10-K 1 d843160d10k.htm FORM 10-K Form 10-K
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

(Mark One)

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014

or

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from             to            

Commission File Number 001-35238

 

 

HORIZON PHARMA PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Ireland   Not Applicable

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

Connaught House, 1st Floor

1 Burlington Road, Dublin 4, Ireland

  Not Applicable
(Address of principal executive offices)   (zip code)

011 353 1 772 2100

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Ordinary shares, nominal value $0.0001 per share   The NASDAQ Global Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x    No  ¨.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company.

 

Large accelerated filer   x    Accelerated filer    ¨
Non-accelerated filer   ¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company    ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting ordinary shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the $15.82 per share closing sale price of the registrant’s ordinary shares on June 30, 2014 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second quarter), was approximately $1.0 billion. Solely for purposes of this calculation, the registrant’s directors and executive officers and holders of 10% or more of the registrant’s outstanding ordinary shares have been assumed to be affiliates and an aggregate of 9,164,811 shares of the registrant’s voting ordinary shares held by such persons on June 30, 2014 are not included in this calculation.

As of February 20, 2015, the registrant had outstanding 125,100,210 ordinary shares.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the registrant’s 2015 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of Annual Report on this Form 10-K.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

HORIZON PHARMA PLC

FORM 10-K — ANNUAL REPORT

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2014

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

PART I

  

Item 1. Business

     1   

Item 1A. Risk Factors

     39   

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

     85   

Item 2. Properties

     85   

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

     85   

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

     87   

PART II

  

Item  5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

     87   

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

     92   

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     93   

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

     113   

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

     114   

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

     114   

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

     115   

Item 9B. Other Information

     116   

PART III

  

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

     117   

Item 11. Executive Compensation

     117   

Item  12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

     117   

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

     117   

Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services

     117   

PART IV

  

Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

     117   


Table of Contents

PART I

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” — that is, statements related to future, not past, events — as defined in Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that reflect our current expectations regarding our future growth, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, performance, business prospects, and opportunities, as well as assumptions made by, and information currently available to, our management. Forward-looking statements include any statement that does not directly relate to a current or historical fact. We have tried to identify forward-looking statements by using words such as “believe,” “may,” “could,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “seek,” “plan,” “expect,” “should,” or “would.” Among the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements are risks and uncertainties inherent in our business including, without limitation: our ability to successfully execute our sales and marketing strategy, including continuing to successfully recruit and retain sales and marketing personnel in the United States and to successfully build the market for our products in the United States; whether we will be able to realize the expected benefits of strategic transactions, such as our merger with Vidara Therapeutics International Public Limited Company and our acquisition of the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2%, including whether and when such transactions will be accretive to our net income; the rate and degree of market acceptance of, and our ability and our distribution and marketing partners’ ability to obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement for, any approved products; our ability to maintain regulatory approvals for our products; our need for and ability to obtain additional financing; the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues and time to profitability; our ability to successfully execute our strategy to develop, acquire or in-license additional products or acquire companies; our ability to manage our anticipated future growth; the ability of our products to compete with generic products, especially those representing the active pharmaceutical ingredients in our products as well as new products that may be developed by our competitors; our ability and our distribution and marketing partners’ ability to comply with regulatory requirements regarding the sales, marketing and manufacturing of our products and product candidates; the performance of our third-party distribution partners, licensees and manufacturers over which we have limited control; our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our products; our ability to defend our intellectual property rights with respect to our products; our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others; the loss of key commercial or management personnel; regulatory developments in the United States and other countries; and other risks detailed below in Part I — Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in our forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, events, levels of activity, performance or achievement. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, unless required by law.

Item 1. Business

Merger with Vidara

On September 19, 2014, the businesses of Horizon Pharma, Inc., or HPI, and Vidara Therapeutics International Public Limited Company, or Vidara, were combined in a merger transaction, or the Merger, accounted for as a reverse acquisition under the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations, with HPI treated as the acquiring company in the Merger for accounting purposes. As part of the Merger, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vidara merged with and into HPI, with HPI surviving the Merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vidara and Vidara changed its name to Horizon Pharma plc, or New Horizon. Upon the consummation of the Merger, the historical financial statements of HPI became our historical financial statements. As a result of the Merger, we are organized under the laws of Ireland.

Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references to the “Company”, “New Horizon”, “we”, “us” and “our” refer to Horizon Pharma plc and its consolidated subsidiaries, including its predecessor,

 

1


Table of Contents

HPI. All references to “Vidara” are references to Horizon Pharma plc (formerly known as Vidara Therapeutics International Public Limited Company) and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the effective time of the Merger on September 19, 2014. The disclosures in this report relating to the pre-Merger business of Horizon Pharma plc, unless noted as being the business of Vidara prior to the Merger, pertain to the business of HPI prior to the Merger.

Overview

We are a specialty biopharmaceutical company focused on improving patients’ lives by identifying, developing, acquiring or in-licensing and commercializing differentiated products that address unmet medical needs. We market a portfolio of products in arthritis, inflammation and orphan diseases. Our U.S. marketed products are ACTIMMUNE® (interferon gamma-1b), DUEXIS® (ibuprofen/famotidine), PENNSAID® (diclofenac sodium topical solution) 2% w/w, RAYOS® (prednisone) delayed-release tablets and VIMOVO® (naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium). We developed DUEXIS and RAYOS, acquired the U.S. rights to VIMOVO from AstraZeneca AB, or AstraZeneca, in November 2013, acquired the U.S. rights to ACTIMMUNE as a result of the Merger and acquired the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% from Nuvo Research Inc., or Nuvo, in October 2014. We market our products in the United States through our field sales force of approximately 375 representatives. Our strategy is to utilize the commercial strength and infrastructure we have established in creating a fully-integrated U.S.-focused specialty biopharmaceutical company to continue the successful commercialization of our existing product portfolio while also expanding and leveraging these capabilities further.

On April 23, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approved DUEXIS, a proprietary tablet formulation containing a fixed-dose combination of ibuprofen and famotidine in a single pill. DUEXIS is indicated for the relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, osteoarthritis, or OA, and to decrease the risk of developing upper gastrointestinal, or GI, ulcers in patients who are taking ibuprofen for these indications. We began marketing DUEXIS to physicians in December 2011. In June 2012, we licensed DUEXIS rights in Latin America to Grünenthal S.A., a private company focused on the marketing of pain products.

Our second approved product in the United States, RAYOS, known as LODOTRA® outside the United States, is a proprietary delayed-release formulation of low-dose prednisone approved originally in Europe for the treatment of moderate to severe, active RA in adults, particularly when accompanied by morning stiffness. On July 26, 2012, the FDA approved RAYOS for the treatment of RA, polymyalgia rheumatica, or PMR, psoriatic arthritis, or PsA, ankylosing spondylitis, or AS, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, and a number of other conditions. We have been focusing our promotion of RAYOS in the United States on rheumatology indications, including RA and PMR, and currently are broadening the marketing efforts for RAYOS into multiple other indications. We began marketing RAYOS to a subset of U.S. rheumatologists in December 2012 and began the full launch in late January 2013 to the majority of U.S. rheumatologists and key primary care physicians. LODOTRA is currently marketed outside the United States, excluding Japan and Canada, by our distribution partner, Mundipharma International Corporation Limited, or Mundipharma.

On November 18, 2013, we entered into agreements with AstraZeneca pursuant to which we acquired from AstraZeneca and its affiliates certain intellectual property and other assets, and assumed from AstraZeneca and its affiliates certain liabilities, each with respect to VIMOVO, and obtained rights to develop other pharmaceutical products that contain gastroprotective agents in a single fixed combination oral solid dosage form with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, in the United States. VIMOVO is a proprietary, fixed-dose, multi-layer, delayed-release tablet combining an enteric-coated naproxen, an NSAID, core and an immediate-release esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, or PPI, layer surrounding the core. VIMOVO was originally developed by Pozen Inc., or Pozen, together with AstraZeneca pursuant to an exclusive global collaboration and license agreement. On April 30, 2010, the FDA approved VIMOVO for the relief of the signs and symptoms of OA, RA and AS and to decrease the risk of developing gastric ulcers in patients at risk of developing NSAID associated gastric ulcers.

 

2


Table of Contents

We announced the availability of Horizon-labeled VIMOVO on January 2, 2014, at which time we also began marketing VIMOVO with our primary care sales force.

On September 19, 2014, as a result of the Merger, we began marketing ACTIMMUNE, a bioengineered form of interferon gamma-1b, a protein that acts as a biologic response modifier. In the United States ACTIMMUNE is approved by the FDA for use in children and adults with chronic granulomatous disease, or CGD, and severe, malignant osteopetrosis, or SMO. ACTIMMUNE is indicated for reducing the frequency and severity of serious infections associated with CGD and for delaying time to disease progression in patients with SMO. We also plan to study ACTIMMUNE for potential additional indications, and the FDA has agreed to the primary endpoint for a Phase 3 study that will evaluate ACTIMMUNE in the treatment of Friedreich’s Ataxia, or FA. In February 2015, we submitted an IND application and anticipate the Phase 3 clinical study related to FA will begin enrolling patients in the second quarter of 2015.

On October 17, 2014, we acquired the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% from Nuvo for $45.0 million in cash. PENNSAID 2% is approved in the United States for the treatment of the pain of OA of the knee(s). As part of the acquisition, we entered into an exclusive eight-year supply agreement with Nuvo under which Nuvo will supply us product. We began marketing PENNSAID 2% in January 2015. In connection with our PENNSAID 2% acquisition, we expanded our primary care sales force by 75 additional representatives. Our primary care representatives are now marketing DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO.

Another key part of our commercial strategy is to encourage physicians to have their patients agree to fill prescriptions through our Prescriptions-Made-Easy, or PME, specialty pharmacy program, which enables uninsured or commercially insured patients’ enhanced access to our products by providing financial assistance to reduce eligible patients’ out of pocket costs for prescriptions filled via a PME-participating mail order pharmacy. Through PME, prescriptions for our products are filled by designated mail order specialty pharamacies, with the product shipped directly to the patient. Because the patient out of pocket cost for our products when dispensed through the PME program may be significantly lower than such costs when our products are dispensed outside of the PME program, prescriptions filled through our PME program are therefore less likely to be subject to the efforts of traditional pharmacies to switch a physician’s intended prescription of our products to a generic or over the counter brand. We expect that continued adoption of our PME program by physicians will be important to our ability to gain market share for our products as pressure from healthcare payors and PBMs, to use less expensive generic or over the counter brands instead of branded products increases. We believe the continued expansion of our PME program will allow us to largely mitigate the potential impact of our products being placed on the exclusion lists implemented by PBMs.

Our principal executive offices are located at Connaught House, 1st Floor, 1 Burlington Road, Dublin 4, Ireland and our telephone number is +011 353 1 772 2100. Our website address is www.horizonpharma.com. The information contained in or that can be accessed through our website is not part of this report.

“Horizon Pharma,” “Horizon Therapeutics,” a stylized letter “H,” “ACTIMMUNE,” “DUEXIS,” “LODOTRA,” “PENNSAID 2%,” “RAYOS,” and “VIMOVO” are registered trademarks in the United States and/or certain other countries. This report also includes references to trademarks and service marks of other entities and those trademarks and service marks are the property of their respective owners.

Our Strategy

Our strategy is to utilize the commercial strength and infrastructure we have established in creating a fully-integrated U.S.-focused specialty biopharmaceutical company to continue the successful commercialization of our existing product portfolio while also expanding and leveraging these capabilities by identifying, developing, acquiring or in-licensing and commercializing additional differentiated products that address unmet medical needs. We have entered into licensing or additional distribution arrangements for the commercialization of our products outside the United States, such as our relationship with Mundipharma for the commercialization

 

3


Table of Contents

of LODOTRA outside of the United States, excluding Japan and Canada, and our relationship with Grünenthal for the commercialization of DUEXIS in Latin America.

Our Products

We believe that our products address unmet therapeutic needs in arthritis, pain, inflammatory and/or orphan diseases and provide significant advantages over existing therapies.

Our current product portfolio consists of the following:

 

Products

  

Disease

  

Phase of Development

  

Marketing Rights

  

Territory

ACTIMMUNE

   CGD and SMO    FDA approved CGD on February 25, 1999 and SMO on February 10, 2000    Horizon Pharma    United States and selected foreign countries
  

FA

   Phase 3    Horizon Pharma    United States

DUEXIS

   Signs and symptoms of OA and RA    FDA approved on April 23, 2011; UK National Marketing Authorization approved on March 6, 2013    Horizon Pharma    Worldwide excluding Latin America

PENNSAID 2%

   Pain of OA of the knee(s)    FDA approved January 16, 2014    Horizon Pharma    United States

RAYOS/LODOTRA

   RA, multiple other indications    FDA approved July 26, 2012, approved and marketed in Europe and certain Asian and other countries    Horizon Pharma    Worldwide, excluding Europe, certain Asian, Latin American, Middle East, North African, and other countries
         Mundipharma    Europe, certain Asian, Latin American, Middle East, North African, and other countries

VIMOVO

   Signs and symptoms of OA, RA and AS    FDA approved April 30, 2010    Horizon Pharma    United States

PAIN AND ARTHRITIS

Markets for Our Products

Pain is a serious and costly public health concern. In 2010, the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics reported that approximately 30% of U.S. adults 18 years of age and over reported recent symptoms of pain, aching or swelling around a joint within the past 30 days.

Some of the most common and debilitating chronic inflammation and pain-related diseases are OA, RA and acute and chronic pain. According to National Health Interview Survey data analyzed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, from 2010-2012, 52.5 million U.S. adults 18 years of age and over had reported being diagnosed with some form of arthritis. With the aging of the U.S. population, the prevalence of arthritis is

 

4


Table of Contents

expected to rise by approximately 40% by 2030, impacting 67 million people in the United States. People with these diseases may become increasingly debilitated as the disease progresses, experiencing not only significant pain but also loss of mobility, independence and the ability to work, thereby potentially placing a significant burden on family caregivers and healthcare and social services. In addition, patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases tend to have shortened life expectancies as a direct result of these diseases. According to the American Pain Foundation Fact Sheet and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

 

   

the annual cost of chronic pain in the United States, including healthcare expenses, lost income and lost productivity is estimated to be approximately $100 billion;

 

   

arthritis and related conditions, such as OA, cost the U.S. economy nearly $128 billion per year in medical care and indirect expenses, including lost wages and productivity; and

 

   

pain is the second leading cause of medically related work absenteeism, resulting in more than 50 million lost workdays each year.

In addition, the Arthritis Foundation reports 992,100 hospitalizations and 44 million office visits in the United States annually for arthritis alone.

Osteoarthritis

OA is a type of arthritis that is caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints. Cartilage is a protein substance that serves as a cushion between the bones of the joints. OA is also known as degenerative arthritis. Among the over 100 different types of arthritis conditions, OA is the most common and occurs more frequently with age. Before age 45, OA occurs more frequently in males. After age 50, it occurs more frequently in females. OA commonly affects the hands, feet, spine and large weight-bearing joints, such as the hips and knees. Symptomatic knee arthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the United States. Over 9 million adults report symptomatic OA of the knee. NSAIDs are prescribed over 100 million times per year in the United States. Most cases of OA have no known cause and are referred to as primary OA.

Symptoms of OA manifest in patients as joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, limited joint movement, joint cracking or creaking (crepitation), locking of joints and local inflammation. OA can also lead to joint deformity in later stages of the disease. Many drugs are used to treat the inflammation and pain associated with OA, including aspirin and other NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac, that have a rapid analgesic and anti-inflammatory response.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

RA is a chronic disease that causes pain, stiffness and swelling, primarily in the joints. According to a 2006 DataMonitor report, 2.9 million people in the United States suffer from RA, of which 1.8 million are diagnosed and treated with various drugs. RA has no known cause, but unlike OA, RA is not associated with factors such as aging. RA occurs when the body’s immune system malfunctions, attacking healthy tissue and causing inflammation, which leads to pain and swelling in the joints and may eventually cause permanent joint damage and painful disability. The primary symptoms of RA include progressive immobility and pain, especially in the morning, with long-term sufferers experiencing continual joint destruction for the remainder of their lives. There is no known cure for RA. Once the disease is diagnosed, treatment is prescribed for life to alleviate symptoms and/or to slow or stop disease progression.

RA treatments include medications, physical therapy, exercise, education and sometimes surgery. Early, aggressive treatment of RA can delay joint destruction. Treatment of RA usually includes multiple drug therapies taken concurrently. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, or DMARDs, are the current standard of care for the treatment of RA, in addition to rest, exercise and anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs. Methotrexate is the most commonly prescribed DMARD for the treatment of RA. Other common agents for the treatment of RA

 

5


Table of Contents

include corticosteroids and biologic agents. Over the last decade, the advent of biologic agents has transformed the treatment of RA. Tumor necrosis factor, or TNF, inhibitors are the primary biologic agents used today to treat RA. Although effective for treatment of RA, these agents are costly and, because they are very potent immunosuppressants, may increase the risk of infection. Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, effectively reduce joint swelling and inflammation and, in low doses, have been shown to enhance DMARD therapy and slow the progression of RA, but at high doses are associated with potential for significant long-term adverse side effects such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and weight gain. An additional limitation of RA treatment with corticosteroids is related to the time at which patients’ pro-inflammatory cytokines are at peak levels. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines during the early morning hours are a known cause of morning stiffness and decreased mobility of RA. Interleukin 6, or IL-6, levels are substantially increased in patients with RA in general and show a significant circadian variation in these levels. Timing a dose of medicine to coincide with the rise of RA symptoms may be a good option for patients with RA.

Because RA has the potential to cause serious damage to joints and bones, physicians typically treat patients aggressively, including with combination therapies to reduce pain and inflammation and to slow the progression of the disease. Research sponsored by Mundipharma and conducted by Ipsos MORI involving 750 RA patients from 11 European countries found that 60% of surveyed patients with RA indicated that pain and morning stiffness control their lives. Additionally, 74% of people with pain and morning stiffness as a result of their RA indicated that they are either unemployed, retired early or are on sick leave as a result of RA and 58% say they are frustrated emotionally because they find it difficult to do everyday tasks due to morning stiffness caused by their RA.

Polymyalgia Rheumatica

PMR is an inflammatory disorder that causes significant muscle pain and stiffness. The pain and stiffness often occur in the shoulders, neck, upper arms and hip with pronounced morning stiffness lasting at least one hour. Symptoms of PMR usually begin within two weeks. Most people who develop PMR are older than 65 years of age. It rarely affects people younger than 50. There are approximately 1.1 million patients with PMR in the United States and it afflicts one in every 133 people over the age of 50. Prednisone is the standard of care for treating PMR and treatment is generally initiated at a relatively high dose (e.g., 10-20 mg per day) and reduced as clinical improvement is seen. Treatment usually lasts 18-24 months. Similar to RA, PMR is associated with circadian patterns of IL-6 elevation in early morning hours.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

AS is a type of arthritis that affects the spine. AS symptoms include pain and stiffness from the neck down to the lower back. The spine’s bones (vertebrae) may grow or fuse together, resulting in a rigid spine. These changes may be mild or severe, and may lead to a stooped-over posture. Early diagnosis and treatment helps control pain and stiffness and may reduce or prevent significant deformity.

Market Opportunity and Limitations of Existing Treatments

NSAIDs are very effective at providing pain relief, including pain associated with OA and RA; however, there are significant upper GI-associated adverse events that can result from the use of NSAIDs. As a result, COX-2 inhibitor drugs (i.e., VioxxTM, Merck & Co., Inc.; Celebrex and BextraTM, Pfizer Inc.) were introduced to the market in order to provide pain and arthritis relief with reduced risk of significant upper GI-associated adverse events. The COX-2 drugs generated approximately $6.3 billion in sales at their peak in 2004. However, safety concerns associated with COX-2 inhibitor drugs led to the withdrawal of Vioxx and Bextra from the market in 2004 and a significant decline in the use of Celebrex. In the United States alone, over $3 billion in sales of COX-2 inhibitor drugs were lost. As a result, demand for traditional prescription NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen and meloxicam, has increased dramatically.

 

6


Table of Contents

U.S. Total Prescriptions — Major NSAIDs and COX-2 Products

 

LOGO

Source: IMS Health, National Prescription Audit 2002-2014 (IMS Health is a source of data only and does not endorse the views, opinions and/or findings expressed or otherwise published by Horizon)

According to a 2004 article published in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, significant GI side effects, including serious ulcers, afflict up to approximately 25% of all chronic arthritis patients treated with NSAIDs for three months, and OA and RA patients are two to five times more likely than the general population to be hospitalized for NSAID-related GI complications. It is estimated that NSAID-induced GI toxicity causes over 16,500 related deaths in OA and RA patients alone and over 107,000 hospitalizations for serious GI complications each year. In more than 70% of patients with these serious GI complications, there are no prior symptoms.

Despite the fact that GI ulcers are one of the most prevalent adverse events resulting from the use of NSAIDs in the United States, according to a 2006 article published in BMC Muskoskeletal Disorders, eleven observational studies indicated that physicians do not commonly co-prescribe GI protective agents to high-risk patients. Physicians prescribe concomitant therapy to only 24% of NSAID users, and studies show sub-optimal patient compliance with concomitant prophylaxis therapy. According to a 2003 article published in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, in a study of 784 patients, 37% of patients were non-compliant, a rate increasing to 61% in patients treated with three or more drugs. This noncompliance results in a substantial unmet clinical need, which we believe can be appropriately addressed with DUEXIS or VIMOVO, creating smarter solutions for both patients and physicians.

 

LOGO

 

7


Table of Contents

According to a 2006 DataMonitor report, there were approximately 4.9 million RA patients in the United States, Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Germany and the United Kingdom, or UK, of which approximately 3.1 million were diagnosed. Common agents for the treatment of RA include NSAIDs, DMARDs, biologic agents and corticosteroids such as prednisone. Physicians are increasingly supportive of prescribing multiple therapies as some RA patients are able to achieve a clinical remission with multiple treatments. A Medical Marketing Economics May 2008 study of 150 RA patients in the United States, which we sponsored, showed that despite the use of a combination of currently available treatments for RA, over 90% of the patients reported suffering from morning stiffness, pain and immobility.

In addition, according to the 2006 DataMonitor report, approximately 50% of RA patients in the United States, Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Germany and the UK are prescribed combination therapy which often includes corticosteroids, with prednisone being one of the most common. Corticosteroids, including prednisone, are used to suppress various autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic disorders by inhibiting the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Joint inflammation in RA is driven by excessive production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha. While corticosteroids are potent and effective agents to treat patients with RA, they are often used at high doses to treat RA flares or significant inflammation. High-dose oral corticosteroid treatment is not a viable long-term treatment option due to adverse side effects such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and weight gain. However, clinical studies have shown that the long-term use of low-dose prednisone (<10 mg per day) does not dramatically increase total adverse events. In addition, low-doses, typically less than 10 mg daily, of corticosteroids such as prednisone have been shown to treat the symptoms of RA while slowing the overall progression of the disease.

An additional limitation of RA treatment with corticosteroids is related to the time at which patients’ pro-inflammatory cytokines are at peak levels. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines during the early morning hours are a known cause of morning stiffness and decreased mobility of RA. IL-6 levels are substantially increased in patients with RA in general and show a significant circadian variation in these levels. Peak IL-6 levels tend to occur in the early morning hours and low levels typically occur in the afternoon and evening. Therefore, we believe an optimal treatment would reduce IL-6 levels in the early morning hours.

Our Solutions

DUEXIS

DUEXIS is a proprietary single tablet formulation containing a fixed-dose combination of ibuprofen, the most widely prescribed NSAID, and famotidine, a well-established GI agent used to treat dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, and active ulcers, in one pill. Ibuprofen has proven anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and famotidine reduces the stomach acid secretion that can cause upper GI ulcers. Both ibuprofen and famotidine have well documented and excellent long-term safety profiles and both products have been used for many years by millions of patients worldwide. Based on clinical study results, DUEXIS has been proven to reduce the risk of NSAID-induced upper GI ulcers.

Ibuprofen: One of the World’s Most Widely Prescribed NSAIDs

Ibuprofen continues to be one of the most widely prescribed NSAIDs worldwide. According to Intercontinental Marketing Services, or IMS, in the United States alone, there were over 38 million prescriptions written for ibuprofen in 2014. In the United States, both the 600 mg and 800 mg doses together account for approximately 88% of total ibuprofen prescriptions. In addition, ibuprofen’s flexible three times daily dosing allows it to be used for both chronic conditions such as arthritis and chronic back pain, and acute conditions such as sprains and strains.

 

8


Table of Contents

Famotidine: A Safe and Effective GI Agent

Famotidine is the most potent marketed drug in the class of histamine-2 receptor antagonists, or H2RA. H2RA’s are a class of drugs used to block the action of histamine on the cells in the stomach that secrete gastric acid. Famotidine was chosen as the ideal GI protectant to be combined with ibuprofen as it is a well-studied compound with an estimated 18.8 million patients treated worldwide that provides distinct advantages including:

 

   

rapid onset of action;

 

   

significant reduction in gastric acid levels in the GI tract for the treatment of dyspepsia, GERD and NSAID-induced upper GI ulcers; and

 

   

well tolerated with a low incidence of adverse drug reactions and a demonstrated safety margin of up to eight times the approved prescription dose for an extended period of greater than 12 months.

Despite these advantages, famotidine had not yet been approved to reduce the incidence of NSAID-induced upper GI ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs. We conducted two pivotal Phase 3 clinical trials demonstrating that treatment with DUEXIS significantly reduced the incidence of NSAID-induced upper GI ulcers in patients with mild to moderate pain or arthritis compared to ibuprofen alone. Based on the data from the Phase 3 clinical trials of DUEXIS, we submitted an NDA requesting approval to market DUEXIS in the United States in March 2010. On April 23, 2011, the FDA approved DUEXIS for the relief of signs and symptoms of RA and OA and to decrease the risk of developing upper GI ulcers in patients who are taking ibuprofen for these indications.

Benefits of a Fixed-Dose Combination Therapy

Numerous studies have demonstrated that fixed-dose combination therapy provides significant advantages over taking multiple pills. Specifically, fixed-dose combinations can reduce the number of pills, ensure that the correct dosage of each component is taken at the correct time and improve compliance, often associated with better treatment outcomes. DUEXIS has been formulated to provide an optimal dosing regimen of ibuprofen and famotidine together in the convenience of a single pill.

DUEXIS Commercial Status

DUEXIS is indicated for the relief of signs and symptoms of RA and OA and to decrease the risk of developing GI ulcers in patients who are taking ibuprofen for these indications. In the second half of 2011, we hired our initial commercial organization, including approximately 80 sales representatives, completed sales force training and began marketing DUEXIS to physicians in December 2011. Due to the continued prescription growth of DUEXIS and VIMOVO, and the acquisition of PENNSAID 2% in October 2014, the primary care commercial organization continues to grow. As of January 2015, we had approximately 325 primary care sales representatives marketing DUEXIS, VIMOVO and PENNSAID 2% to physicians in the United States.

In June 2012, we licensed DUEXIS rights in Latin America to Grünenthal, a private company focused on the promotion of pain products.

PENNSAID 2%

PENNSAID 2% is a topical NSAID that is applied directly to the knee and is indicated for the treatment of pain of OA of the knee(s). PENNSAID 2% contains diclofenac sodium, a commonly prescribed NSAID, to treat OA pain. PENNSAID 2% also includes DMSO, a powerful penetrating agent that helps ensure that diclofenac sodium is absorbed through the skin to the site of inflammation and pain. Topical NSAIDs such as PENNSAID 2% are an alternative to oral NSAID treatment because they reduce systemic exposure to a fraction of that provided by an oral NSAID. PENNSAID 2% is the only topical NSAID offered with the convenience of a metered-dose pump, which ensures that the patient will get the correct amount of PENNSAID 2% solution each time. PENNSAID 2% is easy to apply for patients because PENNSAID 2% is applied in two pumps, twice daily, delivering relief right to the site of OA knee pain.

 

9


Table of Contents

Benefits of Topical NSAIDs

Within the NSAID market exists a significant niche for topical NSAIDs, which are prescribed over 5 million times per year. Topical NSAID treatment may be appropriate for some patients, such as patients who may benefit from the lower systemic exposure in a topical NSAID, patients with OA in just one joint such as the knee, patients who have trouble taking oral medications, or patients who are older.

PENNSAID 2% Commercial Status

On January 16, 2014, the FDA approved PENNSAID 2% for the treatment of the pain of OA of the knee(s). We acquired the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% on October 16, 2014 and began marketing PENNSAID 2% with our primary care sales force in early January 2015. As of January 2015, we had approximately 325 field sales representatives marketing DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO to physicians in the United States.

RAYOS/LODOTRA

RAYOS, known as LODOTRA outside the United States, is a proprietary delayed-release formulation of low-dose prednisone for the treatment of moderate to severe, active RA in adults particularly when accompanied by morning stiffness.

RAYOS/LODOTRA Solution

The proprietary formulation technology of RAYOS/LODOTRA enables a delayed-release of prednisone approximately four hours after administration. The RAYOS/LODOTRA proprietary delivery system synchronizes the prednisone delivery time with the patient’s elevated cytokine levels, thereby taking effect at a physiologically optimal point to inhibit cytokine production, and thus significantly reduces the signs and symptoms of RA and PMR.

RAYOS/LODOTRA was developed utilizing SkyePharma’s proprietary GeoClock™ and GeoMatrix™ technologies, for which we hold an exclusive worldwide license for the delivery of corticosteroids. RAYOS/LODOTRA is comprised of an active core containing prednisone, which is encapsulated by an inactive porous shell. The inactive shell acts as a barrier between the product’s active core and a patient’s GI fluids. RAYOS/LODOTRA is intended to be administered at bedtime. At approximately four hours following bedtime administration of RAYOS/LODOTRA, water in the digestive tract diffuses through the shell, causing the active core to expand, which leads to a weakening and breakage of the shell and allows the release of prednisone from the active core. Our pharmacokinetic studies have shown that the blood concentration of prednisone from RAYOS/LODOTRA is similar to immediate release prednisone except for the intended time delay of product release after administration.

RAYOS/LODOTRA Commercial Status

On July 26, 2012, the FDA approved RAYOS for the treatment of RA, PMR, PsA, AS, asthma, COPD and a number of other conditions. We focus our promotion of RAYOS in the United States on rheumatology indications, including RA and PMR. We began marketing RAYOS to a subset of U.S. rheumatologists in December 2012 and began the full launch in late January 2013 to the majority of rheumatologists and high-value primary care physicians. LODOTRA received its first approval in Europe in March 2009 and is currently approved for marketing in over 30 countries outside the United States where Mundipharma holds the commercial rights.

RAYOS/LODOTRA in Other Indications

We also conducted a small Phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate the potential use of RAYOS/LODOTRA to treat severe asthma compared to immediate-release prednisone. Severe asthma sufferers are frequently prescribed very high doses of oral corticosteroids. However, high-dose oral corticosteroid treatment is limited by side effects which include, among others, osteoporosis and its various negative effects. Data from seven patients who had

 

10


Table of Contents

been treated with 5 mg to 45 mg of daily immediate release prednisone in accordance with the study protocol showed improvements in nocturnal symptoms, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life when switched to an equivalent dose of RAYOS/LODOTRA.

VIMOVO

VIMOVO is a proprietary, fixed-dose, delayed-release tablet. VIMOVO combines enteric-coated naproxen, an NSAID, surrounded by a layer of immediate-release esomeprazole magnesium, a PPI, surrounding the core. Naproxen has proven anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and esomeprazole magnesium reduces the stomach acid secretions that can cause upper GI ulcers. Both naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium have well-documented and excellent long-term safety profiles and both products have been used by millions of patients worldwide. Based on clinical trial results, VIMOVO has been shown to decrease the risk of developing gastric ulcers in patients at risk of developing NSAID associated gastric ulcers.

Naproxen: One of the World’s Most Widely Prescribed NSAIDs

Naproxen is one of the most widely prescribed NSAIDs worldwide. According to IMS, in the United States alone, there were over 17 million prescriptions written for naproxen in 2014. In the United States, the 375 mg and 500 mg doses together account for approximately 96% of total naproxen prescriptions. In addition, naproxen’s twice daily dosing allows it to be used for chronic conditions such as arthritis and AS.

Esomeprazole Magnesium: A Safe and Effective GI Agent

Esomeprazole magnesium, a gastroprotective agent, is a PPI that works by inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid thus decreasing the amount of acid in the stomach. PPIs are considered to be very potent inhibitors of acid secretion. Esomeprazole magnesium is indicated for reducing the risk of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers.

Benefits of a Fixed-Dose Combination Therapy

VIMOVO is specifically formulated to allow esomeprazole magnesium to achieve its gastroprotective impact before naproxen is released into the system. VIMOVO’s design is intended to produce a sequential delivery of gastroprotective esomeprazole before exposure to naproxen.

VIMOVO Commercial Status

On April 30, 2010, the FDA approved VIMOVO delayed release tablets, 375 mg/20 mg and 500 mg/20 mg for relief of signs and symptoms of OA, RA and AS and to decrease the risk of developing gastric ulcers in patients at risk of developing NSAID associated gastric ulcers. In December 2013, as a result of our acquisition of U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we began the expansion of our sales force to approximately 250 primary care representatives and 40 rheumatology sales specialists, all of which began marketing VIMOVO in early February 2014. Because of the continued prescription growth of VIMOVO and DUEXIS, and the addition of PENNSAID 2%, the Primary Care commercial organization continues to grow. As of January 2015, we had approximately 325 field sales representatives marketing DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO to physicians in the United States.

ORPHAN DISORDERS

Market Opportunity

Chronic Granulomatous Disease

CGD is a genetic disorder of the immune system. It is described as a primary immunodeficiency disorder, which means it is not caused by another disease or disorder. In people who have CGD, a type of white blood cell, called a phagocyte, is defective. These defective phagocytes cannot generate superoxide, leading to an inability to kill harmful microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. As a result, the immune system is weakened. People with CGD are more likely to have certain problems such as recurrent severe bacterial and fungal infections and

 

11


Table of Contents

chronic inflammatory conditions. These patients are prone to developing masses called granulomas, which can occur repeatedly in organs throughout the body and cause a variety of problems. CGD was first identified in the 1950s; since then CGD had changed from a disease of tragic and early complications to a disease of chronic management and high survival. Today, CGD is considered to be a condition that patients can live with and manage. Studies suggest overall survival has improved over the last decade with more patients living well into adulthood. Approximately 1 out of every 200,000 babies in the United States is born with CGD.

Severe, Malignant Osteopetrosis

There are several different forms of osteopetrosis (not to be confused with the more common osteoporosis, a very different condition), which are determined by their pattern of genetic inheritance and characteristics. All forms of osteopetrosis are characterized by an abnormal increase in bone density. SMO is one form of osteopetrosis and is sometimes referred to as marble bone disease or malignant infantile osteopetrosis because it occurs in very young children. SMO is a more severe form of malignant osteopetrosis. While exact numbers are not known, it has been estimated that 1 out of 250,000 children are born with SMO. Malignant in this instance does not refer to cancer. During normal bone development, existing bone material is constantly being replaced by new bone. Cells called osteoblasts cause new bone formation. Other cells called osteoclasts remove old bone through a process called resorption. In people with osteopetrosis, this balance is not maintained because their osteoclasts do not function properly. As a result, resorption of old bone material decreases while the formation of new bone continues. This leads to an abnormal increase in bone mass, which can make the bones more brittle. Because abnormal bone development affects many different systems in the body, osteopetrosis may cause problems such as blood disorders, decreased ability to fight infection, bone fractures, problems with vision and hearing, and abnormal appearance of the face and head.

Our Solution — ACTIMMUNE

ACTIMMUNE is a biologically manufactured protein called interferon gamma-1b that is similar to a protein the human body makes naturally. In the body, interferon gamma is produced by cells of the immune system and helps to prevent infection in patients with CGD and enhances osteoclast function in patients with SMO. ACTIMMUNE is approved by the FDA to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections associated with CGD and for delaying time to disease progression in patients with SMO. The precise way that ACTIMMUNE works to help prevent infection in patients with CGD is not fully understood, but ACTIMMUNE is believed to work by modifying the cellular function of various cells, including those in the immune system. The precise way that ACTIMMUNE works to slow the worsening of SMO is also not fully understood, but ACTIMMUNE is believed to work by modifying the cellular function of various cells, including those that help form bones.

ACTIMMUNE Efficacy in CGD

The International Chronic Granulomatous Disease Cooperative Study Group, or ICGDCSG, conducted a controlled clinical trial in 128 patients (ages ranging from 1 to 44 years old) at 13 medical centers across 4 countries. The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ACTIMMUNE in reducing the frequency and severity of serious infections in patients with CGD. Patients enrolled in the trial were randomly selected to receive either ACTIMMUNE or placebo in addition to antibiotics. The number and timing of serious infections were tracked in all patients for up to 1 year. ACTIMMUNE was administered 3 times weekly using the same dosing regimen that is recommended today. The average duration of treatment was 8.9 months. The study was terminated early following demonstration of a highly statistically significant benefit of ACTIMMUNE therapy compared to placebo with respect to time to serious infection (p=0.0036), the primary endpoint of the investigation. The results of the trial were published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Compared with patients given placebo (n=65), patients in the ACTIMMUNE (n=63) group experienced:

 

   

67% reduction in relative risk of serious infections

 

   

67% fewer inpatient hospital days

 

   

64% reduction in the total number and rate of serious infections

 

12


Table of Contents

As demonstrated in the clinical trial, a treatment benefit included a two-fold (53%) reduction in the number of CGD patients with at least one serious infection, defined as a clinical event requiring hospitalization and the use of parenteral antibiotics (ACTIMMUNE: 14/63 vs. placebo: 30/65; p=0.002). The beneficial effect of ACTIMMUNE was demonstrated throughout a 12 month study, in which 77% of patients with CGD receiving ACTIMMUNE were free of serious infection during the study compared to 30% of patients who received placebo (p=0.0006). The mean duration of therapy for these patients was 8.9 months

Investigators concluded that ACTIMMUNE is an effective and safe therapy for patients with CGD, since the therapy statistically reduced the frequency of serious infections.

ACTIMMUNE Efficacy in SMO

In a controlled clinical trial, 16 patients were randomized to receive either ACTIMMUNE with calcitriol or calcitriol alone. The age of patients ranged from 1 month to 8 years; with a mean age of 1.5 years. The median time to progression in the ACTIMMUNE plus calcitriol arm was 165 days vs. a median of 65 days in the calcitriol only arm. In a separate analysis that combined data from a second trial, 19 of 24 patients on ACTIMMUNE therapy (+/- calcitriol) for at least 6 months had reduced trabecular bone volume compared to baseline.

Safety of ACTIMMUNE

The safety of ACTIMMUNE was also evaluated during the CGD clinical trial. Investigators from ICGDCSG concluded that there were no serious side effects directly attributed to the administration of ACTIMMUNE in patients with CGD during the trial. The most common side effects observed in patients with CGD given ACTIMMUNE were flu-like symptoms, such as fever, headache, and chills. The most common side effects seen with ACTIMMUNE are “flu-like” symptoms such as fever, headache, chills, myalgia (muscle pain), and fatigue, which may reduce in severity as treatment continues. Administering ACTIMMUNE at bedtime may also help minimize some of these symptoms. Acetaminophen may be helpful in preventing fever and headache.

ACTIMMUNE can cause severe allergic reactions and/or rash; flu-like symptoms, which may worsen pre-existing heart conditions; reversible changes to the nervous system (such as decreased mental status, walking disturbances, and dizziness); reversible severe bone marrow toxicity; decreased production of important cells in the body; and reversible changes to liver function (particularly in patients less than one year old).

ACTIMMUNE Commercial Status

ACTIMMUNE is the only drug currently approved by the FDA for the treatment for CGD and SMO and we currently market and distribute ACTIMMUNE only in the United States. Our licenses allow us to market and sell ACTIMMUNE in the United States, Canada and Japan. We also supply ACTIMMUNE to patients in Canada, if so requested by way of a prescription from their treating physicians, through Health Canada’s Special Access Program, which provides access to non-marketed drugs in Canada for practitioners treating patients with serious or life-threatening conditions when conventional therapies have failed, are unsuitable or are unavailable. Sales in Canada are not material. We have not otherwise registered or sold ACTIMMUNE in any other territories for which it currently holds commercial rights.

Potential for ACTIMMUNE in Friedreich’s Ataxia

FA is a debilitating, life-shortening, degenerative, neuro-muscular disorder that affects approximately 3,700 individuals in the United States and 15,000 worldwide, according to the Friedreich’s Ataxia Research Alliance, or FARA. On October 3, 2014, the FDA granted orphan-drug designation for ACTIMMUNE for the treatment of FA. The FDA has agreed to the primary endpoint for a planned Phase 3 study that will evaluate ACTIMMUNE in the treatment of FA. The study will be conducted in collaboration with the FARA, and the investigators of FARA’s Collaborative Clinical Research Network in Friedreich’s Ataxia. The primary endpoint

 

13


Table of Contents

for the Phase 3 study will be the change from baseline after 26 weeks in the Friedreich’s Ataxia Rating Scale-modified neurological exam score (FARS-mNeuro) for patients treated with ACTIMMUNE compared to placebo. The study is planned to be a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, 26-week study evaluating ACTIMMUNE in children and young adults (10-25 years of age). It is anticipated that approximately 110 subjects will be screened at four U.S. centers for eligibility to randomize approximately 90 subjects 1:1 to receive either ACTIMMUNE or placebo. We anticipate the study will take 18 months to complete. In February 2015, we submitted an IND application and anticipate the Phase 3 clinical study will begin enrolling patients in the second quarter of 2015.

Commercial and Supply Agreements

ACTIMMUNE

Boehringer Ingelheim Manufacturing and Supply Agreement

In July 2013, Vidara and Boehringer Ingelheim entered into an exclusive supply agreement, which we assumed as of result of the Merger. Pursuant to the agreement, Boehringer Ingelheim manufactures the ACTIMMUNE active drug substance and commercial quantities of the ACTIMMUNE finished drug product. Boehringer Ingelheim manufactures the active drug substance at its production facility in Vienna, Austria, and the finished drug product at its facility in Biberach an der Riss, Germany. Boehringer Ingelheim is our sole source supplier for ACTIMMUNE active drug substance and finished drug product. The processes used to manufacture and test ACTIMMUNE are complex and subject to FDA inspection and approval. The ACTIMMUNE active drug substance has a shelf life of 36 months from the date of manufacture and the ACTIMMUNE finished drug product has a shelf life of 36 months from the date of filling of the single-use vial. Boehringer Ingelheim also provides quality assurance testing for ACTIMMUNE. Under the terms of this agreement, we are required to purchase minimum quantities of finished drug product of 75,000 vials per annum. Boehringer Ingelheim manufactures our commercial requirements of ACTIMMUNE on an annual basis, and based on our forecasts and the annual contractual minimum purchase quantity. The supply agreement has a term that runs until July 31, 2020 and which can be further renewed by agreement between parties. Under this supply agreement, either we or Boehringer Ingelheim may terminate the agreement for an uncured material breach by the other party or upon the other party’s bankruptcy or insolvency.

Under a Development and Marketing Agreement with Boehringer Ingelheim, we are required to pay royalties on net sales in certain applicable markets in Latin America, Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe if we elect to commercialize ACTIMMUNE in those territories. To date, we have not pursued regulatory or other approvals or commercialized ACTIMMUNE in those territories.

Genentech and Connetics License Agreements

Under a license agreement with Genentech Inc., or Genentech, which was the original developer of ACTIMMUNE, we are or were obligated to pay royalties to Genentech on our net sales of ACTIMMUNE as follows:

 

   

Through November 25, 2014, a royalty of 45% of the first $3.7 million in net sales achieved in a calendar year, and 10% on all additional net sales in that year;

 

   

For the period from November 26, 2014 through May 5, 2018, the royalty payments will be reduced to a 20%-30% range for the first tier in net sales and in the 1%-9% range for the second tier; and

 

   

From May 6, 2018 and for so long as the Company continues to commercially sell ACTIMMUNE, an annual royalty in the low single digits as a percentage of annual net sales.

Either Genentech or we may terminate the agreement if the other party becomes bankrupt or defaults, however, in the case of a default, the defaulting party has 30 days to cure the default before the license agreement may be terminated.

 

14


Table of Contents

Under the terms of an agreement with Connetics Corporation (which was the predecessor parent company to InterMune and is now part of GlaxoSmithKline), or Connetics, we are obligated to pay royalties to Connetics on our net sales of ACTIMMUNE as follows:

 

   

0.25% of net sales of ACTIMMUNE, rising to 0.5% once cumulative net sales of ACTIMMUNE in the United States surpass $1.0 billion; and in the event we develop and receive regulatory approval for ACTIMMUNE in the indication of scleroderma, we will be obligated to pay a royalty of 4% on all net sales of ACTIMMUNE recorded for use in that indication.

Either Connetics or we may terminate the agreement if the other party becomes bankrupt or defaults, however, in the case of a default, the defaulting party has 30 days to cure the default before the license agreement may be terminated.

DUEXIS

BASF Contract

In July 2010, we entered into a contract with BASF Corporation, or BASF, for the purchase of DC85, which is ibuprofen in a direct compression blend and is the active ingredient in DUEXIS. Pursuant to the agreement, we are obligated to purchase a significant majority of our commercial demand for DC85 from BASF. The contract expires in December 2017. Thereafter, the agreement automatically renews for successive renewal terms of three years each until terminated by either party giving specified prior written notice to the other party. Either party may also terminate the agreement in the event of uncured breach by the other party. If the agreement terminates for any reason before a specified date and we have not purchased requisite amounts of DC85, BASF has the right to withhold from the pre-purchase credit an amount based upon the total amount of DC85 purchased throughout the life of the agreement.

Manufacturing and Supply Agreement with sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC

In May 2011, we entered into a manufacturing and supply agreement with sanofi-aventis U.S. Pursuant to the agreement, sanofi-aventis U.S. is obligated to manufacture and supply DUEXIS to us in final, packaged form, and we are obligated to purchase DUEXIS exclusively from sanofi-aventis U.S. for our commercial requirements of DUEXIS in North America and certain countries and territories in Europe, including the European Union member states and Scandinavia, and South America. Sanofi-aventis U.S. is obligated to acquire the components necessary to manufacture DUEXIS, including the active pharmaceutical ingredients, or APIs, DC85 and famotidine, and is obligated to acquire all DC85 under the terms of any agreements we may have with suppliers for the supply of DC85. We expect that sanofi-aventis U.S. will obtain DC85 from BASF Corporation through our sales contract with BASF and famotidine through our supply agreement with Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories. In order to allow sanofi-aventis U.S. to perform its obligations under the agreement, we granted sanofi-aventis U.S. a non-exclusive license to our related intellectual property. In November 2011, the FDA approved the use of the sanofi-aventis Canada Inc. manufacturing site in Laval, Quebec to manufacture DUEXIS. As a result of the FDA approval of the sanofi-aventis Canada, Inc. manufacturing site in Laval, Quebec, sanofi-aventis U.S. is the exclusive commercial manufacturer and supplier of DUEXIS. In December 2011, Valeant acquired Dermik, a dermatology unit of sanofi-aventis U.S., which includes the Laval, Canada site. Although, Valeant has taken over management and operations at the Laval, Canada facility, our manufacturing agreement remains with sanofi-aventis U.S. The price for DUEXIS under the agreement varies depending on the configuration and volume of DUEXIS we purchase and is subject to annual adjustments to reflect changes in costs as measured by the Producer Price Index published by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics and certain other changes and events set forth in the agreement. We have paid for the purchase and installation of equipment necessary to manufacture DUEXIS tablets, and sanofi-aventis U.S. is obligated to pay the costs of routine maintenance of the equipment. Upon expiration or termination of the agreement we may also be obligated to reimburse sanofi-aventis U.S. for the depreciated net book value of any other equipment purchased by sanofi-aventis U.S. in order to fulfill its obligations under the agreement.

 

15


Table of Contents

The agreement term extends until the eighth anniversary of the first commercial sale of DUEXIS in any country in the territory and automatically extends for successive two year terms unless terminated by either party upon two years prior written notice. Either party may terminate the agreement upon 30 days’ prior written notice to the other party in the event of breach by the other party that is not cured within 30 days of notice (which notice period may be longer in certain, limited situations) or in the event we lose regulatory approval to market DUEXIS in all countries within the territory, and either party may terminate the agreement without cause upon two years prior written notice to the other party at any time after the third anniversary of the first commercial sale of DUEXIS in any country in the territory.

Grünenthal Agreement

In June 2012, we entered into a collaboration, license and supply agreement with Grünenthal for the potential commercialization of DUEXIS in certain Latin American and Caribbean countries. Under the terms of the agreement, we will supply DUEXIS to Grünenthal exclusively in the territory at an agreed upon price and they will have the exclusive right to distribute DUEXIS in the territory. Subject to early termination, the term of the agreement is 10 years from launch with certain automatic 2-year renewal provisions.

PENNSAID 2%

Nuvo Supply Agreement

In October 2014, in connection with the acquisition of the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% from Nuvo, we entered into an exclusive supply agreement with Nuvo. Under the supply agreement, Nuvo will manufacture and supply PENNSAID 2% to us. We have committed to a binding purchase order to Nuvo for delivery of PENNSAID 2%. In addition, at least 90 days prior to the first day of each calendar month during the term of the supply agreement, we are required to submit a binding written purchase order to Nuvo for PENNSAID 2% in minimum batch quantities. The initial term of our supply agreement is through December 31, 2022, but the agreement may be terminated earlier by either party for any uncured material breach by the other party of its obligations under the supply agreement or upon the bankruptcy or similar proceeding of the other party.

RAYOS/LODOTRA

SkyePharma and Jagotec Agreements

Development and License Agreement

In August 2004, we entered into a development and license agreement with SkyePharma and Jagotec, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SkyePharma, regarding certain proprietary technology and know-how owned by SkyePharma for the delayed release of corticosteroids. The agreement replaced a similar agreement entered into between Merck and SkyePharma in 1998, which Merck assigned to us.

Under the agreement, which was amended in August 2007, we received an exclusive, sub-licensable worldwide license to the oral formulation of any corticosteroid, including prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone and/or cortisone, with delayed release technology covered by intellectual property rights and know-how owned by SkyePharma. We were also granted an option to acquire a royalty-free, exclusive and sub-licensable right to license and manufacture RAYOS/LODOTRA which we can exercise any time upon specified prior written notice, expiring no earlier than five years after the first launch of RAYOS/LODOTRA. We have exercised the option to acquire the manufacturing license, which became effective in April 2014.

In return for the grant of the license, Jagotec has the right to manufacture, package and supply RAYOS/LODOTRA to us in accordance with terms and conditions of a separate manufacturing and supply agreement we entered into with Jagotec. In addition, Jagotec is entitled to receive a single digit percentage royalty on net sales of RAYOS/LODOTRA and on any sub-licensing income, which includes any payments not calculated based on the net sales of RAYOS/LODOTRA, such as license fees, and lump sum and milestone payments.

 

16


Table of Contents

The agreement expires on a country by country basis, upon the expiration of the last patent rights for RAYOS/LODOTRA, which will expire between 2024 and 2028. In the event of expiration, the licenses under the agreement will be perpetual, fully paid-up and royalty-free. Either party may also terminate the agreement in the event of a liquidation or bankruptcy of the other party or upon an uncured breach by the other party.

Manufacturing and Supply Agreement

In August 2007, we entered into a manufacturing and supply agreement with Jagotec for the purchase of RAYOS/LODOTRA. Under the agreement, which was amended in March 2011, Jagotec or its affiliates manufacture and supply RAYOS/LODOTRA to us in bulk. In August 2011, SkyePharma leased their entire pharmaceutical manufacturing business to Aenova, a large contract manufacturing organization, and Aenova is now a subcontractor for Jagotec for the manufacture of RAYOS/LODOTRA, with our consent. We were required to purchase RAYOS/LODOTRA exclusively from Jagotec through April 2014, after which we are able to purchase RAYOS/LODOTRA from other manufacturers if we choose. As of December 31, 2014 our total remaining minimum purchase commitment was approximately $3.3 million based on tablet pricing under the agreement as of that date, which amount is subject to volume and price adjustments due to, among other things, inflation, order quantities and launch and approval in certain European Union countries. We also supply the API, prednisone to Jagotec at our expense for use in the manufacture of RAYOS/LODOTRA.

We pay Jagotec, exclusive of any value added tax or similar governmental charges, a price for RAYOS/LODOTRA representing a negotiated mark-up over manufacturing costs. After a short initial period, the price will be adjusted annually to reflect changes in both manufacturing and materials costs as measured by the Ensemble price index. If Jagotec makes a major capital expenditure during the contract term to fulfill increased orders forecast by us, the price per unit will increase if the actual order falls short of the forecast.

The agreement term extends until the end of the fifth year after the first launch of RAYOS/LODOTRA and automatically extends on a yearly basis unless terminated by either party upon prior written notice. Either party may also terminate the agreement in the event of insolvency, liquidation or bankruptcy of the other party or upon an uncured breach by the other party. We have the right to receive a continuing supply of RAYOS/LODOTRA from Jagotec for a period of 24 months after termination by Jagotec, regardless of the reason for termination.

Pursuant to a letter agreement between Jagotec and us, Jagotec agreed to allow us to give Bayer Pharma AG, or Bayer, the right to manufacture, test and release quantities of RAYOS/LODOTRA in order to establish and maintain Bayer as a manufacturer of RAYOS/LODOTRA. Under certain circumstances, we may also purchase shortfall quantities of RAYOS/LODOTRA from Bayer to the extent Jagotec is unable to supply us. In March 2013, we entered into an agreement with Bayer to allow us to purchase quantities of RAYOS/LODOTRA for these purposes. After our manufacturing license from Jagotec becomes effective, we may also purchase quantities of RAYOS/LODOTRA from Bayer pursuant to our agreement with Bayer.

Merck Serono License Agreements (Assigned to Mundipharma Laboratories)

In December 2006 and March 2009, we entered into separate transfer, license and supply agreements with Merck Serono and Merck GesmbH, an affiliate of Merck Serono, for the commercialization of LODOTRA in Germany and Austria, respectively. The agreement covering Germany was amended in December 2008 to allow co-promotion of LODOTRA in Germany. Under the agreements, we granted Merck Serono and Merck GesmbH exclusive distribution and marketing rights pertaining to LODOTRA for each of Germany and Austria, respectively, and an exclusive license to use the trademark for LODOTRA in Germany and Austria. The transfer, license and supply agreements related to Germany and Austria were assigned to Mundipharma Laboratories from Merck Serono and Merck GesmbH in April 2011 and September 2011, respectively, with our consent. Mundipharma Laboratories is obligated to commercialize LODOTRA in Germany and Austria, as applicable, exclusively under the LODOTRA trademark. Mundipharma Laboratories is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to market LODOTRA in Germany and Austria, and is prohibited from launching other oral corticosteroids for the treatment of RA for the first three years following the launch of LODOTRA. With respect

 

17


Table of Contents

to the agreement covering Germany, if Mundipharma Laboratories does not meet specified minimum sales targets over specified periods of time, the marketing rights to LODOTRA will become nonexclusive unless Mundipharma Laboratories pays us the shortfall. With respect to the agreement covering Austria, if Mundipharma Laboratories does not meet specified minimum sales targets over specified periods of time, after good faith discussions to modify the agreement, we have the right to terminate the agreement.

Mundipharma Laboratories has agreed to purchase LODOTRA commercial product exclusively from us. We supply LODOTRA to Mundipharma Laboratories at the price which is the higher of (1) a percentage of the list price of LODOTRA sold to final purchasers of LODOTRA from Mundipharma Laboratories (excluding any discounts) and (2) the costs we incur for the production and delivery of LODOTRA to a Mundipharma Laboratories supply depot, as applicable, plus a profit mark-up.

Subject to early termination, the terms of the agreements are 15 years from the launch of LODOTRA in Germany and 10 years from the launch of LODOTRA in Austria. Thereafter, the agreements automatically renew until terminated by a party by giving specified prior written notice to the other party to the agreement. Under both agreements a party may also terminate an agreement in the event of a bankruptcy of the other party, certain events beyond the parties’ control that impair performance under an agreement, or upon material uncured breach by a party.

Mundipharma Agreements

In March 2009, we entered into a distribution agreement with Mundipharma for the commercialization of LODOTRA in Europe, excluding Germany and Austria, and a manufacturing and supply agreement with Mundipharma Medical. The distribution agreement, which was amended in July 2009 and March 2011, provides for an upfront payment of 5.0 million Euros, all of which has been paid by Mundipharma, and aggregate potential milestone payments of up to an additional 11.0 million Euros, which includes a credit in the amount of 1.0 million Euros we agreed to provide to Mundipharma to be applied towards certain future milestone payments in connection with the March 2011 amendment. As of December 31, 2014, we had received 4.9 million Euros in milestone payments under the distribution agreement.

Under the distribution agreement, we granted Mundipharma the exclusive distribution and marketing rights pertaining to LODOTRA for: Albania, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, former Soviet Union countries, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. We also granted Mundipharma an exclusive license to use our trademark for LODOTRA in these countries, and Mundipharma is allowed to commercialize LODOTRA under the LODOTRA trademark. Mundipharma is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to market LODOTRA in the territory and is prohibited from launching other oral corticosteroids during the term of the distribution agreement. If Mundipharma does not meet specified minimum sales targets, which range from single digit millions of Euros to tens of millions of Euros on a country by country basis, over specified periods of time, the marketing rights granted under the distribution agreement will become nonexclusive with respect to the applicable country unless Mundipharma pays us the shortfall.

Under the manufacturing and supply agreement, which was subsequently amended in March 2011, Mundipharma Medical agreed to purchase LODOTRA exclusively from us with respect to the territory. We supply LODOTRA to Mundipharma Medical at the price which is a specified percentage of the average net selling price for sales in a given country.

Subject to early termination, the terms of both of the March 2009 agreements extend to March 2024. Thereafter, the agreements automatically renew until terminated by either party giving specified prior written notice to other party. Either party may also terminate either of the agreements in the event of a bankruptcy of the other party or upon an uncured material breach by the other party. In addition, Mundipharma has the right to

 

18


Table of Contents

terminate the distribution agreement in the event of material risk of personal injury to third parties or immediately by written notice with respect to any country if the market authorization for LODOTRA is cancelled in such country.

In November 2010, we entered into a second distribution agreement with Mundipharma for the commercialization of LODOTRA in several Asian countries, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, and a second manufacturing and supply agreement with Mundipharma Medical. Under the distribution agreement, we received an upfront payment of $3.5 million and may be entitled to additional aggregate milestone payments of up to $4.5 million. In March 2012, we amended the distribution agreement and the manufacturing and supply agreement to include certain Latin American countries. Under the March 2012 amendment to the distribution agreement, we may receive aggregate upfront and milestone payments of up to $2.0 million. In October 2013, we amended the distribution agreement and the manufacturing and supply agreement to include an additional 55 countries in the Middle Eastern and African regions. In September 2014, we further amended the distribution agreement and the manufacturing and supply agreement to include Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Brunei. As of December 31, 2014, under our distribution agreement we had received $0.2 million in milestone payments and $1.2 million associated with an upfront payment under the March 2012 amendment.

Under the distribution agreement, as amended, we granted Mundipharma the exclusive distribution and marketing rights pertaining to LODOTRA for: Australia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, México, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Uruguay, Bolivia, Panama, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and the Middle Eastern and African regions. Mundipharma will be responsible for obtaining regulatory approvals in these countries. We also granted Mundipharma an exclusive license to use our trademark for LODOTRA in these countries, and Mundipharma is allowed to commercialize LODOTRA under the LODOTRA trademark. Mundipharma is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain regulatory approval for and market LODOTRA and is prohibited from launching other oral corticosteroids in these countries during the term of the distribution agreement. If Mundipharma does not meet specified minimum volume targets, which range from thousands of tablets of product to millions of tablets of product on a country by country basis, over specified periods of time, the marketing rights granted under the distribution agreement will become nonexclusive with respect to the applicable country unless Mundipharma pays us the shortfall.

Under the manufacturing and supply agreement, as amended, Mundipharma Medical agreed to purchase LODOTRA exclusively from us with respect to the territories. We supply bulk product of LODOTRA to Mundipharma Medical at an adjustable price per tablet and Mundipharma is responsible for final packaging and distribution in the territory.

Subject to early termination, the terms of both of the November 2010 agreements are 15 years from the first product launch on a country by country basis. Thereafter, the agreements automatically renew until terminated by either party by giving specified prior written notice to other party. Either party may terminate either of the agreements early in the event of a change in control of the other party, bankruptcy of the other party, or upon an uncured material breach by the other party. Either party has the right to terminate the distribution agreement with respect to any country upon prior written notice if the volume target is not met in such country for reasons beyond its control. In addition, Mundipharma has the right to terminate the distribution agreement in the event of material risk of personal injury to third parties or immediately by written notice with respect to any country if the market authorization for LODOTRA is cancelled, withdrawn or suspended in such country. We also have the right, subject to certain conditions, to terminate the distribution agreement with respect to any country in the territory if within a specified period of time, Mundipharma fails to submit appropriate filings to obtain marketing authorization in the country or fails to initiate a clinical trial required for marketing authorization in the country.

Temmler Supply Agreement

We have entered into an agreement with Temmler Werke GmbH, or Temmler, for the packaging and assembling of RAYOS/LODOTRA. Pursuant to the agreement, we may order RAYOS/LODOTRA according to

 

19


Table of Contents

specified rolling forecasts. There are no minimum purchase requirements under the agreement and we may enter into agreements with other third-party packagers for RAYOS/LODOTRA. Subject to early termination, the agreement will remain in effect until December 21, 2015. Thereafter, the agreement automatically renews for additional one year periods unless either party provides notice to the other party at least twelve months prior to the expiration of the then-current period. Either party may also terminate the agreement at any time for an uncured material breach. In December 2013, Temmler provided us notice of termination. Therefore, subject to early termination, the agreement will terminate on December 21, 2015. In December 2012, Temmler was acquired by Aenova Group.

VIMOVO

AstraZeneca Asset Purchase Agreement

In November 2013, we entered into an asset purchase agreement with AstraZeneca pursuant to which we acquired from AstraZeneca and its affiliates certain intellectual property and other assets, and assumed from AstraZeneca and its affiliates certain liabilities, each with respect to VIMOVO, and obtained rights to develop other pharmaceutical products that contain gastroprotective agents in a single fixed combination oral solid dosage form with NSAIDs in the United States. Pursuant to the transactions contemplated by the asset purchase agreement, we acquired certain existing assets and rights necessary to commercialize VIMOVO in the United States including, among other things, the IND and NDA for VIMOVO in the United States, AstraZeneca’s interest in certain patents covering VIMOVO in the United States and certain promotional materials and records related to VIMOVO in the United States. Under the asset purchase agreement, we are also entitled to the benefit of a covenant not to sue granted by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. and certain of its affiliates, or collectively Merck, to AstraZeneca, with respect to certain patents owned by AstraZeneca but exclusively licensed to Merck, that cover the manufacture and commercialization of VIMOVO in the United States. In addition, under the asset purchase agreement, AstraZeneca assigned to us its amended and restated collaboration and license agreement for the United States with Pozen, pursuant to which AstraZeneca has in-licensed from Pozen certain patents and know-how of Pozen covering VIMOVO in the United States. The terms of the amended and restated collaboration and license agreement for the United States with Pozen, or the Pozen license agreement, are described below.

In November 2013, in connection with the closing of the transactions contemplated by the asset purchase agreement, we also entered into a license agreement with AstraZeneca, a supply agreement with AstraZeneca’s affiliate, AstraZeneca LP, and certain other agreements that are described below. We also executed a transition agreement with AstraZeneca pursuant to which AstraZeneca transitioned to us regulatory and commercial responsibility for VIMOVO in the United States. From the closing of the transaction until December 31, 2013, AstraZeneca continued to commercialize VIMOVO in the United States under AstraZeneca’s existing pricing and paid to us the net profits recognized on sales of VIMOVO in the United States. Beginning January 1, 2014, we commenced commercialization of VIMOVO in the United States on our own behalf and under new pricing for VIMOVO.

In consideration for the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we paid to AstraZeneca a one-time upfront cash payment of $35.0 million.

Following the closing of the transactions contemplated by the asset purchase agreement, we became responsible for and control matters relating to VIMOVO in the United States, including responsibility for commercialization of VIMOVO in the United States, responsibility for ongoing developmental and regulatory activities with respect to VIMOVO in the United States and responsibility for the current VIMOVO litigation with respect to the patents we purchased under the asset purchase agreement and the patents we licensed from Pozen under the Pozen license agreement. AstraZeneca continues to be responsible for and retains control of VIMOVO outside the United States.

 

20


Table of Contents

AstraZeneca License Agreement

In November 2013, in connection with the closing of the transactions contemplated by the asset purchase agreement, we entered into a license agreement with AstraZeneca, or the AstraZeneca license agreement, pursuant to which AstraZeneca granted us an exclusive license under certain intellectual property (including patents, know-how, trademarks, copyrights and domain names) of AstraZeneca and its affiliates to develop, manufacture and commercialize VIMOVO in the United States. AstraZeneca also granted us a non-exclusive license under certain intellectual property of AstraZeneca and its affiliates to manufacture, import, export and perform research and development activities with respect to VIMOVO outside the United States but solely for purposes of commercializing VIMOVO in the United States. In addition, AstraZeneca granted us a non-exclusive right of reference and use under certain regulatory documentation controlled by AstraZeneca and its affiliates to develop, manufacture and commercialize VIMOVO in the United States and to manufacture, import, export and perform research and development activities with respect to VIMOVO outside the United States but solely for purposes of commercializing VIMOVO in the United States.

Under the AstraZeneca license agreement, we granted AstraZeneca a non-exclusive sublicense under such licensed intellectual property and a non-exclusive right of reference under certain regulatory documentation controlled by us to manufacture, import, export and perform research and development activities with respect to VIMOVO in the United States but solely for purposes of commercializing VIMOVO outside the United States.

Under the AstraZeneca license agreement, we and our affiliates are subject to certain limitations and restrictions on our ability to develop, commercialize and seek regulatory approval with respect to VIMOVO or other products that contain gastroprotective agents in a single fixed combination oral solid dosage form with NSAIDs (excluding DUEXIS). These limitations and restrictions include, among other things, restrictions on indications for which we may commercialize VIMOVO or any such other products, restrictions on our ability to develop or seek regulatory approval with respect to such other products that contain esomeprazole, restrictions on our ability to develop or seek regulatory approval for VIMOVO for any indications other than the indications for which NSAIDs are indicated, and restrictions on our marketing activities with respect to VIMOVO and any such other products.

The AstraZeneca license agreement continues in full force and effect until terminated in accordance with its terms. Under the AstraZeneca license agreement, the parties may terminate upon mutual written agreement by the parties, or either party may terminate rights granted to us with respect to licensed trademarks and licensed domain names under the AstraZeneca license agreement upon uncured material breach by the other party of certain specified provisions of the AstraZeneca license agreement.

Amended and Restated Collaboration and License Agreement with Pozen; Letter Agreement with AstraZeneca and Pozen

Under the Pozen license agreement, Pozen granted us an exclusive, royalty-bearing license under certain of Pozen’s intellectual property in the United States to manufacture, develop and commercialize VIMOVO and other products controlled by us that contain gastroprotective agents in a single fixed combination oral solid dosage form with NSAIDs, excluding DUEXIS, in the United States.

Under the Pozen license agreement, we are required to pay Pozen a flat 10% royalty based on net sales of VIMOVO and such other products sold by us, our affiliates or sublicensees during the royalty term, subject to minimum annual royalty obligations of $5.0 million in 2014 and $7.5 million each year thereafter, which minimum royalty obligations will continue for each year during which one of Pozen’s patents covers such products in the United States and there are no competing products in the United States. The royalty rate may be reduced to a mid-single digit royalty rate as a result of loss of market share to competing products. Our obligation to pay royalties to Pozen will expire upon the later of (a) expiration of the last-to-expire of certain patents covering such products in the United States, and (b) ten years after the first commercial sale of such products in

 

21


Table of Contents

the United States. In addition, we will be obligated to reimburse Pozen for costs, including attorneys’ fees, incurred by Pozen in connection with VIMOVO patent litigation moving forward, subject to agreed caps.

We are responsible for, and are required to use diligent and reasonable efforts directed to commercializing VIMOVO or another qualified product in the United States. We will also own and maintain all regulatory filings and marketing approvals in the United States for any such products, including all INDs and NDAs for VIMOVO. Pozen covenanted that it will not at any time prior to the expiration of the royalty term, and will ensure that its affiliates do not, directly or indirectly, develop or commercialize or license any third party to develop or commercialize certain competing products in the United States.

The Pozen license agreement, unless earlier terminated, will expire upon expiration of the royalty term for all such products in the United States. Either party has the right to terminate the agreement upon uncured material breach by the other party or upon the bankruptcy or similar proceeding of the other party. We also have the right to terminate the Pozen license agreement for cause upon certain defined product failures.

In November 2013, in connection with the asset purchase agreement and the Pozen license agreement, we, AstraZeneca and Pozen entered into a letter agreement in which Pozen consented to AstraZeneca’s assignment of the Pozen license agreement to us and that addresses the rights and responsibilities of the parties in relation to the Pozen license agreement and the amended and restated collaboration and license agreement between Pozen and AstraZeneca for territories outside the United States, or the Pozen-AstraZeneca license agreement. Under the letter agreement, we and AstraZeneca agreed to pay Pozen milestone payments upon the achievement by us and AstraZeneca, collectively, of certain annual aggregate global net sales thresholds ranging from $550.0 million to $1.25 billion with respect to products licensed by Pozen to us under the Pozen license agreement and to AstraZeneca under the Pozen-AstraZeneca license agreement. The aggregate milestone payment amount that may be owed by AstraZeneca and us, collectively, under the letter agreement is $260.0 million, with the amount payable by each of us and AstraZeneca with respect to each milestone to be based upon the proportional sales achieved by each of us and AstraZeneca, respectively, in the applicable year.

The letter agreement will terminate with respect to Pozen and us upon the termination of the Pozen license agreement and will terminate with respect to Pozen and AstraZeneca upon the termination of the Pozen-AstraZeneca license agreement.

AstraZeneca Supply Agreement

In November 2013, in connection with the asset purchase agreement, we entered into a supply agreement with AstraZeneca pursuant to which AstraZeneca agreed to supply VIMOVO to us for commercialization in the United States. Under the supply agreement, AstraZeneca supplied the quantity of VIMOVO that we ordered, both for our own use and for use by our sublicensees, on a transitional basis through December 31, 2014. The supply agreement expired on December 31, 2014 and we have transitioned to Patheon for the manufacturing and supply of VIMOVO.

Patheon Agreement

In November 2013, we entered into a master manufacturing services agreement and product agreement, or, collectively, the Patheon manufacturing agreement, with Patheon, who is AstraZeneca’s contract manufacturer of VIMOVO, for the manufacture and supply of VIMOVO. Under the Patheon manufacturing agreement, we agreed to purchase a specified percentage of our VIMOVO requirements for the United States from Patheon or its affiliates. In addition, under the terms of the Patheon manufacturing agreement, we are able to enter into individual product agreements with Patheon for the manufacture of specific products in addition to VIMOVO if agreed by us and Patheon.

Pursuant to the Patheon manufacturing agreement, we are required to supply Patheon with any active materials for VIMOVO. We must pay an agreed price for final, packaged VIMOVO supplied by Patheon as set

 

22


Table of Contents

forth in the Patheon manufacturing agreement, subject to adjustments, including certain unilateral adjustments by Patheon, such as annual adjustments for inflation and adjustments to account for certain increases in the cost of components of VIMOVO other than active materials.

The Patheon manufacturing agreement will be effective until December 31, 2019 and will automatically renew for successive terms of three years each if there is any product agreement in effect, unless either party gives written notice to the other party of its intention to terminate the agreement at least 24 months prior to the end of the then current term. Either party may terminate the Patheon manufacturing agreement or any product agreement early for uncured material breach by the other party or upon the other party’s bankruptcy or insolvency. We may terminate any product agreement if any regulatory authority takes any action or raises any objection that prevents us from commercializing the product. Additionally, Patheon may terminate the Patheon manufacturing agreement or any product agreement early if we assign our rights or obligations under the Patheon manufacturing agreement or such product agreement to a competitor of Patheon or to a party that, in the reasonable opinion of Patheon, is not a credit worthy substitute for us, or in certain other circumstances where we assign the Patheon manufacturing agreement or product agreement without Patheon’s consent.

Sales and Marketing

Our current sales force is approximately 375 sales representatives consisting of 325 primary care sales representatives and 50 sales representatives in specialty and orphan diseases business areas. In June 2012, to increase the number of called-on physicians for DUEXIS and in anticipation of the potential FDA approval of RAYOS, we expanded of our sales force from 80 sales representatives to approximately 150 sales representatives. In December 2013, as a result of the acquisition of U.S. rights to VIMOVO from AstraZeneca, we further expanded our sales force to approximately 290, consisting of 250 primary care representatives and 40 rheumatology sales specialists and began marketing VIMOVO in early February 2014. As a result of the Merger, following which we began marketing ACTIMMUNE, and our recent acquisition of PENNSAID 2%, our sales force has increased to a total of approximately 375. Our primary care representatives are now marketing DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO. Our orphan sales force focuses on marketing to a limited number of healthcare practitioners who specialize in fields such as pediatric immunology, allergy, infectious diseases and hematology/oncology to help them understand the potential benefits of ACTIMMUNE for their patients with CGD and SMO. We announced the availability of Horizon-labeled PENNSAID 2% in the United States on January 2, 2015. We have, and expect to continue to, entered into agreements with third parties for commercialization of our products outside the United States.

In December 2014, we began execution of a comprehensive plan creating a new organization focused on the acceleration of our PME program to ensure continued growth of our NSAID portfolio in 2015. Through this program, physicians can have their patients’ prescriptions for our products shipped directly to the patient. Because the patient out of pocket cost for our products when dispensed through the PME program may be significantly lower than such costs when our products are dispensed outside of the PME program, prescriptions filled through our PME program are therefore less likely to be subject to the efforts of traditional pharmacies to switch a physician’s intended prescription of our products to a generic or over the counter brand. We expect that continued adoption of our PME program by physicians will be important to our ability to gain market share for our products as pressure from healthcare payors and pharmacy benefit managers, or PBMs, to use less expensive generic or over the counter brands instead of branded products increases.

Intellectual Property

Our objective is to aggressively patent the technology, inventions and improvements that we consider important to the development of our business. We have a portfolio of patents and applications based on clinical and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling discoveries, and our novel formulations. In addition, we have an exclusive license to pending U.S. and foreign patent applications from SkyePharma. We also have licenses to U.S.

 

23


Table of Contents

patents and patent applications and trademarks covering VIMOVO from Pozen and AstraZeneca, and PENNSAID 2% from Nuvo. We intend to continue filing patent applications seeking intellectual property protection as we generate anticipated formulation refinements, new methods of manufacturing and clinical trial results.

We will only be able to protect our technologies and products from unauthorized use by third parties to the extent that valid and enforceable patents or trade secrets cover them. As such, our commercial success will depend in part on receiving and maintaining patent protection and trade secret protection of our technologies and products as well as successfully defending these patents against third-party challenges.

On July 15, 2013, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Watson Laboratories, Inc. — Florida, known as Actavis Laboratories FL, Inc., or Watson, advising that Watson had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of RAYOS, containing up to 5 mg of prednisone. Watson has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On August 26, 2013, we, together with Jagotec, filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against WLF seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuit alleges that WLF has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 6,488,960, 6,677,326, 8,168,218, 8,309,124, and 8,394,407 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of RAYOS containing 1 mg, 2 mg, and 5 mg of prednisone prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of WLF’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. We, together with Jagotec have granted WLF a covenant not to sue with respect to US Patent Nos. 6,677,326 and 8,168,218, respectively, and accordingly these patents have been dismissed from the lawsuit. The Court held a claim construction hearing on October 16, 2014, and issued its opinion and order on claim construction on November 10, 2014, adopting our proposed construction of both of the disputed claim terms. The Court has scheduled expert discovery in the WLF action to be completed by June 2, 2015, and has set the pretrial conference for September 10, 2015. The trial date will be set following the pretrial conference.

On November 13, 2014, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Watson advising that Watson had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. Watson has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On December 23, 2014, we filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against Watson seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuit alleges that Watson has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,871,809 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of PENNSAID prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of Watson’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. The Court has not yet set a trial date for the Watson action.

On December 2, 2014, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification against Orange Book listed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,741,956 from Paddock Laboratories, LLC, or Paddock, advising that Paddock had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. On January 9, 2015, we received from Paddock another Paragraph IV Patent Certification against newly Orange Book listed U.S. Patent No. 8,871,809. Paddock has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On January 13, 2015 and January 14, 2015, we filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey and the United States District Court for the District of Delaware, respectively, against Paddock seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuits alleged that Paddock has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,871,809 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of PENNSAID 2% prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of Paddock’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. The Courts have not yet set trial dates for the Paddock actions.

 

24


Table of Contents

Currently, patent litigation is pending in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against four generic companies intending to market VIMOVO before the expiration of patents listed in the Orange Book. These cases are in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey and have been consolidated for discovery purposes. They are collectively known as the VIMOVO cases, and involve the following sets of defendants: (i) Dr. Reddy’s; (ii) Lupin; (iii) Mylan; and (iv) Actavis. Patent litigation in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against a fifth generic company, Anchen, was dismissed on June 9, 2014 after Anchen recertified under Paragraph III. We understand that Dr. Reddy’s has entered into a settlement with AstraZeneca with respect to patent rights directed to Nexium for the commercialization of VIMOVO, and that according to the settlement agreement, Dr. Reddy’s is now able to commercialize VIMOVO under AstraZeneca’s Nexium patent rights. The settlement agreement, however, has no effect on the Pozen VIMOVO patents, which are still the subject of patent litigations. As part of our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we have taken over and are responsible for the patent litigations that include the Pozen patents licensed to us under the Pozen license agreement.

The VIMOVO cases were filed on April 21, 2011, July 25, 2011, October 28, 2011, January 4, 2013, May 10, 2013, June 28, 2013 and October 23, 2013 and collectively include allegations of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,926,907 and 8,557,285. We understand the cases arise from Paragraph IV Notice Letters providing notice of the filing of an ANDA with the FDA seeking regulatory approval to market a generic version of VIMOVO before the expiration of the patents-in-suit. We understand the Dr. Reddy’s notice letters were dated March 11, 2011 and November 20, 2012; the Lupin notice letter were dated June 10, 2011 and March 12, 2014; the Mylan notice letter was dated May 16, 2013; the Actavis notice letters were dated March 29, 2013 and November 5, 2013; and the Anchen notice letter was dated September 16, 2011. The court has issued a claims construction order and has set a pretrial schedule but has not yet set a trial date.

On or about December 19, 2014, we filed a Notice of Opposition to a European patent, EP 2611457, to Roberto Testi, et al., covering compositions and methods for treating FA with interferon gamma, e.g., ACTIMMUNE. In the European Union, the grant of a patent may be opposed by one or more private parties.

On February 2, 2015, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification against Orange Book listed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, 8,741,956, and 8,871,809 from Taro Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. and Taro Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd., or collectively Taro, advising that Taro had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. Taro has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. We are still in the process of evaluating the Paragraph IV Patent Certification, and it is anticipated we will file suit against Taro within the statutorily prescribed 45 day time limit.

We intend to vigorously defend our intellectual property rights relating to ACTIMMUNE, DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS and VIMOVO, but we cannot predict the outcome of the WLF matter related to RAYOS or the DRL cases, the Mylan cases or the Watson cases related to VIMOVO, or the Watson and Paddock cases related to PENNSAID 2%. Any adverse outcome in these matters or any new generic challenges that may arise could result in one or more generic versions of ACTIMMUNE, DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS and/or VIMOVO, being launched before the expiration of the listed patents, which could adversely affect our ability to successfully execute our business strategy to increase sales of ACTIMMUNE, DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS and/or VIMOVO and would negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations, including causing a significant decrease in our revenues and cash flows.

In the United States, in addition to any patent protection, DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS and VIMOVO, have been granted three years of marketing exclusivity as a Section 505(b)(2) NDA. This marketing exclusivity period for each product began upon marketing approval of such product and runs in parallel with any patents that have issued or we expect to be issued protecting such product. In the European Union, LODOTRA has received 10 years of marketing exclusivity protection, beginning with its March 2009 marketing authorization in Germany. We anticipate that DUEXIS will also receive 10 years of marketing exclusivity upon European approval on a country by country basis.

 

25


Table of Contents

The patent positions of life sciences companies can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions for which important legal principles remain unresolved. No consistent policy regarding the breadth of claims allowed in such companies’ patents has emerged to date in the United States. The patent situation outside the United States is even more uncertain. Changes in either the patent laws or in interpretations of patent laws in the United States or other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property. Accordingly, we cannot predict the breadth of claims that may be allowed or enforced in our patents or in third-party patents. For example:

 

   

we or our licensors might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by each of our pending patent applications and issued patents;

 

   

we or our licensors might not have been the first to file patent applications for these inventions;

 

   

others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies;

 

   

it is possible that none of our pending patent applications or the pending patent applications of our licensors will result in issued patents;

 

   

our issued patents and the issued patents of our licensors may not provide a basis for commercially viable drugs, or may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be challenged and invalidated by third parties;

 

   

we may not be successful in any patent litigation to enforce our patent rights, including our pending patent litigation regarding, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS and/or VIMOVO;

 

   

we may not develop additional proprietary technologies or product candidates that are patentable; or

 

   

the patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business.

Competition

Our industry is highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change. Our potential competitors include large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies and generic drug companies, although we are not currently aware of any other delayed release prednisone drug, ibuprofen/famotidine combination drug or naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium combination drug in development. We believe that the key competitive factors that will affect the commercial success of ACTIMMUNE, DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS/LODOTRA and/or VIMOVO, as well as future drug candidates that we may develop, are efficacy, safety and tolerability profile, convenience in dosing, price and reimbursement.

DUEXIS and VIMOVO

DUEXIS and VIMOVO compete with other branded NSAIDs, including Celebrex, marketed by Pfizer Inc. Celebrex is an NSAID that selectively inhibits the COX-2 enzyme and is an effective anti-arthritic agent that reduces the risk of ulceration compared to traditional NSAIDs such as ibuprofen.

In general, DUEXIS and VIMOVO also face competition from the separate use of NSAIDs for pain relief and ulcer medications to address the risk of NSAID-induced ulcers. Use of these therapies separately in generic form may be less expensive than DUEXIS and VIMOVO. In addition, physicians could begin to prescribe both an NSAID and a GI protectant to be taken together but in separate pills. We expect to compete with the separate use of NSAIDs and ulcer medications primarily through DUEXIS’ and VIMOVO’s advantages in dosing convenience and patient compliance, and by educating physicians about such advantages, including through funding we have provided for the American Gastroenterology Association to help physicians and patients better understand and manage NSAID risks. We expect DUEXIS will be the only product containing a histamine-2 receptor antagonist with an indication to reduce the risk of NSAID-induced upper GI ulcers and that VIMOVO will be the only product containing a PPI with an indication to reduce the risk of NSAID-induced ulcers.

 

26


Table of Contents

ACTIMMUNE

ACTIMMUNE presently faces little competition. ACTIMMUNE is the only drug currently approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment for CGD and SMO. While there are additional or alternative approaches used to treat patients with CGD and SMO, there are currently no products on the market that compete directly with ACTIMMUNE.

PENNSAID 2%

PENNSAID 2% faces competition from generic versions of PENNSAID 1.5% which are priced significantly less than the price we charge for PENNSAID 2%. In addition, PENNSAID 2% competes with two other branded topical NSAIDS, including Voltaren® Gel, marketed by Endo Pharmaceuticals, which is the market leader in the topical NSAID category. We expect to compete with these other products primarily through PENNSAID 2%’s dosing convenience and patient compliance. Unlike the other two products that are dosed four times per day and require the patient to measure out the correct dose, only PENNSAID 2% is easy to apply with the convenience of twice-daily dosing and a metered-dose pump, which ensures that the patient will get the correct amount of PENNSAID 2% solution each time.

RAYOS/LODOTRA

RAYOS/LODOTRA competes in Europe and in the United States with a number of products on the market to treat RA, including corticosteroids, such as prednisone, traditional DMARDs, such as methotrexate and biologic agents, such as HUMIRA and Enbrel. The majority of RA patients, however, are treated with DMARDs. DMARDs, such as methotrexate, are typically used as initial therapy in patients with RA whereas biologic agents are typically added to DMARDs as combination therapy. It is common for an RA patient to take a combination of a DMARD, an oral glucocorticoid, an NSAID and/or a biologic agent.

Manufacturing

All of our products are currently supplied by contract manufacturers. All manufacturing facilities contracted by us are registered with the FDA, European Medicines Agency, or EMA, and other internationally recognized regulatory authorities. In addition, these facilities have been audited by these agencies to confirm compliance. We do not at this time plan to build manufacturing facilities and currently plan to continue to scale our operations using contract manufacturers.

ACTIMMUNE

ACTIMMUNE, interferon gamma-1b, is a recombinant protein that is produced by fermentation of a genetically engineered Escherichia coli bacterium containing the DNA which encodes for the human protein. Purification of the active drug substance is achieved by conventional column chromatography. The resulting active drug substance is then formulated as a highly purified sterile solution and filled in a single-use vial for subcutaneous injection, which is the ACTIMMUNE finished drug product. In support of its manufacturing process, we and Boehringer Ingelheim store multiple vials of the Escherichia coli bacterium master cell bank and working cell bank in order to ensure that it will have adequate backup should any cell bank be lost in a catastrophic event.

We have an exclusive supply agreement with Boehringer Ingelheim to manufacture the active drug substance and commercial quantities of ACTIMMUNE finished drug product. Boehringer Ingelheim manufactures the active drug substance at its production facility in Vienna, Austria, and the finished drug product at its facility in Biberach an der Riss, Germany. Boehringer Ingelheim also provides us quality assurance testing for ACTIMMUNE. The processes used to manufacture and test ACTIMMUNE are complex and subject to FDA inspection and approval. The ACTIMMUNE active drug substance has a shelf life of 36 months from the date of manufacture and the ACTIMMUNE finished drug product has a shelf life of 36 months from the date of filling of

 

27


Table of Contents

the single-use vial. Under the terms of this agreement, we are required to purchase minimum quantities of finished drug product of 75,000 vials per annum. Boehringer Ingelheim manufactures our commercial requirements of ACTIMMUNE on an annual basis, and based on our forecasts and the annual contractual minimum purchase quantity. The supply agreement has a term that runs until July 31, 2020 and which can be further renewed by agreement between parties.

DUEXIS

The DUEXIS manufacturing process is well-established and we validated the process in accordance with regulatory requirements prior to commercialization in the United States. We have contracted with internationally recognized pharmaceutical companies with operations in North America and Europe for contract manufacturing and packaging. In May 2011, we entered into a long-term supply and manufacturing agreement with sanofi-aventis U.S. for the manufacture of DUEXIS. In November 2011, the FDA approved the use of the sanofi-aventis Canada Inc. manufacturing site in Laval, Quebec to manufacture DUEXIS. In December 2011, Valeant acquired Dermik, a dermatology unit of sanofi-aventis U.S., which includes the Laval, Canada site. Although Valeant has taken over management and operations at the Laval, Canada facility, our manufacturing agreement remains with sanofi-aventis U.S.

The first API in DUEXIS is ibuprofen in a direct compression blend called DC85, which is manufactured by BASF in Bishop, Texas. DC85 is a proprietary blend of ibuprofen and manufacturing capacity and batch quantities are currently sufficient to meet our forecasted commercial requirements. DC85 is manufactured in compliance with the FDA’s current good manufacturing practices regulations for pharmaceuticals, or cGMPs. The second API in DUEXIS is famotidine, which is available from a number of international suppliers. We purchase famotidine manufactured by Dr. Reddy’s in India. Dr. Reddy’s has been audited by the FDA and found to be compliant in all aspects of the product. Our personnel have also completed audits of each supplier location and did not identify any critical cGMP deficiencies. We currently receive both APIs in powder form and each is blended with a number of U.S. Pharmacopeia inactive ingredients. We purchase DUEXIS in final, packaged form exclusively from sanofi-aventis U.S. for our commercial requirements for DUEXIS in North America and certain countries and territories in Europe, including the European Union member states and Scandinavia, and South America.

PENNSAID 2%

In October 2014, in connection with the acquisition of the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% from Nuvo, we entered into an exclusive supply agreement with Nuvo. Under the supply agreement, Nuvo will manufacture and supply PENNSAID 2% to us at its manufacturing site in Varennes Québec, Canada. We have committed to a binding purchase order to Nuvo for delivery of PENNSAID 2%. In addition, at least 90 days prior to the first day of each calendar month during the term of the supply agreement, we are required to submit a binding written purchase order to Nuvo for PENNSAID 2% in minimum batch quantities. The initial term of our supply agreement is through December 31, 2022, but the agreement may be terminated earlier by either party for any uncured material breach by the other party of its obligations under the supply agreement or upon the bankruptcy or similar proceeding of the other party.

A key excipient used in PENNSAID as a penetration enhancer is dimethyl sulfoxide, or DMSO. Horizon and Nuvo rely on a sole proprietary form of DMSO for which we maintain a substantial safety stock. However, should this supply become inadequate, damaged, destroyed or unusable, we and Nuvo may not be able to qualify a second source.

RAYOS/LODOTRA

We rely on well-established third-party manufacturers for the manufacture of RAYOS/LODOTRA. In Europe, we retain quality responsibility for RAYOS/LODOTRA by controlling the final release of products. We purchase the primary active ingredients for RAYOS/LODOTRA from Tianjin Tianyao Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. in China and from Sanofi Chimie SA in France.

 

28


Table of Contents

We have contracted with Jagotec for the production of RAYOS/LODOTRA tablets. Jagotec produces RAYOS/LODOTRA operating through its affiliate SkyePharma. The SkyePharma production site in Lyon, France, complies with cGMP requirements and has been audited by the FDA for the production of several sustained release tablets employing SkyePharma’s GeoMatrix technology. In August 2011, SkyePharma leased their entire pharmaceutical manufacturing business to Aenova, and Aenova is now a subcontractor for Jagotec for the manufacture of RAYOS/LODOTRA, with our consent. We consider Aenova an experienced and reliable contract manufacturer dedicated largely to advanced oral dosage forms. The commercial scale production of RAYOS/LODOTRA tablets was implemented prior to the launch of LODOTRA in Europe in 2009. Under our manufacturing and supply agreement, we were required to purchase RAYOS/LODOTRA exclusively from Jagotec through April 2014, after which we are be able to purchase RAYOS/LODOTRA from other manufacturers if we choose.

Pursuant to a letter agreement between Jagotec and us, Jagotec agreed to allow us to give Bayer the right to manufacture, test and release quantities of RAYOS/LODOTRA in order to establish and maintain Bayer as a manufacturer of RAYOS/LODOTRA. Under certain circumstances, we may also purchase shortfall quantities of RAYOS/LODOTRA from Bayer to the extent Jagotec is unable to supply us. In March 2013, we entered into an agreement with Bayer to allow us to purchase quantities of RAYOS/LODOTRA for these purposes. After our manufacturing license from Jagotec becomes effective, we may also purchase quantities of RAYOS/LODOTRA from Bayer pursuant to our agreement with Bayer.

Analytical testing of RAYOS/LODOTRA is conducted by PHAST GmbH, a German provider of contract analytical services. The packaging of RAYOS/LODOTRA tablets is conducted by Temmler in Munich, Germany. Temmler was acquired by the Aenova Group in December 2012. Catalent Pharma Solutions in Schorndorf, Germany is registered as a second packaging site for Europe and U.S. supplies.

VIMOVO

In November 2013, in connection with our asset purchase agreement with AstraZeneca for VIMOVO, we entered into a transitional supply agreement with AstraZeneca pursuant to which AstraZeneca supplied VIMOVO to us for commercialization in the United States through December 31, 2014. We have completed transitioning the supply chain to third parties (including the packaging).

As part of this transition, in November 2013, we entered into a manufacturing agreement with Patheon, who was AstraZeneca’s contract bulk supply manufacturer of VIMOVO, pursuant to which Patheon will manufacture and package VIMOVO for us through December 31, 2019. Naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate, the APIs in VIMOVO, are manufactured by Patheon into finished packaged tablets at its Cincinnati, Ohio manufacturing site. In March 2014, we entered into a manufacturing and supply agreement with Divis Laboratories Limited, or Divis, in India for the supply of naproxen. Also, in March 2014, we entered into a manufacturing and supply agreement with Minakem Holding SAS, or Minakem, in France for the supply of esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate.

Distribution

Finished tablets of DUEXIS, RAYOS and VIMOVO, vials of ACTIMMUNE, and bottles of PENNSAID 2% are shipped to central third-party logistics FDA-compliant warehouses for storage and distribution into the supply chain. Our third-party logistics providers specialize in integrated operations that include warehousing and transportation services that can be scaled and customized to our needs based on market conditions and the demands and delivery service requirements for our products and materials. Their services eliminate the need to build dedicated internal infrastructures that would be difficult to scale without significant capital investment. Our third-party logistics provider warehouses all finished product in controlled FDA-registered facilities. Incoming orders are prepared and shipped through an order entry system to ensure just in time delivery of the products.

 

29


Table of Contents

Third-Party Coverage and Reimbursement

In both U.S. and foreign markets, our ability to commercialize our products successfully depends in significant part on the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement to healthcare providers from third-party payers, including, in the United States, government payers such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs, managed care organizations and private health insurers. Third-party payers are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medicines and examining their cost effectiveness, in addition to their safety and efficacy. This is especially true in markets where over the counter and generic options exist. Even if coverage is made available by a third-party payer, the reimbursement rates paid for covered products might not be adequate. For example, third-party payers may use tiered coverage and may adversely affect demand for our products by not covering our products or by placing them in a more expensive formulary tier relative to competitive products (where patients have to pay relatively more out of pocket than for products in a lower tier). We cannot be certain that our products will be covered by third-party payers or that such coverage, where available, will be adequate, or that our products will successfully be placed on the list of drugs covered by particular health plan formularies. Many states have also created preferred drug lists and include drugs on those lists only when the manufacturers agree to pay a supplemental rebate. The industry competition to be included on such formularies and preferred drug lists often leads to downward pricing pressures on pharmaceutical companies. Also, third-party payers may refuse to include a particular branded drug on their formularies or otherwise restrict patient access to a branded drug when a less costly generic equivalent or other therapeutic alternative is available. In addition, because each third-party payer individually approves coverage and reimbursement levels, obtaining coverage and adequate reimbursement is a time-consuming and costly process. We may be required to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of any product to each third-party payer separately with no assurance that approval would be obtained, and we may need to conduct pharmacoeconomic studies to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of our products for formulary coverage and reimbursement. Even with studies, our products may be considered less safe, less effective or less cost-effective than competitive products, and third-party payers may not provide coverage and adequate reimbursement for our products or our product candidates. These pricing and reimbursement pressures may create negative perceptions to any product price increases, or limit the amount we may be able to increase our product prices, which may adversely affect our product sales and results of operations. Where coverage and reimbursement are not adequate, physicians may limit how much or under what circumstances they will prescribe or administer such products, and patients may decline to purchase them. This, in turn, could affect our ability to successfully commercialize our products and impact our profitability, results of operations, financial condition, and future success.

The U.S. market has seen a trend in which retail pharmacies have become increasingly involved in determining which prescriptions will be filled with the requested product or a substitute product, based on a number of factors, including potentially perceived product costs and benefits, as well as payer substitution policies. Many states have in place requirements for prescribers to indicate in writing on their prescriptions if they do not want pharmacies to make substitutions; these requirements are varied and not consistent across states. We may need to increasingly spend time and resources to ensure the prescriptions written for our products are filled as written, where appropriate.

Coverage policies, third-party reimbursement rates and product pricing regulation may change at any time. Even if favorable coverage and adequate reimbursement status is attained for one or more products that receive regulatory approval, less favorable coverage policies and reimbursement rates may be implemented in the future.

Government Regulation

The FDA and comparable regulatory agencies in state and local jurisdictions and in foreign countries impose extensive requirements upon the clinical development, pre-market approval, manufacture, labeling, marketing, promotion, pricing, import, export, storage and distribution of pharmaceutical products. These agencies and other regulatory agencies regulate research and development activities and the testing, approval, manufacture, quality control, safety, effectiveness, labeling, storage, recordkeeping, advertising and promotion of

 

30


Table of Contents

drugs. Failure to comply with applicable FDA or foreign regulatory agency requirements may result in Warning Letters, fines, civil or criminal penalties, suspension or delays in clinical development, recall or seizure of products, partial or total suspension of production or withdrawal of a product from the market.

In the United States, the FDA regulates drug products under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FFDCA, and its implementing regulations and biologics additionally under the Public Health Service Act. The process required by the FDA before product candidates may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

 

   

submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin and must be updated annually;

 

   

completion of extensive preclinical laboratory tests and preclinical animal studies, all performed in accordance with the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practice, or GLP, regulations;

 

   

performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the product candidate for each proposed indication;

 

   

submission to the FDA of an NDA or biologics license application, or BLA, as appropriate, after completion of all pivotal clinical trials;

 

   

a determination by the FDA within 60 days of its receipt of an NDA or BLA to file the application for review;

 

   

satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities to assess compliance with cGMP regulations; and

 

   

FDA review and approval of an NDA or BLA prior to any commercial marketing or sale of the product in the United States.

The development and approval process requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and we cannot be certain that any approvals for our product candidates will be granted on a timely basis, if at all.

The results of preclinical tests (which include laboratory evaluation as well as GLP studies to evaluate toxicity in animals) for a particular product candidate, together with related manufacturing information and analytical data, are submitted as part of an IND to the FDA. The IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA, within the 30-day time period, raises concerns or questions about the conduct of the proposed clinical trial, including concerns that human research subjects will be exposed to unreasonable health risks. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. IND submissions may not result in FDA authorization to commence a clinical trial. A separate submission to an existing IND must also be made for each successive clinical trial conducted during product development. Further, an independent institutional review board, or IRB, for each medical center proposing to conduct the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at that center and it must monitor the study until completed. The FDA, the IRB or the sponsor may suspend a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Clinical testing also must satisfy extensive good clinical practice regulations and regulations for informed consent and privacy of individually identifiable information. Similar requirements to the U.S. IND are required in the EEA and other jurisdictions in which we may conduct clinical trials. Investigator-sponsored or investigator-initiated clinical trials are studies for which the investigator holds the IND, or equivalent regulatory filing in foreign jurisdictions, and is responsible for compliance with both the investigator and sponsor requirements under applicable law.

Clinical Trials. For purposes of NDA or BLA submission and approval, clinical trials are typically conducted in the following sequential phases, which may overlap:

 

   

Phase 1 Clinical Trials. Studies are initially conducted in a limited population to test the product candidate for safety, dose tolerance, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, typically in healthy humans, but in some cases in patients.

 

31


Table of Contents
   

Phase 2 Clinical Trials. Studies are generally conducted in a limited patient population to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, explore the initial efficacy of the product for specific targeted indications and to determine dose range or pharmacodynamics. Multiple Phase 2 clinical trials may be conducted by the sponsor to obtain information prior to beginning larger and more expensive Phase 3 clinical trials.

 

   

Phase 3 Clinical Trials. These are commonly referred to as pivotal studies. When Phase 2 evaluations demonstrate that a dose range of the product is effective and has an acceptable safety profile, Phase 3 clinical trials are undertaken in large patient populations to further evaluate dosage, provide substantial evidence of clinical efficacy and further test for safety in an expanded and diverse patient population at multiple, geographically dispersed clinical trial centers.

 

   

Phase 4 Clinical Trials. The FDA may approve an NDA for a product candidate, but require that the sponsor conduct additional clinical trials to further assess the drug after NDA approval under a postmarketing commitment. In addition, a sponsor may decide to conduct additional clinical trials after the FDA has approved an NDA. Post-approval trials are typically referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials.

The results of drug development, preclinical studies and clinical trials are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA or BLA, as appropriate. Applications also must contain extensive chemistry, manufacturing and control information. Applications must be accompanied by a significant user fee. Once the submission has been accepted for filing, the FDA’s goal is to review applications within 12 months of submission or, if the application relates to an unmet medical need in a serious or life-threatening indication, eight months from submission. The review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification. The FDA will typically conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturer to ensure that the product can be reliably produced in compliance with cGMPs. The FDA may refer the application to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, but it typically follows such recommendations. The FDA may deny approval of an application by issuing a Complete Response Letter if the applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied. A Complete Response Letter may require additional clinical data and/or an additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s), and/or other significant, expensive and time- consuming requirements related to clinical trials, preclinical studies or manufacturing. Data from clinical trials are not always conclusive and the FDA may interpret data differently than we or our collaborators interpret data. Approval may occur with Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies, or REMS, which limit the labeling, distribution or promotion of a drug product. Once issued, the FDA may withdraw product approval if ongoing regulatory requirements are not met or if safety problems occur after the product reaches the market. In addition, the FDA may require testing, including Phase 4 clinical trials, and surveillance programs to monitor the safety effects of approved products which have been commercialized, and the FDA has the power to prevent or limit further marketing of a product based on the results of these post-marketing programs or other information.

The DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS and VIMOVO NDAs were submitted under Section 505(b)(2) of the FFDCA. Section 505(b)(2) was enacted as part of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, also known as the Hatch-Waxman Act. This statutory provision permits the approval of an NDA where at least some of the information required for approval comes from studies not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits the applicant to rely in part upon the FDA’s findings of safety and effectiveness for previously approved products, such as ibuprofen, famotidine and prednisone.

DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS and VIMOVO have obtained, and any other products of ours approved by the FDA could obtain, three years of Hatch-Waxman marketing exclusivity, based upon our conducting or sponsoring new clinical investigations that are essential to approval of the respective NDA. Under this form of exclusivity, the FDA would be precluded from approving a generic drug application or, in some cases, another 505(b)(2) application for a drug product for the protected conditions of approval (for example, a product that incorporates the change or innovation represented by our product) for a period of three years, although the FDA

 

32


Table of Contents

may accept and commence review of such applications at any time. However, this form of exclusivity would not prevent the FDA from approving an NDA that relies on its own clinical data to support the change or innovation. Further, if another company obtains approval for either product candidate for the same indication we are studying before we do, our approval could be blocked until the other company’s Hatch-Waxman marketing exclusivity expires.

Other Regulatory Requirements. Products manufactured or distributed pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including recordkeeping, annual product quality review, payment of product and manufacturing establishment fees and reporting requirements. Adverse event experience with the product must be reported to the FDA in a timely fashion and pharmacovigilance programs to proactively look for these adverse events are mandated by the FDA. Our products may be subject to REMS requirements that affect labeling, distribution or post market reporting. Drug manufacturers and their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with ongoing regulatory requirements, including cGMPs, which impose certain procedural and documentation requirements upon us and our third-party manufacturers. Following such inspections, the FDA may issue notices on Form 483 and Untitled Letters or Warning Letters that could cause us or our third-party manufacturers to modify certain activities. A Form 483 notice, if issued at the conclusion of an FDA inspection, can list conditions the FDA investigators believe may have violated cGMP or other FDA regulations or guidelines. In addition to Form 483 notices and Untitled Letters or Warning Letters, failure to comply with the statutory and regulatory requirements can subject a manufacturer to possible legal or regulatory action, such as suspension of manufacturing, seizure of product, injunctive action or possible civil penalties. We cannot be certain that we or our present or future third-party manufacturers or suppliers will be able to comply with the cGMP regulations and other ongoing FDA regulatory requirements. If we or our present or future third-party manufacturers or suppliers are not able to comply with these requirements, the FDA requires us to recall a drug from distribution or withdraw approval for that product.

The FDA closely regulates the post-approval marketing and promotion of pharmaceuticals, including standards and regulations for direct-to-consumer advertising, dissemination of off-label information, industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities and promotional activities involving the Internet, including certain social media activities. Products may be marketed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. Further, if there are any modifications to the product, including changes in indications, labeling, or manufacturing processes or facilities, we may be required to submit and obtain FDA approval of a new or supplemental application, which may require us to develop additional data or conduct additional preclinical studies and clinical trials. Failure to comply with these requirements can result in adverse publicity, Warning Letters or “untitled letters”, corrective advertising and potential administrative, civil and criminal penalties, as well as damages, fines, withdrawal of regulatory approval, the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, the exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs and imprisonment, any of which could adversely affect our ability to sell our products or operate our business and also adversely affect our financial results.

Physicians may, in their independent medical judgment, prescribe legally available pharmaceuticals for uses that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those tested by us and approved by the FDA. Such off-label uses are common across medical specialties. Physicians may believe that such off-label uses are the best treatment for many patients in varied circumstances. The FDA does not regulate the behavior of physicians in their choice of treatments. The FDA does, however, impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use. Additionally, a significant number of pharmaceutical companies have been the target of inquiries and investigations by various U.S. federal and state regulatory, investigative, prosecutorial and administrative entities in connection with the promotion of products for off-label uses and other sales practices. These investigations have alleged violations of various U.S. federal and state laws and regulations, including claims asserting antitrust violations, violations of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, false claims laws, the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, anti-kickback laws, and other alleged violations in connection with the promotion of products for unapproved uses, pricing and Medicare and/or Medicaid reimbursement. If

 

33


Table of Contents

our promotional activities, including any promotional activities that a contracted sales force may perform on our behalf, fail to comply with these regulations or guidelines, we may be subject to warnings from, or enforcement action by, these authorities. In addition, our failure to follow FDA rules and guidelines relating to promotion and advertising may cause the FDA to issue warning letters or untitled letters, suspend or withdraw an approved product from the market, require a recall or institute fines or civil fines, or could result in disgorgement of money, operating restrictions, injunctions or criminal prosecution, any of which could harm our business. Thus, we are only permitted to market ACTIMMUNE, DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS and VIMOVO for their approved indications and we could be subject to enforcement actions under various statutes if we engage in any off-label marketing.

In addition, the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical products is subject to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, or PDMA, which regulates the distribution of drugs and drug samples at the federal level, and sets minimum standards for the registration and regulation of drug distributors by the states. Both the PDMA and state laws limit the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical product samples and impose requirements to ensure accountability in distribution, including a drug pedigree which tracks the distribution of prescription drugs. Further, under the recently enacted Drug Quality and Security Act, drug manufacturers are subject to a number of requirements, including, product identification, tracing and verification, among others, that are designed to improve the detection and removal of counterfeit, stolen, contaminated or otherwise potentially harmful drugs from the U.S. drug supply chain. These requirements will be phased in over several years and compliance with this new law will likely increase the costs of the manufacture and distribution of drug products, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

Outside the United States, our partners’ ability to market a product is contingent upon obtaining marketing authorization from the appropriate regulatory authorities. The requirements governing marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement vary widely from country to country.

In the EMA (which is comprised of the 27 Member States of the European Union, plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein), medicinal products can only be commercialized after obtaining an MA. There are three types of marketing authorizations:

 

   

the Community MA, which is issued by the European Commission through the Centralized Procedure, based on the opinion of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the EMA, and which is valid throughout the entire territory of the EEA. The Centralized Procedure is mandatory for certain types of products, such as biotechnology medicinal products, orphan medicinal products, and medicinal products containing a new active substance indicated for the treatment of AIDS, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, autoimmune and viral diseases. The Centralized Procedure is optional for products containing a new active substance not yet authorized in the EEA, or for products that constitute a significant therapeutic, scientific or technical innovation or which are in the interest of public health in the European Union.

 

   

Decentralized Procedure (DCP) MAs are available for products not falling within the mandatory scope of the Centralized Procedure. An identical dossier is submitted to the competent authorities of each of the Member States in which the MA is sought, one of which is selected by the applicant as the RMS. The competent authority of the RMS prepares a draft assessment report, a draft summary of the product characteristics, or SPC, and a draft of the labeling and package leaflet, which are sent to the other Member States (referred to as the Concerned Member States, or CMS, for their approval. If the CMS raise no objections, based on a potential serious risk to public health, to the assessment, SPC, labeling, or packaging proposed by the RMS, the product is subsequently granted a national MA in all of the selected Member States (i.e. in the RMS and the selected CMS). Where a product has already been authorized for marketing in a Member State of the EEA, this DCP approval can be recognized in other Member States through the Mutual Recognition Procedure, or MRP.

 

   

National Procedure MAs, which are issued by a single competent authority of the Member States of the EEA and only covers their respective territory, are also available for products not falling within the

 

34


Table of Contents
 

mandatory scope of the Centralized Procedure. Once a product has been authorized for marketing in a Member State of the EEA through the National Procedure, this National MA can also be recognized in other Member States through the MRP.

Under the procedures described above, before granting the MA, the EMA or the competent authority(ies) of the Member State(s) of the EEA make an assessment of the risk-benefit balance of the product on the basis of scientific criteria concerning its quality, safety and efficacy.

Under Regulation (EC) No 726/2004/EC and Directive 2001/83/EC (each as amended), the European Union has adopted a harmonized approach to data and marketing exclusivity (known as the 8 + 2 + 1 formula). The approach permits eight years of data exclusivity and 10 years of marketing exclusivity. An additional non-cumulative one-year period of marketing exclusivity is possible if during the data exclusivity period (the first eight years of the 10-year marketing exclusivity period), the MA holder obtains an authorization for one or more new therapeutic indications that are deemed to bring a significant clinical benefit compared to existing therapies.

The data exclusivity period begins on the date of the product’s first MA in the European Union and prevents generics from relying on the marketing authorization holder’s pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical data for a period of eight years. After eight years, a generic product application may be submitted and generic companies may rely on the marketing authorization holder’s data. However, a generic cannot launch until two years later (or a total of 10 years after the first marketing authorization in the European Union of the innovator product), or three years later (or a total of 11 years after the first MA in the European Union of the innovator product) if the MA holder obtains marketing authorization for a new indication with significant clinical benefit within the eight-year data exclusivity period.

The 8 + 2 + 1 exclusivity scheme applies to products that have been authorized in the European Union by either the EMA through the Centralized Procedure or the competent authorities of the Member States of the EEA (under the Decentralized, or Mutual Recognition procedures).

The holder of a Community MA or National MA is subject to various obligations under applicable EEA regulations, such as pharmacovigilance obligations, requiring it to, among other things, report and maintain detailed records of adverse reactions, and to submit periodic safety update reports to the competent authorities. The holder must also ensure that the manufacturing and batch release of its product is in compliance with the applicable requirements. The MA holder is further obligated to ensure that the advertising and promotion of its products complies with applicable laws, which can differ from Member State to Member State of the EEA.

Healthcare Fraud and Abuse Laws. As a pharmaceutical company, certain federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse and patients’ rights are and will be applicable to our business. We may be subject to various federal and state laws targeting fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry. For example, in the United States, there are federal and state anti-kickback laws that prohibit the payment or receipt of kickbacks, bribes or other remuneration intended to induce the purchase or recommendation of healthcare products and services or reward past purchases or recommendations. Violations of these laws can lead to civil and criminal penalties, including fines, imprisonment and exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs. These laws are potentially applicable to manufacturers of products regulated by the FDA, such as us, and pharmacies, hospitals, physicians and other potential purchasers of such products.

The federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual, or the furnishing, recommending, or arranging for a good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The term “remuneration” is not defined in the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value, including for example, gifts, discounts, the furnishing of supplies or equipment, credit arrangements, payments of cash, waivers of payment, ownership interests and providing anything at less than its fair market value. Several courts

 

35


Table of Contents

have interpreted the statute’s intent requirement to mean that if any one purpose of an arrangement involving remuneration is to induce referrals of federal healthcare covered business, the statute may have been violated, and enforcement will depend on the relevant facts and circumstances. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively the ACA, among other things, amended the intent requirement of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute to state that a person or entity needs not have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. In addition, ACA provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act (discussed below) or the civil monetary penalties statute, which imposes penalties against any person who is determined to have presented or caused to be presented a claim to a federal health program that the person knows or should know is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent, or to have offered improper inducements to federal health care program beneficiaries to select a particular provider or supplier. The federal Anti-Kickback Statute is broad, and despite a series of narrow safe harbors, prohibits many arrangements and practices that are lawful in businesses outside of the healthcare industry. Many states have also adopted laws similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, some of which apply to the referral of patients for healthcare items or services reimbursed by any source, not only the Medicare and Medicaid programs, and do not contain identical safe harbors. In addition, where such activities involve foreign government officials, they may also potentially be subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities, including our activities with physician customers and pharmacies, as well as our activities pursuant to partnerships with other companies and pursuant to contracts with contract research organizations, could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws.

The federal False Claims Act prohibits any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government or knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to the federal government. A claim includes “any request or demand” for money or property presented to the U.S. government. In addition, the ACA specified that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act. The federal False Claims Act has been the basis for numerous enforcement actions and settlements by pharmaceutical and other healthcare companies in connection with various alleged financial relationships with customers. In addition, a number of pharmaceutical manufacturers have reached substantial financial settlements in connection with allegedly causing false claims to be submitted because of the companies’ marketing of products for unapproved, and thus non-reimbursable, uses. Certain marketing practices, including off-label promotion, may also violate false claims laws, as might violations of the federal physician self-referral laws, such as the Stark laws, which prohibit a physician from making a referral to a provider of certain health services with which the physician or the physician’s family member has a financial interest and prohibit submission of a claim for reimbursement pursuant to a prohibited referral. The “qui tam” provisions of the False Claims Act allow a private individual to bring civil actions on behalf of the federal government alleging that the defendant has submitted a false claim to the federal government, and to share in any monetary recovery. In addition, various states have enacted similar fraud and abuse statutes or regulations, including, without limitation, false claims laws analogous to the False Claims Act, and laws analogous to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, that apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs, or, in several states, apply regardless of the payer, and there are also federal criminal false claims laws.

Separately, there are a number of other fraud and abuse laws that pharmaceutical manufacturers must be mindful of, particularly after a product candidate has been approved for marketing in the United States. For example, a federal criminal law enacted as part of, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, prohibits knowingly and willfully executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payers. The false statements statute prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. There are also federal civil monetary penalty laws, which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly

 

36


Table of Contents

presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent, as well as federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers.

Healthcare Privacy and Security Laws. We may be subject to, or our marketing activities may be limited by, HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology and Clinical Health Act and their respective implementing regulations, which established uniform standards for certain “covered entities” (healthcare providers, health plans and healthcare clearinghouses) governing the conduct of certain electronic healthcare transactions and protecting the security and privacy of protected health information. Among other things, HIPAA’s privacy and security standards are directly applicable to “business associates” — independent contractors or agents of covered entities that create, receive, maintain or transmit protected health information in connection with providing a service for or on behalf of a covered entity. In addition to possible civil and criminal penalties for violations, state attorneys general are authorized to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce HIPAA and seek attorney’s fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. In addition, state laws govern the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.

“Sunshine” and Marketing Disclosure Laws. There are an increasing number of federal and state “sunshine” laws that require pharmaceutical manufacturers to make reports to states on pricing and marketing information. Several states have enacted legislation requiring pharmaceutical companies to, among other things, establish marketing compliance programs, file periodic reports with the state, and make periodic public disclosures on sales and marketing activities, and prohibiting certain other sales and marketing practices. In addition, a similar recently implemented federal requirement requires manufacturers, including pharmaceutical manufacturers, to track and report to the federal government certain payments and other transfers of value made to physicians and other healthcare professionals and teaching hospitals and ownership or investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. The federal government began disclosing the reported information on a publicly available website in 2014. These laws may adversely affect our sales, marketing, and other activities with respect to our products in the United States by imposing administrative and compliance burdens on us. If we fail to track and report as required by these laws or otherwise comply with these laws, we could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent state and federal authorities.

Government Price Reporting. For those marketed products which are covered in the United States by the Medicaid programs, we have various obligations, including government price reporting and rebate requirements, which generally require products be offered at substantial rebates/discounts to Medicaid and certain purchasers (including “covered entities” purchasing under the 340B Drug Discount Program). We are also required to discount such products to authorized users of the Federal Supply Schedule of the General Services Administration, under which additional laws and requirements apply. These programs require submission of pricing data and calculation of discounts and rebates pursuant to complex statutory formulas, as well as the entry into government procurement contracts governed by the Federal Acquisition Regulations, and the guidance governing such calculations is not always clear. Compliance with such requirements can require significant investment in personnel, systems and resources, but failure to properly calculate our prices, or offer required discounts or rebates could subject us to substantial penalties.

In General. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of available statutory and regulatory exemptions, it is possible that some of our business activities, in the United States, could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. If we or our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including significant civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in U.S. federal or state healthcare programs, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. To the extent that any product we make is sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws and regulations, which may include, for instance, applicable post-marketing requirements, including safety surveillance, anti-fraud and

 

37


Table of Contents

abuse laws, and implementation of corporate compliance programs and reporting of payments or transfers of value to healthcare professionals. Any penalties, damages, fines, curtailment or restructuring of our operations could materially adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. Although compliance programs can mitigate the risk of investigation and prosecution for violations of these laws, the risks cannot be entirely eliminated. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. Moreover, achieving and sustaining compliance with applicable federal and state privacy, security, sunshine, government price reporting, and fraud laws may prove costly.

Impact of Healthcare Reform on Coverage, Reimbursement, and Pricing. In the United States and other potentially significant markets for our products, government authorities and third-party payers are increasingly attempting to limit or regulate the price of medical products and services, particularly for new and innovative products and therapies, which has resulted in lower average selling prices. Further, the increased emphasis on managed healthcare in the United States and on country-specific and regional pricing and reimbursement controls in the European Union will put additional pressure on product pricing, reimbursement and usage, which may adversely affect our future product sales and results of operations. These pressures can arise from rules and practices of managed care groups, judicial decisions and governmental laws and regulations related to Medicare, Medicaid and healthcare reform, pharmaceutical reimbursement policies and pricing in general.

The U.S. and some foreign jurisdictions are considering or have enacted a number of additional legislative and regulatory proposals to change the healthcare system in ways that could affect our ability to sell our products profitably. Among policy makers and payers in the United States and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and/or expanding access. In the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives, including, most recently, the ACA. The ACA, among other things, imposes a significant annual fee on companies that manufacture or import branded prescription drug products. It also contains substantial provisions intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, and impose additional health policy reforms, any or all of which may affect our business. The ACA is likely to continue the downward pressure on pharmaceutical pricing, especially under the Medicare program, and may also increase our regulatory burdens and operating costs. Other legislative changes have also been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. For example, the Budget Control Act of 2011 resulted in aggregate reductions in Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, starting in 2013, and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. Such laws, and others that may affect our business that have been recently enacted or may in the future be enacted, may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding. In the future, there may continue to be additional proposals relating to the reform of the U.S. healthcare system, some of which could further limit coverage and reimbursement of drug products, including our product candidates. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payers. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our products.

Employees

As of December 31, 2014, we had approximately 535 full-time employees as a consolidated entity. Of our employees as of December 31, 2014, approximately 30 were engaged in development, regulatory and manufacturing activities, approximately 440 were engaged in sales and marketing and approximately 65 were engaged in administration, including business development, finance, information systems, facilities and human resources. None of our employees is subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our employee relations to be satisfactory.

 

38


Table of Contents

Available Information

We make available free of charge on or through our internet website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission. We also regularly post copies of our press releases as well as copies of presentations and other updates about our business on our website. Our internet address is www.horizonpharma.com. The information contained in or that can be accessed through our website is not part of this report. Information is also available through the Securities and Exchange Commission’s website at www.sec.gov or is available at the Securities and Exchange Commission’s Public Reference Room located at 100 F Street, NE, Washington DC, 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room is available by calling the Securities and Exchange Commission at 800-SEC-0330.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Certain factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and you should carefully consider them. Accordingly, in evaluating our business, we encourage you to consider the following discussion of risk factors in its entirety, in addition to other information contained in this report as well as our other public filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our ability to generate revenues from our products is subject to attaining significant market acceptance among physicians, patients and healthcare payers.

Our current products, and other product or product candidates that we may develop, acquire, or in-license, such as PENNSAID 2% which we began commercializing in January 2015, may not attain market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payers or the medical community. In the U.S. market, we began marketing DUEXIS in December 2011. We began commercial sales of RAYOS, which was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in July 2012, to a subset of rheumatologists in the fourth quarter of 2012 with the full launch to the majority of U.S. rheumatologists and key primary care physicians in late January 2013. VIMOVO was launched in the U.S. market in the fourth quarter of 2010 by AstraZeneca AB, or AstraZeneca, under its license from Pozen Inc., or Pozen. Following our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO in November 2013, we began marketing VIMOVO in the first quarter of 2014. ACTIMMUNE was originally launched in the U.S. market in March 1991 by Genentech and in June 2012, Vidara Therapeutics International plc, or Vidara, acquired the intellectual property rights and certain assets related to the ACTIMMUNE product line. In September 2014, the businesses of Horizon Pharma, Inc. and Vidara were combined, and as a result we assumed the commercialization of ACTIMMUNE. In October 2014 we entered into an asset purchase agreement with Nuvo Research Inc. to acquire the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2%, and we began commercializing PENNSAID 2% in the United States in January 2015. Outside the United States, LODOTRA has been sold in a limited number of countries and sales may not grow to expected levels, in part because we depend on our distribution partner, Mundipharma International Corporation Limited, or Mundipharma, for commercialization outside the United States. With respect to DUEXIS, we have only received marketing approval in the United Kingdom, or UK, thus far, and even if it is approved in other European countries, we do not expect the opportunity in Europe to be material to our business given the current state of the market in Europe for pain products and the revenue being generated by existing branded non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, in Europe. There have been no sales of DUEXIS in the UK thus far. We believe that the degree of market acceptance and our ability to generate revenues from our products will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

   

timing of market introduction of our products as well as competitive drugs;

 

   

efficacy and safety of our products;

 

   

continued projected growth of the arthritis, pain and inflammation markets;

 

39


Table of Contents
   

prevalence and severity of any side effects;

 

   

if and when we are able to obtain regulatory approvals for additional indications for our products;

 

   

acceptance by patients, primary care specialists and key specialists, including rheumatologists, orthopedic surgeons, pain specialists and specialists in pediatric immunology, allergy, infectious diseases and hematology/oncology;

 

   

availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement and pricing from government and other third-party payers;

 

   

the performance of our distribution partners, over which we have limited control;

 

   

potential or perceived advantages or disadvantages of our products over alternative treatments, including cost of treatment and relative convenience and ease of administration;

 

   

strength of sales, marketing and distribution support;

 

   

the price of our products, both in absolute terms and relative to alternative treatments;

 

   

impact of past and limitation of future product price increases;

 

   

our ability to maintain a continuous supply of product for commercial sale;

 

   

the effect of current and future healthcare laws; and

 

   

product labeling or product insert requirements of the FDA or other regulatory authorities.

With respect to DUEXIS and VIMOVO, studies indicate that physicians do not commonly co-prescribe gastrointestinal, or GI, protective agents to high-risk patients taking NSAIDs. We believe this is due in part to a lack of awareness among physicians prescribing NSAIDs of the risk of NSAID-induced upper GI ulcers, in addition to the inconvenience of prescribing two separate medications and patient compliance issues associated with multiple prescriptions. If physicians remain unaware of, or do not otherwise believe in, the benefits of combining GI protective agents with NSAIDs, our market opportunity for DUEXIS and VIMOVO will be limited. Some physicians may also be reluctant to prescribe DUEXIS or VIMOVO due to the inability to vary the dose of ibuprofen and naproxen, respectively, or if they believe treatment with NSAIDs or GI protective agents other than those contained in DUEXIS and VIMOVO, including those of our competitors, would be more effective for their patients. With respect to each of DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS/LODOTRA and VIMOVO, their higher cost compared to the generic or branded forms of their active ingredients alone may limit adoption by physicians, patients and healthcare payers. With respect to ACTIMMUNE, while it is the only FDA-approved treatment for chronic granulomatous disease, or CGD, and severe, malignant osteopetrosis, or SMO, they are very rare conditions and, as a result, our ability to grow ACTIMMUNE sales will depend on our ability to further penetrate this limited market and obtain marketing approval for additional indications. If our current products or any other product that we may seek approval for, acquire or in-license fail to attain market acceptance, we may not be able to generate significant revenue to achieve or sustain profitability, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Our current business plan is highly dependent upon our ability to successfully execute on our sales and marketing strategy for the commercialization of ACTIMMUNE, DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS/LODOTRA and VIMOVO. If we are unable to successfully execute on our sales and marketing strategy, we may not be able to generate significant product revenues or execute on our business plan.

Our strategy is to build a fully-integrated U.S.-focused biopharmaceutical company to successfully execute the commercialization of our products in the U.S. market. We may not be able to successfully commercialize ACTIMMUNE, DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS or VIMOVO in the United States. Prior to our commercial launch of DUEXIS in the United States in December 2011, we did not have any experience commercializing pharmaceutical products on our own. LODOTRA was commercially launched in Europe by our exclusive distribution partners Merck Serono and Mundipharma. In order to commercialize any approved products, we

 

40


Table of Contents

must continue to build our sales, marketing, distribution, managerial and other non-technical capabilities. Although we have expanded our sales force to approximately 375 sales representatives, consisting of 325 primary care sales representatives and 50 sales representatives in specialty and orphan diseases business areas, in connection with our recent acquisition of the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2%, we currently have limited resources compared to some of our competitors, and the continued development of our own commercial organization to market these products and any additional products we may acquire or in-license will be expensive and time-consuming. We also cannot be certain that we will be able to continue to successfully develop this capability.

As a result of the evolving role of various constituents in the prescription decision making process, we adjusted the profile of the sales representatives we hire from those with traditional pharmaceutical sales experience to those with successful business to business experience. For example, we have faced challenges due to pharmacists increasingly switching a patient’s intended prescription from DUEXIS and VIMOVO to a generic or over the counter brand of their active ingredients. We have faced similar challenges for RAYOS with respect to generic brands and could face similar challenges with respect to PENNSAID 2% due to the availability of generic versions of PENNSAID 1.5%. While we believe the profile of our representatives is better suited for this evolving environment, we cannot be certain that our representatives will be able to successfully protect DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS and VIMOVO prescriptions or that we will be able to continue attracting and retaining sales representatives with our desired profile and skills. We will also have to compete with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to recruit, hire, train and retain commercial personnel. To the extent we rely on additional third parties to commercialize any approved products, we may receive less revenues than if we commercialized these products ourselves. In addition, we may have little or no control over the sales efforts of any third parties involved in our commercialization efforts. In the event we are unable to successfully develop and maintain our own commercial organization or collaborate with a third-party sales and marketing organization, we would not be able to commercialize our product candidates and execute on our business plan.

Legislation enacted in most states in the United States allows or, in some instances mandates, that a pharmacist dispense an available generic equivalent when filling a prescription for a branded product, in the absence of specific instructions from the prescribing physician. Because our products do not currently have FDA-approved generic equivalents in the United States, we do not believe our products should be subject to mandatory generic substitution laws. However we understand that some pharmacies and payors may attempt to reduce costs by obtaining physician authorization to switch prescriptions for DUEXIS or VIMOVO to prescriptions for multiple generic products with similar active pharmaceutical ingredients. Accordingly, a key part of our commercial strategy is to encourage physicians to have their patients agree to prescriptions through PME. Through PME, physicians can have their uninsured or commercially insured patients’ prescriptions for our products shipped directly to the patient. Through the PME program, we provide financial assistance to reduce eligible patient’s out of pocket costs for prescriptions filled via a participating mail order pharmacy. Because the patient out of pocket cost for our products when dispensed through the PME program may be significantly lower than such costs when our products are dispensed outside of the PME program, prescriptions that are filled through our PME program are therefore less likely to be subject to the efforts of traditional pharmacies to switch a physician’s intended prescription of our products to a generic or over the counter brand. We expect that continued adoption of our PME program by physicians and patients will be important to our ability to gain market share for our products as pressure from healthcare payors and PBMs to use less expensive generic or over the counter brands instead of branded products increases. For example, two of the largest PBMs, which we estimate to currently control approximately 20% to 30% of prescriptions for DUEXIS and VIMOVO, placed DUEXIS and VIMOVO on their exclusion lists beginning in 2015. Additional healthcare plans, including those that contract with these PBMs but use different formularies, may also choose to exclude our products from their formularies or restrict coverage to situations where a generic or over-the-counter product has been tried first. To the extent we are unable to successfully encourage physicians to direct prescriptions currently filled through traditional pharmacies, including those associated with/controlled by these PBMs, to our PME program, we may experience a significant decline in DUEXIS and VIMOVO prescriptions as a result of formulary exclusions. Our ability to increase adoption of our PME program will depend on physician and patient awareness and comfort

 

41


Table of Contents

with the program, and we have limited ability to influence whether physicians use our PME program to prescribe our products or whether patients will agree to receive their products through the PME program. In addition, the PME program is only available to patients with commercial insurance or who are uninsured, and is not available to federal health care program (such as Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries. If we are unable to increase adoption of our PME program for filling prescriptions of our products, our ability to maintain or increase prescriptions for our products will be impaired. In addition, we depend on a limited number of PME pharmacies to fulfill patient prescriptions under the PME program. If these PME pharmacies are unable to process and fulfill the volume of patient prescriptions directed to them under the PME program, our ability to maintain or increase prescriptions for our products will be impaired. The commercialization of our products and our operating results could be affected should any of the PME pharmacies choose not to continue participation in our PME program or by any adverse events at any of those PME pharmacies.

If we are unable to successfully implement our commercial plans and drive adoption by patients and physicians of any approved products through our sales, marketing and commercialization efforts, or if our partners fail to successfully commercialize our products, then we will not be able to generate sustainable revenues from product sales which will have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.

Our future prospects are highly dependent on the success of our current products, and we may not be able to successfully commercialize these products. Failure to do so would adversely impact our financial condition and prospects.

A substantial majority of our resources are focused on the commercialization of our current products. Our ability to generate significant product revenues and to achieve commercial success in the near-term will initially depend almost entirely on our ability to successfully commercialize these products in the United States. DUEXIS has been approved for marketing in the UK but is not yet approved in any other countries in Europe and therefore, unless we obtain regulatory approval in other countries, DUEXIS may not be commercialized to any significant extent outside of the United States. Even if DUEXIS is approved in other European countries, we do not expect the opportunity in Europe to be material to our business given the current state of the market in Europe for pain products and the revenue being generated by existing branded NSAIDs in Europe. Following our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO in November 2013 and PENNSAID 2% in October 2014, our strategy has included bringing both products’ pricing in-line with DUEXIS, thereby significantly increasing the value we realize per prescription, and also increasing sales and marketing support to drive growth in prescriptions. We cannot guarantee that this strategy will continue to be effective generally, due to negative reactions to price increases or otherwise. Our strategy for RAYOS is to solely focus on the rheumatology indications approved for RAYOS where our Phase 3 clinical trial data supports our commercial plans. We initially launched RAYOS in the United States to a subset of rheumatologists in the fourth quarter of 2012, and the full launch to the majority of U.S. rheumatologists and key primary care physicians occurred in late January 2013. Our strategy with respect to ACTIMMUNE includes pricing increases, pursuing label expansion for additional indications, such as Friedreich’s ataxia, or FA, and possible expansions of our sales force, but we cannot be certain that our pricing strategy will not result in downward pressure on sales or that we will be able to successfully complete clinical trials and obtain regulatory approvals in additional indications. Although LODOTRA is approved for marketing in more than 35 countries outside the United States, to date it has only been marketed in a limited number of countries. While we anticipate that LODOTRA will be marketed in additional countries as our distribution partner, Mundipharma, formulates its reimbursement strategy, the ability to market LODOTRA in additional countries will depend on Mundipharma’s ability to obtain reimbursement approvals in these countries. Even if we obtain additional marketing and reimbursement approvals, our product revenues in Europe are entirely dependent upon the marketing efforts of our exclusive distribution partner, over which we have no control. Before we can market and sell these products in a particular jurisdiction, we need to obtain necessary regulatory approvals (from the FDA in the United States and from similar foreign regulatory agencies in other jurisdictions) and in some jurisdictions, reimbursement authorization. There are no guarantees that we or our commercialization partners will obtain any additional regulatory approvals for our products. Even if we or our

 

42


Table of Contents

commercialization partners obtain additional regulatory approvals, we may never generate significant revenues from any commercial sales of our products. If we fail to successfully commercialize our current and future products, we may be unable to generate sufficient revenues to sustain and grow our business, and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.

We are solely dependent on Mundipharma to commercialize LODOTRA in Europe and certain Asian, Latin American, Middle Eastern, African and other countries. Failure of Mundipharma or any other third parties to successfully commercialize our products and product candidates in the applicable jurisdictions could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We rely on Mundipharma for commercialization of LODOTRA in various European countries and certain Asian, Latin American, Middle Eastern, African and other countries. We have limited contractual rights to force Mundipharma to invest significantly in commercialization of LODOTRA in its markets. In the event that Mundipharma or any other third party with any future commercialization rights to any of our products or product candidates fails to adequately commercialize those products or product candidates because it lacks adequate financial or other resources, decides to focus on other initiatives or otherwise, our ability to successfully commercialize our products or product candidates in the applicable jurisdictions would be limited, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We have had disagreements with Mundipharma under our European agreements and may continue to have disagreements, which could harm commercialization of LODOTRA in Europe or result in the termination of our agreements with Mundipharma. We also rely on Mundipharma’s ability to obtain regulatory approval for LODOTRA in certain Asian, Latin American, Middle Eastern, African and other countries. In addition, our agreements with Mundipharma may be terminated by either party in the event of a bankruptcy of the other party or upon an uncured material breach by the other party. If Mundipharma terminated its agreements with us, we may not be able to secure an alternative distributor in the applicable territory on a timely basis or at all, in which case our ability to generate revenues from the sale of LODOTRA would be materially harmed.

Our products are subject to extensive regulation, and we may not obtain additional regulatory approvals for our products.

The clinical development, manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, recordkeeping, advertising, promotion, export, marketing and distribution and other possible activities relating to our products and our product candidates are, and will be, subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory agencies. Failure to comply with FDA and other applicable regulatory requirements may, either before or after product approval, subject us to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions.

To market any drugs outside of the United States, we and current or future collaborators must comply with numerous and varying regulatory and compliance related requirements of other countries. Approval procedures vary among countries and can involve additional product testing and additional administrative review periods, including obtaining reimbursement and pricing approval in select markets. The time required to obtain approval in other countries might differ from that required to obtain FDA approval. The regulatory approval process in other countries may include all of the risks associated with FDA approval as well as additional, presently unanticipated, risks. Regulatory approval in one country does not ensure regulatory approval in another, but a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country may negatively impact the regulatory process in others.

Applications for regulatory approval, including a marketing authorization application for marketing new drugs in Europe, must be supported by extensive clinical and preclinical data, as well as extensive information regarding chemistry, manufacturing and controls, or CMC, to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the applicable product candidate. The number and types of preclinical studies and clinical trials that will be required for regulatory approval varies depending on the product candidate, the disease or the condition that the product candidate is designed to target and the regulations applicable to any particular product candidate. Despite the

 

43


Table of Contents

time and expense associated with preclinical and clinical studies, failure can occur at any stage, and we could encounter problems that cause us to repeat or perform additional preclinical studies, CMC studies or clinical trials. Regulatory authorities could delay, limit or deny approval of a product candidate for many reasons, including because they:

 

   

may not deem a product candidate to be adequately safe and effective;

 

   

may not find the data from preclinical studies, CMC studies and clinical trials to be sufficient to support a claim of safety and efficacy;

 

   

may interpret data from preclinical studies, CMC studies and clinical trials significantly differently than we do;

 

   

may not approve the manufacturing processes or facilities associated with our product candidates;

 

   

may conclude that we have not sufficiently demonstrated long-term stability of the formulation for which we are seeking marketing approval;

 

   

may change approval policies (including with respect to our product candidates’ class of drugs) or adopt new regulations; or

 

   

may not accept a submission due to, among other reasons, the content or formatting of the submission.

Even if we believe that data collected from our preclinical studies, CMC studies and clinical trials of our product candidates are promising and that our information and procedures regarding CMC are sufficient, our data may not be sufficient to support marketing approval by regulatory authorities, or regulatory interpretation of these data and procedures may be unfavorable. Even if approved, product candidates may not be approved for all indications requested and such approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the drug may be marketed, restricted distribution methods or other limitations. Our business and reputation may be harmed by any failure or significant delay in obtaining regulatory approval for the sale of any of our product candidates. We cannot predict when or whether regulatory approval will be obtained for any product candidate we develop.

While we anticipate that LODOTRA will be marketed in additional countries as Mundipharma formulates its reimbursement strategy, the ability to market LODOTRA in additional countries will depend on Mundipharma’s ability to obtain regulatory and reimbursement approvals in these countries. Similarly, our ability to market DUEXIS outside of the United States will depend on obtaining regulatory and reimbursement approval in any country where DUEXIS may be marketed. However, certain countries have a very difficult reimbursement environment and we may not obtain reimbursement approval in all countries where DUEXIS may be marketed, or we may obtain reimbursement approval at a level that would make marketing DUEXIS in certain countries not viable.

Our limited history of commercial operations makes evaluating our business and future prospects difficult, and may increase the risk of any investment in our ordinary shares.

Following our acquisition of Vidara in September 2014 and our acquisition of the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% from Nuvo in October 2014, we have five products approved in the United States, one product with broad approval for commercial sale in Europe, and another product approved only for commercial sale in the UK thus far. RAYOS/LODOTRA has been approved in the United States and over 37 other countries, including Australia, Columbia and select countries within Europe and Asia. However, we have a limited history of marketing LODOTRA through our distribution partners, and LODOTRA is not yet marketed in all of the countries where it has been approved. We began the commercial sale of DUEXIS in the United States in November 2011, the commercial sale of RAYOS in the United States in the fourth quarter of 2012, the commercial sale of VIMOVO in the United States in the first quarter of 2014 and the commercial sale of ACTIMMUNE as a combined company with Vidara in September 2014. We began commercializing PENNSAID 2% in the United States in

 

44


Table of Contents

January 2015. We face considerable risks and difficulties as a company with limited commercial operating history, particularly as a global consolidated entity with operating subsidiaries that also have limited operating histories. If we do not successfully address these risks, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition will be materially and adversely harmed. Our limited commercial operating history, including our limited history commercializing PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO and, as a combined company, ACTIMMUNE, makes it particularly difficult for us to predict our future operating results and appropriately budget for our expenses. In the event that actual results differ from our estimates or we adjust our estimates in future periods, our operating results and financial position could be materially affected. For example, we may underestimate the resources we will require to successfully integrate our commercial organization with Vidara’s or to commercialize VIMOVO, ACTIMMUNE and PENNSAID 2% within our organization or not realize the benefits we expect to derive from our recent acquisitions.

We have U.S. rights to ACTIMMUNE, PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO but have no control over the activities of Boehringer Ingelheim to commercialize ACTIMMUNE outside the United States, Canada and Japan, AstraZeneca to commercialize VIMOVO outside of the United States or Nuvo or its licensees to commercialize PENNSAID 2% outside the United States, which could adversely impact commercialization of ACTIMMUNE, PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO in the United States.

AstraZeneca has retained its existing rights to VIMOVO in territories outside of the United States, including the right to use the VIMOVO name and related trademark. Similarly, Nuvo has retained its rights to PENNSAID 2% in territories outside of the United States and has announced its intention to seek commercialization partners outside the United States. We have little or no control over AstraZeneca’s activities with respect to VIMOVO outside of the United States or over Nuvo’s or its future commercial partners activities with respect to PENNSAID 2% outside of the United States, even though those activities could impact our ability to successfully commercialize PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO in the United States. For example, Nuvo or its assignees or AstraZeneca or its assignees can make statements or use promotional materials with respect to PENNSAID 2% or VIMOVO, respectively, outside of the United States that are inconsistent with our positioning of the products in the United States, and could sell PENNSAID 2% or VIMOVO, respectively, in foreign countries, including Canada, at prices that are dramatically lower than the prices we charge in the United States. These activities and decisions, while occurring outside of the United States, could harm our commercialization strategy in the United States, in particular because AstraZeneca is continuing to market VIMOVO outside the United States under the same VIMOVO brand name that we are using in the United States. In addition, product recalls or safety issues with r PENNSAID 2% or VIMOVO outside the United States, even if not related to the commercial product we sell in the United States, could result in serious damage to the brand in the United States and impair our ability to successfully market PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO. We also rely on Nuvo and AstraZeneca or its assignees to provide us with timely and accurate safety information regarding the use of PENNSAID 2% or VIMOVO, respectively, outside of the United States, as we have or will have limited access to this information ourselves.

We rely on third parties to manufacture commercial supplies of all of our products, and we currently intend to rely on third parties to manufacture commercial supplies of any other approved products. The commercialization of any of our products could be stopped, delayed or made less profitable if those third parties fail to provide us with sufficient quantities of product or fail to do so at acceptable quality levels or prices or fail to maintain or achieve satisfactory regulatory compliance.

The facilities used by our third-party manufacturers to manufacture our products and product candidates must be approved by the applicable regulatory authorities. We do not control the manufacturing processes of third-party manufacturers and are currently completely dependent on our third-party manufacturing partners sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC, or sanofi-aventis U.S., operating through Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc., or Valeant, its manufacturing partner located in Laval, Canada for production of DUEXIS, and Jagotec AG, or Jagotec, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SkyePharma PLC, located in Lyon, France, for production of RAYOS/LODOTRA. In August 2011, SkyePharma leased their entire pharmaceutical manufacturing business to Aenova France SAS, or Aenova. As such, Aenova is now a subcontractor for Jagotec for the manufacture of RAYOS/

 

45


Table of Contents

LODOTRA, with our consent. Sanofi Winthrop Industrie in France has been qualified as a backup manufacturer for DUEXIS. Bayer Pharma AG in Germany has been qualified as a backup manufacturer for RAYOS/LODOTRA. In December 2011, Valeant acquired Dermik, a dermatology unit of sanofi-aventis U.S., which includes the Laval, Canada site. Although, Valeant has taken over management and operations at the Laval, Canada facility, our manufacturing agreement remains with sanofi-aventis U.S. We purchase the primary active ingredients for DUEXIS from BASF Corporation in Bishop, Texas and Dr. Reddy’s in India, and the primary active ingredient for RAYOS/LODOTRA from Tianjin Tianyao Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. in China and Sanofi Chimie in France.

In connection with our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we have entered into a long-term master manufacturing services and product agreement with Patheon Pharmaceuticals Inc., or Patheon, for the supply of finished VIMOVO product. We have entered into long-term supply agreements with Divis Laboratories Limited and Minakem Holding SAS for the supply of the active pharmaceutical ingredients, or APIs, of VIMOVO. In addition, we are required to obtain AstraZeneca’s consent prior to engaging any third-party manufacturers for esomeprazole, one of the APIs in VIMOVO, other than the third-party manufacturer(s) used by AstraZeneca or its affiliates or licensees. To the extent such manufacturers are unwilling or unable to manufacture esomeprazole for us on commercially-acceptable terms, we cannot guarantee that AstraZeneca would consent to our use of alternate sources of supply.

With respect to ACTIMMUNE, we rely on an exclusive supply agreement with Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH & Co KG, or Boehringer Ingelheim, for manufacturing and supply. However, Boehringer Ingelheim also manufactures interferon gamma 1-b to supply its own commercial needs in its licensed territory, and this may lead to capacity allocation issues and supply constraints to us. Furthermore, we do not have a substitute supplier for ACTIMMUNE and the process of identifying a substitute supplier and getting that supplier approved by the applicable regulatory authorities for manufacture and packaging of ACTIMMUNE can be a lengthy and costly process. ACTIMMUNE is manufactured by starting with cells from working cell bank samples which are derived from a master cell bank. We and Boehringer Ingelheim separately store multiple vials of the master cell bank. In the event of catastrophic loss at our or Boehringer Ingelheim’s storage facility, it is possible that we could lose multiple cell banks and have the manufacturing capacity of ACTIMMUNE severely impacted by the need to substitute or replace the cell banks.

With respect to PENNSAID 2%, we rely on an exclusive supply agreement with Nuvo for manufacturing and supply. If Nuvo licenses its rights to PENNSAID 2% to commercialization partners outside of the United States, it is possible that Nuvo would also agree to manufacture and supply PENNSAID 2% for those partners. In that case, we would have no guarantee that fulfilling demand for PENNSAID 2% in territories outside the United States would impair Nuvo’s ability to supply us with our requested quantities of PENNSAID 2% in the Unites States. In addition, while our supply agreement with Nuvo provides for the qualification of additional manufacturing sites for PENNSAID 2%, we and Nuvo may not be successful in finding alternative manufacturers to supply PENNSAID 2% or agreeing to commercially reasonable terms with alternate suppliers. A key excipient used in PENNSAID as a penetration enhancer is dimethyl sulfoxide, or DMSO. Horizon and Nuvo rely on a sole proprietary form of DMSO for which we maintain a substantial safety stock. However, should this supply become inadequate, damaged, destroyed or unusable, we and Nuvo may not be able to qualify a second source.

If any of our third-party manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the applicable regulatory authorities’ strict regulatory requirements, or pass regulatory inspection, they will not be able to secure or maintain regulatory approval for the manufacturing facilities. In addition, we have no control over the ability of third-party manufacturers to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA or any other applicable regulatory authorities do not approve these facilities for the manufacture of our products or if they withdraw any such approval in the future, or if our suppliers or third-party manufacturers decide they no longer want to supply our primary active ingredients or manufacture our products, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would

 

46


Table of Contents

significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for or market our products. To the extent any third-party manufacturers that we engage with respect to our products are different than those currently being used for commercial supply in the United States, the FDA will need to approve the facilities of those third-party manufacturers used in the manufacture of our products prior to our sale of any product using these facilities.

Although we have entered into supply agreements for the manufacture of our products, our manufacturers may not perform as agreed or may terminate their agreements with us. Under our manufacturing and supply agreement with sanofi-aventis U.S., operating through Valeant, either we or sanofi-aventis U.S. may terminate the agreement upon an uncured breach by the other party or without cause upon two years prior written notice, so long as such notice is given after the third anniversary of the first commercial sale of DUEXIS. Under our master manufacturing services and product agreement with Patheon for finished VIMOVO product, either we or Patheon may terminate the agreement for uncured material breach by the other party or upon the other party’s bankruptcy or insolvency, we may terminate the agreement if any regulatory authority takes any action or raises any objection that prevents us from commercializing the VIMOVO product and Patheon may terminate the agreement if we assign our rights or obligations under the agreement to a competitor of Patheon or to a party that, in the reasonable opinion of Patheon, is not a credit worthy substitute for us, or in certain other circumstances where we assign the agreement without Patheon’s consent. Our manufacturing agreement with Boehringer Ingelheim has a term that runs until July 31, 2020, but the agreement may be terminated earlier by either us or Boehringer Ingelheim for an uncured material breach by the other party or upon the other party’s bankruptcy or insolvency. Under our manufacturing and supply agreement with Jagotec, either we or Jagotec may terminate the agreement in the event of an insolvency, liquidation or bankruptcy of the other party or upon an uncured breach by the other party. While we have the right to receive a continuing supply of RAYOS/LODOTRA from Jagotec for a period of 24 months after termination, we would need to move our manufacturing to our alternate supplier of RAYOS/LODOTRA, Bayer Pharma AG, in such an event and we would have to qualify a new back-up manufacturer. The initial term of our supply agreement with Nuvo for PENNSAID 2% is through December 31, 2022, but the agreement may be terminated earlier by either party for any uncured material breach by the other party of its obligations under the supply agreement or upon the bankruptcy or similar proceeding of the other party.

In addition, we do not have the capability to package any of our products for distribution. Consequently, we have entered into an agreement with Temmler Werke GmbH, or Temmler, for packaging of RAYOS/LODOTRA in certain European countries and in the United States, as well as any additional countries as may be agreed to by the parties. At the end of 2012, Temmler was acquired by the Aenova Group. Valeant manufactures and supplies DUEXIS to us in final, packaged form for the United States as well as any additional countries as may be agreed to by the parties. Patheon supplies final, packaged VIMOVO product pursuant to the master manufacturing services and product agreement we executed in connection with our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO. Boehringer Ingelheim supplies final, packaged ACTIMMUNE to us and Nuvo is obligated to supply final, packaged PENNSAID 2% to us, in each case under exclusive supply agreements.

The manufacture of pharmaceutical products requires significant expertise and capital investment, including the development of advanced manufacturing techniques and process controls. Manufacturers of pharmaceutical products often encounter difficulties in production, particularly in scaling up and validating initial production. These problems include difficulties with production costs and yields, quality control, including stability of the product, quality assurance testing, shortages of qualified personnel, as well as compliance with strictly enforced federal, state and foreign regulations. Furthermore, if microbial, viral or other contaminations are discovered in the drug products or in the manufacturing facilities in which its products are made, such manufacturing facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination. We cannot assure you that issues relating to the manufacture of any of our products will not occur in the future. Additionally, our manufacturers may experience manufacturing difficulties due to resource constraints or as a result of labor disputes or unstable political environments. If our manufacturers were to encounter any of these difficulties, or otherwise fail to comply with their contractual obligations, our ability to commercialize our products in the United States or provide any product candidates to patients in clinical trials would be jeopardized.

 

47


Table of Contents

Any delay or interruption in our ability to meet commercial demand for our products will result in the loss of potential revenues and could adversely affect our ability to gain market acceptance for these products. In addition, any delay or interruption in the supply of clinical trial supplies could delay the completion of clinical trials, increase the costs associated with maintaining clinical trial programs and, depending upon the period of delay, require us to commence new clinical trials at additional expense or terminate clinical trials completely.

Failures or difficulties faced at any level of our supply chain could materially adversely affect our business and delay or impede the development and commercialization of any of our products or product candidates and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

We have experienced recent growth and have expanded the size of our organization substantially in connection with our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO in November 2013, our acquisition of Vidara in September 2014 and our acquisition of the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% in October 2014, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth as well as potential additional growth in connection with future product acquisitions or company acquisitions.

As of December 31, 2010, we employed approximately 40 full-time employees as a consolidated entity. In anticipation of the commercial launch of DUEXIS, we hired approximately 80 sales representatives during the period from September 2011 through October 2011. Recently, we further increased the size of our sales force in connection with our acquisition of PENNSAID 2% to a total of approximately 375 sales representatives. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, we employed approximately 535 and 463 full-time employees, respectively, as a consolidated entity. We have also experienced, and may continue to experience, turnover of the sales representatives that we hired or will hire in connection with the commercialization of our products, requiring us to hire and train new sales representatives. Our management, personnel, systems and facilities currently in place may not be adequate to support this recent and anticipated growth, and we may not be able to retain or recruit qualified personnel in the future due to competition for personnel among pharmaceutical businesses.

As our commercialization plans and strategies continue to develop, we will need to continue to recruit and train sales and marketing personnel and expect to need to expand the size of our employee base for managerial, operational, financial and other resources as a result of our recent acquisitions of Vidara and PENNSAID 2%. Our ability to manage any future growth effectively may require us to, among other things:

 

   

continue to manage and expand the sales and marketing efforts for our existing products;

 

   

enhance our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures;

 

   

expand our international resources;

 

   

successfully identify, recruit, hire, train, maintain, motivate and integrate additional employees;

 

   

establish and increase our access to commercial supplies of our products and product candidates;

 

   

expand our facilities and equipment; and

 

   

manage our internal development efforts effectively while complying with our contractual obligations to licensors, licensees, contractors, collaborators, distributors and other third parties.

In particular, the merger of the businesses of Horizon Pharma, Inc. and Vidara Therapeutic International plc is subject to numerous uncertainties and risks and will require significant efforts and expenditures. For example, we have transitioned Horizon Pharma, Inc. from a standalone public Delaware corporation to being part of a combined company organized in Ireland. This combination has resulted in many changes, including significant changes in the corporate business and legal entity structure, the integration of Vidara and its personnel with those of Horizon, and changes in systems. We are currently undertaking numerous complex transition activities, and we may encounter unexpected difficulties or incur unexpected costs, including:

 

   

difficulties in achieving growth prospects from combining the business of Vidara with that of Horizon;

 

48


Table of Contents
   

difficulties in the integration of operations and systems;

 

   

difficulties in the assimilation of employees and corporate cultures;

 

   

challenges in preparing financial statements and reporting timely results at both a statutory level for multiple entities and jurisdictions and at a consolidated level for public reporting;

 

   

challenges in keeping existing customers and obtaining new customers; and

 

   

challenges in attracting and retaining key personnel.

If any of these factors impair our ability to integrate the operations of Horizon with those of Vidara successfully or on a timely basis, we may not be able to realize the business opportunities, growth prospects and anticipated tax synergies from combining the businesses. In addition, we may be required to spend additional time or money on integration that otherwise would be spent on the development and expansion of our business.

Our management may also have to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from day-to-day activities and towards managing these growth and integration activities. Our future financial performance and our ability to execute on our business plan will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth and our failure to effectively manage growth could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

If we are unable to effectively train and equip our sales force, our ability to successfully commercialize our products in the United States will be harmed.

As DUEXIS and RAYOS were not fully commercially launched in the United States until January 2012 and January 2013, respectively, and we did not begin commercializing VIMOVO and PENNSAID 2% in the United States until the first quarter of 2014 and 2015, respectively, the members of our sales force have limited experience promoting the products. In addition, while the members of our sales force promoting ACTIMMUNE were previously promoting the product prior to the merger of the Horizon and Vidara businesses, we have limited experience marketing ACTIMMUNE under Horizon’s commercial organization. As a result, we are required to expend significant time and resources to train our sales force to be credible and persuasive in convincing physicians to prescribe and pharmacists to dispense our products. In addition, we must train our sales force to ensure that a consistent and appropriate message about our products is being delivered to our potential customers. Our sales representatives may also experience challenges promoting multiple products when they call on physicians and their office staff. This is particularly true with respect to DUEXIS, since VIMOVO is approved for similar indications and prescribed to similar patients, and prior to 2014 our sale representatives had previously been incentivized to increase DUEXIS market share at the expense of VIMOVO. We have also experienced, and may continue to experience, turnover of the sales representatives that we hired or will hire, requiring us to train new sales representatives. As a result of the managed care environment and pharmacies switching patient’s prescriptions to a generic or over the counter brand, we have had to adjust the profile of the sales representatives we hire from the traditional pharmaceutical representative to a representative with business to business experience that is focused on the total office call in order to protect the prescription the physician has written and ensure the patient receives what their doctor ordered. If we are unable to effectively train our sales force and equip them with effective materials, including medical and sales literature to help them inform and educate potential customers about the benefits of our products and their proper administration and label indication, as well as our PME program, our efforts to successfully commercialize our products could be put in jeopardy, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, share price and operations.

We face significant competition from other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, including those marketing generic products and our operating results will suffer if we fail to compete effectively.

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are intensely competitive. We have competitors both in the United States and international markets, including major multinational pharmaceutical companies,

 

49


Table of Contents

biotechnology companies and universities and other research institutions. Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and other resources, such as larger research and development staff, experienced marketing and manufacturing organizations and well-established sales forces. Additional mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors and we will have to find new ways to compete and may have to potentially merge with or acquire other businesses to stay competitive. Competition may increase further as a result of advances in the commercial applicability of technologies and greater availability of capital for investment in these industries. Our competitors may succeed in developing, acquiring or in-licensing on an exclusive basis, products that are more effective and/or less costly than our products.

DUEXIS and VIMOVO face competition from Celebrex®, marketed by Pfizer, and several other branded NSAIDs. DUEXIS and VIMOVO also face significant competition from the separate use of NSAIDs for pain relief and GI protective medications to reduce the risk of NSAID-induced upper GI ulcers. Both NSAIDs and GI protective medications are available in generic form and may be less expensive to use separately than DUEXIS or VIMOVO. PENNSAID 2% faces competition from generic versions of PENNSAID 1.5% that are priced significantly less than the price we charge for PENNSAID 2% and Voltaren Gel, marketed by Endo Pharmaceuticals, which is the market leader in the topical NSAID category. Legislation enacted in most states in the United States allows or, in some instances mandates, that a pharmacist dispense an available generic equivalent when filling a prescription for a branded product, in the absence of specific instructions from the prescribing physician. Because pharmacists often have economic and other incentives to prescribe lower-cost generics, if physicians prescribe DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2% or VIMOVO, those prescriptions may not result in sales. If we are unsuccessful in convincing physicians to complete prescriptions through our PME program or otherwise provide prescribing instructions prohibiting the substitution of generic ibuprofen and famotidine separately as a substitution for DUEXIS or generic naproxen and branded Nexium® (esomeprazole) as a substitute for VIMOVO or generic PENNSAID 1.5% as a substitute for PENNSAID 2%, sales of DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO may suffer despite any success we may have in promoting DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2% or VIMOVO to physicians. In addition, other product candidates that contain ibuprofen and famotidine in combination or naproxen and esomeprazole in combination, while not currently known to us, may be developed and compete with DUEXIS or VIMOVO, respectively, in the future.

On February 15, 2012, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. advising that Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. had filed an Abbreviated New Drug Application, or ANDA, with the FDA for a generic version of DUEXIS, containing 800 mg of ibuprofen and 26.6 mg of famotidine. We subsequently filed patent infringement lawsuits against Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. and Par Pharmaceutical Companies, Inc., or collectively Par, relating to the ANDA and Par’s intention to market a generic version of DUEXIS. On August 21, 2013, we entered into a settlement agreement, or the Par settlement agreement, and license agreement, or the Par license agreement, with Par relating to its patent infringement litigation. The Par settlement agreement provides for a full settlement and release by both us and Par of all claims that were or could have been asserted in the litigation and that arise out of the specific patent issues that were the subject of the litigation, including all resulting damages or other remedies.

Under the Par license agreement, we granted Par a non-exclusive license (that is only royalty-bearing in some circumstances), or the License, to manufacture and commercialize Par’s generic version of DUEXIS in the United States after the generic entry date and to take steps necessary to develop inventory of, and obtain regulatory approval for, but not commercialize, Par’s generic version of DUEXIS prior to the generic entry date. The License covers all patents owned or controlled by us during the term of the Par license agreement that would, absent the License, be infringed by the manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale, or importation of Par’s generic version of DUEXIS in the United States. Unless terminated sooner pursuant to the terms of the Par license agreement, the License will continue until the last to expire of the licensed patents and/or applicable periods of regulatory exclusivity.

Under the Par license agreement, the generic entry date is January 1, 2023; however, Par may be able to enter the market earlier in certain circumstances. Such events relate to the resolution of potential future third

 

50


Table of Contents

party DUEXIS patent litigation, the entry of other third party generic versions of DUEXIS or certain specific changes in DUEXIS market conditions. Only in the event that Par enters the DUEXIS market due to the specified changes in DUEXIS market conditions will the License become royalty-bearing, with the royalty obligations ceasing upon the occurrence of one of the other events that would have allowed Par to enter the DUEXIS market.

Under the Par license agreement, we also agreed not to sue or assert any claim against Par for infringement of any patent or patent application owned or controlled by us during the term of the Par license agreement based on the manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale, or importation of Par’s generic version of DUEXIS in the United States.

The Par license agreement may be terminated by us if Par commits a material breach of the agreement that is not cured or curable within 30 days after we provide notice of the breach. We may also terminate the Par license agreement immediately if Par or any of its affiliates initiate certain challenges to the validity or enforceability of any of the licensed patents or their foreign equivalents. In addition, the Par license agreement will terminate automatically upon termination of the Par settlement agreement.

On July 15, 2013, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Watson Laboratories, Inc. — Florida, known as Actavis Laboratories FL, Inc., or Watson, advising that Watson had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of RAYOS, containing up to 5 mg of prednisone. Watson has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On August 26, 2013, we, together with Jagotec, filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against Watson, Actavis Pharma, Inc., Andrx Corp., and Actavis, Inc., or collectively WLF, seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuit alleges that WLF has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 6,488,960, 6,677,326, 8,168,218, 8,309,124 and 8,394,407 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of RAYOS containing 1 mg, 2 mg and 5 mg of prednisone prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, commonly known as the Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of WLF’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. We, together with Jagotec have granted WLF a covenant not to sue with respect to US Patent Nos. 6,677,326 and 8,168,218, respectively, and accordingly these patents have been dismissed from the lawsuit. The court held a claim construction hearing on October 16, 2014, and issued its opinion and order on claim construction on November 10, 2014, adopting our proposed construction of both of the disputed claim terms. The court has scheduled expert discovery in the WLF action to be completed by June 2, 2015, and has set the pretrial conference for September 10, 2015. The trial date will be set following the pretrial conference.

On September 12, 2013, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. advising that Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of RAYOS containing up to 5 mg of prednisone. On October 22, 2013, we, together with Jagotec, filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against Par seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuit alleged that Par had infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 6,488,960, 6,677,326, 8,168,218, 8,309,124 and 8,394,407 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of RAYOS prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. On November 20, 2013, we were notified by counsel for Par that Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. had elected to withdraw its ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of RAYOS containing 2 mg and 5 mg of prednisone. On December 5, 2013, we entered into a Stipulation of Dismissal with Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. whereby Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. agreed to withdraw its application to market a generic version of RAYOS.

On November 13, 2014, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Watson advising that Watson had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. Watson has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On December 23, 2014, we filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against Watson seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuit alleges that Watson has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450,

 

51


Table of Contents

8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,871,809 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of PENNSAID 2% prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of Watson’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. The court has not yet set a trial date for the Watson action.

On December 2, 2014, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification against Orange Book listed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,741,956 from Paddock advising that Paddock had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. On January 9, 2015, we received from Paddock another Paragraph IV Patent Certification against newly Orange Book listed U.S. Patent No. 8,871,809. Paddock has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On January 13, 2015 and January 14, 2015, we filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey and the United States District Court for the District of Delaware, respectively, against Paddock seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuits alleged that Paddock has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,871,809 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of PENNSAID 2% prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of Paddock’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. The courts have not yet set trial dates for the Paddock actions.

Currently, patent litigation is pending in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against four generic companies intending to market VIMOVO before the expiration of patents listed in the Orange Book. These cases are in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey and have been consolidated for discovery purposes. They are collectively known as the VIMOVO cases, and involve the following sets of defendants: (i) Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Inc. and Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd., or collectively, Dr. Reddy’s; (ii) Lupin Ltd. and Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or collectively, Lupin; (iii) Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc., Mylan Laboratories Limited, and Mylan Inc., or collectively, Mylan; and (iv) Watson Laboratories, Inc. — Florida, known as Actavis Laboratories FL, Inc. and Actavis Pharma, Inc., or collectively, Actavis. Patent litigation in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against a fifth generic company, Anchen Pharmaceuticals Inc., or Anchen, was dismissed on June 9, 2014 after Anchen recertified under Paragraph III. We understand that Dr. Reddy’s has entered into a settlement with AstraZeneca with respect to patent rights directed to Nexium for the commercialization of VIMOVO, and that according to the settlement agreement, Dr. Reddy’s is now able to commercialize VIMOVO under AstraZeneca’s Nexium patent rights. The settlement agreement, however, has no effect on the Pozen VIMOVO patents, which are still the subject of patent litigations. As part of our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we have taken over and are responsible for the patent litigations that include the Pozen patents licensed to us under the Pozen license agreement.

The VIMOVO cases were filed on April 21, 2011, July 25, 2011, October 28, 2011, January 4, 2013, May 10, 2013, June 28, 2013 and October 23, 2013 and collectively include allegations of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,926,907 and 8,557,285. We understand the cases arise from Paragraph IV Notice Letters providing notice of the filing of an ANDA with the FDA seeking regulatory approval to market a generic version of VIMOVO before the expiration of the patents-in-suit. We understand the Dr. Reddy’s notice letters were dated March 11, 2011 and November 20, 2012; the Lupin notice letters were dated June 10, 2011 and March 12, 2014; the Mylan notice letter was dated May 16, 2013; and the Actavis notice letters were dated March 29, 2013 and November 5, 2013; and the Anchen notice letter was dated September 16, 2011. The court has issued a claims construction order and has set a pretrial schedule but has not yet set a trial date.

On or about December 19, 2014, we filed a Notice of Opposition to a European patent, EP 2611457, to Roberto Testi, et al., covering compositions and methods for treating FA with interferon gamma, e.g., ACTIMMUNE. In the European Union, the grant of a patent may be opposed by one or more private parties.

On February 2, 2015, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification against Orange Book listed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, 8,741,956, and 8,871,809 from Taro

 

52


Table of Contents

Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. and Taro Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd., or collectively Taro, advising that Taro had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. Taro has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. We are still in the process of evaluating the Paragraph IV Patent Certification, and it is anticipated we will file suit against Taro within the statutorily prescribed 45 day time limit.

If we are unsuccessful in any of the on-going patent litigations, we will likely face generic competition with respect to VIMOVO, PENNSAID 2% and/or RAYOS and our sales of VIMOVO, PENNSAID 2% and/or RAYOS will be substantially harmed.

ACTIMMUNE is the only drug currently approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment for CGD and SMO. While there are additional or alternative approaches used to treat patients with CGD and SMO, there are currently no products on the market that compete directly with ACTIMMUNE. The current clinical standard of care to treat CGD patients in the United States is the use of concomitant “triple prophylactic therapy” comprising ACTIMMUNE, an oral antibiotic agent and an oral antifungal agent. However, the FDA-approved labeling for ACTIMMUNE does not discuss this “triple prophylactic therapy,” and physicians may choose to prescribe one or both of the other modalities in the absence of ACTIMMUNE. Because of the immediate and life-threatening nature of SMO, the preferred treatment option for SMO is often to have the patient undergo a bone marrow transplant which, if successful, will likely obviate the need for further use of ACTIMMUNE in that patient. We are aware of a number of research programs investigating the potential of gene therapy as a possible cure for CGD. Additionally, other companies may be pursuing the development of products and treatments that target the same diseases and conditions which ACTIMMUNE is currently approved to treat. As a result, it is possible that our competitors may develop new drugs that manage CGD or SMO more effectively, cost less or possibly even cure CGD or SMO. In addition, U.S. healthcare legislation passed in March 2010 authorized the FDA to approve biological products, known as biosimilars, that are similar to or interchangeable with previously approved biological products, like ACTIMMUNE, based upon potentially abbreviated data packages. Biosimilars are likely to be sold at substantially lower prices than branded products because the biosimilar manufacturer would not have to recoup the research and development and marketing costs associated with the branded product. The development and commercialization of any competing drugs or the discovery of any new alternative treatment for CGD or SMO could have a material adverse effect on sales of ACTIMMUNE and its profitability.

The availability and price of our competitors’ products could limit the demand, and the price we are able to charge, for our products. We will not successfully execute on our business objectives if the market acceptance of our products is inhibited by price competition, if physicians are reluctant to switch from existing products to our products, or if physicians switch to other new products or choose to reserve our products for use in limited patient populations.

In addition, established pharmaceutical companies may invest heavily to accelerate discovery and development of novel compounds or to in-license and develop novel compounds that could make our products obsolete. Our ability to compete successfully with these companies and other potential competitors will depend largely on our ability to leverage our experience in clinical, regulatory and commercial development to:

 

   

develop, acquire or in-license medicines that are superior to other products in the market;

 

   

attract qualified clinical, regulatory, and sales and marketing personnel;

 

   

obtain patent and/or other proprietary protection for our products and technologies;

 

   

obtain required regulatory approvals; and

 

   

successfully collaborate with pharmaceutical companies in the discovery, development and commercialization of new product candidates.

The inability to compete with existing products or subsequently introduced products would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

 

53


Table of Contents

Our business operations may subject us to numerous commercial disputes, claims and/or lawsuits.

Operating in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly the commercialization of pharmaceutical products, involves numerous commercial relationships, complex contractual arrangements, uncertain intellectual property rights, potential product liability and other aspects that create heightened risks of disputes, claims and lawsuits. In particular, we may face claims related to the safety of our products, intellectual property matters, employment matters, tax matters, commercial disputes, competition, sales and marketing practices, environmental matters, personal injury, insurance coverage and acquisition or divestiture-related matters. Any commercial dispute, claim or lawsuit may divert our management’s attention away from our business, we may incur significant expenses in addressing or defending any commercial dispute, claim or lawsuit, and we may be required to pay damage awards or settlements or become subject to equitable remedies that could adversely affect our operations and financial results.

We are currently in litigation with multiple generic drug manufacturers regarding intellectual property infringement. For example, we are currently involved in Hatch Waxman litigation with generic drug manufacturers related to RAYOS and VIMOVO. Litigation related to these disputes may be costly and time-consuming and could materially and adversely impact our financial position and results of operations if resolved against us.

Similarly, from time to time we are involved in disputes with distributors, PBMs and licensing partners regarding their and our rights and performance of obligations under contractual arrangements. For example, we previously entered into a rebate agreement with a PBM, pursuant to which we were required to pay certain rebates on certain of our products that were reimbursed by health plans contracting with the PBM with respect to their formularies. In 2014, we sent a notice alerting the PBM of certain material breaches by the PBM under the agreement and indicating that the agreement would automatically terminate if the material breaches were not cured within 30 days. Among other things, the breaches by the PBM involved repeated invoices that included claims for rebates which were not eligible for payment under the agreement. Following the 30-day period, during which the PBM did not take action to cure the breaches or formally respond to the notice, we sent another notice informing the PBM that the agreement was terminated as of the end of the 30-day period in accordance with its terms and we ceased paying further rebates under the agreement. On November 6, 2014, we received a letter from the PBM asserting that the breaches we alleged in our termination notice were not material breaches and therefore the agreement was not terminated and remains in effect. In addition, the PBM claimed that we owe $38.5 million in past price protection and utilization rebates related to VIMOVO and DUEXIS, in addition to further rebates on sales of VIMOVO and DUEXIS continuing after the date we believe the agreement was terminated. The substantial majority of these rebate claims relate to price protection rebates on VIMOVO which we believe are precluded under the agreement, particularly because VIMOVO was not covered under the agreement until after we had established an initial price for VIMOVO under a Horizon-owned National Drug Code, or NDC. Based upon the terms of the agreement and the PBM’s actions, we believe that the PBM’s claims in its November 6, 2014 letter are without merit and we intend to vigorously defend against them. However, we cannot predict the outcome of this dispute, including whether it will result in litigation. If we are unsuccessful in defending against the PBM’s claims, and in light of the significant number of health plans that contract with the PBM, we could be forced to make substantial payments to the PBM for past and/or future rebates, at least through 2014. While the stated term of the agreement was through 2015, even if the PBM successfully argued that we did not validly terminate the contract due to material breach, we do not expect that we would owe further rebates in 2015 based on certain actions of the PBM. We cannot guarantee, however, that the PBM would not attempt to make arguments to the contrary. We also believe that we may have claims for damages that we could assert against the PBM. In any event, resolving the dispute with the PBM or being subject to related litigation may be costly and time-consuming and could materially and adversely impact our financial position and results of operations if resolved against us.

 

54


Table of Contents

A variety of risks associated with operating our business and marketing our products internationally could materially adversely affect our business.

In addition to our U.S. operations, we have operations in Ireland, Bermuda, Luxembourg, Switzerland and Germany. Moreover, LODOTRA is currently being marketed in a limited number of countries outside the United States, and Mundipharma is in the process of obtaining pricing and reimbursement approval for, and preparing to market, LODOTRA in other European countries, as well as in certain Asian, Latin American, Middle Eastern and African countries. Also, Grünenthal S.A. is in the registration process for the commercialization of DUEXIS in Latin America. We face risks associated with our international operations, including possible unfavorable regulatory, pricing and reimbursement, political, tax and labor conditions, which could harm our business. We are subject to numerous risks associated with international business activities, including:

 

   

compliance with differing or unexpected regulatory requirements for our products;

 

   

compliance with Irish laws and the maintenance of our Irish tax residency with respect to our overall corporate structure and administrative operations, including the need to generally hold meetings of our board of directors and make decisions in Ireland, which may make certain corporate actions more cumbersome, costly and time-consuming;

 

   

compliance with Swiss laws with respect to our Horizon Pharma AG subsidiary, including laws requiring maintenance of cash in the subsidiary to avoid overindebtedness, which requires Horizon Pharma AG to maintain assets in excess of its liabilities;

 

   

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

   

in certain circumstances, including with respect to the commercialization of LODOTRA in Europe and certain Asian, Latin American, Middle Eastern and African countries, and commercialization of DUEXIS in Latin America, increased dependence on the commercialization efforts and regulatory compliance of our distributors or strategic partners;

 

   

compliance with German laws with respect to our Horizon Pharma GmbH subsidiary through which Horizon Pharma AG conducts most of its European operations;

 

   

foreign government taxes, regulations and permit requirements;

 

   

U.S. and foreign government tariffs, trade restrictions, price and exchange controls and other regulatory requirements;

 

   

anti-corruption laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;

 

   

economic weakness, including inflation, natural disasters, war, events of terrorism or political instability in particular foreign countries;

 

   

fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenues, and other obligations related to doing business in another country;

 

   

compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws, regulations and restrictions for employees living or traveling abroad;

 

   

workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States;

 

   

production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad;

 

   

changes in diplomatic and trade relationships; and

 

   

challenges in enforcing our contractual and intellectual property rights, especially in those foreign countries that do not respect and protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the United States.

 

55


Table of Contents

These and other risks associated with our international operations may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to develop, acquire or in-license other product candidates or products, our business and prospects would be limited.

A key element of our strategy is to develop, acquire or in-license and commercialize a portfolio of other products or product candidates in addition to our current products. Because we do not engage in proprietary drug discovery, the success of this strategy depends in large part upon the combination of our regulatory, development and commercial capabilities and expertise and our ability to identify, select and acquire or in-license approved or clinically enabled product candidates for therapeutic indications that complement or augment our current products, or that otherwise fit into our development or strategic plans on terms that are acceptable to us. Identifying, selecting, acquiring or licensing promising products or product candidates requires substantial technical, financial and human resources expertise. Efforts to do so may not result in the actual acquisition or license of a particular product or product candidate, potentially resulting in a diversion of our management’s time and the expenditure of our resources with no resulting benefit. If we are unable to identify, select and acquire or license suitable products or product candidates from third parties on terms acceptable to us, or unable to raise capital required to acquire or in-license new products, our business and prospects will be limited.

Moreover, any product candidate we identify, select and acquire or license may require additional, time-consuming development or regulatory efforts prior to commercial sale, including preclinical studies if applicable, and extensive clinical testing and approval by the FDA and applicable foreign regulatory authorities. All product candidates are prone to the risk of failure that is inherent in pharmaceutical product development, including the possibility that the product candidate will not be shown to be sufficiently safe and/or effective for approval by regulatory authorities. In addition, we cannot assure you that any such products that are approved will be manufactured or produced economically, successfully commercialized or widely accepted in the marketplace or be more effective or desired than other commercially available alternatives.

In addition, if we fail to successfully commercialize and further develop our products, there is a greater likelihood that we will fail to successfully develop a pipeline of other product candidates to follow our existing products or be able to acquire other products to expand our existing portfolio, and our business and prospects would be harmed.

Our November 2013 acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, the September 2014 merger with Vidara and our October 2014 acquisition of the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2%, and any other strategic transactions that we may pursue in the future could have a variety of negative consequences, and we may not realize the benefits of such transactions or attempts to engage in such transactions.

We acquired the U.S. rights to VIMOVO in November 2013, merged the businesses of Horizon Pharma, Inc. and Vidara in September 2014 and acquired the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% in October 2014, and from time to time, we may seek to engage in additional strategic transactions with third parties, such as acquisitions of companies or divisions of companies, asset purchases or in-licensing of products or product candidates or technologies that we believe will complement or augment our existing business. We may also consider a variety of other business arrangements, including spin-offs, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, restructurings, divestitures, business combinations and other investments. Any such transaction may require us to incur non-recurring and other charges, increase our near and long-term expenditures, pose significant integration challenges, create additional tax, legal, accounting and operational complexities in our business, require additional expertise, result in dilution to our existing shareholders and disrupt our management and business, which could harm our operations and financial results. For example, in connection with our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we assumed primary responsibility for the existing patent infringement litigation with respect to VIMOVO, and have also agreed to reimburse certain legal expenses of Pozen with respect to its continued involvement in such litigation, and we expect that this will result in substantial on-going expenses and

 

56


Table of Contents

potential distractions to our management team. Moreover, we face significant competition in seeking appropriate strategic transaction opportunities and the negotiation process for any strategic transaction can be time-consuming and complex. In addition, we may not be successful in our efforts to engage in certain strategic transactions because our financial resources may be insufficient and/or third parties may not view our commercial and development capabilities as being adequate. We may not be able to expand our business or realize our strategic goals if we do not have sufficient funding or cannot borrow or raise additional capital. There is no assurance that following our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, the merger with Vidara, our acquisition of the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% or any other strategic transaction, we will achieve the anticipated revenues, net income or tax benefits that we believe to justify such transaction. In addition, any failures or delays in entering into strategic transactions anticipated by analysts or the investment community could result in a decline in our share price.

We may not be able to successfully maintain our current advantageous tax status and resulting tax rates, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

We are incorporated in Ireland and maintain subsidiaries in multiple jurisdictions, including Ireland, the United States, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Germany and Bermuda. Prior to our Merger, Vidara was able to achieve a favorable tax rate through the performance of certain functions and ownership of certain assets in tax-efficient jurisdictions, including Ireland and Bermuda, together with intra-group service and transfer pricing agreements, each on an arm’s length basis. We are continuing a substantially similar structure and arrangements. Taxing authorities, such as the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, actively audit and otherwise challenge these types of arrangements, and have done so in the pharmaceutical industry. We expect that these challenges will continue as a result of the recent increase in scrutiny and political attention on corporate tax structures. The IRS may challenge our structure and transfer pricing arrangements through an audit or lawsuit. Responding to or defending such a challenge could be expensive and consume time and other resources, and divert management’s time and focus from operating our business. We cannot predict whether taxing authorities will conduct an audit or file a lawsuit challenging this structure, the cost involved in responding to any such audit or lawsuit, or the outcome. If we are unsuccessful, we may be required to pay taxes for prior periods, interest, fines or penalties, and may be obligated to pay increased taxes in the future, any of which could require us to reduce our operating expenses, decrease efforts in support of our products or seek to raise additional funds, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

The IRS may not agree with our conclusion that we should be treated as a foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes following the combination of the businesses of Horizon Pharma, Inc. and Vidara Therapeutics International plc.

Although Horizon Pharma plc is incorporated in Ireland, the IRS, may assert that we should be treated as a U.S. corporation (and, therefore, a U.S. tax resident) for U.S. federal income tax purposes pursuant to Section 7874 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. A corporation is generally considered a tax resident in the jurisdiction of its organization or incorporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Because Horizon Pharma plc, the parent company of our organization, is an Irish incorporated entity, it would generally be classified as a foreign corporation (and, therefore, a non-U.S. tax resident) under these rules. Section 7874 provides an exception pursuant to which a foreign incorporated entity may, in certain circumstances, be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Under Section 7874, and as a result of the fact that the former shareholders of Horizon owned (within the meaning of Section 7874) less than 80% (by both vote and value) of the combined entity’s stock immediately after the merger, we believe we qualify as a foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes following the merger. However, there can be no assurance that there will not exist in the future a subsequent change in the facts or in law which might cause us to be treated as a domestic corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including with retroactive effect.

 

57


Table of Contents

Further, there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with the position that the ownership test was satisfied. There is limited guidance regarding the application of Section 7874 of the Code, including with respect to the provisions regarding the application of the ownership test. If we were unable to be treated as a foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, one of our significant strategic reasons for completing the Vidara merger would be nullified and we may not be able to recoup the significant investment in completing the transaction.

Future changes to U.S. and non-U.S. tax laws could materially adversely affect us.

Under current law, we expect to be treated as a foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes following the Vidara merger. However, changes to the rules in Section 7874 of the Code or regulations promulgated thereunder or other guidance issued by the Treasury or the IRS could adversely affect our status as a foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and any such changes could have prospective or retroactive application to us or our shareholders. On May 20, 2014 Senator Carl Levin and Representative Sander M. Levin introduced The Stop Corporate Inversions Act of 2014 (the “bill”) in the Senate and House of Representatives, respectively. In its current form, the bill would treat us as a U.S. Corporation as a result of the former shareholders of Horizon Pharma, Inc. owning 50% or more of the combined entity’s stock immediately following the Vidara merger. If enacted, the bill would apply to taxable years ending after May 8, 2014 and does not contain an exception for transactions subject to a binding commitment on that date. Additionally, in September 2014, legislation was introduced in the U.S. Senate that seeks to address the practice of earnings stripping by companies that move their domicile overseas. Furthermore, the Department of the Treasury and the IRS provided notice in September 2014 that the agencies intend to issue regulations to reduce the tax benefits of certain inversion transactions.

In addition, the U.S. Congress, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and other government agencies in jurisdictions where we and our affiliates do business have had an extended focus on issues related to the taxation of multinational corporations and there are several current legislative and administrative proposals that, if enacted, would substantially change the U.S. federal income tax system as it relates to the taxation of multinational corporations. One example is in the area of “base erosion and profit shifting,” where payments are made between affiliates from a jurisdiction with high tax rates to a jurisdiction with lower tax rates. As a result, the tax laws in the United States and other countries in which we and our affiliates do business could change on a prospective or retroactive basis, and any such changes could materially and adversely affect us.

If we are not successful in attracting and retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.

Our ability to compete in the highly competitive biotechnology and pharmaceuticals industries depends upon our ability to attract and retain highly qualified managerial, scientific and medical personnel. We are highly dependent on our management, sales and marketing and scientific and medical personnel, including our executive committee comprised of our Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Timothy P. Walbert; our Executive Vice President and Chief Business Officer, Robert F. Carey; our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Paul W. Hoelscher; our Executive Vice President, Corporate Secretary and Managing Director, Ireland, David Kelly; our Executive Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer, John J. Kody; our Executive Vice President, Corporate Development, Barry J. Moze; and our Executive Vice President, Research and Development and Chief Medical Officer, Jeffrey W. Sherman, M.D. In order to retain valuable employees at our company, in addition to salary and cash incentives, we provide incentive stock options and restricted stock units that vest over time. The value to employees of stock options and restricted stock units that vest over time will be significantly affected by movements in our share price that are beyond our control, and may at any time be insufficient to counteract more lucrative offers from other companies.

Despite our efforts to retain valuable employees, members of our management, sales and marketing, regulatory affairs, clinical affairs, medical affairs and development teams may terminate their employment with

 

58


Table of Contents

us on short notice. Although we have written employment arrangements with all of our employees, these employment arrangements generally provide for at-will employment, which means that our employees can leave our employment at any time, with or without notice. The loss of the services of any of our executive officers or other key employees and our inability to find suitable replacements could potentially harm our business, financial condition and prospects. We do not maintain “key man” insurance policies on the lives of these individuals or the lives of any of our other employees. Our success also depends on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled junior, mid-level, and senior managers as well as junior, mid-level, and senior sales and marketing and scientific and medical personnel.

Many of the other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies with whom we compete for qualified personnel have greater financial and other resources, different risk profiles and longer histories in the industry than we do. They also may provide more diverse opportunities and better chances for career advancement. Some of these characteristics may be more appealing to high quality candidates than that which we have to offer. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high quality personnel, the rate and success at which we can develop and commercialize products and product candidates will be limited.

We are, with respect to our current products, and will be, with respect to any other product or product candidate for which we obtain FDA approval or acquire or in-license, subject to ongoing FDA obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense. Additionally, any other product candidate, if approved by the FDA, could be subject to labeling and other restrictions and market withdrawal, and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with our products.

Any regulatory approvals that we obtain for our product candidates may also be subject to limitations on the approved indicated uses for which the product may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, or contain requirements for potentially costly post-marketing testing, including Phase 4 clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product candidate. In addition, with respect to our currently FDA-approved products (and with respect to our product candidates, if approved), the manufacturing processes, labeling, packaging, distribution, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion and recordkeeping for the product are subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as continued compliance with current good manufacturing practices, or cGMPs, good clinical practices, or GCPs, international conference on harmonization regulations, or ICH regulations, and good laboratory practices, or GLPs, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA for all of our products in clinical development, for any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval. In connection with our November 2013 acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we assumed responsibility for completing an ongoing Pediatric Research Equity Act post-marketing requirement study in children 12 years to 16 years and 11 months of age with Juvenile RA for which the FDA recently granted an extension with a final report due date of December 2015.

In addition, the FDA closely regulates the marketing and promotion of drugs. The FDA does not regulate the behavior of physicians in their choice of treatments. The FDA does, however, restrict manufacturers’ promotional communications. A significant number of pharmaceutical companies have been the target of inquiries and investigations by various U.S. federal and state regulatory, investigative, prosecutorial and administrative entities in connection with the promotion of products for off-label uses and other sales practices. These investigations have alleged violations of various U.S. federal and state laws and regulations, including claims asserting antitrust violations, violations of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, false claims laws, the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, anti-kickback laws, and other alleged violations in connection with the promotion of products for unapproved uses, pricing and Medicare and/or Medicaid reimbursement. If we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

 

59


Table of Contents

Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with our third-party manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in, among other things:

 

   

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, withdrawal of the product from the market, or voluntary or mandatory product recalls;

 

   

fines, Warning Letters or holds on clinical trials;

 

   

refusal by the FDA to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications filed by us or our strategic partners, or suspension or revocation of product license approvals;

 

   

product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of products; and

 

   

injunctions, the imposition of civil or criminal penalties, or exclusions.

If we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Coverage and reimbursement may not be available, or reimbursement may be available at only limited levels, for our products, which could make it difficult for us to sell our products profitably or to successfully execute planned product price increases.

Market acceptance and sales of our products will depend in large part on global coverage and reimbursement policies and may be affected by future healthcare reform measures, both in the United States and other key international markets. Successful commercialization of our products will depend in part on the availability of governmental and third-party payer reimbursement for the cost of our products. Government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations generally provide reimbursement for healthcare. In particular, in the United States, private health insurers and other third-party payers often provide reimbursement for products and services based on the level at which the government (through the Medicare or Medicaid programs) provides reimbursement for such treatments. In the United States, the European Union and other significant or potentially significant markets for our products and product candidates, government authorities and third-party payers are increasingly attempting to limit or regulate the price of medical products and services, particularly for new and innovative products and therapies, which has resulted in lower average selling prices. Further, the increased emphasis on managed healthcare in the United States and on country and regional pricing and reimbursement controls in the European Union will put additional pressure on product pricing, reimbursement and usage, which may adversely affect our product sales and results of operations. These pressures can arise from rules and practices of managed care groups, judicial decisions and governmental laws and regulations related to Medicare, Medicaid and healthcare reform, pharmaceutical reimbursement policies and pricing in general. These pressures may create negative reactions to any product price increases, or limit the amount by which we may be able to increase our product prices, which may adversely affect our product sales and results of operations.

Patients are unlikely to use our products unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of our products. Third-party payers may limit coverage to specific drug products on an approved list, also known as a formulary, which might not include all of the FDA-approved drugs for a particular indication. Moreover, a third-party payer’s decision to provide coverage for a drug product does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Additionally, one third-party payer’s decision to cover a particular drug product does not ensure that other payors will also provide coverage for the drug product, or will provide coverage at an adequate reimbursement rate. Even though we have contracts with some PBMs in the United States, that does not guarantee that they will perform in accordance with the contracts, nor does it preclude them from taking adverse actions against us, which could materially adversely affect our operating results. In addition, the existence of such PBM contracts does not guarantee coverage by such PBM’s contracted

 

60


Table of Contents

health plans or adequate reimbursement to their respective providers for our products. For example, two significant PBMs placed DUEXIS and VIMOVO on their exclusion lists beginning in 2015, which will result in a loss of reimbursement for patients’ whose healthcare plans have adopted these PBM lists. Also, as noted above, we are currently in an ongoing contract and rebate dispute with a U.S. PBM involving VIMOVO and DUEXIS, the outcome of which we cannot at this time determine, and which has the potential to negatively impact our relationship with that PBM, which could affect their coverage and/or reimbursement treatment of our other products. Additional healthcare plan formularies may also exclude our products from reimbursement due to the actions of these PBMs, future price increases we may implement, our use of PME program or any other co-pay programs, or other reasons. If our strategies to mitigate formulary exclusions are not effective, these events may reduce the likelihood that physicians prescribe our products and increase the likelihood that prescriptions for our products are not filled.

Outside of the United States, the success of our products, including LODOTRA and, if widely approved, DUEXIS, will depend largely on obtaining and maintaining government coverage, because in many countries patients are unlikely to use prescription drugs that are not covered by their government healthcare programs. To date, LODOTRA is approved in over 35 countries outside the United States, and reimbursement for LODOTRA has been obtained in Germany, Italy, Sweden and Switzerland. Mundipharma is seeking coverage for LODOTRA in a number of countries and currently sells LODOTRA without coverage in a limited number of countries. Negotiating coverage and reimbursement with governmental authorities can delay commercialization by 12 months or more. Coverage and reimbursement policies may adversely affect our ability to sell our products on a profitable basis. In many international markets, governments control the prices of prescription pharmaceuticals, including through the implementation of reference pricing, price cuts, rebates, revenue-related taxes and profit control, and we expect prices of prescription pharmaceuticals to decline over the life of the product or as volumes increase. Recently, many countries in the European Union have increased the amount of discounts required on pharmaceutical products, which we believe has impacted the reimbursement rates and timing to launch for LODOTRA to date, and we expect these discounts to continue as countries attempt to manage healthcare expenditures, especially in light of current economic conditions. For example, legislation was recently enacted in Germany that will increase the rebate on prescription pharmaceuticals and likely lower the revenues from the sale of LODOTRA in Germany that we would otherwise receive. As a result of these pricing practices, it may become difficult to achieve profitability or expected rates of growth in revenue or results of operations. Any shortfalls in revenue could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In light of such policies and the uncertainty surrounding proposed regulations and changes in the coverage and reimbursement policies of governments and third-party payers, we cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for DUEXIS or LODOTRA in any additional markets or for any other product candidates that we may develop. Also, we cannot be sure that reimbursement amounts will not reduce the demand for, or the price of, our products. If coverage and reimbursement is not available or is available only at limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our products.

We expect to experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of our products due to the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of health maintenance organizations and additional legislative proposals. There may be additional pressure by payers and healthcare providers to use generic drugs that contain the active ingredients found in DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS/LODOTRA and VIMOVO or any other product candidates that we may develop, acquire or in-license. If we fail to successfully secure and maintain coverage and adequate reimbursement for our products or are significantly delayed in doing so, we will have difficulty achieving market acceptance of our products and expected revenue and profitability which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. We may also experience pressure from payers concerning certain promotional approaches that we may implement such as PME program or any other co-pay programs whereby we assist qualified patients with certain out-of-pocket expenditures for our product. In addition, pharmaceutical manufacturer co-pay initiatives are the subject of evolving interpretations of applicable regulatory requirements, and any change in the regulatory or enforcement

 

61


Table of Contents

environment regarding such programs could impact our ability to offer such programs. If we are unsuccessful with our PME program or any other co-pay initiatives, we would be at a competitive disadvantage in terms of pricing versus preferred branded and generic competitors.

We are subject to federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations and implementation or changes to such healthcare laws and regulations could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

The U.S. and some foreign jurisdictions are considering or have enacted a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to regulate and to change the healthcare system in ways that could affect our ability to sell our products profitably. In the United States and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and/or expanding access. In the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives.

If we are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other federal or state regulations, we may be subject to civil and/or criminal penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from federal health care programs and the restructuring of our operations. Any of these could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results. Since many of these laws have not been fully interpreted by the courts, there is an increased risk that we may be found in violation of one or more of their provisions. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we ultimately are successful in our defense, will cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention away from the operation of our business.

We expect that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act, or collectively, the ACA, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we may receive for any approved product. An expansion in the government’s role in the U.S. healthcare industry may cause general downward pressure on the prices of prescription drug products, lower reimbursements for providers using our products, reduce product utilization and adversely affect our business and results of operations. It is unclear whether and to what extent, if at all, other potential developments resulting from the federal healthcare reform legislation, such as an increase in the number of people with health insurance and an increased focus on preventive medicine, may provide us additional revenue to offset the annual excise tax (on certain drug product sales) enacted under the ACA, subject to limited exceptions. It is possible that the tax burden, if we are not excepted, would adversely affect our financial performance, which in turn could cause the price of our share to decline. Any reduction in reimbursement from government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payers. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our current products and/or those for which we may receive regulatory approval in the future.

We are subject, directly or indirectly, to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse and false claims laws and regulations. Prosecutions under such laws have increased in recent years and we may become subject to such litigation. If we are unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.

In the United States, we are subject directly, or indirectly through our customers, to various state and federal fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal False Claims Act, federal and state privacy and security laws, sunshine laws, government price reporting laws, and other fraud laws, as described in greater detail in the Government Regulation Section of this report. These laws may impact, among other things, our current and proposed sales, marketing and educational programs, as well as other possible relationships with customers, pharmacies, physicians, payers, and patients.

Compliance with these laws, including the development of a comprehensive compliance program, is difficult, costly and time consuming. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of available

 

62


Table of Contents

statutory and regulatory exemptions, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. These risks may be increased where there are evolving interpretations of applicable regulatory requirements, such as those applicable to manufacturer co-pay initiatives. We are engaged in various business arrangements with current and potential customers, and we can give no assurance that such arrangements would not be subject to scrutiny under such laws, despite our efforts to properly structure such arrangements. Even if we structure our programs with the intent of compliance with such laws, there can be no certainty that we would not need to defend our business activities against enforcement or litigation.

We are unable to predict whether we could be subject to actions under any of these or other fraud and abuse laws, or the impact of such actions. If we are found to be in violation of, or to encourage or assist the violation by third parties of any of the laws described above or other applicable state and federal fraud and abuse laws, we may be subject to penalties, including administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, withdrawal of regulatory approval, imprisonment, exclusion from government healthcare reimbursement programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, injunctions and other associated remedies, or private “qui tam” actions brought by individual whistleblowers in the name of the government, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business.

Our products or any other product candidate that we develop may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent regulatory approval or commercialization, result in product re-labeling or withdrawal from the market or have a significant impact on customer demand.

Undesirable side effects caused by any product candidate that we develop could result in the denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other regulatory authorities for any or all targeted indications, or cause us to evaluate the future of our development programs. In our two Phase 3 clinical trials with DUEXIS, the most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea, dyspepsia, diarrhea, constipation and upper respiratory tract infection. In Phase 3 endoscopic registration clinical trials with VIMOVO, the most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events were erosive gastritis, dyspepsia, gastritis, diarrhea, gastric ulcer, upper abdominal pain, nausea and upper respiratory tract infection. The most common side effects observed in pivotal trials for ACTIMMUNE were “flu-like” or constitutional symptoms such as fever, headache, chills, myalgia and fatigue. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events in the Phase 3 clinical trials with RAYOS/LODOTRA included flare in RA-related symptoms, abdominal pain, nasopharyngitis, headache, flushing, upper respiratory tract infection, back pain and weight gain. The most common adverse events reported in a Phase 2 clinical trial of PENNSAID 2% were application site reactions, such as dryness, exfoliation, erythema, pruritus, pain, induration, rash and scabbing.

In addition, the FDA or other regulatory authorities may require, or we may undertake, additional clinical trials to support the safety profile of our product candidates.

In addition, if we or others identify undesirable side effects caused by our products or any other product candidate that we may develop that receives marketing approval, or if there is a perception that the product is associated with undesirable side effects:

 

   

regulatory authorities may require the addition of labeling statements, such as a “black box” warning or a contraindication;

 

   

regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of the product or place restrictions on the way it is prescribed;

 

   

we may be required to change the way the product is administered, conduct additional clinical trials or change the labeling of the product or implement a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy; and

 

   

we may be subject to increased exposure to product liability and/or personal injury claims.

 

63


Table of Contents

If any of these events occurred with respect to our products, our ability to generate significant revenues from the sale of these products would be significantly harmed.

We rely on third parties to conduct our preclinical and clinical trials. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines or if they experience regulatory compliance issues, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates and our business could be substantially harmed.

We have agreements with third-party contract research organizations, or CROs, to conduct our clinical programs, including those required for post-marketing commitments. We may also have the need to enter into other such agreements in the future if we were to develop other product candidates or conduct clinical trials in additional indications for our existing products. In connection with our planned Phase 3 study to evaluate ACTIMMUNE in the treatment of FA, we are working with an academic research organization, who is the Clinical Trials Coordination Center, part of the Center for Human Experimental Therapeutics, in the University of Rochester to conduct the FA Phase 3 study as well as collaborating with the Friedreich’s Ataxia Research Alliance, or FARA, and select investigators of FARA’s Collaborative Clinical Research Network in FA. We rely heavily on these parties for the execution of our clinical studies, and control only certain aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol. We and our CROs are required to comply with current GCP or ICH regulations. The FDA enforces these GCP or ICH regulations through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or our CROs fail to comply with applicable GCP or ICH regulations, the data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and our submission of marketing applications may be delayed or the FDA may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that, upon inspection, the FDA will determine that any of our clinical trials comply or complied with GCP or ICH regulations. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under cGMP regulations, and may require a large number of test subjects. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process. Moreover, our business may be implicated if any of our CROs violates federal or state fraud and abuse or false claims laws and regulations or healthcare privacy and security laws.

If any of our relationships with these third-party CROs terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our products and product candidates. As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our products and product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.

Switching or adding additional CROs can involve substantial cost and require extensive management time and focus. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new CRO commences work. As a result, delays may occur, which can materially impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development timelines. Though we carefully manage our relationships with our CROs, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter similar challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or prospects.

In addition, pursuant to a March 2011 letter agreement and in connection with our waiver of certain milestone payments, Mundipharma initiated a separate Phase 3 clinical trial for LODOTRA for the potential treatment of polymyalgia rheumatica, or PMR. We had limited control over the timing and implementation of the planned clinical trial and in February 2014, Mundipharma informed us that they had terminated the clinical trial

 

64


Table of Contents

primarily due to recruitment difficulties based on the inclusion criteria and as a result of the cessation of production of the comparator product Decortin® 1mg.

In addition, in connection with our November 2013 acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we assumed responsibility for completing an ongoing Pediatric Research Equity Act post-marketing requirement study in children 12 years to 16 years and 11 months of age with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis for which the FDA recently granted an extension with a final report due date of December 2015. Although we are committed to carrying out these commitments, there are challenges in conducting studies in pediatric patients including availability of study sites, patients, and obtaining parental informed consent.

Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome, and results of earlier studies and trials may not be predictive of future trial results.

Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. The results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials of potential product candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials. Product candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through preclinical studies and initial clinical testing.

With respect to our planned Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate ACTIMMUTE for the treatment of FA, and to the extent that we are required to conduct additional clinical development of ACTIMMUNE, DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS/LODOTRA or VIMOVO or we conduct clinical development of earlier stage product candidates or for other additional indications for ACTIMMUNE or RAYOS/LODOTRA, we may experience delays in these clinical trials. We do not know whether any additional clinical trials will be initiated in the future, begin on time, need to be redesigned, enroll patients on time or be completed on schedule, if at all. Clinical trials can be delayed for a variety of reasons, including delays related to:

 

   

obtaining regulatory approval to commence a trial;

 

   

reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

 

   

obtaining institutional review board or ethics committee approval at each site;

 

   

recruiting suitable patients to participate in a trial;

 

   

having patients complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;

 

   

clinical sites dropping out of a trial;

 

   

adding new sites; or

 

   

manufacturing sufficient quantities of product candidates for use in clinical trials.

Patient enrollment, a significant factor in the timing of clinical trials, is affected by many factors including the size and nature of the patient population, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the eligibility criteria for the trial, the design of the clinical trial, competing clinical trials and clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the product candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating. Furthermore, we rely and expect to rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our future clinical trials and while we have and intend to have agreements governing their committed activities, we will have limited influence over their actual performance.

We could encounter delays if prescribing physicians encounter unresolved ethical issues associated with enrolling patients in clinical trials of our product candidates in lieu of prescribing existing treatments that have

 

65


Table of Contents

established safety and efficacy profiles. Further, a clinical trial may be suspended or terminated by us, our collaborators, the FDA or other regulatory authorities due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. If we experience delays in the completion of, or if we terminate, any clinical trial of our product candidates, the commercial prospects of our product candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues from any of these product candidates will be delayed. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our product development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects significantly. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates.

Business interruptions could seriously harm our future revenue and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses.

Our operations could be subject to earthquakes, power shortages, telecommunications failures, water shortages, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, fires, extreme weather conditions, medical epidemics and other natural or man-made disasters or business interruptions. While we carry insurance for certain of these events and have implemented disaster management plans and contingencies, the occurrence of any of these business interruptions could seriously harm our business and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses. Following the closing of our acquisition of Vidara, we conduct or plan to conduct significant management operations at both our global headquarters located in Dublin, Ireland and our U.S. office located in Deerfield, Illinois. If our Dublin or Deerfield offices were affected by a natural or man-made disaster or other business interruption, our ability to manage our domestic and foreign operations could be impaired, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. We currently rely, and intend to rely in the future, on third-party manufacturers and suppliers to produce our products and third-party logistics partners to ship our products. Our ability to obtain commercial supplies of our products could be disrupted and our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected if the operations of these third-party suppliers or logistics partners were affected by a man-made or natural disaster or other business interruption. The ultimate impact of such events on us, our significant suppliers and our general infrastructure is unknown.

If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of our products.

We face an inherent risk of product liability as a result of the commercial sales of our products and the clinical testing of our product candidates. For example, we may be sued if any of our products or product candidates allegedly causes injury or is found to be otherwise unsuitable during clinical testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability or a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization of our product candidates. Even a successful defense would require significant financial and management resources. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

 

   

decreased demand for our products or product candidates that we may develop;

 

   

injury to our reputation;

 

   

withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

 

   

initiation of investigations by regulators;

 

   

costs to defend the related litigation;

 

66


Table of Contents
   

a diversion of management’s time and our resources;

 

   

substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;

 

   

product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;

 

   

loss of revenue;

 

   

exhaustion of any available insurance and our capital resources;

 

   

the inability to commercialize our products or product candidates; and

 

   

a decline in our share price.

Our inability to obtain and retain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of products we develop. We currently carry product liability insurance covering our clinical studies and commercial product sales in the amount of $20 million in the aggregate. Although we maintain such insurance, any claim that may be brought against us could result in a court judgment or settlement in an amount that is not covered, in whole or in part, by our insurance or that is in excess of the limits of our insurance coverage. If we determine that it is prudent to increase our product liability coverage due to the on-going commercialization of our current products in the United States, and/or the potential commercial launches of DUEXIS and LODOTRA in additional markets, we may be unable to obtain such increased coverage on acceptable terms or at all. Our insurance policies also have various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We will have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts.

Our business involves the use of hazardous materials, and we and our third-party manufacturers must comply with environmental laws and regulations, which can be expensive and restrict how we do business.

Our third-party manufacturers’ activities involve the controlled storage, use and disposal of hazardous materials owned by us, including the components of our product candidates and other hazardous compounds. We and our manufacturers are subject to federal, state and local as well as foreign laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials. Although we believe that the safety procedures utilized by our third-party manufacturers for handling and disposing of these materials comply with the standards prescribed by these laws and regulations, we cannot eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of an accident, state, federal or foreign authorities may curtail the use of these materials and interrupt our business operations. We do not currently maintain hazardous materials insurance coverage. If we are subject to any liability as a result of our third-party manufacturers’ activities involving hazardous materials, our business and financial condition may be adversely affected. In the future we may seek to establish longer term third-party manufacturing arrangements, pursuant to which we would seek to obtain contractual indemnification protection from such third-party manufacturers potentially limiting this liability exposure.

Our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements and insider trading.

We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with FDA regulations, provide accurate information to the FDA, comply with manufacturing standards we have established, comply with federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion,

 

67


Table of Contents

sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Capital Requirements

We have incurred significant operating losses since our inception, and have not yet achieved profitability.

We have a limited operating history and even less history operating as a combined organization following the Vidara merger. We have financed our operations primarily through equity and debt financings, including the issuance of convertible notes, and have incurred significant operating losses since our inception. We had net losses of $263.6 million, $149.0 million and $87.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively. As of December 31, 2014, we had an accumulated deficit of $720.7 million. Our losses have resulted principally from costs incurred in our development activities for our products and product candidates, commercialization activities related to our product launches and costs associated with derivative liability accounting. Our prior losses, combined with possible future losses, have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our shareholders’ deficit and working capital. While we anticipate that we will become profitable in the future, whether and when we achieve this will depend on the revenues we generate from the sale of our products being sufficient to cover our operating expenses, and we have not achieved profitability to date.

We have limited product revenues and other sources of revenues. Even if we achieve profitability in the future, we cannot be certain that we will sustain profitability, which would depress the market price of our ordinary shares and could cause our investors to lose all or a part of their investment.

Our ability to become profitable depends upon our ability to generate revenues from sales of our products. DUEXIS was approved by the FDA on April 23, 2011, and we began generating revenues from sales of DUEXIS in late 2011 following the commercial launch in the United States. LODOTRA is approved for marketing in over 35 countries outside the United States, and to date we have generated only limited revenues from sales of LODOTRA. RAYOS was approved by the FDA on July 26, 2012, and we began marketing it in the United States through our full field sales force in late January 2013. Following our November 2013 acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we began commercialization efforts in the United States in the first quarter of 2014. ACTIMMUNE was originally launched in the U.S. market in March 1991 by Genentech and in June 2012, Vidara acquired the intellectual property rights and certain assets related to the ACTIMMUNE product line. In September 2014, the businesses of Horizon Pharma plc and Vidara were combined, and as a result we assumed the commercialization of ACTIMMUNE. In October 2014 we acquired the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% and began commercializing PENNSAID 2% in the United States in January 2015. We may never be able to successfully commercialize our products or develop or commercialize other products in the United States, which we believe represents our most significant commercial opportunity. Our ability to generate future revenues depends heavily on our success in:

 

   

continued commercialization of our existing products and any other product candidates for which we obtain approval;

 

   

obtaining FDA approvals for additional indications for ACTIMMUNE;

 

   

securing additional foreign regulatory approvals for LODOTRA and DUEXIS; and

 

   

developing, acquiring or in-licensing and commercializing a portfolio of other product candidates in addition to our current products.

 

68


Table of Contents

Even if we do generate additional product sales, we may not be able to sustain profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would depress the market price of our ordinary shares and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, diversify our product offerings or continue our operations.

We may need to obtain additional financing to further develop our existing products, or to develop, acquire or in-license other products.

Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception. We expect to continue to spend substantial amounts to:

 

   

commercialize our existing products in the United States, including due to the substantial expansion of our sales force we completed in connection with our November 2013 acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO and the additional expansion of our sales force in connection with our acquisition of U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2%;

 

   

complete the regulatory approval process, and any future required clinical development related thereto, for our products;

 

   

potentially acquire or in-license additional complementary products or products that augment our current product portfolio; and

 

   

conduct clinical trials with respect to ACTIMMUNE for FA and any other potential indications beyond GCD or SMO.

While we believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2014 of $218.8 million will be sufficient to fund our operations to the point of generating continuous positive cash flow based on our current expectations of continued revenue growth, we may need to raise additional funds if we choose to expand our commercialization or development efforts more rapidly than we presently anticipate, if we develop, acquire or in-license additional products or acquire companies, or if our revenues do not meet expectations.

We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of one or more of our products or product candidates or one or more of our other research and development initiatives, or delay, cut back or abandon our plans to grow the business through acquisition or in-licensing. We also could be required to:

 

   

seek collaborators for one or more of our current or future product candidates at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable or on terms that are less favorable than might otherwise be available; or

 

   

relinquish or license on unfavorable terms our rights to technologies or product candidates that we otherwise would seek to develop or commercialize ourselves.

On June 17, 2014, we entered into a credit agreement with a group of lenders to provide us with $300.0 million in financing through a five-year senior secured credit facility, or the Senior Secured Credit Facility. Funding of the Senior Secured Credit Facility occurred coincident with the closing of the merger with Vidara. While the credit agreement provides for an uncommitted accordion facility from which we may potentially finance future acquisitions, funding under the accordion facility is subject to the satisfaction of certain financial and other conditions that we may not be able to meet at the times we may desire to fund an acquisition opportunity. If we are otherwise unable to secure financing to support future acquisitions, our ability to execute on a key aspect of our overall growth strategy would be impaired.

Our Swiss subsidiary, Horizon Pharma AG, is subject to Swiss laws regarding overindebtedness that require Horizon Pharma AG to maintain assets in excess of its liabilities. As of December 31, 2014, Horizon Pharma AG was not overindebted. However, Horizon Pharma AG has previously been overindebted, including at

 

69


Table of Contents

December 31, 2013. We will continue to monitor and review Horizon Pharma AG’s financial position and, as necessary, will address any overindebtedness, which could require us to have cash at Horizon Pharma AG in excess of its near-term operating needs and could affect our ability to have sufficient cash at our other subsidiaries to meet their near-term operating needs.

Any of the above events could significantly harm our business, financial condition and prospects and cause the price of our ordinary shares to decline.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing shareholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish intellectual property rights to our product candidates.

We may seek additional capital through a combination of private and public equity offerings, debt financings, receivables or royalty financings, strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of our existing shareholders will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our shareholders. Debt, receivables and royalty financings may be coupled with an equity component, such as warrants to purchase shares, which could also result in dilution of our existing shareholders’ ownership. The incurrence of additional indebtedness would result in increased fixed payment obligations and could also result in certain restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. For example, our borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facility subject us to significant fixed payment obligations in the future as we become obligated to repay the debt, and the Senior Secured Credit Facility contains affirmative and negative covenants that restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, grant liens, make investments, engage in mergers or dispositions, prepay other indebtedness and issue dividends or other distributions. If we raise additional funds through strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our product candidates, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.

We generally have broad discretion in the use of our cash and may not use it effectively.

Our management has broad discretion in the application of our cash, and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the use of our cash. Our management may not apply our cash in ways that ultimately increase the value of any investment in our securities. We expect to use our existing cash to fund U.S. commercialization activities for our products, to potentially fund additional regulatory approvals of DUEXIS, ACTIMMUNE and RAYOS/LODOTRA, to potentially fund development life cycle management or manufacturing activities of ACTIMMUNE, RAYOS/LODOTRA and PENNSAID 2% for other indications and for working capital, capital expenditures and general corporate purposes. We may also invest our cash in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our shareholders. If we do not invest or apply our cash in ways that enhance shareholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause the price of our ordinary shares to decline.

Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (generally defined as a greater than 50% change (by value) in its equity ownership over a three year period), the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income may be limited. In September 2014, the Merger transaction triggered an “ownership change” limitation and, as a result, we will be subject to annual limits on our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards of Horizon Pharma Holdings USA Inc. and its subsidiary. We estimate this will result in annual limits of $91.1 million, $84.0 million and $84.0 million in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. The net operating loss carryforward limitation is cumulative such that any use of the carryforwards below the limitation in one year will result in a corresponding increase in the limitation for the subsequent tax year.

 

70


Table of Contents

Following certain acquisitions of a U.S. corporation by a foreign corporation, Section 7874 of the Code limits the ability of the acquired U.S. corporation and its U.S. affiliates to utilize U.S. tax attributes such as net operating losses to offset U.S. taxable income resulting from certain transactions. Based on the limited guidance available, we expect this limitation is applicable following the Vidara merger. As a result, it is not currently expected that Horizon Pharma, Inc. or our other U.S. affiliates will be able to utilize their U.S. tax attributes to offset their U.S. taxable income, if any, resulting from certain taxable transactions following the Vidara merger. Notwithstanding this limitation, we expect that Horizon Pharma, Inc. will be able to fully utilize its U.S. net operating losses prior to their expiration. As a result of this limitation, however, it may take Horizon Pharma, Inc. longer to use its net operating losses. Moreover, contrary to these expectations, it is possible that the limitation under Section 7874 of the Code on the utilization of U.S. tax attributes could prevent Horizon Pharma, Inc. from fully utilizing its U.S. tax attributes prior to their expiration if Horizon Pharma plc does not generate taxable income consistent with its expectations.

Any limitation on our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards will likely increase the taxes we would otherwise pay in future years if we were not subject to such limitations.

Unstable market and economic conditions may have serious adverse consequences on our business, financial condition and share price.

As widely reported, global credit and financial markets have experienced extreme disruptions in the past several years, including severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth, increases in unemployment rates, and uncertainty about economic stability. While there has been some recent improvement in some of these financial metrics, there can be no assurance that further deterioration in credit and financial markets and confidence in economic conditions will not occur. Our general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturn, volatile business environment and continued unpredictable and unstable market conditions. If the current equity and credit markets deteriorate again, or do not improve, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult to complete, more costly, and more dilutive. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our growth strategy, financial performance and share price and could require us to delay or abandon commercialization or development plans. In addition, there is a risk that one or more of our current service providers, manufacturers and other partners may not survive these difficult economic times, which could directly affect our ability to attain our operating goals on schedule and on budget.

At December 31, 2014, we had $218.8 million of cash and cash equivalents consisting of cash and money market funds. While we are not aware of any downgrades, material losses, or other significant deterioration in the fair value of our cash equivalents or marketable securities since December 31, 2014, no assurance can be given that further deterioration in conditions of the global credit and financial markets would not negatively impact our current portfolio of cash equivalents or marketable securities or our ability to meet our financing objectives. Further dislocations in the credit market may adversely impact the value and/or liquidity of marketable securities owned by us.

Changes in accounting rules or policies may affect our financial position and results of operations.

U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and related implementation guidelines and interpretations can be highly complex and involve subjective judgments. Changes in these rules or their interpretation, the adoption of new guidance or the application of existing guidance to changes in our business could significantly affect our financial position and results of operations. In addition, our operation as an Irish company with multiple subsidiaries in different jurisdictions adds additional complexity to the application of U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and this complexity will be exacerbated further if we complete additional strategic transactions. Changes in the application of existing rules or guidance applicable to us or our wholly-owned subsidiaries could significantly affect our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

 

71


Table of Contents

Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.

In November 2013, Horizon Pharma, Inc. issued $150.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2018, or the Convertible Senior Notes, to investors pursuant to note purchase agreements with such investors, and we subsequently guaranteed this debt at our parent entity. As of December 31, 2014, $61.0 million of principal amount of the Convertible Senior Notes remained outstanding. We also substantially increased our overall indebtedness to finance the Vidara merger. On June 17, 2014, we entered into the Senior Secured Credit Facility and borrowed $300.0 million, which is due after a five-year period. Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Convertible Senior Notes and our borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facility, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

Covenants imposed by the Senior Secured Credit Facility restrict our business and operations in many ways and if we do not effectively manage our covenants, our financial conditions and results of operations could be adversely affected.

The Senior Secured Credit Facility provides for (i) a committed five-year $300.0 million term loan facility, the proceeds of which were used primarily to effect the Vidara merger and pay fees and expenses in connection therewith and are being used in part for general corporate purposes; (ii) an uncommitted accordion facility subject to the satisfaction of certain financial and other conditions; and (iii) one or more uncommitted refinancing loan facilities with respect to loans under the Senior Secured Credit Facility. The Senior Secured Credit Facility imposes various covenants that limit our ability and/or our restricted subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things:

 

   

incur or assume liens or additional debt or provide guarantees in respect of obligations of other persons;

 

   

issue redeemable preferred shares;

 

   

pay dividends or distributions or redeem or repurchase capital stock;

 

   

prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt;

 

   

make loans, investments, acquisitions (including acquisitions of exclusive licenses) and capital expenditures;

 

   

enter into agreements that restrict distributions from our subsidiaries;

 

   

sell assets and capital stock of our subsidiaries;

 

   

enter into certain transactions with affiliates; and

 

   

consolidate or merge with or into, or sell substantially all of our assets to, another person.

The covenants imposed by the Senior Secured Credit Facility and our obligations to service our outstanding debt:

 

   

limit our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general business purposes;

 

   

limit our ability to use our cash flow or obtain additional financing for future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general business purposes;

 

72


Table of Contents
   

may require us to use a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make debt service payments;

 

   

limit our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business and industry;

 

   

place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our less leveraged competitors; and

 

   

increase our vulnerability to the impact of adverse economic and industry conditions.

If we are unable to successfully manage the limitations and decreased flexibility on our business due to our significant debt obligations, we may not be able to capitalize on strategic opportunities or grow our business to the extent we would be able to without these limitations.

Our failure to comply with any of the covenants could result in a default under the credit agreement, which could permit the administrative agent to, or permit the required lenders to cause the administrative agent to, declare all or part of any outstanding loans to be immediately due and payable or to exercise any remedies provided to the administrative agent, including proceeding against the collateral granted to secure our obligations under the Senior Secured Credit Facility. An event of default under the Senior Secured Credit Facility could also lead to an event of default under the terms of our Convertible Senior Notes. Any such event of default or any exercise of rights and remedies by our creditors could seriously harm our business.

If intangible assets that we have recorded in connection with the acquisitions of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO and PENNSAID 2% and the Vidara merger become impaired, we could have to take significant charges against earnings.

In connection with the accounting for acquisitions of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO and PENNSAID 2% and the Vidara merger, we have recorded significant amounts of intangible assets. Under U.S. GAAP, we must assess, at least annually and potentially more frequently, whether the value of goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets has been impaired. Amortizing intangible assets will be assessed for impairment in the event of an impairment indicator. Any reduction or impairment of the value of goodwill or other intangible assets will result in a charge against earnings, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and shareholders’ equity in future periods.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to obtain or protect intellectual property rights related to our products and product candidates, we may not be able to compete effectively in our market.

We rely upon a combination of patents, trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect the intellectual property related to our products and product candidates. The strength of patents in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical field involves complex legal and scientific questions and can be uncertain. The patent applications that we own or in-license may fail to result in issued patents with claims that cover the products in the United States or in other foreign countries. If this were to occur, early generic competition could be expected against our current products and other product candidates in development. There is no assurance that the potentially relevant prior art relating to our patents and patent applications has been found, which can invalidate a patent or prevent a patent from issuing based on a pending patent application. In particular, because the APIs in DUEXIS, VIMOVO and RAYOS/LODOTRA have been on the market as separate products for many years, it is possible that these products have previously been used off-label in such a manner that such prior usage would affect the validity of our patents or our ability to obtain patents based on our patent applications.

Even if patents do successfully issue, third parties may challenge their validity, enforceability or scope, which may result in such patents being narrowed or invalidated.

On February 15, 2012, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. advising that Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of DUEXIS,

 

73


Table of Contents

containing 800 mg of ibuprofen and 26.6 mg of famotidine. In March 2012, we filed a patent infringement lawsuit in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware against Par for filing an ANDA against DUEXIS and seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of Par’s ANDA and/or prevent Par from selling a generic version of DUEXIS. In January 2013, we filed a second suit against Par in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware claiming patent infringement of additional patents that have been issued for DUEXIS and seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of Par’s ANDA and/or prevent Par from selling a generic version of DUEXIS.

On August 21, 2013, we entered into the Par settlement agreement and Par license agreement with Par relating to its patent infringement litigation. The Par settlement agreement provides for a full settlement and release by both us and Par of all claims that were or could have been asserted in the litigation and that arise out of the specific patent issues that were the subject of the litigation, including all resulting damages or other remedies.

Under the Par license agreement, we granted Par a non-exclusive license (that is only royalty-bearing in some circumstances) to manufacture and commercialize Par’s generic version of DUEXIS in the United States after the generic entry date and to take steps necessary to develop inventory of, and obtain regulatory approval for, but not commercialize, Par’s generic version of DUEXIS prior to the generic entry date or the License. The License covers all patents owned or controlled by us during the term of the Par license agreement that would, absent the License, be infringed by the manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale, or importation of Par’s generic version of DUEXIS in the United States. Unless terminated sooner pursuant to the terms of the Par license agreement, the License will continue until the last to expire of the licensed patents and/or applicable periods of regulatory exclusivity.

Under the Par license agreement, the generic entry date is January 1, 2023; however, Par may be able to enter the market earlier in certain circumstances. Such events relate to the resolution of potential future third party DUEXIS patent litigation, the entry of other third party generic versions of DUEXIS or certain specific changes in DUEXIS market conditions. Only in the event that Par enters the DUEXIS market due to the specified changes in DUEXIS market conditions will the License become royalty-bearing, with the royalty obligations ceasing upon the occurrence of one of the other events that would have allowed Par to enter the DUEXIS market.

Under the Par license agreement, we also agreed not to sue or assert any claim against Par for infringement of any patent or patent application owned or controlled by us during the term of the Par license agreement based on the manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale, or importation of Par’s generic version of DUEXIS in the United States.

The Par license agreement may be terminated by us if Par commits a material breach of the agreement that is not cured or curable within 30 days after we provide notice of the breach. We may also terminate the Par license agreement immediately if Par or any of its affiliates initiate certain challenges to the validity or enforceability of any of the licensed patents or their foreign equivalents. In addition, the Par license agreement will terminate automatically upon termination of the Par settlement agreement.

On July 15, 2013, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Watson advising that Watson had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of RAYOS, containing up to 5 mg of prednisone. Watson has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On August 26, 2013, we, together with Jagotec, filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against WLF seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuit alleges that WLF has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 6,488,960, 6,677,326, 8,168,218, 8,309,124, and 8,394,407 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of RAYOS containing 1 mg, 2 mg, and 5 mg of prednisone prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of WLF’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. We, together with Jagotec have granted WLF a covenant not to sue with respect to US Patent Nos. 6,677,326 and 8,168,218, respectively, and

 

74


Table of Contents

accordingly these patents have been dismissed from the lawsuit. The Court held a claim construction hearing on October 16, 2014, and issued its opinion and order on claim construction on November 10, 2014, adopting our proposed construction of both of the disputed claim terms. The court has scheduled expert discovery in the WLF action to be completed by June 2, 2015, and has set the pretrial conference for September 10, 2015. The trial date will be set following the pretrial conference.

On September 12, 2013, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. advising that Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of RAYOS, containing up to 5 mg of prednisone. On October 22, 2013, we, together with Jagotec, filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against Par seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuit alleged that Par had infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 6,488,960, 6,677,326, 8,168,218, 8,309,124 and 8,394,407 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of RAYOS prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. On November 20, 2013, we were notified by counsel for Par that Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. had elected to withdraw its ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of RAYOS containing 2 mg and 5 mg of prednisone. On December 5, 2013, we entered into a Stipulation of Dismissal with Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. whereby Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. agreed to withdraw its application to market a generic version of RAYOS.

On November 13, 2014, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Watson advising that Watson had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. Watson has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On December 23, 2014, we filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against Watson seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuit alleges that Watson has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,871,809 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of PENNSAID prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of Watson’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. The court has not yet set a trial date for the Watson action.

On December 2, 2014, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification against Orange Book listed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,741,956 from Paddock advising that Paddock had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. On January 9, 2015, we received from Paddock another Paragraph IV Patent Certification against newly Orange Book listed U.S. Patent No. 8,871,809. Paddock has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On January 13, 2015 and January 14, 2015, we filed suits in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey and the United States District Court for the District of Delaware, respectively, against Paddock seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuits allege that Paddock has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,871,809 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of PENNSAID 2% prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of Paddock’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. The courts have not yet set trial dates for the Paddock actions.

Currently, patent litigation is pending in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against four generic companies intending to market VIMOVO before the expiration of patents listed in the Orange Book. These cases are in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey and have been consolidated for discovery purposes. They are collectively known as the VIMOVO cases, and involve the following sets of defendants: (i) Dr. Reddy’s; (ii) Lupin; (iii) Mylan; and (iv) Actavis. Patent litigation in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against a fifth generic company, Anchen, was dismissed on June 9, 2014 after Anchen recertified under Paragraph III. We understand that Dr. Reddy’s has entered into a settlement with AstraZeneca with respect to patent rights directed to Nexium for the commercialization of VIMOVO, and that according to the settlement agreement, Dr. Reddy’s is now able to

 

75


Table of Contents

commercialize VIMOVO under AstraZeneca’s Nexium patent rights. The settlement agreement, however, has no effect on the Pozen VIMOVO patents, which are still the subject of patent litigations. As part of our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we have taken over and are responsible for the patent litigations that include the Pozen patents licensed to us under the Pozen license agreement.

The VIMOVO cases were filed on April 21, 2011, July 25, 2011, October 28, 2011, January 4, 2013, May 10, 2013, June 28, 2013 and October 23, 2013 and collectively include allegations of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,926,907 and 8,557,285. We understand the cases arise from Paragraph IV Notice Letters providing notice of the filing of an ANDA with the FDA seeking regulatory approval to market a generic version of VIMOVO before the expiration of the patents-in-suit. We understand the Dr. Reddy’s notice letters were dated March 11, 2011 and November 20, 2012; the Lupin notice letter were dated June 10, 2011 and March 12, 2014; the Mylan notice letter was dated May 16, 2013; the Actavis notice letters were dated March 29, 2013 and November 5, 2013; and the Anchen notice letter was dated September 16, 2011. The court has issued a claims construction order and has set a pretrial schedule but has not yet set a trial date.

On or about December 19, 2014, we filed a Notice of Opposition to a European patent, EP 2611457, to Roberto Testi, et al., covering compositions and methods for treating FA with interferon gamma, e.g., ACTIMMUNE. In the European Union, the grant of a patent may be opposed by one or more private parties.

On February 2, 2015, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification against Orange Book listed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, 8,741,956, and 8,871,809 from Taro, advising that Taro had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. Taro has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. We are still in the process of evaluating the Paragraph IV Patent Certification, and it is anticipated we will file suit against Taro within the statutorily prescribed 45 day time limit.

We intend to vigorously defend our intellectual property rights relating to DUEXIS, VIMOVO, ACTIMMUNE, PENNSAID 2% and RAYOS, but we cannot predict the outcome of the WLF matter related to RAYOS or the DRL cases, the Mylan cases, or the Watson cases related to VIMOVO, or the Watson and Paddock cases related to PENNSAID 2%. Any adverse outcome in these matters or any new generic challenges that may arise could result in one or more generic versions of DUEXIS, VIMOVO, ACTIMMUNE, PENNSAID 2% and/or RAYOS being launched before the expiration of the listed patents, which could adversely affect our ability to successfully execute our business strategy to increase sales of DUEXIS, VIMOVO, ACTIMMUNE, PENNSAID 2% and/or RAYOS and would negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations, including causing a significant decrease in our revenues and cash flows.

Furthermore, even if they are unchallenged, our patents and patent applications may not adequately protect our intellectual property or prevent others from designing around our claims. If the patent applications we hold with respect to DUEXIS, VIMOVO, ACTIMMUNE, RAYOS/LODOTRA or PENNSAID 2% fail to issue or if their breadth or strength of protection is threatened, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to develop them and threaten our ability to commercialize our products. We cannot offer any assurances about which, if any, patents will issue or whether any issued patents will be found not invalid and not unenforceable or will go unthreatened by third parties. Since patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time after filing, and some remain so until issued, we cannot be certain that we were the first to file any patent application related to our products or any other product candidates. Furthermore, if third parties have filed such patent applications, an interference proceeding in the United States can be provoked by a third party or instituted by us to determine who was the first to invent any of the subject matter covered by the patent claims of our applications.

In addition to the protection afforded by patents, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect proprietary know-how that is not patentable, processes for which patents are difficult to enforce and any other elements of our drug discovery and development processes that involve proprietary know-

 

76


Table of Contents

how, information or technology that is not covered by patents. Although we expect all of our employees to assign their inventions to us, and all of our employees, consultants, advisors and any third parties who have access to our proprietary know-how, information or technology to enter into confidentiality agreements, we cannot provide any assurances that all such agreements have been duly executed or that our trade secrets and other confidential proprietary information will not be disclosed or that competitors will not otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or independently develop substantially equivalent information and techniques.

Our ability to obtain patents is highly uncertain because, to date, some legal principles remain unresolved, there has not been a consistent policy regarding the breadth or interpretation of claims allowed in patents in the United States and the specific content of patents and patent applications that are necessary to support and interpret patent claims is highly uncertain due to the complex nature of the relevant legal, scientific and factual issues. Changes in either patent laws or interpretations of patent laws in the United States and other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property or narrow the scope of our patent protection. For example, on September 16, 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the Leahy-Smith Act, was signed into law. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These include provisions that affect the way patent applications will be prosecuted and may also affect patent litigation. The United States Patent and Trademark Office, or U.S. PTO, has developed new and untested regulations and procedures to govern the full implementation of the Leahy-Smith Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the Leahy-Smith Act, and in particular, the first to file provisions, only became effective in March 2013. The Leahy-Smith Act has also introduced procedures making it easier for third-parties to challenge issued patents, as well as to intervene in the prosecution of patent applications. Finally, the Leahy-Smith Act contains new statutory provisions that still require the U.S. PTO to issue new regulations for their implementation and it may take the courts years to interpret the provisions of the new statute. Accordingly, it is too early to tell what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business and the protection and enforcement of our intellectual property. However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents. In addition, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act allows applicants seeking approval of biosimilar or interchangeable versions of biological products such as ACTIMMUNE to initiate a process for challenging some or all of the patents covering the innovator biological product used as the reference product. This process is complicated and could result in the limitation or loss of certain patent rights. An inability to obtain, enforce and defend patents covering our proprietary technologies would materially and adversely affect our business prospects and financial condition.

Further, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent or in the same manner as the laws of the United States and Canada. As a result, we may encounter significant problems in protecting and defending our intellectual property both in the United States and abroad. For example, if the issuance to us, in a given country, of a patent covering an invention is not followed by the issuance, in other countries, of patents covering the same invention, or if any judicial interpretation of the validity, enforceability, or scope of the claims in, or the written description or enablement in, a patent issued in one country is not similar to the interpretation given to the corresponding patent issued in another country, our ability to protect our intellectual property in those countries may be limited. Changes in either patent laws or in interpretations of patent laws in the United States and other countries may materially diminish the value of our intellectual property or narrow the scope of our patent protection. If we are unable to prevent material disclosure of the non-patented intellectual property related to our technologies to third parties, and there is no guarantee that we will have any such enforceable trade secret protection, we may not be able to establish or maintain a competitive advantage in our market, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Third-party claims of intellectual property infringement may prevent or delay our development and commercialization efforts.

Our commercial success depends in part on our avoiding infringement of the patents and proprietary rights of third parties. There is a substantial amount of litigation, both within and outside the United States, involving

 

77


Table of Contents

patent and other intellectual property rights in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, including patent infringement lawsuits, interferences, oppositions and inter party reexamination proceedings before the U.S. PTO. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications, which are owned by third parties, exist in the fields in which we and our collaborators are developing product candidates. As the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries expand and more patents are issued, the risk increases that our product candidates may be subject to claims of infringement of the patent rights of third parties.

Third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. There may be third-party patents or patent applications with claims to materials, formulations, methods of manufacture or methods for treatment related to the use or manufacture of our products and/or any other product candidates. Because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications, which may later result in issued patents that our product candidates may infringe. In addition, third parties may obtain patents in the future and claim that use of our technologies infringes upon these patents. If any third-party patents were held by a court of competent jurisdiction to cover the manufacturing process of any of our product candidates, any molecules formed during the manufacturing process or any final product itself, the holders of any such patents may be able to block our ability to commercialize such product candidate unless we obtained a license under the applicable patents, or until such patents expire. Similarly, if any third-party patent were held by a court of competent jurisdiction to cover aspects of our formulations, processes for manufacture or methods of use, including combination therapy, the holders of any such patent may be able to block our ability to develop and commercialize the applicable product candidate unless we obtained a license or until such patent expires. In either case, such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

Parties making claims against us may obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates. Defense of these claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of employee resources from our business. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may have to pay substantial damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees for willful infringement, obtain one or more licenses from third parties, pay royalties or redesign our infringing products, which may be impossible or require substantial time and monetary expenditure. We cannot predict whether any such license would be available at all or whether it would be available on commercially reasonable terms. Furthermore, even in the absence of litigation, we may need to obtain licenses from third parties to advance our research or allow commercialization of our product candidates, and we have done so from time to time. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all. In that event, we would be unable to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates, which could harm our business significantly. We cannot provide any assurances that third-party patents do not exist which might be enforced against our products, resulting in either an injunction prohibiting our sales, or, with respect to our sales, an obligation on our part to pay royalties and/or other forms of compensation to third parties.

If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we license rights to technology from third parties, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.

We are a party to a number of technology licenses that are important to our business and expect to enter into additional licenses in the future. For example, we hold an exclusive license to SkyePharma AG’s proprietary technology and know-how covering the delayed release of corticosteroids relating to RAYOS/LODOTRA. If we fail to comply with our obligations under our agreement with SkyePharma or our other license agreements, or we are subject to a bankruptcy, the licensor may have the right to terminate the license, in which event we would not be able to market products covered by the license, including RAYOS/LODOTRA.

In connection with our November 2013 acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we (i) received the benefit of a covenant not to sue under AstraZeneca’s patent portfolio with respect to Nexium (which shall automatically become a license under such patent portfolio if and when AstraZeneca reacquires control of such patent portfolio from Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. and certain of its affiliates), (ii) were assigned AstraZeneca’s

 

78


Table of Contents

amended and restated collaboration and license agreement for the United States with Pozen under which AstraZeneca has in-licensed exclusive rights under certain of Pozen’s patents with respect to VIMOVO, and (iii) acquired AstraZeneca’s co-ownership rights with Pozen with respect to certain joint patents covering VIMOVO, all for the commercialization of VIMOVO in the United States. If we fail to comply with our obligations under our agreements with AstraZeneca or if we fail to comply with our obligations under our agreements with Pozen as we take over AstraZeneca’s agreements with Pozen, our rights to commercialize VIMOVO in the United States may be adversely affected or terminated by AstraZeneca or Pozen.

We also license rights to patents, know-how and trademarks for ACTIMMUNE from Genentech, under an agreement that remains in effect for so long as we continue to commercialize and sell ACTIMMUNE. However, Genentech may terminate the agreement upon our material default, if not cured within a specified period of time. Genentech may also terminate the agreement in the event of our bankruptcy or insolvency. Upon such a termination of the agreement, all intellectual property rights conveyed to us under the agreement, including the rights to the ACTIMMUNE trademark, revert to Genentech. If we fail to comply with our obligations under this agreement, we could lose the ability to market and distribute ACTIMMUNE, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We may be involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or the patents of our licensors, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.

Competitors may infringe our patents or the patents of our licensors. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours or our licensors is not valid or is unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation or defense proceedings could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing.

There are numerous post grant review proceedings available at the US Patent Office (including inter partes review, post-grant review and ex-parte reexamination) and similar proceedings in other countries of the world that could be initiated by a third party that could potentially negatively impact our issued patents.

Interference proceedings provoked by third parties or brought by us may be necessary to determine the priority of inventions with respect to our patents or patent applications or those of our collaborators or licensors. An unfavorable outcome could require us to cease using the related technology or to attempt to license rights to it from the prevailing party. Our business could be harmed if the prevailing party does not offer us a license on commercially reasonable terms. Our defense of litigation or interference proceedings may fail and, even if successful, may result in substantial costs and distract our management and other employees. We may not be able to prevent, alone or with our licensors, misappropriation of our intellectual property rights, particularly in countries where the laws may not protect those rights as fully as in the United States.

Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. There could also be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the price of our ordinary shares.

Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance fees on any issued patent are due to be paid to the U.S. PTO and foreign patent agencies in several stages over the lifetime of the patent. The U.S. PTO and various foreign governmental patent

 

79


Table of Contents

agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. While an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include, but are not limited to, failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. If we or our licensors that control the prosecution and maintenance of our licensed patents fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering our product candidates, our competitors might be able to enter the market, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.

We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of third parties.

We employ individuals who were previously employed at other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies. We may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed confidential information of our employees’ former employers or other third parties. We may also be subject to claims that former employers or other third parties have an ownership interest in our patents. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. There is no guarantee of success in defending these claims, and if we are successful, litigation could result in substantial cost and be a distraction to our management and other employees.

Risks Related to Ownership of our Ordinary Shares

We do not know whether an active, liquid and orderly trading market for our ordinary shares will be sustained or what the market price of our ordinary shares will be and as a result it may be difficult for you to sell your ordinary shares.

Although our ordinary shares are listed on The NASDAQ Global Market, an active trading market for our shares may never be sustained. Further, an inactive market may impair our ability to raise capital by selling our ordinary shares and may impair our ability to enter into strategic partnerships or acquire companies or products by using our ordinary shares as consideration.

The market price of our ordinary shares historically has been volatile and is likely to be highly volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The trading price of our ordinary shares has been highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control, including limited trading volume. In addition to the factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this report, these factors include:

 

   

our failure to successfully execute our commercialization strategy with respect to our approved products, particularly our commercialization of our products in the United States;

 

   

actions or announcements by third party or government payors with respect to coverage and reimbursement of our products;

 

   

disputes or other developments relating to intellectual property and other proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our products and product candidates;

 

   

unanticipated serious safety concerns related to the use of our products;

 

   

adverse regulatory decisions;

 

   

changes in laws or regulations applicable to our business, products or product candidates, including but not limited to clinical trial requirements for approvals or tax laws;

 

80


Table of Contents
   

inability to comply with our debt covenants and to make payments as they become due;

 

   

inability to obtain adequate commercial supply for any approved product or inability to do so at acceptable prices;

 

   

developments concerning our commercial partners, including but not limited to those with our sources of manufacturing supply;

 

   

our decision to initiate a clinical trial, not to initiate a clinical trial or to terminate an existing clinical trial;

 

   

adverse results or delays in clinical trials;

 

   

our failure to successfully develop, acquire, and/or in-license additional product candidates or obtain approvals for additional indications for our existing product candidates;

 

   

introduction of new products or services offered by us or our competitors;

 

   

our inability to effectively manage our growth;

 

   

overall performance of the equity markets and general political and economic conditions;

 

   

failure to meet or exceed revenue and financial projections we may provide to the public;

 

   

actual or anticipated variations in quarterly operating results;

 

   

failure to meet or exceed the estimates and projections of the investment community;

 

   

publication of research reports about us or our industry or positive or negative recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage by securities analysts;

 

   

our inability to successfully enter new markets;

 

   

the termination of a collaboration or the inability to establish additional collaborations;

 

   

announcements of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by us or our competitors;

 

   

our inability to maintain an adequate rate of growth;

 

   

ineffectiveness of our internal controls or our inability to otherwise comply with financial reporting requirements;

 

   

adverse U.S. and foreign tax exposure;

 

   

additions or departures of key management, commercial or regulatory personnel;

 

   

issuances of debt or equity securities;

 

   

significant lawsuits, including patent or shareholder litigation;

 

   

changes in the market valuations of similar companies;

 

   

sales of our ordinary shares by us or our shareholders in the future;

 

   

trading volume of our ordinary shares;

 

   

effects of natural or man-made catastrophic events or other business interruptions; and

 

   

other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control.

In addition, the stock market in general, and The NASDAQ Global Market and the stocks of biotechnology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Broad market and industry factors may adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares, regardless of our actual operating performance.

 

81


Table of Contents

We do not intend to pay dividends on our ordinary shares so any returns will be limited to the value of our shares.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future, including due to limitations imposed by the Senior Secured Credit Facility. Any return to shareholders will therefore be limited to the increase, if any, of our share price.

We have incurred and will continue to incur significant increased costs as a result of operating as a public company and our management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.

As a public company, we have incurred and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. In particular, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the NASDAQ Stock Market, Inc., or NASDAQ, impose significant requirements on public companies, including requiring establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and changes in corporate governance practices. These rules and regulations have substantially increased our legal and financial compliance costs and have made some activities more time-consuming and costly. These effects are exacerbated by our transition to an Irish company and the integration of Vidara’s business and operations into the historical business and operating structure of Horizon Pharma, Inc. If these requirements divert the attention of our management and personnel from other business concerns, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The increased costs will continue to decrease our net income or increase our net loss, and may require us to reduce costs in other areas of our business or increase the prices of our products or services. For example, these rules and regulations make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain and maintain director and officer liability insurance. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers. If we fail to comply with the continued listing requirements of NASDAQ, our ordinary shares could be delisted from The NASDAQ Global Market, which would adversely affect the liquidity of our ordinary shares and our ability to obtain future financing.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal controls for financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In particular, we are required to perform annual system and process evaluation and testing of our internal controls over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or Section 404. Our independent registered public accounting firm is also required to deliver a report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our testing, or the testing by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses. Our compliance with Section 404 requires that we incur substantial expense and expend significant management efforts, particularly because of our Irish parent company structure and international operations. In particular, prior to the Vidara merger, Vidara and its affiliate entities were not subject to the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We intend to take appropriate measures to establish or implement an internal control environment at the former Vidara entities aimed at successfully adopting the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. However, it is possible that we may experience delays in implementing or be unable to implement the required internal controls over financial reporting and other disclosure controls and procedures. We currently do not have an internal audit group, and we may need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge, as well as retain and work with consultants with such knowledge. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identify deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our ordinary shares could decline and we could be subject to sanctions

 

82


Table of Contents

or investigations by NASDAQ, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.

New laws and regulations as well as changes to existing laws and regulations affecting public companies, including the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and rules adopted by the SEC and by NASDAQ, would likely result in increased costs to us as we respond to their requirements.

Sales of a substantial number of our ordinary shares in the public market could cause our share price to decline.

If our existing shareholders sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our ordinary shares in the public market, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline. In addition, our ordinary shares that are either subject to outstanding options or reserved for future issuance under our employee benefit plans are or may become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting schedules and Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act. If these additional ordinary shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline.

Certain holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in the shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act, except for shares purchased by affiliates. For example, we are subject to a registration rights agreement with certain holders of our ordinary shares prior to the Vidara merger. Pursuant to this agreement, we filed and are required to maintain a registration statement covering the resale of our ordinary shares held by these shareholders and in certain circumstances, these holders can require us to participate in an underwritten public offering of their ordinary shares. Any sales of securities by these shareholders or a public announcement of such sales could have a material adverse effect on the trading price of our ordinary shares.

Future sales and issuances of our ordinary shares, securities convertible into our ordinary shares or rights to purchase ordinary shares or convertible securities could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our shareholders and could cause our share price to decline.

Additional capital may be needed in the future to continue our planned operations. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our shareholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell ordinary shares, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. If we sell ordinary shares, convertible securities or other equity securities in subsequent transactions, our existing shareholders may be materially diluted. New investors in such subsequent transactions could gain rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our ordinary shares. We also maintain equity incentive plans, including our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, 2014 Non-Employee Equity Plan and 2014 Employee Share Purchase Plan, and intend to grant additional ordinary share awards under these and future plans, which will result in additional dilution to existing shareholders.

Irish law differs from the laws in effect in the United States and may afford less protection to holders of our securities.

It may not be possible to enforce court judgments obtained in the United States against us in Ireland based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws. In addition, there is some uncertainty as to whether the courts of Ireland would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors or officers based on the civil liabilities provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws or hear actions against us or those persons based on those laws. We have been advised that the U.S. currently does not have a treaty with Ireland providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. Therefore, a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any U.S. federal or state

 

83


Table of Contents

court based on civil liability, whether or not based solely on U.S. federal or state securities laws, would not automatically be enforceable in Ireland.

As an Irish company, we are governed by the Irish Companies Acts, which differs in some material respects from laws generally applicable to U.S. corporations and shareholders, including, among others, differences relating to interested director and officer transactions and shareholder lawsuits. Likewise, the duties of directors and officers of an Irish company generally are owed to the company only. Shareholders of Irish companies generally do not have a personal right of action against directors or officers of the company and may exercise such rights of action on behalf of the company only in limited circumstances. Accordingly, holders of our securities may have more difficulty protecting their interests than would holders of securities of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction of the United States.

Provisions of our articles of association could delay or prevent a takeover of us by a third party.

Our articles of association could delay, defer or prevent a third party from acquiring us, despite the possible benefit to our shareholders, or otherwise adversely affect the price of our ordinary shares. For example, our articles of association:

 

   

permit our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred shares with rights and preferences designated by our board;

 

   

impose advance notice requirements for shareholder proposals and nominations of directors to be considered at shareholder meetings;

 

   

stagger the terms of our board of directors into three classes; and

 

   

require the approval of a supermajority of the voting power of the shares of our share capital entitled to vote generally in the election of directors for shareholders to amend or repeal our articles of association.

These provisions may discourage potential takeover attempts, discourage bids for our ordinary shares at a premium over the market price or adversely affect the market price of, and the voting and other rights of the holders of, our ordinary shares. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other shareholders to elect directors other than the candidates nominated by our board.

A transfer of our ordinary shares may be subject to Irish stamp duty.

In certain circumstances, the transfer of shares in an Irish incorporated company will be subject to Irish stamp duty, which is a legal obligation of the buyer. This duty is currently charged at the rate of 1.0% of the price paid or the market value of the shares acquired, if higher. Because our ordinary shares are traded on a recognized stock exchange in the United States, an exemption of this stamp duty is available to transfers by shareholders who hold our ordinary shares beneficially through brokers which in turn hold those shares through the Depositary Trust Company, or DTC, to holders who also hold through DTC. However, a transfer by a record holder who holds our ordinary shares directly in his, her or its own name could be subject to this stamp duty. We, in our absolute discretion and insofar as the Companies Acts or any other applicable law permit, may, or may provide that a subsidiary of ours will, pay Irish stamp duty arising on a transfer of our ordinary shares on behalf of the transferee of such ordinary shares. If stamp duty resulting from the transfer of our ordinary shares which would otherwise be payable by the transferee is paid by us or any of our subsidiaries on behalf of the transferee, then in those circumstances, we will, on our behalf or on behalf of our subsidiary (as the case may be), be entitled to (i) seek reimbursement of the stamp duty from the transferee, (ii) set-off the stamp duty against any dividends payable to the transferee of those ordinary shares and (iii) claim a first and permanent lien on the ordinary shares on which stamp duty has been paid by us or our subsidiary for the amount of stamp duty paid. Our lien shall extend to all dividends paid on those ordinary shares.

 

84


Table of Contents

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our ordinary shares will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our shares or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our ordinary shares could decrease, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline.

We may become involved in securities class action litigation that could divert management’s attention and harm our business and could subject us to significant liabilities.

The stock markets have from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have affected the market prices for the equity securities of pharmaceutical companies. These broad market fluctuations may cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies have experienced significant stock price volatility in recent years. We may become involved in this type of litigation in the future. Even if we are successful in defending against any such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and may be a distraction to management, and may result in unfavorable results that could adversely impact our financial condition and prospects.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

We occupy approximately 10,300 square feet of office space in our headquarters in Dublin, Ireland under a lease that expires on November 4, 2029. We also occupy approximately 50,500 square feet of office space in Deerfield, Illinois under lease agreements that expire on June 30, 2018, approximately 5,000 square feet of office space in Mannheim, Germany under a lease that expires on December 31, 2016, approximately 3,200 square feet of office space in Reinach, Switzerland under a lease that expires on May 31, 2015 and approximately 6,200 square feet of office space in Roswell, Georgia under a lease that expires on October 31, 2018. We believe that our current facilities are adequate for our needs and that, should it be needed, suitable additional space will be available to accommodate expansion of our operations on commercially reasonable terms.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

On July 15, 2013, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Watson Laboratories, Inc.—Florida, known as Actavis Laboratories FL, Inc., or Watson, advising that Watson had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of RAYOS, containing up to 5 mg of prednisone. Watson has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On August 26, 2013, we, together with Jagotec, filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against Watson, Actavis Pharma, Inc., Andrx Corp., and Actavis, Inc., collectively WLF, seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuit alleges that WLF has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 6,488,960, 6,677,326, 8,168,218, 8,309,124 and 8,394,407 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of RAYOS containing 1 mg, 2 mg and 5 mg of prednisone prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, commonly known as the Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of WLF’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. We, together with Jagotec have granted WLF a covenant not to sue with respect to US Patent Nos. 6,677,326 and 8,168,218, respectively, and accordingly these patents have been dismissed from the lawsuit. The court held a claim construction hearing on October 16, 2014, and issued its opinion and order on claim construction on November 10, 2014, adopting our proposed construction of both of the disputed claim terms. The court has scheduled expert discovery in the WLF

 

85


Table of Contents

action to be completed by June 2, 2015, and has set the pretrial conference for September 10, 2015. The trial date will be set following the pretrial conference.

On November 13, 2014, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification from Watson advising that Watson had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. Watson has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On December 23, 2014, we filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against Watson seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuit alleges that Watson has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,871,809 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of PENNSAID 2% prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of Watson’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. The court has not yet set a trial date for the Watson action.

On December 2, 2014, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification against Orange Book listed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,741,956 from Paddock Laboratories, LLC, or Paddock, advising that Paddock had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. On January 9, 2015, we received from Paddock another Paragraph IV Patent Certification against newly Orange Book listed U.S. Patent No. 8,871,809. Paddock has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. On January 13, 2015 and January 14, 2015, we filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey and the United States District Court for the District of Delaware, respectively, against Paddock seeking an injunction to prevent the approval of the ANDA. The lawsuits allege that Paddock has infringed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, and 8,871,809 by filing an ANDA seeking approval from the FDA to market generic versions of PENNSAID 2% prior to the expiration of the patents. The subject patents are listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. The commencement of the patent infringement lawsuit stays, or bars, FDA approval of Paddock’s ANDA for 30 months or until an earlier district court decision that the subject patents are not infringed or are invalid. The courts have not yet set trial dates for the Paddock actions.

Currently, patent litigation is pending in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against four generic companies intending to market VIMOVO before the expiration of patents listed in the Orange Book. These cases are in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey and have been consolidated for discovery purposes. They are collectively known as the VIMOVO cases, and involve the following sets of defendants: (i) Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Inc. and Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. (collectively, Dr. Reddy’s); (ii) Lupin Ltd. and Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc. (collectively, Lupin); (iii) Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc., Mylan Laboratories Limited, and Mylan Inc. (collectively, Mylan); and (iv) Watson Laboratories, Inc.—Florida, known as Actavis Laboratories FL, Inc. and Actavis Pharma, Inc. (collectively, Actavis). Patent litigation in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey against a fifth generic company, Anchen Pharmaceuticals Inc., or Anchen, was dismissed on June 9, 2014 after Anchen recertified under Paragraph III. We understand that Dr. Reddy’s has entered into a settlement with AstraZeneca with respect to patent rights directed to Nexium for the commercialization of VIMOVO, and that according to the settlement agreement, Dr. Reddy’s is now able to commercialize VIMOVO under AstraZeneca’s Nexium patent rights. The settlement agreement, however, has no effect on the Pozen VIMOVO patents, which are still the subject of patent litigations. As part of our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we have taken over and are responsible for the patent litigations that include the Pozen patents licensed to us under the Pozen license agreement.

The VIMOVO cases were filed on April 21, 2011, July 25, 2011, October 28, 2011, January 4, 2013, May 10, 2013, June 28, 2013 and October 23, 2013 and collectively include allegations of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,926,907 and 8,557,285. We understand the cases arise from Paragraph IV Notice Letters providing notice of the filing of an ANDA with the FDA seeking regulatory approval to market a generic version of VIMOVO before the expiration of the patents-in-suit. We understand the Dr. Reddy’s notice letters were dated March 11, 2011 and November 20, 2012; the Lupin notice letters were dated June 10, 2011 and March 12, 2014; the Mylan notice letter was dated May 16, 2013; the Actavis notice letters were dated March 29, 2013 and

 

86


Table of Contents

November 5, 2013; and the Anchen notice letter was dated September 16, 2011. The court has issued a claims construction order and has set a pretrial schedule but has not yet set a trial date.

On or about December 19, 2014, we filed a Notice of Opposition to a European patent, EP 2611457, to Roberto Testi, et al., covering compositions and methods for treating FA with interferon gamma, e.g., ACTIMMUNE. In the European Union, the grant of a patent may be opposed by one or more private parties.

On February 2, 2015, we received a Paragraph IV Patent Certification against Orange Book listed U.S. Patent Nos. 8,217,078, 8,252,838, 8,546,450, 8,563,613, 8,618,164, 8,741,956, and 8,871,809 from Taro Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. and Taro Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd., or collectively Taro, advising that Taro had filed an ANDA with the FDA for a generic version of PENNSAID 2%. Taro has not advised us as to the timing or status of the FDA’s review of its filing. We are still in the process of evaluating the Paragraph IV Patent Certification, and it is anticipated we will file suit against Taro within the statutorily prescribed 45 day time limit.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

None.

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

As a result of the Merger, all of the shares of Horizon Pharma, Inc. common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the Merger were canceled and automatically converted into and became the right to receive our ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis and Horizon Pharma, Inc. became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Horizon Pharma plc.

Our ordinary shares began trading on The NASDAQ Global Market under the trading symbol “HZNP” on September 19, 2014. Previously, from July 28, 2011 until September 18, 2014, the common stock of Horizon Pharma, Inc. was traded on The NASDAQ Global Market also under the trading symbol “HZNP”. The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices per share of our ordinary shares (and for periods prior to September 19, 2014, the common stock of Horizon Pharma, Inc.) as reported on The NASDAQ Global Market for the periods indicated.

 

     High      Low  

2014

     

First quarter

   $ 18.30       $ 7.40   

Second quarter

     16.72         11.50   

Third quarter

     16.56         7.85   

Fourth quarter

     13.55         10.15   
     High      Low  

2013

     

First quarter

   $ 2.95       $ 1.97   

Second quarter

     2.75         2.23   

Third quarter

     3.55         2.11   

Fourth quarter

     7.80         3.21   

 

87


Table of Contents

Holders of Record

The closing price of our ordinary shares on February 20, 2015 was $18.53. As of February 20, 2015, there were approximately 17 holders of record of our ordinary shares.

Performance Graph

The following graph shows a comparison from July 28, 2011 (the date the common stock of Horizon Pharma, Inc. commenced trading on The NASDAQ Global Market) through December 31, 2013 or December 31, 2014, as applicable, of the cumulative total return for (i) our ordinary shares, (ii) the NASDAQ US Index, (iii) the NASDAQ Pharmaceutical Index, (iv) the NASDAQ US Benchmark TR Index and (v) NASDAQ Pharmaceuticals. As a result of a change in the total return data made available to us through our vendor provider, our performance graphs going forward will no longer include the NASDAQ US Index or the NASDAQ Pharmaceutical Index but instead will include the following comparable indexes provided by NASDAQ OMX Global Indexes: the NASDAQ US Benchmark TR Index and NASDAQ Pharmaceuticals. Information for NASDAQ US Index and NASDAQ Pharmaceutical Index is provided only through December 31, 2013, the last day this data was available from our third party index provider.

Information set forth in the graph below represents the performance of the Horizon Pharma, Inc. common stock from July 28, 2011 until September 18, 2014, the day before the consummation of the Merger, and the performance of our ordinary shares from September 19, 2014 through December 31, 2014. Our ordinary shares trade on the same exchange, the NASDAQ Global Market, and under the same trading symbol, “HZNP”, as the Horizon Pharma, Inc. common stock prior to the Merger. The graph assumes an initial investment of $100 on July 28, 2011. The comparisons in the graph are required by the Securities and Exchange Commission and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our ordinary shares.

 

LOGO

The foregoing graph and table are furnished solely with this report, and are not filed with this report, and shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into any other filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, whether made by us before or after the date hereof, regardless of any general incorporation language in any such filing, except to the extent we specifically incorporate this material by reference into any such filing.

 

88


Table of Contents

Dividend Policy

No cash dividends have ever been declared or paid on the common equity to date by Horizon Pharma, Inc. or us. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to support operations and finance the growth and development of our business and do not intend to pay cash dividends on our ordinary shares for the foreseeable future. Under Irish law, dividends may only be paid, and share repurchases and redemptions must generally be funded only out of, “distributable reserves.” In addition, our ability to pay cash dividends is currently prohibited by the terms of our Senior Secured Credit Facility so long as we owe any amounts to the lenders under the credit agreement, subject to customary exceptions. Any future determination as to the payment of dividends will, subject to Irish legal requirements, be at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and other factors our board of directors deems relevant.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

See Item 12 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K regarding information about securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

We completed the following issuances of unregistered securities during the year ended December 31, 2014 which were not previously reported in a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or in a Current Report on Form 8-K:

 

   

In November 2014, we issued 79,400 ordinary shares to BNY Mellon upon the cash exercise of a warrant and we received proceeds of $362,858.00 representing the aggregate exercise price of such warrant.

 

   

In November 2014, we issued 109,700 ordinary shares to Enginebolt & CO via State Street upon the cash exercise of a warrant and we received proceeds of $501,329.00 representing the aggregate exercise price of such warrant.

 

   

In November 2014, we issued 932,200 ordinary shares to Ball & CO FBO Fidelity Securities Fund upon the cash exercise of a warrant and we received proceeds of $4,260,154.00 representing the aggregate exercise price of such warrant.

 

   

In November 2014, we issued 17,259 ordinary shares to Iroquois Master Fund upon the cash exercise of a warrant and we received proceeds of $74,351.77 representing the aggregate exercise price of such warrant.

 

   

In December 2014, we issued 2,231 ordinary shares to Daniel Stauder upon the cashless exercise of a warrant to purchase an aggregate of 3,451 ordinary shares.

The offers, sales and issuances of the securities described above were deemed to be exempt from registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in reliance on Rule 506 of Regulation D in that each issuance of securities was to an accredited investor under Rule 501 of Regulation D and did not involve a public offering. The recipients of securities in each of these transactions acquired the securities for investment only and not with a view to or for sale in connection with any distribution thereof and where appropriate, legends were affixed to the securities issued in these transactions.

Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities

None.

 

89


Table of Contents

Irish Law Matters

As a result of the Merger, the outstanding shares of the common stock of Horizon Pharma, Inc. were canceled and automatically converted into the right to receive our ordinary shares. As we are an Irish incorporated company, the following matters of Irish law are relevant to the holders of our ordinary shares.

Irish Restrictions on Import and Export of Capital. Except as indicated below, there are no restrictions imposed specifically on non-residents of Ireland dealing in Irish domestic securities, which includes ordinary shares of Irish companies. Dividends and redemption proceeds also continue to be freely transferable to non-resident holders of such securities. The Financial Transfers Act 1992 gives power to the Minister for Finance of Ireland to restrict financial transfers between Ireland and other countries and persons. Financial transfers are broadly defined and include all transfers that would be movements of capital or payments within the meaning of the treaties governing the member states of the European Union, or EU. The acquisition or disposal of interests in shares issued by an Irish incorporated company and associated payments falls within this definition. In addition, dividends or payments on redemption or purchase of shares and payments on a liquidation of an Irish incorporated company would fall within this definition. The Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) Act 2005 also gives the Minister of Finance of Ireland the power to take various measures, including the freezing or seizure of assets, in order to combat terrorism. At present the Financial Transfers Act 1992 and the Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) Act. prohibits financial transfers involving the late Slobodan Milosevic and associated persons, Republic of Guinea-Bissau, Myanmar/Burma, Belarus, certain persons indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the late Osama bin Laden, Al-Qaida, the Taliban of Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea), Iran, Iraq, Côte d’Ivoire, Lebanon, Liberia, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Somalia, Republic of Guinea, Afghanistan, Egypt, Eritrea, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, certain known terrorists and terrorist groups, and countries that harbor certain terrorist groups, without the prior permission of the Central Bank of Ireland or the Minister of Finance (as applicable).

Any transfer of, or payment in respect of, a share or interest in a share involving the government of any country that is currently the subject of United Nations sanctions, any person or body controlled by any of the foregoing, or by any person acting on behalf of the foregoing, may be subject to restrictions pursuant to such sanctions as implemented into Irish law.

Irish Taxes Applicable to U.S. Holders

Withholding Tax on Dividends. While we have no current plans to pay dividends, dividends on our ordinary shares would generally be subject to Irish Dividend Withholding Tax, or DWT, at the standard rate of income tax (currently 20%), unless an exemption applies.

Dividends on our ordinary shares that are owned by residents of the United States and held beneficially through the Depositary Trust Company, or DTC, will not be subject to DWT provided that the address of the beneficial owner of the ordinary shares in the records of the broker is in the United States.

Dividends on our ordinary shares that are owned by residents of the United States and held directly (outside of DTC) will not be subject to DWT provided that the shareholder has completed the appropriate Irish DWT form and this form remains valid. Such shareholders must provide the appropriate Irish DWT form to our transfer agent at least seven business days before the record date for the first dividend payment to which they are entitled.

If any shareholder who is resident in the United States receives a dividend subject to DWT, he or she should generally be able to make an application for a refund from the Irish Revenue Commissioners on the prescribed form.

While the U.S./Ireland Double Tax Treaty contains provisions regarding withholding, due to the wide scope of the exemptions from DWT available under Irish domestic law, it would generally be unnecessary for a U.S. resident shareholder to rely on the treaty provisions.

 

90


Table of Contents

Income Tax on Dividends. A shareholder who is neither resident nor ordinarily resident in Ireland and who is entitled to an exemption from DWT generally has no additional liability to Irish income tax or to the universal social charge on a dividend from us unless that shareholder holds our ordinary shares through a branch or agency in Ireland through which a trade is carried on.

A shareholder who is neither resident nor ordinarily resident in Ireland and who is not entitled to an exemption from DWT generally has no additional liability to Irish income tax or to the universal social charge on a dividend from us. The DWT deducted by us discharges the liability to Irish income tax and to the universal social charge. This however is not the case where the shareholder holds the ordinary shares through a branch or agency in Ireland through which a trade is carried on.

Irish Tax on Capital Gains. A shareholder who is neither resident nor ordinarily resident in Ireland and does not hold our ordinary shares in connection with a trade or business carried on by such shareholder in Ireland through a branch or agency should not be within the charge to Irish tax on capital gains on a disposal of our ordinary shares.

Capital Acquisitions Tax. Irish capital acquisitions tax, or CAT, is comprised principally of gift tax and inheritance tax. CAT could apply to a gift or inheritance of our ordinary shares irrespective of the place of residence, ordinary residence or domicile of the parties. This is because our ordinary shares are regarded as property situated in Ireland as our share register must be held in Ireland. The person who receives the gift or inheritance has primary liability for CAT.

CAT is levied at a rate of 33% above certain tax-free thresholds. The appropriate tax-free threshold is dependent upon (i) the relationship between the donor and the donee and (ii) the aggregation of the values of previous gifts and inheritances received by the donee from persons within the same category of relationship for CAT purposes. Gifts and inheritances passing between spouses are exempt from CAT. Our shareholders should consult their own tax advisers as to whether CAT is creditable or deductible in computing any domestic tax liabilities.

Stamp Duty. Irish stamp duty (if any) may become payable in respect of ordinary share transfers. However, a transfer of our ordinary shares from a seller who holds shares through DTC to a buyer who holds the acquired shares through DTC will not be subject to Irish stamp duty. A transfer of our ordinary shares (i) by a seller who holds ordinary shares outside of DTC to any buyer, or (ii) by a seller who holds the ordinary shares through DTC to a buyer who holds the acquired ordinary shares outside of DTC, may be subject to Irish stamp duty (currently at the rate of 1% of the price paid or the market value of the ordinary shares acquired, if greater). The person accountable for payment of stamp duty is the buyer or, in the case of a transfer by way of a gift or for less than market value, all parties to the transfer.

A shareholder who holds ordinary shares outside of DTC may transfer those ordinary shares into DTC without giving rise to Irish stamp duty provided that the shareholder would be the beneficial owner of the related book-entry interest in those ordinary shares recorded in the systems of DTC (and in exactly the same proportions) as a result of the transfer and at the time of the transfer into DTC there is no sale of those book-entry interests to a third party being contemplated by the shareholder. Similarly, a shareholder who holds ordinary shares through DTC may transfer those ordinary shares out of DTC without giving rise to Irish stamp duty provided that the shareholder would be the beneficial owner of the ordinary shares (and in exactly the same proportions) as a result of the transfer, and at the time of the transfer out of DTC there is no sale of those ordinary shares to a third party being contemplated by the shareholder. In order for the share registrar to be satisfied as to the application of this Irish stamp duty treatment where relevant, the shareholder must confirm to us that the shareholder would be the beneficial owner of the related book-entry interest in those ordinary shares recorded in the systems of DTC (and in exactly the same proportions) (or vice-versa) as a result of the transfer and there is no agreement for the sale of the related book-entry interest or the ordinary shares or an interest in the ordinary shares, as the case may be, by the shareholder to a third party being contemplated.

 

91


Table of Contents

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The selected statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, and the balance sheet data as of December 31, 2014 and 2013 have been derived from our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, and the balance sheet data as of December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 have been derived from audited financial statements which are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

The following selected financial data also reflects the 1-for-2.374 reverse stock split of the outstanding shares of common stock of Horizon Pharma, Inc. effected in July 2011.

Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of future results. The selected financial data should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected financial data for periods prior to the year ended December 31, 2014 is that of Horizon Pharma, Inc., our predecessor, while the selected financial data for the year ended December 31, 2014 is that of Horizon Pharma plc.

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,  
     2014     2013     2012     2011     2010  
     (in thousands)  

Selected Statement of Comprehensive Loss Data

          

Net sales

   $ 296,955      $ 74,016      $ 18,844      $ 6,927      $ 2,376   

Cost of goods sold

     78,753        14,625        11,875        7,267        4,263   

Gross profit (loss)

     218,202        59,391        6,969        (340     (1,887

Loss before benefit for income taxes

     (269,687     (150,126     (92,965     (127,948     (27,725

Net loss

     (263,603     (149,005     (87,794     (113,265     (27,065

 

    As of December 31,  
    2014     2013     2012     2011     2010  
    (in thousands)  

Selected Balance Sheet Data

         

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 218,807      $ 80,480      $ 104,087      $ 17,966      $ 5,384   

Working capital (deficit)

    106,833        67,455        79,983        1,065        (17,944

Total assets

    1,134,624        252,596        193,984        101,078        161,685   

Total debt, net of debt discount

    345,503        110,762        48,801        19,438        24,615   

Accumulated deficit

    (720,719     (457,116     (308,111     (220,317     (107,052

Total shareholders’ equity (deficit)

    540,204        (49,082     105,978        45,912        97,056   

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,  
     2014     2013     2012     2011     2010  
     (in thousands)  

Selected Statement of Cash Flows Data

          

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

   $ 27,549      $ (54,287   $ (76,641   $ (41,540   $ (37,532

Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities

     (227,720     (36,135     (1,386     (2,154     5,575   

Net cash provided by financing activities

     338,285        66,716        164,308        55,152        29,760   

Payments for acquisitions, net of cash acquired

     (224,220     (35,000     —          —          —     

Net proceeds from the issuance of common stock

     41,934        6,637        128,518        44,678        —      

Net proceeds from the issuance of debt

     286,966        143,598        55,578        23,417        21,960   

Repayment of notes payable

     —           64,844        19,788        13,067        10,981   

 

92


Table of Contents

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and related financing, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

The discussion below contains “forward-looking statements,” as defined in Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that reflect our current expectations regarding our future growth, results of operations, cash flows, performance and business prospects and opportunities, as well as assumptions made by, and information currently available to, our management. We have tried to identify forward-looking statements by using words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “plan,” “expect,” “intend,” “will,” and similar expressions, but these words are not the exclusive means of identifying forward-looking statements. These statements are based on information currently available to us and are subject to various risks, uncertainties, and other factors, including, but not limited to, those matters discussed in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, that could cause our actual growth, results of operations, cash flows, performance and business prospects and opportunities to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, these statements. Except as expressly required by the federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to update such factors or to publicly announce the results of any of the forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect future events, developments, or changed circumstances, or for any other reason.

OVERVIEW

Merger with Vidara

On September 19, 2014, the businesses of Horizon Pharma Inc., or HPI, and Vidara Therapeutics International Public Limited Company, or Vidara, were combined in a merger transaction, or the Merger, accounted for as a reverse acquisition under the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations, with HPI treated as the acquiring company in the Merger for accounting purposes. As part of the Merger, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vidara merged with and into HPI, with HPI surviving the Merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vidara and Vidara changed its name to Horizon Pharma plc, or New Horizon. Upon the consummation of the Merger, the historical financial statements of HPI became our historical financial statements. Accordingly, the historical financial statements of HPI are included in the comparative prior periods.

Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references to the “Company”, “New Horizon”, “we”, “us” and “our” refer to Horizon Pharma plc and its consolidated subsidiaries, including its predecessor, HPI. All references to “Vidara” are references to Horizon Pharma plc (formerly known as Vidara Therapeutics International Public Limited Company) and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the effective time of the Merger on September 19, 2014. The disclosures in this report relating to the pre-Merger business of Horizon Pharma plc, unless noted as being the business of Vidara prior to the Merger, pertain to the business of HPI prior to the Merger

Our Business

We are a specialty biopharmaceutical company focused on improving patients’ lives by identifying, developing, acquiring or in-licensing and commercializing differentiated products that address unmet medical needs. We market a portfolio of products in arthritis, inflammation and orphan diseases. Our U.S. marketed products are ACTIMMUNE® (interferon gamma-1b), DUEXIS ® (ibuprofen/famotidine), PENNSAID® (diclofenac sodium topical solution) 2% w/w, RAYOS® (prednisone) delayed-release tablets and VIMOVO®

 

93


Table of Contents

(naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium). We developed DUEXIS and RAYOS, acquired the U.S. rights to VIMOVO from AstraZeneca AB, or AstraZeneca, in November 2013, acquired the U.S. rights to ACTIMMUNE as a result of the Merger and acquired the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% from Nuvo Research Inc., or Nuvo, in October 2014, which we began marketing in the United States in January 2015. We market our products in the United States through our field sales force of approximately 375 representatives, consisting of approximately 325 primary care sales representatives and 50 sales representatives in our specialty and orphan diseases business areas. Our strategy is to utilize the commercial strength and infrastructure we have established in creating a fully-integrated U.S.-focused specialty biopharmaceutical company to continue the successful commercialization of our existing product portfolio while also expanding and leveraging these capabilities further.

On April 23, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approved DUEXIS, a proprietary tablet formulation containing a fixed-dose combination of ibuprofen and famotidine in a single pill. DUEXIS is indicated for the relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, osteoarthritis, or OA, and to decrease the risk of developing upper gastrointestinal ulcers in patients who are taking ibuprofen for these indications. We began marketing DUEXIS to physicians in December 2011. In June 2012, we licensed DUEXIS rights in Latin America to Grünenthal S.A., a private company focused on the promotion of pain products. Grünenthal S.A. is currently in the registration process for the commercialization of DUEXIS in Latin America.

Our second approved product in the United States, RAYOS, known as LODOTRA® outside the United States, is a proprietary delayed-release formulation of low-dose prednisone, first approved in Europe in March 2009, for the treatment of moderate to severe, active RA in adults, particularly when accompanied by morning stiffness. On July 26, 2012, the FDA approved RAYOS for the treatment of RA, polymyalgia rheumatica, or PMR, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or AS, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a number of other conditions. We are focusing our promotion of RAYOS in the United States on rheumatology indications, including RA and PMR. We began marketing RAYOS to a subset of U.S. rheumatologists in December 2012 and began the full launch in late January 2013 to the majority of U.S. rheumatologists and key primary care physicians. LODOTRA is currently marketed outside the United States, excluding Japan and Canada, by our distribution partner, Mundipharma International Corporation Limited, or Mundipharma.

On November 18, 2013, we entered into agreements with AstraZeneca pursuant to which we acquired from AstraZeneca and its affiliates certain intellectual property and other assets, and assumed from AstraZeneca and its affiliates certain liabilities, each with respect to VIMOVO, and obtained rights to develop other pharmaceutical products that contain gastroprotective agents in a single fixed combination oral solid dosage form with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, in the United States. VIMOVO (naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium) is a proprietary fixed-dose multi-layer delayed-release tablet combining an enteric-coated naproxen, an NSAID, core and an immediate-release esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, layer surrounding the core. VIMOVO was originally developed by Pozen Inc., or Pozen, together with AstraZeneca pursuant to an exclusive global collaboration and license agreement. On April 30, 2010, the FDA approved VIMOVO for the relief of the signs and symptoms of OA, RA, and AS and to decrease the risk of developing gastric ulcers in patients at risk of developing NSAID associated gastric ulcers.

We announced the availability of Horizon-labeled VIMOVO on January 2, 2014, at which time we also began marketing VIMOVO with our primary care sales force.

On March 18, 2014, HPI, Vidara Therapeutics Holdings LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, or Vidara Holdings, Vidara, Hamilton Holdings (USA), Inc., a Delaware corporation and an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Vidara, or U.S. HoldCo, and Hamilton Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of U.S. HoldCo, or Merger Sub, entered into a Transaction Agreement and Plan of Merger, or the Merger Agreement. The Merger Agreement provided for the merger of Merger Sub with and into HPI, with HPI continuing as the surviving corporation and as a wholly-owned, indirect subsidiary of Vidara, with Vidara converting to a public limited company and changing its name to Horizon Pharma plc. As a result of the Merger, we are organized under the laws of Ireland. Upon consummation of the Merger, New Horizon made a cash

 

94


Table of Contents

payment of $210.9 million to Vidara Holdings and $2.7 million to Citibank N.A. as escrow agent under an escrow agreement associated with the Merger. The majority of the escrowed funds were released during January 2015 in accordance with the terms of the escrow agreement.

In connection with the Merger, on June 17, 2014, HPI entered into a $300.0 million five-year senior secured credit facility, or Senior Secured Credit Facility, with certain lenders and Citibank, N.A., as administrative agent and collateral agent. HPI used the proceeds of the Senior Secured Credit Facility to provide the cash payment of $213.6 million for Vidara and to pay certain transaction related expenses, and we are using the balance for general corporate purposes.

As a result of the Merger, we began marketing ACTIMMUNE, a bioengineered form of interferon gamma-1b, a protein that acts as a biologic response modifier, in the United States. ACTIMMUNE is approved by the FDA for use in children and adults with chronic granulomatous disease, or CGD, and severe, malignant osteopetrosis, or SMO. ACTIMMUNE is indicated for reducing the frequency and severity of serious infections associated with CGD and for delaying time to disease progression in patients with SMO. We also plan to study ACTIMMUNE for potential additional indications, and the FDA has agreed to the primary endpoint for a Phase 3 study that will evaluate ACTIMMUNE in the treatment of Friedreich’s Ataxia, or FA. In February 2015, we submitted an IND application and we anticipate the Phase 3 clinical study will begin enrolling patients in the second quarter of 2015.

On October 17, 2014, we acquired the U.S. rights to PENNSAID 2% from Nuvo for $45.0 million in cash. PENNSAID 2% is approved in the United States for the treatment of the pain of OA of the knee(s). As part of the acquisition, we entered into an exclusive eight-year supply agreement under which Nuvo will supply us product. We began marketing PENNSAID 2% in January 2015 and included PENNSAID 2% in our Prescriptions Made Easy, or PME, specialty pharmacy program. In connection with our acquisition of PENNSAID 2%, we expanded our primary care sales force by 75 additional representatives. Our primary care representatives are now marketing DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2% and VIMOVO.

 

95


Table of Contents

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Year Ended December 31, 2014 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2013

 

     For the Years
Ended December 31,
    Increase /
(Decrease)
 
     2014     2013    
     (in thousands)  

Net sales

   $ 296,955      $ 74,016      $ 222,939   

Cost of goods sold

     78,753        14,625        64,128   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     218,202        59,391        158,811   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses

      

Research and development

     17,460        10,084        7,376   

Sales and marketing

     120,276        68,595        51,681   

General and administrative

     88,957        23,566        65,391   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     226,693        102,245        124,448   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating loss

     (8,491     (42,854     34,363   

Other income (expense), net:

      

Interest expense, net

     (23,826     (12,774     11,052   

Foreign exchange (loss) gain

     (3,905     1,206        5,111   

Loss on derivative fair value

     (214,995     (69,300     145,695   

Loss on induced conversion and debt extinguishment

     (29,390     (26,404     2,986   

Bargain purchaese gain

     22,171        —          (22,171

Other expense

     (11,251     —          11,251   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other expense, net

     (261,196     (107,272     153,924   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before benefit for income taxes

     (269,687     (150,126     (119,561

Benefit for income taxes

     (6,084     (1,121     4,963   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   $ (263,603   $ (149,005   $ (114,598
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net sales. Net sales increased $222.9 million, or 301%, to $297.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $74.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2013.

The following table reflects the components of net sales for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013:

 

     Year Ended December 31,      Change     Change  
           2014                  2013            $     %  
     (in thousands)  

VIMOVO

   $ 162,954       $ 966       $ 161,988         

DUEXIS

     83,243         58,972         24,271        41

ACTIMMUNE

     25,251         —           25,251         

RAYOS

     19,020         5,841         13,179        226

LODOTRA

     6,487         8,237         (1,750     (21 %) 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Net Sales

   $ 296,955       $ 74,016       $ 222,939        301
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

* Percentage change is not meaningful.

The increase in net sales during the year ended December 31, 2014 was primarily due to growth in net sales of DUEXIS, our initiation of VIMOVO sales in January 2014 and our recognition of ACTIMMUNE sales following the acquisition of Vidara in September 2014.

 

96


Table of Contents

VIMOVO. Net sales increased $162.0 million to $163.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $1.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2013. We began marketing of VIMOVO with our sales force in November 2013 and began selling Horizon-labeled VIMOVO in January 2014.

DUEXIS. Net sales increased $24.3 million, or 41%, to $83.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $59.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2013. In 2014, DUEXIS net sales increased approximately $39.2 million as the result of prescription volume growth driven by the expansion of our field sales force and the continued rollout of our PME program, partially offset by $15.1 million due to lower net pricing. Although DUEXIS selling prices increased, the higher selling prices were offset by increased rebates and patient co-pay reimbursements as a result of our PME program.

ACTIMMUNE. Net sales were $25.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to no net sales during the year ended December 31, 2013. Our 2014 net sales represent sales during the period following the Merger on September 19, 2014.

RAYOS. Net sales increased $13.2 million, or 226%, to $19.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $5.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2013. Approximately $9.0 million of the increase in RAYOS net sales was the result of net price increases and $4.2 million was due to prescription volume growth driven by the expansion of our sales force and the continued rollout of our PME program.

LODOTRA. Net sales decreased $1.7 million, or 21%, to $6.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $8.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2013. The decrease was the result of $1.5 million from reduced product shipments to our European distribution partner, Mundipharma, and $0.2 million in lower amortization of milestone payments. LODOTRA shipments to Mundipharma are not linear or directly tied to Mundipharma’s in-market sales and can therefore fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter.

We currently expect our net sales to increase in 2015 and future periods as a result of both price and volume increases. Effective January 1, 2015, we have increased the price for both DUEXIS and VIMOVO by 35.8%, for RAYOS by 28.0% and for ACTIMMUNE by 9.0%. While we believe these price increases should favorably impact net sales during 2015, they will be offset in part by additional sales allowances related to rebates and patient co-pay reimbursements. We may affect further price increases for these products and/or other products in 2015 and future periods in response to future market conditions.

Effective January 1, 2015, two significant pharmacy benefit managers, or PBMs, placed DUEXIS and VIMOVO on their exclusion lists, which will result in a loss of reimbursement for patient’s whose healthcare plans have adopted these PBM exclusion lists. As a result, DUEXIS and VIMOVO may face negative pressure on prescription volume. We expect that continued adoption of our PME program by physicians will be important to our ability to counter this action by the two PBMs and to offset pressure from healthcare payors and PBMs to use less expensive generic or over the counter brands instead of our branded products.

We have expanded and may continue to expand our sales force to support existing and newly acquired products, such as PENNSAID 2%, which we acquired in October 2014 and began marketing in January 2015. As result of the Merger and our acquisition of PENNSAID 2%, we expanded our sales force to approximately 375 sales representatives, consisting of 325 primary care sales representatives and 50 sales representatives in specialty and orphan diseases business areas.

Cost of Goods Sold. Cost of goods sold increased $64.1 million to $78.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $14.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2013. As a percentage of net sales, cost of goods sold was 26.5% in 2014 compared to 19.8% in 2013. The increase in cost of goods sold was primarily attributable to a $9.1 million increase in product costs due to higher DUEXIS and VIMOVO sales, an increase in intangible amortization expense of $24.2 million, an $11.1 million charge to recognize additional cost

 

97


Table of Contents

of goods sold on the stepped up market value of ACTIMMUNE inventory as of the date of the Merger, a $10.7 million net charge associated with the contingent VIMOVO and ACTIMMUNE royalty liabilities and higher royalty accretion costs of $9.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2014.

During the second quarter of 2014, based on higher sales of VIMOVO during the six months ended June 30, 2014 versus our original expectations and our adjusted expectations for future VIMOVO sales, we recorded a charge of $13.0 million to cost of goods sold to increase the amount of the estimated contingent royalty liability to reflect the updated projections. During the fourth quarter of 2014, after our most recent five year plan was approved, we performed an assessment of the carrying value of the contingent royalty liability, which resulted in a $3.6 million adjustment to cost of goods sold to reduce the amount of the contingent royalty liability to reflect our updated estimates. As a result, for the year ended December 31, 2014 we recorded a net charge of $9.4 million to cost of goods sold and a corresponding increase to the contingent royalty liability to reflect the estimated fair value of the future contingent royalties payable to Pozen.

During the fourth quarter of 2014, as the result of a price increase for ACTIMMUNE approved to take effect on January 1, 2015, we reassessed the value of our estimated royalty liability and recorded a charge of $1.3 million to cost of goods sold to increase the carrying value of the contingent royalties to reflect the updated projections.

Intangible amortization increased $24.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to the prior year period as a result of an increase of $11.8 million of which was attributable to a full year of intangible amortization expense related to VIMOVO developed technology and $12.2 million of which was related to amortization of developed technology for ACTIMMUNE as a result of the Merger. We expect $43.1 million of amortization expense for ACTIMMUNE in 2015.

Research and Development Expenses. Research and development expenses increased $7.4 million to $17.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $10.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in research and development expenses during the year ended December 31, 2014 was primarily associated with $2.3 million in research and development expenses for ACTIMMUNE, $2.1 million in higher salaries and benefits expense, $1.7 million in increased clinical expenses and $1.2 million in higher consulting fees.

Sales and Marketing Expenses. Sales and marketing expenses increased $51.7 million to $120.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $68.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in sales and marketing expenses was primarily attributable to an increase of $34.5 million in salaries and benefits expenses associated with increased staffing of our field sales force, $13.2 million in higher marketing and commercialization expenses primarily related to ACTIMUNE and VIMOVO, $2.5 million in higher facility expenses and $1.1 million in higher consulting fees.

General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses increased $65.4 million to $89.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $23.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily attributable to a $40.2 million increase in legal, consulting and investment advisory fees and other costs associated with the Merger and related financing transactions, a $20.3 million increase in salaries and benefits expense as a result of increased staffing of our administrative and finance functions and a $2.9 million increase in related facilities expenses.

Interest Expense, Net. Interest expense, net increased $11.1 million to $23.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $12.8 during the year ended December 31, 2013. The increased interest expense, net was primarily due to higher borrowings under our Convertible Senior Notes and Senior Secured Credit Facility during the year ended December 31, 2014, as compared to our prior borrowings under our Senior Secured Loan.

Foreign Exchange (Loss) Gain. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we reported a foreign exchange loss of $3.9 million compared to a foreign exchange gain of $1.2 million during the year ended December 31,

 

98


Table of Contents

2013. The foreign exchange loss during the year ended December 31, 2014 was primarily attributable to a weakening of the Euro against the U.S. dollar which impacted our Swiss subsidiary, Horizon Pharma AG, whose functional currency is in Euros, yet has intercompany balances and intercompany transactions as well as third-party transactions that are denominated in U.S. dollars.

Loss on Derivative Revaluation. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we recorded a $215.0 million non-cash charge compared to $69.3 million non-cash charge recorded during the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in non-cash charges during the year ended December 31, 2014 was a result of the increase in the fair value of the embedded derivative associated with our Convertible Senior Notes. The increase in loss on the derivative revaluation was primarily due to an increase in the market value of HPI’s common stock during the period from January 1, 2014 through June 27, 2014, the date HPI’s stockholders approved the issuance of common equity in excess of 13,164,951 shares upon conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes. The non-cash loss on derivative revaluation was a permanent tax difference and was not deductible for income tax reporting purposes.

Loss on Induced Conversion and Debt Extinguishment. The loss on induced conversion and debt extinguishment during the year ended December 31, 2014 of $29.4 million was a result of the Convertible Senior Notes induced conversions in the fourth quarter of 2014, which consisted of $16.7 million of loss on induced conversion for cash inducement payments, a $11.7 million charge for the extinguishment of debt and $1.0 million of expenses related to the induced debt conversions. The loss on induced conversion and debt extinguishment during the year ended December 31, 2013 of $26.4 million was related to the extinguishment of our Senior Secured Loan in November 2013.

Bargain Purchase Gain. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we recorded a bargain purchase gain of $22.2 million in connection with the Merger, representing the excess of the estimated fair values of net assets acquired over the acquisition consideration paid.

Other Expense. Other expense during the year ended December 31, 2014 totaled $11.3 million, which represented $5.0 million of commitment fees incurred on a bridge loan commitment prior to executing the Senior Secured Credit Facility in June 2014, $3.2 million of commitment fees incurred on the Senior Secured Credit Facility prior to its funding on September 19, 2014 and $2.9 million of secondary offering expense fees incurred in the November 2014 underwritten public offering.

Income Tax Benefit. During the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, we recorded a benefit for income taxes of $6.1 million and $1.1 million, respectively. The increase in income tax benefit during the year ended December 31, 2014 was primarily attributable to a deferred tax asset valuation adjustment of $3.0 million recorded during the third quarter of 2014. The inclusion of additional deferred tax liabilities as a result of the Merger resulted in our ability to reduce our existing deferred tax valuation allowance, which correspondingly resulted in our ability to record an additional income tax benefit of $3.0 million.

Net Loss. Net loss increased $114.6 million to $263.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2014, from $149.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2013, primarily as a result of the loss on derivative revaluation during the year ended December 31, 2014.

 

99


Table of Contents

Year Ended December 31, 2013 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2012

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
       
     2013     2012     Increase /
(Decrease)
 
     (in thousands)  

Net sales

   $ 74,016      $ 18,844        55,172   

Cost of goods sold

     14,625        11,875        2,750   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     59,391        6,969        52,422   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses

      

Research and development

     10,084        16,837        (6,753

Sales and marketing

     68,595        49,561        19,034   

General and administrative

     23,566        19,444        4,122   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     102,245        85,842        16,403   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating loss

     (42,854     (78,873     36,019   

Other income (expense), net:

      

Interest expense, net

     (12,774     (11,552     1,222   

Foreign exchange gain

     1,206        489        (717

Loss on derivative fair value

     (69,300     —          69,300   

Loss on debt extinguishment

     (26,404     (2,973     23,431   

Other expense

     —          (56     (56
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other expense, net

     (107,272     (14,092     93,180   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss before benefit for income taxes

     (150,126     (92,965     (57,161

Benefit for income taxes

     (1,121     (5,171     (4,050
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss

   $ (149,005   $ (87,794   $ (61,211
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Sales. Net sales increased 293% to $74.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to $18.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2012.

The following table reflects the components of net sales for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012:

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
     Change      Change  
     2013      2012      $      %  
     (in thousands)  

DUEXIS

   $ 58,972       $ 10,302       $ 48,670         472

LODOTRA

     8,237         8,166         72         1

RAYOS

     5,841         376         5,465         1833

VIMOVO

     966         —           966          
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Net Sales

   $ 74,016       $ 18,844       $ 55,173         293
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

* Percentage change is not meaningful.

Net sales increased by $55.2 million, or 293%, to $74.0 million in 2013 compared to $18.8 million in 2012. The net sales increase was primarily due to growth in net sales of DUEXIS and RAYOS.

DUEXIS. Net sales increased by $48.7 million, or 472%, to $59.0 million in 2013 compared to $10.3 million in 2012. Approximately $40.1 million of the increase in DUEXIS net sales was the result of net price increases and $8.6 million was due to volume growth driven by the expansion of our sales force.

 

100


Table of Contents

LODOTRA. Net sales were $8.2 million in both 2013 and 2012. LODOTRA net sales increased $0.7 million related to amortization of milestone payments offset by a $0.7 million decrease in net sales for product shipments to our European distribution partner, Mundipharma. LODOTRA shipments to Mundipharma are not linear or directly tied to Mundipharma’s in-market sales and can therefore fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter.

RAYOS. Net sales increased by $5.5 million, or 1,833%, to $5.8 million in 2013 compared to $0.3 million in 2012. Approximately $4.7 million of the increase in RAYOS net sales was the result of net price increases and $0.8 million was due to volume growth driven by the expansion of our sales force.

VIMOVO. Net sales were $1.0 million in 2013. We began marketing of VIMOVO with our sales force on November 26, 2013.

Cost of Goods Sold. Cost of goods sold increased $2.7 million to $14.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2013, from $11.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2012. As a percentage of net sales, cost of goods sold was 19.8% during the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to 63.0% during the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in cost of goods sold did not increase proportionately with the increase in net sales primarily due to net price increases, which do not correspondingly increase cost of goods sold, driving most of the net sales increase. As discussed above, DUEXIS and RAYOS net sales in 2013 increased by $40.1 million and $4.7 million, respectively, as a result of net price increases.

The increase in cost of goods sold was primarily attributable to a $3.4 million increase in intangible amortization expense. The increase in amortization expense was related to the FDA approval of RAYOS in July 2012, which resulted in the reclassification and subsequent amortization of an indefinite-lived intangible asset to a finite-lived intangible asset, which resulted in additional intangible amortization expense of $2.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2013 as a result of a full year of amortization as compared to 2012. Additionally, as a result of our asset purchase agreement with AstraZeneca, we capitalized $67.7 million in intangible assets related to the VIMOVO intellectual property rights. This intangible asset will be amortized using a straight-line method over its estimated useful life of 61.5 months. During the year ended December 31, 2013, we recorded $1.6 million in intangible amortization expense related to the intellectual property acquired in connection with our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO. For the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, intangible amortization expense accounted for 56% and 40%, respectively, of total cost of goods sold.

Research and Development Expenses. Research and development expenses during the year ended December 31, 2013 were $10.1 million, a decrease of $6.7 million compared to research and development expenses of $16.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease in research and development expenses during the year ended December 31, 2013 was primarily associated with the classification of $5.0 million in medical affairs expenses to sales and marketing expenses, a $0.9 million reduction in consulting fees and a $0.8 million decrease in regulatory and clinical trial expenses. During the first quarter of 2013, in connection with the full commercial launch of RAYOS, we began to classify our medical affairs expenses, which consist of expenses related to scientific publications, health outcomes, biostatistics, medical education and information, and medical communications, as sales and marketing expenses. Prior to the full commercial launch of RAYOS in late January 2013, medical affairs expenses were classified as part of research and development expenses.

Sales and Marketing Expenses. Sales and marketing expenses during the year ended December 31, 2013 were $68.6 million, an increase of $19.0 million compared to sales and marketing expenses of $49.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in sales and marketing expenses was primarily attributable to an increase of $13.6 million in salaries and benefits expenses due to the increase in staffing of our field sales force and the inclusion of $5.0 million of medical affairs expenses in sales and marketing expenses.

General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses during the year ended December 31, 2013 were $23.6 million, an increase of $4.2 million compared to general and administrative

 

101


Table of Contents

expenses of $19.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to $1.9 million in additional salaries and related benefits expense associated with incremental finance and administrative staff compared to the prior year, $1.8 million in higher legal expenses, which consisted of a $1.1 million increase in legal fees incurred in connection with our VIMOVO asset acquisition and a $0.7 million increase in legal fees associated with intellectual property related matters. Additionally, facilities expense increased $0.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 as a result of additional information technology infrastructure expenses related to the expansion of our field sales force.

Interest Expense, Net. Interest expense, net was $12.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2013, an increase of $1.2 million compared to interest expense, net of $11.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in interest expense, net was primarily attributable to higher interest expense related to the amortization of deferred financing and debt discount expenses.

Foreign Exchange Gain. During the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, we reported a foreign exchange gain of $1.2 million and $0.5 million, respectively. The foreign exchange gain in each period was primarily attributable to an increase in the value of the Euro against the U.S. dollar compared to the applicable prior year, which resulted in a favorable currency impact for our Swiss subsidiary, Horizon Pharma AG.

Loss on Derivative Revaluation. During the year ended December 31, 2013, we recorded a $69.3 million non-cash charge related to the increase in the fair value of the embedded derivatives in the Convertible Senior Notes we issued in November 2013, principally due to an increase in the market value of HPI’s common stock during the period from issuance to December 31, 2013.

Loss on Debt Extinguishment. During the year ended December 31, 2013, we recorded a $26.4 million charge related to the extinguishment of our Senior Secured Loan in November 2013 compared to loss on debt extinguishment of a prior debt facility of $3.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2012.

Income Tax Benefit. Income tax benefit was $1.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2013, a decrease of $4.1 million compared to an income tax benefit of $5.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease in income benefit during the year ended December 31, 2013 was primarily attributable to the absence of a one-time tax benefit which was recorded during the year ended December 31, 2012. On July 26, 2012, the FDA approved RAYOS, which resulted in the reclassification of the entire asset balance of $35.5 million, from an indefinite-lived intangible asset to a finite-lived intangible asset. The reclassification from an indefinite-lived intangible asset to a finite-lived intangible asset required us to amortize this asset over the useful life of the asset, which resulted in a corresponding reduction to our net deferred tax liabilities and the recognition of a one-time net income tax benefit of $4.3 million that was recorded during the third quarter of 2012.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

We have incurred losses since our inception in June 2005 and, as of December 31, 2014, we had an accumulated deficit of $720.7 million. While we incurred a significant net loss in 2014, primarily due to the loss from derivative revaluation, loss from induced debt conversion and costs associated with the Merger, we did generate positive cash inflows from operating activities of $27.5 million. We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will continue to increase as a result of our commercialization of ACTIMMUNE, DUEXIS, PENNSAID 2%, RAYOS/LODOTRA and VIMOVO, but we believe these costs will be more than offset by higher net sales and gross profits and we expect our current operations to achieve profitability in 2015.

We have financed our operations to date through equity financings, debt financings and the issuance of convertible notes. As of December 31, 2014, we had $218.8 million in cash and cash equivalents and total debt with a book value of $345.5 million and face value of $361.0 million. We believe we will generate sufficient cash flows from our operations to fund our business needs. As noted in Part I — Item 1. “Business — Overview”

 

102


Table of Contents

above, part of our strategy is to expand and leverage our commercial capabilities by identifying, developing, acquiring and commercializing additional differentiated products that address unmet medical needs. To the extent we enter into transactions to acquire products or businesses in the future, we will most likely need to finance a significant portion of those acquisitions through additional debt, equity or convertible debt financings.

On March 18, 2014, HPI, Vidara Holdings, Vidara, U.S. HoldCo and Merger Sub entered into the Merger Agreement under which Merger Sub merged with and into HPI, with HPI continuing as the surviving corporation and as a wholly-owned, indirect subsidiary of Vidara, and with Vidara converting to a public limited company and changing its name to Horizon Pharma plc. Following the completion of the Merger, New Horizon is organized under the laws of Ireland. In the Merger, HPI’s stockholders received one ordinary share of New Horizon in exchange for each share of HPI common stock they owned as of the closing. Upon the closing of the Merger, HPI’s security holders (excluding the holders of the Convertible Senior Notes) owned approximately 74% of New Horizon and Vidara Holdings owed approximately 26% of New Horizon on a fully-diluted basis. At the closing, Vidara Holdings received a cash payment of $210.9 million and $2.7 million was paid into a temporary escrow account. The majority of the escrowed funds were released during January 2015 in accordance with the terms of the escrow agreement.

On June 17, 2014, HPI, as initial signatory, entered into a Credit Agreement with the lenders from time to time party thereto, or the Lenders, and Citibank, as administrative agent and collateral agent, and effective as of the closing of the Merger, U.S. Holdco and the other borrowers from time to time party thereto, or the Borrowers, providing for (i) the Senior Secured Credit Facility, the proceeds of which were used in part to effect the Merger and to pay fees and expenses in connection therewith and are being used in part for general corporate purposes, (ii) an uncommitted accordion facility subject to the satisfaction of certain financial and other conditions, and (iii) one or more uncommitted refinancing loan facilities with respect to loans under the Credit Agreement. The Credit Agreement allows us and our subsidiaries to become borrowers under the accordion facility. On September 19, 2014, U.S. HoldCo borrowed the entire $300.0 million available under the Senior Secured Credit Facility. Loans under the Senior Secured Credit Facility bear interest, at each our option, at a rate equal to either the London Inter-Bank Offer Rate, or LIBOR, plus an applicable margin of 8.00% per annum (subject to a 1.00% LIBOR floor), or the prime lending rate, plus an applicable margin equal to 7.00% per annum.

Our obligations under the Credit Agreement and any swap obligations entered into with a Lender are guaranteed by us and each of our existing and subsequently acquired or organized direct and indirect subsidiaries, subject to limited exceptions. As of December 31, 2014 we have not entered into any interest rate swap obligations. Our obligations under the Credit Agreement are secured, subject to customary permitted liens and other agreed upon exceptions, by a perfected security interest in (i) all of our tangible and intangible assets, except for certain customary excluded assets, and (ii) all of the capital stock of our subsidiaries (limited, in the case of the stock of certain non-U.S. subsidiaries of U.S. HoldCo, to 65% of the capital stock of such subsidiaries).

We are permitted to make voluntary prepayments of loans under the Senior Secured Credit Facility, except that (i) a specified make-whole amount would apply to any repayment or re-pricing prior to September 19, 2016, (ii) a 4% premium would apply to any repayment or a re-pricing on or prior to September 19, 2017, and (iii) a 2% premium would apply to any repayment or a re-pricing on or prior to September 19, 2018. We are required to make mandatory prepayments of loans under the Senior Secured Credit Facility (without payment of a premium) with (a) net cash proceeds from certain non-ordinary course asset sales (subject to reinvestment rights and other exceptions), (b) casualty proceeds and condemnation awards (subject to reinvestment rights and other exceptions), and (c) net cash proceeds from issuances of debt (other than certain permitted debt).

In connection with the signing the merger agreement with Vidara on March 18, 2014, HPI entered into a commitment letter, or the Commitment Letter, with Deerfield Management Company, L.P., or Deerfield, and certain funds managed by Deerfield, or the Deerfield Funds, pursuant to which the Deerfield Funds committed to provide up to $250.0 million of senior secured loans to finance the Merger. HPI allowed the Commitment Letter to expire on June 30, 2014 as a result of the execution of the Senior Secured Credit Facility.

 

103


Table of Contents

On November 18, 2013, we entered into note purchase agreements with investors to issue $150.0 million aggregate principal amount of Convertible Senior Notes. The Convertible Senior Notes were issued on November 22, 2013. We received net proceeds of $124.9 million from the sale of the Convertible Senior Notes, after deducting fees and expenses of $6.4 million and $18.7 million related to a capped call transaction. The Convertible Senior Notes are governed by an Indenture, dated as of November 22, 2013, between HPI and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. In connection with the Merger, HPI and Horizon Pharma plc executed a supplemental Indenture dated as of September 19, 2014. Pursuant to the supplemental Indenture, HPI remains the obligor of the Convertible Senior Notes and Horizon Pharma plc agreed to fully and unconditionally guaranty the obligations of HPI under the Indenture. The supplemental Indenture also provides that the conversion value of the Convertible Senior Notes will be calculated by reference to the ordinary shares of Horizon Pharma plc, rather than the common stock of HPI, and any shares issuable upon conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes will be settled in ordinary shares of Horizon Pharma plc, rather than shares of the common stock of HPI. In addition, Horizon Pharma plc has assumed the disclosure obligations required by the Indenture.

The Convertible Senior Notes bear interest at a rate of 5.00% per year, payable in arrears on May 15 and November 15 of each year, beginning on May 15, 2014. The Convertible Senior Notes will mature on November 15, 2018, unless earlier repurchased or converted. The Convertible Senior Notes were sold at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount thereof and are convertible at the option of the holders at any time prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding August 15, 2018 only under certain conditions. On or after August 15, 2018 until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date for the Convertible Senior Notes, holders will be able to convert their Convertible Senior Notes at their option at the conversion rate then in effect at any time, regardless of these conditions. Subject to certain limitations, HPI may settle conversions of the Convertible Senior Notes by paying or delivering, as the case may be, cash, our ordinary shares or a combination of cash and our ordinary shares, at HPI’s election. If we undergo a fundamental change prior to the maturity date of the Convertible Senior Notes, the holders may require HPI to repurchase for cash all or any portion of their Convertible Senior Notes at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Convertible Senior Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest.

The conversion rate for the Convertible Senior Notes was initially 186.4280 ordinary shares per $1,000 principal amount of Convertible Senior Notes (equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $5.36 per ordinary share). The conversion rate of the Convertible Senior Notes, and the corresponding conversion price, is subject to adjustment for certain events, but will not be adjusted for accrued and unpaid interest.

On September 23, 2014, the counterparties to the certain capped call transactions we entered into in connection with the Convertible Senior Notes exercised their right to terminate the capped call transactions following the Merger because we became a non-U.S. based entity. In connection with such termination, we received $14.0 million comprised of both $9.4 million in cash and 384,366 of our ordinary shares which were valued at $4.6 million, based on the closing share price of September 22, 2014 of $11.93 per share. We recorded the receipt of the ordinary shares as treasury shares. In addition, in connection with the termination of the capped call transactions, one counterparty and/or their affiliates unwound various hedging transactions with respect to the Company’s ordinary shares.

In the fourth quarter of 2014, we entered into separate, privately-negotiated conversion agreements with certain holders of the Convertible Senior Notes. Under the conversion agreements, the holders agreed to convert an aggregate principal amount of $89.0 million of Convertible Senior Notes held by them and we agreed to settle such conversions by issuing 16,594,793 ordinary shares. In addition, pursuant to the conversion agreements, we made an aggregate cash payment of $16.7 million to the holders for additional exchange consideration and $1.7 million in accrued and unpaid interest, and recognized a non-cash charge of $11.7 million related to the extinguishment of debt as a result of the note conversions. As of December 31, 2014, $61.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the Convertible Senior Notes remained outstanding.

 

104


Table of Contents

During the year ended December 31, 2014, we received proceeds of $38.5 million in connection with our issuance of an aggregate of 8,990,120 of our ordinary shares upon the exercise of warrants. Additionally, we issued an aggregate of 864,780 ordinary shares in connection with the exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units and received $1.6 million in proceeds in connection with the exercise of stock options, and received proceeds of $1.7 million upon the issuance of 536,543 ordinary shares through our employee stock purchase program.

We are required to maintain compliance with applicable Swiss laws with respect to our Swiss subsidiary, Horizon Pharma AG, including laws requiring maintenance of equity in the subsidiary to avoid overindebtedness, which requires Horizon Pharma AG to maintain assets in excess of its liabilities. We review on a regular basis whether Horizon Pharma AG is overindebted. As of December 31, 2014, Horizon Pharma AG was not overindebted. However, Horizon Pharma AG has previously been overindebted, including at December 31, 2013. We will continue to monitor and review Horizon Pharma AG’s financial position and, as necessary, will address any overindebtedness until such time as Horizon Pharma AG generates positive income at a statutory level, which could require us to have cash at Horizon Pharma AG in excess of its near-term operating needs and could affect our ability to have sufficient cash to meet the near-term operating needs of our other operating subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, Horizon Pharma AG had cash and cash equivalents of $3.0 million and $3.7 million, respectively. Based upon the cash and cash equivalents held by Horizon Pharma AG as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, we do not expect that our financial position or results of operations will be materially affected by any need to address overindebtedness at Horizon Pharma AG. To date, the overindebtedness of Horizon Pharma AG has not resulted in the need to divert material cash resources from our other operating subsidiaries.

The following table provides a summary of our cash position and cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, as follows (in thousands):

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,  
     2014      2013      2012  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 218,807       $ 80,480       $ 104,087   

Cash provided by (used in):

        

Operating activities

     27,549         (54,287      (76,641

Investing activities

     (227,720      (36,135      (1,386

Financing activities

     338,285         66,716         164,308   

Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Operating Activities

During the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, net cash provided by (used in) operating activities was $27.5 million, ($54.3 million) and ($76.6 million), respectively. The increase in net cash provided by operating activities during 2014 compared to 2013 was primarily attributable to higher cash flow from net product sales, partially offset by higher cash outlays for related expenses. Cash provided by operating activities during 2014 was negatively impacted by $51.7 million in transaction costs related to the Merger, the PENNSAID 2% acquisition, and the secondary offering of ordinary shares by certain stockholders in November 2014, and $16.7 million of cash payments related to induced debt conversions.

The decrease in net cash used in operating activities during 2013 compared to 2012 was primarily attributable to an increase in cash flows associated with higher product sales and gross margins of DUEXIS and RAYOS during the year ended December 31, 2013, which was partially offset by additional cash used in operating activities related to increases in our working capital requirements, such as for accounts receivable and inventories due to our increased product sales.

Net cash used in operating activities during 2012 was primarily attributable to staffing our sales and marketing organization and expenses related to our product launches of DUEXIS and RAYOS. Additionally, cash used in operating activities during 2012 was for interest payments made on our Secured Senior Loan, additional staffing of support and administrative functions and for working capital purposes.

 

105


Table of Contents

Net Cash Used in Investing Activities

During the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, net cash used in investing activities was $227.7 million, $36.1 million and $1.4 million, respectively. The increase in net cash used in investing activities during 2014 was primarily associated with the net cash paid for the acquisition of Vidara of $179.2 million and the acquisition of PENNSAID 2% of $45.0 million.

Net cash used in investing activities during 2013 was primarily attributable to our asset purchase of U.S. rights to VIMOVO for $35.0 million from AstraZeneca in November 2013. Additionally, $1.2 million of cash used in investing activities in 2013 was used for capital expenditures related to computer hardware and equipment purchases for the additional staffing of our sales function.

Net cash used in investing activities during 2012 was primarily attributable to capital expenditures for computer hardware and equipment to support our sales and administrative functions.

Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities

During the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, net cash provided by financing activities was $338.3 million, $66.7 million and $164.3 million, respectively. The increase in net cash provided by financing activities during 2014 was primarily attributable to $300.0 million of proceeds received under the Senior Secured Credit Facility in connection with the Merger in September 2014, net of $13.0 million of original issue discount and deferred financing fees. In addition, during 2014, we received proceeds of $38.5 million in connection with the exercise of warrants to purchase 8,990,120 ordinary shares, and received $9.4 million of cash proceeds from the settlement of the capped call termination in September 2014.

Net cash provided by financing activities in 2013 was primarily attributable to proceeds from the Convertible Senior Notes, net of issuance costs, partially offset by principal debt payments and the extinguishment of our Senior Secured Loan. In connection with our acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO, we issued $150.0 million aggregate principal amount of Convertible Senior Notes and received net proceeds of $143.6 million from the sale of the Convertible Senior Notes, after deducting fees and expenses of approximately $6.4 million. In addition, we used $18.7 million of the net proceeds to purchase capped calls and used $64.8 million of the net proceeds to repay all obligations under our Senior Secured Loan.

During the year ended December 31, 2013, we sold 2,448,575 shares of HPI common stock through at-the-market offerings for gross proceeds of $6.2 million and net proceeds of $6.0 million, after $0.2 million in commissions and other issuance costs.

Net cash provided by financing activities in 2012 was primarily the result of our debt refinancing and the equity offerings we completed. In February 2012, we entered into our $60.0 million Senior Secured Loan with a group of institutional lenders. As part of the closing of the Senior Secured Loan, we repaid outstanding principal under previous borrowings totaling $19.8 million. In March 2012, we received gross proceeds of $50.8 million and net proceeds of $47.5 million, after deducting $3.3 million in issuance costs, from the sale of 14,033,829 shares of HPI common stock and warrants to purchase an aggregate of 3,508,448 shares of HPI common stock to certain institutional and accredited investors in a private equity placement. In September 2012, we received gross proceeds of $86.2 million and net proceeds of $80.6 million after deducting $5.6 million in issuance costs from the sale of 24,638,750 shares of HPI common stock and warrants to purchase an aggregate of 12,319,375 shares of HPI common stock in a public offering.

 

106


Table of Contents

Contractual Obligations

As of December 31, 2014, minimum future cash payments due under contractual obligations, including, among others, our Convertible Senior Notes, minimum purchase agreements and non-cancelable operating lease agreements, were as follows (in thousands):

 

     2015      2016      2017      2018      2019      2020 &
Thereafter
     Total  

Debt agreements(1)

   $ 30,403       $ 30,499       $ 30,424       $ 91,410       $ 320,550       $ —         $ 503,287   

Purchase commitments(2)

     13,578         4,619         4,619         3,527         3,527         3,527         33,397   

Operating lease obligations(3)

     1,581         1,624         1,538         1,104         558         5,484         11,889   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total contractual cash obligations

   $ 45,562       $ 36,743       $ 36,581       $ 96,042       $ 324,635       $ 9,011       $ 548,573   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) Represents the minimum contractual obligation due under the following debt agreements:

 

   

Convertible Senior Notes, which includes quarterly interest payments and repayment of the Convertible Senior Notes principal in November 2018. The principal balance of the Convertible Senior Notes at December 31, 2014 was $61.0 million.

 

   

$300.0 million Senior Secured Credit Facility, which includes quarterly interest payments and repayment of the principal in September 2019.

 

(2) These amounts reflect the following purchase commitments with our third party manufacturers:

 

   

Minimum purchase commitment for RAYOS/LODOTRA tablets from Jagotec through December 31, 2017 (the end of the minimum term), which is the firm commitment term under the contract.

 

   

Purchase commitment for final packaged DUEXIS tablets from sanofi-aventis U.S. through March 2015.

 

   

Minimum purchase commitment for VIMOVO tablets from Patheon through April 2015.

 

   

Minimum annual order quantities required to be placed with Boehringer Ingelheim for final packaged ACTIMMUNE through July 2020.

 

   

Purchase commitment for final packaged PENNSAID 2% from Nuvo through April 2015.

 

(3) These amounts reflect payments due under our operating leases, which are principally for our facilities. We occupy approximately 10,300 square feet of office space in our headquarters in Dublin, Ireland under a lease that expires on November 4, 2029. We also occupy approximately 50,500 square feet of office space in Deerfield, Illinois under lease agreements that expire on June 30, 2018, approximately 5,000 square feet of office space in Mannheim, Germany under a lease that expires on December 31, 2016, approximately 3,200 square feet of office space in Reinach, Switzerland under a lease that expires on May 31, 2015 and approximately 6,200 square feet of office space in Roswell, Georgia under a lease that expires on October 31, 2018.

In addition to the obligations set out in the above table, we have assumed material obligations to pay royalties to certain third parties on net sales of VIMOVO as a result of the acquisition of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO from AstraZeneca in November 2013 and ACTIMMUNE as result of the Merger.

Under the Pozen license agreement, we are required to pay Pozen a flat 10% royalty on net sales of VIMOVO and such other products sold by us, our affiliates or sublicensees during the royalty term, subject to minimum annual royalty obligations of $5.0 million in 2014 and $7.5 million each year thereafter, which minimum royalty obligations will continue for each year during which one of Pozen’s patents covers such products in the United States and there are no competing products in the United States. The royalty rate may be reduced to a mid-single digit royalty rate as a result of loss of market share to competing products. Our obligation

 

107


Table of Contents

to pay royalties to Pozen will expire upon the later of (a) expiration of the last-to-expire of certain patents covering such products in the United States, and (b) ten years after the first commercial sale of such products in the United States. In addition, we are obligated to reimburse Pozen for costs, including attorneys’ fees, incurred by Pozen in connection with VIMOVO patent litigation moving forward, subject to agreed caps.

Under the terms of the license agreement with Genentech Inc., or Genentech, which was the original developer of ACTIMMUNE, we are or were obligated to pay royalties to Genentech on our net sales of ACTIMMUNE as follows:

 

   

Through November 25, 2014, we were obligated to pay a royalty of 45% of the first $3.7 million in net sales achieved in a calendar year, and 10% on all additional net sales in that year;

 

   

For the period from November 26, 2014 through May 5, 2018, the royalty payments will be reduced to a 20%-30% range for the first tier in net sales and in the 1-9% range for the second tier; and

 

   

From May 6, 2018 and for so long as we continue to commercially sell ACTIMMUNE, we will be obligated to pay an annual royalty in the low single digits as a percentage of annual net sales.

Under the terms of an agreement with Connetics Corporation (which was the predecessor parent company to InterMune and is now part of GlaxoSmithKline), or Connectics, we are obligated to pay royalties to Connetics on our net sales of ACTIMMUNE as follows:

 

   

0.25% of net sales of ACTIMMUNE, rising to 0.5% once cumulative net sales of ACTIMMUNE in the United States surpass $1.0 billion; and

 

   

In the event we develop and receive regulatory approval for ACTIMMUNE in the indication of scleroderma, we will be obligated to pay a royalty of 4% on all net sales of ACTIMMUNE recorded for use in that indication.

As of December 31, 2014, cumulative net sales of ACTIMMUNE in the United States were $25.3 million.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

Since our inception, we have not engaged in any off-balance sheet arrangements, including the use of structured finance, special purpose entities or variable interest entities, other than the indemnification agreements discussed in Note 14, “Commitments and Contingencies” in the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements included in this report.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

The methods, estimates and judgments that we use in applying our critical accounting policies have a significant impact on the results that we report in our financial statements. Some of our accounting policies require us to make difficult and subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates regarding matters that are inherently uncertain.

We have identified the accounting policies and estimates listed below as those that we believe require management’s most subjective and complex judgments in estimating the effect of inherent uncertainties. This section should also be read in conjunction with Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” in the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements included in this report, which includes a discussion of these and other significant accounting policies.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; the price is fixed or determinable; and collectability

 

108


Table of Contents

is reasonably assured. Some of our agreements contain multiple elements and in accordance with these agreements, we may be eligible for upfront license fees, marketing or commercial milestones and payment for product deliveries.

Revenue from product deliveries

We recognize revenue from the delivery of our products when delivery has occurred, title has transferred, the selling price is fixed or determinable, the right of return no longer exists (which is the earlier of product being dispensed through patient prescriptions or the expiration of the right of return) or product returns can be reasonably estimated, collectability is reasonably assured and we have no further performance obligations. Due to our ability to reasonably estimate and determine allowances for product returns, rebates and discounts based on our own internal data for DUEXIS and RAYOS or data relating to prior sales of VIMOVO and ACTIMMUNE received in connection with the acquisition of those products, we recognize revenue at the point of sale to wholesale pharmaceutical distributors and retail chains for all currently distributed products.

Revenue from upfront license fees

We recognize revenues from the receipt of non-refundable, upfront license fees. In situations where the licensee is able to obtain stand-alone value from the license and no further performance obligations exist on our part, revenues are recognized on the earlier of when payments are received or collection is assured. Where continuing involvement by us is required in the form of technology transfer, product manufacturing or technical support, revenues are deferred and recognized over the term of the agreement.

Revenue from milestone receipts

Milestone payments are recognized as revenue based on achievement of the associated milestones, as defined in the relevant agreements. Revenue from a milestone achievement is recognized when earned, as evidenced by acknowledgment from our partner, provided that (1) the milestone event is substantive and its achievability was not reasonably assured at the inception of the agreement, (2) the milestone represents the culmination of an earnings process and (3) the milestone payment is non-refundable. If any of these criteria are not met, revenue from the milestone achievement is recognized over the remaining minimum period of our performance obligations under the agreement.

Contractual Allowances

Product Sales Discounts and Allowances

We record allowances for product returns, rebates and discounts at the time of sale to wholesale pharmaceutical distributors and national and regional retail chains. We are also required to make significant judgments and estimates in determining some of these allowances. If actual results differ from our estimates, we will be required to make adjustments to these allowances in the future.

Product Launch Discounts

We have offered additional discounts to wholesale distributors for product purchased at the time of product launch. We have recorded these discounts as an allowance against accounts receivable and a reduction of revenue when orders were placed.

Customer Rebates

We participate in certain commercial rebate programs. Under these rebate programs, we pay a rebate to the commercial entity or third-party administrator of the program. We accrue estimated rebates based on contract prices, estimated percentages of product sold to qualified patients and estimated levels of inventory in the distribution channel and record the rebate as a reduction of revenue.

 

109


Table of Contents

Distribution Service Fees

We include distribution service fees paid to our wholesalers for distribution and inventory management services as a reduction to revenue. We accrue estimated fees based on contractually determined amounts, typically as a percentage of revenue, as a reduction of revenue.

Co-Pay Assistance

We offer discount card and other programs such as our PME program to patients under which the patient receives a discount on his or her prescription. In certain circumstances when a patient’s prescription is rejected by a managed care vendor, we will pay for the full cost of the prescription. We reimburse pharmacies for this discount through third-party vendors. We accrue estimated costs for co-pay assistance based on contract prices, estimated percentages of product sold to qualified patients and estimated levels of inventory in the distribution channel and record the rebate as a reduction of revenue. We record the total amount of estimated discounts for sales recorded in the period as a reduction of revenue.

Sales Returns

Consistent with industry practice, we maintain a return policy that allows customers to return product within a specified period prior to and subsequent to the product expiration date. Generally, product may be returned for a period beginning six months prior to its expiration date and up to one year after its expiration date. The right of return expires on the earlier of one year after the product expiration date or the time that the product is dispensed to the patient. The majority of our product returns are the result of product dating, which falls within the range set by our policy, and are settled through the issuance of a credit to the customer. Our estimate of the provision for returns is based upon our historical experience with actual returns, which is applied to the level of sales for the period that corresponds to the period during which our customer may return product. This period is known to us based on the shelf lives of our products at the time of shipment. We record sales returns as an allowance against accounts receivable and a reduction of revenue.

Prompt Pay Discounts

As an incentive for prompt payment, we offer a 2% cash discount to customers. We expect that all customers will comply with the contractual terms to earn the discount. We record the discount as an allowance against accounts receivable and a reduction of revenue.

Government Rebates and Chargebacks

Government Rebates

We participate in certain federal government rebate programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. We accrue estimated rebates based on estimated percentages of product sold to qualified patients, estimated rebate percentages and estimated levels of inventory in the distribution channel that will be sold to qualified patients and record the rebates as a reduction of revenue.

Government Chargebacks

We provide discounts to federal government qualified entities with whom we have contracted. These federal entities purchase products from the wholesale pharmaceutical distributors at a discounted price, and the wholesale pharmaceutical distributors then charge back to us the difference between the current retail price and the contracted price that the federal entities paid for the product. We accrue estimated chargebacks based on contract prices and sell-through sales data obtained from third party information and record the chargeback as a reduction of revenue.

 

110


Table of Contents

The following table summarizes our customer-related accruals and allowances as of December 31, 2014 and 2013 (in thousands):

Customer-Related Accruals and Allowances

 

     Contractual
Allowances
     Government
Rebates and
Chargebacks
     Total  

Balance at December 31, 2012

   $ 2,234          $ 321       $ 2,555   

Current provisions relating to sales in current year

     21,799            3,909         25,708   

Adjustments relating to prior year sales

     —              —           —     

Payments relating to sales in current year

     (16,422         (2,785      (19,207

Payments relating to sales in prior years

     (895         (38      (933
  

 

 

    

 

  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Balance at December 31, 2013

   $ 6,716          $ 1,407       $ 8,123   

Current provisions relating to sales in current year

     242,091            45,301         287,392   

Adjustments relating to prior year sales

     (1,770         —           (1,770

Payments relating to sales in current year

     (181,380         (38,880      (220,260

Payments relating to sales in prior years

     (4,842         (1,307      (6,149

Vidara Acquisition on September 18, 2014

     472            13,528         14,000   
  

 

 

    

 

  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Balance at December 31, 2014 (1)

   $ 61,287          $ 20,049       $ 81,336   
  

 

 

    

 

  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) The balance includes $5,221 of unpaid contractual allowance invoices recorded in accounts payable.

Cost of Goods Sold

We recognize cost of goods sold in connection with our sales of ACTIMMUNE, DUEXIS, LODOTRA, RAYOS and VIMOVO.

Cost of goods sold for ACTIMMUNE includes all costs directly related to the acquisition of ACTIMMUNE from our third-party manufacturer, Boehringer Ingelheim, including freight charges and other direct expenses such as insurance and amortization of intellectual property, royalty accretion expense and any changes in estimate associated with the contingent royalty liability as described in the accrued contingent royalty accounting policy below.

Cost of goods sold for DUEXIS includes all costs directly related to the purchase of product from our third-party manufacturers, including freight charges and costs of distribution service fees.

Cost of goods sold for LODOTRA includes raw material costs, costs associated with third parties who manufacture LODOTRA for us, supply chain costs, amortization of developed technology, royalty payments to third parties for the use of certain licensed patents and applicable taxes.

Cost of goods sold for RAYOS includes all costs directly related to the purchase of product from our third-party manufacturers, including freight charges and costs of distribution, amortization of developed technology, royalty payments to third parties for the use of certain licensed patents and applicable taxes.

Cost of goods sold for VIMOVO includes all costs directly related to the acquisition of product from AstraZeneca and/or a third-party manufacturer, amortization of intellectual property, royalty accretion expense and any changes in estimate associated with the contingent royalty liability as described in the accrued contingent royalty accounting policy below.

Intangible Assets

Definite-lived intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives. We review our intangible assets when events or circumstances may indicate that the carrying value of these assets exceeds their fair value.

 

111


Table of Contents

We measure fair value based on the estimated future discounted cash flows associated with our assets in addition to other assumptions and projections that we deem to be reasonable and supportable. The estimated useful lives for all identified intangible assets that are subject to amortization were as follows as of December 31, 2014:

 

Intangible Asset

   Estimated Useful Life  

ACTIMMUNE developed technology

     13 years   

LODOTRA and RAYOS developed technology

     12 Years   

PENNSAID 2% developed technology

     6 Years   

VIMOVO intellectual property

     5 Years   

Customer relationships

     10 years   

Indefinite-lived intangible assets consist of capitalized in-process research and development, or IPR&D. IPR&D assets represent capitalized incomplete research projects that we acquired through business combinations. Such assets are initially measured at their acquisition date fair values and are tested for impairment, until completion or abandonment of R&D efforts associated with the projects. An IPR&D asset is considered abandoned when R&D efforts associated with the asset have ceased, and there are no plans to sell or license the asset or derive value from the asset. At that point, the asset is considered to be disposed of and is written off. Upon successful completion of each project, we will make a determination about the then remaining useful life of the intangible asset and begin amortization. We test our indefinite-lived intangibles, including IPR&D assets, for impairment annually and more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the asset is impaired.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The carrying amounts of our financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses, approximate their fair values due to their short maturities. At December 31, 2013 and at the final measurement on June 27, 2014, the estimated fair value of our derivative liability related to the convertible portion of our 5.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2018, or Convertible Senior Notes, was derived utilizing the binomial lattice approach for the valuation of convertible instruments. Assumptions used in the calculation included, among others, determining the appropriate credit spread using benchmarking analysis and solving for the implied credit spread, calculating the fair value of the stock component using a discounted risk free rate and borrowing cost and calculating the fair value of the note component using a discounted credit adjusted discount rate. Based on the assumptions used to determine the fair value of the derivative liability associated with the Convertible Senior Notes, we concluded that these inputs were Level 3 inputs.

Business Combinations

We account for business combinations in accordance with the pronouncement guidance in ASC 805, Business Combinations, in which acquired assets and liabilities are measured at their respective estimated fair values as of the acquisition date. We may be required, as in the case of intangible assets or contingent royalties, to determine the fair value associated with these amounts by estimating the fair value using an income approach under the discounted cash flow method, which may include revenue projections and other assumptions made by us to determine the fair value. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we recorded a bargain purchase gain of $22.2 million in connection with the Merger, representing the excess of the estimated fair values of net assets acquired over the acquisition consideration paid.

Provision for Income Taxes

We account for income taxes based upon an asset and liability approach. Deferred tax assets and liabilities represent the future tax consequences of the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of assets and liabilities versus the tax basis of assets and liabilities. Under this method, deferred tax assets are

 

112


Table of Contents

recognized for deductible temporary differences, and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The impact of tax rate changes on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in the year that the change is enacted. We also account for the uncertainty in income taxes by utilizing a comprehensive model for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure in financial statements of any uncertain tax positions that have been taken or are expected to be taken on an income tax return.

Stock-Based Compensation

We account for employee stock-based compensation by measuring and recognizing compensation expense for all stock-based payments based on estimated grant date fair values. We use the straight-line method to allocate compensation cost to reporting periods over each optionee’s requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. We estimate the fair value of our share-based awards to employees using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including the expected stock price, volatility, risk-free interest rate, the calculation of expected term and the fair value of the underlying ordinary shares on the date of grant, among other inputs.

We also account for stock options issued to non-employees based on the stock options’ estimated fair value determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The fair value of equity awards granted to non-employees are re-measured at each reporting date, and the resulting change in the fair value associated with awards, if any, is recognized as a corresponding increase or reduction to stock-based compensation during the period.

Accrued Contingent Royalties

Our accrued contingent royalties consist of the contingent royalty obligations assumed by us related to our acquisitions of the U.S. rights to VIMOVO and Vidara (related to ACTIMMUNE). At the time of each acquisition, we assigned a fair value to the liability for royalties. The royalty liability was based on anticipated revenue streams utilizing the income approach under the discounted cash flow method. The estimated liability for royalties is increased over time to reflect the change in its present value, and accretion expense is recorded as part of cost of goods sold. We evaluate the adequacy of the estimated contingent royalty liability at least annually, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that an evaluation of the estimate is necessary. As part of any evaluation, we adjust the carrying value of the liability to the present value of the revised estimated cash flows using the original discount rate.

Any decrease or increase to the liability is recorded as an increase or reduction in cost of goods sold. The royalty liability is included in current and long-term accrued royalties on the consolidated balance sheets.

New Accounting Pronouncements Impacting Critical Accounting Policies

Refer to Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” in the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements included in this report, which includes a discussion of the new accounting pronouncements impacting critical accounting policies.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

We are exposed to various market risks, which include potential losses arising from adverse changes in market rates and prices, such as interest rates and foreign exchange fluctuations. We do not enter into derivatives or other financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.

Interest Rate Risk. We are subject to interest rate fluctuation exposure through our borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facility and our investment in money market accounts which bear a variable interest rate.

 

113


Table of Contents

Borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facility bear interest, at our option, at a rate equal to either the London Inter-Bank Offer Rate, or LIBOR, plus an applicable margin of 8.0% per annum (subject to a 1.0% LIBOR floor), or the prime lending rate, plus an applicable margin equal to 7.0% per annum. Since drawing the full $300.0 million available in September 2014, our borrowings have been based on the LIBOR. Since current LIBOR rates are below the 1.0% LIBOR floor, the interest rate on our borrowings has been 9.0% per annum. An increase in the LIBOR of 100 basis points above the 1.0% LIBOR floor would increase our interest expense by $3.0 million per year.

The goals of our investment policy are associated with the preservation of capital, fulfillment of liquidity needs and fiduciary control of cash. To achieve our goal of maximizing income without assuming significant market risk, we maintain our excess cash and cash equivalents in money market funds. Because of the short-term maturities of our cash equivalents, we do not believe that a decrease in interest rates would have any material negative impact on the fair value of our cash equivalents.

Foreign Currency Risk. Our purchase cost of ACTIMMUNE under our contract with Boehringer Ingelheim as well as our sales contracts relating to LODOTRA are principally denominated in Euros and are subject to significant foreign currency risk. We also incur certain operating expenses in currencies other than the U.S. dollar in relation to our Ireland operations and foreign subsidiaries, including Horizon Pharma AG; therefore, we are subject to volatility in cash flows due to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly changes in the Euro. To date, we have not entered into any hedging contracts since exchange rate fluctuations have had minimal impact on our results of operations and cash flows.

Inflation Risk. We do not believe that inflation has had a material impact on our business or results of operations during the periods for which the condensed consolidated financial statements are presented in this report.

Credit Risk. Historically, our accounts receivable balances have been highly concentrated with a select number of customers, consisting primarily of large wholesale pharmaceutical distributors who, in turn, sell the products to pharmacies, hospitals and other customers. For the year ended December 31, 2014, our top five customers, American Specialty Pharmacy, Inc., AmerisourceBergen, Cardinal Health, Inc., McKesson Corporation and Rochester Drug Company accounted for approximately 86% of total consolidated gross sales. For the year ended December 31, 2013, our top five customers, AmerisourceBergen, Cardinal Health, Inc., McKesson Corporation, Mundipharma and Rochester Drug Company, accounted for approximately 89% of total consolidated gross sales.

In addition, five customers, American Specialty Pharmacy, Inc., AmerisourceBergen, Cardinal Health, Inc., McKesson Corporation and Rochester Drug accounted for approximately 80% of the Company’s total outstanding accounts receivable balances at December 31, 2014. As of December 31, 2013, AmerisourceBergen, Cardinal Health, Inc., Halsted Pharmacy, McKesson Corporation and Rochester Drug Company, accounted for approximately 85% of our total outstanding accounts receivable balances. Historically, we have not experienced any losses related to our accounts receivable balances.

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

The financial information required by Item 8 is contained in Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

None.

 

114


Table of Contents

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, after evaluating the effectiveness of our “disclosure controls and procedures” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act), have concluded that, as of December 31, 2014, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by an issuer in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the issuer’s management, including its principal executive officer or officers and principal financial officer or officers, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Management Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Our internal control system was designed to provide reasonable assurance to management and our board of directors regarding the preparation and fair presentation of published financial statements. All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation.

Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013). Management’s assessment included an evaluation of the design of our internal control over financial reporting and testing of the operational effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Based on management’s assessment, management believes that, as of December 31, 2014, our internal control over financial reporting was effective based on those criteria.

Management’s assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014, excluded Vidara’s internal controls over financial reporting because Vidara was acquired by us in a reverse acquisition under the acquisition method of accounting for business combination in September 2014. Vidara represented approximately 4% and 9% of our total assets and total net sales, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts, for the period ended December 31, 2014.

The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears herein.

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

As discussed above, on September 19, 2014, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Horizon Pharma plc (formerly known as Vidara Therapeutics International Public Limited Company) merged with and into HPI, with HPI surviving the Merger and becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of Horizon Pharma plc. HPI is treated as the acquiring company in the Merger for accounting purposes, and the Merger was accounted for as a reverse acquisition under the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations. As a result, the historical financial statements of Horizon Pharma plc reflect the financial position, results of operations and cash flows of HPI only. Following the Merger, the financial statements of the current period reflect the financial position, results of operations and cash flows of Horizon Pharma plc. The results of operations of the acquired Vidara

 

115


Table of Contents

business are included in the results of operations of Horizon Pharma plc beginning on September 19, 2014. Also, as a result of the Merger, the internal control over financial reporting utilized by HPI prior to the Merger became the internal control over financial reporting of our company, and we are currently in the process of evaluating and integrating Vidara’s historical internal controls over financial reporting with ours.

During the year ended December 31, 2014, other than continuing changes to our internal control processes resulting from the Merger as discussed above, there have been no material changes to our internal control over financial reporting that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Item 9B. Other Information

Cash Long Term Incentive Program

As previously disclosed in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 10, 2014, on November 5, 2014 we approved a performance cash bonus program for the members of our executive committee and executive leadership team, including our executive officers. On February 23, 2014, the compensation committee of our board of directors approved the written plan document for such performance cash bonus program, the Horizon Pharma Public Limited Company Cash Long Term Incentive Program, or Cash Bonus Program.

Under the Cash Bonus Program, our executives are provided the opportunity to earn a cash bonus based on our level of attainment of total shareholder return, or TSR, over the designated performance period of November 5, 2014 through May 5, 2015. For such purposes, TSR means the percentage change in the price of our ordinary shares on a compounded annualized basis plus the dollar value of dividends and distributions made or declared divided by the closing price of our ordinary shares on the record date of the dividends and distributions. The Cash Bonus Program also requires that the TSR for the period from November 5, 2014 to November 4, 2017 must be greater than 15%, or the earlier occurrence of a change in control, as a general condition to payment of any amounts under the Cash Bonus Program.

Participants must remain employed by us through November 4, 2017 unless the earlier departure from employment is due to death, disability, termination without cause or a change in control transaction, as such terms are defined in the Cash Bonus Program. Payments under the Cash Bonus Program, if any, will be made after November 4, 2017 unless a change in control occurs prior to such date.

Under the Cash Bonus Program, actual potential payout levels for each of our executive officers under their pre-determined allocations will be based on the applicable TSR level attained during the performance period of November 5, 2014 through May 5, 2015 and are as follows:

 

     TSR Level (1)  

Designated Participant

   ³ 15% and < 25%      ³ 25% and < 40%      ³ 40% and < 60%      ³ 60%  

Walbert, Timothy P.

   $ 1.202       $ 2.137       $ 3.205       $ 4.541   

Sherman, Jeffrey W.

   $ 0.332       $ 0.589       $ 0.884       $ 1.253   

Carey, Robert F.

   $ 0.414       $ 0.737       $ 1.105       $ 1.566   

Moze, Barry J.

   $ 0.332       $ 0.589       $ 0.884       $ 1.253   

Kody, John J.

   $ 0.414       $ 0.737       $ 1.105       $ 1.566   

Hoelscher, Paul W.

   $ 0.414       $ 0.737       $ 1.105       $ 1.566   

Kelly, David

   $ 0.249       $ 0.442       $ 0.663       $ 0.939   

 

(1)

All dollar amounts in the table above are in millions. The maximum award for each participant is reflected under the ³60% TSR Level column next to the participant’s name.

 

116


Table of Contents

PART III

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

Directors and Executive Officers

The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference from our definitive Proxy Statement to be filed in connection with our 2015 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, or our 2015 Proxy Statement, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2014.

Item 11. Executive Compensation

The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference from our 2015 Proxy Statement.

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference from our 2015 Proxy Statement.

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference from our 2015 Proxy Statement.

Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services

The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference from our 2015 Proxy Statement.

PART IV

Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

(a) Documents filed as part of this report.

 

1. Financial Statements

The financial statements listed on the Index to Financial Statements F-3 to F-52 are filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

2. Financial Statement Schedules

Schedule II – Valuation and Qualifying Accounts and Reserves for each of the three fiscal years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012. Other financial statement schedules have been omitted because the required information is included in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto or because they are not applicable or not required.

 

3. Exhibits

The exhibits listed on the Index to Exhibits are filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

117


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

      HORIZON PHARMA PLC

Dated: February 27, 2015

  By:  

/s/ TIMOTHY P. WALBERT

    Timothy P. Walbert
   

President, Chief Executive Officer and

Chairman of the Board

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Timothy P. Walbert and Paul W. Hoelscher, and each of them, his true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this report, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or either of them, or their or his substitutes or substitute, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

SIGNATURE

  

TITLE

 

DATE

/s/ TIMOTHY P. WALBERT

Timothy P. Walbert

   President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board (Principal Executive Officer)   February 27, 2015

/s/ PAUL W. HOELSCHER

Paul W. Hoelscher

  

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

  February 27, 2015

/s/ MICHAEL GREY

Michael Grey

   Director   February 27, 2015

/s/ LIAM DANIEL

Liam Daniel

   Director   February 27, 2015

/s/ JEFF HIMAWAN

Jeff Himawan, Ph.D.

   Director   February 27, 2015

/s/ VIRINDER NOHRIA

Virinder Nohria, M.D., Ph.D.

   Director   February 27, 2015

/s/ RONALD PAULI

Ronald Pauli

   Director   February 27, 2015

/s/ GINO SANTINI

Gino Santini

   Director   February 27, 2015

/s/ H. THOMAS WATKINS

H. Thomas Watkins

   Director   February 27, 2015

 

118


Table of Contents

HORIZON PHARMA PLC

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

     Page  

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     F-2   

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2014 and 2013

     F-3   

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss for the Years Ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012

     F-4   

Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity (Deficit) for the Years Ended December  31, 2014, 2013 and 2012

     F-5   

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012

     F-6   

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-7   

 

F-1


Table of Contents

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Horizon Pharma plc

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(1) present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Horizon Pharma plc and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2014 and 2013, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2014 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company’s management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting incorporated by reference under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule and on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

As described in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting, management has excluded the internal controls over financial reporting of Vidara Therapeutics International Public Limited Company and its subsidiaries prior to the effective time of the merger on September 19, 2014 (“Vidara”), from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2014 because Vidara was acquired by the Company in a reverse acquisition under the acquisition method of accounting for business combination on September 19, 2014. We have also excluded Vidara from our audit of internal control over financial reporting. Vidara’s total assets and total net sales represented approximately 4% and 9%, respectively, of the Company’s related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2014.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

Chicago, Illinois

February 27, 2015

 

F-2


Table of Contents

HORIZON PHARMA PLC

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share data)

     As of December 31,  
     2014     2013  
ASSETS     

CURRENT ASSETS:

    

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 218,807      $ 80,480   

Restricted cash

     738        738   

Accounts receivable, net

     73,915        15,958   

Inventories, net

     16,865        8,701   

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

     14,370        4,888   

Deferred tax assets, current

     1,530        —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current assets

     326,225        110,765   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Property and equipment, net

     7,241        3,780   

Developed technology, net

     696,963        131,094   

In-process research and development

     66,000        —     

Other intangible assets, net

     7,870        —     

Deferred tax assets, net, non-current

     18,761        —     

Other assets

     11,564        6,957   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

TOTAL ASSETS

   $ 1,134,624      $ 252,596   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 
LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY     

CURRENT LIABILITIES:

    

Convertible debt, net

   $ 48,334      $ —     

Accounts payable

     21,011        9,921   

Accrued expenses

     46,625        15,926   

Accrued trade discounts and rebates

     76,115        8,123   

Accrued royalties—current portion

     25,325        8,010   

Deferred tax liabilities, net

     721        —     

Deferred revenues—current portion

     1,261        1,330   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

     219,392        43,310   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

LONG-TERM LIABILITIES:

    

Convertible debt, net of current

     —          110,762   

Long-term debt, net

     297,169        —     

Derivative liability

     —