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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
_____________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     .
Commission File Number 001-34658
_____________________________________________________________
BWX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_____________________________________________________________
Delaware 80-0558025
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
800 Main Street, 4th Floor 
Lynchburg,Virginia 24504
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (980365-4300
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par valueBWXTNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_____________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant on the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter (based on the closing sales price on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2020) was approximately $5.4 billion.
The number of shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding at February 18, 2021 was 94,993,407.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on April 30, 2021 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.


BWX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
INDEX – FORM 10-K
 PAGE
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
December 31, 2020 and 2019
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
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 PAGE
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
 

 
ii

 Statements we make in this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Report"), which express a belief, expectation or intention, as well as those that are not historical fact, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are subject to various risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those to which we refer under the headings "Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements" and "Risk Factors" in Items 1 and 1A of Part I of this Report. In this Report, unless the context otherwise indicates, "we," "us" and "our" mean BWX Technologies, Inc. ("BWXT" or the "Company") and its consolidated subsidiaries.
PART I
Item 1.    BUSINESS
General
BWX Technologies, Inc. is a specialty manufacturer of nuclear components, a developer of nuclear technologies and a service provider with an operating history of more than 100 years. Our core businesses focus on the design, engineering and manufacture of precision naval nuclear components, reactors and nuclear fuel for the U.S. Government. We also provide special nuclear materials processing, environmental site restoration services, and a variety of products and services to customers in the nuclear power industry, as well as critical medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. While we provide a wide range of products and services, our business segments are heavily focused on major projects. At any given time, a relatively small number of projects can represent a significant part of our operations.
On June 30, 2015, we completed the spin-off of our former Power Generation business (the "spin-off") into an independent, publicly traded company named Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises, Inc. ("BWE"). We have presented the notes to our consolidated financial statements on the basis of continuing operations, unless otherwise stated.
Business Segments
We operate in three reportable segments: Nuclear Operations Group, Nuclear Power Group and Nuclear Services Group. For financial information regarding each of our segments and financial information regarding geographic areas, see Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report. For further details regarding each segment's facilities, see Item 2, "Properties." In general, we operate in capital-intensive industries and rely on large contracts for a substantial amount of our revenues. We are currently exploring growth strategies across our segments through strategic investments and acquisitions to expand and complement our existing businesses. We would expect to fund these opportunities with cash generated from operations or by raising additional capital through debt, equity or some combination thereof.
Nuclear Operations Group
Through this segment, we engineer, design and manufacture precision naval nuclear components, reactors and nuclear fuel for the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE")/National Nuclear Security Administration's ("NNSA") Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. In addition, we perform fabrication activities for missile launch tubes for U.S. Navy submarines.
Our Nuclear Operations Group segment specializes in the design and manufacture of close-tolerance and high-quality equipment for nuclear applications. In addition, we are a leading manufacturer of critical nuclear components, fuels and assemblies for government and limited other uses. We have supplied nuclear components for DOE programs since the 1950s and are the largest domestic supplier of research reactor fuel elements for colleges, universities and national laboratories. We also downblend Cold War-era government stockpiles of high-enriched uranium. In addition, we have over 100 years of experience in supplying components for defense applications.
We work closely with the DOE-supported nuclear non-proliferation program. Currently, this program is assisting in the development of a high-density, low-enriched uranium fuel required for high-enriched uranium test reactor conversions. We have also been a leader in the receipt, storage, characterization, dissolution, recovery and purification of a variety of uranium-bearing materials. All phases of uranium downblending and uranium recovery are performed at our Lynchburg, Virginia and Erwin, Tennessee sites.
The demand for nuclear components by the U.S. Government determines a substantial portion of this segment's backlog. We expect that orders for nuclear components will continue to be a significant part of backlog for the foreseeable future. In addition, the U.S. Navy issued its fiscal year 2022 long-range shipbuilding plan in December 2020, which maintains recommendations made in its fiscal year 2020 long-range shipbuilding plan (released in September 2019) to increase the size of its fleet of ships to include additional submarines and aircraft carriers beyond the number disclosed prior to September 2019.
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While the new Administration may make further changes with its fiscal year 2022 budget submission, we have made additional capital expenditures and investments in personnel to meet this anticipated growth in demand and we expect to continue making such expenditures and investments.
Nuclear Power Group
Through this segment, we design and manufacture commercial nuclear steam generators, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, reactor components and other auxiliary equipment, including containers for the storage of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level nuclear waste. We have supplied the nuclear industry with more than 1,300 large, heavy components worldwide and we are the only commercial heavy nuclear component manufacturer in North America. This segment is also a leading supplier of nuclear fuel, fuel handling systems, tooling delivery systems, nuclear-grade materials and precisely machined components, and related services for CANDU nuclear power plants. This segment also provides a variety of engineering and in-plant services and is a significant supplier to nuclear power utilities undergoing major refurbishment and plant life extension projects. Our in-depth knowledge comes from over 50 years of experience in the design, manufacturing, commissioning and service of nuclear power generation equipment. Additionally, this segment is a leading global manufacturer and supplier of critical medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals.
The Nuclear Power Group segment specializes in performing full-scope, prototype design work coupled with manufacturing integration. This segment's capabilities include:
steam generation and separation equipment design and development;
thermal-hydraulic design of reactor plant components;
commercial nuclear fuel manufacturing and design;
nuclear fuel handling system design, manufacturing, delivery, installation and commissioning;
containers for the storage of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste;
structural and thermal-hydraulic design and vibration analysis for heat exchangers;
structural component design for precision manufacturing;
materials expertise in high-strength, low-alloy steels and nickel-based materials;
material procurement of tubing, forgings and weld wire;
metallographic and chemical analysis; and
manufacture and supply of critical medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for research, diagnostic and therapeutic uses.
Our Nuclear Power Group segment's overall activity primarily depends on the demand and competitiveness of nuclear energy. A significant portion of our Nuclear Power Group segment's operations depends on the timing of maintenance outages, principally in the Canadian market, and the cyclical nature of capital expenditures and major refurbishments for nuclear utility customers, which could cause variability in our financial results.
Nuclear Services Group
Through this segment, we provide various services to the U.S. Government, including special nuclear materials processing, environmental site restoration services and management and operating services for various U.S. Government-owned facilities. These services are provided primarily to the DOE, including the NNSA, the Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Science and the Office of Environmental Management, and NASA.
This segment's principal operations include:
managing and operating environmental management sites;
managing spent nuclear fuel and transuranic waste for the DOE;
managing and operating nuclear production facilities;
providing critical skills and resources for DOE sites; and
managing and operating space flight hardware and test facilities for NASA.
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This segment also develops technology for a variety of applications, including advanced nuclear power sources, and offers complete advanced nuclear fuel and reactor design and engineering, licensing and manufacturing services for new advanced nuclear reactors.
Our Nuclear Services Group segment's overall activity depends primarily on authorized spending levels of the DOE, including the NNSA, the Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Science and the Office of Environmental Management, and NASA. We manage and operate complex, high-consequence nuclear and national security operations for the DOE and the NNSA, primarily through our joint ventures, as further discussed under the caption "Joint Ventures" below.
Divestiture of U.S.-Based Commercial Nuclear Services Business
On May 29, 2020, our subsidiary BWXT Nuclear Energy, Inc. divested its U.S.-based commercial nuclear services business, a component of our Nuclear Services Group segment. In a cashless transaction, we exchanged net assets totaling $18.0 million, consisting primarily of property, plant and equipment and certain warranty obligations, for a manufacturing facility and the associated land of approximately the same value. The acquired assets are reported as part of the Nuclear Services Group segment.
Acquisitions
Laker Energy Products Ltd.
On January 2, 2020, our subsidiary BWXT Canada Ltd. acquired Laker Energy Products Ltd. ("Laker Energy Products"). Laker Energy Products is a global supplier of nuclear-grade materials and precisely machined components for CANDU nuclear power utilities and employs approximately 140 personnel. Laker Energy Products is reported as part of our Nuclear Power Group segment.
Nordion Medical Isotope Business
On July 30, 2018, our subsidiary BWXT ITG Canada, Inc. acquired the Nordion medical isotope business (the "MI business"). The MI business is a leading global manufacturer and supplier of critical medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for research, diagnostic and therapeutic uses. Its customers include radiopharmaceutical companies, hospitals and radiopharmacies. Its primary operations are located in Kanata, Ontario, Canada and Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This acquisition added approximately 150 highly trained and experienced personnel, two specialized production centers and a uniquely licensed infrastructure. In addition to the growing portfolio of radioisotope products we acquired, the MI business will be the platform from which we plan to launch our Molybdenum-99 product line and a number of future radioisotope-based imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic products. This business is reported as part of our Nuclear Power Group segment.
See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for additional information on acquisitions.
Contracts
We execute our contracts through a variety of methods, including fixed-price incentive fee, cost-plus, cost-reimbursable, firm fixed-price or some combination of these methods. We generally recognize our contract revenues and related costs on an over time basis. Accordingly, we review contract price and cost estimates regularly as the work progresses and reflect adjustments in profit proportionate to the percentage of completion in the period when we revise those estimates. To the extent that these adjustments result in a reduction or an elimination of previously reported profits with respect to a project, we would recognize a charge against current earnings, which could be material.
We have contracts that extend beyond one year. Most of our long-term contracts have provisions for progress payments. We attempt to cover anticipated increases in labor, material and service costs of our long-term contracts either through an estimate of such changes, which is reflected in the original price, or through risk-sharing mechanisms, such as escalation or price adjustments for items such as labor and commodity prices.
In the event of a contract deferral or cancellation, we generally would be entitled to recover costs incurred, settlement expenses and profit on work completed prior to deferral or termination. Significant or numerous cancellations could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
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Nuclear Operations Group
The majority of the revenue generated by this segment is from long-term contracts with the U.S. DOE/NNSA's Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. Unless otherwise specified in a contract, allowable and allocable costs are billed to contracts with the U.S. Government in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (the "FAR") and the related U.S. Government Cost Accounting Standards ("CAS"). Examples of costs that may be incurred by us and not billable to the U.S. Government in accordance with the requirements of the FAR and CAS regulations include, but are not limited to, unallowable employee compensation and benefit costs, lobbying costs, interest, certain legal costs and charitable donations.
Most of our contracts in this segment are fixed-price incentive fee contracts that provide for reimbursement of allowable costs incurred plus a fee and generally require that we use our best efforts to accomplish the scope of the work within some specified time and stated dollar limitation. Fees can be established in terms of dollar value or percentage of costs. Award and incentive fees are determined and earned based on customer evaluation of our performance against negotiated criteria, primarily related to cost, and are intended to provide motivation for excellence in contract performance. Incentive fees that are based on cost provide for an initially negotiated fee to be adjusted later, typically using a formula to measure performance against the associated criteria, based on the relationship of total allowable costs to total target costs. Award and incentive fees represent variable consideration that we include in revenue when there is sufficient evidence to determine that the variable consideration is not constrained.
Certain of our U.S. Government contracts span one or more base years and multiple option years. The U.S. Government generally has the right not to exercise option periods and may not exercise an option period for various reasons including, but not limited to, annual funding determinations. In addition, contracts between the U.S. Government and its prime contractors usually contain standard provisions for termination at the convenience of the U.S. Government or the prime contractor. As a U.S. Government contractor, we are subject to federal regulations under which our right to receive future awards of new federal contracts would be unilaterally suspended or barred if we were convicted of a crime or indicted based on allegations of a violation of specific federal statutes. In addition, some of our contracts with the U.S. Government require us to provide advance notice in connection with any contemplated sale or shut down of the relevant facility. In each of those situations, the U.S. Government has an exclusive right to negotiate a mutually acceptable purchase of the facility.
Nuclear Power Group
Contracts in this segment are usually awarded through a competitive bid process. Factors that customers may consider include price, plant or equipment availability, technical capabilities of equipment and personnel, efficiency, safety record and reputation. Certain of these contracts are fixed-price contracts in which the specified scope of work is agreed to for a pre-determined price that is generally not subject to adjustment, regardless of costs incurred by the contractor, unless changes in scope are authorized by the customer. Fixed-price contracts entail more risk to us because they require us to predetermine both the quantities of work to be performed and the costs associated with executing the work. Remaining contracts are primarily time-and-materials contracts, which result in us recovering costs incurred in accordance with the contract plus a fee.
Our arrangements with customers may require us to provide letters of credit, bid and performance bonds or guarantees to secure bids or performance under contracts, which may involve significant amounts for contract security.
Nuclear Services Group
This segment's principal operations include the management and operation of nuclear production facilities, environmental management sites and the management of spent nuclear fuel and transuranic waste for the DOE. These activities are primarily accomplished through our participation in joint ventures with other contractors as further discussed under the caption "Joint Ventures" below.
The contracts for the management and operation of U.S. Government facilities are awarded through a complex and protracted procurement process. These contracts are generally structured as five-year contracts with options for up to five additional years, which are exercisable by the customer, or include provisions whereby the contract durations can be extended as a result of the achievement of certain performance metrics. These are generally cost-reimbursement contracts that include an award fee that is primarily based on annual performance, with monthly provisional fee payments and annual true-up payments. Depending on the type of contract, the contractor may be required to supply working capital, which is reimbursed by the U.S. Government through regular invoicing.
This segment also serves customers of our advanced technology platforms primarily through the use of fixed-price contracts that are awarded following a competitive bid process. Fixed-price contracts entail more risk to us because the price
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has been pre-determined and is generally not subject to adjustment, regardless of costs incurred, unless authorized by the customer.
Backlog
Backlog represents the dollar amount of revenue we expect to recognize in the future from contracts awarded and in progress. Not all of our expected revenue from a contract award is recorded in backlog for a variety of reasons, including that some projects are awarded and completed within the same reporting period.
Our backlog is equal to our remaining performance obligations under contracts that meet the criteria in Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Topic Revenue from Contracts with Customers, as discussed in Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report. It is possible that our methodology for determining backlog may not be comparable to methods used by other companies.
We are subject to the budgetary and appropriations cycle of the U.S. Government as it relates to our Nuclear Operations Group and Nuclear Services Group segments. Backlog may not be indicative of future operating results, and projects in our backlog may be cancelled, modified or otherwise altered by customers.
Our backlog at December 31, 2020 and 2019 was as follows:
December 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
 (In approximate millions)
Nuclear Operations Group$3,659 83 %$4,515 85 %
Nuclear Power Group726 16 %730 14 %
Nuclear Services Group21 %43 %
Total Backlog$4,406 100 %$5,288 100 %
We do not include the value of our unconsolidated joint venture contracts in backlog. These unconsolidated joint ventures are included in our Nuclear Services Group segment. See Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for financial information on our equity method investments.
Of the backlog at December 31, 2020, we expect to recognize revenues as follows:
20212022ThereafterTotal
 (In approximate millions)
Nuclear Operations Group$1,221 $919 $1,519 $3,659 
Nuclear Power Group307 171 248 726 
Nuclear Services Group21 — — 21 
Total Backlog$1,549 $1,090 $1,767 $4,406 
As of December 31, 2020, our Nuclear Operations Group segment's backlog with the U.S. Government was $3,248.7 million, $391.1 million of which had not yet been funded.
As of December 31, 2020, our Nuclear Power Group segment had no backlog with the U.S. Government.
As of December 31, 2020, our Nuclear Services Group segment's backlog with the U.S. Government was $18.6 million, all of which has been funded.
Major new awards from the U.S. Government are typically received following Congressional approval of the budget for the U.S. Government's next fiscal year, which starts October 1, and may not be awarded to us before the end of the calendar year. Due to the fact that most contracts awarded by the U.S. Government are subject to these annual funding approvals, the total values of the underlying programs are significantly larger. In 2019, we received awards from the U.S. Government with a combined value in excess of $3.9 billion, inclusive of unexercised options, approximately $3.4 billion of which had been added to backlog as of December 31, 2020. The value of unexercised options excluded from backlog as of December 31, 2020 was approximately $0.5 billion, which is expected to be exercised through 2025, subject to annual Congressional appropriations.
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Competition
The competitive environments in which each segment operates are described below.
Nuclear Operations Group. We have specialized technical capabilities that have allowed us to be a valued supplier of nuclear components and fuel for the U.S. Government's naval nuclear fleet since the 1950s. Because of the technical and regulatory standards required to meet U.S. Government contracting requirements for nuclear components and fuel and the barriers to entry present in this type of environment, competition in this segment is limited. The primary bases of limited competition for this segment are price, high capital investment, technical capabilities, high regulatory licensing costs and quality of products and services. In addition, significant portions of the designs, processing and final product are classified by the U.S. Government, requiring applicable personnel to obtain and maintain U.S. Government security clearances.
Nuclear Power Group. Our Nuclear Power Group segment supplies heavy nuclear components, specialized engineering and maintenance services, nuclear fuel, fuel handling systems and tooling delivery systems for CANDU reactors. This segment competes with a number of companies specializing in nuclear capabilities including, but not limited to, Framatome, Cameco Corporation, Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction Co., Ltd., E.S. Fox Limited, AECON Group Inc., Bechtel National, Inc., Westinghouse Electric Corporation and SNC-Lavalin Group, Inc. The primary bases of competition for this segment are price, technical capabilities, quality, timeliness of performance, breadth of products and services and willingness to accept project risks.
Nuclear Services Group. Through this segment, we are engaged in the management and operation of U.S. Government facilities and the delivery of environmental remediation services (decontamination and decommissioning) associated with U.S. Government-owned nuclear facilities. Many of our government contracts are bid as a joint venture with one or more companies, in which we have a majority or a minority position. The performance of the prime or lead contractor can impact our reputation and our future competitive position with respect to that particular project and customer. Our primary competitors in the delivery of goods and services to the U.S. Government and the operation of U.S. Government facilities include, but are not limited to, Bechtel National, Inc., Amentum, Fluor Corporation, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Northrop Grumman Corporation, Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc., Honeywell International, Inc. and Leidos, Inc. The primary bases of competition for this segment are experience, past performance, availability of key personnel and technical capabilities.
Joint Ventures
We share in the ownership of a variety of entities with third parties, primarily through corporations, limited liability companies and partnerships, which we refer to as "joint ventures." Through these joint venture arrangements, our Nuclear Services Group segment primarily manages and operates nuclear facilities and associated plant infrastructure, constructs large capital facilities, provides safeguards and security for inventory and assets, supports and conducts research and development for advanced energy technology and manages environmental programs for the DOE, the NNSA and NASA. We generally account for our investments in joint ventures under the equity method of accounting. Certain of our Nuclear Services Group segment unconsolidated joint ventures are described below.
Los Alamos Legacy Cleanup Contract. Newport News Nuclear BWXT – Los Alamos, LLC, a limited liability company formed in 2017 by Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., a subsidiary of Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc.'s Technical Solutions division, and BWXT Technical Services Group, Inc. ("BWXT TSG"), was awarded a contract to perform environmental monitoring and remediation, waste management and disposition, and decontamination and decommissioning at the Los Alamos National Laboratory site and surrounding private and government-owned lands.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, a limited liability company formed in 2006 by the University of California, Bechtel National, Inc., Amentum and BWXT Government Group, Inc., manages and operates Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory located in Livermore, California. The laboratory serves as a national resource in science and engineering, focused on national security, energy, the environment and bioscience, with special responsibility for nuclear devices.
Savannah River Liquid Waste Disposition Program. Savannah River Remediation LLC, a limited liability company formed in 2009 by Amentum, Bechtel National, Inc., CH2M Hill Constructors, Inc. and BWXT TSG, became the liquid waste contractor for the DOE's Savannah River Site located in Aiken, South Carolina. The objective of this program is to achieve closure of the Savannah River Site liquid waste tanks in compliance with the Federal Facilities Agreement, utilizing the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Saltstone Facility.
Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant D&D. Fluor-BWXT Portsmouth LLC is a limited liability company formed by Fluor Federal Services, Inc. and BWXT TSG to provide nuclear operations, decontamination and decommissioning services at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Portsmouth, Ohio.
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West Valley Demonstration Project Phase I Decommissioning and Facility Disposition. CH2M Hill-BWXT West Valley, LLC is a limited liability company formed by CH2M Hill Constructors, Inc., BWXT TSG and Environmental Chemical Corporation. Services provided include project management and support services, site operations, maintenance, utilities, high-level waste canister relocation, facility disposition, waste tank farm management, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission ("NRC") licensed disposal area management, waste management and nuclear materials disposition, and safeguards and security.
Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Nuclear Waste Partnership, LLC is a limited liability company formed by Amentum, BWXT TSG and Areva Federal Services, LLC as the major subcontractor that manages and operates the DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico.
Synergy Achieving Consolidated Operations & Maintenance (SACOM). Syncom Space Services, LLC is a limited liability company formed by PAE Applied Technologies, LLC and BWXT Nuclear Operations Group, Inc. to provide facility operations and maintenance services for institutional and technical facilities, and perform test and manufacturing support services at two NASA facilities – the Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi and the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation and Remediation Project. Four Rivers Nuclear Partnership, LLC is a limited liability company formed by BWXT TSG, CH2M Hill Constructors, Inc. and Fluor Federal Services, Inc. to provide nuclear operations, deactivation and remediation services at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky.
Customers
We provide our products and services to a diverse customer base, including the U.S. Government, utilities and other customers in the nuclear power and radiopharmaceutical industries. Our largest customer during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 was the U.S. Government, representing approximately 77%, 77% and 79% of our total consolidated revenues, respectively. No individual non-U.S. Government customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated revenues in the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 or 2018.
The U.S. Government is the primary customer of our Nuclear Operations Group and Nuclear Services Group segments. Revenues from U.S. Government contracts comprised 94%, 96% and 99% of revenues in our Nuclear Operations Group segment for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Revenues from U.S. Government contracts comprised 87%, 85% and 90% of revenues in our Nuclear Services Group segment for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Raw Materials and Suppliers
Our operations use raw materials, such as carbon and alloy steels in various forms and components and accessories for assembly, which are available from numerous sources. We generally purchase these raw materials and components as needed for individual contracts. Although shortages of some raw materials have existed occasionally, no serious shortage exists at the present time.
Our Nuclear Operations Group segment relies on several single-source suppliers for materials used in its products. We believe these suppliers are reliable, and we and the U.S. Government expend significant effort to monitor and maintain the supplier base for our Nuclear Operations Group segment. Our Nuclear Power Group and Nuclear Services Group segments do not depend on single sources of supply for materials used in their products. We have limited supply options for certain raw materials used in our Nuclear Power Group segment; however, we believe the suppliers of these materials are reliable.
Human Capital Management
Employees. At December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 6,700 persons worldwide, predominantly in the U.S. (5,400 employees) and Canada (1,300 employees). Many of our operations are subject to union contracts, which we customarily renew periodically. At December 31, 2020, approximately 1,700 of our employees were members of labor unions. We consider our relationships with our employees to be satisfactory.
Diversity and Inclusion. We value the diversity of our employees and are committed to providing an engaging and inclusive atmosphere for all employees that promotes productivity and encourages creativity and innovation. We strive to maintain a highly-skilled and diverse workforce where employees are hired, retained, compensated and promoted based on their performance and contribution to the Company.
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Employee Development and Retention. The attraction, development and retention of our employees is a key focus for our Company. We offer online and in-person training programs to enhance the knowledge, skills and advancement opportunities for our employees. Our goal is to be the employer of choice within our industry and the communities in which we operate. We focus on maintaining a solid pipeline of talent throughout our organization and continually developing the capabilities and skills needed for the future of our business.
Work Environment. We believe that maintaining a work environment that recognizes effort and teamwork, values mutual respect and open communication, and demonstrates care and concern for our employees is essential to an engaged and productive workforce. In furtherance of this objective, we provide regular Code of Business Conduct training for our employees to identify and prevent misconduct and report situations that violate our policies and/or negatively impact our work environment. We investigate and take prompt action to correct conduct that is inconsistent with our Code of Business Conduct and other policies.
Health and Safety. The safety of our employees is critical to our success as a specialty manufacturer of nuclear components and an operator of high-consequence nuclear and national security facilities for the U.S. Government. As such, we are committed to maintaining the highest safety, security, ethical and environmental standards. We take pride in the fact that we operate NRC Category 1 and Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission ("CNSC") licensed facilities and have instilled as a core value a culture that prioritizes safety with a vision of zero accidents at these and all of our work locations. In pursuit of an injury-free workplace, we constantly monitor and assess all injuries and "near misses" for any lessons we can learn and leverage to reduce the risk inherent in occupational activities. We use this information to further develop our safety program in an effort to prevent future occupational and environmental incidents to help us achieve our safety goals.
During 2020, as an essential business we implemented safety protocols and new procedures to protect our employees and contractors in response to the novel strain of coronavirus ("COVID-19") pandemic. These protocols included complying with social distancing and other health and safety standards as required by federal, state and local government agencies, taking into consideration guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other public health authorities. For a detailed discussion of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, see "COVID-19 Assessment" in Item 7 of this Report.
Patents and Technology Licenses
We currently hold a large number of U.S. and foreign patents and have patent applications pending in certain technologies, including nuclear reactor systems, components and fuel, advanced and additive manufacturing, space nuclear propulsion, and radioisotope production. We acquire patents and technology licenses and grant licenses to others when we consider it advantageous for us to do so. Although in the aggregate our patents and technology licenses are important to us, we do not regard any single patent or license or group of related patents or licenses as critical or essential to our business as a whole. In general, we depend on our technological capabilities and the application of know-how, rather than patents and technology licenses, in the conduct of our various businesses.
Research and Development Activities
Our research and development activities are related to the development and improvement of new and existing products and equipment, as well as conceptual and engineering evaluation for translation into practical applications. These activities include the development of isotope production, medical radiochemical and radiopharmaceutical production and a variety of advanced technologies in the areas of additive and autonomous manufacturing, space nuclear power and propulsion, and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, among others. These projects are sponsored and funded through internal research and development and by a number of commercial and government customers.
We charge the costs of research and development unrelated to specific contracts as incurred. Excluding customer-sponsored research and development, the majority of our activities in this area for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 related to the development of technologies in the area of medical and industrial radioisotopes and additive and autonomous manufacturing. Contractual arrangements for customer-sponsored research and development can vary on a case-by-case basis and include contracts, cooperative agreements and grants.
See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for further information on research and development.
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Hazard Risks and Insurance
Our operations present risks of injury to or death of people, loss of or damage to property and damage to the environment. We have created loss control systems and processes to assist us in the identification and treatment of the hazard risks presented by our operations, and we endeavor to make sure these systems are effective.
As loss control measures will not always be successful, we seek to establish various means of funding losses and transferring financial liability related to incidents or occurrences. We primarily seek to do this through contractual protections, including waivers of consequential damages, indemnities, caps on liability, liquidated damages provisions and access to the insurance of other parties. We also procure insurance, operate our own captive insurance company and/or establish funded or unfunded reserves. However, none of these methods will eliminate all risks.
Depending on competitive conditions, the nature of the work, industry custom and other factors, we may not be successful in obtaining adequate contractual protection from our customers and other parties against losses and liabilities arising out of or related to the performance of our work. The scope of the protection may be limited, may be subject to conditions and may not be supported by adequate insurance or other means of financing. In addition, we may have difficulty enforcing our contractual rights with others following a material loss.
Similarly, insurance for certain potential losses or liabilities may not be available or may only be available at a cost or on terms we consider not to be economical. Insurers frequently react to market losses by ceasing to write or severely limiting coverage for certain exposures. Risks that we have frequently found difficult to cost-effectively insure against include, but are not limited to, property losses from wind, flood and earthquake events, nuclear hazards and war, pollution liability, liabilities related to occupational health exposures (including asbestos), liability related to our executives, professional liability/errors and omissions coverage, the failure, misuse or unavailability of our information technology systems, the failure of security measures designed to protect our information technology systems from security breaches and liability related to risk of loss of our work in progress. In cases where we purchase insurance, we are subject to the creditworthiness of the relevant insurer(s), the available limits of the coverage, our retention under the relevant policy, exclusions in the policy and gaps in coverage.
Our operations in designing, engineering, manufacturing, constructing and servicing nuclear power equipment and components for our commercial nuclear utility customers subject us to various risks, including, without limitation, damage to our customers' property and third-party claims for personal injury, environmental liability, death and property damage. To protect against liability for damage to a customer's property, we endeavor to obtain waivers of liability and subrogation from the customer and its insurer. We also attempt to cap our overall liability in our contracts. To protect against liability from claims brought by third parties, we seek to be insured under the utility customer's nuclear liability policies and have the benefit of the indemnity and limitation of any applicable liability provision of the Price-Anderson Act. The Price-Anderson Act limits the public liability of U.S. manufacturers and operators of licensed nuclear facilities and other parties who may be liable in respect of, and indemnifies them against, all claims in excess of a certain amount. This amount is determined by the sum of commercially available liability insurance plus certain retrospective premium assessments payable by operators of commercial nuclear reactors. For those sites where we provide environmental remediation services, we seek the same protection from our customers as we do for our other nuclear activities. The Price-Anderson Act, as amended, includes a sunset provision and requires renewal each time that it expires. Contracts that were entered into during a period of time that the Price-Anderson Act was in full force and effect continue to receive the benefit of the Price-Anderson Act's nuclear indemnity. The Price-Anderson Act is set to expire on December 31, 2025. We also provide nuclear fabrication and other services to the nuclear power industry in Canada. Canada's Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act ("NLCA") generally conforms to international conventions and is conceptually similar to the Price-Anderson Act in the U.S. Accordingly, indemnification protections and the possibility of exclusions under Canada's NLCA are similar to those under the Price-Anderson Act in the U.S.
We supply commercial nuclear equipment and services to certain customers in countries other than the U.S. and Canada that are party to international treaties and in countries that are not signatory to international treaties but have their own nuclear liability laws that, in general, have regulations in place whereby nuclear operators are solely liable for nuclear damage claims, which would exclude nuclear suppliers from any such exposure. BWXT does retain some level of risk in the event of future changes to the legal landscape in these countries regarding international third-party nuclear liability.
In 2008, the U.S. ratified the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage ("CSC") with the International Atomic Energy Agency. The CSC is an international treaty developed to create a global legal framework for allocating responsibility and assuring prompt and equitable compensation in the unlikely event of certain nuclear incidents. The ratification by the U.S. authorizes the Secretary of Energy to issue regulations establishing a retrospective risk pooling program whereby, in the event that the U.S. must make a contribution to the CSC international fund, U.S. nuclear suppliers, including BWXT, would pay the full cost of this contribution by the U.S.
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Although we do not own or operate any nuclear reactors, we have some coverage under commercially available nuclear liability and property insurance for our facilities that are currently licensed to possess special nuclear materials. Substantially all of our Nuclear Operations Group segment contracts involving nuclear materials are covered by and subject to the nuclear indemnity provisions of either the Price-Anderson Act or Public Law 85-804, which, among other things, authorizes the DOE to indemnify certain contractors when such acts would facilitate national defense. However, to the extent the value of the nuclear materials in our care, custody or control exceeds the commercially available limits of our insurance, we potentially have underinsured risk of loss for such nuclear material.
Our Nuclear Services Group segment participates in the management and operation of various U.S. Government facilities. This participation is customarily accomplished through the participation in joint ventures with other contractors for any given facility. These activities involve, among other things, handling nuclear devices and their components. Insurable liabilities arising from these sites are rarely protected by our or our partners' corporate insurance programs. Instead, we rely on government contractual agreements and insurance purchased specifically for a site. The U.S. Government has historically fulfilled its contractual agreement to reimburse its contractors for covered claims, and we expect it to continue this process during our participation in the management and operation of these facilities. However, in most of these situations in which the U.S. Government is contractually obligated to pay, the payment obligation is subject to the availability of authorized government funds. The reimbursement obligation of the U.S. Government is also conditional, and provisions of the relevant contract or applicable law may preclude reimbursement.
Our wholly owned captive insurance subsidiary provides primary workers' compensation, employer's liability, commercial general liability and automotive liability insurance to support our operations. We may also have business reasons in the future to have our insurance subsidiary accept other risks that we cannot or do not wish to transfer to outside insurance companies. These risks may be considerable in any given year or cumulatively. Our insurance subsidiary does not provide insurance to unrelated parties. Claims as a result of our operations could adversely impact the ability of our insurance subsidiary to respond to all claims presented.
Additionally, upon the February 22, 2006 effectiveness of the settlement relating to the Chapter 11 proceedings involving several of our former subsidiaries, most of our subsidiaries contributed substantial insurance rights to the asbestos personal injury trust, including rights to (1) certain pre-1979 primary and excess insurance coverages and (2) certain of our 1979-1986 excess insurance coverage. These insurance rights provided coverage for, among other things, asbestos and other personal injury claims, subject to the terms and conditions of the policies. The contribution of these insurance rights was made in exchange for the agreement on the part of the representatives of the asbestos claimants, including the representative of future claimants, to the entry of a permanent injunction, pursuant to Section 524(g) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, to channel to the asbestos trust all asbestos-related general liability claims against our subsidiaries and former subsidiaries arising out of, resulting from or attributable to their operations, and the implementation of related releases and indemnification provisions protecting those subsidiaries and their affiliates from future liability for such claims. Although we are not aware of any significant, unresolved claims against our subsidiaries and former subsidiaries that are not subject to the channeling injunction and that relate to the periods during which such excess insurance coverage related, with the contribution of these insurance rights to the asbestos personal injury trust, it is possible that we could have underinsured or uninsured exposure for non-derivative asbestos claims or other personal injury or other claims that would have been insured under these coverages had the insurance rights not been contributed to the asbestos personal injury trust. In conjunction with the spin-off, claims and liabilities associated with the asbestos personal injury, property damage and indirect property damage claims mentioned above have been expressly assumed by BWE pursuant to the master separation agreement between us and BWE.
Governmental Regulations and Environmental Matters
Governmental Regulations
Many aspects of our operations and properties are affected by political developments and are subject to both domestic and foreign governmental regulations, including those relating to:
possessing and processing special nuclear materials;
workplace health and safety;
constructing and equipping electric power facilities;
currency conversions and repatriation;
taxation of earnings; and
protecting the environment.
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We are required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain certain permits, licenses and certificates with respect to our operations. The kinds of permits, licenses and certificates required in our operations depend upon a number of factors.
We cannot determine the extent to which new legislation, new regulations or changes in existing laws or regulations may affect our future operations.
Environmental
Our operations and properties are subject to a wide variety of increasingly complex and stringent federal, foreign, state and local environmental laws and regulations, including those governing discharges into the air and water, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by hazardous substances and the health and safety of employees. Sanctions for non-compliance may include revocation of permits, corrective action orders, administrative or civil penalties and criminal prosecution. Some environmental laws provide for strict, joint and several liability for remediation of spills and other releases of hazardous substances, as well as damage to natural resources. In addition, companies may be subject to claims alleging personal injury or property damage as a result of alleged exposure to hazardous substances. Such laws and regulations may also expose us to liability for the conduct of or conditions caused by others or for our acts that were in compliance with all applicable laws at the time such acts were performed.
These laws and regulations include the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended ("CERCLA"), the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and similar laws that provide for responses to, and liability for, releases of hazardous substances into the environment. These laws and regulations also include similar foreign, state or local counterparts to these federal laws, which regulate air emissions, water discharges, hazardous substances and waste and require public disclosure related to the use of various hazardous substances. Our operations are also governed by laws and regulations relating to workplace safety and worker health, including the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act and regulations promulgated thereunder.
We are currently in the process of investigating and remediating some of our current and former operating sites. Although we have recorded reserves in connection with certain of these environmental matters, due to the uncertainties associated with environmental remediation, there can be no assurance that the actual costs resulting from these remediation matters will not exceed the recorded reserves.
Our compliance with federal, foreign, state and local environmental control and protection regulations resulted in pre-tax charges of approximately $16.3 million, $15.9 million and $14.7 million in the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. In addition, compliance with existing environmental regulations necessitated capital expenditures of $1.2 million, $1.4 million and $1.7 million in the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We expect to spend another $11.4 million on such capital expenditures over the next five years. We cannot predict all of the environmental requirements or circumstances that will exist in the future, but we anticipate that environmental control and protection standards will become increasingly stringent and costly. Based on our experience to date, we do not currently anticipate any material adverse effect on our business or consolidated financial condition as a result of future compliance with existing environmental laws and regulations. However, future events, such as changes in existing laws and regulations or their interpretation, more vigorous enforcement policies of regulatory agencies or stricter or different interpretations of existing laws and regulations, may require additional expenditures by us, which may be material. Accordingly, we can provide no assurance that we will not incur significant environmental compliance costs in the future.
We have been identified as a potentially responsible party at various cleanup sites under CERCLA. CERCLA and other environmental laws can impose liability for the entire cost of cleanup on any of the potentially responsible parties, regardless of fault or the lawfulness of the original conduct. Generally, however, where there are multiple responsible parties, a final allocation of costs is made based on the amount and type of wastes disposed of by each party and the number of financially viable parties, although this may not be the case with respect to any particular site. We have not been determined to be a major contributor of wastes to any of these sites. On the basis of the relative contribution of waste to each site by potentially responsible parties, as well as the financial solvency of other potentially responsible parties, we expect our share of the ultimate liability for the various sites will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows in any given year.
Environmental remediation projects have been and continue to be undertaken at certain of our current and former facilities. In 2002, Congress directed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ("Army Corps") to clean up radioactive waste at the Shallow Land Disposal Area located in Parks Township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (the "SLDA"), consistent with the Memorandum of Understanding between the NRC and the Army Corps for Coordination on Cleanup and Decommissioning of
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the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Sites with NRC-Licensed Facilities, dated July 5, 2001 (the "MOU"). From 1961 to 1970, the SLDA was operated by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation ("NUMEC") pursuant to Atomic Energy Commission ("AEC") License SNM-145. The AEC was the predecessor to the NRC. The SLDA was used for the disposal of waste from NUMEC's nuclear fuels fabrication facility in Apollo, Pennsylvania. Both radioactive and non-radioactive waste was disposed in a series of trenches at the SLDA. NUMEC, a former subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Company ("ARCO") was acquired by BWXT in November 1971. Shortly after the Army Corps' contractor commenced cleanup operations in 2011, the Army Corps ceased excavation activities because the contractor deviated from accepted field procedures, and the excavated material was found to be complex and beyond the Army Corps' characterization and management procedures. The MOU was modified in late 2014 to add the DOE and the NNSA as parties to deal with "special nuclear materials." In December 2014, the Army Corps issued a Proposed Record of Decision Amendment, which reflects a revised cost estimate of $350 million, in addition to the $62 million expended through September 2014, to implement the selected remedy. In October 2018, the Army Corps confirmed award of the previously protested remediation contract as amended to the original contractor. In March 2019, the Army Corps issued a notice-to-proceed to this contractor. The federal legislation directing the Army Corps to clean up the SLDA also directs the Army Corps to seek to recover response costs from appropriate responsible parties in accordance with CERCLA. In connection with BWXT's acquisition of NUMEC from ARCO in November 1971, ARCO assumed and agreed to indemnify and hold harmless BWXT with respect to claims and liabilities arising as a result of transactions or operations of NUMEC prior to the acquisition date. Although this ARCO indemnity would cover claims by the Army Corps to seek recovery from BWXT for SLDA cleanup costs, no assurance can be given that this indemnity will be available or sufficient in the event such claims are asserted. For additional discussion of environmental matters, see "Note 10 – Commitments and Contingencies" to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
We perform significant amounts of work for the U.S. Government under both prime contracts and subcontracts and operate certain facilities that are licensed to possess and process special nuclear materials. As a result of these activities, we are subject to continuing reviews by governmental agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the NRC. We are also involved in manufacturing activities at licensed facilities in Canada that are also subject to continuing reviews by governmental agencies in Canada, including the CNSC.
The NRC's decommissioning regulations require our Nuclear Operations Group segment to provide financial assurance that it will be able to pay the expected cost of decommissioning its two licensed facilities at the end of their service lives. We provided financial assurance totaling $61.8 million during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 with surety bonds for the ultimate decommissioning of these licensed facilities. These facilities have provisions in their government contracts pursuant to which substantially all of our decommissioning costs and financial assurance obligations are covered by the DOE, including the costs to complete the decommissioning projects underway at the facility in Erwin, Tennessee. The surety bonds noted above are to cover decommissioning required pursuant to work not subject to this DOE obligation.
In Canada, the CNSC's decommissioning regulations require our Nuclear Power Group segment to provide financial assurance that it will be able to pay the expected cost of decommissioning its CNSC-licensed facilities at the end of their service lives. We provided financial assurance totaling $47.9 million and $47.0 million during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, with letters of credit and surety bonds for the ultimate decommissioning of these licensed facilities.
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had total environmental accruals, including asset retirement obligations, of $91.3 million and $90.8 million, respectively. Of our total environmental accruals at December 31, 2020 and 2019, $7.1 million and $10.4 million, respectively, were included in current liabilities. Inherent in the estimates of these accruals are our expectations regarding the levels of contamination, decommissioning costs and recoverability from other parties, which may vary significantly as decommissioning activities progress. Accordingly, changes in estimates could result in material adjustments to our operating results, and the ultimate loss may differ materially from the amounts we have provided for in our consolidated financial statements.
Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
From time to time, our management or persons acting on our behalf make forward-looking statements to inform existing and potential security holders about our Company. Statements and assumptions regarding expectations and projections of specific projects, our future backlog, revenues, income and capital spending, strategic investments, acquisitions or divestitures, return of capital activities, margin improvement initiatives or impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are examples of forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are generally accompanied by words such as "estimate," "project," "predict," "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "plan," "seek," "goal," "could," "intend," "may," "should" or other words that convey the uncertainty of future events or outcomes. In addition, sometimes we will specifically describe a statement as being a forward-looking statement and refer to this cautionary statement.
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Statements in this Report, including those that express a belief, expectation or intention, as well as those that are not statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements. Those forward-looking statements appear in Item 1 – "Business" and Item 3 – "Legal Proceedings" in Part I of this Report, in Item 7 – "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and in the notes to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report and elsewhere in this Report.
We have based our forward-looking statements on information currently available to us and our current expectations, estimates and projections about our industries and our Company. We caution that these statements are not guarantees of future performance, and you should not rely unduly on them as they involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that we cannot predict. In addition, we have based many of these forward-looking statements on assumptions about future events that may prove to be inaccurate. For example, the extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak will continue to impact our business will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning the length and severity of the COVID-19 health crisis, and the actions to contain its impact, in addition to the potential recurrence or subsequent waves or strains of COVID-19 or similar diseases. While our management considers these statements and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently subject to numerous factors, including potentially the risk factors described in the section labeled Item 1A, "Risk Factors" of this Report, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, our actual results may differ materially from the future performance that we have expressed or forecast in our forward-looking statements.
We have discussed many of these factors in more detail elsewhere in this Report, including under the heading "COVID-19 Assessment" in Item 7 – "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of Part II of this Report. These factors are not necessarily all the factors that could affect us. Unpredictable or unanticipated factors we have not discussed in this Report could also have material adverse effects on actual results of matters that are the subject of our forward-looking statements. We do not intend to update or review any forward-looking statement or our description of important factors, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable laws.
Available Information
Our website address is www.bwxt.com. We make available through the Investors section of this website under "SEC Filings," free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, our proxy statement, statements of beneficial ownership of securities on Forms 3, 4 and 5 and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file those materials with, or furnish those materials to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. We have also posted on our website our: Corporate Governance Principles; Code of Business Conduct; Code of Ethics for our Chief Executive Officer and Senior Financial Officers; Board of Directors Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures; Amended and Restated Bylaws; and charters for the Audit and Finance, Governance and Compensation Committees of our Board of Directors.
Item 1A.    RISK FACTORS
Industry Risks
We rely on U.S. Government contracts for a substantial percentage of our revenue, and some of those contracts are subject to continued appropriations by Congress and may be terminated or delayed if future funding is not made available. In addition, the U.S. Government may not renew or may seek to modify or terminate our existing contracts.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, U.S. Government contracts comprised approximately 77% of our total consolidated revenues. Government contracts are subject to various uncertainties, restrictions and regulations, including oversight audits, which could result in withholding or delaying payments to us, and termination or modification at the U.S. Government's convenience. In addition, some of our large, multi-year contracts with the U.S. Government are subject to annual funding determinations and the continuing availability of Congressional appropriations. Although multi-year operations may be planned in connection with major procurements, Congress generally appropriates funds on a fiscal-year basis even though a program may continue for several years. Consequently, programs often are only partially funded initially and additional funds are committed only as Congress makes further appropriations. When the U.S. Government does not complete its budget process before the end of its fiscal year on September 30, government operations typically are funded through a continuing resolution that authorizes agencies of the U.S. Government to continue to operate, but does not authorize new spending initiatives. When the U.S. Government operates under a continuing resolution or there are other disruptions in the funding process, delays can occur in the procurement of products and services. As a result, we are subject to ongoing uncertainties associated with U.S. Government budget constraints and other factors affecting government funding. The reduction or termination of funding, or
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changes in the timing of funding, for a U.S. Government program in which we provide products or services would result in a reduction or loss of anticipated future revenues attributable to that program and could have a negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, our Nuclear Operations Group and Nuclear Services Group segments depend on U.S. Government funding, particularly funding levels at the DOE. Significant changes in the level of funding (for example, the annual budget of the DOE) or specifically mandated levels for individual programs that are important to our business could have an unfavorable impact on us. Any reduction in the level of U.S. Government funding, particularly at the DOE, may result in, among other things, a reduction in the number and scope of projects put out for bid by the U.S. Government or the curtailment of existing U.S. Government programs, either of which may result in a reduction in the number of contract award opportunities available to us, a reduction of activities at DOE sites and an increase in costs, including the costs of obtaining contract awards.
The U.S. Government typically can terminate or modify any of its contracts with us either for its convenience or if we default by failing to perform under the terms of the applicable contract. A termination arising out of our default could expose us to liability and have an adverse effect on our ability to compete for future contracts and orders. If any of our contracts reflected in backlog are terminated by the U.S. Government, our backlog would be reduced by the expected value of the remaining work under such contracts. In addition, on those contracts for which we are teamed with others and are not the prime contractor, the U.S. Government could terminate a prime contract under which we are a subcontractor, irrespective of the quality of our products and services as a subcontractor. Furthermore, certain of our U.S. Government contracts span one or more base years and multiple option years. The U.S. Government generally has the right not to exercise option periods and may not exercise an option period for various reasons.
We also have several significant contracts with the U.S. Government that are subject to periodic renewal and rebidding through a competitive process. If the U.S. Government fails to renew these contracts or modifies key terms, our results of operations and cash flows would be adversely affected.
As a result of these and other factors, the termination of one or more of our significant government contracts, our suspension from government contract work, the failure of the U.S. Government to renew our existing contracts or the disallowance of the payment of our contract costs could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Federal budget sequestration and other delays or reductions in government spending could adversely impact government spending for the products and services we provide.
In August 2011, Congress enacted the Budget Control Act, which committed the U.S. Government to significantly reducing the federal deficit over ten years. The Budget Control Act established reductions in discretionary spending through 2021. If these spending reductions were not met, it called for substantial automatic spending cuts, or sequestration, split between defense and non-defense programs scheduled to start in March 2013 and continue over a nine-year period.
Federal government spending reductions, including through sequestration, could adversely impact U.S. Government programs for which we provide products or services. Additionally, while we believe many of our programs are well aligned with national defense and other strategic priorities, government spending on these programs can be subject to negative publicity, political factors and public scrutiny. The risk of future sequestration cuts is uncertain, and it is possible that spending cuts may be applied to U.S. Government programs across the board, regardless of how programs align with those priorities. There are many variables in how budget reductions could be implemented that will determine its specific impact; however, reductions in federal government spending and sequestration, as currently provided for under the Budget Control Act, could adversely impact programs in which we provide products or services. In addition, these cuts could adversely affect the viability of the suppliers and subcontractors under our programs. We may also be required to maintain operations of our joint ventures if the U.S. Government can no longer meet its debt obligations.
Demand for our products and services is vulnerable to economic downturns, the competitiveness of alternative energy sources and industry conditions.
Demand for our products and services has been, and we expect that demand will continue to be, subject to significant fluctuations due to a variety of factors beyond our control, including economic and industry conditions. These factors include, but are not limited to, inflation, geopolitical issues, the availability and cost of credit, the demand for and competitiveness of nuclear power with other energy sources, the cyclical nature of the power generation industry, low business and consumer confidence, high unemployment, energy conservation measures and decisions of utilities that operate nuclear power plants.
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Unfavorable economic conditions may lead customers to delay, curtail or cancel proposed or existing projects, which may decrease the overall demand for our products and services and adversely affect our results of operations.
Our customers may also find it more difficult to raise capital in the future due to limitations on the availability of credit, increases in interest rates and other factors affecting the federal, municipal and corporate credit markets. Additionally, our customers may demand more favorable pricing terms and find it increasingly difficult to timely pay invoices for our products and services, which would impact our future cash flows and liquidity. Inflation or significant changes in interest rates could reduce the demand for our products and services. Any inability to timely collect our invoices may lead to an increase in our accounts receivables and potentially to increased write-offs of uncollectable invoices. If the economy weakens, or customer spending declines, then our backlog, revenues, net income and overall financial condition could deteriorate.
Our future business prospects in Canada are dependent upon the continued operation of Canadian nuclear plants and refurbishment of the majority of the plants in Ontario to extend their operating lives. Unfavorable economic conditions, competition from other forms of power generation, increased competition for refurbishment contracts, changes in government policy or operational or project execution issues may lead nuclear plant operators in Canada to cease operations or delay, curtail or cancel proposed or existing life-extension projects, which may decrease the overall demand for our products and services in Canada and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to risks associated with contractual pricing in our industries, including the risk that, if our actual costs exceed the costs we estimate on our fixed-price contracts, our profitability will decline and we may suffer losses.
We are engaged in a number of highly competitive industries and we have priced a number of our projects on a fixed-price basis. Our actual costs could exceed our projections, which may result in reduced profit or loss. We attempt to cover the increased costs of anticipated changes in labor, material and service costs of long-term contracts, either through estimates of cost increases, which are reflected in the original contract price, or through price escalation clauses. Despite these attempts, the cost and gross profit we realize on a fixed-price contract could vary materially from the estimated amounts because of supplier, contractor and subcontractor performance, execution issues, changes in job conditions, variations in labor and equipment productivity and increases in the cost of labor and raw materials, particularly steel, over the term of the contract.
These variations and the risks generally inherent in our industries may result in actual revenues or costs being different from those we originally estimated and may result in reduced profitability or losses on projects. Some of these risks include:
difficulties encountered on our large-scale projects related to the procurement of materials or due to schedule disruptions, equipment performance failures, unforeseen site conditions, rejection clauses in customer contracts or other factors that may result in additional costs to us, reductions in revenue, claims or disputes;
our inability to obtain compensation for additional work we perform or expenses we incur as a result of our customers providing deficient design, engineering information, equipment or materials;
requirements to pay liquidated damages upon our failure to meet schedule or performance requirements of our contracts; and
difficulties in engaging third-party subcontractors, equipment manufacturers or materials suppliers or failures by third-party subcontractors, equipment manufacturers or materials suppliers to perform could result in project delays and cause us to incur additional costs.
Operational Risks
Our business could be negatively impacted by security threats, including physical and cybersecurity threats, and other disruptions.
We face various security threats, including cyber threats, threats to the physical security of our facilities and infrastructure (including those that we manage and operate for our customers), and threats from terrorist acts, as well as the potential for business disruptions associated with these threats. Although we utilize a combination of tailored and industry standard security measures and technology to monitor and mitigate these threats, we cannot guarantee that these measures and technology will be sufficient to prevent security threats from materializing.
We have been, and will likely continue to be, subject to cyber-based attacks and other attempts to threaten our information technology systems, including attempts to gain unauthorized access to our proprietary and sensitive information and attacks from computer hackers, viruses, malicious code, internal threats and other security problems. As a U.S. Government contractor, we may be prone to a greater number of those threats than companies in other industries. These threats range from
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attacks common to most industries to more advanced and persistent threats from highly-organized adversaries targeting us because we are a U.S. Government contractor. We are required to maintain minimum security standards for handling information under our government contracts and failure to do so could result in termination of those contracts. From time to time, we experience system interruptions and delays; however, prior cyber-based attacks directed at us have not had a material adverse impact on our results of operations. Due to the evolving nature of these security threats, the impact of any future incident cannot be predicted. If we are unable to protect our proprietary and sensitive information, our customers could question the adequacy of our threat mitigation and detection processes and procedures, which could negatively impact our reputation and present and future business.
The costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. Occurrence of any of these events could adversely affect our internal operations, the services we provide to customers, the value of our investment in research and development efforts and other intellectual property, our future financial results, our reputation or our stock price.
In addition, we maintain, replace and/or upgrade current financial, human resources and other information technology systems. These activities subject us to inherent costs and risks associated with replacing and updating these systems, including potential disruption of our internal control structure, substantial capital expenditures, demands on management time and other risks of delays or difficulties in transitioning to new systems or of integrating new systems into our current systems. Our systems implementations and upgrades may not result in productivity improvements at the levels anticipated, or at all. In addition, the implementation of new technology systems may cause disruptions in our business operations. Such disruptions and any other information technology system disruptions, and our ability to mitigate those disruptions, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Actual or threatened public health epidemics or outbreaks, such as the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 illness, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Actual or threatened public health epidemics or outbreaks, such as the recent global outbreak of COVID-19, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. COVID-19, which has been declared by the World Health Organization to be a pandemic, has spread to over 200 countries, including every state in the United States. COVID-19 is impacting worldwide economic activity and has resulted in travel disruption, trade disruption and has affected companies’ operations around the world, including us. A public health epidemic, including COVID-19, poses the risk that we or our employees, contractors, suppliers, customers and other partners may be prevented from conducting business activities for an indefinite period of time, including due to shutdowns that may be requested or mandated by governmental authorities. If significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, government actions, facility closures or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, our operations will likely be impacted. Although our U.S. and Canadian operations have to date been deemed "essential" by federal, state and local authorities and currently continue to operate, there can be no assurance that such authorities will not impose restrictions on the operations of our facilities as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or that our facilities will continue to operate during the pandemic. If our operations or the operations of our customers or our suppliers are restricted, we may be unable to perform fully on our contracts and our costs may increase as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak. These cost increases may result in unfavorable changes in estimates which may not be fully recoverable or adequately covered by insurance or through government assistance programs such as the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act in the U.S. (the "CARES Act") or the Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy (the "CEWS").
While it is not possible at this time to estimate the impact that COVID-19 could have on our business, the continued spread of COVID-19 and the measures taken by the governments of countries affected, as well as measures taken by state and local authorities in the United States, could disrupt the supply chain and the manufacture or shipment of our products and adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations. We have already experienced delays in the bidding and contracting process for our U.S. Government businesses, as well as the rescheduling of certain services that our Canadian nuclear service business provides during nuclear power plant outages. Additionally, we have noted a year over year decline in revenues in our medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals business due to a decrease in demand for elective diagnostic procedures. More widespread or further delays could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
The COVID-19 outbreak and mitigation measures may also have an adverse impact on global economic conditions, which could have an adverse effect on our business. The extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak impacts our business will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning the severity of the virus and the actions to contain its impact.
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Additionally, the Canadian Government may review and audit the wage subsidies received under the CEWS and could disallow benefits for which we have applied. If these subsidies are reduced, disallowed or repealed due to changes in law or determination by the Canadian Government, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Moreover, there may be public scrutiny of government aid beneficiaries and as a result, our reputation could be harmed by participating in the CEWS.
We rely on intellectual property law and confidentiality agreements to protect our intellectual property. We also rely on intellectual property we license from third parties. Our failure to protect our intellectual property rights, our infringement of third party intellectual property or our inability to obtain or renew licenses to use intellectual property of third parties, could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary information and other intellectual property. Our intellectual property could be stolen, challenged, invalidated, circumvented or rendered unenforceable. In addition, effective intellectual property protection may be limited or unavailable in some foreign countries where we operate.
Our failure to protect our intellectual property rights may result in the loss of valuable technologies or adversely affect our competitive business position. We rely significantly on proprietary technology, information, processes and know-how that are not subject to patent or copyright protection. We seek to protect this information through trade secret or confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, subcontractors or other parties, as well as through other security measures. These agreements and security measures may be inadequate to deter or prevent misappropriation of our confidential information. In the event of an infringement of our intellectual property rights, a breach of a confidentiality agreement or divulgence of proprietary information, we may not have adequate legal remedies to protect our intellectual property. In addition, third parties may allege that we have infringed their intellectual property rights, which could result in litigation. Litigation to protect, defend or determine the scope of intellectual property rights, even if ultimately successful, could be costly and could divert management's attention away from other aspects of our business. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently developed by competitors.
In some instances, we have augmented our technology base by licensing the proprietary intellectual property of third parties. In the future, we may not be able to obtain necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Our operations are subject to operating risks, which could expose us to potentially significant professional liability, product liability, warranty and other claims. Our insurance coverage may be inadequate to cover all of our significant risks or our insurers may deny coverage of material losses we incur, which could adversely affect our profitability and overall financial condition.
We operate large manufacturing facilities and perform services in large commercial power plants where accidents or system failures can have significant consequences. Risks inherent in our operations include:
accidents resulting in injury or the loss of life or property;
environmental or toxic tort claims, including delayed manifestation claims for personal injury or loss of life;
pollution or other environmental mishaps;
adverse weather conditions;
mechanical or design failures;
property losses;
business interruption due to political action in foreign countries or other reasons; and
labor stoppages.
Any accident or failure at a site where we have provided products or services could result in significant professional liability, product liability, warranty and other claims against us, regardless of whether our products or services caused the incident. We have been, and in the future we may be, named as defendants in lawsuits asserting large claims as a result of litigation arising from events such as those listed above.
We endeavor to identify and obtain, in established markets, insurance agreements to cover significant risks and liabilities. Insurance against some of the risks inherent in our operations is either unavailable or available only at rates or on terms that we
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consider uneconomical. Also, catastrophic events customarily result in decreased coverage limits, more limited coverage, additional exclusions in coverage, increased premium costs and increased deductibles and self-insured retentions. Risks that we have frequently found difficult to cost-effectively insure against include, but are not limited to, business interruption, property losses from wind, flood and earthquake events, nuclear hazards and war, pollution liability, liabilities related to occupational health exposures (including asbestos), professional liability/errors and omissions coverage, the failure, misuse or unavailability of our information systems, the failure of security measures designed to protect our information systems from security breaches, and liability related to risk of loss of our work in progress and customer-owned materials in our care, custody and control. Depending on competitive conditions and other factors, we endeavor to obtain contractual protection against certain uninsured risks from our customers. When obtained, such contractual indemnification protection may not be as broad as we desire or may not be supported by adequate insurance maintained by the customer. Such insurance or contractual indemnity protection may not be sufficient or effective under all circumstances or against all hazards to which we may be subject. A successful claim for which we are not insured or for which we are underinsured could have a material adverse effect on us. Additionally, disputes with insurance carriers over coverage may affect the timing of cash flows and, if litigation with the carrier becomes necessary, an outcome unfavorable to us may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We are also involved in management and operating activities for the U.S. Government. These activities involve, among other things, handling nuclear devices and their components for the U.S. Government. Most insurable liabilities arising from these sites are not protected in our corporate insurance program. Instead, we rely on government contractual agreements, some insurance purchased specifically for the sites and certain specialized self-insurance programs funded by the U.S. Government. The U.S. Government has historically fulfilled its contractual agreement to reimburse for insurable claims, and we expect it to continue this process. However, it should be noted that, in most situations, the U.S. Government is contractually obligated to pay subject to the availability of authorized government funds. The reimbursement obligation of the U.S. Government is also conditional, and provisions of the relevant contract or applicable law may preclude reimbursement.
We have a captive insurance company subsidiary that provides us with various insurance coverages. Claims, as a result of our operations, could adversely impact the ability of our captive insurance company subsidiary to respond to all claims presented.
Although we have product liability insurance coverage, with policy limits that we believe are customary for the medical radioisotope industry, such coverage may not be adequate, requiring that we pay judgments or settlement amounts in excess of policy limits. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at adequate levels. Any product liability claims could be costly to defend, time-consuming and result in adverse judgments, which could result in a material adverse effect on our business, reputation and results.
Additionally, upon the February 22, 2006 effectiveness of the settlement relating to the Chapter 11 proceedings involving several of our former subsidiaries, most of our subsidiaries contributed substantial insurance rights providing coverage for, among other things, asbestos and other personal injury claims, to an asbestos personal injury trust. With the contribution of these insurance rights to the asbestos personal injury trust, we may have underinsured or uninsured exposure for non-derivative asbestos claims or other personal injury or other claims that would have been insured under these coverages had the insurance rights not been contributed to the asbestos personal injury trust. In conjunction with the spin-off, claims and liabilities associated with the asbestos personal injury, property damage and indirect property damage claims mentioned above have been expressly assumed by BWE pursuant to the master separation agreement between us and BWE.
Negotiations with labor unions and possible work stoppages and other labor problems could divert management's attention and disrupt operations. In addition, new collective bargaining agreements or amendments to agreements could increase our labor costs and operating expenses.
A significant number of our employees are members of labor unions. If we are unable to negotiate acceptable new contracts with our unions from time to time, we could experience strikes or other work stoppages by the affected employees. If any such strikes or other work stoppages were to occur, we could experience a significant disruption of operations. In addition, negotiations with unions could divert management attention. New union contracts could result in increased operating costs, as a result of higher wages or benefit expenses, for both union and nonunion employees. If nonunion employees were to unionize, we would experience higher ongoing labor costs.
We rely on single-source suppliers, which could, under certain circumstances, adversely affect our revenues and operating results.
We rely on several single-source suppliers for materials used in our products in our Nuclear Operations Group segment. If the supply of a single-sourced material is delayed or ceases, we may not be able to produce the related product in a timely
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manner or in sufficient quantities, if at all, which could adversely affect our revenues and operating results. In addition, a single-source supplier of a key component could potentially exert significant bargaining power over price, quality, warranty claims or other terms relating to the single-sourced materials, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Maintaining adequate bonding and letter of credit capacity is necessary for us to successfully bid on and win various contracts.
In line with industry practice, we are often required to post standby letters of credit and surety bonds to support contractual obligations to customers as well as other obligations. These letters of credit and bonds generally indemnify customers should we fail to perform our obligations under the applicable contracts. If a letter of credit or bond is required for a particular project and we are unable to obtain it due to insufficient liquidity or other reasons, we will not be able to pursue that project. We utilize bonding facilities, but, as is typically the case, the issuance of bonds under each of those facilities is at the surety's sole discretion. In addition, we have capacity limits under our credit facility for letters of credit. Moreover, due to events that affect the insurance and bonding and credit markets generally, bonding and letters of credit may be more difficult to obtain in the future or may only be available at significant additional cost. There can be no assurance that letters of credit or bonds will continue to be available to us on reasonable terms. Our inability to obtain adequate letters of credit and bonding and, as a result, to bid on new work could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. As of December 31, 2020, we had $68.3 million in letters of credit and $73.7 million in surety bonds outstanding.
Our business strategy includes acquisitions and strategic investments to support our growth, which can create certain risks and uncertainties.
We intend to pursue growth through the acquisition of, or strategic investments in, businesses or assets that we believe will enable us to strengthen our existing businesses and expand into adjacent industries. We may be unable to execute this growth strategy if we cannot identify suitable businesses or assets, reach agreement on potential strategic acquisitions on acceptable terms or for other reasons.
Acquisitions may be funded by the issuance of additional equity or debt financing, which may not be available on attractive terms. Our ability to secure such financing will depend in part on prevailing capital market conditions, as well as conditions in our business and operating results. Moreover, to the extent an acquisition transaction financed by non-equity consideration results in goodwill, it will reduce our tangible net worth, which might have an adverse effect on potential credit and bonding capacity.
Additionally, an acquisition may bring us into businesses we have not previously conducted and expose us to additional business risks that are different than those we have historically experienced.
Our business strategy also includes development and commercialization of new technologies to support our growth, which requires significant investment and involves various risks and uncertainties. These new technologies may not achieve desired commercial or financial results.
Our future growth will depend on our ability to continue to innovate by developing and commercializing new product and service offerings. Investments in new technologies involve varying degrees of uncertainties and risk. Commercial success depends on many factors, including the levels of innovation, the development costs and the availability of capital resources to fund those costs, the levels of competition from others developing similar or other competing technologies, our ability to obtain or maintain government permits or certifications, the effectiveness of production, distribution and marketing efforts, market acceptance and the costs to customers to deploy and provide support for the new technologies. We may not achieve significant revenue from new product and service investments for a number of years, if at all. Additionally, there can be no assurance that the current technologies that our businesses rely upon will remain competitive, or that competing technologies will not disrupt our business. Moreover, new products and services may not be profitable, and, even if they are profitable, our operating margins from new products and services may not be as high as the margins we have experienced historically. Lastly, new technologies may not be patentable and, as a result, we may face increased competition.
Among our opportunities involving new technologies, we are developing new medical radioisotope technology. The costs to develop and commercialize this technology require a substantial amount of investment over a period of years, and commercialization of this technology also requires authorizations from government agencies, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA"), Health Canada and the CNSC. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in addressing all of the technological challenges to developing and commercializing this technology or in obtaining the required authorizations from the FDA, Health Canada or the CNSC. In addition, commercialization of the medical radioisotope technology could
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subject us to product liability claims. The potential also exists for competitors to emerge with alternative technologies. We can provide no assurance that those competitors will not develop and commercialize similar or superior technologies sooner than we can or at a significant cost or price advantage.
We conduct a portion of our operations through joint venture entities, over which we may have limited ability to influence.
We currently have equity interests in several joint ventures and may enter into additional joint venture arrangements in the future. Our influence over some of these entities may be limited. Even in those joint ventures over which we do exercise significant influence, we are often required to consider the interests of our joint venture partners in connection with major decisions concerning the operations of the joint ventures. In any case, differences in views among the joint venture participants may result in delayed decisions or disputes. We also cannot control the actions of our joint venture partners. We sometimes have joint and several liabilities with our joint venture partners under the applicable contracts for joint venture projects and we cannot be certain that our partners will be able to satisfy any potential liability that could arise. These factors could potentially harm the business and operations of a joint venture and, in turn, our business and operations.
Operating through joint ventures in which we are minority holders results in us having limited control over many decisions made with respect to projects and internal controls relating to projects. These joint ventures may not be subject to the same requirements regarding internal controls and internal control over financial reporting that we follow. As a result, internal control problems may arise with respect to the joint ventures that could adversely affect our ability to respond to requests or contractual obligations to customers or to meet the internal control requirements to which we are otherwise subject.
In addition, our arrangements involving joint ventures may restrict us from gaining access to the cash flows or assets of these entities. In some cases, our joint ventures have governmentally imposed restrictions on their abilities to transfer funds to us.
If our co-venturers fail to perform their contractual obligations on a project or if we fail to coordinate effectively with our co-venturers, we could be exposed to legal liability, loss of reputation and reduced profit on the project.
We often perform projects jointly with third parties. For example, we enter into contractual arrangements to bid for and perform jointly on large projects. Success on these joint projects depends in part on whether our co-venturers fulfill their contractual obligations satisfactorily. If any one or more of these third parties fail to perform their contractual obligations satisfactorily, we may be required to make additional investments and provide added services in order to compensate for that failure. If we are unable to adequately address any such performance issues, then our customer may exercise its right to terminate a joint project, exposing us to legal liability, loss of reputation and reduced profit.
Our collaborative arrangements also involve risks that participating parties may disagree on business decisions and strategies. These disagreements could result in delays, additional costs and risks of litigation. Our inability to successfully maintain existing collaborative relationships or enter into new collaborative arrangements could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Accounting and Financial Reporting Risks
We recognize a large portion of our revenue on an over time basis which could result in volatility in our results of operations.
We generally recognize revenues and profits under our long-term contracts on an over time basis. Accordingly, we review contract price and cost estimates regularly as the work progresses and reflect adjustments proportionate to our progress made towards completion in income in the period when we revise those estimates. To the extent these adjustments result in a reduction or an elimination of previously reported profits with respect to a project, we would recognize a charge against current earnings, which could be material. Our current estimates of our contract costs and the profitability of our long-term projects, although reasonably reliable when made, could change as a result of the uncertainties associated with these types of contracts, and if adjustments to overall contract costs are significant, the reductions or reversals of previously recorded revenue and profits could be material in future periods.
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Our backlog is subject to unexpected adjustments and cancellations and may not be a reliable indicator of future revenues or earnings.
There can be no assurance that the revenues projected in our backlog will be realized or, if realized, will result in profits. Because of project cancellations or changes in project scope and schedule, we cannot predict with certainty when or if backlog will be performed. In addition, even where a project proceeds as scheduled, it is possible that contracted parties may default and fail to pay amounts owed to us or poor project performance could increase the cost associated with a project. Delays, suspensions, cancellations, payment defaults, scope changes and poor project execution could materially reduce or eliminate the revenues and profits that we actually realize from projects in backlog.
Reductions in our backlog due to cancellation or modification by a customer or for other reasons may adversely affect, potentially to a material extent, the revenues and earnings we actually receive from contracts included in our backlog. Many of the contracts in our backlog provide for cancellation fees in the event customers cancel projects. These cancellation fees usually provide for reimbursement of our out-of-pocket costs, revenues for work performed prior to cancellation and a varying percentage of the profits we would have realized had the contract been completed. However, we typically have no contractual right upon cancellation to the total revenues reflected in our backlog. Projects may remain in our backlog for extended periods of time. If we experience significant project terminations, suspensions or scope adjustments to contracts reflected in our backlog, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely impacted.
Pension and medical expenses associated with our retirement benefit plans may fluctuate significantly depending on changes in actuarial assumptions, future market performance of plan assets, future trends in health care costs and legislative or other regulatory actions.
A substantial portion of our current and retired employee population is covered by pension and postretirement benefit plans, the costs and funding requirements of which depend on our various assumptions, including estimates of rates of return on benefit-related assets, discount rates for future payment obligations, rates of future cost growth, mortality assumptions and trends for future costs. Service accruals for salaried participants ceased as of December 31, 2015. Variances from these estimates could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, our policy to recognize these variances annually through mark to market accounting could result in volatility in our results of operations, which could be material. As of December 31, 2020, we had underfunded defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit plans with obligations totaling approximately $(174.5) million. A substantial portion of our postretirement benefit plan costs are recoverable on our U.S. Government contracts. See Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for additional information regarding our pension and postretirement benefit plan obligations.
Legal, Regulatory and Compliance Risks
We are involved in a number of legal proceedings. We cannot predict the outcome of litigation and other contingencies with certainty.
Our business may be adversely affected by the outcome of legal proceedings, disputes and other contingencies that cannot be predicted with certainty. As required by GAAP, we estimate loss contingencies and establish reserves based on our assessment of contingencies where liability is deemed probable and reasonably estimable in light of the facts and circumstances known to us at a particular point in time. Subsequent developments in legal proceedings may affect our assessment and estimates of the loss contingency recorded as a liability or as a reserve against assets in our financial statements. For a description of current legal proceedings, see "Note 10 – Commitments and Contingencies" to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
If we fail to comply with government procurement laws and regulations, we could lose business and be liable for various penalties or sanctions.
We must comply with laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration, and performance of U.S. Government contracts. These laws and regulations include the FAR, Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations, the Truth in Negotiations Act, CAS, and laws, regulations, and orders restricting the use and dissemination of classified information under the U.S. export control laws and the export of certain products and technical information. Certain government contracts provide audit rights by government agencies, including with respect to performance, costs, internal controls and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In complying with these laws and regulations, we may incur significant costs, and non-compliance may result in the imposition of fines and penalties, including contractual damages. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations or if a government audit, review, or investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil penalties, criminal penalties, or administrative sanctions, including suspension or debarment from contracting
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with the U.S. Government. Our reputation could suffer harm if allegations of impropriety were made or found against us, which could adversely affect our operating performance and may result in additional expenses and possible loss of revenue.
Employee, agent or partner misconduct or our overall failure to comply with laws, regulations or government contracts could weaken our ability to win contracts, lead to the suspension of our operations and result in reduced revenues and profits.
Misconduct, fraud, or other improper activities by one or more of our employees, agents or partners, as well as our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, could have a significant negative impact on our business and reputation. Such misconduct could include the failure to comply with government procurement regulations, regulations regarding the protection of classified and other information, regulations regarding the pricing of labor and other costs in government contracts, regulations on lobbying or similar activities, regulations pertaining to the internal controls over financial reporting and various other applicable laws or regulations. For example, we regularly provide services that may be highly sensitive or that are related to critical national security matters; if a security breach were to occur, our ability to procure future government contracts could be severely limited. The precautions we take to prevent and detect these activities may not be effective, and we could face unknown risks or losses.
We are routinely audited and reviewed by the U.S. Government and its agencies. These agencies review our performance under our contracts, our cost structure and our compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards, as well as the adequacy of, and our compliance with, our internal control systems and policies. Systems that are subject to review include our purchasing systems, billing systems, property management and control systems, cost estimating systems, compensation systems and management information systems. Any costs found to be improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be reimbursed or must be refunded if already reimbursed. If an audit or review uncovers improper or illegal activities, we could be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines, loss of security clearance and suspension or debarment from contracting with the U.S. Government. In addition, we could suffer serious reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us.
Our nuclear operations subject us to various environmental, regulatory, financial and other risks.
Our operations in designing, engineering, manufacturing, supplying, constructing and maintaining nuclear fuel and nuclear power equipment and components subject us to various risks, including:
potential liabilities relating to harmful effects on the environment and human health resulting from nuclear operations and the storage, handling and disposal of radioactive materials;
unplanned expenditures relating to maintenance, operation, security, defects, upgrades and repairs required by the NRC and other government agencies;
limitations on the amounts and types of insurance commercially available to cover losses that might arise in connection with nuclear operations; and
potential liabilities arising out of a nuclear, radiological or criticality incident, whether or not it is within our control.
Our nuclear operations are subject to various safety-related requirements imposed by the U.S. Government, the DOE and the NRC. In the event of non-compliance, these agencies might increase regulatory oversight, impose fines or shut down our operations, depending upon the assessment of the severity of the situation. Revised security and safety requirements promulgated by these agencies could necessitate substantial capital and other expenditures. In addition, we must comply with and are affected by laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts. Government contract laws and regulations affect how we do business with our customers and, in some instances, impose added costs on our business. A violation of specific laws and regulations could result in the imposition of fines and penalties or the termination of our contracts or debarment from bidding on contracts.
Limitations or modifications to indemnification regulations of the U.S. or foreign countries could adversely affect our business.
The Price-Anderson Act partially indemnifies the nuclear industry against liability arising from nuclear incidents in the U.S., while ensuring compensation for the general public. The Price-Anderson Act comprehensively regulates the manufacture, use and storage of radioactive materials, while promoting the nuclear industry by offering broad indemnification to commercial nuclear power plant operators and DOE contractors. Because we provide nuclear fabrication and other services to the DOE relating to its nuclear devices, facilities and other programs and the nuclear power industry in the ongoing maintenance and
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modifications of its nuclear power plants, including the manufacture of equipment and other components for use in such nuclear power plants, we may be entitled to some of the indemnification protections under the Price-Anderson Act against liability arising from nuclear incidents in the U.S. The indemnification authority under the Price-Anderson Act was extended through December 2025 by the Energy Policy Act of 2005. We also provide nuclear fabrication and other services to the nuclear power industry in Canada and other countries. Canada's NLCA generally conforms to international conventions and is conceptually similar to the Price-Anderson Act in the U.S. Accordingly, indemnification protections and the possibility of exclusions under Canada's NLCA are similar to those under the Price-Anderson Act in the U.S.
The Price-Anderson Act and Canada's NLCA indemnification provisions may not apply to all liabilities that we might incur while performing services as a contractor for the DOE and the nuclear power industry. If an incident or evacuation is not covered under the Price-Anderson Act's or Canada's NLCA's indemnification provisions, we could be held liable for damages, regardless of fault, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In connection with the international transportation of toxic, hazardous and radioactive materials, it is possible for a claim to be asserted that may not fall within the indemnification provided by the Price-Anderson Act or Canada's NLCA. If such indemnification authority is not applicable in the future, our business could be adversely affected if the owners and operators of nuclear power plants fail to retain our services in the absence of commercially adequate insurance and indemnification.
Moreover, because we manufacture nuclear components for the U.S. Government's defense program, we may be entitled to some of the indemnification protections afforded by Public Law 85-804 for certain of our nuclear operations risks. Public Law 85-804 authorizes certain agencies of the U.S. Government, such as the DOE and the U.S. Department of Defense, to indemnify their contractors against unusually hazardous or nuclear risks when such action would facilitate the national defense. However, because the indemnification protections afforded by Public Law 85-804 are granted on a discretionary basis, situations could arise where the U.S. Government elects not to offer such protections. In such situations, our business could be adversely affected by either our inability to obtain commercially adequate insurance or indemnification or our refusal to pursue such operations in the absence of such protections.
Our operations involve the handling, transportation and disposal of radioactive and hazardous materials, and environmental laws and regulations and civil liability for contamination of the environment or related personal injuries may result in increases in our operating costs and capital expenditures and decreases in our earnings and cash flows.
Our operations involve the handling, transportation and disposal of radioactive and hazardous materials, including nuclear devices and their components. Failure to properly handle these materials could pose a health risk to humans or wildlife and could cause personal injury and property damage (including environmental contamination). If an accident were to occur, its severity could be significantly affected by the volume of the materials and the speed of corrective action taken by emergency response personnel, as well as other factors beyond our control, such as weather and wind conditions. Actions taken in response to an accident could result in significant costs.
Governmental requirements relating to the protection of the environment, including solid waste management, air quality, water quality, the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear manufacturing and processing facilities and cleanup of contaminated sites, have had a substantial impact on our operations. These requirements are complex and subject to frequent change. In some cases, they can impose liability for the entire cost of cleanup on any responsible party without regard to negligence or fault and impose liability on us for the conduct of others or conditions others have caused, or for our acts that complied with all applicable requirements when we performed them. Our compliance with amended, new or more stringent requirements, stricter interpretations of existing requirements or the future discovery of contamination may require us to make material expenditures or subject us to liabilities that we currently do not anticipate. Such expenditures and liabilities may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, some of our operations and the operations of predecessor owners of some of our properties have exposed us to civil claims by third parties for liability resulting from alleged contamination of the environment or personal injuries caused by releases of hazardous substances into the environment. See Item 1, "Business - Governmental Regulations and Environmental Matters."
In our contracts, we seek to protect ourselves from liability associated with accidents, but there can be no assurance that such contractual limitations on liability will be effective in all cases or that our or our customers' insurance will cover all the liabilities we have assumed under those contracts. The costs of defending against a claim arising out of a nuclear incident or precautionary evacuation, and any damages awarded as a result of such a claim, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We maintain insurance coverage as part of our overall risk management strategy and due to requirements to maintain specific coverage in our financing agreements and in many of our contracts. These policies do not protect us against all
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liabilities associated with accidents or for unrelated claims. In addition, comparable insurance may not continue to be available to us in the future at acceptable prices, or at all.
Our business requires us to obtain, and to comply with, national, state and local government permits and approvals.
Our business is required to obtain, and to comply with, national, state and local government permits and approvals. Any of these permits or approvals may be subject to denial, revocation or modification under various circumstances. Failure to obtain or comply with the conditions of permits or approvals may adversely affect our operations by temporarily suspending our activities or curtailing our work and may subject us to penalties and other sanctions. Although existing licenses are routinely renewed by various regulators, renewal could be denied or jeopardized by various factors, including:
failure to provide adequate financial assurance for decommissioning or closure;
failure to comply with environmental and safety laws and regulations or permit conditions;
local community, political or other opposition;
executive action; and
legislative action.
As a result of our acquisition of the MI business in 2018, we are also subject to regulatory oversight by the FDA and Health Canada. The commercialization of our medical radioisotope technology will require the review and approval of these and other government agencies. Any delay or denial of such approvals could have a material adverse effect on our MI business.
In addition, if new legislation or regulations are enacted or implemented, or if existing laws or regulations are amended or are interpreted or enforced differently, we may be required to obtain additional operating permits or approvals. Our inability to obtain, and to comply with, the permits and approvals required for our business could have a material adverse effect on us.
Item 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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Item 2.    PROPERTIES
The following table provides the segment name, location and general use of each of our principal properties at December 31, 2020 that we own or lease:
Business Segment and LocationPrincipal UseOwned/Leased
(Lease Expiration)
Nuclear Operations Group
Lynchburg, Virginia
Manufacturing facility (1) (4)
Owned
Barberton, OhioManufacturing facilityOwned
Euclid, OhioManufacturing facilityOwned
Mount Vernon, IndianaManufacturing facilityOwned
Erwin, Tennessee
Manufacturing facility (2) (4)
Owned
Nuclear Power Group
Cambridge, Ontario, CanadaManufacturing facilityOwned
Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
Manufacturing facility (3) (4)
Leased (2036)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Manufacturing facility (3) (4)
Leased (2036)
Kanata, Ontario, Canada
Manufacturing facility (3) (4)
Leased (2038)
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Manufacturing facility (3) (4)
Leased (2031)
Oakville, Ontario, CanadaManufacturing facilityLeased (2029)
Nuclear Services Group
Lynchburg, VirginiaManufacturing facilityOwned
Lynchburg, VirginiaAdministrative officeLeased (2022)
Corporate
Lynchburg, VirginiaAdministrative officeLeased (2021)
Charlotte, North CarolinaAdministrative officeLeased (2022)
(1)This facility is our Nuclear Operations Group segment's primary manufacturing plant and is the nation's largest commercial high-enriched uranium processing facility. The site is also the largest commercial International Atomic Energy Agency certified facility in the U.S.
(2)Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. ("NFS") operates this facility, which manufactures fuel for naval nuclear reactors and downblends Cold War-era government stockpiles of high-enriched uranium. NFS is the sole provider of nuclear fuel for the U.S. Navy.
(3)These facilities are licensed by the CNSC in order to allow us to fabricate natural uranium fuel and produce medical radioisotopes.
(4)This site is subject to review by either the NRC or the CNSC for licensee performance. The performance reviews determine the safe and secure conduct of operations of the facility.
We consider each of our significant properties to be suitable and adequate for its intended use. For further details regarding our properties, see Item 1, "Business."
Item 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information set forth under the heading "Investigations and Litigation" in Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report is incorporated by reference into this Item 3.
Item 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
None.
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PART II
Item 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol BWXT. As of February 18, 2021, there were approximately 1,510 holders of record of our common stock.
Since November 2012, we have periodically announced that our Board of Directors has authorized share repurchase programs. The following table provides information on our purchases of equity securities during the quarter ended December 31, 2020. Any shares purchased that were not part of a publicly announced plan or program are related to repurchases of common stock pursuant to the provisions of employee benefit plans that permit the repurchase of shares to satisfy statutory tax withholding obligations.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Period
Total number
of shares
purchased (1)
Average price paid per shareTotal number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs
Approximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs (in millions) (2)
October 1, 2020 – October 31, 202019,011 $54.50 19,011 $144.3 
November 1, 2020 – November 30, 202016,386 $54.74 16,370 $143.4 
December 1, 2020 – December 31, 2020— — — $143.4 
Total35,397 $54.61 35,381 
(1)Includes 16 shares repurchased during November pursuant to the provisions of employee benefit plans that permit the repurchase of shares to satisfy statutory tax withholding obligations.
(2)On November 6, 2018, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized us to repurchase an indeterminate number of shares of our common stock at an aggregate market value of up to $250 million during a three-year period that expires on November 6, 2021.
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The following graph provides a comparison of our cumulative total shareholder return over five years to the return of the S&P 500 Composite Index ("S&P 500") and the return of the S&P Aerospace and Defense Select Index ("S&P A&D Select"). The following graph shall not be deemed to be "soliciting material" or "filed" with the SEC or be subject to Regulation 14A or 14C (other than as provided in Item 201 of Regulation S-K) or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that BWXT specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.
bwxt-20201231_g1.jpg
(1)Assumes initial investment of $100 on December 31, 2015 and reinvestment of dividends.
Item 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
None.

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Item 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Statements we make in the following discussion, which express a belief, expectation or intention, as well as those that are not historical fact, are forward-looking statements that are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, could differ materially from those we express in the following discussion as a result of a variety of factors, including the risks and uncertainties we have referred to under the headings "Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements" and "Risk Factors" in Items 1 and 1A of Part I of this Report.
GENERAL
We are a leading supplier of nuclear components and fuel to the U.S. Government; provide technical, management and site services to support governments in the operation of complex facilities and environmental remediation activities; supply precision manufactured components, nuclear fuel and services for the commercial nuclear power industry; supply critical medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals; and develop nuclear technologies for a variety of applications, including medical radioisotopes, advanced nuclear power sources and advanced nuclear reactors. In general, we operate in capital-intensive industries and rely on large contracts for a substantial amount of our revenues. We operate in three reportable segments: Nuclear Operations Group, Nuclear Power Group and Nuclear Services Group. We are currently exploring growth strategies across our segments through strategic investments and acquisitions to expand and complement our existing businesses. We would expect to fund these opportunities with cash generated from operations or by raising additional capital through debt, equity or some combination thereof.
Outlook
Nuclear Operations Group
We expect the backlog of our Nuclear Operations Group segment of approximately $3,659 million at December 31, 2020 to produce revenues of approximately $1,221 million in 2021, not including any change orders or new contracts that may be awarded during the year.
The revenues of our Nuclear Operations Group segment are largely a function of defense spending by the U.S. Government. As a supplier of major nuclear components for certain U.S. Government programs, we are a significant participant in the defense industry and have not been negatively impacted by sequestration or federal budget reductions to date. We believe many of our programs are well-aligned with national defense and other strategic priorities as we supply high-end equipment for submarines and aircraft carriers for the U.S. Navy. However, it is possible that reductions in federal government spending and sequestration could have an adverse impact on the operating results and cash flows of this segment in the future.
We expect that orders for nuclear components will continue to be a significant part of backlog for the foreseeable future. In addition, the U.S. Navy issued its fiscal year 2022 long-range shipbuilding plan in December 2020, which maintains recommendations made in its fiscal year 2020 long-range shipbuilding plan (released in September 2019) to increase the size of its fleet of ships to include additional submarines and aircraft carriers beyond the number disclosed prior to September 2019. While the new Administration may make further changes with its fiscal year 2022 budget submission, we have made additional capital expenditures and investments in personnel to meet this anticipated growth in demand and we expect to continue making such expenditures and investments.
Nuclear Power Group
We expect the backlog of our Nuclear Power Group segment of approximately $726 million at December 31, 2020 to produce revenues of approximately $307 million in 2021, not including any change orders or new contracts that may be awarded during the year. The revenues in this segment primarily depend on the demand and competitiveness of nuclear energy. The activity of this segment depends on the timing of maintenance and refueling outages, the cyclical nature of capital expenditures and major refurbishment and plant life extension projects, as well as the demand for nuclear fuel and fuel handling equipment primarily in the Canadian market, which could cause variability in our financial results.
Our acquisition of the MI business in July 2018 expanded our Nuclear Power Group segment's offerings to include medical radioisotope products. The MI business will be the platform from which we plan to launch our Molybdenum-99 product line and a number of future radioisotope-based imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic products.
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Nuclear Services Group
A significant portion of this segment's operations is conducted through joint ventures, which typically earn fees, and we account for them following the equity method of accounting. See Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for financial information on our equity method investments. As a result, this segment reports minimal backlog and revenues.
Given our specialized capabilities of full life-cycle management of special materials, facilities and technologies, we believe our Nuclear Services Group segment is well-positioned to participate in the continuing cleanup, operation and management of critical government-owned nuclear sites, laboratories and manufacturing complexes maintained by the DOE, NASA and other federal agencies. However, it is possible that reductions in federal government spending and sequestration could have an adverse impact on the operating results and cash flows of this segment in the future.
This segment also specializes in the development of advanced technologies. The nature, timing and duration of any related contracts are dependent on the demand and funding availability for such technologies.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
Our financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP"). Preparing financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. These estimates and assumptions are affected by management's application of accounting policies. We believe the following are our most critical accounting policies that we apply in the preparation of our financial statements. These policies require our most difficult, subjective and complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain.
Contracts and Revenue Recognition. We determine the appropriate accounting method for each of our long-term contracts before work on the project begins. We generally recognize contract revenues and related costs over time for individual performance obligations based on a cost-to-cost method in accordance with FASB Topic Revenue from Contracts with Customers. We recognize estimated contract revenue and resulting income based on the measurement of the extent of progress toward completion as a percentage of the total project. Certain costs may be excluded from the cost-to-cost method of measuring progress, such as significant costs for uninstalled materials, if such costs do not depict our performance in transferring control of goods or services to the customer. We review contract price and cost estimates periodically as the work progresses and reflect adjustments proportionate to the percentage-of-completion in income in the period when those estimates are revised. Certain of our contracts recognize revenue at a point in time, and revenue on these contracts is recognized when control transfers to the customer. The majority of our revenue that is recognized at a point in time is related to parts and certain medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in our Nuclear Power Group segment. For all contracts, if a current estimate of total contract cost indicates a loss on a contract, the projected loss is recognized in full when determined. It is possible that current estimates could materially change for various reasons, including, but not limited to, fluctuations in forecasted labor productivity or steel and other raw material prices. We routinely review estimates related to our contracts, and revisions to profitability are reflected in the quarterly and annual earnings we report. In the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, we recognized net favorable changes in estimates related to long-term contracts that increased operating income by approximately $42.8 million, $71.6 million and $46.3 million, respectively.
Although we continually strive to improve our ability to estimate our contract costs and profitability, adjustments to overall contract costs due to unforeseen events could be significant in future periods. We recognize contract change orders or changes in scope of work in contract revenues, to the extent of costs incurred, when we believe collection is probable and can be reasonably estimated. We recognize income from claims when formally agreed with the customer. We regularly assess the collectability of contract revenues and receivables from customers.
Pension Plans and Postretirement Benefits. We utilize actuarial and other assumptions in calculating the cost and benefit obligations of our pension and postretirement benefits. The assumptions utilized in the determination of our benefit cost and obligations include assumptions regarding discount rates, expected returns on plan assets, mortality and health care cost trends. The assumptions utilized represent our best estimates based on historical experience and other factors.
We calculate the majority of our pension costs under both financial accounting standards ("FAS") in accordance with GAAP and CAS in accordance with the FAR. We have prepared our consolidated financial statements and segment reporting disclosures utilizing pension costs calculated under FAS. Pension costs calculated under CAS are utilized as the basis for recovery of pension costs on our U.S. Government contracts. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, our CAS pension costs attributed to U.S. Government contracts totaled $43.6 million, $46.7 million and $44.0 million, respectively. The
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amount of recoverable CAS pension costs recognized as revenue on an annual basis may differ from the amounts noted above. See further discussion of our accounting for contracts and revenue recognition above and in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
Actual experience that differs from these assumptions or future changes in assumptions will affect our recognized benefit obligations and related costs. We immediately recognize net actuarial gains and losses in earnings in the fourth quarter as a component of net periodic benefit cost. Net actuarial gains and losses occur when actual experience differs from any of the various assumptions used to value our pension and postretirement benefit plans or when assumptions, which are revisited annually through our update of our actuarial valuations, change due to current market conditions or underlying demographic changes. The primary factors contributing to net actuarial gains and losses are changes in the discount rate used to value the obligations as of the measurement date each year, the difference between the actual return on plan assets and the expected return on plan assets and changes in health care cost trends. The effect of changes in the discount rate and expected rate of return on plan assets assumptions in combination with the actual return on plan assets can result in significant changes in our estimated pension and postretirement benefit cost and our consolidated financial condition.
The following sensitivity analysis shows the impact of a 25 basis point change in the assumed discount rate, return on assets and health care cost trend rate on our FAS pension and postretirement benefit plan obligations and expense for the year ended December 31, 2020:
.25% Increase.25% Decrease
 (In millions)
Pension Plans
Discount Rate:
Effect on ongoing net periodic benefit cost (1)
$1.3 $(1.3)
Effect on projected benefit obligation$(42.1)$44.3 
Return on Assets:
Effect on ongoing net periodic benefit cost$(2.8)$2.8 
Postretirement Plans
Discount Rate:
Effect on ongoing net periodic benefit cost (1)
$0.1 $(0.1)
Effect on projected benefit obligation$(1.7)$1.9 
Return on Assets:
Effect on ongoing net periodic benefit cost$0.1 $(0.1)
Health Care Cost Trend Rate:
Effect on ongoing net periodic benefit cost$0.1 $(0.1)
Effect on projected benefit obligation$1.4 $(1.2)
(1)Excludes effect of annual mark to market adjustment.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets. Each year, we evaluate goodwill at each reporting unit to assess recoverability, and impairments, if any, are recognized in earnings. We perform a qualitative analysis when we believe that there is sufficient excess fair value over carrying value based on our most recent quantitative assessment, adjusted for relevant facts and circumstances that could affect fair value. Deterioration in macroeconomic, industry and market conditions, cost factors, overall financial performance, share price decline or entity and reporting unit specific events could cause us to believe a qualitative test is no longer appropriate.
When we determine that it is appropriate to test goodwill for impairment utilizing a quantitative test, we compare the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. We utilize both the income and market valuation approaches to provide inputs into the estimate of the fair value of our reporting units, which would be considered by market participants.
Under the income valuation approach, we employ a discounted cash flow model to estimate the fair value of each reporting unit. This model requires the use of significant estimates and assumptions regarding future revenues, costs, margins, capital expenditures, changes in working capital, terminal year growth rate and cost of capital. Our cash flow models are based on our forecasted results for the applicable reporting units. Actual results could differ materially from our projections. Some assumptions, such as future revenues, costs and changes in working capital are company driven and could be affected by a loss of one or more significant contracts or customers, failure to control costs on certain contracts, a decline in U.S. Government
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funding or a decline in demand based on changing economic or regulatory conditions. Changes in external market conditions may affect certain other assumptions, such as the cost of capital. Market conditions can be volatile and are outside of our control.
Under the market valuation approach, we employ the guideline publicly traded company method, which indicates the fair value of the equity of each reporting unit by comparing it to publicly traded companies in similar lines of business. After identifying and selecting guideline companies, we analyze their business and financial profiles for relative similarity. Factors such as size, growth, risk and profitability are analyzed and compared to each of our reporting units. Assumptions include the selection of our peer companies and use of market multiples, which could deteriorate or increase based on the profitability of our competitors and performance of their stock, which is often dependent on the performance of the stock market and general economy as a whole.
Adverse changes in the assumptions utilized in our impairment test could cause a reduction or elimination of excess fair value over carrying value, resulting in potential recognition of impairment. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, no impairment charge is recorded. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment charge is recorded to goodwill in the amount by which the carrying value exceeds fair value.
We completed our annual review of goodwill for each of our reporting units for the year ended December 31, 2020, which indicated that we had no impairment of goodwill. The fair value of our reporting units was substantially in excess of carrying value.
Each year, we evaluate indefinite-lived intangible assets to assess recoverability, and impairments, if any, are recognized in earnings. We perform a qualitative assessment when testing indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment to determine whether events or circumstances that could affect the significant inputs used in determining fair value have occurred that indicate that it is more likely than not that the indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. Deterioration in macroeconomic, industry and market conditions, cost factors or overall financial performance could cause us to believe a qualitative test is no longer appropriate. When quantitative assessments are performed, we primarily utilize income-based valuation approaches. Under the income-based valuation approach, we employ a relief from royalty method of valuation. This method requires significant assumptions, including assumed royalty rate, future revenues and cost of capital. Assumptions related to operating performance, such as future revenues, could be affected by loss of a customer contract, a decline in U.S. Government funding or a decline in demand based on changing economic or regulatory conditions. Changes in external market conditions may affect certain other assumptions, such as the cost of capital. Market conditions can be volatile and are outside of our control.
Adverse changes in these assumptions utilized within our indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test could cause a reduction or elimination of excess fair value over carrying value, resulting in potential recognition of impairment.
We have completed our annual review of our indefinite-lived intangible assets for the year ended December 31, 2020, which indicated that we had no impairment. The fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets was substantially in excess of carrying value.
Asset Retirement Obligations and Environmental Cleanup Costs. We accrue for future decommissioning of our nuclear facilities that will permit the release of these facilities to unrestricted use at the end of each facility's service life, which is a requirement of our licenses from the NRC and the CNSC. In accordance with the FASB Topic Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations, we record the fair value of a liability for an asset retirement obligation in the period in which it is incurred. In estimating fair value, we use present value of cash flows expected to be incurred in settling our obligations. To the extent possible, we perform a marketplace assessment of the cost and timing of performing the retirement activities. We apply a credit-adjusted risk-free interest rate to our expected cash flows in our determination of fair value. When we initially record such a liability, we capitalize a cost by increasing the carrying amount of the related long-lived asset. When we acquire a business that has an asset retirement obligation, the asset retirement obligation is recognized at fair value without a corresponding increase to the related long-lived asset. Over time, the liability is accreted to its present value each period, and the capitalized cost is depreciated over the useful life of the related asset. Actual costs incurred to decommission our facilities may differ from the accreted liability. As a result, upon completion of a decommissioning activity, we will either settle the obligation for its recorded amount or incur a gain or loss. This topic applies to environmental liabilities associated with assets that we currently operate and are obligated to remove from service. For environmental liabilities associated with assets that we no longer operate, we have accrued amounts based on the estimated costs of cleanup activities, net of the anticipated effect of any applicable cost-sharing arrangements. We adjust the estimated costs as further information develops or circumstances change. Given the long-lived nature of these facilities, we are required to estimate retirement costs that will be incurred in the future, which may extend up to 40 years at the time the asset retirement obligation is established. Due to the significance of the remaining useful life of these facilities, the timing of retirement and future costs for material components of the asset retirement
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obligations, such as labor and waste disposal fees, could differ from our estimates. An exception to this accounting treatment relates to the work we perform for two facilities for which the U.S. Government is obligated to pay substantially all the decommissioning costs.
See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for further discussion of recently adopted accounting standards.
COVID-19 ASSESSMENT
General
A global outbreak of COVID-19 has occurred impacting over 200 countries, including the U.S. and Canada where we maintain our principal operations. Developments have been occurring rapidly with respect to the spread of COVID-19 and its impact on human health and businesses, with new and changing government actions occurring on a daily basis. As a result, we have been closely monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic and its impacts and potential impacts on our business.
We have received notifications from the U.S. and Canadian governments designating BWXT as an essential business given our roles in national security, energy production and medical manufacturing. We continue to operate our facilities and have taken numerous precautions to mitigate exposure and protect the health and well-being of our workforce.
To date, we have experienced localized operational challenges as a result of employee illness, quarantines and social distancing protocols. Within our Canadian operations, revenues in our medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals business have declined year over year due to a decrease in demand for elective diagnostic procedures, and certain services scheduled during nuclear power plant outages have been rescheduled, delaying the performance of services by our Nuclear Power Group segment. We have also experienced delays in the bidding and contracting process for our U.S. Government businesses due to COVID-19 concerns.
Because developments related to the spread of COVID-19 and its impacts have been occurring rapidly, it is difficult to predict any future impact at this time. We may experience further disruptions to demand for our products and services and our operations in the future as a result of, among other things, national, state, provincial or local government enforced quarantines, worker illness or absenteeism, and travel and other restrictions. For similar reasons, the COVID-19 pandemic may also adversely impact our supply chain and other manufacturers which could delay our receipt of essential goods and services. Any number of these potential risks could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak impacts our business will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning the severity of the virus and the actions to contain its impact.
Government Assistance
On March 27, 2020, the U.S. Government enacted the CARES Act, which among other things, provides employers an option to defer payroll tax payments for a limited period. Based on our evaluation of the CARES Act, we qualify for the deferral of payroll tax payments in the future and as of December 31, 2020, and we have deferred $21.4 million of payroll taxes that will be paid beginning in December 2021. Additionally, on April 11, 2020, the Canadian Government enacted CEWS under the COVID-19 Economic Response Plan to prevent large layoffs and help employers offset a portion of their employee salaries and wages for a limited period. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized $20.4 million of subsidies under CEWS as an offset to operating expenses. The Canadian Government has extended CEWS to June 2021 with a number of modifications. These modifications are expected to significantly decrease the amount of future claims for which we may qualify.
See Item 1A "Risk Factors" in this Report for an additional discussion of risks of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.
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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS – YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
Selected financial highlights are presented in the table below:
 Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
 (In thousands)
REVENUES:
Nuclear Operations Group$1,646,257 $1,428,587 $1,319,170 
Nuclear Power Group371,269 352,640 365,911 
Nuclear Services Group136,493 131,339 122,438 
Eliminations(30,503)(17,646)(7,630)
$2,123,516 $1,894,920 $1,799,889 
OPERATING INCOME:
Nuclear Operations Group$326,049 $298,328 $271,405 
Nuclear Power Group51,989 53,815 52,270 
Nuclear Services Group26,436 14,226 20,374 
Other(22,309)(23,099)(18,074)
$382,165 $343,270 $325,975 
Unallocated Corporate(23,613)(17,749)(20,998)
Total Operating Income$358,552 $325,521 $304,977 
This section discusses our 2020 and 2019 results of operations and contains year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019. Discussions of our 2018 results and year-to-year comparisons between 2019 and 2018 that are not included in this Report can be found in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Consolidated Results of Operations
Consolidated revenues increased 12.1%, or $228.6 million, to $2,123.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $1,894.9 million for the corresponding period of 2019, due to increases in revenues from our Nuclear Operations Group, Nuclear Power Group and Nuclear Services Group segments totaling $217.7 million, $18.6 million and $5.2 million, respectively.
Consolidated operating income increased $33.0 million to $358.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $325.5 million for the corresponding period of 2019. Operating income in our Nuclear Operations Group, Nuclear Services Group and Other segments increased by $27.7 million, $12.2 million and $0.8 million, respectively. These increases were partially offset by lower operating income in our Nuclear Power Group segment of $1.8 million and higher Unallocated Corporate expenses of $5.9 million when compared to the prior year.
Nuclear Operations Group
 Year Ended December 31,
 20202019$ Change
(In thousands)
Revenues$1,646,257 $1,428,587 $217,670 
Operating Income$326,049 $298,328 $27,721 
% of Revenues19.8%20.9%
Revenues increased by 15.2%, or $217.7 million, to $1,646.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $1,428.6 million for the corresponding period of 2019 as we continue to expand production related to the Columbia-Class nuclear propulsion system. The increase comprised additional volume in the manufacture of nuclear components for U.S. Government programs and the timing of the procurement of certain long-lead materials when compared to the prior year. We also experienced a volume increase in our naval nuclear fuel and downblending operations.
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Operating income increased $27.7 million to $326.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $298.3 million for the corresponding period of 2019. The increase was due to the operating income impact of the changes in revenues noted above.
Nuclear Power Group
 Year Ended December 31,
 20202019$ Change
(In thousands)
Revenues$371,269 $352,640 $18,629 
Operating Income$51,989 $53,815 $(1,826)
% of Revenues14.0%15.3%
Revenues increased by 5.3%, or $18.6 million, to $371.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $352.6 million for the corresponding period of 2019. This was primarily related to an increase in revenues of $38.0 million associated with the acquisition of Laker Energy Products during the first quarter of 2020. We also experienced additional volume related to the fabrication of nuclear fuel and a higher levels of in-plant inspection, maintenance and modification services. These increases were partially offset by lower revenues in our nuclear components business largely attributable to decreased activity associated with major steam generator design and supply contracts of $34.2 million. In addition, we experienced lower demand for our medical radioisotopes when compared to the prior year, due to a decrease in elective diagnostic procedures caused in part by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Operating income decreased $1.8 million to $52.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $53.8 million for the corresponding period of 2019, primarily attributable to a $5.2 million favorable change in estimate associated with an asset retirement obligation in addition to net favorable changes in estimates related to certain long-term contracts recorded in the prior year. We also experienced a shift in our product line mix when compared to the prior year which resulted in a decline in operating margins. This was offset by $20.4 million of wage subsidies received under the CEWS to offset the effects of COVID-19 on our Canadian operations.
Nuclear Services Group
 Year Ended December 31,
 20202019$ Change
(In thousands)
Revenues$136,493 $131,339 $5,154 
Operating Income$26,436 $14,226 $12,210 
% of Revenues19.4%10.8%
Revenues increased by 3.9%, or $5.2 million, to $136.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $131.3 million for the corresponding period of 2019. The increase was primarily attributable to design and engineering work executed by our advanced technologies business which was partially offset by a decline in revenues due to the divestiture of our U.S.-based commercial nuclear services business during the second quarter of 2020.
Operating income increased $12.2 million to $26.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $14.2 million for the corresponding period of 2019 due to the operating income impact of the changes in revenues noted above in addition to year over year improvements in our U.S.-based commercial nuclear services business prior to divestiture.
Other
 Year Ended December 31,
 20202019$ Change
(In thousands)
Operating Income$(22,309)$(23,099)$790 
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Operating income increased $0.8 million to a loss of $22.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to a loss of $23.1 million for the corresponding period of 2019, primarily due to a decrease in research and development activities related to our medical and industrial radioisotope capabilities and other advanced technologies when compared to the prior year.
Unallocated Corporate
Unallocated corporate expenses increased $5.9 million to $23.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $17.7 million for the corresponding period of 2019, primarily due to a $2.6 million reserve related to a franchise tax audit of years prior to 2016, higher levels of incentive compensation and a $1.6 million increase in legal and consulting costs associated with the divestiture of our U.S.-based commercial nuclear services business during the second quarter of 2020.
Other Income (Expense)
During the year ended December 31, 2020, other income (expense) increased $15.4 million to a gain of $3.6 million compared to a loss of $11.8 million for the corresponding period of 2019. A component of other income (expense) is net periodic benefit cost inclusive of mark to market adjustments due to our immediate recognition of net actuarial gains (losses) for our pension and postretirement benefit plans. Net periodic benefit cost resulted in an increase to other income of $14.1 million when compared to the prior year.
Provision for Income Taxes
 Year Ended December 31,
 20202019$ Change
(In thousands)
Income before Provision for Income Taxes
$362,172 $313,742 $48,430 
Provision for Income Taxes
$82,976 $69,065 $13,911 
Effective Tax Rate
22.9%22.0%
For the year ended December 31, 2020, our provision for income taxes increased $13.9 million to $83.0 million, while income before provision for income taxes increased $48.4 million to $362.2 million. Our effective tax rate was approximately 22.9% as compared to 22.0% for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our effective tax rates for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were higher than the U.S. corporate income tax rate of 21% primarily due to state income taxes within the U.S. and the unfavorable rate differential associated with our Canadian earnings. These unfavorable rate impacts were partially offset by benefits recognized for excess tax benefits related to employee share-based payments of $1.1 million and $2.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
See Note 5 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for further information on income taxes.
EFFECTS OF INFLATION AND CHANGING PRICES
Our financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP, using historical U.S. dollar accounting ("historical cost"). Statements based on historical cost, however, do not adequately reflect the cumulative effect of increasing costs and changes in the purchasing power of the U.S. dollar, especially during times of significant and continued inflation.
In order to minimize the negative impact of inflation on our operations, we attempt to cover the increased cost of anticipated changes in labor, material and service costs, either through an estimate of those changes, which we reflect in the original price, or through price escalation clauses in our contracts. However, there can be no assurance we will be able to cover all changes in cost using this strategy.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Our overall liquidity position, which we generally define as our unrestricted cash and cash equivalents plus amounts available for borrowings under our credit facility, increased by approximately $290.4 million to $649.3 million at December 31, 2020 compared to $358.9 million at December 31, 2019. We experienced net cash generated from operations in each of the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. Typically, the fourth quarter has been the period of highest cash flows from operating activities because of the timing of payments received from the U.S. Government on accounts receivable retainages and cash dividends received from our joint ventures.
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On June 12, 2020, we issued $400 million aggregate principal amount of our 4.125% senior notes due 2028 (the "Senior Notes due 2028") pursuant to an indenture dated June 12, 2020 (the "2020 Indenture") among the Company, the guarantors party thereto and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. The proceeds from the issuance of the Senior Notes due 2028 were used to (1) repay in full the Term Loans, as defined below, under our Credit Agreement dated as of May 24, 2018 (as amended, the "Credit Facility"), (2) repay a portion of the borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility, as defined below, under the Credit Facility and (3) pay all fees and expenses related to the issuance of the Senior Notes due 2028.
Credit Facility
On March 24, 2020, we entered into an Amendment No. 1 to Credit Agreement (the "Amendment"), which amended the Credit Facility with Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, and the other lenders party thereto. The Credit Facility originally provided for a $500 million senior secured revolving credit facility (the "Revolving Credit Facility"), a $50 million U.S. dollar senior secured term loan A made available to the Company (the "USD Term Loan") and a $250 million (U.S. dollar equivalent) Canadian dollar senior secured term loan A made available to BWXT Canada Ltd. (the "CAD Term Loan" and together with the USD Term Loan, the "Term Loans"). On June 12, 2020, we repaid in full the Term Loans, at par, with a portion of the proceeds from the issuance of the Senior Notes due 2028.
The Amendment, among other things, (1) provided additional commitments to increase the Revolving Credit Facility by $250 million, such that the Revolving Credit Facility is now $750 million; (2) extended the maturity date of the Revolving Credit Facility to March 24, 2025; (3) removed BWXT Canada Ltd. as a borrower under the Revolving Credit Facility; (4) modified the applicable margin for borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility to be, at the Company's option, either (i) the Eurocurrency rate plus a margin ranging from 1.0% to 1.75% per year or (ii) the base rate plus a margin ranging from 0.0% to 0.75% per year, in each case depending on the Company's leverage ratio; (5) modified the commitment fee on the unused portion of the Revolving Credit Facility to range from 0.15% to 0.225% per year, depending on the Company's leverage ratio; and (6) modified the letter of credit fee with respect to each financial letter of credit and performance letter of credit issued under the Revolving Credit Facility to range from 1.0% to 1.75% and 0.75% to 1.05% per year, respectively, in each case, depending on the Company's leverage ratio.
All obligations under the Revolving Credit Facility are scheduled to mature on March 24, 2025. The proceeds of loans under the Revolving Credit Facility are available for working capital needs, permitted acquisitions and other general corporate purposes.
The Credit Facility allows for additional parties to become lenders and, subject to certain conditions, for the increase of the commitments under the Credit Facility, subject to an aggregate maximum for all additional commitments of (1) the greater of (a) $250 million and (b) 65% of EBITDA, as defined in the Credit Facility, for the last four full fiscal quarters, plus (2) all voluntary prepayments of the Term Loans, plus (3) additional amounts provided the Company is in compliance with a pro forma first lien leverage ratio test of less than or equal to 2.50 to 1.00.
The Company's obligations under the Credit Facility are guaranteed, subject to certain exceptions, by substantially all of the Company's present and future wholly owned domestic restricted subsidiaries. The Credit Facility is secured by first-priority liens on certain assets owned by the Company and its subsidiary guarantors (other than its subsidiaries comprising its Nuclear Operations Group segment and a portion of its Nuclear Services Group segment).
The Revolving Credit Facility requires interest payments on revolving loans on a periodic basis until maturity. We may prepay all loans under the Credit Facility at any time without premium or penalty (other than customary Eurocurrency breakage costs), subject to notice requirements.
The Credit Facility includes financial covenants that are tested on a quarterly basis, based on the rolling four-quarter period that ends on the last day of each fiscal quarter. The maximum permitted leverage ratio is 4.00 to 1.00, which may be increased to 4.50 to 1.00 for up to four consecutive fiscal quarters after a material acquisition. The minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio is 3.00 to 1.00. In addition, the Credit Facility contains various restrictive covenants, including with respect to debt, liens, investments, mergers, acquisitions, dividends, equity repurchases and asset sales. As of December 31, 2020, we were in compliance with all covenants set forth in the Credit Facility.
Outstanding loans under the Revolving Credit Facility bear interest at our option at either (1) the Eurocurrency rate plus a margin ranging from 1.0% to 1.75% per year or (2) the base rate plus a margin ranging from 0.0% to 0.75% per year. We are charged a commitment fee on the unused portion of the Revolving Credit Facility, and that fee ranges from 0.15% to 0.225% per year. Additionally, we are charged a letter of credit fee of between 1.0% and 1.75% per year with respect to the amount of each financial letter of credit issued under the Credit Facility, and a letter of credit fee of between 0.75% and 1.05% per year
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with respect to the amount of each performance letter of credit issued under the Credit Facility. The applicable margin for loans, the commitment fee and the letter of credit fees set forth above will vary quarterly based on our leverage ratio. Based on the leverage ratio applicable at December 31, 2020, the margin for Eurocurrency rate and base rate revolving loans was 1.25% and 0.25%, respectively, the letter of credit fee for financial letters of credit and performance letters of credit was 1.25% and 0.825%, respectively, and the commitment fee for the unused portion of the Revolving Credit Facility was 0.175%.
As of December 31, 2020, borrowings and letters of credit issued under the Revolving Credit Facility totaled $75.0 million and $68.3 million, respectively. As a result, as of December 31, 2020 we had $606.7 million available under the Revolving Credit Facility for borrowings and to meet letter of credit requirements. As of December 31, 2020, the interest rate on outstanding borrowings under our Credit Facility was 1.41%.
The Credit Facility generally includes customary events of default for a secured credit facility. Under the Credit Facility, (1) if an event of default relating to bankruptcy or other insolvency events occurs with respect to the Company, all related obligations will immediately become due and payable; (2) if any other event of default exists, the lenders will be permitted to accelerate the maturity of the related obligations outstanding; and (3) if any event of default exists, the lenders will be permitted to terminate their commitments thereunder and exercise other rights and remedies, including the commencement of foreclosure or other actions against the collateral.
If any default occurs under the Credit Facility, or if we are unable to make any of the representations and warranties in the Credit Facility, we will be unable to borrow funds or have letters of credit issued under the Credit Facility.
Senior Notes due 2026
On May 24, 2018, we issued $400 million aggregate principal amount of 5.375% senior notes due 2026 (the "Senior Notes due 2026") pursuant to an indenture dated May 24, 2018 (the "2018 Indenture"), among the Company, certain of our subsidiaries, as guarantors, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. The Senior Notes due 2026 are guaranteed by each of the Company's present and future direct and indirect wholly owned domestic subsidiaries that is a guarantor under the Credit Facility.
Interest on the Senior Notes due 2026 is payable semi-annually in cash in arrears on January 15 and July 15 of each year at a rate of 5.375% per annum. The Senior Notes due 2026 will mature on July 15, 2026.
On and after July 15, 2021, we may redeem the Senior Notes due 2026, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to (i) 102.688% of the principal amount to be redeemed if the redemption occurs during the twelve-month period beginning on July 15, 2021, (ii) 101.344% of the principal amount to be redeemed if the redemption occurs during the twelve-month period beginning on July 15, 2022 and (iii) 100.0% of the principal amount to be redeemed if the redemption occurs on or after July 15, 2023, in each case plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date. At any time prior to July 15, 2021, we may also redeem up to 40.0% of the Senior Notes due 2026 with net cash proceeds of certain equity offerings at a redemption price equal to 105.375% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes due 2026 to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date. In addition, at any time prior to July 15, 2021, we may redeem the Senior Notes due 2026, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to 100.0% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes due 2026 to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date plus an applicable "make-whole" premium.
The 2018 Indenture contains customary events of default, including, among other things, payment default, failure to comply with covenants or agreements contained in the 2018 Indenture or the Senior Notes due 2026 and certain provisions related to bankruptcy events. The 2018 Indenture also contains customary negative covenants. As of December 31, 2020, we were in compliance with all covenants set forth in the 2018 Indenture and the Senior Notes due 2026.
Senior Notes due 2028
On June 12, 2020, we issued $400 million aggregate principal amount of our Senior Notes due 2028 pursuant to the 2020 Indenture. The Senior Notes due 2028 are guaranteed by each of the Company's present and future direct and indirect wholly owned domestic subsidiaries that is a guarantor under the Credit Facility.
Interest on the Senior Notes due 2028 is payable semi-annually in cash in arrears on June 30 and December 30 of each year at a rate of 4.125% per annum. The Senior Notes due 2028 will mature on June 30, 2028.
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We may redeem the Senior Notes due 2028, in whole or in part, at any time on or after June 30, 2023 at a redemption price equal to (i) 102.063% of the principal amount to be redeemed if the redemption occurs during the twelve-month period beginning on June 30, 2023, (ii) 101.031% of the principal amount to be redeemed if the redemption occurs during the twelve-month period beginning on June 30, 2024 and (iii) 100.0% of the principal amount to be redeemed if the redemption occurs on or after June 30, 2025, in each case plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date. At any time prior to June 30, 2023, we may also redeem up to 40.0% of the Senior Notes due 2028 with net cash proceeds of certain equity offerings at a redemption price equal to 104.125% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes due 2028 to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date. In addition, at any time prior to June 30, 2023, we may redeem the Senior Notes due 2028, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to 100.0% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes due 2028 to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date plus an applicable "make-whole" premium.
The 2020 Indenture contains customary events of default, including, among other things, payment default, failure to comply with covenants or agreements contained in the 2020 Indenture or the Senior Notes due 2028 and certain provisions related to bankruptcy events. The 2020 Indenture also contains customary negative covenants. As of December 31, 2020, we were in compliance with all covenants set forth in the 2020 Indenture and the Senior Notes due 2028.
Other Arrangements
We have posted surety bonds to support regulatory and contractual obligations for certain decommissioning responsibilities, projects and legal matters. We utilize bonding facilities to support such obligations, but the issuance of bonds under those facilities is typically at the surety's discretion. Although there can be no assurance that we will maintain our surety bonding capacity, we believe our current capacity is adequate to support our existing requirements for the next twelve months. In addition, these bonds generally indemnify the beneficiaries should we fail to perform our obligations under the applicable agreements. We, and certain of our subsidiaries, have jointly executed general agreements of indemnity in favor of surety underwriters relating to surety bonds those underwriters issue. As of December 31, 2020, bonds issued and outstanding under these arrangements totaled approximately $73.7 million.
OTHER
Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash and Investments
In the aggregate, our cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and cash equivalents and investments decreased by approximately $44.5 million to $61.4 million at December 31, 2020 from $105.9 million at December 31, 2019, primarily due to the items discussed below. Our domestic and foreign cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and cash equivalents and investments as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 were as follows:
 December 31,
 20202019
 (In thousands)
Domestic$31,376 $76,337 
Foreign29,985 29,526 
Total$61,361 $105,863 
Our working capital increased by $18.8 million to $243.9 million at December 31, 2020 from $225.0 million at December 31, 2019, primarily attributable to changes in net contracts in progress and advance billings due to the timing of project cash flows. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in cash and cash equivalents and an increase in other accrued liabilities primarily related to the deferral of payroll tax payments under the CARES Act.
Our net cash provided by operating activities decreased by $82.9 million to $196.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to cash provided by operating activities of $279.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily attributable to the timing of project cash flows. This decrease was partially offset by an increase in net income and the deferral of payroll tax payments under the CARES Act of $21.4 million.
Our net cash used in investing activities increased by $85.3 million to $265.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $180.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in cash used in investing activities was primarily attributable to an increase in purchases of property, plant and equipment of $72.9 million as well as our acquisition of Laker Energy Products for $15.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2020.
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Our net cash provided by financing activities increased by $68.8 million to $25.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to cash used in financing activities of $43.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in net cash provided by financing activities was primarily attributable to bank overdrafts of $88.7 million, partially offset by the payment of debt issuance costs of $6.8 million and an increase in dividends paid to common shareholders of $7.6 million compared to the prior year.
At December 31, 2020, we had restricted cash and cash equivalents totaling $5.7 million, $2.6 million of which was held for future decommissioning of facilities (which is included in other assets on our consolidated balance sheets) and $3.1 million of which was held to meet reinsurance reserve requirements of our captive insurer.
At December 31, 2020, we had short-term and long-term investments with a fair value of $13.1 million. Our investment portfolio consists primarily of U.S. Government and agency securities, corporate bonds and equities and mutual funds.
Based on our liquidity position, we believe we have sufficient cash and letter of credit and borrowing capacity to fund our operating requirements for at least the next 12 months.
CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS
Our cash requirements as of December 31, 2020 under current contractual obligations were as follows:
TotalLess than
1 Year
1-3
Years
3-5
Years
After
5 Years
 (In thousands)
Long-term debt principal$875,000 $— $— $75,000 $800,000 
Interest payments$252,750 $38,000 $76,000 $76,000 $62,750 
Lease payments$10,488 $3,348 $3,108 $1,204 $2,828 
We expect cash requirements totaling approximately $4.7 million for contributions to our pension plans in 2021. In addition, we anticipate cash requirements totaling approximately $1.4 million for contributions to our other postretirement benefit plans in 2021.
Our contingent commitments under letters of credit and surety bonds currently outstanding expire as follows:
TotalLess than
1 Year
1-3
Years
3-5
Years
Thereafter
(In thousands)
$ 142,022$ 129,952$ 3,100$ 8,970$ —

Item 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our exposure to market risk from changes in interest rates relates primarily to our debt instruments. Our borrowings include both fixed and variable interest rate debt. At December 31, 2020, we had (i) $75.0 million in outstanding borrowings and $606.7 million available under the Credit Facility, (ii) an aggregate principal amount of $400.0 million of Senior Notes due 2026 and (iii) an aggregate principal amount of $400.0 million of Senior Notes due 2028. See Item 7 – "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources" for additional information on our debt instruments.
We also have exposure from changes in interest rates related to our cash equivalents and our investment portfolio, which consists primarily of U.S. Government and agency securities, corporate bonds and equities and mutual funds. We are averse to principal loss and seek to ensure the safety and preservation of our invested funds by limiting default risk, market risk and reinvestment risk.
We have operations in foreign locations, and, as a result, our financial results could be significantly affected by factors such as changes in foreign currency exchange ("FX") rates or weak economic conditions in those foreign markets. In order to manage the operational risks associated with FX rate fluctuations, we attempt to hedge those risks with FX derivative instruments. Historically, we have hedged those risks with FX forward contracts. At December 31, 2020, the fair values of our outstanding derivative instruments were not significant. We do not enter into speculative derivative positions.
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Interest Rate Sensitivity
The following tables provide information about our financial instruments that are sensitive to changes in interest rates. The tables present principal cash flows and related weighted-average interest rates by expected maturity dates.
Principal Amount by Expected Maturity
(In thousands)
At December 31, 2020:       Fair Value at
 Years Ending December 31,  December 31,
 20212022202320242025ThereafterTotal2020
Investments
$3,716 — — — — $7,090 $10,806 $13,063 
Average Interest Rate
1.92%— — — — 2.18%
Fixed Interest Rate Debt
— — — — — $800,000 $800,000 $832,167 
Average Interest Rate
— — — — — 4.75%
Variable Interest Rate Debt
— — — — $75,000 — $75,000 $74,137 
Average Interest Rate
— — — — 2.19%— 
 
At December 31, 2019:       Fair Value at
 Years Ending December 31,  December 31,
 20202021202220232024ThereafterTotal2019
Investments
$3,663 — — — — $7,016 $10,679 $13,463 
Average Interest Rate
1.94%— — — — 1.41%
Fixed Interest Rate Debt
— — — — — $400,000 $400,000 $423,462 
Average Interest Rate
— — — — — 5.38%
Variable Interest Rate Debt
$14,711 $14,711 $14,711 $388,026 — — $432,159 $431,644 
Average Interest Rate
3.26%3.20%3.25%3.11%— — 
Exchange Rate Sensitivity
The following table provides information about our FX forward contracts outstanding at December 31, 2020 and presents such information in U.S. dollar equivalents. The table presents notional amounts and related weighted-average FX rates by expected (contractual) maturity dates and constitutes a forward-looking statement. These notional amounts generally are used to calculate the contractual payments to be exchanged under the contract. The average contractual FX rates are expressed using market convention, which is dependent on the currencies being bought and sold under the forward contract.
Forward Contracts to Purchase Foreign Currencies in U.S. Dollars (in thousands)
 Year EndingFair Value atAverage Contractual
Foreign CurrencyDecember 31, 2021December 31, 2020Exchange Rate
Canadian dollar$19,277 $588 1.3078 
U.S. dollar (selling Canadian dollar)$209,540 $(2,299)1.2866