10-K 1 gpro2016-12x3110xk.htm 10-K Document

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
 
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from ________________ to ________________
Commission file number: 001-36514
logo2a02.jpg
GOPRO, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
77-0629474
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
3000 Clearview Way
San Mateo, California
 
94402
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(650) 332-7600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001
(Title of each class)
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes þ    No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of Act.    Yes ¨    No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes þ    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files).     Yes þ    No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer þ
Accelerated filer 
Non accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting company 
 
 
    (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No þ
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2016, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $1,097,400,000 based upon the closing price reported for such date on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.
As of January 31, 2017, 105,351,578 and 36,760,415 shares of Class A and Class B common stock were outstanding, respectively.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”), to be filed within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, are incorporated by reference in Part II and Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 

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GoPro, Inc.
Index



 
 
Page
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
PART IV
Item 15.
 



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PART I.
Special note regarding forward-looking statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K of GoPro, Inc. (“GoPro” or “we” or “the Company”) includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding guidance, industry prospects, product and marketing plans, or future results of operations or financial position, made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking. To identify forward-looking statements, we use such words as “expect," “anticipate," “believe," "may," "will," "estimate," "continue," "intend," "target," "goal," "plan," or variations of such words and similar expressions. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of their date. If any of management's assumptions prove incorrect or should unanticipated circumstances arise, the Company's actual results could materially differ from those anticipated by such forward-looking statements. The differences could be caused by a number of factors or combination of factors including, but not limited to, those factors identified under Item 1A. Risk Factors. Forward-looking statements include plans to include new product offerings in "Item 1. Business" and other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, projections of results of operations, and any discussion of the trends and other factors that drive our business and future results in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” including the discussion appearing there under "Looking Ahead to 2017," and other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K including but not limited to Item 1A Risk Factors. Readers are strongly encouraged to consider the foregoing including those factors when evaluating any forward-looking statements concerning the Company. The Company does not undertake any obligation to update any forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to reflect future events or developments.
Item 1. Business
Overview
GoPro is enabling the way people capture and share their lives from a perspective only achieved with a GoPro. What began as an idea to help athletes document themselves engaged in sport, GoPro has become a mobile storytelling solution that helps the world share itself through immersive content. To date, our cameras and mountable and wearable accessories have generated substantially all of our revenue. We sell our products globally through retailers, wholesale distributors, and on our website.
Our product offerings include the following:
HERO5 is our all-new line of cloud-connected cameras launched in Fall 2016 featuring image stabilization, telemetry, cloud connectivity and voice control.
GoPro Plus is a new cloud-based storage solution that enables subscribers to easily access, edit and share content. HERO5 cameras can automatically upload new photos and videos to a subscriber's GoPro cloud account.
Quik is our primary mobile editing app that makes it simple to create stunning edits on a smartphone. Our Quik desktop app provides expanded editing options for power users. 
Capture is a mobile app that allows users to preview and play back shots, control their GoPro cameras and share content on the fly using their smartphones. 
Karma is our compact and foldable drone and versatile stabilization solution that includes the Karma controller, and camera stabilizer, and it all fits in a custom backpack.
Karma Grip is a handheld, body-mountable camera stabilizer that makes it easy to capture zero-shake, smooth video.
We also offer a full ecosystem of mountable, wearable and voice activated accessories. See "Products" below for additional information.
We believe our investments in hardware, cloud and mobile have yielded a solid foundational experience for consumers that we will continue to build upon in 2017.

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Our strategy
Helping our consumers capture and share experiences is at the core of our business. We are committed to developing solutions that create an easy, seamless experience for consumers to capture, create and enjoy engaging personal content. When consumers use our products and services, those products and services enable compelling, authentic content that organically increases awareness for GoPro, driving a virtuous cycle and a self-reinforcing demand for our products. We believe revenue growth may be driven by the introduction of new cameras, drones, accessories and software applications. We believe new camera features drive a replacement cycle and attract new users, and mobile editing solutions, auto-upload capabilities, local language user-interfaces and voice recognition in multiple languages drive the expansion of our total addressable market. Key components of our growth strategy for 2017 and beyond include the following:
Drive profitability through improved efficiency, lower costs and better execution. We incurred material operating losses in 2016 and our future success will depend in part upon our ability to manage our operating expenses effectively. In the fourth quarter of 2016, we implemented a company-wide restructuring of our business resulting in a global reduction-in-force, the elimination of several high-cost initiatives, including the closure of our entertainment group in order to focus our resources on our hardware and software integrated storytelling solution, and the consolidation of certain leased office facilities. (See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" below for information regarding restructuring charges in 2016 and future periods.) We believe the actions we have taken will reduce our operating expenses by more than $100 million in 2017 compared to 2016, while providing a flatter more efficient global organization that will allow for improved communication and alignment among our functional teams. For 2017 and beyond, we plan to operate efficiently while continuing to invest in those areas that we believe will grow revenue.
Make the smartphone central to the GoPro experience. We seek to eliminate the pain point of managing content and making it a seamless and near automatic process for our users to stay engaged in an activity or moment without having to pause to document their experience. Our new cloud-connected HERO5 cameras, GoPro Plus service and Quik editing applications all work together enabling an experience that allows users to capture, auto-upload and edit content on a mobile device without ever touching an SD card or computer. We believe HERO5's auto-upload and voice control features provide game-changing experiences for consumers that we will continue to build upon in the future with our next-generation cameras. Our Quik editing applications enable users to quickly produce high-quality videos that are fun to create and easy to share across multiple platforms. We expect to continue to enhance our software and services offerings, including solutions that automate editing on-the-go and enable content transfer from GoPro cameras to mobile devices, with a focus on making the smartphone a key component in the GoPro user experience.
Market the improved GoPro experience to our extended community. We believe the global market for enabling people to self-capture compelling, immersive photo and video content of their everyday life and activities is large. To date, our business strategies have enabled us to be a leader in outdoor recreational markets such as skiing, snowboarding, surfing, motorsports, kayaking, hunting and fishing, and we continue to target other categories, such as music, families, travel and fitness. We believe many consumers in these other markets may not be as familiar with our brand and products, and while other consumers may know of our brand, have not recognized GoPro as the go-to product and service for capturing and sharing meaningful moments in their lives. We believe there is a significant opportunity for GoPro to expand awareness through the greater GoPro community of users, followers and fans and through more targeted media campaigns. Although we ceased our pursuit of monetizing GoPro content with the recent closure of our entertainment group, we will continue to develop content that builds awareness for our brand, products and partner platforms.
Grow our business internationally. We believe that international markets represent a significant growth opportunity for GoPro. Revenue from outside the United States comprised 53%, 52% and 43% of our revenue in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. We believe our continued investments in innovative and easy-to-use cameras and drones, as well as intuitive and simple software tools and services, will enable us to expand our user base to a broader group of international consumers. We plan to increase our presence globally through the active promotion of our brand, the creation and cultivation of regional strategic and marketing partnerships, the introduction of localized products in international markets with region specific marketing, and an investment focus on the biggest opportunities in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region.

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Expand the GoPro experience for advanced users. We will continue to pursue our goal of developing the world’s most versatile cameras, drones and stabilization products for enabling self-capture during any activity or moment. We will seek to leverage our brand strength and product expertise to drive a hardware upgrade cycle for our users and opportunistically enter complementary new device categories, including our recent re-entry into the consumer drone market with our first aerial drone, Karma, as well as virtual reality products beyond 2017. With our drone and our robust ecosystem of mounts and accessories, including a voice-control remote, GoPro products allow our users to live the moment they wish to capture without having to step outside of that moment to capture it.
Products
Cameras. We offer the cloud connected HERO5 Black and HERO5 Session cameras as well as the HERO Session. The HERO5 line of cameras are waterproof (without a housing), come with select mounting accessories, and have built-in Wi-Fi and Bluetooth providing connectivity with a mobile device to enable remote control, content viewing, editing and sharing functionality. Our HERO5 cameras shoot in 4K at 30 frames per second and also feature multi-language voice control, electronic image stabilization, simplified controls, and the ability to auto-upload photos and videos to the cloud via Wi-Fi for easy access and editing with our Quik application. HERO5 Black features GPS and additional sensors that capture location, elevation, speed and G-force loads.
Drone and image stabilization. The Karma drone features a compact design that fits in a small backpack, and the drone is flown using a game-style controller with an integrated touch display. Karma also includes a 3-axis camera stabilizer that can be removed from the drone and attached to the Karma Grip. Karma Grip, which we also offer as a standalone accessory, is a handheld, body-mountable camera stabilizer product that makes it easy to capture zero-shake, smooth video.
Virtual reality. Omni is a professional spherical camera rig plus related stitching software. It's an end-to-end solution that connects and synchronizes six HERO4 Black cameras for capturing, stitching and publishing high-resolution virtual reality (360°) and immersive content.
Mounts and accessories. We offer a wide range of mounts and accessories, either bundled with a camera or sold separately, that enhance the functionality and versatility of our cameras and drone, and enable our consumers to self-capture their experiences during a variety of activities or moments, and from different viewpoints. These include equipment-based mounts, such as the helmet, handlebar, roll bar, as well as tripod mounts, such as the 3-way, a 3-in-1 mount that can be used as a camera grip, extension arm or tripod. We also enable consumers to wear mounts on their bodies, such as our wrist housing, chest harness and head strap. Our accessories include the Remo voice-activated waterproof remote, a micro-USB card reader, Quik Key, that plugs into a smartphone for quick transfer of content from the camera, Karma Grip, Smart Remote, Floaty Backdoor and Battery BacPac, all of which expand the features, versatility and convenience of our cameras. Additionally, we offer spare batteries, charging accessories and cables to connect our GoPro cameras to television monitors, flotation devices, dive filters and anti-fogging solutions.
Applications. We offer mobile and desktop applications to all consumers at no charge that help our users manage, edit, view and share their content. The Quik mobile app is a fast, easy way to automatically create awesome videos from users' smartphone content or from their GoPro Plus account. Quik for desktop automatically imports content from a GoPro camera and makes it simple for users to create awe-inspiring videos synced to music with just a few clicks of the mouse. Our Capture app allows users to preview and play back shots, control their GoPro and share content on the fly using their smartphones. The GoPro VR app allows users to explore exciting virtual reality experiences on their smartphone. Our GoPro Passenger app for Karma allows one person to view the flight and control the GoPro mounted camera while another person flies the drone using the Karma controller.
Services. GoPro Plus is a cloud-based subscription service that offers a range of premium benefits to our consumers, including easy auto-upload from a GoPro camera to the cloud for on-the-go access, editing and sharing using a smartphone and the Quik app, an expanded library of soundtracks, premium support, and exclusive discounts on mounts and accessories. GoPro Care is a fee-based service that offers a range of support options to our consumers, including extended warranty and accidental damage coverage. Revenue earned to date from GoPro Plus and GoPro Care was not material to our results in 2016.

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Seasonality
Our sales are subject to seasonal fluctuation. Historically, we have experienced the highest levels of revenue in the fourth quarter of the year, coinciding with the holiday shopping season. Our fourth quarter revenue comprised 46%, 27% and 45% of our 2016, 2015 and 2014 revenue, respectively. Sales of consumer products are also heavily influenced by the timing of the release of new products. Fourth quarter 2016 revenue benefited from the launch of our HERO5 cameras just prior to the holiday season. In 2015, we launched our products earlier in the year. Neither historical seasonal patterns nor historical patterns of product introductions should be considered reliable indicators of our future pattern of product introductions, future revenue or financial performance.
Segment information and geographic data
We operate as one reportable segment. Financial information about geographic areas is presented in Note 12 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Backlog
We do not believe that backlog information is material or meaningful as of any particular date or indicative of future sales, as our customers can change or cancel orders with limited or no penalty and limited advance notice prior to shipment.
Research and development
We are passionate about developing new and innovative products that inspire our consumers and enhance our brand. We are constantly innovating to deliver better performance, expanded functionality and increased convenience to enhance the appeal of our products. In particular, we have increased our investment in software application development to facilitate convenient and seamless content management, editing and sharing. We strive to remain a market leader by consistently introducing innovative products that offer optimal performance at affordable price points and better software functionality.
We have a user experience-driven approach to product development and our CEO leads product design. By engaging with customers, consumers and opinion leaders in our core markets around the world, our development team strives to introduce meaningful and empowering new features that expand the versatility and performance of our products. We also benefit from input received from our in-house production team, our sponsored athletes and our brand advocates that regularly travel the world capturing content using our products. We believe leveraging this input will help refine our existing products and influence future products that give us a competitive advantage.
The engineering team supports the development of cameras, drones, related mounts and accessories, firmware and software. The hardware engineering team is responsible for developing technologies to support the concepts developed by our product team. These core technologies include new image silicon processors, image sensors and lenses, as well as the core algorithms that enable the systems to operate and provide optimal performance and features. The hardware engineering team also integrates these innovations and firmware into our product designs and develops our cameras, drones, mounts and accessories.
The software engineering team develops applications that enhance the functionality of our products and facilitate the management, editing, sharing and viewing of content. These applications are being developed for mobile, desktop and web-based platforms and powered by server-side services. The core technologies include rendering engines to enable video editing, video encoding and decoding for smooth playback and algorithms for moment identification.
Our research and development expense was $358.9 million, $241.7 million and $151.9 million for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Manufacturing, logistics and fulfillment
Our products are designed and developed in California, Switzerland, France and China, and a significant majority of our manufacturing is outsourced to contract manufacturers located in China. We believe that using outsourced manufacturing enables greater scale and flexibility than establishing our own manufacturing facilities. Our strategic commodity team manages the pricing and supply of the key components of our cameras and drones, including digital signal processors, sensors, lenses and motors. Several key strategic parts are purchased from suppliers by us and

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then consigned to our manufacturers, while the vast majority of parts are procured directly by our contract manufacturers. We seek to use our commodity team to achieve competitive pricing on the largest value-add components, and leverage our contract manufacturers’ volume purchases for best pricing on common parts.
We have third-party fulfillment centers in California, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Brazil and the Netherlands that deliver our products from multiple locations worldwide. These facilities are either warehouse/fulfillment centers or full service postponement centers (that perform light assembly in addition to warehouse/fulfillment). In addition, we have third-party centers in California, Czech Republic and China that perform in-region final packaging services. Cameras are typically air freighted while accessories and packaging are generally regionally procured or shipped via ocean freighter from our manufacturers in China to these fulfillment centers, where the products are packaged for retail sale. Our fulfillment strategy allows us to reduce shipping costs, reduce custom levies, customize products for local languages and improve inventory flexibility.
Sales channels and customers
We offer our products in over 45,000 retail outlets and in over 100 countries through our direct sales channel and indirectly through our distribution channel. In 2016 and 2015, our direct sales accounted for 55% and 52% of our revenue, respectively, and our distributors accounted for 45% and 48% of our revenue, respectively.
Direct sales
We sell directly to most of our retailers in the United States, some of our retailers in Europe and directly to consumers around the world through our e-commerce channels, as described below. We believe that our diverse direct sales channels are a key differentiator for GoPro.
Independent specialty retailers. We use a network of location-based independent manufacturer representatives to sell our products to independent specialty retailers in the United States focused on sports and consumer activity capture markets. Our representatives provide highly personalized service to these retailers, including in-store merchandising, taking orders and providing clinics to educate retail sales personnel about GoPro products and services. We also have an internal, regionally focused sales team that provides a secondary level of service to both the independent specialty retailers and manufacturer representatives. Independent specialty retailers generally carry our higher end products, targeting their core customers who we believe tend to be early adopters of new technologies. Independent specialty retailers outside of the United States represent a similarly important sales channel for us, and we reach these customers indirectly through our network of international distributors.
Big box retailers. We sell to large retailers with a national presence, including Amazon.com, Inc., Best Buy, Inc., Target Corporation and Wal-Mart, Inc. We support these retailers with a dedicated and experienced sales management team that we believe enables us to reduce channel conflict. Best Buy, Inc. accounted for 17%, 14% and 20%, of our total revenue in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and Amazon.com, Inc. accounted for 11% and 12% of our total revenue in 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Mid-market retailers. We also sell to retailers with a large regional or national presence, often focused on specific verticals such as consumer electronics, sporting goods, military, hunting and fishing and motor sports. In the U.S., we sell directly to these mid-market retailers through our experienced sales teams assigned to particular accounts and regions.
e-commerce channel. We sell our full line of products directly to consumers around the world through our online store at gopro.com, which we market through online and offline advertising. Sales through gopro.com were less than 10% of our total revenue for 2016, 2015 and 2014.
Distribution
We sell to over 50 distributors who resell our products to retailers in international markets and to certain specific verticals in the United States. We have dedicated sales personnel focused on providing a high level of service to these distributors, including assisting with product mix planning, channel marketing and in-store merchandising, development of marketing materials, order assistance and educating the distributors’ sales personnel about GoPro products.

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In-store merchandising
Our in-store merchandising strategy focuses on our iconic GoPro-branded, video-enabled point of purchase ("POP") merchandising displays that are located in nearly all retail outlets where our products are sold. These displays showcase GoPro videos and attractively present our product ecosystem in a customer-friendly manner. Our larger retailers help us represent a broader range of products due to their deployment in their stores of our larger and custom POP displays. Having recognized our success in these stores, coupled with our expanding product portfolio, we have been successful working with our retailers to further expand the footprint of our POP displays within existing stores. As of December 31, 2016, we had approximately 29,000 POP displays in retail outlets worldwide, up year-over-year from approximately 25,000 at December 31, 2015.
Marketing and advertising
Our marketing and advertising programs are focused on engaging consumers by exposing them to compelling GoPro content and educating them about the new hardware features as well as the power of our solutions for software editing (Quik mobile and desktop) and content management (GoPro Plus). We believe this approach enhances our brand while demonstrating the performance, durability and versatility of our products. Our marketing and advertising efforts span a wide range of consumer interests and leverage both traditional consumer marketing and lifestyle marketing strategies.
Consumer marketing. Social media plays an important role in our consumer marketing strategy. Our consumers capture and share personal GoPro content on social media and content sharing platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, Twitter, Vimeo and YouTube. We estimate social media views of GoPro content reached approximately 238 million, up over 40% year-over-year, driven by an estimated 160% year-over-year increase in views on Facebook. In 2016, we gained almost 6 million new followers to our social accounts, which represented an estimated 30% increase over 2015 to a total of approximately 25.5 million followers. We also integrate user-generated content and GoPro originally produced content into advertising campaigns across various platforms including television, print, online, billboards and other out of home advertising, and at consumer and trade facing events. This content also supports our in-store channel marketing efforts, appearing on our POP displays and other in-store marketing materials. Although we ceased our pursuit of monetizing GoPro content with the recent closure of our entertainment group, we continue to believe GoPro content remains a significant asset that builds awareness for our brand and products.
Lifestyle marketing. Our lifestyle marketing programs focus on expanding GoPro brand awareness by engaging consumers through relationships with key influencers, event promotions and other outreach efforts. We cultivate strong relationships with influential athletes, celebrities, entertainers and brands, all of whom use our products to create and share engaging content with their own fans and consumers. We also work directly with these partners to create compelling content that we leverage to our mutual benefit across the GoPro Network, a collection of GoPro Channels hosted on a variety of online destinations and partner platforms.
Competition
The market for cameras is highly competitive and characterized by frequent product introductions and rapid technological advances. We believe the principal competitive factors impacting the market for our products include quality, reliability and user experience, price and performance, design innovation, brand recognition, marketing and distribution capability, service and support, and brand reputation.
We compete against established, well-known camera manufacturers such as Canon Inc., Fujifilm Corporation, Nikon Corporation, Olympus Corporation and Vivitar Corporation, as well as large, diversified electronics companies such as, Panasonic Corporation, Samsung Electronics Co. and Sony Corporation and specialty companies such as Garmin Ltd. We believe we compete favorably with these companies’ products. Our durable and versatile product design facilitates increased functionality and wearability and we offer a variety of mounts and other accessories that enable a wide range of consumer use cases that are difficult for other competing products to address. Further, we offer many professional-grade features within our good, better, best product offering at attractive consumer price points, including our superview mode, which allows a user to capture an immersive wide-angle perspective, super high resolution video capability, voice control features, and image stabilization. We also provide users with a suite of free mobile and desktop applications that enhance the overall GoPro experience. Moreover, we believe we have achieved significant brand recognition in our target vertical markets. We believe our years of experience working with active

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and influential consumers contributes to our ability to develop attractive products and establishes the authenticity of our brand, thereby differentiating us from current and potential competitors.
Smartphones and tablets with photo and video functionality have significantly displaced the market for traditional camera sales, and the makers of those devices also have mobile and other content editing applications and storage for content captured with those devices. Our Quik mobile and desktop editing applications, our Capture application and our GoPro Plus service may not be as compelling a solution as those offered by other companies, such as Apple, Inc. and Google, although the Quik mobile application supports content from other platforms including content from Apple. Also, it is possible that, in the future, the manufacturers of such devices, such as Apple, Google and Samsung, may design them for use in a range of conditions, including challenging physical environments, or develop products with features similar to ours. In addition, new companies may emerge and offer competitive products directly in our category.
We recently entered the consumer drone market and face significant competition from other companies promoting their own drone and related products. These include established and start up drone manufacturers, such as DJI Technology Co., Parrot SA and Yuneec International Co., who currently have or are attempting to gain a substantial share of the emerging international drone market. We believe we compete favorably with these companies’ products because our Karma system delivers strong versatility to consumers. The combination of a GoPro camera, removable camera stabilizer, portable drone and backpack allows consumers to create high quality, stabilized content, in the air, on the ground and mounted to their gear. We believe that our focus on versatility, GoPro compatibility, ease of use and portability contributes to the attractiveness of our aerial and stabilization products and differentiates us from current and potential competitors.
Intellectual property
Intellectual property is an important aspect of our business, and our practice is to seek protection for our intellectual property as appropriate. Our trademarks, including “GOPRO,” “HERO,” “SESSION,” and “KARMA,” and the GoPro logos, among others, are a critical component of the value of our business. In addition, we hold many issued and pending utility and design patents for innovations that help our consumers capture, create, and share their content using our cameras, drones, mounts, accessories, and software. Our patents cover areas that include physical structures, image processing, operational firmware and software, post-processing software, distribution software, mount and accessory structures, as well as the ornamental aspects of our hardware and software products. As of December 31, 2016, we had 208 issued patents and 497 patent applications pending in the United States, and 112 corresponding issued patents and 165 patent applications pending in foreign countries. Our issued U.S. patents will expire between 2022 and 2036 and our issued foreign patents will expire between 2022 and 2041. We cannot be certain that our patent applications will be issued or that any issued patents will provide us with any competitive advantage or will not be challenged by third parties. We continually review our development efforts to assess our innovations, including their patentability. We take active measures to protect our intellectual property against unauthorized third party use, including misuse of our patents, copyrights, and trademarks, and other proprietary rights. 
In addition to the foregoing protections, we generally control access to and use of our proprietary and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including contractual protections in agreements with employees, contract manufacturers, distributors and others. Despite these protections, we may be unable to prevent third parties from using our intellectual property without our authorization, breaching any nondisclosure agreements with us, or independently developing products that are similar to ours, particularly in those countries where the laws do not protect our proprietary and intellectual property rights as fully as in the United States.
Employees
As of December 31, 2016 we had 1,552 employees. None of our employees are currently covered by a collective bargaining agreement, and we have experienced no work stoppages. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

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Corporate and available information
We were incorporated as Woodman Labs, Inc. in California and began doing business as GoPro in February 2004. We reincorporated in Delaware in December 2011 and in February 2014 we changed our name to GoPro, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 3000 Clearview Way, San Mateo, California 94402, and our telephone number is (855) 636-3578. We completed our initial public offering in July 2014 and our Class A common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “GPRO”. Our Class B common stock is not listed nor traded on any stock exchange.
We have registered and applied to register a number of trademarks with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and the trademark offices of other countries including “GOPRO,” “HERO,” "KARMA," "SESSION" and the GoPro logos. This Annual Report on Form 10-K also includes references to trademarks and service marks of other entities, and those trademarks and service marks are the property of their respective owners.
Our website address is www.gopro.com. Through a link on the Investor Relations section of our website, we make available the following filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. All such filings are available free of charge. The information posted on our website is not incorporated into this report. Further, a copy of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is located at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding our filings at www.sec.gov.



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Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the risks described below and all other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition, cash flows and operating results could be materially and adversely affected if any of the following risks, or other risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we currently think are immaterial, actually occur. In that event, the trading price of our shares may decline, and you may lose part or all of your investment.
Risks related to our business and industry
Our future growth depends in part on further penetrating our total addressable market, and we may not be successful in doing so.
Our growth historically has largely been fueled by the adoption of our products by people looking to self-capture images of themselves participating in exciting physical activities. We believe that our future growth depends on continuing to reach and expand our core community of users, followers and fans and then utilizing that energized community as brand ambassadors to an extended community. We believe that in order to expand our market, we must provide both innovative and easy-to-use products as well as intuitive and simple software tools that enable effortless sharing of content, with the smartphone as central to the GoPro experience. We may not be able to expand our market through this strategy on a timely basis, or at all, and we may not be successful in providing tools that our users adopt or believe are easy to use.
In Fall 2016, we launched our integrated storytelling solution comprising our new cloud-connected HERO5 cameras, a new ecosystem of mounts and accessories, our new GoPro Plus cloud-based storage service, our updated Capture application and updated versions of our Quik mobile and desktop editing applications. We plan to further build upon our integrated storytelling solution in future periods, and our investments in this solution, including marketing and advertising expenses, may not successfully drive increased sales of our products and our users may not adopt our new offerings. If we are not successful in broadening our user base with our integrated solution, our future revenue growth will be negatively impacted and we may not recognize benefits from our investments in the various components of our storytelling solution and the marketing, sales and advertising costs to promote our solution.
Our growth also depends on expanding our market with new capture perspectives, including spherical and aerial, which are resource-intensive initiatives in highly competitive markets. While we are investing resources, including in sales and marketing, to reach these expanded and new consumer markets, we cannot be assured that we will be successful in doing so. If we are not successful in penetrating additional markets, we might not be able to grow our revenue and we may not recognize benefits from our investment in new areas.
To remain competitive and stimulate consumer demand, we must effectively manage product introductions, product transitions and marketing.
We believe that we must continually develop and introduce new products, enhance our existing products and effectively stimulate customer demand for new and upgraded products to maintain or increase our revenue.
The success of new product introductions depends on a number of factors including, but not limited to, timely and successful research and development, pricing, market and consumer acceptance, the effective forecasting and management of product demand, purchase commitments and inventory levels, the availability of products in appropriate quantities to meet anticipated demand, the management of manufacturing and supply costs, the management of risks associated with new product production ramp-up issues, and the risk that new products may have quality issues or other defects or bugs in the early stages of introduction. In addition, the introduction or announcement of new products or product enhancements may shorten the life cycle of our existing products or reduce demand for our current products, thereby offsetting any benefits of successful product introductions and potentially lead to challenges in managing inventory of existing products. Failure to complete product transitions effectively or in a timely manner could harm our brand and lead to, among other things, lower revenue, excess prior generation product inventory, or a deficit of new product inventory and reduced profitability.
For example, in Fall 2016, we experienced production issues that resulted in delayed unit shipments of our new HERO5 Black cameras in the third and fourth quarters of 2016. In addition, in November 2016, we announced the withdrawal of all Karma drones after we discovered that some Karma units lost power during operation. As a result of these issues, our revenues and operating results for the second half of 2016 were negatively impacted. In addition,

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in January 2016, we announced the end-of-life for our entry-level HERO line of cameras in order to simplify our product offering. As a result, we recorded product charges of approximately $57 million and $8 million to cost of revenue in the fourth quarter of 2015 and first quarter of 2016, respectively.
Additionally, our brand and product marketing efforts are critical to stimulating consumer demand. We market our products globally through a range of advertising and promotional programs and campaigns, including social media. If we do not successfully market our products, the lack of success or increased costs of promotional programs could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on sales of our cameras, mounts and accessories for substantially all of our revenue, and any decrease in the sales or change in sales mix of these products would harm our business.
We expect to derive the substantial majority of our revenue from sales of cameras, mounts and accessories for the foreseeable future. A decline in the price or unit demand for these products, whether due to macroeconomic conditions, competition or otherwise, or our inability to increase sales of these products, would harm our business and operating results more seriously than it would if we derived significant revenue from a variety of product lines and services.
While we have developed and released products and services to add to our offerings, we may not be successful in achieving future revenue growth driven by newly released products and services. For example, concurrently with our HERO5 camera launch we announced our integrated storytelling solution to make editing and sharing content from a GoPro easier for our users. If all the components of the storytelling solution do not work together seamlessly or our users do not adopt them, they may not drive camera sales and our operating results could be adversely affected. In addition, although we re-launched Karma in the first quarter of 2017, drone sales may not result in long term success or significant revenue for us. We cannot be assured that our investments in the development of software-related products and services, or drones, will result in either increased revenue or profit. Changes in product mix may harm our financial results. If there is a shift in consumer demand from our higher-priced to lower-priced cameras without a corresponding increase in units sold, our revenues and gross profit could decrease.
As a result, our future growth and financial performance may continue to depend heavily on our ability to develop and sell enhanced versions of our cameras, mounts and accessories. If we fail to deliver product enhancements, new releases or new products and services that appeal to consumers, our future financial condition, operating results and cash flows will be materially affected. Further, our products are discretionary items for consumers subject to changing preferences. The overall market for consumer electronics is highly competitive and consumers may choose to spend their dollars on products or devices offered by our competitors or other consumer electronics companies instead of on GoPro products, which may adversely affect our sales.
An economic downturn or economic uncertainty in our key U.S. and international markets, as well as fluctuations in currency exchange rates, may adversely affect consumer discretionary spending and demand for our products.
Factors affecting the level of consumer spending include general market conditions, macroeconomic conditions, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates and interest rates, and other factors such as consumer confidence, the availability and cost of consumer credit, levels of unemployment and tax rates. The substantial majority of our sales occur in U.S. dollars and an increase in the value of the dollar against the Euro and other currencies could increase the real cost to consumers of our products in those markets outside the United States. If global economic conditions are volatile or if economic conditions deteriorate, consumers may delay or reduce purchases of our products resulting in consumer demand for our products that may not reach our sales targets. For example, the recent referendum vote in the U.K. to exit the European Union, commonly known as “Brexit”, caused significant short term volatility in global stock markets as well as currency exchange rate fluctuations, resulting in further strengthening of the U.S. dollar. Further, as a result of the increase in the value of the U.S. dollar against the Euro and British Pound in recent periods, we have increased the prices of certain products to customers in euro zone countries to maintain our profit margins in these markets. These changes have increased the real cost to customers and consumers of our products in these markets, which may reduce purchases of our products and have a negative impact on our future international revenue. Further strengthening of the U.S. dollar and/or weakness in the economies of euro zone countries could adversely impact sales of our products in the European region, which would have a material negative impact on our future operating results. Our sensitivity to economic cycles and any related fluctuation in consumer demand could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

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If we are unable to anticipate consumer preferences and successfully develop desirable products and solutions, we might not be able to maintain or increase our revenue and profitability.
Our success depends on our ability to identify and originate product trends as well as to anticipate, gauge and react to changing consumer demands in a timely manner. All of our products are subject to changing consumer preferences that cannot be predicted with certainty and lead times for our products may make it more difficult for us to respond rapidly to new or changing product or consumer preferences. If we are unable to introduce appealing new products or novel technologies in a timely manner, or our new products or technologies are not accepted or adopted by consumers, our competitors may increase their market share, which could hurt our competitive position.
Our research and development efforts are complex and require us to incur substantial expenses to support the development of our next generation cameras, drones, mobile and desktop editing applications, and other new products and services. Our research and development expense was $358.9 million, $241.7 million and $151.9 million for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to be substantial in 2017 but less than expense levels incurred in 2016. Our more limited research and development investment in 2017 may require us to forego investment in certain products or features which might have been successful and we may not choose the right features, products, or services to update or enhance. Unanticipated problems in developing products could also divert substantial resources, which may impair our ability to develop new products and enhancements of existing products, and could further increase our costs. For example, in the fourth quarter of 2016, we diverted resources to investigate and resolve an issue related to our Karma drone after discovering that some Karma units lost power during operation. 
We may not be able to achieve an acceptable return, if any, on our research and development efforts, and our business may be adversely effected. As we continually seek to enhance our products, we will incur additional costs to incorporate new or revised features. We might not be able to, or determine that it is not in our interests to, raise prices to compensate for any additional costs.
Our entrance into the consumer drone market is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.
We began resuming shipments of Karma in the United States in the first quarter of 2017 and expect to begin shipping internationally in Spring 2017. We have no prior experience in the consumer drone market and expect to face significant competition from incumbent companies promoting their own drone and related products. These include established and start up drone manufacturers, such as DJI Technology Co., Parrot SA and Yuneec International Co., who currently have or are attempting to gain a substantial share of the emerging global drone market. A nascent industry of software developers developing for the drone market is growing and if we do not support this third party developer movement, we may forego the benefits of this developer ecosystem. Failure to effectively compete in this new market could damage our reputation, limit our growth and negatively affect our operating results. Furthermore, we are committed long-term to the drone market and we expect to continue to invest significant resources for the foreseeable future.
Regulations and legislation relating to the distribution, sale and use of consumer drones in the United States and other countries where we plan to sell our drones are evolving and may be subject to future changes that could negatively impact our sales of such products. It is possible that further U.S. federal or state regulations or regulations in other countries could restrict the use of recreational drones and/or require specific registration, certification, qualifications or design modifications, which could have an unfavorable impact on our future business, financial position and operating results.
In addition, our drones and related product offerings present new and difficult technical challenges, and we may be subject to claims if users experience failures or other quality issues. For example, in November 2016, we withdrew Karma drones from the market after we discovered that some Karma units lost power during operation. No related injuries or property damage have been reported and we have offered a full refund to Karma purchasers. If our drones malfunction or contain errors or defects in the future, collisions or crashes could occur resulting in property damage, personal injury or death. If any of these events occurs, we could be subject to significant liability for personal injury and property damage.

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We operate in a highly competitive market and the size and resources of some of our competitors may allow them to compete more effectively than we can, which could result in a loss of our market share and a decrease in our revenue and profitability.
The market for cameras is highly competitive. Further, competition has intensified as existing competitors have introduced new and more competitive offerings alongside their existing products, and as market entrants have introduced new products into our markets. Increased competition and changing consumer preferences may result in pricing pressures, reduced profit margins and may impede our ability to continue to increase the sales of our products or cause us to lose market share, any of which could substantially harm our business and results of operations.
We compete against established, well-known camera manufacturers such as Canon Inc., Fujifilm Corporation, Nikon Corporation, Olympus Corporation and Vivitar Corporation, as well as large, diversified electronics companies such as, Panasonic Corporation, Samsung Electronics Co. and Sony Corporation and specialty companies such as Garmin Ltd. Many of our current competitors have substantial market share, diversified product lines, well-established supply and distribution systems, strong worldwide brand recognition and greater financial, marketing, research and development and other resources than we do. Many of our existing and potential competitors enjoy substantial competitive advantages, such as longer operating histories; the capacity to leverage their sales efforts and marketing expenditures across a broader portfolio of products; broader distribution and established relationships with channel partners; access to larger established customer bases; greater resources to make acquisitions; larger intellectual property portfolios; and the ability to bundle competitive offerings with other products and services. Further, new companies may emerge and offer competitive products. We are aware that certain companies have developed cameras designed and packaged to appear similar to our products, which may confuse consumers or distract consumers from purchasing GoPro products.
Moreover, smartphones and tablets with photo and video functionality have significantly displaced the market for traditional cameras, and the makers of those devices also have mobile and other content editing applications and storage for content captured with those devices. Our Quik mobile and desktop editing applications, Capture application and our GoPro Plus service may not be as compelling a solution as those offered by other companies, such as Apple, Inc. and Google, although the Quik mobile application supports content from other platforms including content from Apple and Google. Also, it is possible that, in the future, the manufacturers of smartphones and tablets, such as Apple, Google, and Samsung, may design them for use in a range of conditions, including challenging physical environments, or develop products with features similar to ours.
We recently entered the consumer drone market and face significant competition from other companies promoting their own drone and related products. These include established and start up drone manufacturers, such as DJI Technology Co., Parrot SA and Yuneec International Co., who currently have or are attempting to gain a substantial share of the emerging global drone market. Failure to effectively re-launch our drone and compete in this new market could negatively affect our operating results and financial position.
We may not be able to achieve revenue growth or profitability in the future.
We have historically experienced significant revenue growth. As our revenue has increased, our annual growth rate has slowed or declined, and our historical results should not be considered as indicative of our future performance. For example, our annual revenue grew rapidly from $986 million in 2013 to $1.62 billion in 2015 and then declined to $1.19 billion in 2016. In future periods, we could again experience a decline in revenue, or revenue could grow more slowly than we expect, which could have a material negative effect on our future operating results.
In addition, we incurred a substantial operating loss of $373 million in 2016 as compared to operating income of $54.7 million in 2015. Lower levels of revenue or higher levels of operating expense investment in future periods may result in additional losses or limited profitability. Although we have implemented restructuring actions to reduce our future operating expenses, we may not realize the cost savings expected from these actions. We may continue to incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including other risks described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors.

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If our sales fall below our forecasts, especially during the holiday season, our overall financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Seasonal consumer shopping patterns significantly affect our business. We have traditionally experienced greater revenues in the fourth quarter of each year due to demand related to the holiday season, and in some years, including 2016, the launch of new products heading into the holiday season. Fourth quarter revenue comprised 46%, 27% and 45% of our 2016, 2015 and 2014 revenue, respectively. Given the strong seasonal nature of our sales, appropriate forecasting is critical to our operations. We anticipate that this seasonal impact is likely to continue and any shortfalls in expected fourth quarter revenue, due to macroeconomic conditions, product release patterns, a decline in the effectiveness of our promotional activities, supply chain disruptions, or for any other reason, could cause our annual results of operations to suffer significantly. For example, as a result of production issues impacting launch volumes of our HERO5 Black cameras and the recall of our Karma drones, we were limited in our ability to meet initial estimated customer demand for the 2016 holiday season. In addition, we typically experience lower revenue in the first quarter. First quarter revenue comprised 15%, 22% and 17% of our 2016, 2015 and 2014 revenue, respectively.
In contrast, a substantial portion of our expenses are personnel related and include salaries, stock-based compensation, benefits and incentive-based compensation plan expenses, which are not seasonal in nature. Accordingly, in the event of revenue shortfalls, we are generally unable to mitigate a negative impact on operating margins in the short term. For example, we recorded a substantial net loss for 2016 due to lower levels of revenue and higher levels of operating expense investment. To the extent such revenue shortfalls recur in future periods, our operating results would be harmed.     
We face substantial risks related to inventory, purchase commitments and long-lived assets, and we could incur material charges related to these items that adversely affect our operating results.
To ensure adequate inventory supply and meet the demands of our retailers and distributors, we must forecast inventory needs and place orders with our contract manufacturers and component suppliers based on our estimates of future demand for particular products as well as accurately track the level of product inventory in the channel to ensure we are not in an over or under supply situation. To the extent we discontinue the manufacturing and sales of any products or services, we must manage the inventory liquidation, supplier commitments and customer expectations. For example, in the fourth quarter of 2015 and first quarter of 2016, we recorded product charges of $57 million and $8 million, respectively, for excess purchase order commitments, excess inventory, and obsolete tooling, relating to the end-of-life of our entry-level HERO products and slower than anticipated overall demand.
No assurance can be given that we will not incur additional charges in future periods related to our inventory management or that we will not underestimate or overestimate forecast sales in a future period. Our ability to accurately forecast demand for our products is affected by many factors, including product introductions by us and our competitors, channel inventory levels, unanticipated changes in general market demand, macroeconomic conditions or consumer confidence. If we do not accurately forecast customer demand for our products, we may in future periods be unable to meet customer, retailer or distributor demand for our products, or may be required to incur higher costs to secure the necessary production capacity and components, and our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
If we fail to manage our operating expenses effectively, our financial performance may continue to suffer.
Our success will depend in part upon our ability to manage our operating expenses effectively. We incurred significant operating losses in 2016 and, as of December 31, 2016, we had an accumulated deficit of $275 million. In the first and fourth quarters of 2016, we implemented global reductions-in-force and other restructuring actions to reduce our future operating expenses. Although we plan to seek to operate efficiently and to manage our costs effectively, we may not realize the cost savings expected from these actions. We will need to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, reporting processes and procedures and financial and business information systems. We are also investing in areas we believe will grow revenue and our operating expenses might increase as a result of these investments. If we are unable to operate efficiently and manage our costs, we may continue to incur significant losses in the future and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
In the future, in response to unfavorable market conditions or consumer demand, we may again need to strategically realign our resources, adjust our product line and/or enact price reductions in order to stimulate demand, and implement additional restructurings and workforce reductions. Any such actions may result in the recording of special

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charges including inventory-related write-offs, workforce reductions, or other restructuring costs. Additionally, our estimates with respect to the useful life or ultimate recoverability of our assets, including purchased intangible assets and tooling, could also change and result in impairment charges.
Our international business operations account for a significant portion of our revenue and operating expenses and are subject to challenges and risks.
Revenue from outside the United States comprised 53%, 52% and 43% of our revenue in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and we expect this portion to continue to be significant in the future. Further, our supply chain partners have operations in countries including China, Brazil, Hong Kong, Singapore, Czech Republic, Japan and the Netherlands. We intend to expand our relationships in these countries and may establish additional relationships in other countries as we continue to expand our international operations. Operating in foreign countries requires significant resources and considerable management attention, and we may enter new geographic markets where we have limited or no experience in marketing, selling, and deploying our products. International expansion has required and will continue to require us to invest significant funds and other resources and we cannot be assured our efforts will be successful. International sales and operations may be subject to risks such as:
difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;
burdens of complying with a wide variety of laws and regulations, including environmental, packaging and labeling, and drone regulations;
adverse tax effects and foreign exchange controls making it difficult to repatriate earnings and cash;
the impact of foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates;
political and economic instability;
terrorist activities and natural disasters;
trade restrictions;
differing employment practices and laws and labor disruptions;
the imposition of government controls;
lesser degrees of intellectual property protection;
tariffs and customs duties and the classifications of our goods by applicable governmental bodies;
a legal system subject to undue influence or corruption; and
a business culture in which illegal sales practices may be prevalent.
The occurrence of any of these risks could negatively affect our international business and consequently our business, operating results and financial condition.
We depend on key personnel to operate and grow our business. If we are unable to retain, attract and integrate qualified personnel, our ability to develop and successfully grow our business could be harmed.
We believe that our future success is highly dependent on the contributions of our CEO and our executive officers, as well as our ability to attract and retain highly skilled and experienced research and development, sales and marketing and other personnel in the United States and abroad. All of our employees, including our executive officers, are free to terminate their employment relationship with us at any time, and their knowledge of our business and industry may be difficult to replace.
In the fourth quarter of 2016, we began implementing a restructuring of our business and announced the resignation of our President, and in January 2017, we appointed our Senior Vice President of Software and Services to be our Chief Operating Officer. These changes, and any future changes, in our operations and management team could be disruptive to our operations. Our restructuring actions and any future restructuring actions could have an adverse impact on our business as a result of decreases in employee morale and the failure to meet operational targets due to the loss of employees. If more of our key employees leave, we may not be able to fully integrate new personnel or replicate the prior working relationships, and our operations could suffer. Furthermore, if our founder and CEO, Nick Woodman, left the Company, his departure could affect our ability to continue to attract other top executives and potentially negatively impact the view of our brand.
Qualified individuals are in high demand, and we may incur significant costs to attract and retain them. While we utilize competitive salary, bonus and long-term incentive packages to recruit new employees, many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel also have greater resources than we do. Competition for qualified personnel is particularly intense in the San Francisco Bay Area, where our headquarters are located. We have, from

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time to time, experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled employees with appropriate qualifications. In addition, job candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. Fluctuations in the price of our Class A common stock may make it more difficult or costly to use equity compensation to motivate, incentivize and retain our employees. For example, during 2016, our stock price ranged from a high of $18.69 in the first quarter to a low of $8.69 in the fourth quarter. If we are unable to attract and retain highly skilled personnel, we may not be able to achieve our strategic objectives, and our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
We may acquire other businesses, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our operating results.
We have completed several acquisitions and expect to evaluate additional acquisitions of, or strategic investments in, other companies, products or technologies that we believe are complementary to our business. For example, in the first half of 2016, we acquired two mobile editing application companies for aggregate cash consideration of approximately $104 million.
We may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates and we may not be able to complete acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. If we do complete acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals, and any acquisitions we complete could be viewed negatively by users or investors. In addition, if we fail to successfully integrate such acquisitions, or the technologies associated with such acquisitions, the revenue and operating results of the combined company could be adversely affected. Acquisitions may disrupt our ongoing operations, divert management from their primary responsibilities, subject us to additional liabilities, increase our expenses and adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology and accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. We have recorded significant goodwill and intangible assets in connection with our acquisitions, and in the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected revenue, we may be required to take material impairment charges that could adversely affect our results of operations.
We may have to pay cash, incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition, each of which could affect our financial condition or the value of our capital stock. The sale of equity to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. If we incur debt it would result in increased fixed obligations and could also subject us to covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations. In addition, our future operating results may be impacted by performance earnouts or contingent payments. For example, for our 2016 acquisitions, aggregate deferred cash and stock compensation of up to approximately $35 million is payable to certain continuing employees subject to meeting specified future employment conditions. Furthermore, acquisitions may require large one-time charges and can result in increased debt or contingent liabilities, adverse tax consequences, additional stock-based compensation expense and the recording and subsequent amortization or impairments of amounts related to certain purchased intangible assets, any of which could negatively impact our future results of operations.
We may not be able to secure additional financing on favorable terms, or at all, to meet our future capital needs.
In the future, we may require additional capital to respond to business opportunities, challenges, acquisitions or unforeseen circumstances and may determine to engage in equity or debt financings or enter into credit facilities for other reasons. We may not be able to timely secure additional financing on favorable terms, or at all. For example, our current credit facility contains restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, and any debt financing obtained by us in the future could involve further restrictive covenants, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt or other equity-linked securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing under our credit facility, or alternative sources, when we require it, our ability to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited. In the event additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us or at all.

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Our success depends on our ability to maintain the value and reputation of our brand.
Our success depends on the value and reputation of our brand, including our primary trademarks “GOPRO,” “HERO,” "KARMA," "SESSION" and the GoPro logos. The GoPro brand is integral to the growth of our business and expansion into new markets. Maintaining, promoting and positioning our brand will largely depend on the success of our marketing and merchandising efforts, our ability to provide consistent, high quality products, and our consumers' satisfaction with the technical support and software updates we provide. Failure to grow and maintain our brand or negative publicity related to our products, our consumers’ user-generated content, the athletes we sponsor, the celebrities we are associated with, or the labor policies of any of our suppliers or manufacturers could adversely impact our brand, business and operating results. Maintaining and enhancing our brand also requires substantial financial investments, although there is no guarantee that these investments will increase sales of our products or positively impact our operating results.
We rely on third-party suppliers, some of which are sole-source suppliers, to provide components for our products.
Our ability to meet customer demand depends, in part, on our ability to obtain timely and adequate delivery of components for our products. All of the components that go into the manufacturing of our cameras and accessories are sourced from third-party suppliers, and some of these components are provided by a single supplier or by a supplier that could potentially become a competitor.
If we lose access to components from a particular supplier, or experience a significant disruption in the supply of products and components from a current supplier, we may be unable to locate alternative suppliers of comparable quality at an acceptable price, or at all, and our business could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, if we experience a significant increase in demand for our products, our suppliers might not have the capacity or elect not to meet our needs as they allocate components to other customers. Identifying a suitable supplier is an involved process that requires us to become satisfied with the supplier’s quality control, responsiveness and service, financial stability and labor and other ethical practices, and if we seek to source materials from new suppliers there can be no assurance that we could do so in a manner that does not disrupt the manufacture and sale of our products. Our reliance on single source, or a small number of, suppliers involves a number of additional risks, including risks related to: supplier capacity constraints; price increases; timely delivery; component quality; failure of a key supplier to remain in business and adjust to market conditions; delays in, or the inability to execute on, a supplier roadmap for components and technologies; and natural disasters, fire, acts of terrorism or other catastrophic events.
In particular, for our camera designs we incorporate image processors, sensors and lens solutions that critically impact the performance of our products. These components have unique performance profiles, and, as a result, it is not commercially practical to support multiple sources for these components for our camera and drone products. As an example, we incorporate video compression and image processing semiconductors from Ambarella, Inc. and we do not currently have alternative suppliers for these key components. In the event that Ambarella and other suppliers are unable to supply the components that we need to produce our products to meet anticipated customer demand, our business would be materially and adversely affected.
Any significant cybersecurity incidents or disruption of our information systems, and our reliance on Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) technologies from third parties, could adversely affect our business operations and financial results.
We are increasingly dependent on information systems to process transactions, manage our supply chain and inventory, ship goods on a timely basis, maintain cost-efficient operations, complete timely and accurate financial reporting, operate our e-commerce website and respond to customer inquiries.
Our information systems and those of third parties we use in our operations are vulnerable to cybersecurity risk, including cyber-attacks such as distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins that damage operating systems, and similar disruptions. These systems periodically experience directed attacks intended to lead to interruptions and delays in our operations as well as loss, misuse or theft of data. We have implemented physical, technical, and administrative safeguards to protect our systems. To date, unauthorized users have not had a material impact on our systems; however, there can be no assurance that attacks will not be successful in the future. In addition, our information systems must be constantly updated, patched, and upgraded

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to protect against known vulnerabilities and optimize performance. Material disruptions or slowdown of our systems, including a disruption or slowdown could occur if we are unable to successfully update, patch and upgrade our systems.
System disruptions, failures and slowdowns, whether caused by cyber-attacks, update failures, or other causes, could affect our financial systems and operations. This could cause delays in our supply chain or cause information, including data related to customer orders, to be lost or delayed which could result in delays in the delivery of merchandise to our stores and customers or lost sales, especially if the disruption or slowdown occurred during our seasonally strong fourth quarter. Any of these events could reduce demand for our products, impair our ability to complete sales through our e-commerce channels and cause our revenue to decline. If changes in technology cause our information systems to become obsolete, or if our information systems are inadequate to handle our growth, we could lose customers or our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
The information systems used by our third-party service providers are vulnerable to these risks as well. In particular, we are heavily reliant on SaaS enterprise resource planning systems to conduct our order and inventory management, e-commerce and financial transactions and reporting. In addition, we utilize third-party cloud computing services in connection with our business operations. Problems faced by us or our third-party hosting/cloud computing providers, or content delivery network providers, including technological or business-related disruptions, as well as cybersecurity threats, could adversely impact our business and operating results, our ability to accurately report our financial results, as well as the experience of our consumers, which in turn could adversely affect our business and operating results.
As we expand our operations, we expect to utilize additional systems and service providers that may also be essential to managing our business. Our ability to manage our business would suffer if one or more of our providers suffer an interruption in their business, or experience delays, disruptions or quality control problems in their operations, or we have to change or add systems and services. While we conduct reasonable diligence on our service providers, we may not always be able to control the quality of the systems and services we receive from these providers, which could impair our ability to maintain appropriate internal controls over financial reporting and complete timely and accurate financial reporting, and may impact our business, operating results and financial condition.
Security breaches and other disruptions including cyber-attacks, and our actual or perceived failure to adequately protect business and consumer data and content could harm our brand and our reputation in the marketplace.
In the ordinary course of our business, we electronically maintain sensitive data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business information and that of our customers and suppliers, and some personally identifiable information of our customers and employees, in our facilities and on our networks. Through GoPro Plus, users may store video and image files, including any telemetry or metadata that the user has chosen to associate with those files in the cloud. In our e-commerce services, we process, store and transmit consumer data. We also collect user data through certain marketing activities. For all of the foregoing internal and customer or consumer facing data and content collection, we collect and store that information in our or our third-party providers’ electronic systems. These systems may be targets of attacks, such as viruses, malware or phishing attempts by cyber criminals or other wrongdoers seeking to steal our users’ content or data, or our customer’s information for financial gain or to harm our business operations or reputation. The loss, misuse or compromise of such information or content may result in costly investigations, remediation efforts and costly notification to affected consumers. If such content were accessed by unauthorized third parties or deleted inadvertently by us or third parties, our brand and reputation could be adversely affected. Cyber-attacks could also adversely affect our operating results, consume internal resources, and result in litigation or potential liability for us and otherwise harm our business. Further, we are subject to general consumer regulations and laws, as well as regulations and laws specifically related to security and privacy of consumer data or content. In the event of an incident affecting the security of consumer data or content, regulators may open an investigation or pursue fines or penalties for non-compliance with these laws, or private plaintiffs may sue us, resulting in additional costs and reputational harm to our business.
Changing laws governing e-commerce and data collection could impede growth and increase the cost of doing business.
Changing regulations and laws governing the Internet, data privacy, data protection and e-commerce transactions (including taxation, pricing and electronic communications) could impede the growth of our e-commerce business,

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increase our cost of doing business and limit our ability to collect and use information collected from our users. Further, new regulations limiting our ability to collect, use and disclose consumer data, or imposing additional requirements with respect to the retention and security of consumer data, could limit our marketing activities and could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
If we do not effectively maintain and further develop our sales channels, including developing and supporting our retail sales channel and distributors, our business could be harmed.
We depend upon effective sales channels to reach the consumers who are the ultimate purchasers of our products. In the United States, we primarily sell our products directly through a mix of retail channels, including big box, mid-market and specialty retailers, and we reach certain U.S. markets through distributors. In international markets, we primarily sell through distributors who in turn sell to local retailers; however, we also have direct sales relationships with certain customers.
We depend on retailers to provide adequate and attractive space for our products and POP displays in their stores. We further depend on our retailers to employ, educate and motivate their sales personnel to effectively sell our products. If our retailers do not adequately display our products, choose to reduce the space for our products and POP displays in their stores or locate them in less than premium positioning, or choose not to carry some or all of our products or promote competitors’ products over ours or do not effectively explain to customers the advantages of our products, our sales could decrease and our business could be harmed. Similarly, our business could be adversely affected if any of our large retail customers were to experience financial difficulties, or change the focus of their businesses in a way that deemphasized the sale of our products. We also continue to invest in providing new retailers with POP displays and expanding the footprint of our POP displays in existing stores, and there can be no assurance that this investment will lead to increased revenue.
Our distributors generally offer products from several different manufacturers. Accordingly, we are at risk that these distributors may give higher priority to selling other companies’ products. We have consolidated our distributor channels in certain regions, and if we were to lose the services of a distributor, we might need to find another distributor in that area and there can be no assurance of our ability to do so in a timely manner or on favorable terms. Further, our distributors build inventory in anticipation of future sales, and if such sales do not occur as rapidly as they anticipate, our distributors will decrease the size of their future product orders. We are also subject to the risks of our distributors encountering financial difficulties, which could impede their effectiveness and also expose us to financial risk if they are unable to pay for the products they purchase from us. Additionally, our international distributors buy from us in U.S. dollars and generally sell to retailers in local currency so significant currency fluctuations could impact their profitability, and in turn, affect their ability to buy future products from us. For example, the Brexit referendum vote in the U.K., caused significant short term volatility in global stock markets as well as currency exchange rate fluctuations, resulting in further strengthening of the U.S. dollar.
We have converted portions of our distributors' business into direct sales, and if we were to do this on a larger scale, it could create significant disruptions to our distribution channel and the associated revenue. Any reduction in sales by our current distributors, loss of key distributors or decrease in revenue from our distributors could adversely affect our revenue, operating results and financial condition.
A small number of retailers and distributors account for a substantial portion of our revenue, and if our relationships with any of these retailers or distributors were to be terminated or the level of business with them significantly reduced, our business could be harmed.
Our ten largest customers, measured by the revenue we derive from them, accounted for 50%, 52% and 50% of our revenue for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. One retailer accounted for 17%, 14% and 20% of our revenue for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. A second retailer accounted for 11% and 12% of our revenue in 2016 and 2015, respectively. The loss of a small number of our large customers, or the reduction in business with one or more of these customers, could have a significant adverse impact on our operating results. In addition, we may choose to temporarily or permanently stop shipping product to customers who do not follow the policies and guidelines in our sales agreements, which could have a material negative impact on our revenues and operating results. Our sales agreements with these large customers do not require them to purchase any meaningful amount of our products annually and we grant limited rights to return product to some of these large customers.

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If we encounter problems with our distribution system, our ability to deliver our products to the market and to meet customer expectations could be harmed.
We rely on third-party distribution facilities for substantially all of our product distribution to distributors and directly to retailers. Our distribution facilities include computer controlled and automated equipment, which means their operations may be vulnerable to computer viruses or other security risks, the proper operation of software and hardware, electronic or power interruptions or other system failures. Further, because substantially all of our products are distributed from only a few locations and by a small number of companies, our operations could be interrupted by labor difficulties, extreme or severe weather conditions, or floods, fires or other natural disasters near our distribution centers, or port shutdowns or other transportation-related interruptions along our distribution routes. Additionally, we use one primary supplier for the third party distribution and if this supplier were to incur financial difficulties, it could adversely affect our business.
We may be subject to warranty claims that could result in significant direct or indirect costs, or we could experience greater returns from retailers than expected, which could harm our business and operating results.
We generally provide a 12-month warranty on all of our products, except in the European Union, or EU, where we provide a two-year warranty on all of our products. Additionally, we plan to resume shipments of our Karma drone by the end of the first quarter of 2017 and we have no historical experience related to warranty claims for this product. The occurrence of any material defects in our products could make us liable for damages and warranty claims in excess of our current reserves. In addition, we could incur significant costs to correct any defects, warranty claims or other problems, including costs related to product recalls. Any negative publicity related to the perceived quality and safety of our products could affect our brand image, decrease retailer, distributor and consumer confidence and demand, and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Also, while our warranty is limited to repairs and returns, warranty claims may result in litigation, the occurrence of which could adversely affect our business and operating results.
In 2016, we launched GoPro Care, a fee-based service that offers a range of support options to our consumers, including extended warranty and accidental damage coverage in the United States, and we plan to expand GoPro Care internationally. Accidental damage coverage and extended warranties are regulated in the United States on a state level and are treated differently within each state. Additionally, outside the United States, regulations for extended warranties and accidental damage vary from country to country. Changes in interpretation of the insurance regulations or other laws and regulations concerning extended warranties and accidental damage coverage on a federal, state, local or international level may cause us to incur costs or have additional regulatory requirements to meet in the future in order to continue to offer GoPro Care in compliance with any similar laws adopted in other jurisdictions. Our failure to comply with past, present and future similar laws could result in reduced sales of our products, reputational damage, penalties and other sanctions, which could harm our business and financial condition.
Consumers may be injured while engaging in activities with our products, and we may be exposed to claims, or regulations could be imposed, which could adversely affect our brand, operating results and financial condition.
Consumers use our cameras, drones and their associated mounts and accessories to self-capture their participation in a wide variety of physical activities, including extreme sports, which in many cases carry the risk of significant injury or death. Consumers may also use our drones for a wide range of flight activity, including aerial data collection, videography and photography. We may be subject to claims that users have been injured or harmed by or while using our products, including false claims or erroneous reports relating to safety, security or privacy issues, or that personal property has been damaged as a result of use of our drone. Although we maintain insurance to help protect us from the risk of such claims, such insurance may not be sufficient or may not apply to all situations. Similarly, proprietors of establishments at which consumers engage in challenging physical activities could seek to ban the use of our products in their facilities to limit their own liability. In addition, if lawmakers or governmental agencies were to determine that the use of our products increased the risk of injury or harm to all or a subset of our users or should otherwise be restricted to protect consumers, they may pass laws or adopt regulations that limit the use of our products or increase our liability associated with the use of our products. Any of these events could adversely affect our brand, operating results and financial condition.

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Our intellectual property and proprietary rights may not adequately protect our products, and our business may suffer if it is alleged or determined that our technology, products, or another aspect of our business infringes third party intellectual property or if third parties infringe our rights.
We own patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, and other intellectual property (collectively “intellectual property”) related to aspects of our products, software, services and designs. Our commercial success may depend in part on our ability to obtain, maintain and protect these rights in the United States and abroad.
We regularly file patent applications to protect innovations arising from our research, development and design as we deem appropriate. We may fail to apply for patents on important products, services, technologies or designs in a timely fashion, or at all. We may not have sufficient intellectual property rights in all countries where unauthorized third party copying or use of our proprietary technology occurs and the scope of our intellectual property might be more limited in certain countries. Our existing and future patents may not be sufficient to protect our products, services, technologies or designs and/or may not prevent others from developing competing products, services, technologies or designs. We cannot predict the validity and enforceability of our patents and other intellectual property with certainty.
We have registered, and applied to register, certain of our trademarks in several jurisdictions worldwide. In some of those jurisdictions, third party filings exist for the same, similar or otherwise related products or services, which could block the registration of our marks. Even if we are able to register our marks, competitors may adopt or file similar marks to ours, register domain names that mimic or incorporate our marks, or otherwise infringe upon our trademark rights. Although we police our trademark rights carefully, there can be no assurance that we are aware of all third party uses or that we will prevail in enforcing our rights in all such instances. Any of these negative outcomes could impact the strength, value and effectiveness of our brand, as well as our ability to market our products. We have also registered domain names for websites, or URLs, that we use in our business, such as gopro.com. If we are unable to protect our domain names, our brand, business, and operating results could be adversely affected. Domain names similar to ours have already been registered in the United States and elsewhere, and we may be unable to prevent third parties from acquiring and using domain names that infringe, are similar to, or otherwise decrease the value of, our brand or our trademarks. In addition, although we own gopro.com and various other global top level domains, we might not be able to, or may choose not to, acquire or maintain other country-specific versions of the domain name or other potentially similar URLs in all countries in which we currently conduct or intend to conduct business.
Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights. Initiating infringement proceedings against third parties can be expensive, take significant time, and divert management’s attention from other business concerns. We may not prevail in litigation to enforce our intellectual property against unauthorized use.
Third parties, including competitors and non-practicing entities, have brought intellectual property infringement claims against us. We expect to continue to receive such intellectual property claims in the future. While we will defend the Company vigorously against any such existing and future legal proceedings, we may not prevail against all such allegations. For example, patent holding companies and practicing entities, including our competitors, have alleged infringement of patent or other intellectual property infringement. We may not prevail against such allegations. We may seek licenses from third parties where appropriate, but they could refuse to grant us a license or demand commercially unreasonable terms. The occurrence of any of these events may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. Among other things, an adverse ruling in an intellectual property infringement proceeding could force us to suspend or permanently cease the production or sale of products/services, face a temporary or permanent injunction, redesign our products/services, rebrand our products/services, pay significant settlement costs, pay third party license fees or damage awards or give up some of our intellectual property.
If we are unable to maintain or acquire rights to include intellectual property owned by others in the content distributed by us, our marketing, sales or future business strategy could be affected or we could be subject to lawsuits relating to our use of this content.
The distribution of GoPro content helps to market our brand and our products. If we cannot continue to acquire rights to distribute user-generated content or acquire rights to use and distribute music, athlete and celebrity names and likenesses or other content for our original productions or third party entertainment distribution channels or for our software products, our marketing efforts could be diminished, our sales could be harmed and our future content strategy could be adversely affected. In addition, third-party content providers may allege that we have violated their

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intellectual property rights. If we are unable to obtain sufficient rights, successfully defend our use of or otherwise alter our business practices on a timely basis in response to claims of infringement, misappropriation, misuse or other violation of third-party intellectual property rights, our business may be adversely affected. As a user and distributor of content, we face potential liability for rights of publicity and privacy, as well as copyright, or trademark infringement or other claims based on the nature and content of materials that we distribute. If we are found to violate such third party rights, then our business may suffer.
If we encounter issues with our manufacturers or suppliers, our business, brand, and results of operations could be harmed and we could lose sales.
We do not have internal manufacturing capabilities and rely on several contract manufacturers, located primarily in China, to manufacture our products. We cannot be certain that we will not experience operational difficulties with our manufacturers, including reductions in the availability of production capacity, errors in complying with product specifications, insufficient quality control, failures to meet production deadlines, increases in manufacturing costs and increased lead times. Additionally, our manufacturers may experience disruptions in their manufacturing operations due to equipment breakdowns, labor strikes or shortages, natural disasters, component or material shortages, cost increases or other similar problems. Further, in order to minimize their inventory risk, our manufacturers might not order components from third-party suppliers with adequate lead time, thereby impacting our ability to meet our demand forecast. Therefore, if we fail to manage our relationship with our manufacturers effectively, or if they experience operational difficulties, our ability to ship products to our retailers and distributors could be impaired and our competitive position and reputation could be harmed.
In the event that we receive shipments of products that fail to comply with our technical specifications or that fail to conform to our quality control standards, and we are not able to obtain replacement products in a timely manner, we risk revenue losses from the inability to sell those products, increased administrative and shipping costs, and lower profitability. Additionally, if defects are not discovered until after consumers purchase our products, they could lose confidence in the technical attributes of our products and our business could be harmed.
We do not control our contract manufacturers or suppliers, including their labor, environmental or other practices. Environmental regulations or changes in the supply, demand or available sources of natural resources may affect the availability and cost of goods and services necessary to run our business. We require our contract manufacturers and suppliers to comply with our formal supplier code of conduct and relevant standards and have ongoing audit programs in place to assess our suppliers' compliance with our requirements. We periodically conduct audits of our contract manufacturers’ and suppliers’ compliance with our code of conduct, applicable laws and good industry practices. However, these audits may not be frequent or thorough enough to detect non-compliance. Deliberate violations of labor, environmental or other laws by our contract manufacturers or suppliers, or a failure of these parties to follow ethical business practices, could lead to negative publicity and harm our reputation or brand.
Failure to obtain new, and maintain existing, high-quality event, venue, athlete and celebrity sponsorships could harm our business.
Establishing relationships with high profile sporting and entertainment events, venues, sports leagues and sports associations, athletes and celebrity personalities to evaluate, promote and establish product credibility with consumers, including entering into sponsorship and licensing agreements, has and will continue to be a key element of our marketing strategy. However, as competition in our markets has increased, the costs of obtaining and retaining event, venue, athlete and celebrity sponsorships and licensing agreements have increased. Additionally, we may be forced to sign longer term sponsorships in order to retain relationships. If we are unable to maintain our current associations with our event, venue, athlete and celebrity partners, or to do so at a reasonable cost, we could lose the benefits of these relationships, and we may be required to modify and substantially increase our marketing investments. In addition, actions taken by endorsers of our products that harm their reputations could also harm our brand image with consumers. The failure to correctly identify high impact events and venues or build partnerships with those who develop and promote those events and venues, promising athletes or other appealing personalities to use and endorse our products, or poor performance by our endorsers, could adversely affect our brand and result in decreased sales of our products.

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We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act or similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions in which we operate.
The global nature of our business and the significance of our international revenue create various domestic and local regulatory challenges and subject us to risks associated with our international operations. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA"), the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, or the U.K. Bribery Act, and similar anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit U.S.-based companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to non-U.S. officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, directing business to another, or securing an advantage. In addition, U.S. public companies are required to maintain records that accurately and fairly represent their transactions and have an adequate system of internal accounting controls. Under the FCPA, U.S. companies may be held liable for the corrupt actions taken by directors, officers, employees, agents, or other strategic or local partners or representatives. As such, if we or our intermediaries fail to comply with the requirements of the FCPA or similar legislation, governmental authorities in the United States and elsewhere could seek to impose substantial civil and/or criminal fines and penalties which could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, operating results and financial condition.
We operate in areas of the world that experience corruption by government officials to some degree and, in certain circumstances, compliance with anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws may conflict with local customs and practices. Our global operations require us to import and export to and from several countries, which geographically expands our compliance obligations. In addition, changes in such laws could result in increased regulatory requirements and compliance costs which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We cannot be assured that our employees or other agents will not engage in prohibited conduct and render us responsible under the FCPA or the U.K. Bribery Act. While we have compliance programs, they may not be effective to prevent violations from occurring and employees may engage in prohibited conduct nonetheless. If we are found to be in violation of the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act or other anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws (either due to acts or inadvertence of our employees, or due to the acts or inadvertence of others), we could suffer criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are subject to governmental export and import controls and economic sanctions laws that could subject us to liability and impair our ability to compete in international markets.
The U.S. and various foreign governments have imposed controls, export license requirements and restrictions on the import or export of some technologies. Our products are subject to U.S. export controls, and exports of our products must be made in compliance with various economic and trade sanctions laws. Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions prohibit the provision of products and services to countries, governments, and persons targeted by U.S. sanctions. Even though we take precautions to prevent our products from being provided to targets of U.S. sanctions, our products, including our firmware updates, could be provided to those targets or provided by our customers despite such precautions. Any such provision could have negative consequences, including government investigations, penalties and reputational harm. Our failure to obtain required import or export approval for our products could harm our international and domestic sales and adversely affect our revenue.
We could be subject to future enforcement action with respect to compliance with governmental export and import controls and economic sanctions laws that result in penalties, costs, and restrictions on export privileges that could have a material effect on our business and operating results.
Our effective tax rate and the intended tax benefits of our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements depend on the application of the tax laws of various jurisdictions and on how we operate our business.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and various jurisdictions outside the United States. Our effective tax rate could fluctuate due to changes in the mix of earnings and losses in countries with differing statutory tax rates. For example, our effective tax rates could be adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in countries where we have lower statutory rates and higher than anticipated in countries where we have higher statutory rates. Our tax expense could also be impacted by changes in non-deductible expenses, changes in excess tax benefits related to exercises and vesting of stock-based expense, and the applicability of withholding taxes.
Our future effective tax rates could be unfavorably affected by changes in the tax rates in jurisdictions where our income is earned, by changes in, or our interpretation, of tax rules and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we do business, by unanticipated decreases in the amount of earnings in countries with low statutory tax rates, or by

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changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities. The United States, the European Commission, countries in the European Union and other countries where we do business have been considering changes in relevant tax, accounting and other laws, regulations and interpretations, including changes to tax laws applicable to corporate multinationals. These potential changes could adversely affect our effective tax rates or result in other costs to us.
In addition, we are subject to the examination of our income tax returns by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and other domestic and foreign tax authorities. These tax examinations are expected to focus on our intercompany transfer pricing practices as well as other matters. We regularly assess the likelihood of outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes and have reserved for adjustments that may result from the current examinations. We cannot provide assurance that the final determination of any of these examinations will not have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial position.
If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls in the future, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements, which could adversely impact our investors’ confidence and our stock price.
Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we are required to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, and to include a management report assessing the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, making some activities more time consuming and costly, placing significant demands on our financial and operational resources, as well as our IT systems.
While we have determined that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2016, we must continue to monitor and assess our internal control over financial reporting. Our control environment may not be sufficient to remediate or prevent future material weaknesses or significant deficiencies from occurring. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and all instances of fraud will be detected.
If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting are effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our Class A common stock could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.
We use open source software in our platform that may subject our technology to general release or require us to re-engineer our solutions, which may cause harm to our business.
We use open source software in connection with our services. From time to time, companies that incorporate open source software into their products have faced claims challenging the ownership of open source software and/or compliance with open source license terms. Therefore, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or noncompliance with open source licensing terms. Some open source software licenses require users who distribute or make available open source software as part of their software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to such software and/or make available any derivative works of the open source code on unfavorable terms or at no cost. While we monitor our use of open source software and try to ensure that none is used in a manner that would require us to disclose the source code or that would otherwise breach the terms of an open source agreement, such use could nevertheless occur and we may be required to release our proprietary source code, pay damages for breach of contract, re-engineer our applications, discontinue sales in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis or take other remedial action that may divert resources away from our development efforts, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results.

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Any significant disruption to our e-commerce business could result in lost sales.
Online sales through gopro.com represent less than 10% of our total revenue. Nonetheless, system interruptions or delays could cause potential consumers to fail to purchase our products and could harm our reputation and brand. The operation of our direct to consumer e-commerce business through gopro.com depends on the ability to maintain the efficient and uninterrupted operation of online order-taking and fulfillment operations. Our e-commerce operations subject us to certain risks that could have an adverse effect on our operating results, including risks related to the computer systems that operate our website and related support systems, such as system failures, viruses, cyberattacks, computer hackers and similar disruptions. If we or our designated third party contractors are unable to maintain and upgrade our e-commerce website or if we encounter system interruptions or delays, our operating results could be adversely impacted.
If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies and estimates prove to be incorrect, our operating results could be adversely affected.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in the section titled “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations.” The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities and equity, and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our operating results may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our operating results to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in our stock price. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, inventory valuation, stock-based compensation expense, warranty reserves, goodwill and acquired intangible assets, and accounting for income taxes including deferred tax assets and liabilities.
If we fail to comply with environmental regulations and conflict minerals disclosures, our business, financial condition, operating results and reputation could be adversely affected.
We are subject to various federal, state, local and international environmental laws and regulations including laws regulating the manufacture, import, use, discharge and disposal of hazardous materials, labeling and notice requirements relating to potential consumer exposure to certain chemicals, and laws relating to the collection of and recycling of electrical and electronic equipment and their packaging.
We are also subject to the SEC’s conflict minerals rule which requires disclosure by public companies of the origin, source and chain of custody of specified minerals, known as conflict minerals, that are necessary to the functionality or production of products manufactured or contracted to be manufactured. The rule requires companies to obtain sourcing data from suppliers, engage in supply chain due diligence, and file annually with the SEC a specialized disclosure report on Form SD covering the prior calendar year. The rule could limit our ability to source at competitive prices and to secure sufficient quantities of certain minerals (or derivatives thereof) used in the manufacture of our products, specifically tantalum, tin, gold and tungsten, as the number of suppliers that provide conflict-free minerals may be limited. We have and will continue to incur costs associated with complying with the rule, such as costs related to the determination of the origin, source and chain of custody of the minerals used in our products, the adoption of conflict minerals-related governance policies, processes and controls, and possible changes to products or sources of supply as a result of such activities. Within our supply chain, we may not be able to sufficiently verify the origins of the relevant minerals used in our products through the data collection and due diligence procedures that we implement, which may harm our reputation. We continue to investigate the presence of conflict materials within our supply chain.
Although we have policies and procedures in place requiring our contract manufacturers and major component suppliers to comply with applicable federal, state, local and international requirements, we cannot confirm that our manufacturers and suppliers consistently comply with these requirements. In addition, if there are changes to these or other laws (or their interpretation) or if new similar laws are passed in other jurisdictions, we may be required to re-engineer our products to use components compatible with these regulations. This re-engineering and component substitution could result in additional costs to us or disrupt our operations or logistics.

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Changes in interpretation of any federal, state, local or international regulation may cause us to incur costs or have additional regulatory requirements to meet in the future in order to comply, or with any similar laws adopted in other jurisdictions. Our failure to comply with past, present and future similar laws could result in reduced sales of our products, substantial product inventory write-offs, reputational damage, penalties and other sanctions, which could harm our business and financial condition. We also expect that our products will be affected by new environmental laws and regulations on an ongoing basis. To date, our expenditures for environmental compliance have not had a material impact on our results of operations or cash flows and, although we cannot predict the future impact of such laws or regulations, they will likely result in additional costs and may increase penalties associated with violations or require us to change the content of our products or how they are manufactured, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Catastrophic events or political instability could disrupt and cause harm to our business.
Our headquarters is located in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, an area susceptible to earthquakes. A major earthquake or other natural disaster, fire, act of terrorism or other catastrophic event in California or elsewhere that results in the destruction or disruption of any of our critical business operations or information technology systems could severely affect our ability to conduct normal business operations and, as a result, our future operating results could be harmed. Our key manufacturing, supply and distribution partners have global operations including in China, Hong Kong, Japan, Netherlands, Singapore and Taiwan as well as the United States. Political instability or catastrophic events in any of those countries could adversely affect our business in the future, our financial condition and operating results.
Risks related to Ownership of our Class A Common Stock
Our stock price has been and will likely continue to be volatile.
Since shares of our Class A common stock were sold in our IPO in July 2014 at a price of $24.00 per share, our stock price has ranged from $8.69 to $98.47 through December 31, 2016. Our stock price may fluctuate in response to a number of events and factors, such as quarterly operating results; changes in our financial projections provided to the public or our failure to meet those projections; the public's reaction to our press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC; significant transactions, or new features, products or services by us or our competitors; changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts; media coverage of our business and financial performance; the operating and stock price performance of, or other developments involving, other companies that investors may deem comparable to us; trends in our industry; any significant change in our management; and general economic conditions.
In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for companies in our industry, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to operating performance. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the price of our stock, regardless of our operating performance. Price volatility over a given period may cause the average price at which we repurchase our own stock to exceed the stock’s price at a given point in time. Volatility in our stock price also impacts the value of our equity compensation, which affects our ability to recruit and retain employees. In addition, some companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We have been the target of this type of litigation and may continue to be a target in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could harm our business.
If we fail to meet expectations related to future growth, profitability, or other market expectations, our stock price may decline significantly, which could have a material adverse impact on investor confidence and employee retention. A sustained decline in our stock price and market capitalization could lead to impairment charges.
The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with our CEO.
Our Class B common stock has 10 votes per share, and our Class A common stock has one vote per share. Stockholders who hold shares of Class B common stock hold approximately 78% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock as of December 31, 2016 with Mr. Woodman, our Chairman and CEO, holding approximately 77% of the outstanding voting power. Mr. Woodman is able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other major corporate transaction. This concentrated control could delay, defer, or

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prevent a change of control, merger, consolidation, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets that our other stockholders support, or conversely this concentrated control could result in the consummation of such a transaction that our other stockholders do not support. This concentrated control could also discourage a potential investor from acquiring our Class A common stock due to the limited voting power of such stock relative to the Class B common stock and might harm the trading price of our Class A common stock.
If securities analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Class A common stock depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.
Delaware law and provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make a merger, tender offer or proxy contest difficult, thereby depressing the trading price of our Class A common stock.
Our status as a Delaware corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change in control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders. In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that may make the acquisition of our company more difficult without the approval of our board of directors, or otherwise adversely affect the rights of the holders of our Class A and Class B common stock, including the following:
our board of directors is not currently classified, but at such time as all shares of our Class B common stock have been converted into shares of our Class A common stock, our board of directors will be classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms;
so long as any shares of our Class B common stock are outstanding, special meetings of our stockholders may be called by the holders of 10% of the outstanding voting power of all then outstanding shares of stock, a majority of our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer or our president,
when no shares of our Class B common stock are outstanding, only the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer, our president or a majority of our board of directors will be authorized to call a special meeting of stockholders;     
our stockholders may only take action at a meeting of stockholders and not by written consent;
vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by our board of directors and not by stockholders;
directors may be removed from office with or without cause so long as our board of directors is not classified, and thereafter directors may be removed from office only for cause;
our restated certificate of incorporation provides for a dual class common stock structure in which holders of our Class B common stock have the ability to control the outcome of matters requiring stockholder approval, even if they own significantly less than a majority of the outstanding shares of our Class A and Class B common stock, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or its assets;
our restated certificate of incorporation authorizes undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established, and shares of which may be issued, by our board of directors without stockholder approval and which may contain voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to those of our Class A and Class B common stock; and
advance notice procedures apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders.


28




Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 2. Properties
As of December 31, 2016, we leased office facilities around the world totaling approximately 602,000 square feet, including approximately 311,000 square feet for our corporate headquarters in San Mateo, California. All of our properties are currently leased. We believe our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current requirements. If we were to require additional space, we believe we will be able to obtain such space on acceptable, commercially reasonable terms. See Note 11 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information about our lease commitments.


29




Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Shareholder class action lawsuits
Beginning on January 13, 2016, the first of four purported shareholder class action lawsuits was filed in the U.S District Court for the Northern District of California against the Company and certain of its officers (the “GoPro Defendants”). Similar complaints were filed on January 21, 2016, February 4, 2016, and February 19, 2016.  Each of the complaints purports to bring suit on behalf of shareholders who purchased the Company’s publicly traded securities between July 21, 2015 and January 13, 2016 for the first three complaints and between November 26, 2014 and January 13, 2016 for the last filed complaint.  Each complaint purports to allege that defendants made false and misleading statements about the Company’s business, operations and prospects in violation of Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and each seeks unspecified compensatory damages, fees and costs.  On April 21, 2016, the court consolidated the complaints and appointed lead plaintiff and lead counsel for the first three actions (the “Camia Investments Class Action”); the court allowed the fourth action to proceed separately as to the period November 26, 2014 through July 20, 2015 (the “Majesty Palms Class Action”) and appointed lead plaintiff and lead counsel for that action.  The lead plaintiff in the Majesty Palms Class Action did not file an amended complaint and voluntarily dismissed the Majesty Palms Class Action on July 28, 2016. On September 26, 2016, the GoPro Defendants filed a motion to dismiss the Camia Investment Class Action.  That motion was heard on January 19, 2017 and is pending decision by the court.
On January 25, 2016, a purported shareholder class action lawsuit was filed in the Superior Court of the State of California, County of San Mateo, against the Company, certain of its current and former directors and executive officers and underwriters of the Company’s IPO (“Defendants”).  The complaint purports to bring suit on behalf of shareholders who purchased the Company’s stock pursuant or traceable to the Registration Statement and Prospectus issued in connection with the Company’s IPO and alleges claims under Sections 11, 12(a)(2) and 15 of the Securities Act of 1933.  The suit seeks unspecified damages and other relief.  A similar complaint was filed on May 13, 2016, and consolidated on June 7, 2016.  Defendants filed a demurrer (motion to dismiss) to the consolidated action.  On July 13, 2016, the court sustained the demurrer dismissing the complaint with leave to amend the complaint. The plaintiff filed an amended complaint on October 7, 2016.  Defendants filed a demurrer to the amended complaint on October 28, 2016. On December 16, 2016, the court overruled the demurrer with respect to the Section 11 and 15 claims and sustained the demurrer in part and overruled the demurrer in part with respect to the Section 12(a)(2) claim.
On November 16, 2016, a purported shareholder class action lawsuit was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California against the Company and Mr. Woodman (“Defendants”).  The complaint purports to bring suit on behalf of shareholders who purchased the Company’s publicly traded securities between September 19, 2016 and November 4, 2016.  The complaint purports to allege that Defendants made false and misleading statements about the Company’s business, operations and prospects in violation of Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and seeks unspecified compensatory damages, fees and costs.  On February 6, 2017, the court appointed lead plaintiff and lead counsel.
We are currently and in the future may continue to be subject to litigation, claims and assertions incidental to our business, including patent infringement litigation and product liability claims, as well as other litigation of a non-material nature in the ordinary course of business. Due to inherent uncertainties of litigation, we cannot accurately predict the ultimate outcome of these matters. We are unable at this time to determine whether the outcome of the litigation would have a material impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.


30




PART II
Item 5. Market for the Company's Common Shares, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table sets forth the high and low closing sale price per share of our Class A common stock, as reported on the NASDAQ for the periods indicated:
 
2016
 
2015
 
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
First Quarter
$18.69
 
$9.78
 
$66.87
 
$37.95
Second Quarter
$13.98
 
$8.80
 
$59.41
 
$40.89
Third Quarter
$17.15
 
$10.59
 
$64.74
 
$29.67
Fourth Quarter
$17.13
 
$8.69
 
$30.65
 
$16.89
Holders. As of January 31, 2017, there were 97 holders of record of our Class A common stock and 51 holders of record of our Class B common stock.
Dividends. We have not declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock and do not currently intend to pay any cash dividends on our Class A or Class B common stock in the foreseeable future.
Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans. The information required by this item will be included in an amendment to this Annual Report on Form 10-K or incorporated by reference from our Proxy Statement to be filed with the SEC for our 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year ended December 31, 2016.

31




Performance graph. The graph below compares the cumulative total return on our Class A common stock with that of the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Consumer Durables Index. The graph assumes $100 was invested (with reinvestment of all dividends, as applicable) at the close of market on June 26, 2014 in the Class A common stock of GoPro, Inc., the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Consumer Durables Index, and its relative performance is tracked through December 31, 2016. Note that historic stock price performance is not intended to be indicative of future stock price performance.
gpro2016-12x_chartx56491.jpg
Sales of unregistered securities. Not applicable.
Use of proceeds. On June 25, 2014, the SEC declared our registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-196083) effective for our IPO. On November 19, 2014, the SEC declared our registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-200038) effective for our follow-on offering. There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our initial public offering or our follow-on offering as described in our final prospectus filed with the SEC on June 26, 2014 and November 17, 2014, respectively.
Issuer purchases of equity securities. No shares of our Class A or Class B common stock were purchased during 2016. Our share repurchase program expired on September 30, 2016.


32




Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data
The information set forth below for the five years ended December 31, 2016 is not necessarily indicative of results of future operations, and should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements, related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(in thousands, except per share amounts)

Year ended December 31,
Consolidated statements of operations data:
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Revenue
$
1,185,481

 
$
1,619,971

 
$
1,394,205

 
$
985,737

 
$
526,016

Gross profit
$
461,920

 
$
673,214

 
$
627,235

 
$
361,784

 
$
227,486

Gross margin
39.0
%
 
41.6
%
 
45.0
%
 
36.7
%
 
43.2
%
Operating income (loss)
$
(372,969
)
 
$
54,748

 
$
187,035

 
$
98,703

 
$
53,617

Net income (loss)
$
(419,003
)
 
$
36,131

 
$
128,088

 
$
60,578

 
$
32,262

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   Basic
$
(3.01
)
 
$
0.27

 
$
1.07

 
$
0.54

 
$
0.07

   Diluted
$
(3.01
)
 
$
0.25

 
$
0.92

 
$
0.47

 
$
0.07

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other financial information:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA (1)
$
(192,807
)
 
$
179,309

 
$
293,380

 
$
133,726

 
$
75,288

Non-GAAP net income (loss) (2)
$
(201,247
)
 
$
111,564

 
$
188,913

 
$
68,826

 
-

Non-GAAP diluted earnings (loss) per share (2)
$
(1.44
)
 
$
0.76

 
$
1.32

 
$
0.50

 
-

(1) 
We define adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) adjusted to exclude the impact of: provision for income taxes, interest income, interest expense, depreciation and amortization, POP display amortization, stock-based compensation, impairment charges and restructuring costs.
(2)
We define non-GAAP net income as net income (loss) adjusted to exclude stock-based compensation, acquisition-related costs, restructuring costs and taxes related to the tax effect of these adjustments. Acquisition-related costs include the amortization of acquired intangible assets and impairment write-downs (if applicable), as well as third-party transaction costs for legal and other professional services. Non-GAAP earnings per share considers the conversion of the redeemable convertible preferred stock into shares of common stock as though the conversion had occurred at the beginning of the period and the initial public offering shares issued July 2014 as if they had been outstanding since the beginning of the period.
See "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" in Item 7. MD&A below for additional information and a reconciliation of net income (loss) to Adjusted EBITDA and net income (loss) to non-GAAP net income (loss), and a reconciliation of the shares used in the calculation of non-GAAP diluted earnings per share.
 
As of December 31,
(in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Consolidated balance sheet data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
$
217,953

 
$
474,058

 
$
422,256

 
$
101,410

 
$
36,485

Inventory
167,192

 
188,232

 
153,026

 
111,994

 
60,412

Working capital
157,074

 
538,066

 
564,274

 
57,446

 
69,618

Total assets
922,640

 
1,102,976

 
917,691

 
439,671

 
246,665

Total indebtedness

 

 

 
113,612

 
129,395

Redeemable convertible preferred stock

 

 

 
77,198

 
77,138

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
446,945

 
772,033

 
641,204

 
(5,366
)
 
(79,741
)



33




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A)
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements as a result of a variety of factors, including but not limited to, those discussed in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our MD&A is organized as follows:
Overview. Discussion of our business and overall analysis of financial and other highlights affecting the Company in order to provide context for the remainder of MD&A.
Components of Our Results of Operations. Description of the items contained in each operating revenue and expense caption in the consolidated statements of operations.
Results of Operations. Analysis of our financial results comparing 2016 to 2015 and 2015 to 2014.
Liquidity and Capital Resources. Analysis of changes in our balance sheets and cash flows, and discussion of our financial condition and potential sources of liquidity.
Contractual Commitments. Overview of contractual obligations, including expected payment schedule, off-balance sheet arrangements and indemnifications as of December 31, 2016.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates. Accounting estimates that we believe are most important to understanding the assumptions and judgments incorporated in our reported financial results and forecasts.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures. A presentation of results reconciling GAAP to non-GAAP adjusted measures.

Overview
GoPro, Inc. is enabling the way people capture and share their lives from a perspective only achieved with a GoPro. We are committed to developing solutions that create an easy, seamless experience for consumers to capture, create and enjoy engaging personal content. To date, our cameras and mountable and wearable accessories have generated substantially all of our revenue. We sell our products globally through retailers, wholesale distributors, and on our website.
In Fall 2016, we launched our all-new cloud connected HERO5 cameras, which began shipping in September 2016, and a new ecosystem of mountable, wearable and voice activated accessories. We offer many professional-grade features within our good-better-best product camera offering of HERO Session, HERO5 Session and HERO5 Black. Our HERO5 cameras feature voice control and can automatically upload photos and videos to GoPro Plus, a new cloud-based storage solution that enables subscribers to easily access, edit and share content. Complementing our new HERO5 cameras and GoPro Plus, we also released updated versions of our Quik mobile and desktop applications and rebranded the GoPro mobile app as Capture. We re-launched our first drone, Karma, in the first quarter of 2017. See "Item 1. Business" above for additional information regarding our products.

34




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following is a summary of measures presented in our consolidated financial statements and key metrics used to evaluate our business, measure our performance, develop financial forecasts and make strategic decisions.
(units and dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
Q4 2016
 
Q4 2015
 
FY 2016
 
FY 2015
Revenue
 
$
540,621

 
$
436,603

 
$
1,185,481

 
$
1,619,971

Units shipped(1)
 
2,284

 
2,002

 
4,762

 
6,584

Gross margin (2)
 
39.2
%
 
29.4
%
 
39.0
%
 
41.6
%
Operating expenses
 
$
238,703

 
$
169,805

 
$
834,889

 
$
618,466

Operating income (loss)
 
$
(26,568
)
 
$
(41,294
)
 
$
(372,969
)
 
$
54,748

Net income (loss)
 
$
(115,709
)
 
$
(34,451
)
 
$
(419,003
)
 
$
36,131

Diluted net income (loss) per share
 
$
(0.82
)
 
$
(0.25
)
 
$
(3.01
)
 
$
0.25

Cash provided by (used in) operations
 
$
12,696

 
$
20,848

 
$
(107,753
)
 
$
157,611

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other financial information:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA(3)
 
$
44,343

 
$
(9,268
)
 
$
(192,807
)
 
$
179,309

Non-GAAP net income (loss) (4)
 
$
42,367

 
$
(11,396
)
 
$
(201,247
)
 
$
111,564

Non-GAAP earnings (loss) per share
 
$
0.29

 
$
(0.08
)
 
$
(1.44
)
 
$
0.76

(1) Represents the number of individually packaged camera units that are shipped during a reporting period, net of any returns. Units shipped does not include sales of mounts or accessories.
(2) One basis point (bps) is equal to 1/100th of 1%
(3) We define adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) adjusted to exclude the impact of: provision for income taxes, interest income, interest expense, depreciation and amortization, POP display amortization, stock-based compensation, impairment charges and restructuring costs.
(4) We define non-GAAP net income (loss) as net income (loss) adjusted to exclude stock-based compensation, acquisition-related costs, restructuring costs and taxes related to the income tax effect of these adjustments. Acquisition-related costs include amortization and impairment write-downs (if applicable) of acquired intangible assets, as well as third-party transaction costs for legal and other professional services.
Reconciliations of non-GAAP adjusted measures to the most directly comparable measures are presented under "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below.
Full year and fourth quarter 2016 highlights
For the fourth quarter of 2016, we achieved revenue of $540.6 million, up 24% year-over-year, the second highest revenue quarter in our history. Year-over-year growth was attributable to a 14% increase in units shipped to 2.3 million, driven by the launch of our new HERO5 cameras prior to the 2016 holiday shopping season, and a 9% increase in average selling price (defined as total revenue divided by units shipped). We estimate that overall global channel unit sell-in exceeded sell-through for the fourth quarter. Units shipped included 0.2 million of previously discontinued cameras, which mostly sold through during the fourth quarter. Excluding the impact of these discontinued cameras, average selling price would have been up about 17% year-over-year. Comparing launch periods, units shipped of HERO5 cameras in the fourth quarter of 2016 were approximately 10% higher than units shipped of HERO4 cameras in the fourth quarter of 2014. However, total revenue for the fourth quarter of 2016 was lower than we expected due to the unexpected withdrawal of our Karma drone in November 2016 as well as early production issues related to our HERO5 Black cameras that compromised initial launch volumes. Based on retail price points, our $399 and above cameras accounted for more than 50% of the units shipped and revenue in the fourth quarter with consumers having a strong preference for our flagship HERO5 Black camera.
Full year 2016 revenue of $1.19 billion was down 27% year-over-year, reflecting estimated global channel unit sell-through that exceeded sell-in for each of the first three quarters of 2016 as we worked to reduce channel inventory before the launch of HERO5. We estimate that global channel unit sell-through exceeded sell-in by over 10% in 2016. At December 31, 2016, we believe the vast majority of channel inventory consisted of new products and estimated weeks of inventory were down year-over-year. The average selling price for full year 2016 was approximately flat as compared to the prior year. We have not experienced any notable pricing pressures in the average selling price of individual camera models shipped during 2016. See "Revenue" below.

35




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Gross margin of approximately 39% for both the fourth quarter and full year 2016 reflected a shift to a good-better-best offering of HERO Session, HERO5 Session and HERO5 Black cameras. Gross margin in 2016 was lower than historical levels due primarily to an increase in our average cost per unit shipped, reflecting the enhanced functionality and better capability of our new HERO5 cameras when compared with prior generation offerings. Gross margin in 2015 was negatively impacted by product alignment charges of $57 million related to our decision to discontinue the production of entry-level HERO cameras. See "Gross Margin" below.
The year-over-year growth in operating expenses of $68.9 million and $216.4 million in the fourth quarter and full year 2016, respectively, compared to the corresponding periods in 2015 was primarily attributable to: (1) restructuring charges of $36.4 million and $42.6 million, respectively, (2) higher cash-based personnel-related expenses of approximately $13.2 million and $63.0 million, respectively, driven by a 25% growth in average global headcount during 2016, and (3) higher advertising and promotional activity costs of $16.9 million and $58.5 million, respectively. In the first and fourth quarters of 2016, we implemented global reductions-in-force and other restructuring actions to reduce our future operating expenses. See "Operating Expenses" and "Restructuring Costs" below.
GAAP net loss of $115.7 million, or $0.82 loss per share, and $419.0 million, or $3.01 loss per share, for the fourth quarter and full year 2016, respectively, included charges of approximately $102 million for an income tax related valuation allowance on U.S. deferred tax assets. For the fourth quarter of 2016, we achieved non-GAAP net income of $42.4 million, or $0.29 per share, and adjusted EBITDA of $44.3 million, our first profitable quarter on a non-GAAP basis since the third quarter of 2015.
We generated cash flows from operations of $12.7 million in the fourth quarter of 2016 due to increased revenues associated with the 2016 holiday season that were mostly offset by increased operating expenses. We ended the year with total cash and investments of $218.0 million, down 54.0% from a year ago. For full year 2016, we used cash flows in operations of $107.8 million, purchased $43.6 million of property and equipment and completed acquisitions of two mobile editing application companies in the first half of 2016 for total purchase consideration of $104.4 million. In March 2016, we entered into a credit agreement with a syndicate of banks that provides for a secured revolving credit facility under which we may borrow up to approximately $150 million as of December 31, 2016. No borrowings have been made from the credit facility to date.
See "Results of Operations" and "Liquidity and Financial Resources" below for additional information.
Looking ahead to 2017
We expect our revenue in the first quarter of 2017 to be approximately $190 million to $210 million, a year-over-year increase compared to the first quarter of 2016. Average selling price in 2017 is expected to increase slightly as compared to 2016. Gross margin will fluctuate in future periods based on product, distributor and geographical mix and volume. We have adjusted our long-term gross margin model from a range of 42% to 44% to a range of 39% to 41%. As a result of our restructuring and other cost saving initiatives, we expect total operating expenses for the first quarter of 2017 will be significantly lower than the first quarter of 2016 and we expect total operating expenses for full year 2017 to be reduced by more than $100 million compared to full year 2016, on both a GAAP and non-GAAP basis. As we work toward achieving non-GAAP profitability in 2017, we expect to implement further cost saving initiatives, including additional restructuring actions, as part of our continued efforts to streamline our operations and focus our resources. We may incur material charges as a result of these initiatives.
Factors affecting performance
We believe that our future success will be dependent on many factors, including those further discussed below.  While these areas represent opportunities for us, they also represent challenges and risks that we must successfully address in order to continue the growth of our business and improve our results of operations.
Driving profitability through improved efficiency, lower costs and better execution. We incurred material operating losses in 2016 and our future success will depend in part upon our ability to manage our operating expenses effectively. In the fourth quarter of 2016, we implemented a company-wide restructuring of our business resulting in a global reduction-in-force, the elimination of several high-cost initiatives, including the closure of our entertainment group in order to focus our resources on our hardware and software integrated storytelling solution, and the consolidation of certain leased office facilities (see "Restructuring Costs" below). As noted above in "Looking ahead to 2017," we believe the actions we have taken will significantly reduce our operating expenses in 2017, while also providing a

36




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

flatter, more efficient global organization that will allow for improved communication and alignment among our functional teams. For 2017 and beyond, we plan to operate efficiently and manage our costs effectively, which we expect will include implementing additional cost saving initiatives and restructuring actions, while continuing to invest in those areas that we believe will grow revenue. If we are unable to generate adequate revenue growth and to manage our expenses, we may continue to incur significant losses in the future and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
Investing in research and development and making the smartphone central to the GoPro experience. Our performance is significantly dependent on the investments we make in research and development, including our ability to attract and retain highly skilled and experienced research and development personnel. We expect the timing of new product releases to continue to have a significant impact on our revenue and must continually develop and introduce innovative new cameras, mobile and desktop applications, and other new products and services. We plan to build upon our integrated storytelling solution in future periods, with the smartphone playing an even more central role in the GoPro experience. Our investments in this solution, including marketing and advertising expenses, may not successfully drive increased sales of our products and our users may not adopt our new offerings. If we fail to innovate and enhance our product offerings, our brand, market position and revenue will be adversely affected. Further, we have incurred substantial research and development expenses and if our efforts are not successful, we will not recover the value of these investments.
Marketing the improved GoPro experience to our extended community. We intend to continue investing resources in our marketing, advertising and brand management efforts. Historically, our growth has largely been fueled by the adoption of our products by people looking to self-capture images of themselves participating in exciting physical activities. Our future growth depends on continuing to reach, expand and re-engage with this core demographic as well as grow it, and also to continue expanding our user base to include a broader group of consumers. We still believe that consumers in many markets are not familiar with our brand and products and believe there is a significant opportunity for GoPro to expand awareness through a range of advertising and promotional programs and campaigns, including social media. Sales and marketing investments will often occur in advance of any sales benefits from these activities, and it may be difficult for us to determine if we are efficiently allocating our resources in this area.
Growing our total addressable international market. We believe that international markets represent a significant growth opportunity for GoPro. Revenue from outside the United States comprised 53%, 52% and 43% of our revenue in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. While the total market for digital cameras has declined in recent periods as smartphone and tablet camera quality has increased, we continue to believe our consumers’ differentiated use of GoPro cameras, our hardware and software ecosystem and our powerful brand helps insulate our business from many of the negative trends facing this category. However, we expect the markets in which we conduct our business will remain highly competitive. We plan to increase our presence globally through the active promotion of our brand, the creation and cultivation of regional strategic and marketing partnerships, the introduction of localized products in international markets with region specific marketing, and an investment focus on the biggest opportunities in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region.
Expanding the GoPro experience to advanced users. Our growth also depends on expanding our total addressable market with new capture perspectives, including aerial and spherical, which are resource-intensive initiatives in highly competitive markets. We have no prior experience in the consumer drone market and expect to face significant competition from incumbent companies promoting their own drone and related products. If we are not successful in penetrating additional markets, we might not be able to grow our revenue and we may not recognize benefits from our investment in new areas.
Seasonality.  Historically, we have experienced the highest levels of revenue in the fourth quarter of the year, coinciding with the holiday shopping season, particularly in the United States and Europe. Timely and effective product introductions and forecasting, whether just prior to the holiday season or otherwise, are critical to our operations and financial performance.
Refer to "Item 1. Business" above for additional information regarding our business strategy.

Components of our Results of Operations

37




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Revenue. Our revenue is primarily comprised of product revenue, net of returns and sales incentives. Revenue is derived from the sale of our cameras and accessories directly to retailers, as well as through our network of domestic and international distributors, and through gopro.com. See "Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates" below and Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for information regarding revenue recognition.
Cost of revenue. Our cost of revenue primarily consists of product costs, including costs of contract manufacturing for production, third-party logistics and procurement costs, warranty repair costs, tooling equipment depreciation, excess and obsolete inventory write-downs, amortization of acquired developed technology, and certain allocated costs related to manufacturing management, facilities, and personnel-related expenses.
Operating expenses. We classify our operating expenses into three categories: research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative.
Research and development. Our research and development expense consists primarily of personnel-related costs, including salaries, stock-based compensation and employee benefits. Research and development expense also includes consulting and outside professional services costs, materials, depreciation and other supporting overhead expenses associated with the development of our product and service offerings, as well as the amortization of certain acquired intangible assets. All research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
Sales and marketing. Our sales and marketing expense consists primarily of advertising and marketing promotions of our products and services and personnel-related costs, including salaries, stock-based compensation and employee benefits. Sales and marketing expense also includes POP display expenses and related amortization, sales commissions, trade show and event costs, sponsorship costs, consulting and contractor expenses, and allocated overhead costs.
General and administrative. Our general and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel-related costs, including salaries, stock-based compensation and employee benefits for our finance, legal, human resources, information technology, and administrative personnel. The expense also includes professional service costs related to accounting, tax, legal services, and allocated facilities, depreciation, and other supporting overhead expenses.

Results of Operations
The following table sets forth the components of our consolidated statements of operations for each of the periods presented and each of the periods presented as a percentage of revenue:
 
Year ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Revenue
$
1,185,481

 
100
 %
 
$
1,619,971

 
100
 %
 
$
1,394,205

 
100
 %
Cost of revenue
723,561

 
61

 
946,757

 
58

 
766,970

 
55

Gross profit
461,920

 
39

 
673,214

 
42

 
627,235

 
45

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
358,902

 
30

 
241,694

 
15

 
151,852

 
11

Sales and marketing
368,620

 
31

 
268,939

 
17

 
194,377

 
14

General and administrative
107,367

 
9

 
107,833

 
7

 
93,971

 
7

Total operating expenses
834,889

 
70

 
618,466

 
38

 
440,200

 
32

Operating income (loss)
(372,969
)
 
(31
)
 
54,748

 
3

 
187,035

 
13

Other expense, net
(2,205
)
 

 
(2,163
)
 

 
(6,060
)
 

Income (loss) before income taxes
(375,174
)
 
(31
)
 
52,585

 
3

 
180,975

 
13

Income tax expense
43,829

 
4

 
16,454

 
1

 
52,887

 
4

Net income (loss)
$
(419,003
)
 
(35
)%
 
$
36,131

 
2
 %
 
$
128,088

 
9
 %

38




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Revenue
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2016 vs 2015
 
2015 vs 2014
(in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
% Change
 
% Change
Units shipped
4,762

 
6,584

 
5,180

 
(28
)%
 
27
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct channel
$
650,111

 
$
841,882

 
$
818,381

 
(23
)%
 
3
 %
  Percentage of revenue
54.8
%
 
52.0
%
 
58.7
%
 
 
 
 
Distribution channel
$
535,370

 
$
778,089

 
$
575,824

 
(31
)%
 
35
 %
  Percentage of revenue
45.2
%
 
48.0
%
 
41.3
%
 
 
 
 
Total revenue
$
1,185,481

 
$
1,619,971

 
$
1,394,205

 
(27
)%
 
16
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Americas
$
619,784


$
868,772

 
$
890,352

 
(29
)%
 
(2
)%
  Percentage of revenue
52.3
%

53.6
%
 
63.9
%
 
 
 
 
Europe, Middle East and Africa ("EMEA")
$
366,352

 
$
535,260

 
$
371,197

 
(32
)%
 
44
 %
  Percentage of revenue
30.9
%
 
33.0
%
 
26.6
%
 
 
 
 
Asia and Pacific ("APAC")
$
199,345

 
$
215,939

 
$
132,656

 
(8
)%
 
63
 %
  Percentage of revenue
16.8
%
 
13.4
%
 
9.5
%
 
 
 
 
Total revenue
$
1,185,481

 
$
1,619,971

 
$
1,394,205

 
(27
)%
 
16
 %
2016 Compared to 2015. The year-over-year decline in total revenues during 2016 compared to 2015 was due to a 28% decrease in units shipped, reflecting global channel unit sell-through that exceeded sell-in for the first three quarters of 2016 as we worked to reduce channel inventory in preparation for the launch of HERO5 in September 2016. In addition, our revenue in the first half of 2015 benefited from the launch of our HERO4 cameras preceding the 2014 holiday season, whereas there was no major product introduction near the end of 2015. Revenue increased sequentially each quarter of 2016, with the fourth quarter comprising 46% of total 2016 revenue, reflecting the launch of HERO5 cameras and new mounts and accessories preceding the holiday shopping season. The average selling price of units shipped, defined as total revenue divided by unit shipments, increased 1% year-over-year. We recognized no revenue in 2016 for our Karma drone.
2015 Compared to 2014. The year-over-year growth in revenues and units shipped during 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily driven by the transition from our prior generation products to the HERO4 line of cameras, including HERO4 Session, and the entry-level HERO cameras. The year-over-year increase in the EMEA and APAC regions resulted from the continued expansion of our business and distribution networks in international markets. The year-over-year decrease in the Americas region resulted primarily from the launch of new products in 2014 just prior to the holiday shopping season, which were initially shipped to this region. The average selling price of units shipped, defined as total revenue divided by unit shipments, decreased approximately 9% in 2015 due primarily to a slight change in product mix toward the entry-level HERO cameras, as well as increased charges of approximately $73 million for price protection and marketing development funds, of which approximately $40 million related to reductions of the HERO4 Session selling price.
Gross margin
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2016 vs 2015
 
2015 vs 2014
(dollars in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
% Change
 
% Change
Cost of revenue
$
719,689

 
$
944,304

 
$
765,247

 
(24
)%
 
23
%
Stock-based compensation
1,616

 
1,492

 
835

 
8
 %
 
79
%
Acquisition-related costs
1,759

 
961

 
888

 
83
 %
 
8
%
Restructuring costs
497

 

 

 
N/A

 
N/A

Total cost of revenue
$
723,561

 
$
946,757

 
766,970

 
(24
)%
 
23
%
Gross margin
39.0
%
 
41.6
%
 
45.0
%
 
(260) bps

 
(340) bps


39




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

2016 Compared to 2015. Gross margin of 39.0% in 2016 decreased from 41.6% in 2015, or 260 bps. Gross margin in 2016 reflected an increase in our average cost per unit shipped, which was primarily attributable to the enhanced functionality and improved capability of our new HERO5 cameras (including image stabilization, telemetry, cloud connectivity and voice control) when compared with prior generation offerings, as well as the allocation of fixed overhead costs across significantly fewer units shipped in 2016. This resulted in a 610 bps decrease in gross margin when compared to 2015.
In addition, gross margin for 2015 and 2016 was negatively impacted by product charges of approximately $57 million and $8 million, respectively, for excess purchase order commitments, excess inventory and other charges related to end-of-life HERO legacy products. Partially offsetting these charges, gross margin for 2016 benefited from sales of approximately $18 million associated with previously written off legacy camera inventory. The net year-over-year effect of these legacy items was a benefit to gross margin of approximately 350 bps. The year-over-year effect of stock-based compensation, acquisition-related costs and restructuring costs on gross margin was not material.
As noted above in "Looking Ahead", we have adjusted our long-term gross margin model from a range of 42% to 44% to a range of 39% to 41%.
2015 Compared to 2014. Gross margin decreased by 340 bps compared with 2014. The year-over-year decrease in gross margin was primarily attributable to a 350 bps charge for product realignment costs of approximately $57 million in the fourth quarter of 2015 for excess purchase commitments, inventory and obsolete tooling assets. In addition, gross margin decreased due to a shift in product mix toward lower margin entry-level HERO capture devices partially offset by continued improvements in production and supply chain costs. The year-over-year effect of stock-based compensation and acquisition-related costs on gross margin was insignificant.
Operating expenses
Research and development
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2016 vs 2015
 
2015 vs 2014
(dollars in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
% Change
 
% Change
Research and development
$
295,901

 
$
220,516

 
$
140,109

 
34
%
 
57
%
Stock-based compensation
31,365

 
18,024

 
11,640

 
74
%
 
55
%
Acquisition-related costs
14,439

 
3,154

 
103

 
358
%
 
2,962
%
Restructuring costs
17,197

 

 

 
N/A

 
N/A

Total research and development expenses
$
358,902

 
$
241,694

 
$
151,852

 
48
%
 
59
%
Percentage of revenue
30.3
%
 
14.9
%
 
10.9
%
 
 
 
 
2016 Compared to 2015. The year-over-year growth of $117.2 million, or 48%, in total research and development expenses in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily attributable to increases in cash-based personnel-related costs of $45.8 million (excluding restructuring charges) driven by 35% growth in average global headcount during 2016, increases in allocated facilities, depreciation and other supporting overhead expenses of $19.3 million and increases in material and equipment costs of $11.5 million. In addition, stock-based compensation increased $13.3 million in 2016 due to higher employee headcount. Acquisition-related costs increased $11.3 million in 2016 due to intangible asset impairment charges of approximately $7 million related to projects that were discontinued in the second half of 2016, as well as increased amortization associated with two acquisitions completed during the first half of 2016. See "Restructuring Costs" below for information regarding restructuring charges of $17.2 million recorded in 2016.
The growth in research and development expense in absolute dollars, and as a percentage of revenue, was primarily driven by investments (including increased headcount) to support the development of our recently launched cameras, drone, related mounts and accessories and software offerings.
2015 Compared to 2014. The year-over-year growth of $89.8 million in research and development expense in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily attributable to increases in cash-based personnel-related costs of $35.8 million, resulting from a 63% growth in global headcount from December 31, 2014 to December 31, 2015, as well as increases in consulting and outside professional service costs of $27.1 million and increases in materials, depreciation, and other supporting overhead expenses of $16.4 million. Stock-based compensation increased $6.4 million in 2015 due

40




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

to higher employee headcount. Acquisition-related costs increased $3.1 million from intangible asset amortization associated with acquisitions completed during 2015. The growth in research and development expense in absolute terms, and as a percentage of revenue, was primarily driven by investments to support the development of our next generation capture devices, drone-related products, content-management software solutions, and entertainment related initiatives.
Sales and marketing
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2016 vs 2015
 
2015 vs 2014
(dollars in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
% Change
 
% Change
Sales and marketing
$
342,651

 
$
255,045

 
$
183,807

 
34
 %
 
39
 %
Stock-based compensation
13,883

 
13,762

 
10,428

 
1
 %
 
32
 %
Acquisition-related costs
22

 
132

 
142

 
(83
)%
 
(7
)%
Restructuring costs
12,064

 

 

 
N/A

 
N/A

Total sales and marketing expenses
$
368,620

 
$
268,939

 
$
194,377

 
37
 %
 
38
 %
Percentage of revenue
31.1
%
 
16.6
%
 
13.9
%
 
 
 
 
2016 Compared to 2015. The year-over-year growth of $99.7 million, or 37%, in total sales and marketing expenses in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily attributable to increases in advertising and promotional activity costs of $58.5 million associated with expanded corporate branding campaigns to improve worldwide brand awareness and to support the launch of our HERO5 cameras, Karma drone and related products. Additionally, the year-over-year growth in 2016 was attributable to increases in allocated facilities, depreciation and other supporting overhead expenses of $10.2 million and increases in cash-based personnel-related costs (excluding restructuring costs) of $11.4 million, driven by 16% growth in average global headcount during 2016. See "Restructuring Costs" below for information regarding restructuring charges of $12.1 million recorded in 2016.
2015 Compared to 2014. The year-over-year growth of $74.6 million in sales and marketing expense in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily attributable to increases in advertising and promotional activity costs of $30.8 million associated with expanded corporate branding campaigns initiated in the second half of 2015, as well as increases in cash-based personnel-related costs of $24.4 million, resulting from a 67% growth in global headcount from December 31, 2014 to December 31, 2015, increases in allocated facilities, depreciation and other supporting overhead expenses of $7.5 million and increases in consulting and outside professional service costs of $6.2 million. Stock-based compensation increased $3.3 million in 2015 due to higher employee headcount.
General and administrative
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2016 vs 2015
 
2015 vs 2014
(dollars in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
% Change
 
% Change
General and administrative
$
70,247

 
$
59,308

 
$
45,475

 
18
 %
 
30
 %
Stock-based compensation
22,663

 
47,402

 
48,496

 
(52
)%
 
(2
)%
Acquisition-related costs
1,126

 
1,123

 

 
 %
 
N/A

Restructuring costs
13,331

 

 

 
N/A

 
N/A

Total general and administrative expenses
$
107,367

 
$
107,833

 
$
93,971

 
 %
 
15
 %
Percentage of revenue
9.1
%
 
6.7
%
 
6.7
%
 
 
 
 
2016 Compared to 2015. General and administrative expenses were approximately flat year-over-year. Stock-based compensation decreased $17.3 million in 2016 compared to 2015 due to the timing of expense recognition attributable to the CEO RSUs (see Note 7 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K), which was partially offset by restructuring charges in 2016 of $13.3 million, as well as increases in consulting and outside professional service costs of $3.7 million, and increases in allocated facilities, depreciation and other supporting overhead expenses of $3.2 million. Cash-based personnel-related costs, excluding restructuring costs, were approximately flat year-over-year. See "Restructuring Costs" below for information regarding restructuring charges recorded in 2016.

41




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

2015 Compared to 2014. The year-over-year growth of $13.9 million in general and administrative expense in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily attributable to increases in consulting and outside professional service costs of $5.9 million, as well as an increase in cash-based personnel-related costs of $5.5 million resulting from a 41% growth in global headcount from December 31, 2014 to December 31, 2015 and increases in allocated facilities, depreciation and other supporting overhead expenses of $2.3 million. Stock-based compensation expenses decreased $1.1 million in 2015 due to a decrease in expense attributable to CEO RSUs of $9.0 million, partially offset by increases of $7.9 million for long-term incentive awards. (See Note 7 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.) Acquisition-related costs increased $1.1 million due to increased acquisition activity in 2015.
Restructuring costs
First quarter 2016 restructuring. On January 12, 2016, we approved a restructuring that provided for a reduction in our global workforce of approximately 7%. We incurred aggregate restructuring expenses of $6.5 million in the first quarter of 2016, which primarily included cash-based severance costs. We substantially completed this plan at the end of the first quarter of 2016 and all costs have been paid.
Fourth quarter 2016 restructuring. On November 29, 2016, we announced a restructuring of our business to reduce operating expenses and work toward achieving our goal of returning to non-GAAP profitability for 2017. The restructuring included a reduction in our global workforce of approximately 15%, the closure of our entertainment group and the consolidation of certain leased office facilities. In the fourth quarter of 2016, we incurred total restructuring charges of $36.6 million, which consisted of $18.9 million for severance and related costs, $15.6 million for stock-based compensation and $2.1 million for facilities consolidation and other costs. At December 31, 2016, accrued severance costs on our consolidated balance sheet was approximately $10.5 million, a substantial majority of which is expected to be paid in the first quarter of 2017. We estimate additional restructuring charges of approximately $4 million will be recognized in the first quarter of 2017, primarily cash-based severance costs. We anticipate the restructuring actions and other cost saving initiatives we have taken will enable us to reduce our operating expenses by more than $100 million in 2017 compared to 2016, primarily reflecting lower cash-based personnel-related costs. (See Note 13 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.)
During 2017, we expect to implement further cost saving initiatives, including additional restructuring actions, as part of our continued efforts to streamline our operations and focus our resources, and we may incur material charges as a result of these initiatives.
Other expense, net
There were no material changes to other expense, net in 2016 as compared to 2015. Other expense, net for 2015 of $2.2 million decreased $3.9 million from 2014, primarily due to lower interest expense and debt related costs of $4.5 million as a result of our repayment of outstanding debt in 2014, coupled with a $1.3 million increase in interest income associated with higher cash equivalents and marketable securities throughout 2015, partially offset by losses of $1.9 million associated with foreign exchange rate movements and other expenses.
Income taxes
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2016 vs 2015
 
2015 vs 2014
(dollars in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
% Change
 
% Change
Income tax expense
$
43,829

 
$
16,454

 
$
52,887

 
166
%
 
(69
)%
Effective tax rate
11.7
%
 
31.3
%
 
29.2
%
 
 
 
 
2016 compared to 2015. The lower effective tax rate in 2016 compared to 2015 resulted from a federal statutory tax benefit of $131.3 million on pre-tax book losses of $375.2 million, offset by the establishment of a valuation allowance of $101.9 million on all U.S. federal and state net deferred tax assets, as well as income taxes paid at lower rates in profitable foreign jurisdictions (primarily related to our wholly owned subsidiaries in Europe). We recorded a full valuation allowance on our U.S. deferred tax assets because, based upon the weight of available evidence, we believe that it is not more likely than not that our U.S. deferred tax assets will be realized in the foreseeable future.

42




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Our provision for income taxes in each period has differed from the tax computed at U.S. federal statutory tax rates due to changes in our valuation allowance, the effect of non-U.S. operations, deductible and non-deductible stock-based compensation expense, state taxes, federal research and development tax credits and other adjustments. See Note 9 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a reconciliation between the U.S. statutory tax rate and our effective tax rates.
2015 compared to 2014. Income tax expense for 2015 of $16.5 million decreased $36.4 million from 2014, primarily due to lower pre-tax income. Our higher effective tax rate for 2015 compared to 2014 was due to higher U.S. taxable income and lower international taxable income, which resulted from incurring a higher proportion of our 2015 operating expenses in foreign jurisdictions. Additionally, our effective tax rate for 2015 was lower than the federal statutory rate of 35% primarily due to benefits from research and development tax credits.
Quarterly results of operations
The following table sets forth our unaudited quarterly consolidated results of operations for each of the eight quarterly periods ended December 31, 2016.
 
Three months ended
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Dec. 31,
2016
 
Sept. 30,
2016
 
June 30,
2016
 
March 31,
2016
 
Dec. 31,
2015
 
Sept. 30,
2015
 
June 30,
2015
 
March 31,
2015
Revenue(1)
$
540,621

 
$
240,569

 
$
220,755

 
$
183,536

 
$
436,603

 
$
400,340

 
$
419,919

 
$
363,109

Gross profit(2)
212,135

 
97,069

 
93,002

 
59,714

 
128,511

 
186,630

 
194,340

 
163,733

Operating expenses(3)
238,703

 
212,658

 
202,379

 
181,149

 
169,805

 
158,994

 
148,202

 
141,465

Net income (loss)
$
(115,709
)
 
$
(104,068
)
 
$
(91,767
)
 
$
(107,459
)
 
$
(34,451
)
 
$
18,799

 
$
35,031

 
$
16,752

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(0.82
)
 
$
(0.74
)
 
$
(0.66
)
 
$
(0.78
)
 
$
(0.25
)
 
$
0.14

 
$
0.26

 
$
0.13

Diluted
$
(0.82
)
 
$
(0.74
)
 
$
(0.66
)
 
$
(0.78
)
 
$
(0.25
)
 
$
0.13

 
$
0.24

 
$
0.11

(1) 
Included in revenue for the quarters ended September 30, 2015 and December 31, 2015 was a reduction of approximately $19 million and $21 million, respectively, for price protection and marketing development funds incurred in connection with the reduction of the HERO4 Session selling price.
(2) 
Included in cost of revenue for the quarters ended December 31, 2015 and March 31, 2016 were charges of $57 million and $8 million, respectively, for excess purchase order commitments, excess inventory and obsolete tooling, relating to the end-of-life of our entry-level HERO products.
(3) 
Included in operating expenses for the quarter ended March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2016 were restructuring charges of approximately $6.2 million and $36.4 million, respectively.


43




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table presents selected financial information as of December 31, 2016 and 2015:
(dollars in thousands)
December 31,
2016
 
December 31,
2015
Cash and cash equivalents
$
192,114

 
$
279,672

Marketable securities
25,839

 
194,386

Total cash and investments
$
217,953

 
$
474,058

Percentage of total assets
24
%
 
43
%
Our primary source of cash is receipts from revenue. The primary uses of cash are payroll-related expenses, general operating expenses, including marketing and office rent, and cost of revenue. Other sources of cash are proceeds from participation in the employee stock purchase plan and the exercise of employee options. Other uses of cash include purchases of property and equipment and business acquisitions. 
As of December 31, 2016, our cash and investments of $218.0 million was down $256.1 million, or 54%, compared to $474.1 million at December 31, 2015. The decrease was primarily driven by lower revenue in the first three quarters of 2016, lower margins and higher operating expenses, resulting in net cash flows used in operations of $107.8 million. In addition, we used $43.6 million for purchases of property and equipment and acquired two mobile editing application companies in the first half of 2016 for $104.4 million. As of December 31, 2016, $71.9 million of cash was held by our foreign subsidiaries.
We believe, based on our most current projections, that our cash and investments balance, along with the anticipated savings from our recent restructuring actions, any future actions and available borrowings under our credit facility will be sufficient to meet our working capital needs, capital expenditures, outstanding commitments and other liquidity requirements for at least the next 12 months:
We forecast that revenue will increase in 2017 as compared to 2016, which we anticipate will have favorable impacts on our cash receipts and working capital.
We believe the restructuring actions and other cost saving initiatives we have taken will enable us to reduce our operating expenses by more than $100 million in 2017 compared to 2016, on both a GAAP and non-GAAP basis, primarily reflecting lower cash-based personnel-related expenses.
We expect to spend significantly less on capital expenditures in 2017 than in 2016 and prior years. Our future capital requirements may vary materially from those currently planned and will depend on many factors, including our rate of revenue growth, the timing and extent of spending on research and development efforts and other business initiatives, the timing of new product introductions, market acceptance of our products, and overall economic conditions.
In March 2016, we entered into a credit agreement with a syndicate of banks that provides for a secured revolving credit facility under which we may borrow up to an aggregate of $250 million. As of December 31, 2016, we may borrow up to approximately $150 million under the credit facility, based upon a borrowing base formula with respect to our inventory and accounts receivable balances. (See Note 5 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.)
We have completed acquisitions in the past and we expect to evaluate additional possible acquisitions of, or strategic investments in, businesses, products and technologies that are complementary to our business, which may require the use of cash.
Over the long-term, we forecast to generate positive cash flow from operations as we did during 2015 and 2014. In the future, we may require additional funding to respond to business opportunities, challenges, acquisitions or unforeseen circumstances. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing under our credit facility, or other sources, when we require it, our ability to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited. In the event additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us or at all.

44




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Summary of Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated:
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2016 vs 2015
 
2015 vs 2014
(in thousands)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
% Change
 
% Change
Net cash provided by (used in):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
(107,753
)
 
$
157,611

 
$
96,922

 
(168
)%
 
63
 %
Investing activities
$
19,286

 
$
(211,977
)
 
$
(133,904
)
 
(109
)%
 
58
 %
Financing activities
$
1,955

 
$
15,665

 
$
255,501

 
(88
)%
 
(94
)%
Cash flows from operating activities
Cash used by operating activities of $107.8 million in 2016 was attributable to an adjusted net loss of $240.5 million (net loss adjusted for non-cash expenses of $178.5 million) partially offset by net cash inflow of $132.7 million from changes in operating assets and liabilities. Cash inflow related to changes in operating assets and liabilities consisted of increased accounts payable and accrued liabilities of $142.9 million, primarily associated with inventory procurement in the fourth quarter of 2016 to support customer demand during the holiday season, partially offset by other changes in assets and liabilities. The decrease in operating cash flows of $265.4 million in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily due to a year-over-year decline in total cash inflows associated with lower revenues coupled with a year-over-year increase in cash outflows associated with growth in total operating expenses.
Cash provided by operating activities of $157.6 million in 2015 was comprised of $36.1 million of net income, non-cash adjustments to net income of $74.3 million (including stock-based compensation expense of $80.7 million), and net cash inflow of $47.2 million from operating assets and liabilities. Cash inflow related to operating assets and liabilities consisted of an increase in accounts payable and other liabilities of $68.5 million, primarily related to excess purchase commitments, and a decrease of $38.3 million in accounts receivable due to lower fourth quarter 2015 revenue. These increases were partially offset by $35.0 million of higher inventory and an increase in prepaid expenses and other assets of $23.3 million due to higher income tax receivables. The increase in cash provided by operating activities of $60.7 million from 2014 to 2015 was primarily due to favorable changes in working capital accounts.
Cash flows from investing activities
Cash provided by investing activities was $19.3 million in 2016 resulting from net maturities and sales of marketable securities of $167.3 million to be used in operations, offset by $104.4 million in net cash used for acquisitions and $43.6 million for purchases of property and equipment, net. We had no purchases of marketable securities during 2016.
Cash used in investing activities was $212.0 million in 2015 resulting from $220.1 million for purchases of marketable securities, $65.4 million for business acquisitions, and $51.2 million for purchases of property and equipment, partially offset by $124.7 million for net sales and maturities of marketable securities. The increase in cash outflow from 2014 to 2015 was mostly attributable to increased business acquisition activity in 2015.
Cash flows from financing activities
Cash provided by financing activities was $2.0 million in 2016 resulting from $2.8 million in net proceeds received from stock purchases made through our ESPP and employee stock option exercises, as well as $3.5 million of excess tax benefit related to stock-based compensation, partially offset by payments of $3.3 million for costs incurred in the first quarter to secure our credit facility and payments of $1.0 million for deferred acquisition-related consideration.
Cash provided by financing activities was $15.7 million in 2015 resulting from $22.8 million in net proceeds received from stock purchases made through our ESPP and employee stock option exercises, as well as $29.3 million of excess tax benefit related to stock-based compensation, partially offset by payments of $35.6 million from the repurchase of our Class A common stock. Cash provided by financing activities of $255.5 million in 2014 included $294 million of proceeds received from our public offerings of common stock, as well as $77.1 million of excess tax benefit related to stock-based compensation, partially offset by $114 million for repayments of our debt.

45




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Contractual Commitments
Contractual obligations. As of December 31, 2016, our total undiscounted future expected payment obligations under our agreements with terms longer than one year were approximately $193 million, including $140 million for operating leases, $15 million for sponsorship agreements and $39 million for other multi-year agreements. See Note 11 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a table of contractual obligations, including payments due by period.
We also issue inventory purchase orders in the normal course of business, which represent authorizations to purchase that are cancelable by their terms. We do not consider purchase orders to be firm inventory commitments; therefore, they are excluded from our payment obligations above. If we choose to cancel a purchase order, we may be obligated to reimburse the vendor for unrecoverable outlays incurred prior to cancellation.
Off-balance sheet arrangements. During the periods presented, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated organizations or financial partnerships, such as structured finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.
Indemnifications. We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers which require us to indemnify our directors and executive officers against liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service.  In addition, in the normal course of business, we enter into agreements that contain a variety of representations and warranties and provide for general indemnification. It is not possible to determine the maximum potential amount under these indemnification agreements due to our limited history with prior indemnification claims and the unique facts and circumstances involved in each particular agreement. To date, the payments we have made under these agreements have not had a material effect on our operating results, financial position or cash flows. However, we may record charges in the future as a result of these indemnification agreements.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that can significantly impact the amounts we report as assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses and the related disclosures. Note 1 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K describes the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements. We base our estimates on historical experience and other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Our actual results could differ significantly from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions. We believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical to understanding our historical and future performance as these policies involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity. Our senior management has reviewed these critical accounting policies and related disclosures with the Audit Committee of our board of directors. 
Revenue recognition
Revenue is primarily derived from the sale of our cameras, mounts and accessories and the related implied post contract support, or PCS. We recognize revenue when all of the following criteria have been met:
Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists. Contracts or sales orders from our distributors, resellers or online customers are generally used to determine the existence of an arrangement.
Delivery has occurred. We consider delivery to have occurred once title and risk of loss has been transferred. Shipping documents and customer acceptance, when applicable, are used to verify delivery.
The sales price is fixed or determinable. We assess whether the sales price is fixed or determinable based on the payment terms associated with the transaction and whether the sales price is subject to refund or adjustment.
Collectability is reasonably assured. We assess collectability based primarily on the creditworthiness of the customer as determined by credit analysis, the customer’s payment history, and other relevant factors.
For most of our revenue, these criteria are met at the time the product is shipped. Our standard terms and conditions of sale for non-web based sales do not allow for product returns other than under warranty. However, we grant limited

46




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

rights to return product for certain large retailers and distributors. Estimates of expected future product returns are recognized at the time of sale based on analyses of historical return trends by customer class. Upon recognition, we reduce revenue and cost of sales for the estimated returns. Return trends are influenced by product life cycles, new product introductions, market acceptance of products, product sell-through, the type of customer, seasonality, and other factors. Return rates can fluctuate over time, but are sufficiently predictable to allow us to estimate expected future product returns. Actual returns in any future period could differ from our estimates, which could impact the revenue that we report.
Our products include multiple element arrangements that generally include the following two separate units of accounting: 1) the hardware component (camera and accessories) and the embedded firmware essential to the functionality of the camera delivered at the time of sale, and 2) the implied right for the customer to receive PCS. Judgment is required to properly identify the accounting units of multiple element arrangements and to determine the manner in which revenue should be allocated among the units. We believe that our best estimate of the selling price, or BESP, is the most appropriate methodology to determine the allocation of revenue. BESP reflects our best estimates of what the selling prices of elements would be if they were sold regularly on a stand-alone basis. Our process for determining BESP considers multiple factors that may vary over time depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each deliverable, including: the level of support provided to customers, estimated costs to provide our support, the amount of time and cost that is allocated to our efforts to develop the undelivered elements, and market trends in the pricing for similar offerings. While changes in the allocation of the estimated sales price between the units of accounting will not affect the amount of total revenue recognized for a particular sales arrangement, any material changes in these allocations could impact the timing of revenue recognition, which could have a material effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we provide our customers with sales incentives including cooperative advertising, marketing development funds and other incentives. Additionally, we have historically provided certain distributors and retailers price protection benefits for inventory on hand when we have reduced the recommended retail price of our products to the end customer. We record reductions to revenue for estimated commitments related to sales incentives when the related revenue is recognized or when a relevant event subsequently occurs. See Note 1 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Inventory valuation and liability for purchase commitments
Inventory consists of finished goods and component parts and is stated at the lower of cost or market on a first-in, first-out basis. Our inventory balances were $167.2 million and $188.2 million as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Our assessment of market value requires the use of estimates regarding the net realizable value of our inventory balances, including an assessment of excess or obsolete inventory. We determine excess and obsolete inventory based on multiple factors, including an estimate of the future demand for our products within a specified time horizon, generally 12 months, product life cycle status, product development plans and current sales levels. We also record a liability for noncancelable purchase commitments with contract manufacturers for quantities in excess of our future demand forecasts consistent with the valuation of our excess and obsolete inventory. The estimates used for future demand are also used for near-term capacity planning and inventory purchases and are consistent with our revenue forecast assumptions. If our demand forecast is greater than the actual demand, the amount of our loss will be impacted by our contractual ability to reduce inventory purchases from our contract manufacturers. Our assumptions of future demand for our products are inherently uncertain, and if there were to be an abrupt and substantial decline in demand for one or more of our products or a change in our product development plans, we may be required to increase our inventory write-downs and our liability for purchase commitments that would adversely affect our results of operations in the period when such write-downs and/or excess commitments are recorded.
Warranty
We generally provide 12-month warranty coverage on all of our products except in the EU where we provide a two-year warranty. Our warranty provides for repair or replacement of the associated products during the warranty period. We establish a liability for estimated product warranty costs at the time product revenue is recognized. The warranty obligation is affected by product failure rates and the related use of materials, labor costs and freight incurred in correcting any product failure. Should actual product failure rates, use of materials or other costs differ from our estimates, additional warranty liabilities could be required, which could materially affect our results of operations.

47




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Income taxes
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and multiple foreign jurisdictions. Our effective tax rates differ from the U.S. federal statutory rate, primarily due to changes in our valuation allowance, the effect of non-U.S. operations, deductible and non-deductible stock-based compensation expense, state taxes, federal research and development tax credits and other adjustments. Our effective tax rate was 11.7%, 31.3% and 29.2% in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The calculation of our provision for income taxes involves the use of estimates, assumptions and judgments while taking into account current tax laws, our interpretation of current tax laws and possible outcomes of future tax audits. We review our tax positions quarterly and adjust the balances as new information becomes available. Our income tax rate is materially affected by the tax rates that apply to our foreign earnings. As of December 31, 2016, $3.3 million of earnings had been indefinitely reinvested outside the U.S., primarily in active non-U.S. business operations. We do not intend to repatriate these earnings to fund U.S. operations and, accordingly, we do not provide for U.S. federal income and foreign withholding tax on these earnings.
Deferred tax assets. Deferred tax assets arise because of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, as well as from net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. We evaluate the recoverability of these future tax deductions and credits by assessing the adequacy of future expected taxable income from all sources, including reversal of taxable temporary differences, forecast operating earnings and available tax planning strategies. As of December 31, 2016, we had a full valuation allowance on all of U.S. net deferred tax assets based on our assessment that it is not more likely than not that the deferred tax asset will be realized.
Uncertain tax positions. We recognize tax benefits from uncertain tax positions only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. We file annual income tax returns in multiple taxing jurisdictions around the world and a number of years may elapse before an uncertain tax position is audited by the relevant tax authorities and finally resolved. We have established reserves to address potential exposures related to tax positions that could be challenged by tax authorities. While it is often difficult to predict the final outcome or the timing of resolution of any particular uncertain tax position, we believe that our reserves reflect the most likely outcome.
Our future effective tax rates could be adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in countries where we have lower statutory rates and higher than anticipated in countries where we have higher statutory rates, by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets or liabilities, outcomes resulting from income tax examinations, or by changes or interpretations in tax laws, regulations or accounting principles.
Goodwill and acquired intangible assets
When we acquire a business, we allocate the purchase price to the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets, with the residual of the purchase price recorded as goodwill. The determination of the fair value of the intangible assets acquired involves significant judgments and estimates. These judgments can include, but are not limited to, the cash flows that an asset is expected to generate in the future, technology obsolescence, and the appropriate weighted average cost of capital. Our estimate of the fair value of certain assets may differ materially from that determined by others who use different assumptions or utilize different business models.
We perform an annual assessment of our goodwill during the fourth quarter to determine if any events or circumstances exist, such as an adverse change in business climate or a decline in the overall industry demand, that would indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of our single reporting unit would be reduced below its carrying amount. If further testing is deemed necessary, we perform a two-step process. The first step involves comparing the fair value of our reporting unit to its carrying value. The second step, if necessary, measures the amount of impairment, if any, by comparing the carrying value of the goodwill to its implied fair value. As of December 31, 2016, we determined that no impairment of the carrying value of goodwill was required.
Stock-based compensation
We measure and recognize stock-based compensation based on the fair value measurement for all stock-based awards granted to employees and directors over the service period for awards expected to vest. See Note 7 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We use the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options and employee stock purchase plan options. The determination of the grant date fair value of options using an option-pricing model is affected by our common stock

48




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

fair value as well as assumptions regarding a number of variables, of which the most subjective were estimated as follows:
Expected Term. We do not have sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate expected term due to the limited period of time stock-based awards have been exercisable since the completion of our IPO in July 2014. As a result, we used the simplified method to calculate the expected term estimate based on the vesting and contractual terms of the option. Under the simplified method, the expected term is equal to the average of the stock-based award’s weighted average vesting period and its contractual term.
Volatility. As we do not have a significant trading history for our common stock, the expected stock price volatility for our common stock was estimated by taking the average historic volatility of the common stock of a group of comparable publicly traded companies over a period equivalent to the expected term.
The estimation of awards that will ultimately vest requires judgment, and to the extent actual results or updated estimates differ from our current estimates, such amounts will be recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period estimates are revised. These adjustments have not been material to date.
Recent accounting pronouncements
Refer to “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in Note 1 to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to the measures presented in our consolidated financial statements, we use the non-GAAP financial measures of adjusted EBITDA, non-GAAP net income (loss) and non-GAAP earnings (loss) per share to evaluate our business, measure our performance, develop financial forecasts and make strategic decisions.
The following tables present a reconciliation of net income (loss) to adjusted EBITDA:
 
Three months ended
(in thousands)
December 31, 2016
 
December 31, 2015
Net loss
$
(115,709
)
 
$
(34,451
)
Income tax expense (benefit)
87,391

 
(6,521
)
Interest (income) expense, net
1,022

 
(126
)
Depreciation and amortization
11,100

 
9,596

POP display amortization
4,944

 
4,114

Stock-based compensation
17,926

 
18,120

Impairment of intangible assets
1,088

 

Restructuring costs
36,581

 

Adjusted EBITDA
$
44,343

 
$
(9,268
)

49




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 
 
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Net income (loss)
 
$
(419,003
)
 
$
36,131

 
$
128,088

 
$
60,578

 
$
32,262

Income tax expense
 
43,829

 
16,454

 
52,887

 
30,751

 
20,948

Interest expense
 
1,401

 
234

 
5,038

 
6,018

 
346

Depreciation and amortization
 
41,639

 
28,981

 
17,945

 
12,034

 
3,975

POP display amortization
 
19,623

 
16,829

 
18,023

 
13,458

 
8,601

Stock-based compensation
 
69,527

 
80,680

 
71,399

 
10,887

 
9,156

Impairment of intangible assets
 
7,088

 

 

 

 

Restructuring costs
 
43,089

 

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA
 
$
(192,807
)
 
$
179,309

 
$
293,380

 
$
133,726

 
$
75,288

The following tables present a reconciliation of net income (loss) to non-GAAP net income (loss):
 
Three months ended
(in thousands)
December 31, 2016
 
December 31, 2015
Net loss
$
(115,709
)
 
$
(34,451
)
Stock-based compensation
17,926

 
18,120

Acquisition-related costs
3,700

 
1,545

Restructuring costs
36,581

 

Income tax adjustments
99,869

 
3,390

Non-GAAP net income (loss)
$
42,367

 
$
(11,396
)
Non-GAAP diluted earnings (loss) per share
$
0.29

 
$
(0.08
)
 
 
 
 
GAAP shares for diluted net income (loss) per share
141,063

 
137,086

   Add: effect of potentially dilutive shares
5,198

 

Non-GAAP shares for diluted net income per share
146,261

 
137,086

 
 
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Net income (loss)
 
$
(419,003
)
 
$
36,131

 
$
128,088

 
$
60,578

Stock-based compensation
 
69,527

 
80,680

 
71,399

 
10,887

Acquisition-related costs
 
17,346

 
5,370

 
1,133

 
1,106

Restructuring costs
 
43,089

 

 

 

Income tax adjustments
 
87,794

 
(10,617
)
 
(11,707
)
 
(3,745
)
Non-GAAP net income (loss)
 
$
(201,247
)
 
$
111,564

 
$
188,913

 
$
68,826

Non-GAAP diluted earnings (loss) per share
 
$
(1.44
)
 
$
0.76

 
$
1.32

 
$
0.50

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP shares for diluted net income (loss) per share
 
139,425

 
146,486

 
123,630

 
98,941

   Add: preferred shares conversion
 

 

 
15,136

 
30,523

   Add: initial public offering shares
 

 

 
4,414

 
8,900

Non-GAAP shares for diluted net income (loss) per share
 
139,425

 
146,486

 
143,180

 
138,364

We use these non-GAAP financial measures of adjusted EBITDA, non-GAAP net income (loss), and non-GAAP earnings (loss) per share to help us understand and evaluate our core operating performance and trends, to prepare and approve our annual budget, and to develop short-term and long-term operational plans. We believe that these measures provide useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results

50




GoPro, Inc.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

in the same manner as our management and board of directors. These non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered in isolation from, or as an alternative to, measures prepared in accordance with GAAP, and are not based on any comprehensive set of accounting rules or principles. These non-GAAP financial measures have limitations in that they do not reflect all of the amounts associated with our results of operations as determined in accordance with GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
These non-GAAP financial measures may exclude certain recurring, non-cash charges such as stock-based compensation and amortization of acquired intangible assets;
adjusted EBITDA does not reflect tax payments that reduce cash available to us;
adjusted EBITDA excludes depreciation and amortization and, although these are non-cash charges, the property and equipment being depreciated and amortized often will have to be replaced in the future, and adjusted EBITDA does not reflect any cash capital expenditure requirements for such replacements;
adjusted EBITDA excludes the amortization of POP display assets because it is a non-cash charge, and similar to depreciation of property and equipment and amortization of acquired intangible assets;
adjusted EBITDA and non-GAAP net income (loss) excludes the impairment of intangible assets because it is a non-cash charge that is inconsistent in amount and frequency, and similar to amortization of acquired intangible assets;
adjusted EBITDA and non-GAAP net income (loss) also excludes restructuring costs because these expenses do not reflect expected future operating expenses and do not contribute to a meaningful evaluation of current operating performance or comparisons to the operating performance in other periods; and
other companies may calculate these non-GAAP financial measures differently than we do, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
Because of these limitations, you should consider adjusted EBITDA, non-GAAP net income (loss) and non-GAAP diluted earnings (loss) per share alongside other financial performance measures, including our financial results presented in accordance with GAAP.

51




Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These risks primarily include foreign currency and interest rate risks as follows:
Foreign currency risk. To date, the majority of our product sales and inventory purchases have been denominated in U.S. dollars. We therefore have had insignificant foreign currency risk associated with these two activities. The functional currency of all of our entities is the U.S. dollar. Our operations outside of the United States hold foreign denominated cash balances and incur a majority of their operating expenses in foreign currencies, principally the Euro and the British Pound. Our results of operations and cash flows are, therefore, subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. However, we believe that the exposure to foreign currency fluctuation from operating expenses is immaterial at this time as the related costs do not constitute a significant portion of our total expenses. As we grow our operations, or if foreign currency held in our U.S. dollar functional currency entities increases, our exposure to foreign currency risk could become more significant. To date, we have not entered into any material foreign currency exchange contracts. For assets and liabilities denominated in other currencies, we do not believe that the effects of a 10% shift in exchange rates between those currencies and the U.S. dollar would have a material effect on our results of operations from such a shift.
Interest rate risk. Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates primarily relates to our cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities. Our cash equivalents and marketable securities are comprised primarily of money market funds, U.S. treasury securities, U.S. agency securities, commercial paper and corporate debt securities. The primary objectives of our investment activities are to preserve principal and provide liquidity without significantly increasing risk. Our cash and cash equivalents are held for working capital purposes. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes. Due to the relatively short-term nature of our investment portfolio, we do not believe that an immediate 10% increase in interest rates would have a material effect on the fair value of our investment portfolio.

52




Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

GoPro, Inc.
Index to consolidated financial statements

The supplementary financial information required by this Item 8, is included in Part II, Item 7 under the caption "Quarterly Results of Operations," which is incorporated herein by reference.


53




Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of GoPro, Inc.
In our opinion, the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and the related consolidated statements of operations, of redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity (deficit) and of cash flows present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of GoPro, Inc. and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2016 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company's management is responsible for these financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management's Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits (which were integrated audits in 2016 and 2015). We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
San Jose, California
February 16, 2017



54




GoPro, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except par values)
December 31,
2016
 
December 31,
2015
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
192,114

 
$
279,672

Marketable securities
25,839

 
194,386

Accounts receivable, net
164,553

 
145,692

Inventory
167,192

 
188,232

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
38,115

 
25,261

Total current assets
587,813

 
833,243

Property and equipment, net
76,509

 
70,050

Intangible assets, net
33,530

 
31,027

Goodwill
146,459

 
57,095

Other long-term assets
78,329

 
111,561

Total assets
$
922,640

 
$
1,102,976

 
 
 
 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
205,028

 
$
89,989

Accrued liabilities
211,323

 
192,446

Deferred revenue
14,388

 
12,742

Total current liabilities
430,739

 
295,177

Long-term taxes payable
26,386

 
21,770

Other long-term liabilities
18,570

 
13,996

Total liabilities
475,695

 
330,943

 
 
 
 
Commitments, contingencies and guarantees (Note 11)

 

 
 
 
 
Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 5,000 shares authorized; none issued

 

Common stock and additional paid-in capital, $0.0001 par value, 500,000 Class A shares authorized,104,647 and 100,596 shares issued and outstanding, respectively; 150,000 Class B shares authorized, 36,712 and 36,005 shares issued and outstanding, respectively
757,226

 
663,311

Treasury stock, at cost, 1,545 and 1,545 shares, respectively
(35,613
)
 
(35,613
)
Retained earnings (accumulated deficit)
(274,668
)
 
144,335

Total stockholders’ equity
446,945

 
772,033

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
922,640

 
$
1,102,976

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

55




GoPro, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations

 
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except per share data)
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Revenue
$
1,185,481

 
$
1,619,971

 
$
1,394,205

Cost of revenue
723,561

 
946,757

 
766,970

Gross profit
461,920

 
673,214

 
627,235

Operating expenses: