices of sovereign debt, and the Fund’s NAV, may be more volatile than prices of U.S. debt obligations.  In the past, certain emerging markets have encountered difficulties in servicing their debt obligations, withheld payments of principal and interest and declared moratoria on the payment of principal and interest on their sovereign debts.
 
A sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange, the relative size of the debt service burden, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward principal international lenders and local political constraints.  Sovereign debtors may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and other entities to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt.  The failure of a sovereign debtor to implement economic reforms, achieve specified levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of third-party commitments to lend funds to the sovereign debtor, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts.
 
Strategic Transactions and Derivatives.  The Fund intends to utilize various other investment strategies as described below for a variety of purposes, such as hedging various market risks or enhancing return.  These strategies may be executed through the use of derivative contracts.
 
In the course of pursuing these investment strategies, the Fund may purchase and sell exchange-listed and over-the-counter put and call options on securities, equity and fixed-income indices and other instruments, purchase and sell futures contracts and options thereon, enter into various transactions such as swaps, caps, floors, collars, currency forward contracts, currency futures contracts, currency swaps or options on currencies, or currency futures and various other currency transactions (collectively, all the above are called “Strategic Transactions”).  In addition, Strategic Transactions may also include new techniques, instruments or strategies that are permitted as regulatory changes occur.  Strategic Transactions may be used without limit (subject to certain limits imposed by the 1940 Act) to attempt to protect against possible changes in the market value of securities held in or to be purchased for the Fund’s portfolio resulting from securities markets or currency exchange rate fluctuations, to protect the Fund’s unrealized gains in the value of its portfolio securities, to facilitate the sale of such securities for investment purposes, to manage the effective maturity or duration of the Fund’s portfolio, or to establish a position in the derivatives markets as a substitute for purchasing or selling particular securities.  Some Strategic Transactions may also be used to enhance potential gain.  Any or all of these investment techniques may be used at any time and in any combination, and there is no particular strategy that dictates the use of one technique rather than another, as use of any Strategic Transaction is a function of numerous variables including market conditions, liquidity, market values, interest rates and other applicable factors.  The ability of the Fund to utilize these Strategic Transactions successfully will depend on the Subadviser’s ability to predict pertinent market movements, which cannot be assured.  The Fund will comply with applicable regulatory requirements when implementing these strategies, techniques and instruments.  Strategic Transactions will not be used to alter fundamental investment purposes and characteristics of the Fund, and the Fund will segregate assets (or as provided by applicable regulations, enter into certain offsetting positions) to cover its obligations under options, futures and swaps to limit leveraging of the Fund.
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Strategic Transactions, including derivative contracts, have risks associated with them including possible default by the other party to the transaction, illiquidity, leverage, correlation, volatility, duration mismatch, certain legal and regulatory risks and, to the extent the Subadviser’s view as to certain market movements is incorrect, the risk that the use of such Strategic Transactions could result in losses greater than if they had not been used.  Use of put and call options may result in losses to the Fund, force the sale or purchase of portfolio securities at inopportune times or for prices higher than (in the case of put options) or lower than (in the case of call options) current market values, limit the amount of appreciation the Fund can realize on its investments or cause the Fund to hold a security it might otherwise sell.  The use of currency transactions can result in the Fund incurring losses as a result of a number of factors including the imposition of exchange controls, suspension of settlements, or the inability to deliver or receive a specified currency.  The use of options and futures transactions entails certain other risks.  In particular, the variable degree of correlation between price movements of futures contracts and price movements in the related portfolio position of the Fund creates the possibility that losses on the hedging instrument may be greater than gains in the value of the Fund’s position.  In addition, futures and options markets may not be liquid in all circumstances and certain over-the-counter options may have no markets.  As a result, in certain markets, the Fund might not be able to close out a transaction without incurring substantial losses, if at all.  Although the use of futures and options transactions for hedging should tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged position, at the same time they tend to limit any potential gain which might result from an increase in value of such position.  Finally, the daily variation margin requirements for futures contracts would create a greater ongoing potential financial risk than would purchases of options, where the exposure is limited to the cost of the initial premium.  Losses resulting from the use of Strategic Transactions would reduce NAV, and possibly income, and such losses can be greater than if the Strategic Transactions had not been utilized.
 
Regulatory developments affecting the exchange-traded and over-the-counter derivatives markets may impair the Fund’s ability to manage or hedge its investment portfolio through the use of derivatives. The Dodd-Frank Act and the rules promulgated thereunder may limit the ability of the Fund to enter into one or more exchange-traded or over-the-counter derivatives transactions.
 
The Adviser has claimed, with respect to the Fund, an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) pursuant to CFTC Regulation 4.5, as promulgated under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”). Therefore, neither the Fund, the Adviser and the Subadviser (with respect to the Fund) is subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool or CPO under the CEA. If the Fund becomes subject to these requirements, the Fund may incur additional compliance and other expenses. The Fund’s use of derivatives may also be limited by the requirements of the Code, for qualification as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
 
Under CFTC Regulation 4.5, if an investment company such as the Fund uses  swaps, commodity futures, commodity options or certain other derivatives used for purposes other than bona fide hedging purposes, it must meet one of the following tests: The aggregate initial margin and premiums required to establish an investment company’s positions in such investments may not exceed five percent (5%) of the liquidation value of the investment company’s portfolio (after accounting for unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such investments).  Alternatively, the aggregate net notional value of such instruments, determined at the time of the most recent position established, may not exceed one hundred percent (100%) of the liquidation value of the investment company’s portfolio (after accounting for unrealized profits and unrealized losses on any such positions).  In addition to meeting one of the foregoing trading limitations, the investment company may not market itself as a commodity pool or otherwise as a vehicle for trading in the commodity futures, commodity options or swaps and derivatives markets.  In the event that the Adviser or the Subadviser is required to register as a CPO, the disclosure and operations of the Fund would need to comply with all applicable CFTC regulations.  Compliance with these additional registration and regulatory requirements would increase operational expenses. Other potentially adverse regulatory initiatives could also develop.
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General Characteristics of Options.  Put options and call options typically have similar structural characteristics and operational mechanics regardless of the underlying instrument on which they are purchased or sold.  Thus, the following general discussion relates to each of the particular types of options discussed in greater detail below.  In addition, many Strategic Transactions involving options require segregation of Fund assets in special accounts, as described below under “Segregation and Cover Requirements.”
 
A put option gives the purchaser of the option, upon payment of a premium, the right to sell, and the writer the obligation to buy, the underlying security, commodity, index, currency or other instrument at the exercise price.  For instance, the Fund’s purchase of a put option on a security might be designed to protect its holdings in the underlying instrument (or, in some cases, a similar instrument) against a substantial decline in the market value by giving the Fund the right to sell such instrument at the option exercise price.  A call option, upon payment of a premium, gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the seller the obligation to sell, the underlying instrument at the exercise price.  The Fund’s purchase of a call option on a security, financial future, index, currency or other instrument might be intended to protect the Fund against an increase in the price of the underlying instrument that it intends to purchase in the future by fixing the price at which it may purchase such instrument.  An American style put or call option may be exercised at any time during the option period while a European style put or call option may be exercised only upon expiration or during a fixed period prior thereto.  The Fund is authorized to purchase and sell exchange listed options and over-the-counter options (“OTC options”).  Exchange listed options are issued by a regulated intermediary such as the Options Clearing Corporation (“OCC”), which guarantees the performance of the obligations of the parties to such options.  The discussion below uses the OCC as an example, but is also applicable to other financial intermediaries.
 
With certain exceptions, OCC issued and exchange listed options generally settle by physical delivery of the underlying security or currency, although in the future cash settlement may become available.  Index options and Eurodollar instruments are cash settled for the net amount, if any, by which the option is “in-the-money” (i.e., where the value of the underlying instrument exceeds, in the case of a call option, or is less than, in the case of a put option, the exercise price of the option) at the time the option is exercised.  Frequently, rather than taking or making delivery of the underlying instrument through the process of exercising the option, listed options are closed by entering into offsetting purchase or sale transactions that do not result in ownership of the new option.
 
The Fund’s ability to close out its position as a purchaser or seller of an OCC or exchange listed put or call option is dependent, in part, upon the liquidity of the option market.  Among the possible reasons for the absence of a liquid option market on an exchange are:  (i) insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions on transactions imposed by an exchange; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options or underlying securities including reaching daily price limits; (iv) interruption of the normal operations of the OCC or an exchange; (v) inadequacy of the facilities of an exchange or OCC to handle current trading volume; or (vi) a decision by one or more exchanges to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the relevant market for that option on that exchange would cease to exist, although outstanding options on that exchange would generally continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.
 
The hours of trading for listed options may not coincide with the hours during which the underlying financial instruments are traded.  To the extent that the option markets close before the markets for the underlying financial instruments, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the option markets.
 
OTC options are purchased from or sold to securities dealers, financial institutions or other parties (“Counterparties”) through direct bilateral agreement with the Counterparty.  In contrast to exchange listed options, which generally have standardized terms and performance mechanics, all the terms of an OTC option, including such terms as method of settlement, term, exercise price, premium, guarantees and security, are set by negotiation of the parties.  The Fund will only sell OTC options (other than OTC currency options) that are subject to a buy-back provision permitting the Fund to require the Counterparty to sell the option back to the Fund at a formula price within seven days.  The Fund expects generally to enter into OTC options that have cash settlement provisions, although it is not required to do so.
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Unless the parties provide for it, there is no central clearing or guaranty function in an OTC option.  As a result, if the Counterparty fails to make or take delivery of the security, currency or other instrument underlying an OTC option it has entered into with the Fund or fails to make a cash settlement payment due in accordance with the terms of that option, the Fund will lose any premium it paid for the option as well as any anticipated benefit of the transaction.  Accordingly, the Subadviser must assess the creditworthiness of each such Counterparty or any guarantor or credit enhancement of the Counterparty’s credit to determine the likelihood that the terms of the OTC option will be satisfied.  The Fund will engage in OTC option transactions only with U.S. government securities dealers recognized by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York as “primary dealers” or broker/ dealers, domestic or foreign banks or other financial institutions which have received (or the guarantors of the obligation of which have received) a short-term credit rating of A-1 from S&P or P-1 from Moody’s or an equivalent rating from any NRSRO or, in the case of OTC currency transactions, are determined to be of equivalent credit quality by the Subadviser.  The staff of the SEC currently takes the position that OTC options purchased by the Fund, and portfolio securities “covering” the amount of the Fund’s obligation pursuant to an OTC option sold by it (the cost of the sell-back plus the in-the-money amount, if any) are illiquid.
 
If the Fund sells a call option, the premium that it receives may serve as a partial hedge, to the extent of the option premium, against a decrease in the value of the underlying securities or instruments in its portfolio or will increase the Fund’s income.  The sale of put options can also provide income.
 
The Fund may purchase and sell call options on securities including U.S. Treasury and agency securities, mortgage-backed securities, foreign sovereign debt, corporate debt securities, equity securities (including convertible securities) and Eurodollar instruments that are traded on U.S. and foreign securities exchanges and in the over-the-counter markets, and on securities indices, currencies and futures contracts.  All calls sold by the Fund must be “covered” (i.e., the Fund must own the securities or futures contract subject to the call) or must meet the asset segregation requirements described below as long as the call is outstanding.  Even though the Fund will receive the option premium to help protect it against loss, a call sold by the Fund exposes the Fund during the term of the option to possible loss of opportunity to realize appreciation in the market price of the underlying security or instrument and may require the Fund to hold a security or instrument which it might otherwise have sold.
 
The Fund may purchase and sell put options on securities including U.S. Treasury and agency securities, mortgage-backed securities, foreign sovereign debt, corporate debt securities, equity securities (including convertible securities) and Eurodollar instruments (whether or not it holds the above securities in its portfolio), and on securities indices, currencies and futures contracts other than futures on individual corporate debt and individual equity securities.  In selling put options, there is a risk that the Fund may be required to buy the underlying security at a disadvantageous price above the market price.
 
General Characteristics of Futures.  The Fund may enter into futures contracts or purchase or sell put and call options on such futures as a hedge against anticipated interest rate, currency or equity market changes or to enhance returns.  Futures are generally bought and sold on the commodities exchanges where they are listed with payment of initial and variation margin as described below.  The sale of a futures contract creates a firm obligation by the Fund, as seller, to deliver to the buyer the specific type of financial instrument called for in the contract at a specific future time for a specified price (or, with respect to index futures and Eurodollar instruments, the net cash amount).  Options on futures contracts are similar to options on securities except that an option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right in return for the premium paid to assume a position in a futures contract and obligates the seller to deliver such position.
 
Futures and options on futures may be entered into for bona fide hedging, risk management (including duration management) or other portfolio and return enhancement management purposes to the extent consistent with the exclusion from commodity pool operator registration.  Typically, maintaining a futures contract or selling an option thereon requires the Fund to deposit with a financial intermediary as security for its obligations an amount of cash or other specified assets (initial margin), which initially is typically 1% to 10% of the face amount of the contract (but may be higher in some circumstances).  Additional cash or assets (variation margin) may be required to be deposited thereafter on a daily basis as the mark-to-market value of the contract fluctuates.  The purchase of an option on financial futures involves payment of a premium for the option without any further obligation on the part of the Fund.  If the Fund exercises an option on a futures contract it will be obligated to post initial margin (and potential subsequent variation margin) for the resulting futures position just as it would for any position.  Futures contracts and options thereon are generally settled by entering into an offsetting transaction but there can be no assurance that the position can be offset prior to settlement at an advantageous price, nor that delivery will occur.
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Options on Securities Indices and Other Financial Indices.  The Fund also may purchase and sell call and put options on securities indices and other financial indices and in so doing can achieve many of the same objectives it would achieve through the sale or purchase of options on individual securities or other instruments.  Options on securities indices and other financial indices are similar to options on a security or other instrument except that, rather than settling by physical delivery of the underlying instrument, they settle by cash settlement, i.e., an option on an index gives the holder the right to receive, upon exercise of the option, an amount of cash if the closing level of the index upon which the option is based exceeds, in the case of a call, or is less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the option (except if, in the case of an OTC option, physical delivery is specified).  This amount of cash is equal to the excess of the closing price of the index over the exercise price of the option, which also may be multiplied by a formula value.  The seller of the option is obligated, in return for the premium received, to make delivery of this amount.  The gain or loss on an option on an index depends on price movements in the instruments making up the market, market segment, industry or other composite on which the underlying index is based, rather than price movements in individual securities, as is the case with respect to options on securities.
 
Currency Transactions.  The Fund may engage in currency transactions with Counterparties primarily in order to hedge, or manage the risk of the value of portfolio holdings denominated in particular currencies against fluctuations in relative value, or to enhance return.  Currency transactions include forward currency contracts, exchange listed currency futures, exchange listed and OTC options on currencies, and currency swaps.  A forward currency contract involves a privately negotiated obligation to purchase or sell (with delivery generally required) a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract.  A currency swap is an agreement to exchange cash flows based on the notional difference among two or more currencies and operates similarly to an interest rate swap, which is described below.
 
Transaction hedging is entering into a currency transaction with respect to specific assets or liabilities of the Fund, which will generally arise in connection with the purchase or sale of its portfolio securities or the receipt of income therefrom.  Position hedging is entering into a currency transaction with respect to portfolio security positions denominated or generally quoted in that currency.
 
The Fund may also cross-hedge currencies by entering into transactions to purchase or sell one or more currencies that are expected to decline in value relative to other currencies to which the Fund has or in which the Fund expects to have portfolio exposure.
 
To reduce the effect of currency fluctuations on the value of existing or anticipated holdings of portfolio securities, the Fund may also engage in proxy hedging.  Proxy hedging is often used when the currency to which the Fund’s portfolio is exposed is difficult to hedge or to hedge against the dollar.  Proxy hedging entails entering into a commitment or option to sell a currency whose changes in value are generally considered to be correlated to a currency or currencies in which some or all of the Fund’s portfolio securities are or are expected to be denominated, in exchange for U.S. dollars.  The amount of the commitment or option would not exceed the value of the Fund’s securities denominated in correlated currencies.  For example, if the Subadviser considers that the Austrian schilling is correlated to the German deutschemark (the “D-mark”), the Fund holds securities denominated in schillings and the Subadviser believes that the value of schillings will decline against the U.S. dollar, the Subadviser may enter into a commitment or option to sell D-marks and buy dollars.  Currency hedging involves some of the same risks and considerations as other transactions with similar instruments.  Currency transactions can result in losses to the Fund if the currency being hedged fluctuates in value to a degree or in a direction that is not anticipated.  Further, there is the risk that the perceived correlation between various currencies may not be present or may not be present during the particular time that the Fund is engaging in proxy hedging.  If the Fund enters into a currency hedging transaction, the Fund will comply with the asset segregation requirements described below.
 
Risks of Currency Transactions.  Currency transactions are subject to risks different from those of other portfolio transactions.  Because currency control is of great importance to the issuing governments and influences economic planning and policy, purchases and sales of currency and related instruments can be negatively affected by government exchange controls, blockages, and manipulations or exchange restrictions imposed by governments.  These can result in losses to the Fund if it is unable to deliver or receive currency or funds in settlement of obligations and could also cause hedges it has entered into to be rendered useless, resulting in full currency exposure as well as incurring transaction costs.  Buyers and sellers of currency futures are subject to the same risks that apply to the use of futures generally.  Further, settlement of a currency futures contract for the purchase of most currencies must occur at a bank based in the issuing nation.  The ability to establish and close out positions on options on currency forwards is subject to the maintenance of a liquid market which may not always be available.  Currency exchange rates may fluctuate based on factors extrinsic to that country’s economy.
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Risks of Strategic Transactions Outside the United States.  When conducted outside the United States, Strategic Transactions may not be regulated as rigorously as in the United States,  may not involve a clearing mechanism and related guarantees, and are subject to the risk of governmental actions affecting trading in, or the prices of, foreign securities, currencies and other instruments.  The value of such positions also could be adversely affected by:  (i) other complex foreign political, legal and economic factors; (ii) lesser availability than in the United States of data on which to make trading decisions; (iii) delays in the Fund’s ability to act upon economic events occurring in foreign markets during non-business hours in the United States; (iv) the imposition of different exercise and settlement terms and procedures and margin requirements than in the United States; and (v) lower trading volume and liquidity.
 
Swaps, Caps, Floors and Collars.  Among the Strategic Transactions into which the Fund may enter are interest rate, currency, commodities, index and other swaps and the purchase or sale of related caps, floors and collars.  The Fund expects to enter into these transactions primarily to preserve a return or spread on a particular investment or portion of its portfolio, to protect against currency fluctuations, as a duration management technique or to protect against any increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date.  The Fund will not sell interest rate caps or floors where it does not own securities or other instruments providing the income stream the Fund may be obligated to pay.  Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest, e.g., an exchange of floating rate payments for fixed rate payments with respect to a notional amount of principal.  A currency swap is an agreement to exchange cash flows on a notional amount of two or more currencies based on the relative value differential among them and an index swap is an agreement to swap cash flows on a notional amount based on changes in the values of the reference indices.  The purchase of a cap entitles the purchaser to receive payments on a notional principal amount from the party selling such cap to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate or amount.  The purchase of a floor entitles the purchaser to receive payments on a notional principal amount from the party selling such floor to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate or amount.  A collar is a combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates or values.
 
The Fund will usually enter into swaps on a net basis, i.e., the two payment streams are netted out in a cash settlement on the payment date or dates specified in the instrument, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments.  Inasmuch as the Fund will segregate assets (or enter into offsetting positions) to cover its obligations under swaps, the Fund believes such obligations do not constitute senior securities under the 1940 Act and, accordingly, will not treat them as being subject to its borrowing restrictions.  If there is a default by the Counterparty, the Fund may have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction.  Certain standardized swap transactions are currently subject to mandatory central clearing or may be eligible for voluntary central clearing. Central clearing is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to uncleared swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterpart to each participant's swap. However, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely. In addition depending on the size of a fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by a fund to support its obligations under a similar uncleared swap.
 
Structured Notes.  Structured notes are derivative debt securities, the interest rate or principal of which is determined by reference to changes in value of a specific security, reference rate, or index.  Indexed securities, similar to structured notes, are typically, but not always, debt securities whose value at maturity or coupon rate is determined by reference to other securities.  The performance of a structured note or indexed security is based upon the performance of the underlying instrument.
22

The terms of a structured note may provide that, in certain circumstances, no principal is due on maturity and, therefore, may result in loss of investment.  Structured notes may be indexed positively or negatively to the performance of the underlying instrument such that the appreciation or deprecation of the underlying instrument will have a similar effect to the value of the structured note at maturity or of any coupon payment.  In addition, changes in the interest rate and value of the principal at maturity may be fixed at a specific multiple of the change in value of the underlying instrument, making the value of the structured note more volatile than the underlying instrument.  In addition, structured notes may be less liquid and more difficult to price accurately than less complex securities or traditional debt securities.
 
Commodity-Linked Derivatives.  The Fund may invest in instruments with principal and/or coupon payments linked to the value of commodities, commodity futures contracts, or the performance of commodity indices such as “commodity-linked” or “index-linked” notes.  These instruments are sometimes referred to as “structured notes” because the terms of the instrument may be structured by the issuer of the note and the purchaser of the note, such as the Fund.  The Fund’s investment in these instruments may be limited by the requirements of the Code for qualification as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
 
The values of these notes will rise and fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or related index or investment.  These notes expose the Fund economically to movements in commodity prices, but a particular note has many features of a debt obligation.  These notes also are subject to credit and interest rate risks that in general affect the value of debt securities.  Therefore, at the maturity of the note, the Fund may receive more or less principal than it originally invested.  The Fund might receive interest payments on the note that are more or less than the stated coupon interest rate payments.
 
Structured notes may involve leverage, meaning that the value of the instrument will be calculated as a multiple of the upward or downward price movement of the underlying commodity future or index.  The prices of commodity-linked instruments may move in different directions than investments in traditional equity and debt securities in periods of rising inflation.  Of course, there can be no guarantee that the Fund’s commodity-linked investments would not be correlated with traditional financial assets under any particular market conditions.
 
Commodity-linked notes may be issued by U.S. and foreign banks, brokerage firms, insurance companies and other corporations.  These notes, in addition to fluctuating in response to changes in the underlying commodity assets, will be subject to credit and interest rate risks that typically affect debt securities.
 
The commodity-linked instruments may be wholly principal protected, partially principal protected or offer no principal protection.  With a wholly principal protected instrument, the Fund will receive at maturity the greater of the par value of the note or the increase in value of the underlying index.  Partially protected instruments may suffer some loss of principal up to a specified limit if the underlying index declines in value during the term of the instrument.  For instruments without principal protection, there is a risk that the instrument could lose all of its value if the index declines sufficiently.  The Subadviser’s decision on whether and to what extent to use principal protection depends in part on the cost of the protection.  In addition, the ability of the Fund to take advantage of any protection feature depends on the creditworthiness of the issuer of the instrument.
 
Commodity-linked derivatives are generally hybrid instruments which are excluded from regulation under the CEA and the rules thereunder, so that the Fund will not be considered a “commodity pool.”  Additionally, from time to time the Fund may invest in other hybrid instruments that do not qualify for exemption from regulation under the CEA.
 
Segregation and Cover Requirements.  Futures contracts, swaps, caps, floors and collars, options on securities, indices and futures contracts sold by the Fund are generally subject to earmarking and coverage requirements of either the CFTC or the SEC, with the result that, if the Fund does not hold the security or futures contract underlying the instrument, the Fund will designate on its books and records on an ongoing basis, cash or liquid securities in an amount at least equal to the Fund’s obligations with respect to such instruments.  Such amounts fluctuate as the obligations increase or decrease.  The earmarking requirement can result in the Fund maintaining securities positions it would otherwise liquidate, segregating assets at a time when it might be disadvantageous to do so otherwise restrict portfolio management.
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Combined Transactions.  The Fund may enter into multiple transactions, including multiple options transactions, multiple futures transactions, multiple currency transactions (including forward currency contracts) and multiple interest rate transactions and any combination of futures, options, currency and interest rate transactions (“component” transactions), instead of a single Strategic Transaction, as part of a single or combined strategy when, in the opinion of the Subadviser, it is in the best interests of the Fund to do so.  A combined transaction will usually contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions.  Although combined transactions are normally entered into based on the Subadviser’s judgment that the combined strategies will reduce risk or otherwise more effectively achieve the desired portfolio management goal, it is possible that the combination will instead increase such risks or hinder achievement of the portfolio management objectives.
 
Special Purpose Acquisition Companies. The Fund may invest in special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”). SPACs are collective investment structures that pool funds in order to seek potential acquisition opportunities.  Unless and until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets (less an amount to cover expenses) in U.S. Government securities, money market fund securities and cash.  SPACs and similar entities may be blank check companies with no operating history or ongoing business other than to seek a potential acquisition.  Accordingly, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. Certain SPACs may seek acquisitions only in limited industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices.  If an acquisition that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a predetermined period of time, the invested funds are returned to the entity’s shareholders. Investments in SPACs may be illiquid and/or be subject to restrictions on resale. To the extent the SPAC is invested in cash or similar securities, this may impact a Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective.

Underlying Funds.  The Fund invests in the securities of other investment companies (i.e., Underlying Funds).  Investments in the securities of other investment companies involves an additional layer of advisory fees and certain other expenses.  In addition, to the extent that the Fund invests in an Underlying Fund that is itself a “fund of funds,” the Fund will bear a third layer of fees. By investing in another investment company, the Fund becomes a shareholder of that investment company.  As a result, the Fund’s shareholders indirectly will bear the Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by shareholders of the other investment company, in addition to the fees and expenses the Fund’s shareholders directly bear in connection with the Fund’s own operations.
 
The Fund may be restricted by provisions of the 1940 Act that generally limit the amount the Fund and its affiliates can invest in any one Underlying Fund to 3% of the Underlying Fund’s outstanding voting stock.  As a result, the Fund may hold a smaller position in an Underlying Fund than if it were not subject to this restriction.  In addition, to comply with provisions of the 1940 Act, in any matter upon which Underlying Fund stockholders are solicited to vote, the Subadviser may be required to vote Underlying Fund shares in the same proportion as shares held by other stockholders of the Underlying Fund.  However, pursuant to exemptive orders issued by the SEC to various ETF fund sponsors, the Fund is permitted to invest in such Underlying Funds in excess of the limits set forth in the 1940 Act subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in such exemptive orders.
 
Warrants (Underlying Funds Only).  The holder of a warrant has the right, until the warrant expires, to purchase a given number of shares of a particular issuer at a specified price.  Such investments can provide a greater potential for profit or loss than an equivalent investment in the underlying security.  Prices of warrants do not necessarily move, however, in tandem with the prices of the underlying securities and are, therefore, considered speculative investments.  Warrants pay no dividends and confer no rights other than a purchase option.  Thus, if a warrant held by an Underlying Fund were not exercised by the date of its expiration, the Underlying Fund would lose the entire purchase price of the warrant.
 
When-Issued Securities (Underlying Funds Only).  The Underlying Funds may from time to time purchase equity and debt securities on a “when-issued,” “delayed delivery” or “forward delivery” basis.  The price of such securities, which may be expressed in yield terms, is fixed at the time the commitment to purchase is made, but delivery and payment for the securities takes place at a later date.  During the period between purchase and settlement, no payment is made by an Underlying Fund to the issuer and no interest accrues to the Underlying Fund.  When an Underlying Fund purchases such securities, it immediately assumes the risks of ownership, including the risk of price fluctuation.  Failure to deliver a security purchased on this basis may result in a loss or missed opportunity to make an alternative investment.
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To the extent that assets of an Underlying Fund are held in cash pending the settlement of a purchase of securities, the Underlying Fund would earn no income.  While such securities may be sold prior to the settlement date, an Underlying Fund intends to purchase them with the purpose of actually acquiring them unless a sale appears desirable for investment reasons.  At the time an Underlying Fund makes the commitment to purchase a security on this basis, it will record the transaction and reflect the value of the security in determining its NAV.  The market value of the securities may be more or less than the purchase price.  An Underlying Fund will segregate cash or liquid assets in an amount equal in value to commitments for such securities.
 
Cyber Security.  In connection with the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, the Fund and the Underlying Funds are susceptible to operational, information security, and related risks due to the possibility of cyber-attacks or other incidents. Cyber incidents may result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events.  Cyber-attacks include, but are not limited to, infection by computer viruses or other malicious software code, gaining unauthorized access to systems, networks, or devices that are used to service the Fund’s operations through hacking or other means for the purpose of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber-attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks (which can make a website unavailable) on the Fund’s website. In addition, authorized persons could inadvertently or intentionally release confidential or proprietary information stored on the Fund’s systems.

Cyber security failures or breaches by the Fund’s third party service providers (including, but not limited to, the Adviser, the Subadviser, the custodian, transfer agent, and financial intermediaries), may cause disruptions and impact the service providers’ and the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business and the mutual funds to process transactions, inability to calculate the Fund’s NAV, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result of successful cyber-attacks against, or security breakdowns of, the Fund or its third party service providers.

The Fund may incur substantial costs to prevent or address cyber incidents in the future. In addition, there is a possibility that certain risks have not been adequately identified or prepared for.  Furthermore, the Fund cannot directly control any cyber security plans and systems put in place by third party service providers. Cyber security risks are also present for issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause the Fund’s investment in such securities to lose value.

MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND
 
Adviser and Subadviser
 
Adviser
 
ALPS Advisors, Inc. (the “Adviser”), a wholly owned subsidiary of ALPS Holdings, Inc. (“ALPS Holdings”), subject to the authority of the Board, is responsible for the overall management and administration of the Fund’s business affairs pursuant to an Investment Advisory Agreement (the “Investment Advisory Agreement”).  The Adviser commenced business operations in December 2006 upon the acquisition of an existing investment advisory operation, is registered with the SEC as an investment adviser and as of August 31, 2017 managed approximately $17.3 billion.  The Adviser’s principal address is 1290 Broadway, Suite 1100, Denver, CO  80203.  The Adviser is affiliated with the Fund’s administrator and transfer agent.
 
ALPS Holdings was founded in 2005 and assumed the business of ALPS Financial Services, which was founded in 1985 as a provider of fund administration and fund distribution services.  Since then, ALPS Holdings has added additional services, including fund accounting, transfer agency, shareholder services, active distribution, legal, tax and compliance services.
25

ALPS Holdings is a wholly owned subsidiary of DST Systems, Inc. (“DST”), which acquired ALPS Holdings in November 2011. DST provides sophisticated information processing solutions and services to support the global asset management, insurance, retirement, brokerage, and healthcare industries. In addition to technology products and services, DST also provides integrated print and electronic statement and billing solutions through DST Output. DST’s data centers provide technology infrastructure support for asset management, insurance and healthcare companies around the globe. Headquartered in Kansas City, MO, DST is a publicly traded company on the NYSE.
 
ALPS Holdings through its subsidiaries, the Adviser, ALPS Distributors, Inc., ALPS Portfolio Solutions Distributors, Inc., and ALPS Fund Services, Inc. (collectively, “ALPS”), offers a full-service partnership approach to a select group of fund clients looking for truly customized services. ALPS provides its clients turn-key capabilities that anchor all of the diverse resources needed to run a full-service mutual fund complex.  ALPS provides a comprehensive suite of asset servicing, asset management and asset gathering solutions to the investment management industry.
 
Subadviser 
 
RiverNorth is the subadviser for the Fund pursuant to a Subadvisory Agreement with the Adviser (the “Subadvisory Agreement”).  RiverNorth is headquartered at 325 North LaSalle Street, Suite 645, Chicago, Illinois 60654.  Under the oversight of the Adviser and the Board of the Fund, RiverNorth makes the Fund’s day-to-day investment decisions.  Founded in 2000, RiverNorth is registered with the SEC and as of August 31, 2017 manages approximately $3.63 billion.  Each of Brian H. Schmucker and Patrick W. Galley owns, directly or indirectly, more than 25% of RiverNorth Holding Co., the parent company of the Subadviser and is deemed to control the Subadviser.
 
Investment Advisory and Subadvisory Agreements
 
For its services under the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Fund pays the Adviser a monthly management fee computed at the annual rate of 1.00% of the average daily Managed Assets of the Fund.  “Managed Assets” means the total assets of the Fund, including assets attributable to leverage, minus liabilities (other than debt representing leverage and any preferred stock that may be outstanding).  In addition to the monthly advisory fee, the Fund pays all other costs and expenses of its operations, including compensation of its Independent Directors, custodian, transfer agency and dividend disbursing expenses, legal fees, expenses of independent auditors, expenses of repurchasing shares, expenses of any leverage, listing expenses, expenses of preparing, printing and distributing shareholder reports, notices, proxy statements and reports to governmental agencies, and taxes, if any.
 
The Adviser has delegated daily management of Fund assets to the Subadviser, who is paid by the Adviser and not the Fund.  Under the Subadvisory Agreement, the Subadviser has the responsibility to provide a continuous investment management program for the Fund in accordance with the investment objective, policies and restrictions of the Fund and applicable law.  For its services under the Subadvisory Agreement, the Adviser (and not the Fund) pays the Subadviser a monthly subadvisory fee computed at the annual rate of 0.85% of the average daily Managed Assets of the Fund.  If the Fund determines to use leverage, the fees paid to the Adviser and the Subadviser for investment management services and subadvisory services, respectively, will be higher than if the Fund did not use leverage because the fees paid will be calculated based on the Fund’s Managed Assets, which would include assets attributable to leverage.  Because the fees paid to the Adviser and the Subadviser are determined on the basis of the Fund’s Managed Assets, this creates a conflict of interest for the Adviser and the Subadviser.  The Board monitors the Fund’s use of leverage and in doing so monitors this potential conflict.
 
The Investment Advisory Agreement and the Subadvisory Agreement provide that the Adviser and the Subadviser, respectively, shall not be liable for any act or omission in the course of, connected with or arising out of any services to be rendered under such agreement, except by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Adviser or the Subadviser, as applicable, in the performance of its duties or from reckless disregard by the Adviser or the Subadviser, as applicable, of its obligations and duties under such agreement.
 
The Adviser will make available, without expense to the Fund, the services of such of its officers, directors and employees as may be duly elected as officers or directors of the Fund, subject to the individual consent of such persons to serve and to any limitations imposed by law. The Adviser will pay all expenses incurred in performing its services under the Investment Advisory Agreement, including compensation of and office space for directors, officers and employees of the Adviser connected with management of the Fund, and compensation of the Subadviser. The Adviser will not be required to pay any investment advisory related expenses of the Fund other than the foregoing. In particular, but without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Fund will be required to pay brokerage and other expenses of executing the Fund’s portfolio transactions; taxes or governmental fees; interest charges and other costs of borrowing funds; litigation and indemnification expenses and other extraordinary expenses not incurred in the ordinary course of the Fund’s business.
26

Each of the Investment Advisory Agreement and the Subadvisory Agreement will remain in effect for an initial two-year term (unless sooner terminated), and shall remain in effect from year to year thereafter if approved annually (1) by the Fund’s Board or by the holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities and (2) by a majority of the independent directors who are not parties to such contract or agreement.  The Investment Advisory Agreement will terminate upon assignment by any party and is terminable, without penalty, on 60 days’ written notice by the Fund’s Board or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund or upon 60 days’ written notice by the Adviser.  The Subadvisory Agreement will terminate upon assignment by any party and is terminable, without penalty, on 60 days’ written notice by the Fund’s Board or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund or upon 90 days’ written notice by the Adviser or the Subadviser.
 
The total dollar amount paid by the Fund to the Advisor under the Investment Advisory Agreement for the fiscal period from December 24, 2015 (commencement of operation) ended October 31, 2016, were $636,587. See “Summary of Fund Expenses” in the prospectus.

Compensation of Portfolio Managers
 
Mr.Galley’s and Mr.O’Neill’s total compensation which is paid by the Subadviser (and not the Fund) includes a base salary fixed from year to year and a variable performance bonus consisting of cash incentives, which may include mandatory investments in the Fund. The amounts paid to Mr.Galley and Mr.O’Neill are based on a percentage of the fees earned by the Subadviser from managing the Fund and other investment accounts. The performance bonus reflects individual performance and the performance of the Subadviser’s business as a whole. Mr.Galley and Mr.O’Neill also participate in a 401K program on the same basis as other officers of the Subadviser.
 
Portfolio Manager Ownership of Fund Shares
 
The following table sets forth the dollar range of equity securities in the Fund beneficially owned, as of August 31, 2017, by each of the portfolio managers identified in the Fund’s prospectus.
 
Name of Portfolio Manager
Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Fund1
Patrick W. Galley
$500,001 - $1,000,000
Stephen O’Neill
$500,001 - $1,000,000
 
(1) “Beneficial Ownership” is determined in accordance with Section 16a-1(a)(2) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
Conflicts of Interest
 
Actual or apparent conflicts of interest may arise when a portfolio manager has day-to-day management responsibilities with respect to more than one fund or other accounts.  More specifically, portfolio managers who manage multiple funds are presented with the potential conflicts discussed below.
 
The management of multiple accounts may result in a portfolio manager devoting unequal time and attention to the management of each account.  The management of multiple funds and accounts also may give rise to potential conflicts of interest if the funds and accounts have different objectives, benchmarks, time horizons, and fees as the portfolio manager must allocate his time and investment ideas across multiple funds and accounts.  Another potential conflict of interest may arise where another account has the same investment objective as the Fund, whereby the portfolio manager could favor one account over another.
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With respect to securities transactions for the Fund, the Subadviser determines which broker to use to execute each order, consistent with the duty to seek best execution of the transaction.  A portfolio manager may execute transactions for another fund or account that may adversely impact the value of securities held by the Fund.  Securities selected for funds or accounts other than the Fund may outperform the securities selected for the Fund. Further, a potential conflict could include Mr. Galley’s, or Mr. O’Neill’s knowledge about the size, timing and possible market impact of Fund trades, whereby they could use this information to the advantage of other accounts and to the disadvantage of the Fund.  These potential conflicts of interest could create the appearance that a portfolio manager is favoring one investment vehicle over another.
 
The appearance of a conflict of interest may arise where the Subadviser has an incentive, such as a performance-based management fee.  The management of personal accounts may give rise to potential conflicts of interest; there is no assurance that the Fund’s code of ethics will adequately address such conflicts.  One of the portfolio managers’ numerous responsibilities is to assist in the sale of Fund shares.  Because the portfolio managers’ compensation is indirectly linked to the sale of Fund shares, they may have an incentive to devote time to marketing efforts designed to increase sales of Fund shares.
 
Although the portfolio managers generally do not trade securities in their own personal account, the Subadviser and the Fund have each adopted a code of ethics that, among other things, permits personal trading by employees (including trading in securities that can be purchased, sold or held by the Fund) under conditions where it has been determined that such trades would not adversely impact client accounts.  Nevertheless, the management of personal accounts may give rise to potential conflicts of interest, and there is no assurance that these codes of ethics will adequately address such conflicts.
 
The Subadviser has adopted certain compliance procedures which are designed to address these types of conflicts. However, there is no guarantee that such procedures will detect each and every situation in which a conflict arises.
 
Other Accounts Managed
 
Mr. Galley and Mr. O’Neill are the co-portfolio managers responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund. As of August 31, 2017, Mr. Galley and Mr. O’Neill were responsible for the management of the following other accounts (in addition to the Fund):
 
 
Registered
Investment Companies
Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles*
Other Accounts
 
Name
Number of
Accts
 
Total Assets
Number of
Accts
 
Total Assets
Number of
Accts
   
Total Assets
 
Patrick W. Galley
8
   
$
3,080,845,595
3
   
$
302,559029
1
   
$
29,837,204
 
Stephen O’Neill
6
   
$
2,957,110,174
2
   
$
293,069,271
1
   
$
29,837,204
 
 

*
All Other Pooled Investment Vehicles are subject to a performance-based fee in addition to an asset-based management fee.
 
Administrator
 
Under the Administration, Bookkeeping and Pricing Services Agreement (the “Administration Agreement”), subject to the supervision of the Board, AFS is responsible for calculating NAVs, providing additional fund accounting and tax services, and providing fund administration and compliance-related services. AFS will bear all expenses in connection with the performance of its services under the Administration Agreement, except for certain out-of-pocket expenses described therein. AFS will not bear any expenses incurred by the Fund, including but not limited to, initial organization and offering expenses; litigation expenses; costs of preferred shares (if any); expenses of conducting repurchase offers for the purpose of repurchasing Fund shares; transfer agency and custodial expenses; taxes; interest; Fund directors’ fees; compensation and expenses of Fund officers who are not associated with AFS or its affiliates; brokerage fees and commissions; state and federal registration fees; advisory fees; insurance premiums; fidelity bond premiums; Fund legal and audit fees and expenses; costs of maintenance of Fund existence; printing and delivery of materials in connection with meetings of the Fund’s directors; printing and mailing shareholder reports, offering documents, and proxy materials; securities pricing and data services; and expenses in connection with electronic filings with the SEC.
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AFS, an affiliate of the Adviser and the Fund’s transfer agent, is entitled to receive a monthly fee based on the Fund’s Managed Assets plus certain out of pocket expenses. The total fees incurred by the Fund under the Administration Agreement for the fiscal period beginning December 24, 2015 (commencement of operations) through October 31, 2016 were $98,943.
 
Codes of Ethics
 
Pursuant to the requirements of Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act and in order to protect against certain unlawful acts, practices and courses of business by certain individuals or entities related to the Fund, the Adviser and the Subadviser have each adopted a Code of Ethics and procedures for implementing the provisions of the Code. The personnel of the Fund, the Adviser and the Subadviser are subject to the code of ethics when investing in securities that may be purchased, sold or held by the Fund.
 
FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS
 
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
Cohen & Company, Ltd., 1350 Euclid Avenue, Suite 800, Cleveland, Ohio 44115, has been appointed as the independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund. Cohen & Company, Ltd. audits the financial statements of the Fund and provides other audit, tax and related services. 
 
Legal Counsel
 
Dechert LLP, New York, New York, serves as legal counsel to the Fund and the independent Directors.
 
Custodian and Transfer Agent
 
State Street Bank and Trust Company, located at State Street Financial Center, One Lincoln Street, Boston, MA 02111, serves as the Fund’s custodian and will maintain custody of the securities and cash of the Fund pursuant to a Custody Agreement.  Under the Custody Agreement, the custodian holds the Fund’s assets in compliance with the 1940 Act.  For its services, the custodian will receive a monthly fee based upon, among other things, the average value of the total assets of the Fund, plus certain charges for securities transactions.
 
DST Systems, Inc., located at 333 West 11th Street, 5th Floor, Kansas City, Missouri 64105, and an affiliate of the Adviser and Administrator, serves as the transfer agent and registrar for the Fund.
 
PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS
 
The Subadviser is responsible for the Fund’s portfolio decisions and the placing of the Fund’s portfolio transactions.  In placing portfolio transactions, the Subadviser seeks the best qualitative execution for the Fund, taking into account such factors as price (including the applicable brokerage commission or dealer spread), the execution capability, financial responsibility and responsiveness of the broker or dealer and the brokerage and research services provided by the broker or dealer.  The Subadviser generally seeks favorable prices and commission rates that are reasonable in relation to the benefits received.
 
The Subadviser is specifically authorized to select brokers or dealers who also provide brokerage and research services to the Fund and/or the other accounts over which the Subadviser exercises investment discretion, and to pay such brokers or dealers a commission in excess of the commission another broker or dealer would charge if the Subadviser determines in good faith that the commission is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided.  The determination may be viewed in terms of a particular transaction or the Subadviser’s overall responsibilities with respect to the Fund and to other accounts over which it exercises investment discretion.  The Subadviser may not give consideration to sales of shares of the Fund as a factor in the selection of brokers and dealers to execute portfolio transactions.  However, the Subadviser may place portfolio transactions with brokers or dealers that promote or sell the Fund’s shares so long as such placements are made pursuant to policies approved by the Board that are designed to ensure that the selection is based on the quality of the broker’s execution and not on its sales efforts.
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Research services include supplemental research, securities and economic analyses, statistical services and information with respect to the availability of securities or purchasers or sellers of securities, and analyses of reports concerning performance of accounts.  The research services and other information furnished by brokers through whom the Fund effects securities transactions may also be used by the Subadviser in servicing all of its accounts.  Similarly, research and information provided by brokers or dealers serving other clients may be useful to the Subadviser in connection with its services to the Fund.  Although research services and other information are useful to the Fund and the Subadviser, it is not possible to place a dollar value on the research and other information received.  It is the opinion of the Subadviser that the review and study of the research and other information will not reduce the overall cost to the Subadviser of performing its duties to the Fund under the Agreement.
 
Over-the-counter transactions will be placed either directly with principal market makers or with broker-dealers, if the same or a better price, including commissions and executions, is available.  Fixed income securities are normally purchased directly from the issuer, an underwriter or a market maker.  Purchases include a concession paid by the issuer to the underwriter and the purchase price paid to a market maker may include the spread between the bid and ask prices.
 
When the Fund and another of the Subadviser’s clients seek to purchase or sell the same security at or about the same time, the Subadviser may execute the transaction on a combined (“blocked”) basis.  Blocked transactions can produce better execution for the Fund because of the increased volume of the transaction. If the entire blocked order is not filled, the Fund may not be able to acquire as large a position in such security as it desires or it may have to pay a higher price for the security.  Similarly, the Fund may not be able to obtain as large an execution of an order to sell or as high a price for any particular portfolio security if the other client desires to sell the same portfolio security at the same time. In the event that the entire blocked order is not filled, the purchase or sale will normally be allocated on a pro rata basis.  The Subadviser may adjust the allocation when, taking into account such factors as the size of the individual orders and transaction costs, the Subadviser believes an adjustment is reasonable.
 
The Fund has no obligation to deal with any particular broker or dealer in the execution of its transactions, but has no present intention of using affiliated broker-dealers for Fund portfolio trades.
 
The Fund paid brokerage commissions in the aggregate amount of $66,599 during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016, not including the gross underwriting spread on securities purchased in underwritten public offerings.

The Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2016, to any broker that (1) is an affiliated person of the Fund, (2) is an affiliated person of an affiliated person of the Fund or (3) has an affiliated person that is an affiliated person of the Fund or the investment adviser.
  
DIVIDENDS
 
As of June 30, 2017 the Board approved the adoption of a managed distribution plan in accordance with ALPS’ Section 19(b) exemptive order (the “Managed Distribution Plan”). Beginning in August 2017, the Fund began making monthly distributions to Common Shareholders set initially at a fixed monthly rate of $0.21 per Common Share.
 
Under the Managed Distribution Plan, to the extent that sufficient investment income is not available on a monthly basis, the Fund’s distributions may consist of long-term capital gains and/or return of capital in order to maintain the distribution rate. Investors should not make any conclusions about the Fund’s investment performance from the amount of the Fund’s distributions or from the terms of the Fund’s Managed Distribution Plan. Dividends and distributions may be payable in cash or Common Shares, with shareholders having the option to receive additional Common Shares in lieu of cash. The Fund may at times, in its discretion, pay out less than the entire amount of net investment income earned in any particular period and may at times pay out such accumulated undistributed income in addition to net investment income earned in other periods in order to permit the Fund to maintain a more stable level of distributions. As a result, the dividend paid by the Fund to Common Stockholders for any particular period may be more or less than the amount of net investment income earned by the Fund during such period. The Fund’s ability to maintain a stable level of distributions to stockholders will depend on a number of factors, including the stability of income received from its investments. The amount of monthly distributions may vary depending on a number of factors, including the costs of any leverage. As portfolio and market conditions change, the amount of dividends on the Fund’s Common Shares could change. For federal income tax purposes, the Fund is required to distribute substantially all of its net investment income each year to both reduce its federal income tax liability and to avoid a potential federal excise tax. The Fund intends to distribute all realized net capital gains, if any, at least annually.
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Under the 1940 Act, the Fund is not permitted to incur indebtedness unless immediately after such incurrence the Fund has an asset coverage of at least 300% of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of indebtedness.  Additionally, under the 1940 Act, the Fund may not declare any dividend or other distribution upon any class of its capital stock, or purchase any such capital stock, unless the aggregate indebtedness of the Fund has, at the time of the declaration of any such dividend or distribution or at the time of any such purchase, an asset coverage of at least 300% after deducting the amount of such dividend, distribution, or purchase price, as the case may be.
 
While any preferred stock is outstanding, the Fund may not declare any cash dividend or other distribution on its Common Shares, unless at the time of such declaration, (i) all accumulated preferred dividends have been paid and (ii) the NAV of the Fund’s portfolio (determined after deducting the amount of such dividend or other distribution) is at least 200% of the liquidation value of the outstanding preferred stock (expected to be equal to the original purchase price per share plus any accumulated and unpaid dividends thereon).
 
In addition to the limitations imposed by the 1940 Act described above, certain lenders may impose additional restrictions on the payment of dividends or distributions on Common Shares in the event of a default on the Fund’s borrowings.  If the Fund’s ability to make distributions on its Common Shares is limited, such limitation could, under certain circumstances, impair the ability of the Fund to maintain its qualification for taxation as a regulated investment company for federal income tax purposes, which would have adverse tax consequences for shareholders.
 
REPURCHASE OF SHARES
 
The Fund is a closed-end fund and as such its stockholders will not have the right to cause the Fund to redeem their shares.  Instead, the Fund’s shares trade in the open market at a price that is a function of several factors, including dividend levels (which are in turn affected by expenses), NAV, call protection, price, dividend stability, relative demand for and supply of such shares in the market, market and economic conditions and other factors.  Because shares of a closed-end fund may frequently trade at prices lower than NAV, the Fund’s Board may (but is not obligated to) consider action that might be taken to reduce or eliminate any material discount from NAV in respect of shares, which may include the repurchase of such shares in the open market, private transactions, the making of a tender offer for such shares at NAV, or the conversion of the Fund to an open-end fund.  The Board may not decide to take any of these actions.  During the pendency of a tender offer, the Fund will publish how Common Stockholders may readily ascertain the NAV.  In addition, there can be no assurance that share repurchases or tender offers, if undertaken, will reduce market discount.
 
Subject to its investment limitations, the Fund may use the accumulation of cash to finance repurchase of shares or to make a tender offer.  Interest on any borrowings to finance share repurchase transactions or the accumulation of cash by the Fund in anticipation of share repurchases or tenders will reduce the Fund’s income.  Any share repurchase, tender offer or borrowing that might be approved by the Board would have to comply with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations under each of those Acts.
 
Although the decision to take action in response to a discount from NAV will be made by the Board at the time it considers the issue, it is the Board’s present policy, which may be changed by the Board, not to authorize repurchases of Common Shares or a tender offer for such shares if (1) such transaction, if consummated, would (a) result in delisting of the Common Shares from the NYSE or (b) impair the Fund’s status as a regulated investment company under the Code (which would make the Fund a taxable entity, causing its income to be taxed at the corporate level in addition to the taxation of stockholders who receive dividends from the Fund) or as a registered closed-end fund under the 1940 Act; (2) the Fund would not be able to liquidate portfolio securities in an orderly manner and consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies in order to repurchase shares; or (3) there is, in the Board’s judgment, any (a) material legal action or proceeding instituted or threatened challenging such transactions or otherwise materially adversely affecting the Fund, (b) general suspension of or limitation on prices for trading securities on the NYSE, (c) declaration of a banking moratorium by Federal or state authorities or a suspension of payment by U.S. banks in which the Fund invests, (d) material limitation affecting the Fund or the issuers of its portfolio securities by Federal or state authorities on the extension of credit by institutions or on the exchange of foreign currency, (e) commencement of armed hostilities or other international or national calamity directly or indirectly involving the United States, or (f) other event or condition which would have a material adverse effect (including any adverse tax effect) on the Fund or its stockholders if shares were repurchased.  The Board may in the future modify these conditions in light of experience.
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The repurchase by the Fund of its shares at prices below NAV will result in an increase in the NAV of those shares that remain outstanding.  However, there can be no assurance that share repurchases or tenders at or below NAV will result in the Fund’s shares trading at a price equal to their NAV.  Nevertheless, the fact that the shares may be the subject of repurchase or tender offers at NAV from time to time, or that the Fund may be converted to an open-end fund, may reduce any spread between market price and NAV that might otherwise exist.
 
Before deciding whether to take any action, the Fund’s Board would likely consider all relevant factors, including the extent and duration of the discount, the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio, the impact of any action on the Fund and market considerations.  Based on the considerations, even if the Fund’s shares should trade at a discount, the Board may determine that, in the interest of the Fund no action should be taken.
 
U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX MATTERS
 
The following is a summary discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences that may be relevant to a shareholder that acquires, holds and/or disposes of Common Shares of the Fund.  This discussion only addresses U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. shareholders who hold their shares as capital assets and does not address all of the U.S. federal income tax consequences that may be relevant to particular shareholders in light of their individual circumstances.  This discussion also does not address the tax consequences to shareholders who are subject to special rules, including, without limitation, banks and other financial institutions, insurance companies, dealers in securities or foreign currencies, traders in securities that have elected to mark-to-market their securities holdings, foreign holders, persons who hold their shares as or in a hedge against currency risk, or as part of a constructive sale, straddle or conversion transaction, or tax-exempt or tax-deferred plans, accounts, or entities.  In addition, the discussion does not address any state, local, or foreign tax consequences.  The discussion reflects applicable income tax laws of the United States as of the date hereof, which tax laws may be changed or subject to new interpretations by the courts or the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) retroactively or prospectively, which could affect the continued validity of this summary.  No attempt is made to present a detailed explanation of all U.S. federal income tax concerns affecting the Fund and its shareholders, and the discussion set forth herein does not constitute tax advice.  Investors are urged to consult their own tax advisors before making an investment in the Fund to determine the specific tax consequences to them of investing in the Fund, including the applicable federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences as well as the effect of possible changes in tax laws.
 
Fund Taxation
 
The Fund intends to elect to be treated, and to qualify each year, as a “regulated investment company” under Subchapter M of the Code, so that it will generally not pay U.S. federal income tax on income and capital gains timely distributed (or treated as being distributed, as described below) to shareholders. If the Fund qualifies as a regulated investment company and distributes to its shareholders at least 90% of the sum of (i) its “investment company taxable income” as that term is defined in the Code (which includes, among other things, dividends, taxable interest, the excess of any net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses and certain net foreign exchange gains as reduced by certain deductible expenses) without regard to the deduction for dividends paid, and (ii) the excess of its gross tax-exempt interest, if any, over certain disallowed deductions, the Fund will be relieved of U.S. federal income tax on any income of the Fund, including long-term capital gains, distributed to shareholders. However, if the Fund retains any investment company taxable income or “net capital gain” (i.e., the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss), it will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate federal income tax rates (currently at a maximum rate of 35%) on the amount retained. The Fund intends to distribute at least annually all or substantially all of its investment company taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid), net tax-exempt interest, if any, and net capital gain. Under the Code, the Fund will generally be subject to a nondeductible 4% federal excise tax on the portion of its undistributed ordinary income and capital gains if it fails to meet certain distribution requirements with respect to each calendar year. In order to avoid the 4% federal excise tax, the required minimum distribution is generally equal to the sum of 98% of the Fund’s ordinary income (computed on a calendar year basis, and taking into account certain deferrals and elections), plus 98.2% of the Fund’s capital gain net income (generally computed for the one-year period ending on October 31) plus undistributed amounts from prior years on which the Fund paid no federal income tax. The Fund generally intends to make distributions in a timely manner in an amount at least equal to the required minimum distribution and therefore, under normal circumstances, does not expect to be subject to this excise tax.  However, the Fund may also decide to distribute less and pay the federal excise taxes.
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If the Fund qualifies as a regulated investment company and distributes to its shareholders at least 90% of the sum of (i) its “investment company taxable income” as that term is defined in the Code (which includes, among other things, dividends, taxable interest, the excess of any net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses and certain net foreign exchange gains as reduced by certain deductible expenses) without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and (ii) the excess of its gross tax-exempt interest, if any, over certain disallowed deductions, the Fund will be relieved of U.S. federal income tax on any income of the Fund, including long-term capital gains, distributed to shareholders.  However, if the Fund retains any investment company taxable income or “net capital gain” (i.e., the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses), it will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate federal income tax rates (currently a maximum rate of 35%) on the amount retained.  The Fund intends to distribute at least annually all or substantially all of its investment company taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid), net tax-exempt interest, if any, and net capital gain.  Under the Code, the Fund will generally be subject to a nondeductible 4% federal excise tax on its undistributed ordinary income and capital gains if it fails to meet certain distribution requirements with respect to a calendar year.  In order to avoid the 4% federal excise tax, the required minimum distribution is generally equal to the sum of 98% of the Fund’s ordinary income (computed on a calendar year basis, and taking into account certain deferrals and elections), plus 98.2% of the Fund’s capital gain net income (generally computed for the one-year period ending on October 31), plus undistributed amounts from prior years on which the Fund paid no federal income tax.  The Fund generally intends to make distributions in a timely manner in an amount at least equal to the required minimum distribution and, therefore, under normal circumstances, does not expect to be subject to this excise tax.  However, the Fund may also decide to distribute less and pay the federal excise taxes.
 
If, for any taxable year, the Fund did not qualify as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it would be treated as a U.S. corporation subject to U.S. federal income tax, and possibly state and local income tax, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income. In such event, the Fund’s distributions, to the extent derived from the Fund’s current or accumulated earnings and profits, would generally constitute ordinary dividends, which would generally be eligible for the dividends received deduction available to corporate shareholders, and non-corporate shareholders would generally be able to treat such distributions as “qualified dividend income” eligible for reduced rates of U.S. federal income taxation, provided in each case that certain holding period and other requirements are satisfied.

If for any taxable year the Fund does not qualify as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it would be treated as a U.S. corporation subject to U.S. federal income tax, and possibly state and local income tax, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income.  In such event, the Fund’s distributions, to the extent derived from the Fund’s current or accumulated earnings and profits, would generally constitute ordinary dividends, which generally would be eligible for the dividends received deduction available to corporate shareholders under Section 243 of the Code, discussed below, and non-corporate shareholders of the Fund generally would be able to treat such distributions as qualified dividend income eligible for reduced rates of U.S. federal income taxation, as discussed below, provided in each case that certain holding period and other requirements are satisfied.
 
If the Fund or an Underlying Fund invests in certain positions such as pay-in-kind securities, zero coupon securities, deferred interest securities or, in general, any other securities with original issue discount (or with market discount if the Fund or Underlying Fund elects to include market discount in income currently), the Fund or Underlying Fund must accrue income on such investments for each taxable year, which generally will be prior to the receipt of the corresponding cash payments.  However, the Fund must distribute, at least annually, all or substantially all of its net investment income, including such accrued income, to shareholders to avoid U.S. federal income and excise taxes.  Therefore, the Fund may have to dispose of its portfolio securities under disadvantageous circumstances to generate cash, or may have to leverage itself by borrowing the cash, to satisfy distribution requirements.
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The Fund or an Underlying Fund may also acquire market discount bonds.  A market discount bond is a security acquired in the secondary market at a price below its stated redemption price at maturity (or its adjusted issue price if it is also an original issue discount bond).  If the Fund or an Underlying Fund invests in a market discount bond, it will be required for federal income tax purposes to treat any gain recognized on the disposition of such market discount bond as ordinary income (instead of capital gain) to the extent of the accrued market discount unless the Fund or Underlying Fund elects to include the market discount in income as it accrues.
 
The Fund or an Underlying Fund may invest in debt obligations that are in the lowest rating categories or are unrated, including debt obligations of issuers not currently paying interest or who are in default.  Investments in debt obligations that are at risk of or in default present special tax issues.  Tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as when the Fund or an Underlying Fund may cease to accrue interest, original issue discount or market discount, when and to what extent deductions may be taken for bad debts or worthless securities, how payments received on obligations in default should be allocated between principal and income and whether exchanges of debt obligations in a bankruptcy or workout context are taxable.  These and other related issues will be addressed by the Fund when, as and if it invests in such securities, in order to seek to ensure that it distributes sufficient income to preserve its status as a regulated investment company and does not become subject to U.S. federal income or excise taxes.
 
The Fund will not be able to offset gains distributed by one Underlying Fund in which it invests against losses realized by another Underlying Fund in which the Fund invests. Redemptions of shares in an Underlying Fund, including those resulting from changes in the allocation among Underlying Funds, could also cause additional distributable gains to shareholders of the Fund. A portion of any such gains may be short-term capital gains that would be distributable as ordinary income to shareholders of the Fund. Further, a portion of losses on redemptions of shares in the Underlying Funds may be deferred under the wash sale rules. Additionally, the Fund’s investment in an Underlying Fund may result in the Fund’s receipt of cash in excess of the Underlying Fund’s earnings; if the Fund distributes these amounts, the distributions could constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for federal income tax purposes. As a result of these factors, the use of the fund of funds structure by the Fund could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders.
 
The Fund or an Underlying Fund may engage in various transactions utilizing options, futures contracts, forward contracts, hedge instruments, straddles, and other similar transactions.  Such transactions may be subject to special provisions of the Code that, among other things, affect the character of any income realized by the Fund from such investments, accelerate recognition of income to the Fund, defer Fund losses, and affect the determination of whether capital gain or loss is characterized as long-term or short-term capital gain or loss.  These rules could therefore affect the character, amount and timing of distributions to shareholders.  These provisions may also require the Fund to mark-to-market certain positions in its portfolio (i.e., treat them as if they were closed out), which may cause the Fund to recognize income without receiving cash with which to make distributions in amounts necessary to satisfy the distribution requirements for avoiding U.S. federal income and excise taxes.  In addition, certain Fund investments may produce income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 90% income test.  The Fund will monitor its investments and transactions, will make the appropriate tax elections, and will make the appropriate entries in its books and records when it acquires an option, futures contract, forward contract, hedge instrument or other similar investment in order to mitigate the effect of these rules, prevent disqualification of the Fund as a regulated investment company and minimize the imposition of U.S. federal income and excise taxes, if possible.
 
The Fund’s transactions in broad based equity index futures contracts, exchange traded options on such indices and certain other futures contracts (if any) are generally considered “Section 1256 contracts” for federal income tax purposes.  Any unrealized gains or losses on such Section 1256 contracts are treated as though they were realized at the end of each taxable year.  The resulting gain or loss is treated as sixty percent long-term capital gain or loss and forty percent short-term capital gain or loss.  Gain or loss recognized on actual sales of Section 1256 contracts is treated in the same manner.  As noted below, distributions of net short-term capital gain are taxable to shareholders as ordinary income while distributions of net long-term capital gain are generally taxable to shareholders as long-term capital gain, regardless of how long the shareholder has held shares of the Fund.
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The Fund’s entry into a short sale transaction, an option or certain other contracts (if any) could be treated as the constructive sale of an appreciated financial position, causing the Fund to realize gain, but not loss, on the position.
 
Foreign exchange gains and losses realized by the Fund in connection with certain transactions involving foreign currency-denominated debt securities, certain options and futures contracts relating to foreign currency, foreign currency forward contracts, foreign currencies, or payables or receivables denominated in a foreign currency (if any) are subject to Section 988 of the Code, which generally causes such gain and loss to be treated as ordinary income or loss and may affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders.
 
If the Fund acquires any equity interest (generally including not only stock but also an option to acquire stock such as is inherent in a convertible bond) in certain foreign corporations that receive at least 75% of their annual gross income from passive sources (such as interest, dividends, certain rents and royalties, or capital gains) or that hold at least 50% of their assets in investments producing such passive income (“passive foreign investment companies”), the Fund could be subject to U.S. federal income tax and additional interest charges on “excess distributions” received from such companies or on gain from the sale of equity interests in such companies, even if all income or gain actually received by the Fund is timely distributed to its shareholders.  The Fund would not be able to pass through to its shareholders any credit or deduction for such tax.  Any gain on the sale of these investments will generally be treated as ordinary income.  Elections may be available that would ameliorate some or all of these adverse federal income tax consequences, but any such election could require the Fund to recognize taxable income or gain (which would be subject to the distribution requirements described above) without the concurrent receipt of cash.  The Fund may limit and/or manage its holdings in passive foreign investment companies to limit its tax liability or maximize its return from these investments.
 
The Fund or an Underlying Fund may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries, including taxes on interest, dividends and capital gains with respect to its investments in those countries (if any), which would, if imposed, reduce the yield on or return from those investments.  Tax treaties between certain countries and the U.S. may reduce or eliminate such taxes in some cases.  If more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of its taxable year consists of stock or securities of foreign corporations, or if at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of each quarter of its taxable year is represented by interests in other regulated investment companies, the Fund may elect to “pass through” to its shareholders the amount of foreign taxes paid or deemed paid by the Fund. If the Fund so elects, each of its shareholders would be required to include in gross income, even though not actually received, its pro rata share of the foreign taxes paid or deemed paid by the Fund, but would be treated as having paid its pro rata share of such foreign taxes and would therefore be allowed to either deduct such amount in computing taxable income or use such amount (subject to various limitations) as a foreign tax credit against federal income tax (but not both).
 
If the Fund utilizes leverage through borrowing, asset coverage limitations imposed by the 1940 Act as well as additional restrictions that may be imposed by certain lenders on the payment of dividends or distributions could potentially limit or eliminate the Fund’s ability to make distributions on its Common Shares until the asset coverage is restored.  These limitations could prevent the Fund from distributing at least 90% of its investment company taxable income as is required under the Code and therefore might jeopardize the Fund’s qualification as a regulated investment company and/or might subject the Fund to the nondeductible 4% federal excise tax discussed above.  Upon any failure to meet the asset coverage requirements imposed by the 1940 Act, the Fund may, in its sole discretion and to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, purchase or redeem shares of preferred stock, if any, in order to maintain or restore the requisite asset coverage and avoid the adverse consequences to the Fund and its shareholders of failing to meet the distribution requirements.  There can be no assurance, however, that any such action would achieve these objectives.  The Fund generally will endeavor to avoid restrictions on its ability to distribute dividends.
 
Shareholder Taxation
 
Distributions of investment company taxable income are generally taxable as ordinary income to the extent of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits.  Distributions of net investment income designated by the Fund as derived from qualified dividend income will be taxed in the hands of individuals and other non-corporate taxpayers at the rates applicable to long-term capital gain, provided certain holding period and other requirements are met at both the shareholder and Fund levels.  A dividend will not be treated as qualified dividend income (at either the Fund or shareholder level) (i) if the dividend is received with respect to any share of stock held for fewer than 61 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date which is 60 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (or, in the case of certain preferred stock, 91 days during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date), (ii) to the extent that the recipient is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property, (iii) if the recipient elects to have the dividend income treated as investment income for purposes of the limitation on deductibility of investment interest, or (iv) if the dividend is received from a foreign corporation that is (a) not eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty with the U.S. which the IRS has approved for these purposes (with the exception of dividends paid on stock of such a foreign corporation that is readily tradable on an established securities market in the U.S.) or (b) treated as a passive foreign investment company.  If the Fund received dividends from an Underlying Fund that qualifies as a regulated investment company, and the Underlying Fund designates such dividends as qualified dividend income, then the Fund is permitted in turn to designate a portion of its distributions as qualified dividend income, provided the Fund meets holding period and other requirements with respect to shares of the Underlying Fund. Qualified dividend income does not include interest from fixed income securities and generally does not include income from REITs.  If the Fund lends portfolio securities, amounts received by the Fund that is the equivalent of the dividends paid by the issuer on the securities loaned will not be eligible for qualified dividend income treatment.  The Fund can provide no assurance regarding the portion of its dividends that will qualify for qualified dividend income treatment.
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Distributions of net capital gain, if any, that are properly reported by the Fund are taxable at long-term capital gain rates for U.S. federal income tax purposes without regard to the length of time the shareholder has held shares of the Fund.  A distribution of an amount in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits, if any, will be treated by a shareholder as a tax-free return of capital, which is applied against and reduces the shareholder’s basis in his, her or its shares.  To the extent that the amount of any such distribution exceeds the shareholder’s basis in his, her or its shares, the excess will be treated by the shareholder as gain from the sale or exchange of such shares.  The U.S. federal income tax status of all distributions will be designated by the Fund and reported to shareholders annually.
 
Certain distributions by the Fund may qualify for the dividends received deduction available to corporate shareholders under Section 243 of the Code, subject to certain holding period and other requirements, but generally only to the extent the Fund earned dividend income from stock investments in U.S. domestic corporations (but not including real estate investment trusts).  Additionally, if the Fund received dividends from an Underlying Fund that qualifies as a regulated investment company, and the Underlying Fund designates such dividends as eligible for the dividends received deduction, then the Fund is permitted in turn to designate a portion of its distributions as eligible for the dividends received deduction, provided the Fund meets holding period and other requirements with respect to shares of the Underlying Fund.  The Fund can provide no assurance regarding the portion of its dividends that will qualify for the dividends received deduction.
 
A Common Stockholder may elect to have all dividends and distributions automatically reinvested in Common Shares of the Fund.  For U.S. federal income tax purposes, all dividends are generally taxable regardless of whether a shareholder takes them in cash or they are reinvested in additional shares of the Fund.
 
If a shareholder’s distributions are automatically reinvested in additional shares, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the shareholder will be treated as having received a taxable distribution in the amount of the cash dividend that the shareholder would have received if the shareholder had elected to receive cash, unless the distribution is in newly issued shares of the Fund that are trading at or above NAV, in which case the shareholder will be treated as receiving a taxable distribution equal to the fair market value of the stock the shareholder receives.
 
The Fund intends to distribute all realized net capital gains, if any, at least annually.  If, however, the Fund were to retain any net capital gain, the Fund may designate the retained amount as undistributed capital gains in a notice to shareholders who, if subject to U.S. federal income tax on long-term capital gains, (i) will be required to include in income, as long-term capital gain, their proportionate share of such undistributed amount, and (ii) will be entitled to credit their proportionate share of the federal income tax paid by the Fund on the undistributed amount against their U.S. federal income tax liabilities, if any, and to claim refunds to the extent the credit exceeds such liabilities.  For U.S. federal income tax purposes, the tax basis of shares owned by a shareholder of the Fund will be increased by the difference between the amount of undistributed net capital gain included in the shareholder’s gross income and the federal income tax deemed paid by the shareholder.
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Any dividend declared by the Fund in October, November or December with a record date in such a month and paid during the following January will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as paid by the Fund and received by shareholders on December 31 of the calendar year in which it is declared.
 
At the time of an investor’s purchase of the Fund’s shares, a portion of the purchase price may be attributable to realized or unrealized appreciation in the Fund’s portfolio or undistributed taxable income of the Fund.  Consequently, subsequent distributions by the Fund with respect to these shares from such appreciation or income may be taxable to such investor even if the NAV of the investor’s shares is, as a result of the distributions, reduced below the investor’s cost for such shares and the distributions economically represent a return of a portion of the investment.  Investors should consider the tax implications of purchasing shares just prior to a distribution.
 
The IRS has taken the position that if a regulated investment company has two or more classes of shares, it must designate distributions made to each class in any year as consisting of no more than such class’ proportionate share of particular types of income (e.g., ordinary income and net capital gains).  Consequently, if both Common Shares and preferred stock are outstanding, the Fund intends to designate distributions made to each class of particular types of income in accordance with each class’ proportionate share of such income.  Thus, the Fund will designate to the extent applicable, dividends qualifying for the corporate dividends received deduction (if any), income not qualifying for the dividends received deduction, qualified dividend income, ordinary income and net capital gain in a manner that allocates such income between the holders of Common Shares and preferred stock in proportion to the total dividends paid to each class during or for the taxable year, or otherwise as required by applicable law.  However, for purposes of determining whether distributions are out of the Fund’s current or accumulated earnings and profits, the Fund’s earnings and profits will be allocated first to the Fund’s preferred stock, if any, and then to the Fund’s Common Shares.  In such a case, since the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits will first be used to pay dividends on the preferred stock, distributions in excess of such earnings and profits, if any, will be made disproportionately to holders of Common Shares.
 
In addition, solely for the purpose of satisfying the 90% distribution requirement and the distribution requirement for avoiding federal income taxes, certain distributions made after the close of a taxable year of the Fund may be “spilled back” and treated as paid during such taxable year.  In such case, shareholders will be treated as having received such dividends in the taxable year in which the distribution was actually made. 
 
Sales, exchanges and other dispositions of the Fund’s shares generally are taxable events for shareholders that are subject to federal income tax.  Shareholders should consult their own tax advisors regarding their individual circumstances to determine whether any particular transaction in the Fund’s shares is properly treated as a sale or exchange for federal income tax purposes (as the following discussion assumes) and the tax treatment of any gains or losses recognized in such transactions.  Generally, gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of other property received (including securities distributed by the Fund) and the shareholder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares sold or exchanged.  In general, any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year.  Otherwise, the gain or loss on the taxable disposition of the Fund’s shares will be treated as short-term capital gain or loss.  However, any loss realized by a shareholder upon the sale or other disposition of shares with a tax holding period of six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any amounts treated as distributions of long-term capital gain with respect to such shares.  For the purposes of calculating the six-month period, the holding period is suspended for any periods during which the shareholder’s risk of loss is diminished as a result of holding one or more other positions in substantially similar or related property or through certain options, short sales or contractual obligations to sell.  The maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains is generally either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. The ability to deduct capital losses may be subject to limitations.  In addition, losses on sales or other dispositions of shares may be disallowed under the “wash sale” rules in the event a shareholder acquires substantially identical stock or securities (including those made pursuant to reinvestment of dividends) within a period of 61 days beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after a sale or other disposition of shares.  In such a case, the disallowed portion of any loss generally would be included in the U.S. federal income tax basis of the shares acquired.
37

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.  Because the Fund does not expect to distribute dividends that would give rise to an adjustment to an individual’s alternative minimum taxable income, an investment in the Common Shares should not, by itself, cause the holders of Common Shares to become subject to alternative minimum tax.
 
From time to time, the Fund may repurchase its shares.  Shareholders who tender all shares held, and those considered to be held (through attribution rules contained in the Code), by them will be treated as having sold their shares and generally will realize a capital gain or loss.  If a shareholder tenders fewer than all of his, her or its shares (including those considered held through attribution), such shareholder may be treated as having received a taxable dividend upon the tender of its shares.  If a tender offer is made, there is a risk that non-tendering shareholders will be treated as having received taxable distributions from the Fund.  To the extent that the Fund recognizes net gains on the liquidation of portfolio securities to meet such tenders of shares, the Fund will be required to make additional distributions to its shareholders.  If the Board determines that a tender offer will be made by the Fund, the federal income tax consequences of such offer will be discussed in materials that will be available at such time in connection with the specific tender offer, if any.
 
The Code requires that the Fund withhold, as “backup withholding,” 28% of reportable payments, including dividends, capital gain distributions and the proceeds of sales or other dispositions of the Fund’s stock paid to shareholders who have not complied with IRS regulations.  In order to avoid this withholding requirement, shareholders must certify on their account applications, or on a separate IRS Form W-9, that the social security number or other taxpayer identification number they provide is their correct number and that they are not currently subject to backup withholding, or that they are exempt from backup withholding.  The Fund may nevertheless be required to withhold if it receives notice from the IRS or a broker that the number provided is incorrect or backup withholding is applicable.  Backup withholding is not an additional tax.  Any amount withheld may be allowed as a refund or a credit against the shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability if the appropriate information (such as the timely filing of the appropriate federal income tax return) is provided to the IRS.
 
Under Treasury regulations, if a shareholder recognizes a loss with respect to shares of $2 million or more in a single taxable year (or $4 million or more in any combination of taxable years) for an individual shareholder, S corporation or trust or $10 million or more in a single taxable year (or $20 million or more in any combination of years) for a shareholder who is a C corporation, such shareholder will generally be required to file with the IRS a disclosure statement on Form 8886.  Direct shareholders of portfolio securities are generally excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a regulated investment company are not excepted.  Future guidance may extend the current exception from this reporting requirement to shareholders of most or all regulated investment companies.  The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper.  Shareholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.
 
Other Taxes
 
The description of certain U.S. federal income tax provisions above relates only to U.S. federal income tax consequences for shareholders who are U.S. persons (i.e., U.S. citizens or residents or U.S. corporations, partnerships, trusts or estates).  Non-U.S. shareholders should consult their tax advisors concerning the tax consequences of ownership of shares of the Fund, including the possibility that distributions may be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax (or a reduced rate of withholding provided by an applicable treaty if the investor provides proper certification of its non-U.S. status).
 
Shareholders should consult their own tax advisors on these matters and on any specific question of U.S. federal, state, local, foreign and other applicable tax laws before making an investment in the Fund.
38

BOARD MEMBERS AND OFFICERS
 
The following table presents certain information regarding the Board Members of the Fund.  Each Board Member’s year of birth is set forth in parentheses after his or her name.  The Board is divided into three classes of directors serving staggered three-year terms.  The initial terms of the first, second and third classes of directors will expire at the first, second and third annual meetings of stockholders, respectively, and, in each case, until their successors are duly elected and qualify, or until a director sooner dies, retires, resigns or is removed as provided in the governing documents of the Fund.  Upon expiration of their initial terms, Directors of each class will be elected to serve for three-year terms and until their successors are duly elected and qualify, and at each annual meeting one class of directors will be elected by the shareholders.
 
Except as otherwise noted, the address for all Directors and officers is 1290 Broadway, Suite 1100, Denver, CO 80203. The “independent directors” consist of those directors who are not “interested persons” of the Fund, as that term is defined under the 1940 Act.
 
Independent Board Members
 
Name, Address and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with Registrant
Term of Office (1)
and Length
of Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of Funds in
Fund Complex(2)
Overseen by
Director
Other Directorships(3)
Held by the Director
During the Past 5 Years
John K. Carter
(1961)
Director
Term expires in 2020.  Has served since 2013.
Partner, Law Office of John K. Carter, P.A. (a general practice and corporate law firm) (2015 to present); Managing Partner, Global Recruiters of St. Petersburg (a financial services consulting and recruiting firm) (2012 to 2015); Business Unit Head, Transamerica Asset Management (2006 to 2012).
6
Eagle Mutual Funds (9 funds) (2016 to present); RiverNorth Marketplace Lending Corporation (1 fund) (2016 to present); RiverNorth/ DoubleLine Strategic Opportunity Fund, Inc. (1 fund) (2016 to present) RiverNorth Funds (3 funds) (2006 to present); Director, Chairman, Transamerica Funds (120 funds) (2006 to 2012).
 
Mr. J. Carter has served as a Director of the Fund since 2013.  He currently serves on the Fund’s Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, the Audit Committee and the Qualified Legal Compliance Committee.  Mr. J. Carter has served as the Managing Partner of the Law Office of John K. Carter, P.A., a general practice and corporate law firm since 2015 From 2012 to 2015, he served as the Managing Partner of Global Recruiters of St. Petersburg, a financial services consulting and recruiting firm. Prior, Mr. J. Carter was a Business Unit Head of Transamerica Asset Management from 2006 to 2012.  Mr. J. Carter was also a Director and Chairman of the Board of Transamerica Funds and was a Board Member of the United Way of Tampa Bay from 2011 to 2012.  Mr. J. Carter was previously an investment management attorney with experience as in-house counsel, serving with the Securities and Exchange Commission and in private practice with a large law firm. Mr. J. Carter was selected to serve as a Director of the Fund based on his industry-specific experience, including serving as a chairman of another fund complex, as a compliance officer, and as an investment management attorney.
39

Name, Address and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with Registrant
Term of Office (1)
and Length
of Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of Funds in
Fund Complex(2)
Overseen by
Director
Other Directorships(3)
Held by the Director
During the Past 5 Years
J. Wayne Hutchens
(1944)
Director
Term expires in 2020. Has served since 2013.
Mr. Hutchens is currently retired. From April 2006 to December 2012, he served as President and CEO of the University of Colorado (CU) Foundation and from April 2009 to December 2012, he was Executive Director of the CU Real Estate Foundation. Mr. Hutchens is also Trustee of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (2000 to present), Director of AMG National Trust Bank (June 2012 to present) and Trustee of Children’s Hospital Colorado (May 2012 to present). Prior to these positions, Mr. Hutchens spent 29 years in the banking industry, retiring as Chairman of Chase Bank Colorado.
  1
ALPS Series Trust (9 funds) (2012 to present).
 
 
Mr. Hutchens has served as a Director of the Fund since 2013.  Mr. Hutchens is currently retired.  From April 2006 to December 2012, he served as President and CEO of the University of Colorado (CU) Foundation and from April 2009 to December 2012, he was Executive Director of the CU Real Estate Foundation.  Mr. Hutchens is also Director of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (2000 to present), Director of AMG National Trust Bank (June 2012 to present) and Director of Children’s Hospital Colorado (May 2012 to present).  Prior to these positions, Mr. Hutchens spent 29 years in the banking industry, retiring as Chairman of Chase Bank Colorado.  Mr. Hutchens has also served as a Director of ALPS Series Trust since 2012.  Mr. Hutchens was selected to serve as a Director of the Fund based on his business and financial services experience.
40

Name, Address and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with Registrant
Term of Office (1)
and Length
of Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of Funds in
Fund Complex(2)
Overseen by
Director
Other Directorships(3)
Held by the Director
During the Past 5 Years
John S. Oakes
(1943)
Chairman and Director
 
 
 
 
 
Initial term expires in 2018.  Has served since 2013.
 
Principal, Financial Search and Consulting (a recruiting and consulting firm) (2013 to 2017); Regional Vice President, Securities America (a broker-dealer) (2007 to 2013).
6
RiverNorth Marketplace Lending Corporation (1 fund) (2016 to present); RiverNorth/DoubleLine Strategic Opportunity Fund, Inc. (1 fund) (2016 to present); RiverNorth Funds (3 funds) (2006 to present).
 
Mr. Oakes has served as a Director of the Fund since 2013 and as the Fund’s independent Chairman since 2017. Mr. Oakes has over 40 years of experience in the securities industry. Additionally, Mr. Oakes serves on the board of directors of another registered investment company. Mr. Oakes was the Principal of Financial Search and Consulting, LLC, a consulting and recruiting company. He held numerous management and leadership positions at major brokerage firms and a major bank.  The Board feels Mr. Oakes’ industry and board experience adds an operational perspective to the Board.
 
David M. Swanson
(1957)
Director
Initial term expires in 2019. Has served since 2013.
Founder & Managing Partner of SwanDog Strategic Marketing since 2006, Executive Vice President of Calamos Investments (April 2004 to March 2006), Chief Operating Officer of Van Kampen Investments (October 2002 to April 2004), and Managing Director of Morgan Stanley (February 2000 to April 2004).
1
Managed Portfolio Series (28 funds) (2011 to present); Trustee, ALPS Variable Investment Trust (10 funds) (2006 to present).
 
Mr. Swanson has served as a Director of the Fund since 2013. In 2006, Mr. Swanson founded SwanDog Marketing, a marketing consulting firm to asset managers. Mr. Swanson currently serves as SwanDog’s Managing Partner. He has over 30 years of senior management and marketing experience, with approximately 20 years in financial services. Before joining SwanDog, Mr. Swanson most recently served as Executive Vice President and Head of Distribution for Calamos Investments, an investment management firm. He previously held positions as Chief Operating Officer of Van Kampen Investments, President and CEO of Scudder, Stevens & Clark, Canada, Ltd. and Managing Director and Head of Global Investment Products at Morgan Stanley. Mr. Swanson holds a Master of Management from the Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University and a Bachelors in Journalism from Southern Illinois University. He was selected to serve as a Director of the Fund based on his business, financial services and investment management experience.
41

Interested Board Members(7) and Officers(4)
 
Name, Address and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with Registrant
Term of Office (1)
and Length
of Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of Funds in
Fund Complex(2)
Overseen by
Director
Other Directorships(3)
Held by the Director
During the Past 5 Years
Thomas A. Carter(5)
(1966)
Director and President
Initial term expires in 2018. Has served since 2013.
Mr. Carter joined ALPS in 1994 and is currently President and Director of the Adviser, and APSD, and Executive Vice President and Director of ALPS, ADI and AHI. Because of his position with AHI, ALPS, ADI, the Adviser and APSD, Mr. Carter is deemed an affiliate of the Fund as defined under the 1940 Act. Before joining ALPS, Mr. Carter was with Deloitte & Touche LLP, where he worked with a diverse group of clients, primarily within the financial services industry. Mr. Carter is a Certified Public Accountant and received his Bachelor of Science in Accounting from the University of Colorado at Boulder.
33
Trustee of ALPS ETF Trust (21 funds), ALPS Variable Investment Trust (10 funds) and Principal Real Estate Income Fund (1 fund).
 
 
Mr. T. Carter has been an Interested Director since 2013. In addition, he was previously Chairman of the Fund from 2013 to 2017. Mr. Carter joined ALPS, the Fund’s administrator, in 1994 and currently serves as Executive Vice President and Director of AFS, of ALPS Distributors, Inc. (“ADI”), and ALPS Holdings, Inc. (“AHI”).  He also currently serves as President and Director of ALPS Portfolio Solutions Distributor, Inc. (“APSD”) and ALPS Advisors, Inc., the Fund’s investment adviser. Before joining ALPS and the Adviser, Mr. T. Carter was with Deloitte & Touche LLP, where he worked with a diverse group of clients, primarily within the financial services industry. Mr. T. Carter is a Certified Public Accountant and received his Bachelor of Science in Accounting from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He was selected to serve as a Director of the Fund based on his business, accounting, financial services and investment management experience.
 
Patrick W. Galley(6)
(1975)
Director
Initial term expires in 2019. Has served since 2013.
Chief Investment Officer, RiverNorth Capital Management, LLC (2004 to present); Board of Managers of RiverNorth Capital Management, LLC and RiverNorth Securities, LLC (since 2010) and Board of Directors RiverNorth Holdings, Co. (since 2010).
5
RiverNorth Marketplace Lending Corporation (1 fund) (2016 to present); RiverNorth/DoubleLine Strategic Opportunity Fund, Inc. (1 fund) (2016 to present); RiverNorth Funds (3 funds) (2006 to present).
 
 
Mr. Galley has been an Interested Director of the Fund since 2013 and is the Chief Investment Officer for the Fund’s investment sub-adviser, RiverNorth Capital Management, LLC and the portfolio manager of the Fund. His knowledge regarding the investment strategy of the Fund and the closed-end mutual fund industry in total makes him uniquely qualified to serve as a Director.
42

Name, Address and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with Registrant
Term of Office (1)
and Length
of Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of Funds in
Fund Complex(2)
Overseen by
Director
Other Directorships(3)
Held by the Director
During the Past 5 Years
Patrick D. Buchanan
(1972)
Treasurer
Has served since 2015.
Mr. Buchanan is Vice President of the Adviser. Mr. Buchanan joined ALPS in 2007 and because of his position with the Adviser, he is deemed an affiliate of the Trust as defined under the 1940 Act. Mr. Buchanan is also Treasurer of the ALPS ETF Trust, ALPS Variable Investment Trust, Principal Real Estate Income Fund and Clough Funds Trust.
N/A
N/A
Erin D. Nelson
(1977)
Chief Compliance Officer
Has served since 2015.
Erin Nelson became Senior Vice-President and Chief Compliance Officer of the Adviser on July 1, 2015 and prior to that served as Vice President and Deputy Chief Compliance Officer of the Adviser since January 1, 2015. Prior to January 1, 2015, Ms. Nelson was Vice-President and Assistant General Counsel of ALPS Fund Services, Inc.  Because of her position with the Adviser, Ms. Nelson is deemed an affiliate of the Trust as defined under the 1940 Act.  Ms. Nelson is also the CCO of Red Rocks Capital, LLC, ALPS ETF Trust, ALPS Variable Investment Trust, Liberty All-Star Growth Fund, Inc., Liberty All-Star Equity Fund and Principal Real Estate Income Fund.
N/A
N/A
Christopher A. Moore
(1984)
Secretary
Has served since 2017.
Mr. Moore has been Vice President and Senior Counsel of ALPS Fund Services, Inc. since 2016.  Prior to joining ALPS, Mr. Moore served as an associate at Thompson Hine LLP from 2013-2016 and as Corporate Counsel at DSW, Inc. from 2012-2013. He also served as a certified public accountant for Ernst & Young from 2007-2009 and as an internal auditor for JSJ Inc. in 2007.  Mr. Moore is also the Assistant Secretary of the Griffin Institutional Access Credit Fund and Griffin Institutional Access Real Estate Fund.
N/A
N/A
Allen G. French
(1959)
Assistant Secretary
Has served since 2017.
Mr. French has been Assistant Vice President and Paralegal Manager since June 2017, and Senior Investment Company Act Paralegal from September 2016 to May 2017 of ALPS Fund Services, Inc. Prior to that Mr. French was Manager, Investment Company Act Products, Transamerica Asset Management, Inc. from 2015 to 2016; Senior Paralegal, ALPS Fund Services, Inc. from 2012 to 2015; and Legal Operations Manager, Old Mutual Capital, Inc. from 2006 to 2012.  Mr. French is also the Assistant Secretary of the RiverNorth Funds.
N/A
N/A
43

Name, Address and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with Registrant
Term of Office (1)
and Length
of Time Served 
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of Funds in
Fund Complex(2)
Overseen by
Director
 Other Directorships(3)
Held by the Director
During the Past 5 Years
Andrew Meloni
(1969)
Assistant Treasurer
Has served since 2016.
Mr. Meloni is a Fund Controller for ALPS Fund Services, Inc. Mr. Meloni joined ALPS in 2007 and because of his position with ALPS, he is deemed an affiliate of the Fund as defined under the 1940 Act. Mr. Meloni is also Assistant Treasurer to the Liberty AllStar Equity Fund, Liberty AllStar Growth Fund, Inc. and Principal Real Estate Income Fund.
N/A
N/A
 

(1)
After a Director’s initial term, each Director is expected to serve a three-year term.
 
(2)
The term “Fund Complex” means two or more registered investment companies that:
 
 
(a)
hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services; or
 
(b)
have a common investment adviser or that have an investment adviser that is an affiliated person of the investment adviser of any of the other registered investment companies.
 
 
For Mr. Galley, Mr. J. Carter and Mr. Oakes, the Fund complex consists of the Fund (1 Fund), RiverNorth Marketplace Lending Corporation (1 Fund), RiverNorth/DoubleLine Strategic Opportunity Fund, Inc. (1 Fund), and the RiverNorth Funds (3 Funds). For Mr. Swanson, the Fund complex consists of the Fund (1 Fund) and the ALPS Variable Investment Trust (10 Funds). For Mr. Thomas Carter, the Fund complex consists of the Fund (1 Fund), the Principal Real Estate Income Fund (1 Fund), ALPS Variable Investment Trust (10 Funds) and the ALPS ETF Trust (21 Funds). For Mr. Hutchens, the Fund complex consists of the Fund (1 Fund).
 
(3)
The  numbers  enclosed  in  the  parentheticals represent  the  number  of  funds  overseen  in  each  respective directorship held by the Director.  Only includes public company directorships.
 
(4)
Officers are elected annually. Each officer will hold such office until a successor has been elected by the Board.
 
(5)
Mr. T. Carter is considered to be an “Interested Director” because of his affiliation with the Adviser.
 
(6)
Mr. Galley is considered to be an “Interested Director” because of his affiliation with the Sub-Adviser.
 
(7)
“Interested Directors” refers to those Directors who constitute “interested persons” of the Fund as defined in the 1940 Act.
 
Board Leadership Structure.  The Board, which has overall responsibility for the oversight of the Fund's investment programs and business affairs, believes that it has structured itself in a manner that allows it to effectively perform its oversight obligations. Mr. Oakes, the Chairman of the Board (“Chairman”), is an Independent Director. The Directors also complete an annual self-assessment during which the Directors review their overall structure and consider where and how its structure remains appropriate in light of the Fund's current circumstances. The Chairman's role is to preside at all meetings of the Board and in between meetings of the Board to generally act as the liaison between the Board and the Fund's officers, attorneys and various other service providers, including but not limited to ALPS and other such third parties servicing the Fund.
44

The Fund has three standing committees, each of which enhances the leadership structure of the Board: the Audit Committee; the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee; and the Qualified Legal Compliance Committee. The Audit Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, and the Qualified Legal Compliance Committee are each chaired by, and composed of, members who are Independent Directors.
 
The Audit Committee of the Board (“Audit Committee”) is comprised of Messrs. J. Carter, Oakes, Swanson and Hutchens (the Audit Committee’s Chairman and Financial Expert). None of the members of the Audit Committee are “interested persons” of the Fund.

The role of the Fund's Audit Committee is to assist the Board in its oversight of (i) the quality and integrity of Fund’s financial statements, reporting process and the independent registered public accounting firm (the “independent accountants”) and reviews thereof, (ii) the Fund’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices, its internal controls and, as appropriate, the internal controls of certain service providers, (iii) the Fund’s compliance with legal and regulatory requirements and (iv) the independent accountants’ qualifications, independence and performance. The Audit Committee is also required to prepare an audit committee report pursuant to the rules of the SEC for inclusion in the Fund’s annual proxy statement. The Audit Committee operates pursuant to the Audit Committee Charter (the “Audit Committee Charter”) that was most recently reviewed and approved by the Audit Committee on June 19, 2017, at which time the Audit Committee recommended approval to the Board and the Board approved the Audit Committee Charter. The Audit Committee Charter is available at the Fund’s website: www.rivernorthcef.com. As set forth in the Audit Committee Charter, management is responsible for maintaining appropriate systems for accounting and internal control, and the Fund’s independent accountants are responsible for planning and carrying out proper audits and reviews. The independent accountants are ultimately accountable to the Board and to the Audit Committee, as representatives of stockholders. The independent accountants for the Fund report directly to the Audit Committee.