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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
________________________________________
FORM 10-K
________________________________________
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     .
001-35542
(Commission File Number)
 cubi-20201231_g1.jpg
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Customers Bancorp, Inc.

Pennsylvania27-2290659
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
701 Reading Avenue
West Reading PA 19611
(Address of principal executive offices)
(610) 933-2000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolsName of Each Exchange on which Registered
Voting Common Stock, par value $1.00 per shareCUBINew York Stock Exchange
Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual
Preferred Stock, Series C, par value $1.00 per share
CUBI/PCNew York Stock Exchange
Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual
Preferred Stock, Series D, par value $1.00 per share
CUBI/PDNew York Stock Exchange
Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual
Preferred Stock, Series E, par value $1.00 per share
CUBI/PENew York Stock Exchange
Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual
Preferred Stock, Series F, par value $1.00 per share
CUBI/PFNew York Stock Exchange
5.375% Subordinated Notes due 2034CUBBNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
________________________________________ 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” "accelerated filer," “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check One): 
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filerx
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  x
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $378,753,650 as of June 30, 2020, based upon the closing price quoted on the New York Stock Exchange for such date. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer and director have been excluded because such persons may under certain circumstances be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of executive officer or affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
On February 26, 2021, 31,927,205 shares of common stock were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be delivered to shareholders in connection with the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report.




INDEX
  PAGE
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16.

2


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as other written or oral communications made from time to time by us, contains forward-looking information within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements relate to future events or future predictions, including events or predictions relating to future financial performance, and are generally identifiable by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believe,” “expect,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “plan,” “intend,” or “anticipate” or the negative thereof or comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements reflect numerous assumptions, estimates and forecasts as to future events. No assurance can be given that the assumptions, estimates and forecasts underlying such forward-looking statements will accurately reflect future conditions, or that any guidance, goals, targets or projected results will be realized. The assumptions, estimates and forecasts underlying such forward-looking statements involve judgments with respect to, among other things, future economic, competitive, regulatory and financial market conditions and future business decisions, which may not be realized and which are inherently subject to significant business, economic, competitive and regulatory uncertainties and known and unknown risks, including the risks described under “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as such factors may be updated from time to time in our filings with the SEC, including our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. Our actual results may differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements.
In addition to the risks described in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the other reports we file with the SEC, important factors to consider and evaluate with respect to such forward-looking statements include:

the impact of COVID-19 on the U.S. and global economies, including business disruptions, reductions in employment and an increase in business failures, specifically among our clients;
a prolonged downturn in the economy, particularly in the geographic areas in which we do business, or an unexpected decline in real estate values within our market areas;
the impact of COVID-19 on our team members and our ability to provide services to our clients and respond to their needs;
the impact of forbearances or deferrals we are required to provide or that we agree to as a result of customer requests and/or government actions, including, but not limited to our potential inability to recover fully deferred payments from the borrower or the collateral;
potential claims, damages, penalties, fines and reputational damage arising from litigation and regulatory and government actions relating to our participation in and execution of government programs related to the COVID-19 pandemic or as a result of our action in response to, or failure to implement or effectively implement, applicable federal, state and local laws, rules or executive orders requiring that we grant forbearances or not act to collect amounts due under our loans;
the effects of changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the regulatory agencies, Financial Accounting Standards Board and other accounting standard setters, including the recently-adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (CECL);
changes in external competitive market factors that might impact our results of operations;
changes in laws and regulations, including, without limitation, changes in capital requirements under Basel III;
the potential effects of heightened regulatory requirements applicable to banks with assets in excess of $10 billion;
changes in our business strategy or an inability to execute our strategy due to the occurrence of unanticipated events;
our ability to identify potential candidates for, and consummate, acquisition or investment transactions;
the timing of acquisition, investment or disposition transactions;
constraints on our ability to consummate an attractive acquisition or investment transaction because of significant competition for those opportunities;
local, regional and national economic conditions and events and the impact they may have on us and our customers;
costs and effects of regulatory and legal developments, including the results of regulatory examinations and the outcome of regulatory or other governmental inquiries and proceedings, such as fines or restrictions on our business activities;
our ability to attract and retain deposits and other sources of liquidity;
changes in the financial performance and/or condition of our borrowers;
changes in the level of non-performing and classified assets and charge-offs, which may require us to increase our allowance for credit losses, charge off loans and leases and incur elevated collection and carrying costs related to such non-performing assets;
changes in estimates of our future loss reserve requirements under CECL based upon our periodic review thereof under relevant regulatory and accounting requirements;
inflation, interest rate, securities market and monetary fluctuations;
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the planned phasing out of London interbank offered rate, or LIBOR, as a benchmark reference rate;
timely development and acceptance of new banking products and services and perceived overall value of these products and services by users;
changes in consumer spending, borrowing and saving habits;
technological changes;
our ability to successfully implement our growth strategy, control expenses and maintain liquidity;
continued volatility in the credit and equity markets and its effect on the general economy;
the businesses of Customers Bank and any acquisition targets or merger partners and subsidiaries not being integrated successfully or such integration being more difficult, time-consuming or costly than expected;
material differences in the actual financial results of merger and acquisition activities compared with our expectations, such as with respect to the full realization of anticipated cost savings and revenue enhancements within the expected time frame;
Customers Bank’s ability to pay dividends to Customers Bancorp;
risks related to planned changes in our balance sheet, including:
our ability to reduce the size of our multi-family portfolio;
our ability to execute our digital distribution strategy;
our ability to manage the risks of change in our loan mix to include a greater portion of consumer loans;
our ability to manage originating, servicing and processing forgiveness of PPP loans; and
our ability to earn increased net interest income to recover reduced interchange income due to the loss of the small issuer exemption to the Durbin Amendment.

You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly or otherwise provide any revisions to these forward-looking statements we may make, including any forward-looking statements, to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date hereof or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as may be required under applicable law.
4


GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
The following list of abbreviations and acronyms may be used throughout this Report, including Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

2004 Plan2012 Amendment and Restatement of the Customers Bancorp, Inc. Amended and Restated 2004 Incentive Equity and Deferred Compensation Plan
2010 Plan2010 Stock Option Plan
2019 Plan2019 Stock Incentive Plan
ACLAllowance for Credit Losses
AFSAvailable for sale
ALLLAllowance for loan and lease losses
AOCIAccumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASUAccounting Standards Update
ATMAutomated Teller Machine
BancorpCustomers Bancorp, Inc.
BankCustomers Bank
BBB spreadBBB rated corporate bond spreads to U.S. Treasury securities
BDOBDO USA, LLP
BHC ActBank Holding Company Act of 1956, as Amended
BMTBankMobile Technologies, Inc.
BM TechnologiesBM Technologies, Inc.
BOLIBank-Owned Life Insurance
BRRPBonus Recognition and Retention Program
CAAConsolidated Appropriations Act, 2021
CARES Act
Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act
CBCAChange in Bank Control Act
CECLCurrent Expected Credit Losses
CEOChief Executive Officer
CFOChief Financial Officer
CFPBConsumer Financial Protection Bureau
CodeU.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as Amended
CompanyCustomers Bancorp, Inc. and subsidiaries
COSOCommittee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission
COVID-19
Coronavirus Disease 2019
CRACommunity Reinvestment Act
CUBISymbol for Customers Bancorp, Inc. common stock traded on the NYSE
CustomersCustomers Bancorp, Inc. and Customers Bank, collectively
Customers BancorpCustomers Bancorp, Inc.
DCFDiscounted cash flow
DepartmentPennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities
DIFDeposit Insurance Fund
Disbursement BusinessOneAccount Student Checking and Refund Management Disbursement Services Business
Dodd-Frank ActDodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010
DOJUnited States Department of Justice
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ECOAEqual Credit Opportunity Act
EDUnited States Department of Education
EGRRCPAThe Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act of 2018
EPSEarnings Per Share
ESGEnvironmental, Social and Governance commitments
ESPPEmployee Stock Purchase Plan
EVEEconomic Value of Equity
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FDICFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Fed FundsFederal Reserve Board's Effective Federal Funds Rate
Federal Reserve BoardBoard of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
FHAFederal Housing Administration
FHLBFederal Home Loan Bank
FICOFair, Isaac and Company
FintechThird-Party Financial Technology
FPRDFinal Program Review Determination
FRBFederal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
FTC ActFederal Trade Commission Act
GDPGross Domestic Product
GNMAGovernment National Mortgage Association
GLBAGramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999
Higher OneHigher One Holdings, Inc.
HMDAHome Mortgage Disclosure Act
HTMHeld to maturity
HUDDepartment of Housing and Urban Development
InsidersDirectors, Officers, Employees and 10%-or-Greater Shareholders
Interest-Only GNMA SecuritiesInterest-Only Government National Mortgage Association Securities
Interstate ActRiegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994
Interstate MOUMemorandum of Understanding between Banking Regulators in the States of New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania
IRSInternal Revenue Service
LIBORLondon Interbank Offered Rate
LPOLimited Purpose Office
MalwareUnauthorized Software
MFACMegalith Financial Acquisition Corp.
MMDAMoney Market Deposit Accounts
MMLFMoney Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility
MOUMemorandum of Understanding
NIMNet interest margin, tax equivalent
NMNot Meaningful
NPANon-Performing Asset
NPLNon-Performing Loan
NYSENew York Stock Exchange
OCCOffice of the Comptroller of the Currency
OCIOther Comprehensive Income (Loss)
OFACOffice of Foreign Assets Control
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OREOOther Real Estate Owned
PATRIOT ActProviding Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001
PCAOBPublic Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States)
PCDPurchased Credit-Deteriorated
PCIPurchased Credit-Impaired
PPPPaycheck Protection Program
PPPLFFRB Paycheck Protection Program Liquidity Facility
Rate ShocksInterest rates rising or falling immediately
ReligareReligare Enterprises, Ltd.
RESPAReal Estate Settlement Procedures Act
ROURight-Of-Use
SAGSpecial Assets Group
SBASmall Business Administration
SBA loansLoans originated pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SBA
SECUnited States Securities and Exchange Commission
Securities ActSecurities Act of 1933, as Amended
Series C Preferred StockFixed-to-floating rate non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, Series C
Series D Preferred StockFixed-to-floating rate non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, Series D
Series E Preferred StockFixed-to-floating rate non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, Series E
Series F Preferred StockFixed-to-floating rate non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, Series F
SERPSupplemental Executive Retirement Plan
SOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
Tax Act2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act
TDRTroubled Debt Restructuring
TILATruth in Lending Act
TRACTerminal Rental Adjustment Clause
UDAAPUnfair, Deceptive or Abusive Acts and Practices
UDAPUnfair or Deceptive Act or Practice
U.S. GAAPAccounting Principles Generally Accepted in the United States of America
VAUnited States Department of Veterans Affairs

7


CUSTOMERS BANCORP, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
PART I
Item 1.        Business
Customers Bancorp is a bank holding company engaged in banking activities through its wholly owned subsidiary, Customers Bank, collectively referred to as "Customers" herein.  The Bank has diversified lending activities that build overall franchise value and a high-tech, high-touch branch-light strategy that serves its customers through a single-point-of-contact private banking strategy with a focus on community banking businesses including commercial and industrial and commercial real estate loans (to borrowers in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York City, New England and other geographies), multi-family lending, SBA lending and residential mortgage lending. The Bank also serves specialty niche businesses nationwide, including its commercial loans to mortgage banking businesses, commercial equipment financing, specialty lending and consumer loans through relationships with fintech companies.

In addition, BankMobile, a division of Customers Bank, offered state-of-the-art high-tech digital banking services to consumers, students and the "under banked" nationwide, along with "Banking as a Service" offerings with white label partners. The main sources of BankMobile’s revenue were from interchange income from its digital checking and savings accounts, deposit servicing fees from sourcing and servicing deposits, digital checking and savings account fees, and subscription fees paid by colleges and universities for disbursement services. On January 4, 2021, Customers Bancorp completed the divestiture of BankMobile Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Customers Bank and a component of BankMobile, through a merger with Megalith Financial Acquisition Corp. In connection with the closing of the divestiture, MFAC changed its name to “BM Technologies, Inc.” All of BankMobile’s serviced deposits and loans including the related net interest income will remain with Customers Bank after the divestiture. Beginning in first quarter 2021, BMT's historical financial results for periods prior to the divestiture will be reflected in Customers Bancorp’s results of operations as discontinued operations. Customers Bancorp's financial condition as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and the results of its operations for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 included the assets and liabilities and financial results of BankMobile. As a result of the divestiture, Customers' interchange income, deposit account fees and subscription fees are expected to decrease in the following years. Customers' non-interest expenses, such as salaries and employee benefits, technology, professional services, merger and acquisition related expenses, and other non-interest expenses including reimbursements from the white label relationship associated with BMT are also expected to decrease in the following years. In connection with the divestiture, Customers has also entered into various agreements with BM Technologies, including a transition services agreement, software license agreement, deposit servicing agreement, non-competition agreement and loan agreement for periods ranging from one to ten years. Customers will continue to earn income and incur non-interest expenses associated with these agreements with BM Technologies in the future.
Business Summary
Customers Bancorp and its wholly owned subsidiary, Customers Bank, provide banking products, primarily loans and deposits, to businesses and consumers through its branches, limited production offices and administrative offices in Southeastern Pennsylvania (Bucks, Berks, Chester, Philadelphia and Delaware Counties); Rye Brook, New York (Westchester County); Hamilton, New Jersey (Mercer County); Boston, Massachusetts; Providence, Rhode Island; Portsmouth, New Hampshire (Rockingham County); Manhattan and Melville, New York; and Chicago, Illinois. The Bank has a diversified lending business consisting of geographically in-market community banking offerings such as commercial and industrial loans, commercial real estate loans, multi-family loans, SBA lending and residential mortgage loans. In addition, on a national level, the Bank also provides financing to specialty banking businesses such as commercial loans to mortgage companies, specialty lending, commercial equipment financing and consumer loans through relationships with fintech companies. Through BankMobile, a division of Customers Bank, Customers offered state of the art high tech digital banking services to consumers, students, and the "under banked" nationwide, along with "Banking as a Service" offerings with white label partners. At December 31, 2020, Customers had total assets of $18.4 billion, including total loans and leases, net of the ACL of $15.7 billion, total deposits of $11.3 billion and shareholders’ equity of $1.1 billion. Included in total loans and leases was $4.6 billion of Payroll Protection Program (PPP) loans, of which $4.4 billion was pledged to and funded by the Federal Reserve Bank's PPP Liquidity Facility at December 31, 2020.
Customers differentiates itself through its unique single-point-of-contact business strategy executed by very experienced management teams. Customers' strategic plan is to become a leading regional bank holding company through organic core loan and deposit growth and value-added acquisitions. Customers identifies as a high-tech forward thinking bank supported by high touch and differentiates itself from its competitors through its focus on state-of-the-art technology and exceptional customer service. Customers' environmental, social and governance ("ESG") practices emphasize its unwavering commitment to its team members, customers, shareholders, and communities in which we live and work. The primary customers of the Bank are privately held businesses, business customers, not-for-profit organizations and consumers. The Bank also focuses on certain specialty lending areas such as multi-family/commercial real estate lending, lending to commercial mortgage banking businesses and consumer loan purchases from fintech originator platforms. The Bank’s lending activities are primarily funded by deposits from its branch-light business model, which seeks higher deposit levels per
8


branch than a typical bank, combined with lower branch operating expenses, without sacrificing exceptional customer service and its digital bank deposit offerings. Customers also creates franchise value through its disciplined approach to acquisitions, both in terms of identifying targets and structuring transactions. Enterprise risk management is an important part of the strategies Customers employs.
Customers launched BankMobile as a key strategic initiative in January 2015, recognizing the product delivery flexibility demanded by the millennial generation and the low cost of the smart phone delivery channel. BankMobile referred to Customers' efforts to build a full-service bank that is accessible to our customers anywhere and anytime through the customer's smartphone or other web-enabled device. As part of the BankMobile strategic initiative, on June 15, 2016, Customers completed the acquisition of substantially all the assets and the assumption of certain liabilities of the Disbursement business from Higher One. Higher One was acquired by a subsidiary of Blackboard, Inc. in third quarter 2016. We continue to refer to that combined business as “Higher One” throughout this document. On January 4, 2021, Customers completed the divestiture of BMT, including the Disbursement business acquired from Higher One and combined with BMT, a component of BankMobile, to MFAC.
BankMobile, including the Disbursement business, provided a nationwide deposit-aggregation platform. BankMobile focused on the aggregation of low-cost deposits and consumer loan offerings through its partnerships with fintech companies, and offered no or low-fee banking, higher than average interest rates on savings and access to over 55,000 ATMs across the U.S. Customers believes that consolidating BankMobile with the Disbursement business uniquely positioned it to become the graduating students' "bank for life" and service each graduate's financial needs throughout their life. BankMobile's revenues were largely derived from net interest income, interchange and card revenue, deposit fees, university card and disbursement fees and university subscription revenue. On January 4, 2021, Customers completed the divestiture of BMT, a component of BankMobile, to MFAC. As a result of the divestiture of BMT, a component of BankMobile, to MFAC, BMT will keep the revenues and fees from these products and services which include interchange and card revenue, deposit fees, university card and disbursement fees and university subscription revenue. All of BankMobile’s serviced deposits and loans including the related net interest income will remain with Customers Bank after the divestiture.
The management team of Customers consists of experienced banking executives led by its Chairman and CEO, Jay Sidhu, who joined Customers in June 2009. Mr. Sidhu brings over 40 years of banking experience, including 20 years as the CEO and Chairman of Sovereign Bancorp. In addition to Mr. Sidhu, a number of the members of the current management team have experience working together at Sovereign with Mr. Sidhu. Many other team members who have joined Customers' management team have significant experience helping build and lead other banking organizations. Combined, the Customers management team has significant experience in building a banking organization, completing and integrating mergers and acquisitions and developing valuable community and business relationships in its core markets.
Background and History
Customers Bancorp was incorporated in Pennsylvania in April 2010 to facilitate a reorganization into a bank holding company structure pursuant to which the Bank became a wholly owned subsidiary of Customers Bancorp (the “Reorganization”) on September 17, 2011. Customers Bancorp’s corporate headquarters are located at 701 Reading Avenue, West Reading, PA 19611. The main telephone number is (610) 933-2000.
The deposits of the Bank are insured by the FDIC. The Bank’s home office is located at 99 Bridge Street, Phoenixville, Pennsylvania 19460. The main telephone number is (610) 933-2000. BankMobile was a division of the Bank, first marketing its deposit products beginning in January 2015. As a division of the Bank, BankMobile's deposits were also insured by the FDIC.
Executive Summary
Customers' Markets
Market Criteria
Customers looks to grow organically as well as through selective acquisitions in its current and prospective markets. Customers believes that there is significant opportunity to both enhance its presence in its current markets and enter new complementary markets that meet its objectives. Customers focuses on markets that it believes are characterized by some or all of the following:
Population density;
Concentration of business activity;
Attractive deposit bases;
Significant market share held by large banks;
Advantageous competitive landscape that provides opportunity to achieve meaningful market presence;
9


Lack of consolidation in the banking sector and corresponding opportunities for add-on transactions;
Potential for economic growth over time; and
Management experience in the applicable markets.
BankMobile products were delivered to customers nationwide via its digital delivery channels, such as a smartphone or other web-enabled device. The BankMobile business was focused on millennials, developing white label relationships with large companies that wish to expand their relationships with their retail customers and employees and the under-banked who can utilize a low-cost banking services provider. As a general retail deposit product and related services provider, the BankMobile segment did not have a dependency on a particular customer, but focused on providing deposit services to college students who receive federal government loans or grants and to customers of its white label partners. BankMobile provided deposit products and services to students on approximately 725 college and university campuses. Besides the student disbursement business, BankMobile focused on the development of its "Banking as a Service" model. As a result of the divestiture of BMT, Customers is no longer providing BankMobile products or services.
Current Markets
Customers' target market is broadly defined as extending from Washington D.C. to Boston, Massachusetts roughly following Interstate 95. As of December 31, 2020, Customers had bank branches or LPOs serving businesses and consumers in the following locations:
MarketOfficesType
Berks County, PA4Branch
Boston, MA1LPO
Mercer County, NJ1Branch/LPO
New York, NY1LPO
Philadelphia-Southeastern, PA8Branch/LPO
Portsmouth, NH1LPO
Providence, RI1LPO
Suffolk County, NY1LPO
Westchester County, NY1Branch/LPO
Chicago, IL1LPO
Customers believes its target market has highly attractive demographic, economic and competitive dynamics that are consistent with its objectives and favorable to executing its organic core loan and deposit growth and acquisition strategies. Additionally, in July 2018, Customers launched a new digital, online savings banking product with a goal of gathering retail deposits nationally. At December 31, 2020, $1.3 billion of retail deposits were outstanding for this product.
The BankMobile suite of deposit products and services was provided nationally through digital delivery channels, such as a smartphone or other web-enabled device. Customers believes that digital delivery without geographic limitations is the future of retail banking.
Prospective Markets
The organic core loan and deposit growth strategy of Customers focuses on expanding market share in its existing and contiguous markets by generating deposits, loan and fee-based services through its Concierge Banking® high-tech/high-touch single-point-of-contact personalized service supported by state-of-the-art technology for its commercial, consumer, not-for-profit and specialized lending markets. While Customers has not acquired any banks since 2011, its bank acquisition strategy is focused on acquisitions that further Customers' objectives and meet its critical success factors. Customers will also consider other acquisitions that will contribute to its banking business. As Customers evaluates potential acquisition and asset purchase opportunities, it believes that there are banking institutions that continue to face credit challenges, capital constraints and liquidity issues and that lack the scale and management expertise to manage the regulatory burden.
Competitive Strengths
Experienced and respected management team. An integral element of Customers' business strategy is to capitalize on and leverage the prior experience of its executive management team. The management team is led by Chairman and CEO, Jay Sidhu, who is the former CEO and Chairman of Sovereign Bancorp. In addition to Mr. Sidhu, a number of the members of the current management team have experience working together at Sovereign with Mr. Sidhu, including Richard Ehst, President and Chief Operating Officer, as well as Jim Collins, Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative
10


Officer. During their tenure at Sovereign, these individuals established a track record of producing strong financial results, integrating acquisitions, managing risk, working with regulators and achieving organic growth and expense control. Team leaders Timothy Romig, Pennsylvania and New Jersey Banking Group Executive Vice President; Steve Issa, New England Marketing President and Chief Lending Officer and Lyle Cunningham, Executive Vice President, Managing Director & Market President - New York Metro and Chicago and Specialty Finance; all have over 30 years of experience. In addition, the banking to mortgage companies group, which primarily includes commercial loans (warehouse facilities) to residential mortgage originators is led by Glenn Hedde, President of Warehouse Lending, who brings nearly 30 years of experience in this sector. Customers continues to hire new talent and promote from within the organization to lead its various product offering initiatives. This team has significant experience in successfully building a banking organization as well as building valuable community and business relationships in our core markets.
Unique Asset and Deposit Generation Strategies. Customers focuses on local market lending combined with relatively low-risk specialty lending segments. Local market asset generation provides various types of business lending products (i.e., commercial and industrial loans) and consumer lending products, such as mortgage loans and home equity loans. Customers has also established a multi-family and commercial real estate product line that is primarily focused on the Mid-Atlantic region, particularly New York City. The strategy is to focus on obtaining deposits and refinancing existing loans with other banks, recruiting and retaining strong teams, conservative underwriting standards and minimizing costs. Through the multi-family and commercial real estate products, Customers primarily earns interest income and generates commercial deposits. Customers also maintains specialty lending businesses, commercial loans to mortgage originators and installment loans purchased or originated with third-party fintech companies. Customers' commercial loans to mortgage originators is a national business where Customers provides liquidity to non-depository mortgage companies to fund their mortgage pipelines and meet other business needs. Through the loans to mortgage banking businesses, Customers earns interest and fee income and generates core deposits. Customers' installment loan business is a national business in which Customers purchases and originates installment loans through arrangements with third-party fintech companies. Customers also has digital, online savings banking product that generates core deposits nationally. Through the installment loans and digital, online savings banking product, Customers earns interest and generates core deposits.
BankMobile Strategy. Customers launched BankMobile as a key strategic initiative in January 2015, recognizing the product delivery flexibility demanded by the millennial generation and the low cost of the smartphone delivery channel. BankMobile, including the Disbursement business, provided a nationwide deposit-aggregation platform. BankMobile focused on the aggregation of low-cost deposits and consumer loan offerings through its partnerships with fintech companies, and offered no or low-fee banking, higher than average interest rates on savings and access to over 55,000 ATMs across the U.S. Customers believes that consolidating BankMobile with the Disbursement business uniquely positioned it to become the graduating students' "bank for life" and service each graduate's financial needs throughout their life. BankMobile's revenues were largely derived from net interest income, interchange and card revenue, deposit fees, university card and disbursement fees and university subscription revenue. BankMobile serviced over 2 million deposit accounts at December 31, 2020. Successful execution of the BankMobile strategy, including its consolidation with the Disbursement business through colleges and universities across America and similar white-label partnerships, greatly accelerated BankMobile's ability to achieve profitability. BankMobile's revenues were largely derived from interest income from its installment loan portfolio originated or purchased through arrangements with third-party fintech companies, interchange and card revenue, deposit fees, university card and disbursement fees and university subscription revenue. On January 4, 2021, Customers completed the divestiture of BMT, a component of BankMobile to MFAC.
Attractive low-credit risk profile. Customers has sought to maintain high asset quality and moderate credit risk by using conservative underwriting standards, maintaining a diversified loan portfolio, and being selective with its purchases and originations of installment loans by focusing solely on prime borrowers (considered as borrowers with a FICO score of 660 or above at origination) combined with a risk-adjusted pricing model and early identification of potential problem assets. Customers has also formed a Special Assets Group (SAG) to manage classified and NPAs. As of December 31, 2020, only $71.2 million, or 0.45%, of the Bank's total loan portfolio was non-performing.
Superior Community Banking Model. Customers expects to drive organic core loan and deposit growth by employing its Concierge Banking® and single-point-of-contact strategies, which provide specific relationship managers or private bankers for all customers, delivering an appointment banking approach available 12 hours a day, seven days a week. This allows Customers to provide services in a personalized, convenient and expeditious manner. This approach, coupled with superior technology, including remote account opening, remote deposit capture and mobile banking, results in a competitive advantage over larger institutions, which management believes contributes to the profitability of its franchise and allows the Bank to generate core deposits. The “high-tech, high-touch,” model requires less staff and smaller branch locations to operate, thereby significantly reducing operating costs.
Acquisition Expertise. The depth of Customers' management team and their experience working together and successfully completing acquisitions provides unique insight in identifying and analyzing potential markets and acquisition targets.
11


The experience of Customers' team, which includes the acquisition and integration of over 35 institutions, as well as numerous asset and branch acquisitions, provides a substantial advantage in pursuing and consummating future acquisitions. Additionally, management believes Customers' strengths in structuring transactions to limit its risk, its experience in the financial reporting and regulatory process related to troubled bank acquisitions, and its ongoing risk management expertise, particularly in problem loan workouts, collectively enable it to capitalize on the potential of the franchises it acquires. With Customers' depth of operational experience in connection with completing merger and acquisition transactions, it expects to be able to integrate and reposition acquired franchises cost-efficiently with a minimum disruption to customer relationships.
Customers believes its ability to operate efficiently is enhanced by its centralized risk-management structure, its access to attractive labor and real estate costs in its markets, and an infrastructure that is unencumbered by legacy systems. Furthermore, Customers anticipates additional expense synergies from the integration of its acquisitions, which it believes will enhance its financial performance.
Segments
Beginning in third quarter 2016, Customers revised its segment financial reporting to reflect the manner in which its chief operating decision makers had begun allocating resources and assessing performance subsequent to Customers' acquisition of the Disbursement business from Higher One and the combination of that business with the BankMobile technology platform late in second quarter 2016.
Management has determined that Customers' operations consist of two reportable segments - Customers Bank Business Banking and BankMobile. Each segment generates revenues, manages risk, and offers distinct products and services to targeted customers through different delivery channels. The strategy, marketing and analysis of these segments vary considerably. For more information on Customers' reportable operating segments, see NOTE 24 - BUSINESS SEGMENTS to the consolidated financial statements.
On January 4, 2021, Customers Bancorp completed the divestiture of BankMobile Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Customers Bank and a component of BankMobile, through a merger with Megalith Financial Acquisition Corp. In connection with the closing of the divestiture, MFAC changed its name to “BM Technologies, Inc.” All of BankMobile’s serviced deposits and loans including the related net interest income will remain with Customers Bank after the completion of the divestiture. Beginning in first quarter 2021, BMT’s historical financial results for periods prior to the divestiture will be reflected in Customers' consolidated financial statements as discontinued operations. Customers Bancorp's financial condition as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and the results of its operations for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 include the assets and liabilities and financial results of BankMobile. Following the completion of the divestiture of BMT, BankMobile's serviced deposits and loans and the related net interest income will be combined with Customers' financial condition and results of operations as a single reportable segment.
Products
Customers offers a broad range of traditional loan and deposit banking products and financial services, and non-traditional products and services through the successful launch of BankMobile in January 2015, to its commercial and consumer customers. Customers offers an array of lending products to cater to its customers’ needs, including commercial mortgage warehouse loans, multi-family and commercial real estate loans, business banking, small business loans, equipment financing, residential mortgage loans and installment loans. Customers also offers traditional deposit products, including commercial and consumer checking accounts, non-interest-bearing demand accounts, MMDA, savings accounts, time deposit accounts and cash management services. Prior to January 2015, deposit products were available to customers only through branches of Customers Bank. With the successful launch of BankMobile, the acquisition of the Disbursement business from Higher One and the combination of that business with the BankMobile platform and its white-label partnership, Customers has been able to provide banking to millennials, students, middle class American families and underserved consumers throughout the United States. Additionally with the successful launch of Customers' Business Banking's digital, online savings product, it is able to generate deposits nationally.
BankMobile was focused on providing quality low-cost deposit products and related services to its customers, such as no-or-low-fee checking, no opening balance requirements, instant virtual debit cards and similar customer friendly technology enabled services. Customers can also obtain cash free of any fees from over 55,000 ATMs in the United States. BankMobile developed its capabilities to deliver retail loan products, such as personal loans and credit cards to its customers, either as a referral or direct lender, as its technological capabilities have evolved. In 2019, BankMobile's first white label banking partnership went live, offering BankMobile's best in class banking products to the partner's broad customer base.
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Lending Activities
Customers focuses its lending efforts on the following lending areas:
Commercial Lending – Customers' focus is on business banking (i.e., commercial and industrial lending), including small and middle market business banking (including SBA and PPP loans), commercial loans to mortgage companies, commercial real estate and multi-family lending, commercial equipment financing and specialty lending, and
Consumer Lending – local-market mortgage and home equity lending and the origination and purchase of installment loans through arrangements with third-party fintech companies and other market place lenders.
Commercial Lending
Customers' commercial lending activities are divided into five groups: Commercial Lending; Small and Middle Market Business Banking; Commercial Real Estate and Multi-Family Lending; Mortgage Banking Lending; and Equipment Finance. This grouping is designed to allow for greater resource deployment, higher standards of risk management, stronger asset quality, lower interest-rate risk and higher productivity levels.
The commercial lending group, including commercial and industrial loans, owner occupied commercial real estate loans and specialty lending, focus on building business relationships that provide a complete offering of financial services customized to the present and future needs of each business client.
The small and middle market business banking platform originates loans, including SBA loans, through the branch network sales force and a team of dedicated relationship managers. The support administration of this platform is centralized, including risk management, product management, marketing, performance tracking and overall strategy. Credit and sales training has been established for Customers' sales force, ensuring that it has small business experts in place providing appropriate financial solutions to the small business owners in its communities. A division approach focuses on industries that offer high asset quality and are deposit rich to drive profitability.
The goal of Customers' commercial real estate and multi-family lending group is to manage a portfolio of high-quality commercial real estate and multi-family loans within Customers' covered markets while cross-selling other products and services. These lending activities primarily target the refinancing of loans with other banks using conservative underwriting standards and provide purchase money for new acquisitions by borrowers. The primary collateral for these loans is a first-lien mortgage on the commercial real estate or multi-family property, plus an assignment of all leases related to such property. As part of its strategic initiatives, Customers is deemphasizing its lower-yielding multi-family lending activities and focusing on growing relationship-based commercial real estate and commercial and industrial lending activities.
The goal of commercial loans to mortgage companies is to provide liquidity to mortgage companies. The loans are predominately short-term facilities used by mortgage companies to fund their pipelines from closing of individual mortgage loans until their sale into the secondary market. Most of the individual mortgage loans that collateralize our commercial loans to mortgage companies are insured or guaranteed by the U.S. Government through one of its programs, such as FHA, VA, or they are conventional loans eligible for sale to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Customers is currently expanding its product offerings to mortgage companies to meet a wider array of business needs. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, Customers Bank funded $60.9 billion and $31.8 billion of mortgage loans, respectively, to mortgage originators via warehouse facilities. The commercial loans to mortgage companies are reported as loans receivable, mortgage warehouse, at fair value on the consolidated balance sheet.
The equipment finance group offers equipment financing and leasing products and services for a broad range of asset classes. It services vendors, dealers, independent finance companies, bank-owned leasing companies and strategic direct customers in the plastics, packaging, machine tool, construction, transportation and franchise markets. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, Customers had $288.4 million and $257.9 million, respectively, of equipment finance loans outstanding. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, Customers had $108.0 million and $89.2 million of equipment finance leases, respectively. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, Customers had $102.9 million and $93.6 million, respectively, of operating leases entered into under this program, net of accumulated depreciation of $28.9 million and $14.3 million, respectively.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, Customers Bank had $14.2 billion and $8.4 billion, respectively, in commercial loans outstanding, composing approximately 89.8% and 83.8%, respectively, of its total loan portfolio, which includes loans held for sale and loans receivable, mortgage warehouse, at fair value and loans receivable, PPP. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Bank originated $2.6 billion and $1.9 billion, respectively, of commercial loans, exclusive of multi-family loan originations, loans to mortgage originators via warehouse facilities, and PPP loans.

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Paycheck Protection Program
On March 27, 2020, the CARES Act was signed into law. It contains substantial tax and spending provisions intended to address the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The CARES Act includes the SBA's PPP, a nearly $350 billion program designed to aid small- and medium-sized businesses through federally guaranteed loans distributed through banks. These loans are intended to guarantee an eight-week or 24-week period of payroll and other costs to help those businesses remain viable and allow their workers to pay their bills. On December 27, 2020, the CAA was signed into law, which provides $284 billion in additional funding for the SBA's PPP for small businesses affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The CAA provides small businesses who received an initial PPP loan and experienced a 25% reduction in gross receipts to request a second PPP loan of up to $2.0 million. On January 11, 2021, the SBA reopened the PPP program to small business and non-profit organizations that did not receive a loan through the initial PPP phase. As of December 31, 2020, Customers has helped thousands of small businesses by originating about $5.0 billion in PPP loans directly or through fintech partnerships. Customers had $4.6 billion of PPP loans outstanding as of December 31, 2020, which are fully guaranteed by the SBA and earn a fixed interest rate of 1.00%. Customers also began accepting applications for the new round of PPP loans on January 11, 2021.
Consumer Lending
Customers provides home equity and residential mortgage loans to customers. Underwriting standards for home equity lending are conservative, and lending is offered to solidify customer relationships and grow relationship revenues in the long term. This lending is important in Customers' efforts to grow total relationship revenues for its consumer households. These areas also support Customers' commitment to lower-and-moderate-income families in its market area.
Customers Bank has launched a community outreach program in Philadelphia to finance homeownership in urban communities. As part of this program, Customers is offering an “Affordable Mortgage Product." This community outreach program is penetrating the underserved population, especially in low-and moderate income neighborhoods. The program includes homebuyer seminars that prepare potential homebuyers for homeownership by teaching money management and budgeting skills, including the financial responsibilities that come with having a mortgage and owning a home. The “Affordable Mortgage Product” is offered throughout Customers' assessment areas.
Customers also originates and purchases installment loans through arrangements with third-party fintech companies. Customers performs extensive due-diligence procedures on existing and potential fintech partners and only purchases and originates loans that meet its defined credit parameters, which includes but is not limited to minimum FICO scores and debt to income ratios. As part of its due-diligence process, Customers reviews loan level data, historical performance of the asset and distribution of credit and loss information. Customers does not originate or purchase loans that are considered sub-prime at the time of origination, which Customers considers to be those with FICO scores below 660.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, Customers had $1.6 billion and $1.6 billion, respectively, in consumer loans outstanding, comprising 10.3% and 16.2%, respectively, of Customers' total loan portfolio. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, Customers purchased $0.3 billion and $1.2 billion of consumer loans, respectively.
Private Banking
Beginning in 2013, Customers introduced a Private Banking model for its commercial clients in the major markets within its geographic footprint.  This unique model provides unparalleled service to customers through an in-market team of experienced private bankers.  Acting as a single-point-of-contact for all the banking needs of Customers’ commercial clients, these private bankers deliver the whole bank – not only to its clients, but to their families, their management teams and their employees, as well.  With a world-class suite of sophisticated cash management products, these private bankers deliver on Customers' “high-tech, high-touch” strategy and provide real value to its mid-market commercial clients.
Deposit Products and Other Funding Sources
Customers offers a variety of deposit products to its customers, including checking accounts, savings accounts, MMDA and other deposit accounts, including fixed-rate, fixed-maturity retail time deposits ranging in terms from 30 days to five years, individual retirement accounts, and non-retail time deposits consisting of jumbo certificates greater than or equal to $100,000. Customers also focuses on niche businesses as a source of lower-cost core deposits, including property management and mortgage banking businesses, title and escrow funds, health savings accounts, and Section 1031 of the IRS exchange deposits. Using its "high tech, high touch" model, Customers has experienced strong growth in core deposits. Customers also utilizes wholesale deposit products, money market accounts and certificates of deposits obtained through listing services and borrowings from the FRB and FHLB as a source of funding. These funding sources offer attractive funding costs in comparison to traditional sources of funding given the current interest-rate environment.
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Financial Products and Services
In addition to traditional banking activities, Customers provides other financial services to its customers, including: mobile phone banking, internet banking, wire transfers, electronic bill payment, lock box services, remote deposit capture services, courier services, merchant processing services, cash vault, controlled disbursements, positive pay and cash management services (including account reconciliation, collections and sweep accounts). In January 2015, Customers successfully launched BankMobile, America's first mobile platform based full-service consumer bank. In June 2016, Customers acquired the Disbursement business of Higher One and subsequently combined that business with the BankMobile platform. The Disbursement business assisted higher educational institutions in their distributions of Title IV monies to students. In combining the businesses, BankMobile serviced over 2 million deposit accounts at December 31, 2020. On January 4, 2021, Customers completed the divestiture of BMT, including the Disbursement business, to MFAC. BM Technologies continues to service these deposit accounts for Customers.
Competition
Customers competes with other financial institutions for deposit and loan business. Competitors include other commercial banks, savings banks, savings and loan associations, insurance companies, securities brokerage firms, credit unions, finance companies, fintech companies, mutual funds, money market funds and certain government agencies. Financial institutions compete principally on the quality of the services rendered, interest rates offered on deposit products, interest rates charged on loans, fees and service charges, the convenience of banking office locations and hours of operation and, in the consideration of larger commercial borrowers, lending limits.
Many competitors are significantly larger than Customers and have significantly greater financial resources, personnel and locations from which to conduct business. In addition, Customers is subject to regulation, while certain of its competitors are not. Non-regulated companies face relatively few barriers to entry into the financial services industry. Customers' larger competitors enjoy greater name recognition and greater resources to finance wide ranging advertising campaigns. Customers competes for business principally on the basis of high-quality, personal service to customers, customer access to Customers' decision makers and competitive interest and fee structure. Customers also strives to provide maximum convenience of access to services by employing innovative delivery vehicles such as internet and digital banking, and the convenience of Concierge Banking® and our single-point-of-contact business model.
Customers' current market is primarily served by large national and regional banks, with a few larger institutions capturing more than 50% of the deposit market share. Customers' large competitors primarily utilize expensive, branch-based models to sell products to consumers and small businesses, which requires Customers' larger competitors to price their products with wider margins and charge more fees to justify their higher expense base. While maintaining physical branch locations remains an important component of Customers' strategy, Customers utilizes an operating model with fewer and less expensive locations, thereby lowering overhead costs and allowing for greater pricing flexibility.
BankMobile, as a division of Customers Bank, competed for deposit customers with traditional bank branches that may have a physical presence near the university and college campuses it served, large national banks, as well as smaller regional or local banks, with other student and disbursement businesses, both banks and prepaid card providers, local and national loan providers, and with fintech companies. BankMobile developed strategies to offer white label deposit products to commercial entities, again competing with traditional bank deposit product branch delivery channels. In 2019, BankMobile's first white label banking partnership went live, offering BankMobile's best in class banking products to the partner's broad customer base.
ESG
ESG considerations are integrated across our business and incorporated into the policies and principles that govern how we operate. We continuously seek to address some of the practical challenges in balancing short term and long term business trade offs to ensure that our stakeholders and shareholders prosper together. Our approach to ESG management includes promoting sound corporate governance, effective risk management and controls, investing in our team members and cultivating a diverse and inclusive workforce and flexible work environment, supporting and strengthening the communities in which we live, work and serve, and operating our business in a way that demonstrates our dedication to environmental sustainability. Giving back and leading with dignity are the cornerstones of our culture and identity.
Human Capital
Customers' vision is to be recognized as an outstanding financial services company creating distinct experiences for its clients, team members, shareholders, and communities. Attracting, retaining and developing qualified team members and providing them with a distinct employee experience is a key to providing a distinct client experience and is an important contributor to Customers' success.

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Team Member Profile
The following table describes the composition of Customers' workforce on December 31, 2020:
Team Members
Full-time Team Members820 
Part-time Team Members10 
Total Team Members830 
Women53 %
Minorities20 %
On January 4, 2021, Customers completed the divestiture of BMT, and approximately 257 team members in the BankMobile business segment became employees of BM Technologies.
Talent Acquisition
Customers' demand for qualified candidates grows as Customers’ business grows. Building a talent pool that manages our business strategies that includes digitization and technology advancement that differentiates Customers from its competitors. Customers attracts talented individuals with a combination of competitive pay and benefits. Customers' minimum wage for entry-level positions, following a brief training period, is $15.00 per hour.
Professional Development
Customers' performance management program is an interactive practice that engages team members through performance reviews, goal setting and managers providing on-going feedback to their team members. Customers offers a variety of programs to help team members learn new skills, establish and meet personalized development goals, take on new roles and become better leaders.
Team Member Engagement
Customers recognizes that team members who are involved in, enthusiastic about and committed to their work and workplace contribute meaningfully to the success of the company. On a regular basis, Customers solicits team member feedback through a confidential, company-wide survey on culture, management, career opportunities, compensation, and benefits. The results of this survey are reviewed with the executive management team and are used to update team member programs, initiatives, and communications. Customers has a number of other engagement initiatives, including quarterly town hall meetings with Customers' Chief Executive Officer and other senior leaders.
Additionally, team member engagement initiatives include a robust wellness program where team members can participate in individual and team challenges, both physical as well as health-related educational subjects. Participation in the wellness program has a multi-tiered reward system. All team members are also eligible to participate in CUBI University – a self-paced educational platform which includes TED talks, online learning courses, podcasts and recommended articles. Customers provides tuition assistance to team members pursuing higher education. Lastly, we use Officevibe to survey our team members on a periodic basis on subject matters relating to their work environment, managers, and work life balance.
Other team member initiatives include:
a.Day of Learning in which team members are granted up to 8 hours paid time off to participate in a course, seminar, or class in education.
b.Team Member Referral Program is a strategy and initiative that monetarily rewards team members for successfully referring highly qualified candidates for open positions.
c.Matching Gift Program recognizes the need for individual and corporate support of charitable organizations and, for this reason Customers will match the financial contributions of active team members up to $500 annually.
d.Community Service Day in which team members can earn up to 8 hours paid time off for participating in a qualifying event of community service.
Turnover remains below 10% for the third year in a row.

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Succession Planning
Customers is focused on facilitating internal succession by fostering internal mobility, enhancing its talent pool through professional development programs, and structuring its training program to teach skills for 21st century banking.
We have a structured leadership competency measurement program which has recently been rolled out to the entire company with training opportunities included in the rollout.
COVID-19 Response

As the threat of COVID-19 pandemic became clear, we launched a strategy on March 18 ,2020 to protect the health and safety of our Team Members while staying in close communication with all of our customers to ensure all needs were being met quickly and safely. This strategy initially included closing some branches, keeping drive-thru windows and ATMs available while ensuring branch appointments for customers were available in key locations. On November 20, 2020, we decided, with the surge in COVID-19 throughout our markets to institute appointment-only service in all branch locations.
Customers established a Coronavirus Assistance hotline for team members to call if they needed assistance with food delivery, medication pick-up, or anything else. Team members volunteered to run errands for fellow team members.
In addition, Customers took significant steps to introduce collaborative technology including Microsoft Teams, which enabled more than 85% of our team members to work remotely.
Customers enhanced its Paid Time Off Carry over policy from 1 to 2 weeks and extended the period in which team members were able to use this carry over time.
Other actions taken in response to COVID-19 includes: all team members receiving a gift card to help manage their remote expenses. Customers established COVID-19 specific no interest loans to team members. Also, Customers granted a Financial First Responders Day providing a holiday with pay and a $100 gift card.
In July 2020, Customers moved to phase 1 of its roadmap, under which the branch network continued to operate with appointment-only lobby access and staffing levels at non-branch facilities were capped at 25% of normal occupancy. In January 2021, Customers communicated to team members that it will remain in phase 1 of its return-to-work roadmap through second quarter 2021. Customers will develop a multi-tiered return to work plan once the vaccine is widely available later this year.
Customers developed a company-wide Code of Commitment for all team members to read and acknowledge as well as a Managers Tool Kit to facilitate consistent handling of issues as they arose during this difficult time.
In order to protect the health of its customers and team members, and to comply with applicable government directives, Customers has modified its business practices, including restricting team member travel, directing team members to work from home insofar as is possible and implementing its business continuity plans and protocols to the extent necessary. Customers also has made donations that have resulted in more than $1 million, either directly or indirectly, to communities in its footprint for urgent basic needs and has been re-targeting existing sponsorship and grants to non-profit organizations to support COVID-19 related activities.
Available Information
Customers Bancorp’s internet website address is www.customersbank.com. Information on Customers Bancorp’s website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Investors can obtain copies of Customers Bancorp’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, on Customers Bancorp’s website (accessible under “About Us” – “Investor Relations” – “SEC Filings”) as soon as reasonably practicable after Customers Bancorp has filed such materials with, or furnished them to, the SEC. Customers Bancorp will also furnish a paper copy of such filings free of charge upon request. Customers Bancorp’s filings can also be accessed at the SEC’s internet website: www.sec.gov.
SUPERVISION AND REGULATION
GENERAL
Customers Bancorp is subject to extensive regulation, examination and supervision by the Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities and, as a member of the Federal Reserve System, by the Federal Reserve Board.  Federal and state banking laws and regulations govern, among other things, the scope of a bank’s business, the investments a bank may make, the reserves against deposits a bank must maintain, terms of deposit accounts, loans a bank makes, the interest rates it charges and collateral it takes, the activities of a bank with respect to mergers and consolidations and the establishment of branches.
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At December 31, 2019, Customers Bank exceeded the $10 billion asset threshold, and accordingly, became subject to the supervision, examination and enforcement jurisdiction of the CFPB in 2020. Additionally, the Bank became subject to higher FDIC premium assessments applicable to institutions with assets exceeding $10 billion in assets and the loss, effective as of July 1, 2020 of the small issuer exemption under the Durbin Amendment to the Dodd-Frank Act, thereby limiting interchange income to $0.21 per transaction plus 5 basis points multiplied by the value of the transaction plus a $0.01 fraud adjustment for an interchange transaction fee for debit card transactions.
FEDERAL BANKING LAWS
Interstate Branching. The Interstate Act, among other things, permits bank holding companies to acquire banks in any state. A bank may also merge with a bank in another state. Interstate acquisitions and mergers are subject, in general, to certain concentration limits and state entry rules relating to the age of the bank. Under the Interstate Act, the responsible federal regulatory agency is permitted to approve the acquisition of less than all of the branches of an insured bank by an out-of-state bank or bank holding company without the acquisition of an entire bank, only if the law of the state in which the branch is located permits. Under the Interstate Act, branches of state-chartered banks that operate in other states are covered by the laws of the chartering state, rather than the host state. The Dodd-Frank Act created a more permissive interstate branching regime by permitting banks to establish de novo branches in any state if a bank chartered by such state would have been permitted to establish the branch. For more information on interstate branching under Pennsylvania law, see “Pennsylvania Banking Laws – Interstate Branching” above.
Prompt Corrective Action.  Federal banking law mandates certain “prompt corrective actions,” which Federal banking agencies are required to take, and certain actions which they have discretion to take, based upon the capital category into which a Federally regulated depository institution falls.  Regulations have been adopted by the Federal bank regulatory agencies setting forth detailed procedures and criteria for implementing prompt corrective action in the case of any institution that is not adequately capitalized.  Under the rules, an institution will be deemed to be “adequately capitalized” or better if it exceeds the minimum Federal regulatory capital requirements.  However, it will be deemed “undercapitalized” if it fails to meet the minimum capital requirements, “significantly undercapitalized” if it has a common equity tier 1 risk-based capital ratio that is less than 3.0%, or has a total risk-based capital ratio that is less than 6.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio that is less than 4.0%, or a leverage ratio that is less than 3.0%, and “critically undercapitalized” if the institution has a ratio of tangible equity to total assets that is equal to or less than 2.0%.  The rules require an undercapitalized institution to file a written capital restoration plan, along with a performance guaranty by its holding company or a third party.  In addition, an undercapitalized institution becomes subject to certain restrictions including a prohibition on the payment of dividends, a limitation on asset growth and expansion, and in certain cases, a limitation on the payment of bonuses or raises to senior executive officers and a prohibition on the payment of certain “management fees” to any “controlling person.”  Institutions that are classified as undercapitalized are also subject to certain additional supervisory actions, including increased reporting burdens and regulatory monitoring, a limitation on the institution’s ability to make acquisitions, open new branch offices, or engage in new lines of business, obligations to raise additional capital, restrictions on transactions with affiliates and restrictions on interest rates paid by the institution on deposits.  In certain cases, bank regulatory agencies may require replacement of senior executive officers or directors or sale of the institution to a willing purchaser.  If an institution is deemed to be “critically undercapitalized” and continues in that category for four quarters, the statute requires, with certain narrowly limited exceptions, that the institution be placed in receivership.
Safety and Soundness; Regulation of Bank Management.  The Federal Reserve Board possesses the power to prohibit a bank from engaging in any activity that would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice and in violation of the law.  Moreover, Federal law enactments have expanded the circumstances under which officers or directors of a bank may be removed by the institution’s Federal supervisory agency; restricted and further regulated lending by a bank to its executive officers, directors, principal shareholders or related interests thereof; restricted management personnel of a bank from serving as directors or in other management positions with certain depository institutions whose assets exceed a specified amount or which have an office within a specified geographic area; and restricted management personnel from borrowing from another institution that has a correspondent relationship with the bank for which they work.
Capital Rules.  Federal banking agencies have issued certain “risk-based capital” guidelines, which supplemented existing capital requirements. In addition, the Federal Reserve Board imposes certain “leverage” requirements on member banks.  Banking regulators have authority to require higher minimum capital ratios for an individual bank or bank holding company in view of its circumstances.
The risk-based capital guidelines require all banks and bank holding companies to maintain capital levels in compliance with “risk-based capital” ratios.  In these ratios, the on-balance-sheet assets and off-balance sheet exposures are assigned a risk-weight based upon the perceived and historical risk of incurring a loss of principal from that exposure. The risk-based capital rules are designed to make regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banks and bank holding companies and to minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets.

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The risk-based capital rules also may consider interest-rate risk.  Institutions with interest-rate risk exposure above a normal level would be required to hold extra capital in proportion to that risk.  Customers currently monitors and manages its assets and liabilities for interest-rate risk, and management believes that the interest-rate risk rules which have been implemented and proposed will not materially adversely affect its operations.
The Federal Reserve Board’s “leverage” ratio rules require member banks which are rated the highest in the composite areas of capital, asset quality, management, earnings and liquidity to maintain a ratio of “Tier 1” capital to “adjusted total assets” of not less than 3.0%.  For banks which are not the most highly rated, the minimum “leverage” ratio will range from 4.0% to 5.0%, or higher at the discretion of the Federal Reserve Board, and is required to be at a level commensurate with the nature of the level of risk of the bank's condition and activities.
For purposes of the capital requirements, “Tier 1,” or “core,” capital is defined to include common shareholders’ equity and certain noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus. “Tier 2,” or “qualifying supplementary,” capital is defined to include a bank’s ACL up to 1.25% of risk-weighted assets, plus certain types of preferred stock and related surplus, certain “hybrid capital instruments” and certain term subordinated debt instruments.
In July 2013, the Federal Reserve approved final rules that substantially amend the regulatory risk-based capital rules applicable to the Bancorp and Customers Bank. The final rules were adopted following the issuance of proposed rules by the Federal Reserve in June 2012 and implement the “Basel III” regulatory capital reforms and changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. “Basel III” refers to two consultative documents released by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in December 2009, the rules text released in December 2010 and loss absorbency rules issued in January 2011, which include significant changes to bank capital, leverage and liquidity requirements.
The rules include risk-based capital and leverage ratios, were phased in from 2015 to 2019, and refine the definition of what constitutes “capital” for purposes of calculating those ratios. Effective January 1, 2015, the new minimum capital level requirements applicable to the Bancorp and Customers Bank under the final rules were:
(i) a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 4.5%;
(ii) a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6%;
(iii) a total risk-based capital ratio of 8% and
(iv) a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4% for all institutions.
The final rules also establish a “capital conservation buffer” above the new regulatory minimum capital requirements.
The capital conservation buffer was phased-in over four years beginning on January 1, 2016, as follows: the maximum buffer was 0.625% of risk-weighted assets for 2016, 1.25% for 2017, 1.875% for 2018, and 2.500% for 2019 and thereafter.
Effective January 1, 2019, the minimum capital level requirements (including the capital conservation buffer) applicable to the Bancorp and Customers Bank under the final rules are:
(i) a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 7.0%;
(ii) a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.5%; and
(iii) a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.5%.
Under the final rules, institutions are subject to limitations on paying dividends, engaging in share repurchases and paying discretionary bonuses if their capital levels fall below the minimum capital level plus capital conservation buffer amount. These limitations establish a maximum percentage of eligible retained income that could be utilized for such actions.
Basel III provided discretion for regulators to impose an additional buffer, the “countercyclical buffer,” of up to 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to take into account the macro-financial environment and periods of excessive credit growth. However, the final rules permit the countercyclical buffer to be applied only to “advanced approach banks” (i.e., banks with $250 billion or more in total assets or $10 billion or more in total foreign exposures), which currently excludes the Bancorp and the Bank. The final rules also implement revisions and clarifications consistent with Basel III regarding the various components of Tier 1 capital, including common equity, unrealized gains and losses, as well as certain instruments that will no longer qualify as Tier 1 capital, some of which will be phased out over time. However, the final rules provide that small depository institution holding companies with less than $15 billion in total assets as of December 31, 2009, (which includes the Bancorp) will be able to permanently include non-qualifying instruments that were issued and included in Tier 1 or Tier 2 capital prior to May 19, 2010, as additional Tier 1 or Tier 2 capital until they redeem such instruments or until the instruments mature.
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In addition, the final rules provide for smaller banking institutions (less than $250 billion in consolidated assets) an opportunity to make a one-time election to opt out of including most elements of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in regulatory capital. Importantly, the opt-out excludes from regulatory capital not only unrealized gains and losses on available for sale debt securities, but also accumulated net gains and losses on cash-flow hedges and amounts attributable to defined benefit postretirement plans. The Bank selected the opt-out election in its March 31, 2015 Call Report.
The final rules also contain revisions to the prompt corrective action framework, which is designed to place restrictions on insured depository institutions, including the Bank, if their capital levels begin to show signs of weakness. These revisions took effect on January 1, 2015. Under the prompt corrective action requirements, which are designed to complement the capital conservation buffer, insured depository institutions will be required to meet the following increased capital level requirements in order to qualify as “well capitalized:”
(i) a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 6.5%;
(ii) a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8%;
(iii) a total risk-based capital ratio of 10%; and
(iv) a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 5%.
The final rules set forth certain changes for the calculation of risk-weighted assets, which were required to be utilized as of January 1, 2015. The standardized approach final rule utilizes an increased number of credit-risk exposure categories and risk weights and also addressed:
(i) an alternative standard of creditworthiness consistent with Section 939A of the Dodd-Frank Act;
(ii) revisions to recognition of credit-risk mitigation;
(iii) rules for risk weighting of equity exposures and past-due loans;
(iv) revised capital treatment for derivatives and repo-style transactions;
(v) the option to use a formula-based approach referred to as the simplified supervisory formula approach to determine the risk weight of various securitization tranches in addition to the previous “gross-up” method (replacing the credit ratings approach for certain securitization); and
(vi) disclosure requirements for top-tier banking organizations with $50 billion or more in total assets that are not subject to the “advanced approach rules” that apply to banks with greater than $250 billion in consolidated assets.
In addition, in December 2018, the U.S. federal banking agencies finalized rules that would permit bank holding companies and banks to phase-in, for regulatory capital purposes, the day-one impact of the new CECL accounting rule on retained earnings over a period of three years, with 25% of the day-one impact recognized on the adoption date (January 1, 2020 for Customers) and an additional 25% recognized annually on January 1 for the next three years.
In first quarter 2020, as part of its response to the impact of COVID-19, the U.S. federal banking regulatory agencies issued an interim final rule that provided the option to temporarily delay certain effects of CECL on regulatory capital for two years, followed by a three-year transition period. The interim final rule allows banking organizations to delay for two years 100% of the day-one impact of adopting CECL and 25% of the cumulative change in the reported allowance for credit losses since adopting CECL. Customers has elected to adopt the interim final rule, which is reflected in the regulatory capital data presented below.
In April 2020, the U.S. federal banking regulatory agencies issued an interim final rule that permits banks to exclude the impact of participating in the SBA PPP program in their regulatory capital ratios. Specifically, PPP loans are zero percent risk weighted and a bank can exclude all PPP loans pledged as collateral to the PPPLF from its average total consolidated assets for purposes of calculating the Tier 1 capital to average assets ratio (i.e. leverage ratio). Customers applied this regulatory guidance in the calculation of its regulatory capital ratios.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, Customers Bank and the Bancorp met all capital adequacy requirements to which they were subject. For additional information on Customers' regulatory capital ratios, refer to “NOTE 18 – REGULATORY CAPITAL” to the consolidated financial statements.
Dodd-Frank Act.  The Dodd-Frank Act was enacted by Congress on July 15, 2010, and was signed into law on July 21, 2010. Among many other provisions, the legislation:
established the Financial Stability Oversight Council, a federal agency acting as the financial system’s systemic risk regulator with the authority to review the activities of significant bank holding companies and non-bank financial firms, to
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make recommendations and impose standards regarding capital, leverage, conflicts and other requirements for financial firms and to impose regulatory standards on certain financial firms deemed to pose a systemic threat to the financial health of the U.S. economy;
created a new CFPB within the U.S. Federal Reserve, which has substantive rule-making authority over a wide variety of consumer financial services and products, including the power to regulate unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices;
permitted state attorney generals and other state enforcement authorities broader power to enforce consumer protection laws against banks;
required that the amount of any interchange fee charged by a debit card issuer with respect to a debit card transaction must be reasonable and proportional to the cost incurred by the issuer. On June 29, 2011, for banks with assets of $10 billion or greater, such as the Bank, the Federal Reserve Board set the interchange rate cap at $0.21 per transaction and 5 basis points multiplied by the value of the transaction;
gave the FDIC substantial new authority and flexibility in assessing deposit insurance premiums, which may result in increased deposit insurance premiums for Customers in the future;
increased the deposit insurance coverage limit for insurable deposits to $250,000 generally, and removes the limit entirely for transaction accounts;
permitted banks to pay interest on business demand deposit accounts; and
prohibited banks subject to enforcement action such as a MOU from changing their charter without the approval of both their existing charter regulator and their proposed new charter regulator.
The EGRRCPA was signed into law on May 24, 2018 and directs the Federal Reserve Board to monitor emerging risks to financial stability and enact supervision and prudential standards applicable to bank holding companies with total assets of $250 billion or more and non-bank covered companies designated as systematically important by the Financial Stability Oversight Council. In general, the EGRRCPA increases the statutory asset threshold, defined in the Dodd-Frank Act, above which the Federal Reserve is required to apply these enhanced prudential standards from $50 billion to $250 billion and immediately raised the asset threshold for stress testing from $10 billion to $100 billion for bank holding companies. Bank holding companies with $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets remain fully subject to the Dodd-Frank Act's enhanced prudential standards requirements. As a result, Customers is no longer subject to stress testing regulations or any requirement to publish the results of our stress testing. Customers will continue to perform certain stress tests internally and incorporate the economic models and information developed through our stress testing program into our risk management and business planning activities.
In July 2018, the Federal Reserve stated that it would no longer require bank holding companies with less than $100 billion in total consolidated assets to comply with the modified version of the liquidity coverage ratio. In addition, in October 2018, the federal bank regulators proposed to revise their liquidity requirements so that banking organizations that are not global systemically important banks and have less than $250 billion in total consolidated assets and less than $75 billion in each of off-balance-sheet exposure, nonbank assets, cross-jurisdictional activity and short-term wholesale funding would not be subject to any liquid coverage ratio or net stable funding ratio requirements.
In February 2014, the Federal Reserve adopted rules to implement certain of these enhanced prudential standards. Beginning in 2015, the rules require publicly traded bank holding companies with $10 billion or more in total consolidated assets to establish risk committees and require bank holding companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets to comply with enhanced liquidity and overall risk management standards. Customers has established a risk committee and is in compliance with this requirement. In October 2018, the Federal Reserve and the other federal bank regulators proposed rules that would tailor the application of the enhanced prudential standards to bank holding companies and depository institutions pursuant to the EGRRCPA amendments, including by raising the asset threshold for application of many of these standards. For example, all publicly traded bank holding companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets would be required to maintain a risk committee.
Many of these provisions are subject to further rule making and to the discretion of regulatory bodies, including Customers Bank’s primary federal banking regulator, the Federal Reserve.  It is not possible to predict at this time the extent to which regulations authorized or mandated by the Dodd-Frank Act and EGRRCPA will impose requirements or restrictions on Customers Bank in addition to or different from the provisions summarized above.
Regulatory Reform and Legislation. From time to time, various legislative and regulatory initiatives are introduced in Congress and state legislatures, as well as by regulatory agencies. Such initiatives may include proposals to expand or contract the powers of bank holding companies and depository institutions or proposals to substantially change the financial institution regulatory system. Such legislation could change banking statutes and the operating environment of Customers in substantial and unpredictable ways. If enacted, such legislation could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities or affect the competitive
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balance among banks, savings associations, credit unions and other financial institutions. Customers cannot predict whether any such legislation will be enacted, and, if enacted, the effect that it, or any implementing regulations, would have on its financial condition or results of operations. A change in statutes, regulations or regulatory policies applicable to Customers or our subsidiaries could have a material effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Deposit Insurance Assessments.  Customers Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC up to the limits set forth under applicable law and are subject to deposit insurance premium assessments. The FDIC imposes a risk-based deposit premium assessment system, which was amended pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005. Under this system, the amount of FDIC assessments paid by an individual insured depository institution, like Customers Bank, is based on the level of perceived risk incurred in its activities. The FDIC places a depository institution in one of four risk categories determined by reference to its capital levels and supervisory ratings. In addition, in the case of those institutions in the lowest risk category, the FDIC further determines its assessment rates based on certain specified financial ratios.
In February 2011, the FDIC adopted a final rule modifying the risk-based assessment system and setting initial base assessment rates beginning in April 2011, ranging from 2.5 to 45 basis points of Tier I capital.
On June 22, 2020, the FDIC issued a final rule that mitigates the deposit insurance assessment effects of participating in the PPP, the PPPLF and MMLF. Pursuant to the final rule, the FDIC will generally remove the effect of PPP lending in calculating an institution's deposit insurance assessment. The final rule also provides an offset to an institution's total assessment amount for the increase in its assessment base attributable to participation in the PPP and MMLF. Further, on October 20, 2020, the FDIC issued a final rule to allow institutions that experienced temporary growth, from participation in the PPPLF and/or MMLF, to determine whether they are subject to the requirements of Part 363 of the FDIC's regulations (which imposes annual audit and reporting requirements on insured depository institutions with $500 million or more in consolidated total assets) for fiscal years ending in 2021 based on the consolidated assets of December 31, 2019.
In addition to deposit insurance assessments, banks are subject to assessments to pay the interest on Financing Corporation bonds. The Financing Corporation was created by Congress to issue bonds to finance the resolution of failed thrift institutions. The FDIC sets the Financing Corporation assessment rate every quarter.
Community Reinvestment Act.  Under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, the record of a bank holding company and its subsidiary banks must be considered by the appropriate Federal banking agencies, including the Federal Reserve Board, in reviewing and approving or disapproving a variety of regulatory applications including approval of a branch or other deposit facility, office relocation, a merger and certain acquisitions.  Federal banking agencies have demonstrated an increased readiness to deny applications based on unsatisfactory CRA performance.  The Federal Reserve Board is required to assess Customers' record to determine if it is meeting the credit needs of the community, including the low-and-moderate-income neighborhoods that it serves.  The Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 amended the CRA to require, among other things, that the Federal Reserve Board make publicly available an evaluation of the bank's record of meeting the credit needs of its entire community, including low-and-moderate-income neighborhoods.  This evaluation includes a descriptive rating (outstanding, satisfactory, needs to improve or substantial noncompliance) and a statement describing the basis for the rating.
Incentive Compensation. In June 2010, the Federal Reserve Board, OCC and FDIC issued comprehensive final guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide incentives that do not encourage risk-taking beyond the organization’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors.
The Federal Reserve Board will review, as part of the regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of banking organizations, such as Customers, that are not “large, complex banking organizations.” These reviews will be tailored to each organization based on the scope and complexity of the organization’s activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements. The findings of the supervisory initiatives will be included in reports of examination. Deficiencies will be incorporated into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect the organization’s ability to make acquisitions and take other actions. Enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements, or related risk-management control or governance processes, pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness, and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.
In addition, Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act required certain regulators (including the FDIC, SEC and Federal Reserve Board) to adopt requirements or guidelines prohibiting excessive compensation. In April and May 2016, the Federal Reserve, jointly with five
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other federal regulators, published a proposed rule in response to Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act, which requires implementation of regulations or guidelines to: (i) prohibit incentive-based payment arrangements that encourage inappropriate risks by certain financial institutions by providing excessive compensation or that could lead to material financial loss and (ii) require those financial institutions to disclose information concerning incentive-based compensation arrangements to the appropriate federal regulator.
The proposed rule identifies three categories of institutions that would be covered by these regulations based on average total consolidated assets, applying less prescriptive incentive-based compensation program requirements to the smallest covered institutions (Level 3) and progressively more rigorous requirements to the larger covered institutions (Level 1). Under the proposed rule, Customers would fall into the smallest category (Level 3), which applies to financial institutions with average total consolidated assets greater than $1 billion and less than $50 billion. The proposed rules would establish general qualitative requirements applicable to all covered entities, which would include (i) prohibiting incentive arrangements that encourage inappropriate risks by providing excessive compensation; (ii) prohibiting incentive arrangements that encourage inappropriate risks that could lead to a material financial loss; (iii) establishing requirements for performance measures to appropriately balance risk and reward; (iv) requiring board of director oversight of incentive arrangements and (v) mandating appropriate record keeping. Under the proposed rule, larger financial institutions with total consolidated assets of at least $50 billion would also be subject to additional requirements applicable to such institutions’ “senior executive officers” and “significant risk-takers.” These additional requirements would not be applicable to Customers because it currently has less than $50 billion in total consolidated assets. Comments on the proposed rule were due by July 22, 2016. As of the date of this document, the final rule has not yet been published by these regulators.

Consumer Financial Protection Laws and Enforcement. The CFPB and the federal banking agencies continue to focus attention on consumer protection laws and regulations. The CFPB is responsible for promoting fairness and transparency for mortgages, credit cards, deposit accounts and installment financial products and services and for interpreting and enforcing the federal consumer financial laws that govern the provision of such products and services. Federal consumer financial laws enforced by the CFPB include, but are not limited to, the ECOA, TILA, the Truth in Savings Act, HMDA, RESPA, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, and the Fair Credit Reporting Act. The CFPB is also authorized to prevent any institution under its authority from engaging in an unfair, deceptive, or abusive act or practice in connection with consumer financial products and services. Customers is subject to multiple federal consumer protection statutes and regulations, including, but not limited to, those referenced above.

In particular, fair lending laws prohibit discrimination in the provision of banking services, and the enforcement of these laws has been an increasing focus for the CFPB, the HUD, and other regulators. Fair lending laws include ECOA and the Fair Housing Act, which outlaw discrimination in credit and residential real estate transactions on the basis of prohibited factors including, among others, race, color, national origin, gender, and religion. A lender may be liable for policies that result in a disparate treatment of, or have a disparate impact on, a protected class of applicants or borrowers. If a pattern or practice of lending discrimination is alleged by a regulator, then that agency may refer the matter to the DOJ for investigation. Failure to comply with these and similar statutes and regulations can result in Customers Bancorp becoming subject to formal or informal enforcement actions, the imposition of civil money penalties and consumer litigation.

The CFPB has exclusive examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to compliance with federal consumer financial protection laws and regulations by institutions under its supervision and is authorized, individually or jointly with the federal bank regulatory agencies, to conduct investigations to determine whether any person is, or has, engaged in conduct that violates such laws or regulations. The CFPB may bring an administrative enforcement proceeding or civil action in federal district court. In addition, in accordance with a MOU entered into between the CFPB and the DOJ, the two agencies have agreed to coordinate efforts related to enforcing the fair lending laws, which includes information sharing and conducting joint investigations; however, as a result of recent leadership changes at the DOJ and CFPB, as well as changes in the enforcement policies and priorities of each agency, the extent to which such coordination will continue to occur in the near term is uncertain. As an independent bureau funded by the Federal Reserve Board, the CFPB may impose requirements that are more stringent than those of the other bank regulatory agencies.

As an insured depository institution with total assets of more than $10 billion, the Bank is subject to the CFPB’s supervisory and enforcement authorities. The Dodd-Frank Act also permits states to adopt stricter consumer protection laws and state attorneys general to enforce consumer protection rules issued by the CFPB. As a result, the Bank operates in a stringent consumer compliance environment and may incur additional costs related to consumer protection compliance, including but not limited to potential costs associated with CFPB examinations, regulatory and enforcement actions and consumer-oriented litigation. The CFPB, other financial regulatory agencies, including the Federal Reserve, as well as the DOJ, have, over the past several years, pursued a number of enforcement actions against depository institutions with respect to compliance with fair lending laws.
UDAP and UDAAP. Banking regulatory agencies have increasingly used a general consumer protection statute to address “unethical” or otherwise “bad” business practices that may not necessarily fall directly under the purview of a specific banking or consumer finance law. The law of choice for enforcement against such business practices has been Section 5 of the FTC Act, which is the primary federal law that prohibits unfair or deceptive acts or practices, referred to as "UDAP," and unfair methods of competition in or affecting commerce. “Unjustified consumer injury” is the principal focus of the FTC Act. Prior to the Dodd-Frank Act, there was little formal
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guidance to provide insight to the parameters for compliance with UDAP laws and regulations. However, UDAP laws and regulations have been expanded under the Dodd-Frank Act to apply to “unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices,” referred to as "UDAAP," which have been delegated to the CFPB for supervision. The CFPB has published its first Supervision and Examination Manual that addresses compliance with and the examination of UDAAP.

Privacy Protection and Cybersecurity. The Bank is subject to regulations implementing the privacy protection provisions of the GLBA. These regulations require the Bank to disclose its privacy policy, including identifying with whom it shares "nonpublic personal information," to customers at the time of establishing the customer relationship and annually thereafter. The regulations also require the Bank to provide its customers with initial and annual notices that accurately reflect its privacy policies and practices. In addition, to the extent its sharing of such information is not covered by an exception, the Bank is required to provide its customers with the ability to "opt-out" of having the Bank share their nonpublic personal information with unaffiliated third parties.

The Bank is subject to regulatory guidelines establishing standards for safeguarding customer information. These regulations implement certain provisions of the GLBA. The guidelines describe the federal bank regulatory agencies’ expectations for the creation, implementation and maintenance of an information security program, which would include administrative, technical and physical safeguards appropriate to the size and complexity of the institution and the nature and scope of its activities. The standards set forth in the guidelines are intended to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer records and information, protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such records and protect against unauthorized access to or use of such records or information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer. These guidelines, along with related regulatory materials, increasingly focus on risk management and processes related to information technology and the use of third parties in the provision of financial services. In October 2016, the federal banking agencies issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on enhanced cybersecurity risk-management and resilience standards that would apply to large and interconnected banking organizations and to services provided by third parties to these firms. These enhanced standards would apply only to depository institutions and depository institution holding companies with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more. The federal banking agencies have not yet taken further action on these proposed standards.
Bank Holding Company Regulation
As a bank holding company, Customers Bancorp is also subject to additional regulation.
The BHC Act requires the Bancorp to secure the prior approval of the Federal Reserve Board before it owns or controls, directly or indirectly, more than five percent (5%) of the voting shares or substantially all of the assets of any bank. In addition, bank holding companies are required to act as a source of financial strength to each of their banking subsidiaries pursuant to which such holding company may be required to commit financial resources to support such subsidiaries in circumstances when, absent such requirements, they might not do so.
A bank holding company is prohibited from engaging in or acquiring direct or indirect control of more than five percent (5%) of the voting shares of any company engaged in non-banking activities unless the Federal Reserve Board, by order or regulation, has found such activities to be so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto.  In making this determination, the Federal Reserve Board considers whether the performance of these activities by a bank holding company would offer benefits to the public that outweigh the possible adverse effects.

Control Acquisitions. The CBCA prohibits a person or group of persons from acquiring “control” of a bank holding company unless the Federal Reserve has been notified and has not objected to the transaction. Under a rebuttable presumption established by the Federal Reserve, the acquisition of 10% or more of a class of voting stock of a bank holding company with a class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, such as Customers Bancorp, would, under the circumstances set forth in the presumption, constitute acquisition of control of Customers Bancorp.

In addition, the CBCA prohibits any entity from acquiring 25% (the BHC Act has a lower limit for acquirers that are existing bank holding companies) or more of a bank holding company’s or bank’s voting securities, or otherwise obtaining control or a controlling influence over a bank holding company or bank without the approval of the Federal Reserve. On January 31, 2020, the Federal Reserve Board approved the issuance of a final rule (which became effective April 1, 2020) that clarifies and codifies the Federal Reserve’s standards for determining whether one company has control over another. The final rule establishes four categories of tiered presumptions of noncontrol that are based on the percentage of voting shares held by the investor (less than 5%, 5-9.9%, 10-14.9% and 15-24.9%) and the presence of other indicia of control. As the percentage of ownership increases, fewer indicia of control are permitted without falling outside of the presumption of noncontrol. These indicia of control include nonvoting equity ownership, director representation, management interlocks, business relationship and restrictive contractual covenants. Under the final rule, investors can hold up to 24.9% of the voting securities and up to 33% of the total equity of a company without necessarily having a controlling influence.

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Applications under the BHC Act and the CBCA are subject to review, based upon the record of compliance of the applicant with the CRA.
The Bancorp is required to file an annual report with the Federal Reserve Board and any additional information that the Federal Reserve Board may require pursuant to the BHC Act.  Further, under Section 106 of the 1970 amendments to the BHC Act and the Federal Reserve Board’s regulations, a bank holding company and its subsidiaries are prohibited from engaging in certain tie-in arrangements in connection with any extension of credit or provision of credit or provision of any property or services.  The so-called “anti-tie-in” provisions state generally that a bank may not extend credit, lease, sell property or furnish any service to a customer on the condition that the customer obtains additional credit or service from the bank, or on the condition that the customer not obtain other credit or service from a competitor.
The Federal Reserve Board permits bank holding companies to engage in non-banking activities so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto.  A number of activities are authorized by Federal Reserve Board regulation, while other activities require prior Federal Reserve Board approval.  The types of permissible activities are subject to change by the Federal Reserve Board.
PENNSYLVANIA BANKING LAWS
Pennsylvania banks that are Federal Reserve members may establish new branch offices only after approval by the Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities and the Federal Reserve Board.  Approval by these regulators can be subject to a variety of factors, including the convenience and needs of the community, whether the institution is sufficiently capitalized and well managed, issues of safety and soundness, the institution’s record of meeting the credit needs of its community, whether there are significant supervisory concerns with respect to the institution or affiliated organizations, and whether any financial or other business arrangement, direct or indirect, involving bank insiders involves terms and conditions more favorable to the insiders than would be available in a comparable transaction with unrelated parties.
Under the Pennsylvania Banking Code, the Bank is permitted to branch throughout Pennsylvania.  Pennsylvania law also provides Pennsylvania state-chartered banks elective parity with the power of national banks, federal thrifts, and state-chartered institutions in other states as authorized by the FDIC, subject to a required notice to the Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities.  The Pennsylvania Banking Code also imposes restrictions on payment of dividends, as well as minimum capital requirements.
In October 2012, Pennsylvania enacted three laws known as the “Banking Law Modernization Package,” all of which became effective on December 24, 2012. The intended goal of the law, which applies to the Bank, is to modernize Pennsylvania’s banking laws and to reduce regulatory burden at the state level where possible, given the increased regulatory demands at the federal level as described below.
The law also permits banks to disclose formal enforcement actions initiated by the Department, clarifies that the Department has examination and enforcement authority over subsidiaries as well as affiliates of regulated banks and bolsters the Department’s enforcement authority over its regulated institutions by clarifying its ability to remove directors, officers and employees from institutions for violations of laws or orders or for any unsafe or unsound practice or breach of fiduciary duty. Changes to existing law also allow the Department to assess civil money penalties of up to $25,000 per violation.
The law also sets a new standard of care for bank officers and directors, applying the same standard that exists for non-banking corporations in Pennsylvania. The standard is one of performing duties in good faith, in a manner reasonably believed to be in the best interests of the institutions and with such care, including reasonable inquiry, skill and diligence, as a person of ordinary prudence would use under similar circumstances. Directors may rely in good faith on information, opinions and reports provided by officers, employees, attorneys, accountants or committees of the board, and an officer may not be held liable simply because he or she served as an officer of the institution.
Interstate Branching. Federal law allows the Federal Reserve and FDIC, and the Pennsylvania Banking Code allows the Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities, to approve an application by a state banking institution to acquire interstate branches.  For more information on federal law, see the discussion under “Federal Banking Laws – Interstate Branching” above.
Pennsylvania banking laws authorize banks in Pennsylvania to acquire existing branches or branch de novo in other states and also permit out-of-state banks to acquire existing branches or branch de novo in Pennsylvania.
In April 2008, Banking Regulators in the States of New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania entered into the Interstate MOU to clarify their respective roles, as home and host state regulators, regarding interstate branching activity on a regional basis pursuant to the Riegle-Neal Amendments Act of 1997. The Interstate MOU establishes the regulatory responsibilities of the respective state banking regulators regarding bank regulatory examinations and is intended to reduce the regulatory burden on state-chartered banks branching within the region by eliminating duplicative host state compliance exams.
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Under the Interstate MOU, the activities of branches Customers established in New Jersey or New York would be governed by Pennsylvania state law to the same extent that federal law governs the activities of the branch of an out-of-state national bank in such host states. Issues regarding whether a particular host state law is preempted are to be determined in the first instance by the Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities. In the event that the Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities and the applicable host state regulator disagree regarding whether a particular host state law is pre-empted, the Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities and the applicable host state regulator would use their reasonable best efforts to consider all points of view and to resolve the disagreement.
Item 1A.    Risk Factors
Summary of Risk Factors
Our business is subject to a number of risks and a summary of the significant risk factors is set forth below. These risks are discussed in more detail following this summary and should be read together with this summary and considered along with other information contained in this report before investing in our securities.
Risks related to the Bancorp's banking operations:
Risks associated with our lending activities and effective management of credit risks in our loan and lease portfolio;
Risks related to maintaining an appropriate level of ACL;
Risks associated with our investment securities portfolio including market and credit risks and the uncertainties surrounding macroeconomic conditions;
Risks related to planned changes in the composition of our loan portfolio including our emphasis on commercial and industrial, commercial real estate, consumer, and mortgage warehouse lending;
Risks associated with maintaining sufficient liquidity including our ability to gather, grow and retain our lower cost deposits;
Risks and uncertainties associated with the effectiveness of our business strategies, operations, and technology in managing growth and maintaining profitability;
Risks related to changes to estimates and assumptions made by management in preparing financial statements. These changes could adversely affect our business, operating results, reported assets and liabilities, financial condition and capital levels;
Risks related to changes in accounting standards and policies which can be difficult to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial results;
Risks related to our geographic concentration in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions;
Risks related to our dependency on our executive officers and key personnel to implement our strategy and our ability to retain their services;
Risks related to significant competition from other financial institutions and financial services providers;
Risks related to the uncertainty about reference rate reform;
Risks associated with our dependency on our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers including exposures to systems failures, interruptions or breaches of security;
Risks associated with the loss of, or failure to adequately safeguard, confidential or proprietary information;

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Risks related to the divestiture of BMT:
Risks associated with BM Technologies after completion of the merger of BMT with Megalith Financial Acquisition Corp. through our various service and loan agreements with BM Technologies;
Risks related to the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change and macroeconomic conditions:
Risks related to worsening general business and economic conditions which could materially and adversely affect us;
Risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic including the scope and duration of the pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities in response to the pandemic;
Risks related to the SBA’s PPP program and PPP loans remaining on our balance sheet;
Risks related to climate change and related legislative and regulatory initiatives on our business;
Risks related to the regulation of our industry:
Risks associated with the highly regulated environment in which we operate, including the effects of heightened regulatory and supervisory requirements applicable to banks with assets in excess of $10 billion;
Risks related to maintaining adequate regulatory capital to support our business strategies including the long-term impact of the new regulatory capital standards and the capital rules on U.S. banks;
Risks related to our use of third-party vendors and our other ongoing third-party business relationships which are subject to increasing regulatory requirements and attention;
Risks associated to us being subject to numerous laws and governmental regulations and to regular examinations by our regulators of our business and compliance with laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with such laws and regulations or to adequately address any matters identified during these examinations could materially and adversely affect us;
Risks related to reviews performed by the Internal Revenue Service and state taxing authorities for the fiscal years that remain open for investigation and potential changes in U.S. federal, state or local tax laws;
Risks related to our securities:
Risks related to our voting common stock;
Risks related to our fixed-to-floating-rate non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F; and
Risks related to our senior notes and subordinated notes.
General risk factors
Risks Related to the Bancorp’s Banking Operations
Our business is highly susceptible to credit risk. If our ACL is insufficient to absorb losses in our loan and lease portfolio, our earnings could decrease.
Lending money is a substantial part of our business, and each loan and lease carries a certain risk that it will not be repaid in accordance with its terms or that any underlying collateral will not be sufficient to assure repayment. This risk is affected by, among other things:
the financial condition and cash flows of the borrower and/or the project being financed;
the changes and uncertainties as to the future value of the collateral, in the case of a collateralized loan or lease;
the discount on the loan at the time of its acquisition;
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the duration of the loan or lease;
the credit history of a particular borrower; and
changes in current and future economic and industry conditions.
Our credit standards, policies and procedures are designed to reduce the risk of credit losses to a low level but may not prevent us from incurring substantial credit losses.
Additionally, we may restructure originated or acquired loans if we believe the borrowers are experiencing problems servicing the debt pursuant to current terms, and we believe the borrower is likely to fully repay their restructured obligations. We may also be subject to legal or regulatory requirements for restructured loans. With respect to restructured loans, we may grant concessions to borrowers experiencing financial difficulties in order to facilitate repayment of the loan by a reduction of the stated interest rate for the remaining life of the loan to lower than the current market rate for new loans with similar risk or an extension of the maturity date.

Management makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectibility of our loan and lease portfolio, including the creditworthiness of our borrowers and the probability of our borrowers making payments, as well as the value of real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of many of our loans and leases. As described in NOTE 2 – SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION to our audited financial statements, on January 1, 2020, Customers adopted ASC 326, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments ("ASC 326"), which replaced the "incurred loss" model for recognizing credit losses with an "expected loss" model referred to as the CECL model. The adoption resulted in an increase of $79.8 million to the beginning balance of our ACL. Under the CECL model, we are required to present certain financial assets carried at amortized cost, such as loans held for investment and HTM debt securities, at the net amount expected to be collected. The measurement of expected credit losses is based on information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. This measurement will take place at the time the financial asset is first added to the balance sheet and periodically thereafter. This differs significantly from the incurred loss model required under current GAAP, which delayed recognition until it was probable a loss had been incurred. The CECL model may create more volatility in the level of our reserves. At December 31, 2020, Customers' ACL totaled $144.2 million, which represented 1.90% of total loans and leases held for investment (excluding loans receivable, mortgage warehouse at fair value and loan receivable, PPP), a non-GAAP measure. Management believes the use of these non-GAAP measures provides additional clarity when assessing Customers' financial results. These disclosures should not be viewed as substitutes for results determined to be in accordance with U.S. GAAP, nor are they necessarily comparable to non-GAAP performance measures that may be presented by other entities. Please refer to the reconciliation schedules in "Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, LOANS AND LEASES, Credit Risk."
In determining the amount of the ACL, significant factors considered include loss experience in particular segments of the portfolio, trends and absolute levels of classified and criticized loans and leases, trends and absolute levels in delinquent loans and leases, trends in risk ratings, trends in industry and Customers' charge-offs by particular segments and changes in current and future economic and business conditions affecting our lending areas and the national economy, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. If our assumptions are incorrect, our ACL may not be sufficient to cover losses inherent in our loan and lease portfolio, resulting in additions to the ACL.
Management reviews and re-estimates the ACL quarterly. Additions to our ACL as a result of management's reviews and re-estimates could materially decrease net income. Our regulators, as an integral part of their examination process, periodically review our ACL and may require us to increase our ACL by recognizing additional provisions for loan and lease losses charged to expense, or to decrease our ACL by recognizing charge-offs, net of recoveries. Any such additional provisions for credit losses for loans and leases or net charge-offs, as required by our regulators, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and possible risk-based capital.
In first quarter 2020, as part of its response to the impact of COVID-19, the U.S. federal banking regulatory agencies issued an interim final rule that provided the option to temporarily delay certain effects of CECL on regulatory capital for two years, followed by a three-year transition period. The interim final rule allows banking organizations to delay for two years 100% of the day-one impact of adopting CECL and 25% of the cumulative change in the reported allowance for credit losses since adopting CECL. We elected to adopt the interim final rule.
Planned changes in the composition of our loan portfolio may expose us to increased lending risks.
We intend to continue emphasizing the origination of commercial loans, including specialty loans, loans to mortgage banking businesses and loans to consumers, while deemphasizing our multi-family loan portfolio. Our focus will be on funding commercial and industrial and consumer loan growth with the run-off of our multi-family loan portfolio. Changes in the composition of our loan portfolio could have a significant adverse effect on our overall credit profile, which could result in a higher percentage of non-accrual loans, increased provision for loan losses, and an increased level of net charge-offs, all of which could have a material and adverse effect on our financial
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condition and results of operations. Consumer loans are particularly affected by economic conditions, including interest rates, the rate of unemployment, housing prices, the level of consumer confidence, changes in consumer spending, and the number of personal bankruptcies. A weakening in business or economic conditions, including higher unemployment levels or declines in home prices could adversely affect borrowers' ability to repay their loans, which could negatively impact our credit performance.
As of December 31, 2020, Customers had $1.6 billion in consumer loans outstanding, or 10.3% of the total loan and lease portfolio, which includes loans held for sale and loans receivable, mortgage warehouse at fair value and loans receivable, PPP, compared to $1.6 billion, or 16.2% of the total loan and lease portfolio, as of December 31, 2019.
Our emphasis on commercial, commercial real estate and mortgage warehouse lending may expose us to increased lending risks.
We intend to continue emphasizing the origination of commercial loans and specialty loans, including loans to mortgage banking businesses. Commercial loans, including commercial real estate loans, can expose a lender to risk of non-payment and loss because repayment of the loans often depends on the successful operation of a business or property and the borrower’s cash flows. Such loans typically involve larger loan balances to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers compared to one-to-four-family residential mortgage loans. In addition, we may need to increase our allowance for credit losses in the future to account for an increase in expected credit losses associated with such loans. Also, we expect that many of our commercial borrowers will have more than one loan outstanding with us. Consequently, an adverse development with respect to one loan or one credit relationship can expose us to a significantly greater risk of loss compared to an adverse development with respect to a one-to-four-family residential mortgage loan.
As a lender to mortgage banking businesses, we provide financing to mortgage bankers by purchasing, subject to resale under a master repurchase agreement, the underlying residential mortgages on a short-term basis pending the ultimate sale of the mortgages to investors. We are subject to the risks associated with such lending, including, but not limited to, the risks of fraud, bankruptcy and possible default by the borrower, closing agents and the residential borrower on the underlying mortgage, any of which could result in credit losses. The risk of fraud associated with this type of lending includes, but is not limited to, settlement process risks, the risk of financing nonexistent loans or fictitious mortgage loan transactions, or the risk that collateral delivered is fraudulent or non-existent, creating a risk of loss of the full amount financed on the underlying residential mortgage loan, or in the settlement processes. In first quarter 2013, fraud was discovered in our commercial mortgage warehouse loan portfolio. Additional fraudulent transactions could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our lending to commercial mortgage businesses is a significant part of our assets and earnings. This business is subject to seasonality of the mortgage lending business, and volumes are likely to decline if interest rates increase, generally. A decline in the rate of growth, volume or profitability of this business unit, or a loss of its leadership could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
As of December 31, 2020, we had $14.2 billion in commercial loans outstanding, approximately 89.8% of our total loan and lease portfolio, which includes loans held for sale and loans receivable, mortgage warehouse at fair value and loans receivable, PPP, as compared to $8.4 billion, or 83.8% of the total loan and lease portfolio, as of December 31, 2019.
Our New York State multi-family loan portfolio could be adversely impacted by changes in legislation or regulation.
On June 14, 2019, the New York State legislature passed the Housing Stability and Tenant Protection Act of 2019, impacting about one million rent regulated apartment units. Among other things, the new legislation: (i) curtails rent increases from Material Capital Improvements and Individual Apartment Improvements; (ii) all but eliminates the ability for apartments to exit rent regulation; (iii) does away with vacancy decontrol and high-income deregulation; and (iv) repealed the 20% vacancy bonus. While it is too early to measure the full impact of the legislation, in total, it generally limits a landlord's ability to increase rents on rent regulated apartments and makes it more difficult to convert rent regulated apartments to market rate apartments. As a result, the value of the collateral located in New York State securing our multi-family loans or the future net operating income of such properties could potentially become impaired. At December 31, 2020, our total multi-family exposure in New York State was approximately $1.0 billion, of which approximately $0.7 billion, or 69%, was provided for loans to rent regulated properties in the multi-family community, primarily in New York City.
Federal Home Loan Bank of Pittsburgh may not pay dividends or repurchase capital stock in the future.
On December 23, 2008, the FHLB of Pittsburgh announced that it would voluntarily suspend the payment of dividends and the repurchase of excess capital stock until further notice. The FHLB announced at that time that it expected its ability to pay dividends and add to retained earnings to be significantly curtailed due to low short-term interest rates, an increased cost of maintaining liquidity, impairment charges and constrained access to debt markets at attractive rates. While the FHLB resumed payment of dividends and capital stock repurchases in 2012, capital stock repurchases from member banks are reviewed on a quarterly basis by the FHLB, and there is no guarantee that such dividends and capital stock repurchases will continue in the future. As of December 31, 2020, the Bank held $46.1 million of FHLB capital stock.
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The fair value of our investment securities can fluctuate due to market conditions. Adverse economic performance can lead to adverse security performance and potential impairment.
As of December 31, 2020, the fair value of our investment securities portfolio was $1.2 billion. We have historically followed a conservative investment strategy, with concentrations in securities that are backed by government-sponsored enterprises. In the future, we may seek to increase yields through more aggressive strategies, which may include a greater percentage of corporate securities, structured credit products or non-agency mortgage-backed securities. Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions in respect of the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying securities, and changes in market interest rates and continued instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, such as a change in management's intent to hold the securities until recovery in fair value, could cause credit losses and realized and/or unrealized losses in future periods and declines in OCI, which could have a material adverse effect on us. The process for determining whether impairment of a security exists usually requires complex, subjective judgments about the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security.
During the year ended December 31, 2017, Customers recorded impairment of $12.9 million related to its equity holdings in Religare for the full amount of the decline in fair value from the cost basis established at December 31, 2016 through September 30, 2017, because Customers no longer had the intent to hold these securities until a recovery in fair value. At December 31, 2020, Customers has not concluded on a tax strategy in place capable of generating sufficient capital gains to utilize any capital losses resulting from the Religare impairment. The adoption of ASU 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, on January 1, 2018 resulted in a cumulative effect adjustment to Customers' consolidated balance sheet with a $1.0 million reduction in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and a corresponding increase in retained earnings related to the December 31, 2017 unrealized gain on the Religare equity securities. In accordance with the new accounting guidance, changes in the fair value of the Religare equity securities since adoption are recorded directly in earnings, which resulted in an unrealized gain of $1.4 million being recognized in other non-interest income in the accompanying consolidated statements of income for the year ended December 31, 2020. At December 31, 2020, the fair value of the Religare equity securities was $3.9 million.
Changes to estimates and assumptions made by management in preparing financial statements could adversely affect our business, operating results, reported assets and liabilities, financial condition and capital levels.
Changes to estimates and assumptions made by management in connection with the preparation of our consolidated financial statements could adversely affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the reported amounts of income and expenses. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires management to make certain critical accounting estimates and assumptions that could affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the reported amounts of income and expense during the reporting periods. Changes to management’s assumptions or estimates could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, reported assets and liabilities, financial condition and capital levels.
Changes in accounting standards and policies can be difficult to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial results.
Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. From time to time, the FASB or the SEC changes the financial accounting and reporting standards or the policies that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes can be difficult to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. We could be required to apply new or revised guidance retrospectively, which may result in the revision of prior period financial statements by material amounts. The implementation of new or revised accounting guidance could have a material adverse effect on our financial results or net worth. For example, we adopted ASC 326 on January 1, 2020 which replaced the incurred loss methodology for determining our provision for credit losses and the ACL with the CECL model. As discussed above, our adoption of CECL resulted in an increase to our ACL of $79.8 million. The impact of CECL in future periods will be significantly influenced by the composition, characteristics and quality of our loan and lease portfolio, as well as the current economic conditions and forecasts of macroeconomic variables utilized. Should these factors materially change, we may be required to increase or decrease our ACL which will impact our reported earnings thereby introducing additional volatility into our reported earnings.
The geographic concentration in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions makes our business susceptible to downturns in the local economies and depressed banking markets, which could materially and adversely affect us.
Our loan and deposit activities are largely based in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions. As a result, our financial performance depends upon economic conditions in these regions. These regions experienced deteriorating local economic conditions in the past
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economic cycle, and a downturn in the regional real estate market could harm our financial condition and results of operations because of the geographic concentration of loans within these regions, and because a large percentage of the loans are secured by real property. If there is decline in real estate values, the collateral value for our loans will decrease, and our probability of incurring losses will increase as the ability to recover on defaulted loans by selling the underlying real estate will be lessened.
Additionally, we have made a significant investment in commercial real estate loans. Often in a commercial real estate transaction, repayment of the loan is dependent on the property generating sufficient rental income to service the loan. Economic conditions may affect a tenant’s ability to make rental payments on a timely basis, and may cause some tenants not to renew their leases, each of which may impact the debtor’s ability to make loan payments. Further, if expenses associated with commercial properties increase dramatically, a tenant’s ability to repay, and therefore the debtor’s ability to make timely loan payments, could be adversely affected. All of these factors could increase the amount of NPLs, increase our provision for loan losses and reduce our net income.
We depend on our executive officers and key personnel to implement our strategy and could be harmed by the loss of their services.
We believe that the implementation of our strategy will depend in large part on the skills of our executive management team, and our ability to motivate and retain these and other key personnel. Accordingly, the loss of service of one or more of our executive officers or key personnel could reduce our ability to successfully implement our growth strategy and materially and adversely affect us. Leadership changes will occur from time to time, and if significant resignations occur, we may not be able to recruit additional qualified personnel. We believe our executive management team possesses valuable knowledge about the banking industry and that their knowledge and relationships would be very difficult to replicate. Although our CEO, CFO, and President have entered into employment agreements with us, it is possible that they may not complete the term of their employment agreement or may choose not to renew it upon expiration.
Our customers also rely on us to deliver personalized financial services. Our strategic model is dependent upon relationship managers and private bankers who act as a customer’s single point of contact to us. The loss of the service of these individuals could undermine the confidence of our customers in our ability to provide such personalized services. We need to continue to attract and retain these individuals and to recruit other qualified individuals to ensure continued growth. In addition, competitors may recruit these individuals in light of the value of the individuals’ relationships with their customers and communities, and we may not be able to retain such relationships absent the individuals. In any case, if we are unable to attract and retain our relationship managers and private bankers and recruit individuals with appropriate skills and knowledge to support our business, our growth strategy, business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our success also depends on the experience of our branch managers and lending officers and on their relationships with the customers and communities they serve. The loss of these key personnel could negatively impact our banking operations. The loss of key senior personnel, or the inability to recruit and retain qualified personnel in the future, could have a material adverse effect on us.
Potential limitations on incentive compensation contained in proposed federal agency rulemaking may adversely affect our ability to attract and retain our highest performing team members.
In April 2011 and May 2016, the Federal Reserve, other federal banking agencies and the SEC jointly published proposed rules designed to implement provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act prohibiting incentive compensation arrangements that would encourage inappropriate risk taking at covered financial institutions, which includes a bank or bank holding company with $1 billion or more in assets, such as we. It cannot be determined at this time whether or when a final rule will be adopted, and whether compliance with such a final rule will substantially affect the manner in which we structure compensation for our executives and other team members. Depending on the nature and application of the final rules, we may not be able to successfully compete with certain financial institutions and other companies that are not subject to some or all of the rules to retain and attract executives and other high-performing team members. If this were to occur, relationships that we have established with our clients may be impaired and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected, perhaps materially.
We face significant competition from other financial institutions and financial services providers, which may materially and adversely affect us.
Commercial and consumer banking is highly competitive. Changes in market interest rates and pricing decisions by our loan competitors may adversely affect demand for our loan products and the revenue realized on the sale of loans, and ultimately reduce our net income. Our markets contain a large number of community and regional banks as well as a significant presence of the country’s largest commercial banks. We compete with other state and national financial institutions, including savings and loan associations, savings banks and credit unions, for deposits and loans. In addition, we compete with financial intermediaries, such as consumer finance companies, mortgage banking companies, insurance companies, securities firms, mutual funds and several government agencies, as well as major retailers, in providing various types of loans and other financial services. Some of these competitors may have a long history of successful operations in our markets, greater ties to local businesses and more expansive banking relationships, as well as better established depositor bases. Competitors may also have greater resources and access to capital and may possess other advantages such
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as operating more ATMs and conducting extensive promotional and advertising campaigns or operating a more developed Internet platform. Competitors may also exhibit a greater tolerance for risk and behave more aggressively with respect to pricing in order to increase their market share.
We expect to drive organic growth by employing our Concierge Banking® and single-point-of-contact strategies, which provide specific relationship managers or private bankers for all customers. Many of our competitors provide similar services, and others may replicate our model. Our competitors may have greater resources than we do and may be able to provide similar services more quickly, efficiently and extensively. To the extent others replicate our model, we could lose what we view as a competitive advantage, and our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation. Increased competition among financial services companies due to the recent consolidation of certain competing financial institutions may adversely affect our ability to market our products and services. Technological advances have lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for banks to compete in our market without a retail footprint by offering competitive rates, as well as non-banks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks. Our ability to compete successfully depends on a number of factors, including, among others:
the ability to develop, maintain and build upon long-term customer relationships based on high quality, personal service, effective and efficient products and services, high ethical standards and safe and sound assets;
the scope, relevance and competitive pricing of products and services offered to meet customer needs and demands;
the ability to provide customers with maximum convenience of access to services and availability of banking representatives;
the ability to attract and retain highly qualified team members to operate our business;
the ability to expand our market position;
customer access to our decision makers and customer satisfaction with our level of service; and
the ability to operate our business effectively and efficiently.
Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken our competitive position, which could materially and adversely affect us.
Like other financial services institutions, our asset and liability structures are monetary in nature. Such structures are affected by a variety of factors, including changes in interest rates, which can impact the value of financial instruments held by us.
Like other financial services institutions, we have asset and liability structures that are essentially monetary in nature and are directly affected by many factors, including domestic and international economic and political conditions, broad trends in business and finance, legislation and regulation affecting the national and international business and financial communities, monetary and fiscal policies, inflation, currency values, market conditions, the availability and terms (including cost) of short-term or long-term funding and capital, the credit capacity or perceived creditworthiness of customers and counterparties and the level and volatility of trading markets. Such factors can impact customers and counterparties of a financial services institution and may impact the value of financial instruments held by a financial services institution.
Our earnings and cash flows largely depend upon the level of our net interest income, which is the difference between the interest income we earn on loans, investments and other interest earning assets, and the interest we pay on interest bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Because different types of assets and liabilities may react differently and at different times to market interest-rate changes, changes in interest rates can increase or decrease our net interest income. When interest-bearing liabilities mature or reprice more quickly than interest-earning assets in a period, an increase in interest rates would reduce net interest income. Similarly, when interest-earning assets mature or reprice more quickly, and because the magnitude of repricing of interest-earning assets is often greater than interest-bearing liabilities, falling interest rates would reduce net interest income. Furthermore, with total assets above $10 billion, our ability to earn increased net interest income will be important to recover reduced interchange income due to the loss of the small issuer exemption under the Durbin Amendment.
Accordingly, changes in the level of market interest rates affect our net yield on interest-earning assets and liabilities, loan and investment securities portfolios and our overall financial results. Changes in interest rates may also have a significant impact on any future loan origination revenues. Changes in interest rates also have a significant impact on the carrying value of a significant percentage of the assets, both loans and investment securities, on our balance sheet. We may incur debt in the future, and that debt may also be sensitive to interest rates and any increase in interest rates could materially and adversely affect us. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors beyond our control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and
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regulatory agencies, particularly the Federal Reserve. Adverse changes in the Federal Reserve’s interest-rate policies or other changes in monetary policies and economic conditions could materially and adversely affect us.
Uncertainty about the future of LIBOR may adversely affect our business.
LIBOR and certain other interest rate “benchmarks” are the subject of recent national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms may cause such benchmarks to perform differently than in the past or have other consequences which cannot be predicted. On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, publicly announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit information to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021. The announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot be guaranteed after 2021. On November 30, 2020, the LIBOR's administrator announced a consultation on specific timing for ceasing the publication of USD LIBOR, with proposed end dates immediately following the December 31, 2021 publication for the one week and two month USD LIBOR settings, and the June 30, 2023 publication for other USD LIBOR tenors. The U.S. regulators are also encouraging banks to transition away from USD LIBOR as soon as practicable and in any event by December 31, 2021. While there is no consensus on what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, a group of market participants convened by the Federal Reserve, the Alternative Reference Rate Committee, has selected the SOFR as its recommended alternative to LIBOR. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York started to publish the SOFR in April 2018. The SOFR is a broad measure of the cost of overnight borrowings collateralized by Treasury securities that was selected by the Alternative Reference Rate Committee due to the depth and robustness of the U.S. Treasury repurchase market. At this time, it is impossible to predict whether the SOFR will become an accepted alternative to LIBOR.
The market transition away from LIBOR to an alternative reference rate, such as the SOFR, is complex and could have a range of adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In particular, any such transition could:
adversely affect the interest rates paid or received on, the revenue and expenses associated with or the value of Customers' LIBOR-based assets and liabilities, which include certain variable rate securities and loans, leases, cash flow hedges, derivatives not designated as hedging instruments, subordinated debt, and Customers' outstanding preferred stock;
adversely affect the interest rates paid or received on, the revenue and expenses associated with or the value of other securities or financial arrangements, given LIBOR’s role in determining market interest rates globally;
prompt inquiries or other actions from regulators in respect of Customers' preparation and readiness for the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate; and
result in disputes, litigation or other actions with counterparties regarding the interpretation and enforceability of certain fallback language in LIBOR-based contracts and securities.
The transition away from LIBOR to an alternative reference rate will require the transition to or development of appropriate systems and analytics to effectively transition Customers' risk management and other processes from LIBOR-based products to those based on the applicable alternative reference rate, such as the SOFR. There can be no guarantee that these efforts will successfully mitigate the operational risks associated with the transition away from LIBOR to an alternative reference rate.
The manner and impact of the transition from LIBOR to an alternative reference rate, as well as the effect of these developments on our funding costs, loan and investment securities portfolios, asset-liability management, and business, is uncertain.
We are dependent on our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers, and systems failures, interruptions or breaches of security could have a material adverse effect on us.
Our business is highly dependent on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers. We outsource many of our major systems, such as data processing, loan servicing and deposit processing systems. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. If significant, sustained or repeated, a system failure or service denial could compromise our ability to operate effectively, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, and/or subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on us.
We continue to evaluate and implement upgrades and changes to our information technology systems, some of which are significant. Upgrades involve replacing existing systems with successor systems, making changes to existing systems or cost-effectively acquiring new systems with new functionality. We are aware of inherent risks associated with replacing these systems, including accurately capturing data and system disruptions, and believe we are taking appropriate action to mitigate the risks through testing, training, and staging implementation, as well as ensuring appropriate commercial contracts are in place with third-party vendors supplying or supporting our information technology initiatives. However, there can be no assurances that we will successfully launch these systems
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as planned or that they will be implemented without disruptions to our operations. Information technology system disruptions, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, or failure to successfully implement new or upgraded systems, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Also, we may have to make a significant investment to repair or replace these systems and could suffer loss of critical data and interruptions or delays in our operations.
In addition, we provide our customers with the ability to bank remotely, including online, over the Internet and over the telephone. The secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet and other remote channels is a critical element of remote banking. Our network could be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer viruses, phishing schemes and other security breaches. We may be required to spend significant capital and other resources to protect against the threat of security breaches and computer viruses or to alleviate problems caused by security breaches or viruses. To the extent that our activities or the activities of our customers involve the storage and transmission of confidential information, security breaches and viruses could expose us to claims, regulatory scrutiny, litigation and other possible liabilities. Any inability to prevent security breaches or computer viruses could also cause existing customers to lose confidence in our systems and could materially and adversely affect us.
Additionally, financial products and services have become increasingly technology-driven. Our ability to meet the needs of our customers competitively and in a cost-efficient manner is dependent on the ability to keep pace with technological advances and to invest in new technology as it becomes available. Certain competitors may have greater resources to invest in technology and may be better equipped to market new technology-driven products and services. The ability to keep pace with technological change is important, and the failure to do so could have a material adverse impact on our business and therefore on our financial condition and results of operations.
Loss of, or failure to adequately safeguard, confidential or proprietary information may adversely affect our operations, net income or reputation.
We regularly collect, process, transmit and store significant amounts of confidential information regarding our customers, team members and others. This information is necessary for the conduct of our business activities, including the ongoing maintenance of deposit, loan, investment management and other account relationships for our customers, and receiving instructions and affecting transactions for those customers and other users of our products and services. In addition to confidential information regarding our customers, team members and others, we compile, process, transmit and store proprietary, non-public information concerning our own business, operations, plans and strategies. In some cases, this confidential or proprietary information is collected, compiled, processed, transmitted or stored by third parties on our behalf.
Information security risks have increased in recent years because of the proliferation of new technologies and the increased sophistication and activities of perpetrators of cyber-attacks. A failure in or breach of our operational or information security systems or those of our third-party service providers, as a result of cyber-attacks or information security breaches or due to team member error, malfeasance or other disruptions could adversely affect our business, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and/or cause losses. As a result, cyber security and the continued development and enhancement of the controls and processes designed to protect our systems, computers, software, data and networks from attack, damage or unauthorized access remain a priority for us.
If this confidential or proprietary information were to be mishandled, misused or lost, we could be exposed to significant regulatory consequences, reputational damage, civil litigation and financial loss. Mishandling, misuse or loss of this confidential or proprietary information could occur, for example, if the confidential or proprietary information were erroneously provided to parties who were not permitted to have the information, either by fault of the systems or our team members, or the systems or employees of third parties which have collected, compiled, processed, transmitted or stored the information on our behalf, where the information is intercepted or otherwise inappropriately taken by third parties or where there is a failure or breach of the network, communications or information systems which are used to collect, compile, process, transmit or store the information.
Although we employ a variety of physical, procedural and technological safeguards to protect this confidential and proprietary information from mishandling, misuse or loss, these safeguards do not provide absolute assurance that mishandling, misuse or loss of the information will not occur, or that if mishandling, misuse or loss of the information did occur, those events would be promptly detected and addressed. Additionally, as information security risks and cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend additional resources to continue to enhance our information security measures and/or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.
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Breaches of security measures, computer viruses or malware, fraudulent activity and infrastructure failures could materially and adversely affect our reputation or harm our business including the unauthorized access to or disclosure of data relating to BMT serviced deposit account holders.
Companies that process and transmit cardholder information have been specifically and increasingly targeted by sophisticated criminal organizations in an effort to obtain the information and utilize it for fraudulent transactions. The encryption software and the other technologies we use to provide security for storage, processing and transmission of confidential customer and other information may not be effective to protect against data-security breaches. The risk of unauthorized circumvention of our security measures has been heightened by advances in computer capabilities and the increasing sophistication of hackers.
Unauthorized access to our computer systems or those of our third-party service providers, could result in the theft or publication of the information or the deletion or modification of sensitive records, and could cause interruptions in our operations. Any inability to prevent security breaches could damage our relationships with our higher education institution customers, cause a decrease in transactions by individual cardholders, expose us to liability for unauthorized purchases and subject us to network fines. These claims also could result in protracted and costly litigation. If unsuccessful in defending that litigation, we might be forced to pay damages and/or change our business practices. Further, a significant data-security breach could lead to additional regulation, which could impose new and costly compliance obligations. Any material increase in our costs resulting from litigation or additional regulatory burdens being imposed upon us or litigation could have a material adverse effect on our operating revenues and profitability.
In addition, our student account holders disclose certain “personally identifiable” information, including student contact information, identification numbers and the amount of credit balances, which they expect we will maintain in confidence. It is possible that hackers, customers or team members acting unlawfully or contrary to our policies or other individuals, could improperly access our or our vendors’ systems and obtain or disclose data about our customers. Further, because customer data may also be collected, stored or processed by third-party vendors, it is possible that these vendors could intentionally, negligently or otherwise disclose data about our clients or customers.
We rely to a large extent upon sophisticated information technology systems, databases and infrastructure, and take reasonable steps to protect them. However, due to their size, complexity, content and integration with or reliance on third-party systems, they are vulnerable to breakdown, malicious intrusion, natural disaster and random attack, all of which pose a risk of exposure of sensitive data to unauthorized persons or to the public.
A cybersecurity breach of our information systems could lead to fraudulent activity such as identity theft, losses on the part of our banking customers, additional security costs, negative publicity and damage to our reputation and brand. In addition, our customers could be subject to scams that may result in the release of sufficient information concerning themselves or their accounts to allow others unauthorized access to their accounts or our systems (e.g., “phishing” and “smishing”). Claims for compensatory or other damages may be brought against us as a result of a breach of our systems or fraudulent activity. If we are unsuccessful in defending against any resulting claims against us, we may be forced to pay damages, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures.
Further, computer viruses or malware could infiltrate our systems, thus disrupting our delivery of services and making our applications unavailable. Although we utilize several preventative and detective security controls in our network, they may be ineffective in preventing computer viruses or malware that could damage our relationships with our merchant customers, cause a decrease in transactions by individual cardholders, or cause us to be in non-compliance with applicable network rules and regulations.
In addition, a significant incident of fraud or an increase in fraud levels generally involving our products could result in reputational damage to us, which could reduce the use of our products and services. Such incidents could also lead to a large financial loss as a result of the protection for unauthorized purchases we provide to BankMobile customers given that we may be liable for any uncollectible account holder overdrafts and any other losses due to fraud or theft. Such incidents of fraud could also lead to regulatory intervention, which could increase our compliance costs. Compliance with the various complex laws and regulations is costly and time consuming, and failure to comply could have a material adverse effect on our business. Additionally, increased regulatory requirements on our services may increase our costs, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Accordingly, account data breaches and related fraudulent activity could have a material adverse effect on our future growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations.
A disruption to our systems or infrastructure could damage our reputation, expose us to legal liability, cause us to lose customers and revenue, result in the unintentional disclosure of confidential information or require us to expend significant efforts and resources or
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incur significant expense to eliminate these problems and address related data and security concerns. The harm to our business could be even greater if such an event occurs during a period of disproportionately heavy demand for our products or services or traffic on our systems or networks.
Prior to our acquisition of the Disbursement business, the Federal Reserve Board and FDIC took regulatory enforcement action against Higher One, which subjected us to regulatory inquiry and potential regulatory enforcement action, which may result in liabilities adversely affecting our business, financial conditions and/or results of operations or in reputational harm even after BMT's divestiture.
Since August 2013 until the acquisition of the Disbursement business, we provided deposit accounts and services to college students through Higher One, which had relationships with colleges and universities in the United States, using Higher One’s technological services. Because Higher One was not a bank, it had to partner with one or more banks to provide the deposit accounts and services to students. Higher One and one of Higher One’s former bank partners (the “predecessor bank”), announced in May 2014 that the Federal Reserve Board notified them that certain disclosures and operating processes of these entities may have violated certain laws and regulations and may result in penalties and restitution. In May 2014, the Federal Reserve also informed us, as one of Higher One’s bank partners, that it was recommending a regulatory enforcement action be initiated against us based on the same allegations.
In July 2014, the predecessor bank referenced above, which no longer is a partner with Higher One, entered into a consent order to cease and desist with the Federal Reserve Board pursuant to which it agreed to pay a total of $3.5 million in civil money penalties and an additional amount that it may be required to pay in restitution to students in the event Higher One is unable to pay the restitution obligations, if any, imposed on Higher One (“back-up restitution”). We believe that the circumstances of its relationship with Higher One and the student customers are different than the relationship between us and Higher One and the student customers.
In December 2015, Higher One entered into consent orders with both the Federal Reserve Board and the FDIC. Under the consent order with the Federal Reserve Board, Higher One agreed to pay $2.2 million in civil money penalties and $24 million in restitution to students. Under the consent order with the FDIC, Higher One agreed to pay an additional $2.2 million in civil money penalties and $31 million in restitution to students. In addition, a third partner bank, which is regulated by the FDIC, also entered into a consent order to cease and desist with the FDIC pursuant to which it agreed to pay $1.8 million in civil money penalties and an additional amount in restitution to students in the event Higher One is unable to meet its restitution obligation.
We believe that we identified key critical alleged compliance deficiencies within 30 days of first accepting deposits through our relationship with Higher One and caused such deficiencies to be remediated within approximately 120 days. In addition, we understand that the total amount of fees that Higher One collected from students who opened accounts with us during the relevant time period is substantially less than the total fees that Higher One collected from students who opened deposit accounts at the other partner banks during the relevant time period. In addition, as Higher One paid the restitution and deposited such monies to pay the required restitution, we did not expect that backup restitution would be required.
Nonetheless, as previously disclosed, we had been in discussions with the Federal Reserve Board regarding these matters from 2013 and in an effort to move forward, on December 6, 2016, we agreed to the issuance by the Federal Reserve Board of a combined Order to Cease and Desist and Order of Assessment of a Civil Money Penalty Issued Upon Consent Pursuant to the Order and agreed to a penalty of $960 thousand. We had previously set aside a reserve for the civil money penalty and made payment in 2016.
We remain subject to the jurisdiction and examination of the Federal Reserve Board, and further action could be taken to the extent we do not comply with the terms of the Order or if the Federal Reserve Board were to identify additional violations of applicable laws and regulations. Any further action could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions and/or results of operations or our reputation.
We intend to engage in acquisitions of other businesses from time to time. These acquisitions may not produce revenue or earnings enhancements or cost savings at levels, or within time frames, originally anticipated and may result in unforeseen integration difficulties.
Although we currently do not have any agreements or understandings with respect to business acquisitions, we regularly evaluate opportunities to strengthen our current market position by acquiring and investing in banks and in other complementary businesses, or opening new branches, and when appropriate opportunities arise, subject to regulatory approval, we plan to engage in acquisitions of other businesses and in opening new branches. Such transactions could, individually or in the aggregate, have a material effect on our operating results and financial condition, including short and long-term liquidity. Our acquisition activities could be material to our business. For example, we could issue additional shares of Voting Common Stock in a purchase transaction, which could dilute current shareholders’ value or ownership interest. These activities could require us to use a substantial amount of cash or other liquid assets and/or incur debt. In addition, if goodwill recorded in connection with acquisitions were determined to be impaired, then we would be required to recognize a charge against our earnings, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations during the
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period in which the impairment was recognized. Our acquisition activities could involve a number of additional risks, including the risks of:
incurring time and expense associated with identifying and evaluating potential acquisitions and negotiating the terms of potential transactions, resulting in our attention being diverted from the operation of our existing business;
using inaccurate estimates and judgments to evaluate credit, operations, management and market risks with respect to the target institution or assets;
being potentially exposed to unknown or contingent liabilities of banks and businesses we acquire;
being required to expend time and expense to integrate the operations and personnel of the combined businesses;
experiencing higher operating expenses relative to operating income from the new operations;
creating an adverse short-term effect on our results of operations;
losing key team members and customers as a result of an acquisition that is poorly received; and
incurring significant problems relating to the conversion of the financial and customer data of the entity being acquired into our financial and customer product systems.
Additionally, in evaluating potential acquisition opportunities, we may seek to acquire failed banks through FDIC-assisted acquisitions. While the FDIC may, in such acquisitions, provide assistance to mitigate certain risks, such as sharing in exposure to loan losses and providing indemnification against certain liabilities, of the failed institution, we may not be able to accurately estimate our potential exposure to loan losses and other potential liabilities, or the difficulty of integration, in acquiring such institutions.
Depending on the condition of any institutions or assets that are acquired, any acquisition may, at least in the near term, materially adversely affect our capital and earnings and, if not successfully integrated following the acquisition, may continue to have such effects. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in overcoming these risks or any other problems encountered in connection with pending or potential acquisitions. Our inability to overcome these risks could have an adverse effect on levels of reported net income, return on equity and return on assets and the ability to achieve our business strategy and maintain market value.
Our acquisitions generally will require regulatory approvals, and failure to obtain them would restrict our growth.
Although we currently do not have any agreements or understandings with respect to business acquisitions, we may in the future seek to complement and expand our business by pursuing strategic acquisitions of community banking franchises and other businesses. Generally, any acquisition of target financial institutions, banking centers or other banking assets by us may require approval by, and cooperation from, a number of governmental regulatory agencies, possibly including the Federal Reserve, the OCC and the FDIC, as well as state banking regulators. In acting on applications, federal banking regulators consider, among other factors:
the effect of the acquisition on competition;
the financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, capital levels and future prospects of the applicant and the bank(s) involved;
the quantity and complexity of previously consummated acquisitions;
the managerial resources of the applicant and the bank(s) involved;
the convenience and needs of the community, including the record of performance under CRA;
the effectiveness of the applicant in combating money laundering activities; and
the extent to which the acquisition would result in greater or more concentrated risks to the stability of the United States banking or financial system.
Such regulators could deny our application based on the above criteria or other considerations, which could restrict our growth, or the regulatory approvals may not be granted on terms that are acceptable to us. For example, we could be required to sell banking centers as a condition to receiving regulatory approvals, and such a condition may not be acceptable to us or may reduce the benefit of any acquisition.
To the extent that we are unable to increase loans through organic core loan growth, we may be unable to successfully implement our growth strategy, which could materially and adversely affect us.
In addition to growing our business through strategic acquisitions, we also intend to grow our business through organic core loan growth. While loan growth has been strong, and our loan balances have increased over the last several fiscal years, much of the loan
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growth came from multi-family and commercial real estate lending. If we are unsuccessful in diversifying our loan originations, or if we do not grow the existing business lines, our results of operations and financial condition could be negatively impacted.
We may not be able to effectively manage our growth.
Our future operating results and financial condition depend to a large extent on our ability to successfully manage our growth. Our growth has placed, and it may continue to place, significant demands on our operations and management. Whether through additional acquisitions or organic growth, our current plan to expand our business is dependent upon our ability to:
continue to implement and improve our operational, credit underwriting and administration, financial, accounting, enterprise risk management and other internal and disclosure controls and procedures and our reporting systems and processes in order to manage a growing number of client relationships;
comply with changes in, and an increasing number of, laws, rules and regulations, including those of any national securities exchange on which any of our securities become listed;
scale our technology and other systems’ platforms;
maintain and attract appropriate staffing;
operate profitably or raise capital; and
support our asset growth with adequate deposits, funding and liquidity while expanding our net interest margin and meeting our customers’ and regulators’ liquidity requirements.
We may not successfully implement improvements to, or integrate, our management information and control systems, credit underwriting and administration, internal and disclosure controls, and procedures and processes in an efficient or timely manner and may discover deficiencies in existing systems and controls. In particular, our controls and procedures must be able to accommodate an increase in loan volume in various markets and the infrastructure that comes with new banking centers and banks. Our growth strategy may divert management from our existing business and may require us to incur additional expenditures to expand our administrative and operational infrastructure and, if we are unable to effectively manage and grow our banking franchise, including to the satisfaction of our regulators, we could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, if we are unable to manage our current and future expansion in our operations, we may experience compliance, operational and regulatory problems and delays, have to slow our pace of growth or even stop our market and product expansion, or have to incur additional expenditures beyond current projections to support such growth, any one of which could materially and adversely affect us. If we experience difficulties with the development of new business activities or the integration process of acquired businesses, the anticipated benefits of any particular acquisition may not be realized fully, or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. Additionally, we may be unable to recognize synergies, operating efficiencies, cost projections and/or expected benefits within expected time frames, or at all. We also may not be able to preserve the goodwill of an acquired financial institution. Our growth could lead to increases in our legal, audit, administrative and financial compliance costs, which could materially and adversely affect us.
If our techniques for managing risk are ineffective, we may be exposed to material unanticipated losses.
In order to manage the significant risks inherent in our business, we must maintain effective policies, procedures and systems that enable us to identify, monitor and control our exposure to material risks, such as credit, interest rate, operational, compliance and reputational risks. Our risk management methods may prove to be ineffective due to their design, implementation or the degree to which we adhere to them, or as a result of the lack of adequate, accurate or timely information or otherwise. If our risk management efforts are ineffective, we could suffer losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, we could be subject to litigation, particularly from our customers, and sanctions or fines from regulators. Our techniques for managing the risks we face may not fully mitigate the risk exposure in all economic or market environments, including exposure to risks that we might fail to identify or anticipate.
We are dependent upon maintaining an effective system of internal controls to provide reasonable assurance that transactions and activities are conducted in accordance with established policies and procedures and are captured and reported in the financial statements. Failure to comply with the system of internal controls may result in events or losses which could adversely affect our operations, net income, financial condition, reputation and compliance with laws and regulations.
Our system of internal controls, including internal controls over financial reporting, is an important element of our risk-
management framework. Management regularly reviews and seeks to improve our internal controls, including annual review of key policies and procedures and annual review and testing of key internal controls over financial reporting. Any system of internal controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and expectations of employee conduct and can only provide reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the internal control structure are met. Any failure or circumvention of our
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controls and procedures, or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures, could have a material adverse effect on our operations, net income, financial condition, reputation, compliance with laws and regulations, or may result in untimely or inaccurate financial reporting.
As previously disclosed, in November 2018, Customers determined that its previously issued consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, the related report of BDO included in the 2017 Form 10-K filed on February 23, 2018, and interim consolidated financial statements as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 and the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 (collectively, the "Affected Periods"), should no longer be relied upon because of misclassifications of cash flow activities associated with Customers' commercial mortgage warehouse lending activities between operating and investing activities on its consolidated statements of cash flows because the related loan balances were incorrectly classified as held for sale rather than held for investment on its consolidated balance sheets. These misclassifications had no effect on total cash balances, total loans, the ACL, total assets, total capital, regulatory capital ratios, net interest income, net interest margin, net income to shareholders, basic or diluted EPS, return on average assets, return on average equity, the efficiency ratio, asset quality ratios or any other key performance metric, including non-GAAP performance metrics, that Customers routinely discusses with analysts and investors. Customers filed an amended Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 and amended Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q/A for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2018 on November 30, 2018 to present the restated financial statements and related disclosures.
In connection with the restatement, management determined that a material weakness existed in internal control over financial reporting solely with respect to the misclassification of cash flows associated with Customers' commercial mortgage warehouse lending activities between operating and investing activities on its consolidated statements of cash flows because the related loan balances were incorrectly classified as held for sale rather than held for investment.
Customers conducted a comprehensive analysis of the classifications of cash flows within its consolidated statements of cash flows and established new accounting policies and disclosure control procedures for the classification and reporting of its mortgage warehouse lending transactions on the consolidated balance sheet and statements of cash flows. These efforts have remediated the identified material weakness in internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018.
As management continues to evaluate and work to enhance internal control over financial reporting, it may determine that additional measures are required to address control deficiencies or strengthen internal control over financial reporting. If Customers' remediation efforts do not operate effectively or if it is unsuccessful in implementing or following its remediation efforts, this may result in untimely or inaccurate reporting of Customers' financial results.
We may not be able to meet the cash flow requirements of our loan funding obligations, deposit withdrawals, or other business needs and fund our asset growth unless we maintain sufficient liquidity.
We must maintain sufficient liquidity to fund our balance sheet growth in order to successfully grow our revenues, make loans, and repay deposit and other liabilities as these mature or are drawn. This liquidity can be gathered in both wholesale and non-wholesale funding markets. Our asset growth over the past few years has been funded with various forms of deposits and wholesale funding, including brokered and wholesale time deposits, FHLB advances and Federal funds line borrowings. Total wholesale deposits including brokered and municipal deposits were 18.3% of total deposits at December 31, 2020. Our gross loan to deposit ratio was 140.0% at December 31, 2020, and our loan to deposit ratio excluding the commercial mortgage warehouse and PPP loan portfolio was 67.3% at December 31, 2020. Wholesale funding can cost more than deposits generated from our traditional branch system and customer relationships and is subject to certain practical limits such as our liquidity policy limits, our available collateral for FHLB borrowings capacity and Federal funds line limits with our lenders. Additionally, regulators consider wholesale funding beyond certain points to be imprudent and might suggest or require that future asset growth be reduced or halted. In the absence of appropriate levels and mix of funding, we might need to reduce interest-earning asset growth through the reduction of current production, sales of loans and/or the sale of participation interests in future and current loans. This might reduce our future growth and net income.
The amount of funds loaned to us is generally dependent on the value of the eligible collateral pledged and our financial condition. These lenders could reduce the percentages loaned against various collateral categories, eliminate certain types of collateral and otherwise modify or even terminate their loan programs, if further disruptions in the capital markets occur. Any change to or termination of our borrowings from the FHLB or correspondent banks could have an adverse effect on our profitability and financial condition, including liquidity.
We may not be able to develop and retain a strong core deposit base and other low-cost, stable funding sources.
We depend on checking, savings and money market deposit account balances and other forms of customer deposits as a primary source of funding for our lending activities. We expect that our future loan growth will largely depend on our ability to retain and grow a strong, low-cost deposit base. Because 5.8% of our deposit base as of December 31, 2020 was time deposits, it may prove harder to
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maintain and grow our deposit base than would otherwise be the case, especially since many of these deposits currently pay interest at above-market rates. As of December 31, 2020, $0.5 billion, or 79.7%, of our total time deposits, are scheduled to mature through December 31, 2021. We are working to transition certain of our customers to lower- cost traditional bank deposits as higher-cost funding, such as time deposits, mature. If interest rates increase, whether due to changes in inflation, monetary policy, competition or other factors, we would expect to pay higher interest rates on deposits, which would increase our funding costs and compress our net interest margin. We may not succeed in moving our deposits to lower-yielding savings and transactions products, which could materially and adversely affect us. In addition, customers, particularly those who may maintain deposits in excess of insured limits, continue to be concerned about the extent to which their deposits are insured by the FDIC. Our customers may withdraw deposits to ensure that their deposits with us are fully insured and may place excess amounts in other institutions or make investments that are perceived as being more secure and/or higher yielding. Further, even if we are able to maintain and grow our deposit base, deposit balances can decrease when customers perceive alternative investments, such as the stock market, will provide a better risk/return tradeoff. If customers move money out of bank deposits, we could lose a relatively low-cost source of funds, increasing our funding costs and reducing our net interest income and net income.
Certain deposit balances associated with the BankMobile business segment can vary over the course of the year based on student enrollment and the timing of deposits made into those accounts, with seasonal inflows at the start of each semester that are drawn down until the following semester. Additionally, any such loss of funds could result in lower loan originations and growth, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, including liquidity.
Competitors’ technology-driven products and services and improvements to such products and services may adversely affect our ability to generate core deposits through mobile banking.
Our organic growth strategy focuses on, among other things, expanding market share through our “high-tech” model, which includes remote account opening, remote deposit capture, mobile and digital banking. These technological advances are intended to allow us to generate additional core deposits at a lower cost than generating deposits through opening and operating branch locations. Some of our competitors may have greater resources to invest in technology and may be better equipped to market new technology-driven products and services. This may result in limiting, reducing or otherwise adversely affecting our growth strategy in this area and our access to deposits through mobile banking. In addition, to the extent we fail to keep pace with technological changes or incur respectively large expenses to implement technological changes, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
We may incur losses due to minority investments in other financial institutions or related companies.
From time to time, we may make or consider making minority investments in other financial institutions or technology companies in the financial services business. If we do so, we may not be able to influence the activities of companies in which we invest and may suffer losses due to these activities. Investments in foreign companies could pose additional risks as a result of distance, language barriers and potential lack of information (for example, foreign institutions, including foreign financial institutions, may not be obligated to provide as much information regarding their operations as those in the United States). Our investment in Religare, which is a diversified financial services company in India, represents such an investment. In fourth quarter 2016, we announced our decision to exit our investment in Religare. As a result of that decision, we recorded an impairment loss of $7.3 million in earnings in fourth quarter 2016 and adjusted our cost basis of the Religare securities to their estimated fair value of $15.2 million at December 31, 2016. During the year ended December 31, 2017, Customers recorded impairment losses of $12.9 million related to its equity holdings in Religare for the full amount of the decline in fair value from the cost basis established at December 31, 2016 through September 30, 2017, because Customers no longer had the intent to hold these securities until a recovery in fair value. At December 31, 2020, Customers has not concluded on a tax strategy in place capable of generating sufficient capital gains to utilize any capital losses resulting from the Religare impairment. The adoption of ASU 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, on January 1, 2018 resulted in a cumulative effect adjustment to Customers' consolidated balance sheet with a $1.0 million reduction in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and a corresponding increase in retained earnings related to the December 31, 2017 unrealized gain on the Religare equity securities. In accordance with the new accounting guidance, changes in the fair value of the Religare equity securities since adoption are recorded directly in earnings, which resulted in an unrealized loss of $1.6 million being recognized in other non-interest income in the accompanying consolidated statements of income for the year ended December 31, 2018. As of December 31, 2020, the fair value of the Religare equity securities was $3.9 million, which resulted in an unrealized gain of $1.4 million being recognized in other non-interest income in the consolidated statements of income for the year ended December 31, 2020. Future declines in the market price per share of the Religare common stock and adverse changes in foreign currency exchange rates, may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are required to hold capital for United States bank regulatory purposes to support our investment in Religare securities.
Under the U.S. capital adequacy rules, which became effective as of January 1, 2015, we have to hold risk-based capital based on the amount of Religare common stock we own. Based upon the implementation of the final U.S. capital adequacy rules, these investments
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are currently subject to risk weighting of 100% of the amount of the investment; however, to the extent future aggregated carrying value of certain equity exposures exceeds 10% of our then total capital, risk weightings of 300% may apply. Any capital that is required to be used to support our Religare investment will not be available to support our United States operations or Customers Bank, if needed.
Risks related to the divestiture of BMT
We will continue to face the risks and challenges associated with BM Technologies after completion of the merger of BMT with Megalith Financial Acquisition Corp.
On January 4, 2021, we completed the divestiture of BMT through the merger of BMT with MFAC. In connection with the closing of the divestiture, MFAC changed its name to “BM Technologies, Inc.” Our agreement with MFAC relating to the merger of BMT and MFAC was amended to provide that the shares issuable by MFAC in connection with the merger would be issued directly to Customers Bancorp shareholders rather than being issued to and held by us. In connection with the divestiture, we have entered into various agreements with BM Technologies, including a transition services agreement, software license agreement, deposit servicing agreement, non-competition agreement and loan agreement for periods ranging from one to ten years. BM Technologies also assumed BMT's borrowing from us of approximately $12.2 million as a result of the transaction. This borrowing was further paid down to $5.4 million as of February 26, 2021. We will continue to face the risks and challenges associated with BM Technologies through these agreements. For example, the need to provide transition services to BM Technologies, Inc. may result in the diversion of resources and management's focus. We are also exposed to potential liabilities to the acquirer under the contractual provisions such as representation, warranties and indemnities. If we are unable to address and manage these risks, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Risks related to the COVID-19 Pandemic and Macroeconomic Conditions
Worsening general business and economic conditions could materially and adversely affect us.
Our business and operations are sensitive to general business and economic conditions in the United States. If the U.S. economy experiences worsening conditions such as a recession, we could be materially and adversely affected. Weak economic conditions may be characterized by deflation, instability in debt and equity capital markets, a lack of liquidity and/or depressed prices in the secondary market for mortgage loans, increased delinquencies on loans, residential and commercial real estate price declines and lower home sales and commercial activity. Adverse changes in any of these factors could be detrimental to our business. Our business is also significantly affected by monetary and related policies of the U.S. Federal Government, its agencies and government-sponsored entities. Adverse changes in economic factors or U.S. Government policies could have a negative effect on us.
Over the last several years, there have been several instances where there has been uncertainty regarding the ability of Congress and the President collectively to reach agreement on federal budgetary and spending matters. A period of failure to reach agreement on these matters, particularly if accompanied by an actual or threatened government shutdown, may have an adverse impact on the U.S. economy. Additionally, a prolonged government shutdown may inhibit our ability to evaluate borrower creditworthiness and originate and sell certain government-backed loans.
In addition, the U.S. economy contracted into a recession in the first half of 2020, primarily driven by the COVID-19 pandemic. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve responded to the pandemic with unprecedented measures. In addition to the Federal Reserve reducing the target federal funds rate, Congress passed the CARES Act that included an estimated $2 trillion stimulus package. Although the U.S. economy began to recover in third quarter 2020 as social distancing policies loosened, economic metrics in fourth quarter 2020 indicate an uneven path to recovery. In December 2020, Congress amended the CARES Act with the CAA to provide an additional $900 billion of stimulus relief to mitigate the continued impacts of the pandemic. While certain factors point to improving economic conditions, uncertainty remains regarding the path of the economic recovery, the mitigating impacts of government interventions, the success of vaccine distribution and the efficacy of administered vaccines, as well as the effects of the change in leadership resulting from the recent elections. Conditions related to inflation, recession, unemployment, volatile interest rates, international conflicts, changes in trade policies and other factors, such as real estate values, state and local municipal budget deficits, government spending and the U.S. national debt may, directly and indirectly, adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our business, and the ultimate impact on our business and financial results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the scope and duration of the pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities in response to the pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the global economy, disrupted global supply chains, lowered equity market valuations, created significant volatility and disruption in financial markets, and increased unemployment levels. In addition, the pandemic has resulted in temporary closures of many businesses and the institution of social distancing and sheltering in place requirements in many states and communities. As a result, the demand for our products and services may be significantly impacted.
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Furthermore, the pandemic has influenced and could further influence the recognition of credit losses in our loan and lease portfolios and has increased and could further increase our ACL, particularly as businesses remain closed and as more customers may draw on their lines of credit or seek additional loans to help finance their businesses. Similarly, because of changing economic and market conditions affecting issuers, the securities we hold may lose value. Our business operations may also be disrupted if significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, government actions, or other restrictions in connection with the pandemic. In response to the pandemic, we have also enacted hardship relief assistance for customers experiencing financial difficulty as a result of COVID-19, including fee and penalty waivers, loan deferrals or other scenarios that may help our customers. In addition, we are a lender for the SBA's PPP and other SBA, Federal Reserve or United States Treasury programs that have been or may be created in the future in response to the pandemic. These programs, including the new round of PPP under the CAA, are new and their effects on Customers' business are uncertain. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, results of operations, and financial condition, as well as our regulatory capital and liquidity ratios, will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the scope and duration of the pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic.
To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic continues to adversely affect the economy, and/or adversely affects our business, results of operations or financial condition, it may also have the effect of increasing the likelihood and/or magnitude of other risks described herein, including those risks related to business operations, industry/market, our securities and credit, or risks described in our other filings with the SEC.
We are a participating lender in SBA’s PPP program and have originated a significant number of loans under this program, which may result in a material amount of PPP loans remaining on our consolidated balance sheets at a very low yield for an extended period of time.
The PPP, originally established under the CARES Act and extended under the Economic Aid Act and CAA, authorizes financial institutions to make federally-guaranteed loans to qualifying small businesses and non-profit organizations. These loans carry an interest rate of 1% per annum and a maturity of 2 years for loans originated prior to June 5, 2020 and 5 years for loans originated on or after June 5th. The PPP provides that such loans may be forgiven if the borrowers meet certain requirements with respect to maintaining employee headcount and payroll and the use of the loan proceeds after the loan is originated. The initial phase of the PPP, after being extended multiple times by Congress, expired on August 8, 2020. However, on January 11, 2021, the SBA reopened the PPP for First Draw PPP loans to small business and non-profit organizations that did not receive a loan through the initial PPP phase. Further, on January 13, 2021, the SBA reopened the PPP for Second Draw loans to small businesses and non-profit organizations that did receive a loan through the initial PPP phase. At least $25 billion has been set aside for Second Draw PPP loans to eligible borrowers with a maximum of 10 employees or for loans of $250,000 or less to eligible borrowers in low or moderate income neighborhoods. Generally, businesses with more than 300 employees and/or less than a 25 percent reduction in gross receipts between comparable quarters in 2019 and 2020 are not eligible for Second Draw loans. Further, maximum loan amounts have been increased for accommodation and food service businesses.
As of December 31, 2020, we had PPP loans with outstanding balances of $4.6 billion. Considering our immediate response to originate PPP loans, the loans originated under this program may present potential fraud risk, increasing the risk that loan forgiveness may not be obtained by the borrowers and that the guaranty may not be honored. In addition, there is risk that the borrowers may not qualify for the loan forgiveness feature due to the conduct of the borrower after the loan is originated. Further, although the SBA has recently streamlined the loan forgiveness process for loans $50,000 or less, it has taken longer than initially anticipated for the SBA to finalize the forgiveness processes. On January 19, 2021, the SBA increased the streamlined loan forgiveness process to loans $150,000 or less. Thus, absent regulatory relief, extended forbearance waiting times due to SBA-related delays are likely. These factors may result in us having to hold a significant amount of these low-yield loans on our books for a significant period of time. Additionally, the PPP loans are not secured by an interest in a borrower's assets or otherwise backed by personal guarantees. We will continue to face increased operational demands and pressures as we monitor and service our PPP loan portfolio, process applications for loan forgiveness and pursue recourse under the SBA guarantees and against borrowers for PPP loan defaults. Further, the second rollout of the PPP may lead to further regulatory action on behalf of the SBA and/or further operational demands, pressures and risk of borrower defaults. We may also be subject to litigation and claims by borrowers under the PPP loans that we have made, as well as investigation and scrutiny by our regulators, Congress, the SBA, the U.S. Treasury Department and other government agencies.
Climate change and related legislative and regulatory initiatives may result in operational changes and expenditures that could significantly impact our business.
The current and anticipated effects of climate change are creating an increasing level of concern for the state of the global environment. As a result, political and social attention to the issue of climate change has increased. In recent years, governments across the world have entered into international agreements to attempt to reduce global temperatures, in part by limiting greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Congress, state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies have continued to propose and advance numerous legislative and regulatory initiatives seeking to mitigate the effects of climate change. Such initiatives are expected to continue under the new administration, including potentially increasing supervisory expectations with respect to banks' risk management practices, accounting
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for the effects of climate change in stress testing scenarios and systematic risk assessments, revising expectations for credit portfolio concentrations based on climate related factors, and encouraging investment by banks in climate-related initiatives and lending to communities disproportionately impacted by the effects of climate change. These agreements and measures may result in the imposition of taxes and fees, the required purchase of emission credits, and the implementation of significant operational changes, each of which may require Customers to expend significant capital and incur compliance, operating, maintenance and remediation costs. Given the lack of empirical data on the credit and other financial risks posed by climate change, it is impossible to predict how climate change may impact our financial condition and operations; however, as a banking organization, the physical effects of climate change may present certain unique risks to Customers. For example, weather disasters, shifts in local climates and other disruptions related to climate change may adversely affect the value of real properties securing our loans, which could diminish the value of our loan portfolio. Such events may also cause reductions in regional and local economic activity that may have an adverse effect on our customers, which could limit our ability to raise and invest capital in these areas and communities, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Severe weather, natural disasters, public health issues, acts of war or terrorism, and other external events could significantly impact our ability to conduct business.
Such events could affect the stability of our deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, adversely impact our team member base, cause significant property damage, result in loss of revenue, and cause us to incur additional expenses. Although management has established disaster recovery policies and procedures, the occurrence of any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Industry
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects could be adversely affected by the highly regulated environment in which we operate, including the effects of heightened regulatory requirements applicable to banks with assets in excess of $10 billion.
As a bank holding company, we are subject to federal supervision and regulation. Federal regulation of the banking industry, along with tax and accounting laws, regulations, rules and standards, may limit our operations significantly and control the methods by which we conduct business, just as they limit those of other banking organizations. In addition, compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations can impose additional compliance costs. The Dodd-Frank Act, which imposes significant regulatory and compliance changes on financial institutions, is an example of this type of federal regulation. Many of these regulations are intended to protect depositors, customers, the public, the banking system as a whole, or the FDIC insurance funds, not stockholders. Regulatory requirements and discretion affect our lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy and many other aspects of our business. There are laws and regulations which restrict transactions between us and our subsidiaries. These requirements may constrain our operations, and the adoption of new laws and changes to or repeal of existing laws may have a further impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects. Also, the burden imposed by those federal and state regulations may place banks in general, including Customers Bank in particular, at a competitive disadvantage compared to their non-banking competitors. We are also subject to requirements with respect to the confidentiality of information obtained from clients concerning their identities, business and personal financial information, employment and other matters. We require our team members to agree to keep all such information confidential, and we monitor compliance. Failure to comply with confidentiality requirements could result in material liability and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects.
Bank holding companies and financial institutions are extensively regulated and currently face an uncertain regulatory environment. Applicable laws, regulations, interpretations, enforcement policies and accounting principles have been subject to significant changes in recent years and may be subject to significant future changes. Future changes may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Federal and state regulatory agencies may adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied or interpreted. We cannot predict the substance or effect of pending or future legislation or regulation or the application of laws and regulations on us. Compliance with current and potential regulation, as well as regulatory scrutiny, may significantly increase our costs, impede the efficiency of our internal business processes, require us to increase our regulatory capital and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner by requiring us to expend significant time, effort and resources to ensure compliance and respond to any regulatory inquiries or investigations. In addition, press coverage and other public statements that assert some form of wrongdoing by financial services companies (including press coverage and public statements that do not involve us) may result in regulatory inquiries or investigations, which, independent of the outcome, may be time-consuming and expensive and may divert time,
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effort and resources from our business. Evolving regulations and guidance concerning executive compensation may also impose limitations on us that affect our ability to compete successfully for executive and management talent.
In addition, given the current economic and financial environment, regulators may elect to alter standards or the interpretation of the standards used to measure regulatory compliance or to determine the adequacy of liquidity, certain risk management or other operational practices for financial services companies in a manner that impacts our ability to implement our strategy and could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, the regulatory agencies have extremely broad direction in their interpretation of the regulations and laws and their interpretation of the quality of our loan portfolio, securities portfolio and other assets. If any regulatory agency’s assessment of the quality of our assets, operations, lending practices, investment practices, capital structure or other assets of our business differs from our assessment, we may be required to take additional charges or undertake or refrain from undertaking actions that would have the effect of materially reducing our earnings, capital ratios and share price.

Because our total assets exceeded $10 billion at December 31, 2019, we and our bank subsidiary became subject to increased regulatory requirements in 2020. The Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations impose various additional requirements on bank holding companies with $10 billion or more in total assets. In addition, banks with $10 billion or more in total assets are primarily examined by the CFPB with respect to various federal consumer financial protection laws and regulations. As a relatively new agency with evolving regulations and practices, there is some uncertainty as to how the CFPB’s examination and regulatory authority might impact our business. Further, the possibility of future changes in the authority of the CFPB by Congress or the Biden Administration is uncertain, and we cannot predict the impact, if any, changes to the CFPB may have on our business.

With respect to deposit-taking activities, banks with assets in excess of $10 billion are subject to two changes. First, these institutions are subject to a deposit assessment based on a new scorecard issued by the FDIC. This scorecard considers, among other things, the bank’s CAMELS rating, results of asset-related stress testing and funding-related stress, as well as our use of core deposits, among other things. Depending on the results of the bank’s performance under that scorecard, the total base assessment rate is between 1.5 to 40 basis points. Any increase in our bank subsidiary’s deposit insurance assessments may result in an increased expense related to our use of deposits as a funding source. Additionally, banks with over $10 billion in total assets are no longer exempt from the requirements of the Federal Reserve’s rules on interchange transaction fees for debit cards. This means that, as of July 1, 2020, our bank subsidiary is limited to receiving only a “reasonable” interchange transaction fee for any debit card transactions processed using debit cards issued by our bank subsidiary to our customers. The Federal Reserve has determined that it is unreasonable for a bank with more than $10 billion in total assets to receive more than $0.21 plus 5 basis points of the transaction plus a $0.01 fraud adjustment for an interchange transaction fee for debit card transactions. This reduction in the amount of interchange fees we receive for electronic debit interchange reduced our revenues in 2020, and will continue to affect our results of operations for the duration of the Deposit Servicing Agreement with BM Technologies.

Our regulators may also consider our compliance with these regulatory requirements when examining our operations generally or considering any request for regulatory approval we may make, even requests for approvals on unrelated matters.
We operate in a highly regulated environment, and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, corporate governance, executive compensation and accounting principles, or changes in them, or our failure to comply with them, could materially and adversely affect us.
We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and legislation that govern almost all aspects of our operations. Intended to protect customers, depositors and the FDIC’s DIF and not our shareholders, these laws and regulations, among other matters, prescribe minimum capital requirements, impose limitations on our business activities, limit the dividends or distributions that we can pay, restrict the ability of our subsidiary bank to engage in transactions with the Bancorp, and impose certain specific accounting requirements on us that may be more restrictive and may result in greater or earlier charges to earnings or reductions in our capital than under generally accepted accounting principles. Compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations often impose additional compliance costs and may make certain products impermissible or uneconomic. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations, even if the failure follows good faith effort or reflects a difference in interpretation, could subject us to restrictions on our business activities, reputational harm, fines and other penalties, any of which could materially and adversely affect us. Further, any new laws, rules and regulations could make compliance more difficult or expensive and also materially and adversely affect us.
Our use of third-party vendors and our other ongoing third-party business relationships are subject to increasing regulatory requirements and attention.
We regularly use third-party vendors as part of our business and have other ongoing business relationships with other third parties, including BM Technologies after the completion of the divestiture of BMT on January 4, 2021. These types of third-party relationships are subject to increasingly demanding regulatory requirements and attention by federal banking regulators. Regulation requires us to
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perform enhanced due diligence, perform ongoing monitoring and control our-third party vendors and other ongoing third-party business relationships. In certain cases, we may be required to renegotiate our agreements with these vendors to meet these enhanced requirements, which could increase our costs. We expect that our regulators will hold us responsible for deficiencies in our oversight and control of our third-party relationships and in the performance of the parties with which we have these relationships. As a result, if our regulators conclude that we have not exercised adequate oversight and control over our-third party vendors or other ongoing third-party business relationships or that such third parties have not performed appropriately, we could be subject to enforcement actions, including civil money penalties or other administrative or judicial penalties or fines as well as requirements for customer remediation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are subject to numerous laws and governmental regulations and to regular examinations by our regulators of our business and compliance with laws and regulations, and our failure to comply with such laws and regulations or to adequately address any matters identified during our examinations could materially and adversely affect us.
Federal banking agencies regularly conduct comprehensive examinations of our business, including our compliance with applicable laws, regulations and policies. Examination reports and ratings (which often are not publicly available) and other aspects of this supervisory framework can materially impact the conduct, organic and acquisition growth and profitability of our business. Our regulators have extensive discretion in their supervisory and enforcement activities and may impose a variety of remedial actions, conditions or limitations on our business operations if, as a result of an examination, they determined that our financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity or other aspects of any of our operations had become unsatisfactory, or that we or our management were in violation of any law, regulation or policy. Examples of those actions, conditions or limitations include enjoining “unsafe or unsound” practices, requiring affirmative actions to correct any conditions resulting from any asserted violation of law, issuing administrative orders that can be judicially enforced, directing increases in our capital, assessing civil monetary penalties against our officers or directors, removing officers and directors and, if a conclusion was reached that the offending conditions cannot be corrected, or there is an imminent risk of loss to depositors, terminating our deposit insurance. Other actions, formal or informal, that may be imposed could restrict our growth, including regulatory denials to expand branches, relocate, add subsidiaries and affiliates, expand into new financial activities or merge with or purchase other financial institutions. The timing of these examinations, including the timing of the resolution of any issues identified by our regulators in the examinations and the final determination by them with respect to the imposition of any remedial actions, conditions or limitations on our business operations, is generally not within our control. We also could suffer reputational harm in the event of any perceived or actual noncompliance with certain laws and regulations. If we become subject to such regulatory actions, we could be materially and adversely affected.
Other litigation and regulatory actions, including possible enforcement actions, could subject us to significant fines, penalties, judgments or other requirements resulting in increased expenses or restrictions on our business activities.
Our business is subject to increased litigation and regulatory risks as a result of a number of factors, including the highly regulated nature of the financial services industry and the focus of state and federal prosecutors on banks and the financial services industry generally. This focus has only intensified since the latest financial crisis and due to COVID-19 pandemic and related federal and state government responses, with regulators and prosecutors focusing on a variety of financial institution practices and requirements, including our origination and servicing of PPP loans and granting of deferments under the CARES Act, as amended by the CAA, and the Interagency Statement on Loan Modifications by Financial Institutions Working with Customers Affected by the Coronavirus. We may, from time to time, be the subject of subpoenas, requests for information, reviews, investigations and proceedings (both formal and informal) by governmental agencies regarding our business. Legal or regulatory actions may subject us to substantial compensatory or punitive damages, significant fines, penalties, obligations to change our business practices or other requirements resulting in increased expenses, diminished income and damage to our reputation. Our involvement in any such matters, even if the matters are ultimately determined in our favor, could also cause significant harm to our reputation and divert management attention from the operation of our business. Further, any settlement, consent order or adverse judgment in connection with any formal or informal proceeding or investigation by government agencies may result in litigation, investigations or proceedings as other litigants and government agencies begin independent reviews of the same activities. As a result, the outcome of legal and regulatory actions could be material to our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, depending on, among other factors, the level of our earnings for that period and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The FDIC’s restoration plan and the related increased assessment rate could materially and adversely affect us.
The FDIC insures deposits at FDIC-insured depository institutions up to applicable limits. The amount of a particular institution’s deposit insurance assessment is based on that institution’s risk classification under an FDIC risk-based assessment system. An institution’s risk classification is assigned based on its capital levels and the level of supervisory concern the institution poses to its regulators. We are generally unable to control the amount of premiums that we are required to pay for FDIC insurance. If there are additional bank or financial institution failures, we may be required to pay even higher FDIC premiums than the recently increased
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levels. Any future additional assessments, increases or required prepayments in FDIC insurance premiums may materially and adversely affect us, including reducing our profitability or limiting our ability to pursue certain business opportunities.
The Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support our subsidiary bank.
As a matter of policy, the Federal Reserve, which examines us and our subsidiaries, expects a bank holding company to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to a subsidiary bank and to commit resources to support such subsidiary bank. Under the “source of strength” doctrine, the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank and may charge the bank holding company with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failure to commit resources to such a subsidiary bank. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act directs the federal bank regulators to require that all companies that directly or indirectly control an insured depository institution serve as a source of strength for the institution. Under this requirement, we could be required to provide financial assistance to Customers Bank or any other subsidiary banks we may own in the future should they experience financial distress.
A capital injection may be required at times when we do not have the resources to provide it, and therefore, we may be required to borrow the funds or raise additional equity capital from third parties. Any loans by a holding company to its subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of the subsidiary bank. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, the bankruptcy trustee will assume any commitment by the holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank. Moreover, bankruptcy law provides that claims based on any such commitment will be entitled to a priority of payment over the claims of the holding company’s general unsecured creditors, including the holders of its indebtedness. Any financing that must be done by the holding company in order to make the required capital injection may be difficult and expensive and may not be available on attractive terms, or at all, which likely would have a material adverse effect on us.
The long-term impact of the new regulatory capital standards and the capital rules on U.S. banks is uncertain.
In September 2010, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, announced an agreement to a strengthened set of capital requirements for internationally active banking organizations in the United States and around the world, known as Basel III. Basel III narrowed the definition of capital, introduced requirements for minimum Tier 1 common capital, increased requirements for minimum Tier 1 capital and total risk-based capital, and changed risk-weighting methodologies. Basel III was fully phased in by January 1, 2019.
In July 2013, the Federal Reserve adopted a final rule regarding new capital requirements pursuant to Basel III. These rules, which became effective on January 1, 2015, for community banks, increased the required amount of regulatory capital that we must hold, and failure to comply with the capital rules will lead to limitations on the dividend payments to us by Customers Bank and other elective distributions.
In December 2017, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III regulatory framework (commonly referred to as Basel IV). Among other things, these standards revise the Basel Committee’s standardized approach for credit risk and provide a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the Basel framework, these standards will generally be effective on January 1, 2022, with an aggregate output floor phasing in through January 1, 2027. Under the current U.S. capital rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to advanced-approaches institutions and not to us. The impact of Basel IV on us will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the federal bank regulators.
Various provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act increase the capital requirements of bank holding companies, such as we, and non-bank financial companies that are supervised by the Federal Reserve. The leverage and risk-based capital ratios of these entities may not be lower than the leverage and risk-based capital ratios for insured depository institutions. The Basel III changes and other regulatory capital requirements will likely result in generally higher regulatory capital standards for us.
We face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations.
The federal Bank Secrecy Act, the Uniting and Strengthening America by PATRIOT Act and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. The federal Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, established by the U.S. Treasury Department to administer the Bank Secrecy Act, is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal banking regulators, as well as the DOJ, Drug Enforcement Administration and IRS. There is also increased scrutiny of compliance with the rules enforced by OFAC. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient or the policies, procedures and systems of the financial institutions that we have already acquired or may acquire in the future are deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions (such as restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, including our acquisition plans), which could materially and adversely affect us. Failure to maintain and
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implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us.
Federal, state and local consumer lending laws may restrict our ability to originate certain mortgage loans or increase our risk of liability with respect to such loans and could increase our cost of doing business.
Federal, state and local laws have been adopted that are intended to eliminate certain lending practices considered “predatory.” These laws prohibit practices such as steering borrowers away from more affordable products, selling unnecessary insurance to borrowers, repeatedly refinancing loans and making loans without a reasonable expectation that the borrowers will be able to repay the loans irrespective of the value of the underlying property. It is our policy not to make predatory loans, but these laws create the potential for liability with respect to our lending and loan investment activities. They increase our cost of doing business and, ultimately, may prevent us from making certain loans and cause us to reduce the average percentage rate or the points and fees on loans that we do make.
Loans that we make through certain federal programs are dependent on the Federal Government’s continuation and support of these programs and on our compliance with their requirements.
We participate in various U.S. Government agency guarantee programs, including PPP and other programs operated by the SBA. We are responsible for following all applicable U.S. Government agency regulations, guidelines and policies whenever we originate loans as part of these guarantee programs. If we fail to follow any applicable regulations, guidelines or policies associated with a particular guarantee program, any loans we originate as part of that program may lose the associated guarantee, exposing us to credit risk to which we would not otherwise have been exposed or underwritten as part of our origination process for U.S. Government agency guaranteed loans, or result in our inability to continue originating loans under such programs. The loss of any guarantees for loans we have extended under U.S. Government agency guarantee programs or the loss of our ability to participate in such programs could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Taxes
Reviews performed by the Internal Revenue Service and state taxing authorities for the fiscal years that remain open for investigation may result in a change to income taxes recorded in our consolidated financial statements and adversely affect our results of operations.
We are subject to U.S. federal income tax as well as income tax of various states primarily in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Generally, Customers is no longer subject to examination by federal, state, and local taxing authorities for years prior to the year ended December 31, 2017. Customers is currently under audit by New York for the 2015-2017 tax years and by New York City for the 2016-2017 tax years. The results of these reviews could result in increased recognition of income tax expense in our consolidated financial statements as well as possible fines and penalties.

Changes in U.S. federal, state or local tax laws may negatively impact our financial performance.

We are subject to changes in tax law that could increase Customers' effective tax rates. These law changes may be retroactive to previous periods and as a result could negatively affect Customers' current and future financial performance. In December 2017, the Tax Act was signed into law, which resulted in significant changes to the Code. The Tax Act reduced Customers' Federal corporate income tax rate to 21% beginning in 2018. However, the Tax Act also imposed limitations on Customers' ability to take certain deductions, such as the deduction for FDIC deposit insurance premiums, which partially offset the increase in net income from the lower tax rate.
In addition, a number of the changes to the Code were introduced through the CARES Act and the CAA, and some of the provisions are set to expire in future years. There is substantial uncertainty concerning whether those expiring provisions will be extended, or whether future legislation will further revise the Code. Also, the current administration has indicated it may propose increases to the federal corporate statutory tax rate. An increase in the federal corporate tax rate may increase our tax provision expense. We are unable to predict whether these changes, or other proposals, will ultimately be enacted.
Risks Related to Our Securities
Risks Related to Our Voting Common Stock
The trading volume in our common stock may generally be less than that of other larger financial services companies.
Although the shares of our common stock are listed on the NYSE, the trading volume in our common stock may generally be less than that of many other larger financial services companies. A public trading market having the desired characteristics of depth, liquidity and orderliness depends upon the presence in the marketplace of willing buyers and sellers of our common stock at any given time, which
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presence will be dependent upon the individual decisions of investors, over which we have no control. Illiquidity of the stock market, or in the trading of our common stock on the NYSE, could have a material adverse effect on the value of your shares, particularly if significant sales of our common stock, or the expectation of significant sales, were to occur.
We do not expect to pay cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future, and our ability to pay dividends is subject to regulatory limitations.
We have not historically declared nor paid cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not expect to do so in the near future. Any future determination relating to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including earnings and financial condition, liquidity and capital requirements, the general economic and regulatory climate, the ability to service any equity or debt obligations senior to the common stock, our planned growth in assets and other factors deemed relevant by the board of directors. We must be current in the payment of dividends to holders of our Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock before any dividends can be paid on our common stock.
In addition, as a bank holding company, we are subject to general regulatory restrictions on the payment of cash and in-kind dividends. Federal bank regulatory agencies have the authority to prohibit bank holding companies from engaging in unsafe or unsound practices in conducting their business, which, depending on the financial condition and liquidity of the holding company at the time, could include the payment of dividends. Further, various federal and state statutory provisions limit the amount of dividends that our bank subsidiary can pay to us as its holding company without regulatory approval. See “Market Price of Common Stock and Dividends – Dividends on Common Stock” below for further detail regarding restrictions on our ability to pay dividends.
We may issue additional shares of our common stock in the future which could adversely affect the value or voting power of our outstanding common stock.
Actual or anticipated issuances or sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the future could cause the value of our common stock to decline significantly and make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and on terms that we deem appropriate. The issuance of any shares of our common stock in the future also would, and equity-related securities could, dilute the percentage ownership interest held by shareholders prior to such issuance. Actual issuances of our common stock could also significantly dilute the voting power of the common stock.
We have also made grants of restricted stock units and stock options with respect to shares of our common stock to our directors and certain team members. We may also issue further equity-based awards in the future. As such shares are issued upon vesting and as such options may be exercised and the underlying shares are or become freely tradeable, the value or voting power of our common stock may be adversely affected, and our ability to sell more equity or equity-related securities could also be adversely affected.
At December 31, 2020, we are not required to issue any additional equity securities to existing holders of our common stock on a preemptive basis. Therefore, additional common stock issuances, directly or through convertible or exchangeable securities, warrants or options, will generally dilute the holdings of our existing holders of common stock, and such issuances or the perception of such issuances may reduce the market price of our common stock. Our outstanding preferred stock has preference on distribution payments, periodically or upon liquidation, which could eliminate or otherwise limit our ability to make distributions to holders of our common stock. Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities or incur other borrowings in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital-raising efforts is uncertain. Thus, holders of our common stock bear the risk that our future issuances of debt or equity securities or our incurrence of other borrowings will negatively affect the value of our common stock.
Future issuances of debt securities, which would rank senior to our common stock upon our liquidation, and future issuances of equity securities, which would dilute the holdings of our existing holders of common stock and may be senior to our common stock for the purposes of making distributions, periodically or upon liquidation, may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.
In the future, we may issue debt or equity securities or incur other borrowings. Upon our liquidation, holders of our debt securities and other loans and preferred stock will receive a distribution of our available assets before holders of our common stock. If we incur debt in the future, our future interest costs could increase and adversely affect our liquidity, cash flows and results of operations.
Provisions in our articles of incorporation and bylaws may inhibit a takeover of us, which could discourage transactions that would otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders and could entrench management.
Provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws and applicable provisions of Pennsylvania law and the federal CBCA may delay, inhibit or prevent someone from gaining control of our business through a tender offer, business combination, proxy contest or some other method even though some of our shareholders might believe a change in control is desirable. They might also increase the costs of
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completing a transaction in which we acquire another financial services business, merge with another financial institution or sell our business to another financial institution. These increased costs could reduce the value of the shares held by our shareholders upon completion of these types of transactions.
Shareholders may be deemed to be acting in concert or otherwise in control of us and our bank subsidiaries, which could impose prior approval requirements and result in adverse regulatory consequences for such holders.
We are a bank holding company regulated by the Federal Reserve. Any entity (including a “group” composed of natural persons) owning 25% or more of a class of our outstanding shares of voting stock, or a lesser percentage if such holder or group otherwise exercises a “controlling influence” over us, may be subject to regulation as a “bank holding company” in accordance with the BHCA. In addition, (i) any bank holding company or foreign bank with a U.S. presence is required to obtain the approval of the Federal Reserve under the BHCA to acquire or retain 5% or more of a class of our outstanding shares of voting stock and (ii) any person other than a bank holding company may be required to obtain prior regulatory approval under the CBCA to acquire or retain 10% or more of our outstanding shares of voting stock. Any shareholder that is deemed to “control” the company for bank regulatory purposes would become subject to prior approval requirements and ongoing regulation and supervision. Such a holder may be required to divest amounts equal to or exceeding 5% of the voting shares of investments that may be deemed incompatible with bank holding company status, such as an investment in a company engaged in non-financial activities. Regulatory determination of “control” of a depository institution or holding company is based on all of the relevant facts and circumstances. Potential investors are advised to consult with their legal counsel regarding the applicable regulations and requirements.
Our common stock owned by holders determined by a bank regulatory agency to be acting in concert would be aggregated for purposes of determining whether those holders have control of a bank or bank holding company. Each shareholder obtaining control that is a “company” would be required to register as a bank holding company. “Acting in concert” generally means knowing participation in a joint activity or parallel action towards the common goal of acquiring control of a bank or a parent company, whether or not pursuant to an express agreement. The manner in which this definition is applied in individual circumstances can vary and cannot always be predicted with certainty. Many factors can lead to a finding of acting in concert, including where: (i) the shareholders are commonly controlled or managed; (ii) the shareholders are parties to an oral or written agreement or understanding regarding the acquisition, voting or transfer of control of voting securities of a bank or bank holding company; (iii) the shareholders each own stock in a bank and are also management officials, controlling shareholders, partners or trustees of another company or (iv) both a shareholder and a controlling shareholder, partner, trustee or management official of such shareholder own equity in the bank or bank holding company.
Our directors and executive officers can influence the outcome of shareholder votes and, in some cases, shareholders may not have the opportunity to evaluate and affect the investment decision regarding potential investment, acquisition or disposition transactions.
As of December 31, 2020, our directors and executive officers, as a group, owned a total of 2,588,734 shares of common stock and exercisable options to purchase up to an additional 679,701 shares of common stock, which potentially gives them, as a group, the ability to control approximately 10.31% of the outstanding common stock.  In addition, a director of Customers Bank who is not a director of Customers Bancorp owns an additional 44,430 shares of common stock, which if combined with the directors and officers of Customers Bancorp, potentially gives them, as a group, the ability to control approximately 10.45% of the outstanding common stock. We believe ownership of stock causes directors and officers to have the same interests as shareholders, but it also gives them the ability to vote as shareholders for matters that are in their personal interest, which may be contrary to the wishes of other shareholders. Shareholders will not necessarily be provided with an opportunity to evaluate the specific merits or risks of one or more potential investment, acquisition or disposition transactions. Any decision regarding a potential investment or acquisition transaction will be made by our board of directors. Except in limited circumstances as required by applicable law, consummation of an acquisition will not require the approval of holders of common stock. Accordingly, shareholders may not have an opportunity to evaluate and affect the board of directors' decision regarding most potential investment or acquisition transactions and/or certain disposition transactions.
The FDIC’s policy statement imposing restrictions and criteria on private investors in failed bank acquisitions will apply to us and our investors.
In August 2009, the FDIC issued a policy statement imposing restrictions and criteria on private investors in failed bank acquisitions. The policy statement is broad in scope and both complex and potentially ambiguous in its application. In most cases, it would apply to an investor with more than 5% of the total voting power of an acquired depository institution or its holding company; but in certain circumstances, it could apply to investors holding fewer voting shares. The policy statement will be applied to us if we make additional failed bank acquisitions from the FDIC or if the FDIC changes its interpretation of the policy statement or determines at some future date that it should be applied because of our circumstances.
Investors subject to the policy statement could be prohibited from selling or transferring their interests for three years. They also would be required to provide the FDIC with information about the investor and all entities in the investor’s ownership chain, including
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information on the size of the capital fund or funds, its diversification, its return profile, its marketing documents, and its management team and business model. Investors owning 80% or more of two or more banks or savings associations would be required to pledge their proportionate interests in each institution to cross-guarantee the FDIC against losses to the DIF.
Under the policy statement, the FDIC also could prohibit investment through ownership structures involving multiple investment vehicles that are owned or controlled by the same parent company. Investors that directly or indirectly hold 10% or more of the equity of a bank or savings association in receivership also would not be eligible to bid to become investors in the deposit liabilities of that failed institution. In addition, an investor using ownership structures with entities that are domiciled in bank-secrecy jurisdictions would not be eligible to own a direct or indirect interest in an insured depository institution unless the investor’s parent company is subject to comprehensive consolidated supervision as recognized by the Federal Reserve, and the investor enters into certain agreements with the U.S. bank regulators regarding access to information, maintenance of records and compliance with U.S. banking laws and regulations. If the policy statement applies, we (including any failed bank we acquire) could be required to maintain a ratio of Tier 1 common equity to total assets of at least 10% for a period of three years and thereafter maintain a capital level sufficient to be well capitalized under regulatory standards during the remaining period of ownership of the investors. Bank subsidiaries also may be prohibited from extending any new credit to investors that own at least 10% of our equity.
Risks Related to Our Fixed-to-Floating-Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F
The shares of our Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock are equity securities and are subordinate to our existing and future indebtedness.
The shares of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock are equity interests in Customers Bancorp and do not constitute indebtedness of Customers Bancorp or any of our subsidiaries and rank junior to all of our existing and future indebtedness and other non-equity claims with respect to assets available to satisfy claims against us, including claims in the event of our liquidation. If we are forced to liquidate our assets to pay our creditors, we may not have sufficient funds to pay amounts due on any or all of the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock then outstanding.
We may not pay dividends on the shares of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock.
Dividends on the shares of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock are payable only if declared by our board of directors or a duly authorized committee of the board. As a bank holding company, we are subject to general regulatory restrictions on the payment of cash dividends. Federal bank regulatory agencies have the authority to prohibit bank holding companies from engaging in unsafe or unsound practices in conducting their business, which, depending on the financial condition and liquidity of the holding company at the time, could include the payment of dividends. Further, various federal and state statutory provisions limit the amount of dividends that our bank subsidiary can pay to us as its holding company without regulatory approval.
Dividends on the shares of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock are non-cumulative.
Dividends on the shares of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock are payable only when, as and if authorized and declared by our board of directors or a duly authorized committee of the board. Consequently, if our board of directors or a duly authorized committee of the board does not authorize and declare a dividend for any dividend period, holders of the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock will not be entitled to receive any such dividend, and such unpaid dividend will cease to accrue or be payable. If we do not declare and pay dividends on the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock, the market prices of the shares of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock may decline.
Our ability to pay dividends on the shares of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock is dependent on dividends and distributions we receive from our subsidiaries, which are subject to regulatory and other limitations.
Our principal source of cash flow is dividends from Customers Bank. We cannot assure you that Customers Bank will, in any circumstances, pay dividends to us. If Customers Bank fails to make dividend payments or other permitted distributions to us, and sufficient cash is not otherwise available, we may not be able to make dividend payments on the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock. Various federal and state statutes, regulations and rules limit, directly or indirectly, the amount of dividends that our banking and other subsidiaries may pay to us without regulatory approval. In particular, dividend and other distributions from Customers Bank to us would require notice to or approval of the applicable regulatory authority. There can be no assurances that we would receive such approval.
In addition, our right to participate in any distribution of assets of any of our subsidiaries upon the subsidiary’s liquidation or otherwise, and, as a result, the ability of a holder of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock to benefit indirectly from such distribution, will be subject to the prior claims of preferred equity holders and creditors of that subsidiary, except to the extent that any of
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our claims as a creditor of such subsidiary may be recognized. As a result, shares of the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock are effectively subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and any outstanding preferred equity of our subsidiaries.
Holders of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock should not expect us to redeem their shares when they first become redeemable at our option or on any particular date thereafter, and our ability to redeem the shares will be subject to the prior approval of the Federal Reserve.
Our Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock are perpetual equity securities, meaning that they have no maturity date or mandatory redemption date, and the shares are not redeemable at the option of the holders thereof. Any determination we make at any time to propose a redemption of the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock will depend upon a number of factors, including our evaluation of our capital position, the composition of our shareholders’ equity and general market conditions at that time. In addition, our right to redeem the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock is subject to any limitations established by the Federal Reserve. Under the Federal Reserve’s risk-based capital guidelines applicable to bank holding companies, any redemption of the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock is subject to prior approval of the Federal Reserve. There can be no assurance that the Federal Reserve will approve any such redemption.
We may be able to redeem the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock before their initial redemption dates upon a “regulatory capital treatment event.”
We may be able to redeem the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock before their respective initial redemption dates, in whole but not in part, upon the occurrence of certain events involving the capital treatment of the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock, as applicable. In particular, upon our determination in good faith that an event has occurred that would constitute a “regulatory capital treatment event,” with respect to a particular series of the preferred stock, we may redeem that particular series of securities in whole, but not in part, upon the prior approval of the Federal Reserve.
Holders of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred stock have limited voting rights.
Holders of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock have no voting rights with respect to matters that generally require the approval of voting shareholders. However, holders of Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock will have the right to vote in the event of non-payments of dividends under certain circumstances, with respect to authorizing classes or series of preferred stock senior to the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock, as applicable, and with respect to certain fundamental changes in the terms of the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock, as applicable, or as otherwise required by law.
General market conditions and unpredictable factors could adversely affect market prices for the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock.
There can be no assurance regarding the market prices for the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock. A variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control, could influence the market prices, including:
whether we declare or fail to declare dividends on the series of preferred stock from time to time;
our operating performance, financial condition and prospects or the operating performance, financial condition and prospects of our competitors;
real or anticipated changes in the credit ratings (if any) assigned to the Series C, Series D, Series E and Series F Preferred Stock or our other securities;
our creditworthiness;
changes in interest rates and expectations regarding changes in rates;
our issuance of additional preferred equity;
the market for similar securities;
developments in the securities, credit and housing markets, and developments with respect to financial institutions generally; and
economic, financial, corporate, securities market, geopolitical, regulatory or judicial events that affect us, the banking industry or the financial markets generally.
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