497 1 d119287d497.htm J.P. MORGAN EXCHANGE-TRADED FUND TRUST J.P. Morgan Exchange-Traded Fund Trust
Table of Contents

Prospectus

J.P. Morgan Exchange-Traded Funds

December 16, 2015, as supplemented March 30, 2016

 

JPMorgan Diversified Return Europe Currency Hedged ETF  

Ticker: JPEH

 

Listing Exchange: NYSE Arca

The Securities and Exchange Commission has not approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

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Table of Contents

CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

JPMorgan Diversified Return Europe Currency Hedged ETF

 

Ticker: JPEH

What is the goal of the Fund?

The Fund seeks investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the FTSE Developed Europe Diversified Factor 100% Hedged to USD Index.

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

The following table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold Shares of the Fund. Investors purchasing Shares in the secondary market may be subject to costs (including customary brokerage commissions) charged by their broker. “Acquired Fund (Underlying Fund) Fees and Expenses” are expenses incurred indirectly by the Fund through its ownership of Shares in other investment companies, including affiliated money market funds, other mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and business development companies. The impact of Acquired Fund (Underlying Fund) Fees and Expenses is included in the total returns of the Fund. Acquired Fund (Underlying Fund) Fees and Expenses are not direct costs of the Fund, are not used to calculate the Fund’s net asset value (NAV) and are not included in the calculation of the ratio of expenses to average net assets shown in the Financial Highlights section of the Fund’s prospectus.

 

ANNUAL FUND OPERATING EXPENSES

(Expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value
of your investment)

 
Management Fees        0.33
Other Expenses1        0.27   
Acquired Fund (Underlying Fund) Fees and Expenses        0.43   
      

 

 

 
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses        1.03   
Fee Waivers and Expense Reimbursements2        (0.54
      

 

 

 
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waivers and Expense Reimbursements2        0.49   

 

1 “Other Expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

 

2 The Fund’s adviser and/or its affiliates have contractually agreed to waive fees and/or reimburse expenses to the extent Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses (excluding dividend and interest expenses related to short sales, interest, taxes, expenses related to litigation and potential litigation and extraordinary expenses) exceed 0.49% of the average daily net assets of the Shares. This waiver is in effect through 2/28/19, at which time the adviser and/or its affiliates will determine whether to renew or revise it.

Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you pay when purchasing or selling Shares of the Fund.

The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses are equal to the total annual fund operating expenses after fee waivers and expense reimbursements shown in the table through 2/28/19 and total annual fund operating expenses thereafter. Your actual costs may be higher or lower.

 

WHETHER OR NOT YOU SELL YOUR SHARES, YOUR
COST WOULD BE
 
     1 Year     3 Years  
SHARES ($)     50        157   

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund and the exchange-traded fund in which the Fund principally invests, the JPMorgan Diversified Return Europe Equity ETF (the Underlying Fund), pay transaction costs, such as commissions, when each buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. The Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this prospectus. Therefore, there is no portfolio turnover rate for the Fund to report at this time.

What are the Fund’s main investment strategies?

The Fund seeks investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the FTSE Developed Europe Diversified Factor 100% Hedged to USD Index (the Underlying Index). The Underlying Index has been developed to represent European stock performance with the foreign currency risk of the securities included in the Underlying Index hedged against the U.S. dollar on a monthly basis. The Underlying Index is comprised of equity securities from across developed Europe selected to represent a diversified set of factor characteristics, originally developed by the adviser. FTSE International Limited is the Index Provider. Holdings in the Underlying Index are selected by the Index Provider primarily from the constituents of the FTSE Developed Europe Index, a larger FTSE index, which is comprised of large- and mid-cap equity securities in developed European markets. Through diversification, the Underlying Index is designed to more evenly distribute risk to minimize risk concentrations in sectors. In the Underlying Index, weightings to sectors are adjusted based on their historical volatility to diversify their contribution to the overall risk of the portfolio. The Underlying Index is diversified across the following sectors: Consumer Goods, Consumer Services, Financials, Health Care, Industrials, Basic Materials, Oil &

 

 

 
DECEMBER 16, 2015         1   


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JPMorgan Diversified Return Europe Currency Hedged ETF (continued)

 

Gas, Technology, Telecommunications and Utilities. The rules based proprietary multi-factor selection process utilizes the following characteristics: valuation, momentum, and quality. The Underlying Index’s securities are large- and mid-cap equity securities of companies from developed European countries, including common stock and preferred stock. As of November 30, 2015, the market capitalizations of the companies in the Underlying Index ranged from $2.2 billion to $232.6 billion. The equity positions in both the Underlying Index and the Underlying Fund are rebalanced quarterly.

 

UNDERLYING INDEX CHARACTERISTICS

Valuation — Targets equity securities with attractive prices relative to their fundamental characteristics

 

Momentum — Targets equity securities which have high recent risk-adjusted returns

 

Quality — Targets companies that exhibit financial stability based on high return on equity and low volatility of price returns

Currently, the Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing a substantial portion of its assets in the Underlying Fund, which is a passive fund investing in the same securities held in the Underlying Index, but the Underlying Fund does not include the currency hedge component. The Fund will invest at least 80% of its Assets in securities included in the Underlying Index (including indirect investments through the Underlying Fund). For purposes of investing at least 80% of its Assets in securities included in the Underlying Index, the Fund will invest in European equity securities (including through the Underlying Fund) and foreign currency forward contracts (both deliverable and non-deliverable) designed to hedge against non-U.S. currency fluctuations and may invest in depositary receipts representing securities included in the Underlying Index (including through the Underlying Fund). “Assets” means net assets, plus the amount of borrowing for investment purposes.

The Fund, using a “passive” or indexing investment approach, attempts to closely correspond to the performance of the Underlying Index. The adviser expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance before fees and expenses and that of the Underlying Index will be 95% or better. A figure of 100% would indicate perfect correlation. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund does not seek to outperform the Underlying Index and does not seek temporary defensive positions when markets decline or appear overvalued.

The adviser uses a “representative sampling” index strategy to manage the Fund. In representative sampling, securities are

chosen in order to attempt to approximate the investment characteristics of the constituent securities, but the Fund does not hold all the constituent securities. It allows the Fund to hold a significant number of the constituent securities of its Underlying Index (through the Underlying Fund), but the Fund may not track its Underlying Index with the same degree of accuracy as would an investment vehicle replicating the Underlying Index.

The Underlying Index applies a one month forward rate to the total value of the non-U.S. dollar denominated securities included in the Underlying Index to effectively create a “hedge” against fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies represented in the Underlying Index in relation to the U.S. dollar. The hedge is reset on a monthly basis. The Underlying Index is designed to have higher returns than an equivalent unhedged investment when the currencies represented in the Underlying Index are weakening relative to the U.S. dollar. Conversely, the Underlying Index is designed to have lower returns than an equivalent unhedged investment when the currencies represented in the Underlying Index are rising relative to the U.S. dollar.

In order to attempt to track the “hedging” component of the Underlying Index, the Fund intends to enter into foreign currency forward contracts which may include both physically settled forward contracts and non-deliverable forward contracts (NDFs). These contracts are designed to offset the Fund’s exposure to the currencies represented in the Underlying Index. Consistent with the Underlying Index, the “hedging component” for the Fund will be reset on a monthly basis. A foreign currency forward contract is a contract between two parties to buy or sell a specified amount of a specific currency in the future at an agreed upon exchange rate. The Fund may use NDFs to execute its hedging transactions. An NDF is a contract where there is no physical settlement of two currencies at maturity. Rather, based on the movement of the currencies, a net cash settlement will be made by one party to the other. The Fund’s exposure to foreign currency forward contracts and NDFs is based on the aggregate exposure of the Fund to the currencies represented in the Underlying Index.

Due to fluctuation in asset values, the currency hedge, which is set at the beginning of the month, will not be fully replicated during the month. As a result, the Fund may hold up to 20% of its Assets in cash or short-term investments, such as shares of a JPMorgan money market fund, if Shares are created during the month.

To the extent that the securities in the Underlying Fund’s underlying index are concentrated in one or more industries or groups of industries, the Underlying Fund may concentrate in such industries or groups of industries.

 

 

 
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The Fund’s Main Investment Risks

 

An investment in this Fund or any other fund may not provide a complete investment program. The suitability of an investment in the Fund should be considered based on investment objective, strategies and risks described in this prospectus, considered in light of all of the other investments in your portfolio, as well as your risk tolerance, financial goals and time horizons. You may want to consult with a financial advisor to determine if this Fund is suitable for you.

The Fund is subject to the main risks noted below, any of which may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV, market price, performance and ability to meet its investment objective.

Investments in the Underlying Fund Risk. The Fund invests in the Underlying Fund as part of its primary strategy, so the Fund’s investment performance and risks are directly related to the performance and risks of the Underlying Fund. Shareholders will indirectly bear the expenses charged by the Underlying Fund. Because the Fund’s adviser or its affiliates provide services to and receive fees from the Underlying Fund, the Fund’s investments in the Underlying Fund benefit the adviser and/or its affiliates. In addition, the Fund may hold a significant percentage of the shares of the Underlying Fund. As a result, the Fund’s investments in the Underlying Fund may create a conflict of interest.

Equity Market Risk. The price of equity securities may rise or fall because of changes in the broad market or changes in a company’s financial condition, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably. These price movements may result from factors affecting individual companies, sectors or industries included in the Underlying Index, the Underlying Fund’s portfolio or the securities market as a whole, such as changes in economic or political conditions. When the value of the Fund’s securities goes down, your investment in the Fund decreases in value.

General Market Risk. Economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected, which increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one country or region will adversely impact markets or issuers in other countries or regions. Securities in the Underlying Index or in the Fund’s portfolio may underperform in comparison to the general financial markets, a particular financial market or other asset classes, due to a number of factors, including inflation, interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters or events, terrorism, regulatory events and government controls.

European Market Risk. The Fund’s performance will be affected by political, social and economic conditions in the various countries in which it invests in Europe and in Europe more generally, such as growth of the economic output (the gross national product), the rate of inflation, the rate at which capital

is reinvested into European economies, the success of governmental actions to reduce budget deficits, the resource self-sufficiency of European countries and interest and monetary exchange rates between European countries. European financial markets may experience volatility due to concerns about high government debt levels, credit rating downgrades, rising unemployment, the future of the euro as a common currency, possible restructuring of government debt and other government measures responding to those concerns, and fiscal and monetary controls imposed on member countries of the European Economic and Monetary Union. In addition, if one or more countries were to abandon the use of the euro as a currency, the value of investments tied to those countries or the euro could decline significantly and unpredictably.

Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in foreign currencies and foreign issuers (including depositary receipts) are subject to additional risks, including political and economic risks, civil conflicts and war, greater volatility, expropriation and nationalization risks, sanctions or other measures by the United States or other governments, currency fluctuations, higher transaction costs, delayed settlement, possible foreign controls on investment, and less stringent investor protection and disclosure standards of foreign markets. In certain markets where securities and other instruments are not traded “delivery versus payment,” the Fund may not receive timely payment for securities or other instruments it has delivered or receive delivery of securities paid for and may be subject to increased risk that the counterparty will fail to make payments or delivery when due or default completely. Events and evolving conditions in certain economies or markets may alter the risks associated with investments tied to countries or regions that historically were perceived as comparatively stable becoming riskier and more volatile.

Geographic Focus Risk. The Fund may focus its investments in one or more regions or small groups of countries. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be subject to greater volatility than a more geographically diversified fund.

Currency Hedging Risk. The Fund enters into foreign currency forward contracts, including NDFs, to attempt to minimize the impact of changes in the currency exposure of the Underlying Fund against the U.S. dollar. The return of the foreign currency forward contracts may not perfectly offset the actual fluctuations between the currencies represented in the Underlying Index and the U.S. dollar. To the extent the Fund’s hedging contracts are not successful, the U.S. dollar value of an investment in the Fund may go down. Because the currency hedge is reset on a monthly basis, currency risk can develop intra-month. Specifically, because no changes in the currency hedge in the Underlying Index are made during the month to account for changes in the Underlying Index due to price movement of securities, corporate events, additions, deletions or any other

 

 

 
DECEMBER 16, 2015         3   


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JPMorgan Diversified Return Europe Currency Hedged ETF (continued)

 

changes to the Underlying Index, changes in the value of the non-U.S. currencies represented in the Underlying Index against the U.S. dollar during the month may impact the ability of the Fund to provide an effective hedge or to track the performance of the Underlying Index. While the Underlying Index is designed to hedge currency rate exposure of the equity positions, it is possible that a degree of exposure may remain even at the time of rebalance. Currency hedging may also limit potential gains from the exposure to the equity securities if foreign currencies rise or remain unchanged. When foreign currencies rise or remain unchanged relative to the U.S. dollar, an unhedged investment in the same equity securities will outperform the Fund.

The Fund may use NDFs to execute its currency hedging transactions. NDFs on currencies are often less liquid than deliverable foreign currency forward contracts. A lack of liquidity in NDFs of the hedged currency could result in the Fund being unable to structure its hedging transactions as intended.

Currency Risk. Because the Fund’s and the Underlying Fund’s NAVs are determined in U.S. dollars, the Fund’s NAV could decline if the currency of a non-U.S. market in which the Fund invests depreciates against the U.S. dollar and the Fund’s attempt to hedge currency exposure is unsuccessful. Generally, when the value of the U.S. dollar rises in value relative to a foreign currency, an investment in that country loses value because that currency is worth less in U.S. dollars. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates. Devaluation of a currency by a country’s government or banking authority also will have a significant impact on the value of any investments denominated in that currency. Currency markets generally are not as regulated as securities markets.

Index Related Risk. The Fund’s return may not track the return of the Underlying Index for a number of reasons and therefore may not achieve its investment objective. For example, the Fund incurs a number of operating expenses not applicable to the Underlying Index, and incurs costs in buying and selling securities or entering into forward contracts, especially when rebalancing the Fund’s securities holdings to reflect changes in the composition of the Underlying Index. These transaction costs may be higher for a fund investing in foreign securities. The Fund’s return also may not track the return of the Underlying Index if its currency hedging strategy is not successful. In addition, the Fund’s return may differ from the return of its Underlying Index as a result of, among other things, pricing differences (including differences between a security’s price at the local market close and the Underlying Fund’s valuation of a security at the time of calculation of the Underlying Fund’s NAV) and the inability of the Underlying Fund to purchase certain securities

included in the Underlying Index due to regulatory or other restrictions.

Because the Fund uses a representative sampling strategy (or when the Underlying Fund does so), the Fund may not be as well correlated with the return of the Underlying Index as when the Fund or the Underlying Fund purchases all of the securities in its underlying index in the proportions in which they are represented in its underlying index. To the extent the Underlying Fund calculates its NAV based on fair value prices and the value of the Underlying Index is based on securities’ closing prices on local foreign markets (i.e., the value of its underlying index is not based on fair value prices), the Fund’s ability to track the performance of the Underlying Index may be adversely affected.

Errors in the construction or calculation of the Underlying Index may occur from time to time. Any such errors may not be identified and corrected by the Index Provider for some period of time, which may have an adverse impact on the Fund and its shareholders.

The risk that the Fund may not track the performance of the Underlying Index may be heightened during times of significant market volatility or other unusual market conditions.

Sampling Risk. Because the Fund uses a representative sampling approach (or when the Underlying Fund does so), the Fund will hold (directly or through the Underlying Fund) a smaller number of securities than are in the Fund’s or Underlying Fund’s index or will not match the Underlying Index’s hedging strategy exactly. As a result, an adverse development respecting an issuer of securities held by the Underlying Fund could result in a greater decline in the Fund’s NAV than would be the case if the Underlying Fund held all of the securities in its underlying index. Conversely, a positive development relating to an issuer of securities in the Underlying Index that is not held by the Underlying Fund could cause the Fund to underperform the Underlying Index. To the extent the assets in the Fund are smaller, these risks may be greater.

Passive Management Risk. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund and the Underlying Fund are not “actively” managed. Therefore, the Fund and the Underlying Fund would not generally sell a security because the security’s issuer was in financial trouble unless that security is removed from its underlying index. Therefore, the Fund’s performance could be lower than funds that may actively shift their portfolio assets to take advantage of market opportunities or lessen the impact of a market decline or a decline in the value of one or more issuers. The Fund (and the Underlying Fund) will not take defensive positions under any market conditions, including in declining markets.

Derivatives Risk. The Fund (and the Underlying Fund) may use derivatives, primarily foreign currency forward contracts (and

 

 

 
4       J.P. MORGAN EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS


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futures for the Underlying Fund). Derivatives, may be riskier than other types of investments and may increase the volatility of the Fund. Derivatives may be sensitive to changes in economic and market conditions and may create leverage, which could result in losses that significantly exceed the Fund’s original investment. Derivatives expose the Fund to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the derivative counterparty will not fulfill its contractual obligations (and includes credit risk associated with the counterparty). Certain derivatives are synthetic instruments that attempt to replicate the performance of certain reference assets. With regard to such derivatives, the Fund does not have a claim on the reference assets and is subject to enhanced counterparty risk. Derivatives may not perform as expected, so the Fund may not realize the intended benefits. In addition, given their complexity, derivatives expose the Fund to risks of mispricing or improper valuation.

Mid-Cap Company Risk. The Fund’s risks increase to the extent the Underlying Fund invests more heavily in mid-cap companies. Mid-cap companies may be more volatile and vulnerable to economic, market and industry changes. As a result, share price changes may be more sudden or erratic than the prices of securities of large capitalization companies, especially over the short term.

ETF Shares Trading Risk. Shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and are bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. The market prices of Shares are expected to fluctuate, in some cases materially, in response to changes in the Fund’s NAV, the intraday value of the Fund’s holdings, and supply and demand for Shares. The adviser cannot predict whether Shares will trade above, below or at their NAV. Disruptions to creations and redemptions, the existence of significant market volatility or potential lack of an active trading market for the Shares (including through a trading halt), as well as other factors, may result in the Shares trading significantly above (at a premium) or below (at a discount) to NAV or to the intraday value of the Fund’s holdings. During such periods, you may incur significant losses if you sell your Shares.

The securities held by the Fund (including through the Underlying Fund) may be traded in markets that close at a different time than the Exchange. Liquidity in those securities may be reduced after the applicable closing times. Accordingly, during the time when the Exchange is open but after the applicable market closing, fixing or settlement times, bid-ask spreads on the Exchange and the corresponding premium or discount to the Shares’ NAV may widen.

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. Only an authorized participant may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of intermediaries that act as authorized participants and none of these authorized participants is or will be obligated to engage in creation or redemption transactions. To the extent that these

intermediaries exit the business or are unable to or choose not to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders with respect to the Fund and no other authorized participant is able to step forward to create or redeem, Shares may trade at a discount to NAV and possibly face trading halts and/or delisting.

Industry and Sector Focus Risk. At times the Underlying Index and the Fund (including through the Underlying Fund) may increase the relative emphasis of its investments in a particular industry or sector. The prices of securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector may be more susceptible to fluctuations due to changes in economic or business conditions, government regulations, availability of basic resources or supplies, or other events that affect that industry or sector more than securities of issuers in other industries and sectors. To the extent that the Underlying Index and the Fund increase the relative emphasis of its investments in a particular industry or sector, the Fund’s Share values may fluctuate in response to events affecting that industry or sector.

 

Investments in the Fund are not deposits or obligations of, or guaranteed or endorsed by, any bank and are not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC, the Federal Reserve Board or any other government agency.

You could lose money investing in the Fund.

The Fund’s Past Performance

The Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this prospectus and therefore, has no reportable performance history. Once the Fund has operated for at least one calendar year, a bar chart and performance table will be included in the prospectus to show the performance of the Fund. When such information is included, this section will provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing changes in the Fund’s performance history from year to year and showing how the Fund’s average annual total returns compare with those of a broad measure of market performance. Although past performance of the Fund is no guarantee of how it will perform in the future, historical performance may give you some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund.

Management

J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc.

 

Portfolio Manager   Managed the
Fund Since
   Primary Title with
Investment Adviser
James Ford   2016    Vice President
Richard Morillot   2016    Vice President
Roger Hallam   2016    Managing Director
Danny Sage   2016    Executive Director
 

 

 
DECEMBER 16, 2015         5   


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JPMorgan Diversified Return Europe Currency Hedged ETF (continued)

 

Purchase and Sale of Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only in a large specified number of Shares called a “Creation Unit” or multiples thereof. A Creation Unit consists of 50,000 Shares. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in return for a designated portfolio of securities (and an amount of cash) that the Fund specifies each day. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, the Shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund. Individual Shares of the Fund may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on the Exchange and because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares of the Fund may trade at a price greater than or less than NAV. Certain affiliates of the Fund and the adviser may purchase and resell Shares pursuant to this prospectus.

Tax Information

To the extent the Fund makes distributions, those distributions will be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains, except when your investment is in an IRA, 401(k) plan or other tax-advantaged investment plan, in which case you may be subject to federal income tax upon withdrawal from the tax-advantaged investment plan.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase Shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the adviser and its related companies may pay the financial intermediary for the sale of Shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or financial intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

 

 
6       J.P. MORGAN EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS


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More About the Fund

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND’S INVESTMENT STRATEGIES

Main Investment Strategies

The Fund seeks investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the Underlying Index. An index is a financial calculation based on a group of financial instruments that is not an investment product and cannot be purchased directly like the Fund. The Underlying Index has been developed to represent European stock performance with the foreign currency risk of the securities included in the Underlying Index hedged against the U.S. dollar on a monthly basis. The Underlying Index is comprised of equity securities across developed Europe selected to represent a diversified set of factor characteristics, originally developed by the adviser. FTSE International Limited is the Index Provider. Holdings in the Underlying Index are selected by the Index Provider primarily from the constituents of the FTSE Developed Europe Index, a larger FTSE index, which is comprised of large- and mid-cap equity securities in developed European markets. The Underlying Index will not, however, hold constituents from Greece. The Underlying Index may include companies in the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Countries in the Underlying Index may change from time to time. Through diversification, the Underlying Index is designed to more evenly distribute risk to minimize risk concentrations in sectors. In the Underlying Index, weightings to sectors are adjusted based on their historical volatility to diversify their contribution to the overall risk of the portfolio. The Underlying Index is diversified across the following sectors: Consumer Goods, Consumer Services, Financials, Health Care, Industrials, Basic Materials, Oil & Gas, Technology, Telecommunications and Utilities. The rules based proprietary multi-factor selection process utilizes the following characteristics: valuation, momentum, and quality. The Underlying Index’s securities are large- and mid-cap equity securities of companies from developed European countries, including common stock and preferred stock. As of November 30, 2015, the market capitalizations of the companies in the Underlying Index ranged from $2.2 billion to $232.6 billion. The equity positions in both the Underlying Index and the Underlying Fund are rebalanced quarterly. The components of the Underlying Index, and the degree to which these components represent certain industries, may change over time.

UNDERLYING INDEX CHARACTERISTICS

Valuation — Targets equity securities with attractive prices relative to their fundamental characteristics

 

Momentum — Targets equity securities which have high recent risk-adjusted returns

 

Quality — Targets companies that exhibit financial stability based on high return on equity and low volatility of price returns

Currently, the Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing a substantial portion of its assets in the Underlying Fund, which is a passive fund investing in the same securities held in the Underlying Index, but the Underlying Fund does not include the currency hedge component. The Fund will invest at least 80% of its Assets in securities included in the Underlying Index (including indirect investments through the Underlying Fund). For purposes of investing at least 80% of its Assets in securities included in the Underlying Index, the Fund will invest in European equity securities (including through the Underlying Fund) and foreign currency forward contracts (both deliverable and non-deliverable) designed to hedge against non-U.S. currency fluctuations, and may invest in depositary receipts representing securities included in the Underlying Index (including through the Underlying Fund). “Assets” means net assets, plus the amount of borrowing for investment purposes.

The Fund, using a “passive” or indexing investment approach, attempts to closely correspond to the performance of the Underlying Index. The adviser expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance before fees and expenses and that of the Underlying Index will be 95% or better. A figure of 100% would indicate perfect correlation. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund does not seek to outperform the Underlying Index and does not seek temporary defensive positions when markets decline or appear overvalued.

The adviser uses a “representative sampling” index strategy to manage the Fund. In representative sampling, securities are chosen in order to attempt to approximate the investment characteristics of the constituent securities, but the Fund does not hold all the constituent securities. It allows the Fund to hold a significant number of the constituent securities of its Underlying Index (through the Underlying Fund), but the Fund may not track its Underlying Index with the same degree of accuracy as would an investment vehicle replicating the Underlying Index.

 

 

 
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More About the Fund (continued)

 

The Underlying Index applies a one month forward rate to the total value of the non-U.S. dollar denominated securities included in the Underlying Index to effectively create a “hedge” against fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies represented in the Underlying Index in relation to the U.S. dollar. The hedge is reset on a monthly basis. The Underlying Index is designed to have higher returns than an equivalent unhedged investment when the currencies represented in the Underlying Index are weakening relative to the U.S. dollar. Conversely, the Underlying Index is designed to have lower returns than an equivalent unhedged investment when the currencies represented in the Underlying Index are rising relative to the U.S. dollar.

In order to attempt to track the “hedging” component of the Underlying Index, the Fund intends to enter into foreign currency forward contracts which may include both physically settled forward contracts and NDFs. These contracts are designed to offset the Fund’s exposure to the currencies represented in the Underlying Index. Consistent with the Underlying Index, the “hedging component” for the Fund will be reset on a monthly basis. A foreign currency forward contract is a contract between two parties to buy or sell a specified amount of a specific currency in the future at an agreed upon exchange rate. The Fund may use NDFs to execute its hedging transactions. An NDF is a contract where there is no physical settlement of two currencies at maturity. Rather, based on the movement of the currencies, a net cash settlement will be made by one party to the other. The Fund’s exposure to foreign currency forward contracts and NDFs is based on the aggregate exposure of the Fund to the currencies represented in the Underlying Index.

Due to fluctuation in asset values, the currency hedge, which is set at the beginning of the month, will not be fully replicated during the month. As a result, the Fund may hold up to 20% of its Assets in cash or short-term investments, such as shares of a JPMorgan money market fund, if Shares are created during the month.

To the extent that the securities in the Underlying Fund’s underlying index are concentrated in one or more industries or groups of industries, the Underlying Fund may concentrate in such industries or groups of industries.

Additional Investment Strategies

The Fund may also utilize the following:

 

 

Other equity securities, including U.S. or foreign equity securities which are not included in the Underlying Index. The foreign securities may be in the form of depositary receipts.

 

 

Exchange-traded futures contracts and foreign currency forward contracts for the efficient management of cash flows.

The Fund will not invest in money market instruments as a part of a temporary defensive position to protect against potential stock market decline, but may purchase affiliated money market funds for the efficient management of cash flows.

The frequency with which the Fund buys and sells securities will vary from year to year, depending on the composition of the Underlying Index.

The Fund has adopted a policy that requires the Fund to provide shareholders with at least 60 days notice prior to any change in its policy to invest at least 80% of its assets in securities included in its Underlying Index. The Board of Trustees of the Trust may change the Fund’s investment strategy and other policies without shareholder approval, except as otherwise indicated.

 

NON-FUNDAMENTAL INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES
An investment objective is fundamental if it cannot be changed without the consent of a majority of the outstanding Shares of the Fund. The Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without the consent of a majority of the outstanding Shares of the Fund.

INVESTMENT RISKS

There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

The main risks associated with investing in the Fund are summarized in “Risk/Return Summary” at the front of this prospectus. More detailed descriptions of certain of the main risks and additional risks of the Fund are described below.

The Fund also may use other non-principal strategies that are not described herein, but which are described in the “Risk and Reward Elements for the Fund” later in the prospectus and/or in the Statement of Additional Information.

 

An investment in this Fund or any other fund may not provide a complete investment program. The suitability of an investment in the Fund should be considered based on investment objective, strategies and risks described in this prospectus, considered in light of all of the other investments in your portfolio, as well as your risk tolerance, financial goals and time horizons. You may want to consult with a financial advisor to determine if this Fund is suitable for you.

The Fund is subject to the main risks noted below, any of which may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV, market price, performance and ability to meet its investment objective.

 

 

 

 
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MAIN RISKS

Investments in the Underlying Fund Risk. The Fund invests in the Underlying Fund as a primary strategy, so the Fund’s performance and risks are directly related to the performance and risks of the Underlying Fund. The Fund’s net asset value will change with the value of the Underlying Fund and changes in the markets where the Underlying Fund invests. Because the Fund’s adviser or its affiliates provide services to and receive fees from the Underlying Fund, investments in the Underlying Fund benefit the adviser and/or its affiliates. In addition, the Fund may hold a significant percentage of the shares of the Underlying Fund. As a result, the Fund’s investments in the Underlying Fund may create a conflict of interest. The Underlying Fund is a pooled investment vehicle whose ownership interests are purchased and sold on a securities exchange. The Underlying Fund seeks to track the performance of its underlying index. The price movement of the Underlying Fund may not track its underlying index and may result in a loss. In addition, the Underlying Fund may trade at a price below its NAV (also known as a discount). In addition, under certain circumstances when the Underlying Fund is trading at a price higher than its NAV (also known as a premium), it could be cheaper to purchase the individual securities of the Underlying Index than to purchase the Underlying Fund.

Equity Market Risk. The price of equity securities may rise or fall because of changes in the broad market or changes in a company’s financial condition, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably. These price movements may result from factors affecting individual companies, sectors or industries selected for the Fund’s portfolio or the securities market as a whole, such as changes in economic or political conditions. Equity securities are subject to “stock market risk” meaning that stock prices in general (or in particular, the prices of the types of securities in which the Fund invests) may decline over short or extended periods of time. When the value of the Fund’s securities goes down, your investment in the Fund decreases in value.

General Market Risk. Economies and financial markets throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected, which increases the likelihood that events or conditions in one country or region will adversely impact markets or issuers in other countries or regions. Securities in the Underlying Index or in the Fund’s portfolio may underperform in comparison to the general financial markets, a particular financial market or other asset classes, due to a number of factors, including inflation, interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters or events, terrorism, regulatory events and government controls.

European Market Risk. The Fund’s performance will be affected by political, social and economic conditions in the various countries in which it invests in Europe and in Europe

more generally, such as growth of the economic output (the gross national product), the rate of inflation, the rate at which capital is reinvested into European economies, the success of governmental actions to reduce budget deficits, the resource self-sufficiency of European countries and interest and monetary exchange rates between European countries. European financial markets may experience volatility due to concerns about high government debt levels, credit rating downgrades, rising unemployment, the future of the euro as a common currency, possible restructuring of government debt and other government measures responding to those concerns, and fiscal and monetary controls imposed on member countries of the European Economic and Monetary Union. In addition, if one or more countries were to abandon the use of the euro as a currency, the value of investments tied to those countries or the euro could decline significantly and unpredictably.

Foreign Securities Risk. Because the Fund (and the Underlying Fund) may invest in foreign currencies or securities of foreign issuers, these investments are subject to special risks in addition to those applicable to U.S. investments. These risks include political and economic risks, civil conflicts and war, greater volatility, expropriation and nationalization risks, sanctions or other measures by the United States or other governments, currency fluctuations, higher transaction costs, delayed settlement, possible foreign controls on investment, and less stringent investor protection and disclosure standards of foreign markets. The securities markets of many foreign countries are relatively small, with a limited number of companies representing a small number of industries. If foreign securities are denominated and traded in a foreign currency, the value of the Fund’s foreign holdings can be affected by currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations. In certain markets where securities and other instruments are not traded “delivery versus payment,” the Fund may not receive timely payment for securities or other instruments it has delivered or receive delivery of securities paid for and may be subject to increased risk that the counterparty will fail to make payments or delivery when due or default completely. Events and evolving conditions in certain economies or markets may alter the risks associated with investments tied to countries or regions that historically were perceived as comparatively stable becoming riskier and more volatile.

Geographic Focus Risk. The Fund may focus its investments in one or more regions or small groups of countries. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be subject to greater volatility than a more geographically diversified fund.

Currency Hedging Risk. The Fund enters into foreign currency forward contracts, including NDFs, to attempt to minimize the impact of changes in the currency exposure of the Underlying Fund against the U.S. dollar. The return of the foreign currency forward contracts, including NDFs, may not perfectly offset the

 

 

 
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More About the Fund (continued)

 

actual fluctuations between the currencies represented in the Underlying Index and the U.S. dollar. In order to minimize transaction costs or for other reasons, the Fund’s exposure to the currencies represented in the Underlying Index may not be fully hedged at all times. For example, the Fund may not hedge against exposure to currencies that represent a relatively smaller portion of the Underlying Index. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies may affect the value of the Fund’s investment and the value of the Fund’s Shares. To the extent the Fund’s hedging contracts are not successful in hedging against such changes, the U.S. dollar value of an investment in the Fund may go down if the value of the local currency of the non-U.S. markets in which the Fund invests depreciates against the U.S. dollar. This is true even if the local currency value of securities in the Fund’s holdings goes up. Conversely, the dollar value of an investment in the Fund may go up if the value of the local currency appreciates against the U.S. dollar. The value of the U.S. dollar measured against other currencies is influenced by a variety of factors. These factors include: interest rates, national debt levels and trade deficits, changes in balances of payments and trade, domestic and foreign interest and inflation rates, global or regional political, economic or financial events, monetary policies of governments, actual or potential government intervention, and global energy prices. Political instability, the possibility of government intervention and restrictive or opaque business and investment policies may also reduce the value of a country’s currency. Government monetary policies and the buying or selling of currency by a country’s government may also influence exchange rates.

Because no changes in the currency hedge in the Underlying Index are made during the month to account for changes in the Underlying Index due to price movement of securities, corporate events, additions, deletions or any other changes to the Underlying Index, changes in the value of the non-U.S. currencies represented in the Underlying Index against the U.S. dollar during the month may impact the ability of the Fund to provide an effective hedge or to track the performance of the Underlying Index.

Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. Therefore, the value of an investment in the Fund may also go up or down quickly and unpredictably and investors may lose money. Currency hedging may also limit potential gains from the exposure to the equity securities if foreign currencies rise or remain unchanged. When foreign currencies rise or remain unchanged relative to the U.S. dollar, an unhedged investment in the same equity securities will outperform the Fund.

The Fund may use NDFs to execute its currency hedging transactions. NDFs on currencies are often less liquid than deliverable foreign currency forward contracts. A lack of liquidity in

NDFs of the hedged currency could result in the Fund being unable to structure its hedging transactions as intended.

Currency Risk. Because the Fund’s and the Underlying Fund’s NAVs are determined in U.S. dollars, the Fund’s NAV could decline if the currency of a non-U.S. market in which the Fund invests depreciates against the U.S. dollar and the Fund’s attempt to hedge currency exposure is unsuccessful. Generally, when the value of the U.S. dollar rises in value relative to a foreign currency, an investment in that country loses value because that currency is worth less in U.S. dollars. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates. Devaluation of a currency by a country’s government or banking authority also may have a significant impact on the value of any investments denominated in that currency. Currency markets generally are not as regulated as securities markets.

Index Related Risk. The Fund’s return may not track the return of the Underlying Index for a number of reasons and therefore may not achieve its investment objective. For example, the Fund incurs a number of operating expenses not applicable to the Underlying Index, and incurs costs in buying and selling securities or entering into forward contracts, especially when rebalancing the Fund’s securities holdings to reflect changes in the composition of the Underlying Index. These transaction costs may be higher for a fund investing in foreign securities. The Fund’s return also may not track the return of the Underlying Index if its currency hedging strategy is not successful. In addition, the Fund’s return may differ from the return of its Underlying Index as a result of, among other things, pricing differences (including differences between a security’s price at the local market close and the Underlying Fund’s valuation of a security at the time of calculation of the Underlying Fund’s NAV) and the inability of the Underlying Fund to purchase certain securities included in the Underlying Index due to regulatory or other restrictions.

Because the Fund uses a representative sampling strategy (or when the Underlying Fund does so), the Fund may not be as well correlated with the return of the Underlying Index as when the Fund or the Underlying Fund purchases all of the securities in its underlying index in the proportions in which they are represented in the underlying index. To the extent the Underlying Fund calculates its NAV based on fair value prices and the value of the Underlying Index is based on securities’ closing prices on local foreign markets (i.e., the value of the Underlying Index is not based on fair value prices), the Fund’s ability to track the performance of the Underlying Index may be adversely affected.

Corporate actions affecting the Underlying Fund (such as mergers and spin-offs) or the Underlying Fund’s ability to purchase round lots of the underlying securities may also cause a

 

 

 
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deviation between the performance of the Fund and its Underlying Index.

Errors in the construction or calculation of the Underlying Index may occur from time to time. Any such errors may not be identified and corrected by the Index Provider for some period of time, which may have an adverse impact on the Fund and its shareholders.

It is also possible that the composition of the Underlying Fund may not exactly replicate the composition of the Underlying Index if the Fund has to adjust its portfolio holdings in order to continue to qualify as a “regulated investment company” under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Internal Revenue Code).

The risk that the Fund may not track the performance of the Underlying Index may be heightened during times of significant market volatility or other unusual market conditions.

Sampling Risk. Because the Fund uses a representative sampling approach (or when the Underlying Fund does so), the Fund will hold (directly or through the Underlying Fund) a smaller number of securities than are in the Fund’s or Underlying Fund’s index or will not match the Underlying Index’s hedging strategy exactly. As a result, an adverse development respecting an issuer of securities held by the Underlying Fund could result in a greater decline in the Fund’s NAV than would be the case if the Underlying Fund held all of the securities in its underlying index. Conversely, a positive development relating to an issuer of securities in the Underlying Index that is not held by the Fund could cause the Fund to underperform the Underlying Index. To the extent the assets in the Fund are smaller, these risks may be greater.

Passive Management Risk. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund and the Underlying Fund are not “actively” managed. Therefore, the Fund and the Underlying Fund would not generally sell a security because the security’s issuer was in financial trouble unless that security is removed from its underlying index. Therefore, the Fund’s performance could be lower than funds that may actively shift their portfolio assets to take advantage of market opportunities or lessen the impact of a market decline or a decline in the value of one or more issuers. The Fund (and the Underlying Fund) will not take defensive positions under any market conditions, including in declining markets.

Derivatives Risk. The Fund (and the Underlying Fund) may use derivatives in connection with their investment strategies. Derivatives may be riskier than other types of investments because they may be more sensitive to changes in economic or market conditions than other types of investments and could result in losses that significantly exceed the Fund’s or the Underlying Fund’s original investment. Derivatives are subject to the risk that changes in the value of a derivative may not

correlate perfectly with the underlying asset, rate or index. The use of derivatives may not be successful, resulting in losses to the Fund or the Underlying Fund, and the cost of such strategies may reduce the Fund’s or the Underlying Fund’s returns. Certain derivatives also expose the Fund or the Underlying Fund to counterparty risk (the risk that the derivative counterparty will not fulfill its contractual obligations), including credit risk of the derivative counterparty. Certain derivatives are synthetic instruments that attempt to replicate the performance of certain reference assets. With regard to such derivatives, the Fund or the Underlying Fund does not have a claim on the reference assets and is subject to enhanced counterparty risk.

Investing in derivatives will result in a form of leverage. Leverage involves special risks. The Fund may be more volatile than if the Fund had not been leveraged because leverage tends to exaggerate any effect on the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities. Registered investment companies are limited in their ability to engage in derivative transactions and are required to identify and earmark assets to provide asset coverage for derivative transactions.

The Fund’s or the Underlying Fund’s transactions in futures contracts could also affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders which may result in the Fund or the Underlying Fund realizing more short-term capital gain and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not engage in such transactions, which may adversely impact the Fund’s or the Underlying Fund’s after-tax return.

 

WHAT IS A DERIVATIVE?
Derivatives are securities or contracts (for example, futures) that derive their value from the performance of underlying assets or securities.

Mid-Cap Company Risk. The Fund’s (and the Underlying Fund’s) investments in smaller, newer companies may be riskier than investments in larger, more established companies. The securities of smaller companies may trade less frequently and in smaller volumes than securities of larger companies. In addition, smaller companies may be more vulnerable to economic, market and industry changes. As a result, share price changes may be more sudden or erratic than the prices of large capitalization companies, especially over the short term. Because mid-cap companies may have limited product lines, markets or financial resources or may depend on a few key employees, they may be more susceptible to particular economic events or competitive factors than large capitalization companies. This may cause unexpected and frequent decreases in the value of the Underlying Fund and may affect your investment in the Fund.

 

 

 
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More About the Fund (continued)

 

Market Trading Risk

Risk that Shares of the Fund May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. Shares of the Fund may trade on the Exchange at prices above, below or at their most recent NAV. The NAV of the Fund’s Shares, which is calculated at the end of each business day, will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s holdings. The market prices of the Shares will also fluctuate, in some cases materially, in accordance with changes in NAV and the intraday value of the Fund’s holdings, as well as the relative supply of and demand for the Shares on the Exchange. Differences between secondary market prices of Shares and the intraday value of the Fund’s holdings may be due largely to supply and demand forces in the secondary market, which may not be the same forces as those influencing prices for securities held by the Fund at a particular time.

Given the fact that Shares can be created and redeemed by authorized participants in Creation Units, the adviser believes that large discounts or premiums to the NAV of Shares should not be sustained in the long-term. While the creation/ redemption feature is designed to make it likely that Shares normally will trade close to the value of the Fund’s holdings, market prices are not expected to correlate exactly to the Fund’s NAV due to timing reasons, supply and demand imbalances and other factors. In addition, disruptions to creations and redemptions, adverse developments impacting market makers, authorized participants or other market participants, or high market volatility may result in market prices for Shares of the Fund that differ significantly from its NAV or to the intraday value of the Fund’s holdings. As a result of these factors, among others, the Fund’s Shares may trade at a premium or discount to NAV, especially during periods of significant market volatility.

Given the nature of the relevant markets for certain of the securities for the Fund, Shares may trade at a larger premium or discount to NAV than shares of other kinds of ETFs. In addition, the securities held by such Fund may be traded in markets that close at a different time than the Exchange. Liquidity in those securities may be reduced after the applicable closing times. Accordingly, during the time when the Exchange is open but after the applicable market closing, fixing or settlement times, bid/ask spreads and the resulting premium or discount to the Shares’ net asset value may widen.

Cost of Buying or Selling Shares. When you buy or sell Shares of the Fund through a broker, you will likely incur a brokerage commission or other charges imposed by brokers. In addition, the market price of Shares, like the price of any exchange-traded security, includes a “bid-ask spread” charged by the market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. The spread of the Fund’s Shares varies over time based on the Fund’s trading volume and market liquidity and

may increase if the Fund’s trading volume, the spread of the Fund’s underlying securities, or market liquidity decrease. In times of severe market disruption, including when trading of the Fund’s holdings may be halted, the bid-ask spread may increase significantly. This means that Shares may trade at a discount to the Fund’s NAV, and the discount is likely to be greatest during significant market volatility.

Short Selling Risk. Shares of the Fund, similar to shares of other issuers listed on a stock exchange, may be sold short and are therefore subject to the risk of increased volatility and price decreases associated with being sold short.

No Guarantee of Active Trading Market Risk. While Shares are listed on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that active trading markets for the Shares will be maintained by market makers or by authorized participants. SEI Investments Distribution Co., the distributor of the Fund’s Shares (the Distributor), does not maintain a secondary market in the Shares.

Trading Issues Risk. Trading in Shares on the Exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to the Exchange “circuit breaker” rules. If a trading halt or unanticipated early closing of the Exchange occurs, a Shareholder may be unable to purchase or sell Shares of the Fund. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of the Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged.

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. Only an authorized participant may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of intermediaries that act as authorized participants and none of these authorized participants is or will be obligated to engage in creation or redemption transactions. To the extent that these intermediaries exit the business or are unable to or choose not to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders with respect to the Fund and no other authorized participant is able to step forward to create or redeem, Shares may trade at a discount to NAV and possibly face trading halts and/or delisting.

Industry and Sector Focus Risk. At times the Underlying Index and the Fund may increase the relative emphasis of its investments in a particular industry or sector. The prices of securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector may be more susceptible to fluctuations due to changes in economic or business conditions, government regulations, availability of basic resources or supplies, or other events that affect that industry or sector more than securities of issuers in other industries and sectors. To the extent that the Underlying Index and the Fund increase the relative emphasis of their investments in a particular industry or sector, the Fund’s

 

 

 
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Share values may fluctuate in response to events affecting that industry or sector.

ADDITIONAL RISKS

Volcker Rule Risk. Pursuant to Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and certain rules promulgated thereunder known as the Volcker Rule, if the adviser and/or its affiliates own 25% or more of the outstanding ownership interests of the Fund after the permitted seeding period from the implementation of the Fund’s investment strategy, the Fund could be subject to restrictions on trading that would adversely impact the Fund’s ability to execute its investment strategy. As a result, the adviser and/or its affiliates may be required to reduce their ownership interests in the Fund at a time that is sooner than would otherwise be desirable, which may result in the Fund’s liquidation or, if the Fund is able to continue operating, may result in losses, increased transaction costs and adverse tax consequences as a result of the sale of portfolio securities.

Preferred Stock Risk. Preferred stock generally has a preference as to dividends and liquidation over an issuer’s common stock but ranks junior to debt securities in an issuer’s capital structure. Unlike interest payments on debt securities, preferred stock dividends are payable only if declared by the issuer’s board of directors. Preferred stock also may be subject to optional or mandatory redemption provisions. Because preferred stocks generally pay dividends only after the issuing company makes required payments to holders of its bonds and other debt, the value of preferred stocks generally is more sensitive than bonds and other debt to actual or perceived changes in the company’s financial condition or prospects.

For more information about risks associated with the types of investments that the Fund purchases, please read the “Risk/Return Summary” and the “Risk and Reward Elements for the Fund” later in the prospectus and the Statement of Additional Information.

INDEX CONSTRUCTION

FTSE Developed Europe Diversified Factor 100% Hedged to USD Index

Component securities included in the Underlying Index are selected from markets across developed Europe strictly in accordance with guidelines and mandated procedures. Holdings are selected by the Index Provider from constituents of the FTSE Developed Europe Index excluding Greece. The Underlying Index is derived after applying the following proprietary multi-factor criteria:

 

1. Liquidity of eligible securities is considered to ensure an investable index;

 

2. Eligible securities are chosen to provide diversification across sectors;

 

3. To provide diversification, securities are selected using the following factors: valuation, momentum and quality, as described in the Fund’s Risk/Return Summary; and

 

4. Individual security weights are determined in order to ensure stock level diversification.

The Underlying Index contains the same equity securities as the FTSE Developed Europe Diversified Factor Index, which is the underlying index of the Underlying Fund and then applies a currency hedge as described below.

The Index Provider also calculates the value of the Underlying Index, reviews the composition of the Underlying Index and reconstitutes the Underlying Index on a quarterly basis.

The Underlying Index applies a one month forward rate to 100% of the value of the non-U.S. dollar denominated securities included in the Underlying Index to effectively create a “hedge” against fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies represented in the Underlying Index in relation to the U.S. dollar. The Underlying Index uses the WM Reuters one month (16:00 hrs London Time mid price) forward rate in the currency hedging calculation. The hedge is reset on a monthly basis and valued daily using forward interpolated rates (rates that are estimated based on an even increase across the month). No adjustment to the hedge is done during the month to account for changes in the Underlying Index due to price movement of securities, corporate events, additions, deletions or any other changes. In other words the amount hedged is kept constant over the whole month.

DISCLAIMER

The JPMorgan Diversified Return Europe Currency Hedged ETF is not in any way sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by the London Stock Exchange Group companies, which include FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”), Frank Russell Company (“Russell”), MTS Next Limited (“MTS”) and FTSE TMX Global Debt Capital Markets Inc. (“FTSE TMX”) (together “LSEG”). LSEG makes no claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to (i) the results to be obtained from the use of the FTSE Developed Europe Diversified Factor 100% Hedged to USD Index (the “Index”) (upon which the Fund is based), (ii) the figure at which the Index is said to stand at any particular time on any particular day or otherwise, or (iii) the suitability of the Index for the purpose to which it is being put in connection with the Fund. LSEG has not provided nor will it provide any financial or investment advice or recommendation in relation to the Index to the adviser or to its clients. The Index is calculated by FTSE or its agent. LSEG shall not be (a) liable (whether in negligence or otherwise) to any person for any error

 

 

 
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More About the Fund (continued)

 

in the Index or (b) under any obligation to advise any person of any error therein.

All rights in the Index vest in FTSE. “FTSE®”, “Russell®”, “MTS®”, “FTSE TMX®” and “FTSE Russell” and other service marks and trademarks related to the FTSE or Russell indexes are trade marks of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and are used by FTSE, MTS, FTSE TMX and Russell under license.

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

A description of the policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio securities is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information.

ADDITIONAL FEE WAIVER AND/OR EXPENSE REIMBURSEMENT

Service providers to the Fund may, from time to time, voluntarily waive all or a portion of any fees to which they are entitled and/or reimburse certain expenses as they may determine from time to time. The Fund’s service providers may discontinue or modify these voluntary actions at any time without notice. Performance for the Fund, when available, will reflect the voluntary waiver of fees and/or the reimbursement of expenses, if any. Without these voluntary waivers and/or expense reimbursements, performance would be less favorable.

 

 

 
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The Fund’s Management and Administration

 

The Fund’s Management and Administration

The Fund is a series of J.P. Morgan Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, a Delaware statutory trust (the Trust). The Trust is governed by trustees who are responsible for overseeing all business activities of the Fund.

The Fund’s Investment Adviser

J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. (JPMIM) is the investment adviser to the Fund. JPMIM is located at 270 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

JPMIM is a wholly-owned subsidiary of JPMorgan Asset Management Holdings Inc., which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of JPMorgan Chase & Co. (JPMorgan Chase), a bank holding company.

The Fund will pay the adviser a management fee of 0.33% of average daily net assets.

A discussion of the basis the Board of Trustees of the Trust used in approving the investment advisory agreement for the Fund will be available in the first shareholder report for the Fund.

The Portfolio Managers

The equity portion of the Fund is managed by James Ford, Vice President of JPMIM and Richard Morillot, Vice President of JPMIM. Roger Hallam, Managing Director of JPMIM, and Danny Sage, Executive Director of JPMIM, manage the currency hedging portion of the Fund. Mr. Ford has been responsible for the implementation of portfolios in the J.P. Morgan Asset Management European Equity Group since 2012. An employee since 2007, he was previously a quantitative research analyst for the firm. Mr. Morillot has been responsible for the implementation of portfolios in the J.P. Morgan Asset Management European Equity Group since 2013. Prior to joining the firm in 2013, he worked in trading and quantitative research at Blackrock from 2011 to 2013. Prior to that, Mr. Morillot was an equity quantitative analyst with Bank of America Merrill Lynch. Mr. Hallam, Managing Director, has been the Currency Chief Investment Officer of the Global Fixed Income, Currency & Commodities group (GFICC) since 2013. Based in London, Mr. Hallam also serves as Chair of the Currency Investment Policy Committee (CIPC). An employee since 2000, Mr. Hallam was a portfolio manager and interest rate strategist on the Global Rates team from 2008 to 2013. Mr. Sage, Executive Director, has been head of Currency Portfolio Management within the GFICC group since 2014. Based in London, he is also a member of the CIPC. An employee since 2001, Mr. Sage was previously head of the Fixed Income Middle Office, before joining the Currency Portfolio Management team as a portfolio manager in 2010.

The Statement of Additional Information provides additional information about the portfolio managers’ compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers and the portfolio managers’ ownership of securities.

The Fund’s Administrator

JPMorgan Funds Management, Inc. (the Administrator) provides administrative services for and oversees the other service providers of the Fund. Effective April 1, 2016, JPMorgan Funds Management, Inc., the Funds’ administrator, will be merged with and into J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. As a result of this action, all references to JPMorgan Funds Management, Inc. will be replaced with J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. The Administrator receives the following annual fee on behalf of the Fund for administrative services: 0.085% of average daily net assets of the Fund.

The Fund’s Distributor

SEI Investments Distribution Co. (the Distributor) is the distributor of the Fund’s Shares. The Distributor or its agent distributes Creation Units for the Fund on an agency basis. The Distributor does not maintain a secondary market in Shares of the Fund. The Distributor has no role in determining the investment policies of the Fund or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Fund. The Distributor’s principal address is One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, PA 19456.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

JPMIM and, from time to time, other affiliates of JPMorgan Chase may, at their own expense and out of their own legitimate profits, provide cash payments to Financial Intermediaries whose customers invest in Shares of the Fund. For this purpose, Financial Intermediaries include financial advisors, investment advisers, brokers, financial planners, banks, insurance companies, retirement or 401(k) plan administrators and others, including various affiliates of JPMorgan Chase, that may enter into agreements with JPMIM and/or its affiliates. These cash payments may relate to marketing activities and presentations, educational training programs, the support of technology platforms and/or reporting systems, or the Financial Intermediaries’ making Shares of the Fund available to their customers. Such compensation may provide such Financial Intermediaries with an incentive to favor sales of Shares of the Fund over other investment options they make available to their customers. See the Statement of Additional Information for more information.

 

 

 
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Purchase and Redemption of Shares

 

BUYING AND SELLING SHARES

In the Secondary Market. Most investors will buy and sell Shares of the Fund in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares of the Fund are listed and traded on the secondary market on the Exchange. Shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded shares. There is no minimum investment. Although Shares are generally purchased and sold in “round lots” of 100 Shares, brokerage firms typically permit investors to purchase or sell Shares in smaller “odd lots,” at no per-Share price differential. When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offered price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. The spread varies over time for Shares of the Fund based on the Fund’s trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if the Fund has a lot of trading volume and market liquidity.

Shares of the Fund trade on the Exchange at prices that may differ to varying degrees from the daily NAV of the Shares.

Directly with the Fund. The Fund’s Shares are issued or redeemed by the Fund at NAV per Share only in Creation Units. Investors such as market makers, large investors and institutions who wish to deal in Creation Units directly with the Fund must have entered into an authorized participant agreement with the Distributor, or purchase through a dealer that has entered into such an agreement. Set forth below is a brief description of the procedures applicable to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. For more detailed information, see “Creation and Redemption of Creation Unit Aggregations” in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information.

Beneficial Ownership. The Depository Trust Company (DTC) serves as securities depository for the Shares. (The Shares may be held only in book-entry form; stock certificates will not be issued.) DTC, or its nominee, is the record or registered owner of all outstanding Shares. Beneficial ownership of Shares will be shown on the records of DTC or its participants (described below). Beneficial owners of Shares are not entitled to have Shares registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of certificates in definitive form and are not considered the registered holder thereof. Accordingly, to exercise any rights of a holder of Shares, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of: (i) DTC; (ii) “DTC Participants,” i.e., securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own DTC; and (iii) “Indirect Participants,” i.e., brokers, dealers, banks and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly, through which such beneficial owner holds its interests. The Trust understands that under existing industry

practice, in the event the Trust requests any action of holders of Shares, or a beneficial owner desires to take any action that DTC, as the record owner of all outstanding Shares, is entitled to take, DTC would authorize the DTC Participants to take such action and that the DTC Participants would authorize the Indirect Participants and beneficial owners acting through such DTC Participants to take such action and would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners owning through them. As described above, the Trust recognizes DTC or its nominee as the owner of all Shares for all purposes. For more detailed information, see “Book Entry Only System” in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information.

Shares of the Fund have not been registered for sale outside of the United States. This prospectus is not intended for distribution to prospective investors outside of the United States. The Fund does not market or sell Shares to investors domiciled outside of the United States, even, with regard to individuals, if they are citizens or lawful permanent residents of the United States.

PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION

The Fund has not commenced operations as of the date of this prospectus, and, therefore, does not have information about the differences between the Fund’s daily market price on the Exchange and its NAV. When available, information regarding how often the Shares of the Fund traded on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV of the Fund during the past four calendar quarters, as applicable, can be found at www.jpmorganfunds.com.

PRICING SHARES

The trading price of the Fund’s Shares on the Exchange may differ from the Fund’s daily NAV and can be affected by market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors.

The Exchange disseminates the approximate value of Shares of the Fund every fifteen seconds. This approximate value should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the NAV per Share of the Fund because the approximate value may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed only once a day. The approximate value is generally determined by using both current market quotations and/or price quotations obtained from broker-dealers and other market intermediaries that may trade in the portfolio securities held by the Fund. As the respective international local markets close, the approximate value will continue to be updated for foreign exchange rates for the remainder of the U.S. trading day at the prescribed 15 second interval, but certain holdings may not be updated otherwise if such holdings do not trade in the United States. The Fund is not involved in, or responsible for, the calculation or dissemination of the approximate value, and the

 

 

 
16       J.P. MORGAN EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS


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Fund does not make any representation or warranty as to its accuracy.

NAV is calculated each business day as of the close of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), which is typically 4:00 p.m. ET. On occasion, the NYSE will close before 4:00 p.m. ET. When that happens, NAV will be calculated as of the time the NYSE closes. The price at which a purchase of a Creation Unit is effected is based on the next calculation of NAV after the order is received in proper form in accordance with this prospectus. To the extent the Fund invests in securities that are primarily listed on foreign exchanges or other markets that trade on weekends or other days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the Fund’s Shares may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or redeem your Shares.

Securities for which market quotations are readily available are generally valued at their current market value. Other securities and assets, including securities for which market quotations are not readily available, market quotations are determined not to be reliable, or, their value has been materially affected by events occurring after the close of trading on the exchange or market on which the security is principally traded but before the Fund’s NAV is calculated, may be valued at fair value in accordance with policies and procedures adopted by the Trust’s Board of Trustees. Fair value represents a good faith determination of the value of a security or other asset based upon specifically applied procedures. Fair valuation may require subjective determinations. There can be no assurance that the fair value of an asset is the price at which the asset could have been sold during the period in which the particular fair value was used in determining the Fund’s NAV. Use of fair value prices and certain current market valuations could result in a difference between the prices used to calculate the Fund’s NAV and the prices used by the Underlying Index, which, in turn, could result in a difference between the Fund’s performance the performance of the Underlying Index.

Equity securities listed on a North American, Central American, South American or Caribbean securities exchange are generally valued at the last sale price on the exchange on which the security is principally traded. Other foreign equity securities are fair valued using quotations from an independent pricing service, as applicable. The value of securities listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market, Inc. is generally the NASDAQ official closing price.

Fixed income securities are valued using prices supplied by an approved independent third party or affiliated pricing services or broker/dealers. Those prices are determined using a variety of inputs and factors as more fully described in the Statement of Additional Information.

Assets and liabilities initially expressed in foreign currencies are converted into U.S. dollars at the prevailing market rates from an approved independent pricing service as of 4:00 p.m. ET.

Shares of the Underlying Fund and any other ETFs are generally valued at the last sale price on the exchange on which the ETF is principally traded. Shares of other open-end investment companies are valued at their respective NAVs.

Exchange-traded futures (e.g., on stock indices, debt securities or commodities) are valued at the settled price, or if no settled price is available, at the last sale price as of the close of the exchanges on which they trade. Any futures involving equity reference obligations listed on exchanges other than North American, Central American, South American or Caribbean securities exchanges will be fair valued by applying fair value factors provided by independent pricing services, as applicable.

Non-listed over-the-counter options and futures are valued at the evaluated price provided by a counterparty or broker/dealer utilizing market quotations provided by an approved pricing service.

Any derivatives involving equity reference obligations listed on exchanges other than North American, Central American, South American or Caribbean securities exchanges will be fair valued by applying fair value factors provided by independent pricing services, as applicable.

FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS

The Fund imposes no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions. The Board of Trustees evaluated the risks of market timing activities by the Fund’s shareholders when they considered that no restriction or policy was necessary. The Board considered that, unlike traditional mutual funds, the Fund issues and redeems its Shares at NAV for a basket of securities intended to mirror the Fund’s portfolio, plus a small amount of cash, and the Fund’s Shares may be purchased and sold on the Exchange at prevailing market prices.

 

 

 
DECEMBER 16, 2015         17   


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Shareholder Information

 

TAXES ON DISTRIBUTIONS

The Fund has elected to be treated and intends to qualify each year as a regulated investment company. A regulated investment company is not subject to tax at the corporate level on income and gains from investments that are distributed to shareholders. The Fund’s failure to qualify as a regulated investment company would result in corporate-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.

The Fund can earn income and realize capital gain. The Fund deducts any expenses and then pays out the earnings, if any, to shareholders as distributions.

The Fund generally declares and distributes net investment income, if any, at least annually. The Fund will distribute net realized capital gain, if any, at least annually. For each taxable year, the Fund will distribute substantially all of its net investment income and net realized capital gain.

Distributions of net investment income generally are taxable as ordinary income. Dividends of net investment income paid to a non-corporate U.S. shareholder that are properly reported as qualified dividend income generally will be taxable to such shareholder at preferential rates. The maximum individual rate applicable to “qualified dividend income” is either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. The amount of dividend income that may be so reported by the Fund generally will be limited to the aggregate of the eligible dividends received by the Fund. In addition, the Fund must meet certain holding period and other requirements with respect to the shares on which the Fund received the eligible dividends, and the non-corporate U.S. shareholder must meet certain holding period and other requirements with respect to the Fund. Dividends of net investment income that are not reported as qualified dividend income and dividends of net short-term capital gain will be taxable as ordinary income.

Distributions of net capital gain (that is, the excess of the net gains from the sale of investments that the Fund owned for more than one year over the net losses from investments that the Fund owned for one year or less) that are properly reported by the Fund as capital gain dividends will be taxable as long-term capital gain, regardless of how long you have held your Shares in the Fund. The maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains is generally either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. Distributions of net short-term capital gain (that is, the excess of any net short-term capital gain over net long-term capital loss), if any, will be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. Capital gain of a corporate shareholder is taxed at the same rate as ordinary income.

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.

If you buy Shares of the Fund just before a distribution, you will be subject to tax on the entire amount of the taxable distribution you receive. Distributions are taxable to you even if they are paid from income or gain earned by the Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the price you paid for your Shares). Any gain resulting from the sale or exchange of Shares generally will be taxable as long-term or short-term gain, depending upon how long you have held the Shares.

The Fund (and the Underlying Fund) is generally subject to foreign withholding or other foreign taxes, which in some cases can be significant, on any income or gain from investments in foreign stocks or securities. In that case, the Underlying Fund or the Fund’s total return on those securities would be decreased. The Fund (and the Underlying Fund) may generally deduct these taxes in computing its taxable income. Rather than deducting these foreign taxes, if the Underlying Fund invests more than 50% of its assets in the stock or securities of foreign corporations or foreign governments at the end of its taxable year, it may make an election to treat a proportionate amount of eligible foreign taxes as constituting a taxable distribution to each shareholder, including the Fund. If the Fund invests more than 50% of its assets in the stock or securities of foreign corporations or foreign governments at the end of its taxable year, or if at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the close of each quarter of its taxable year is represented by interests in other regulated investment companies (including the Underlying Fund), it may make an election to treat a proportionate amount of eligible foreign taxes as constituting a taxable distribution to each shareholder, which would, subject to certain limitations, generally allow the shareholders to either (i) credit that proportionate amount of taxes against U.S. Federal income tax liability as a foreign tax credit or (ii) take that amount as an itemized deduction. Although in some cases the Underlying Fund or the Fund may be able to apply for a refund of a portion of such taxes, the ability to successfully obtain such a refund may be uncertain.

The Underlying Fund’s investment in derivative instruments and so called “passive foreign investment companies” may require the Underlying Fund to accrue and distribute income not yet received. In order to generate sufficient cash to make the requisite distributions, the Underlying Fund may be required to liquidate other investments in its portfolio that it otherwise would have continued to hold, including at times

 

 

 
18       J.P. MORGAN EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS


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when it is not advantageous to do so. The Underlying Fund’s investment in REIT securities may also result in the Underlying Fund’s receipt of cash in excess of the REIT’s earnings; if the Underlying Fund distributes such amounts, which are, in turn, distributed by the Fund, such distribution could constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for federal income tax purposes.

The Fund’s (or the Underlying Fund’s) transactions in derivatives, will be subject to special tax rules, the effect of which may be to accelerate income to the Fund, defer losses to the Fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of the Fund’s securities, and convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders. The Fund’s (or the Underlying Fund’s) use of these types of transactions may result in the Fund realizing more short-term capital gain and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not engage in such transactions.

Gains from foreign currencies (including foreign currency options, foreign currency swaps, foreign currency futures and foreign currency forward contracts) currently constitute qualifying income for purposes of the income test applicable to regulated investment companies, described in more detail in the Statement of Additional Information. However, the Treasury Department has the authority to issue regulations (possibly with retroactive effect) excluding from the definition of “qualifying income” the Fund’s foreign currency gains to the extent that such income is not directly related to the Fund’s principal business of investing in stock or securities.

The Fund’s use of a fund-of-funds structure could affect the amount, timing and character of distributions from the Fund, and therefore, may increase the amount of taxes payable by shareholders. For example, it is expected that the Fund will generally recognize ordinary income with respect to its investment in foreign currency forward contracts, but would generally not be able to offset against such ordinary income any losses recognized by the Underlying Fund or any losses with respect to sales of shares of the Underlying Fund. See “Distributions and Tax Matters — Investment in Other Funds” in the Statement of Additional Information.

Please see the Statement of Additional Information for additional discussion of the tax consequences of the above-described and other investments to the Fund and its shareholders.

The dates on which dividends and capital gain, if any, will be distributed are available online at www.jpmorganfunds.com.

Early in each calendar year, you will receive a notice showing the amount of distributions you received in the preceding year and the tax status of those distributions.

 

The Fund is not intended for foreign shareholders. Any foreign shareholder would generally be subject to U.S. tax-withholding on distributions by the Fund, as discussed in the Statement of Additional Information.

Any investor for whom the Fund does not have a valid Taxpayer Identification Number may be subject to backup withholding.

The tax considerations described in this section do not apply to tax-deferred accounts or other non-taxable entities.

TAXES ON EXCHANGE-LISTED SHARES SALES

Currently, any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for one year or less. Capital loss realized on the sale or exchange of Shares held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of any capital gain dividends received by the shareholder. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited.

TAXES ON PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS

At the time of purchase, an Authorized Participant who exchanges equity securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time and the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered and the cash paid. At redemption, a person who exchanges Creation Units for equity securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate market value of the securities received and the cash received in connection with the redemption. The Internal Revenue Service, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales” on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether the wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.

Under current federal tax laws, any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for one year or less.

If you purchase or redeem Creation Units, you will be sent a confirmation statement showing how many and at what price you purchased or sold Shares.

 

 

 

 
DECEMBER 16, 2015         19   


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Shareholder Information (continued)

 

The above is a general summary of tax implications of investing in the Fund. Because each investor’s tax consequences are unique, please consult your tax advisor to see how investing in the Fund and, for individuals and S corporations, selection of a particular cost method of accounting will affect your own tax situation.

AVAILABILITY OF PROXY VOTING RECORD

The Trustees have delegated the authority to vote proxies for securities owned by the Fund to JPMIM. When available, a copy of the Fund’s voting record for the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 is available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov or on the Fund’s website at www.jpmorganfunds.com no later than August 31 of each year. The Fund’s proxy voting record will include, among other things, a brief description of the matter voted on for each portfolio security, and will state how each vote was cast, for example, for or against the proposal.

 

TAX-ADVANTAGED PRODUCT STRUCTURE

Unlike interests in many conventional mutual funds, the Shares are traded throughout the day on a national securities exchange, whereas mutual fund interests are typically only bought and sold at closing net asset values. The Shares have been designed to be tradable in the secondary market on a national securities exchange on an intra-day basis, and to be created and redeemed principally in-kind in Creation Units at each day’s next calculated NAV. These arrangements are designed to protect ongoing shareholders from adverse effects on the Fund’s portfolio that could arise from frequent cash creation and redemption transactions. In a conventional mutual fund, redemptions can have an adverse tax impact on taxable shareholders because the mutual fund may need to sell portfolio securities to obtain cash to meet fund redemptions. These sales may generate taxable gains for the shareholders of the mutual fund, whereas the Shares’ in-kind redemption mechanism generally will not lead to a tax event for the Fund or its ongoing shareholders.

 

 

 
20       J.P. MORGAN EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS


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Risk and Reward Elements for the Fund

 

This table discusses the main elements that may make up the Fund’s or the Underlying Fund’s overall risk and reward characteristics. It also outlines the Fund’s policies toward various investments, including those that are designed to help the Fund manage risk.

 

POTENTIAL RISKS    POTENTIAL REWARDS    POLICIES TO BALANCE RISK AND REWARD
Foreign and other market conditions affecting equity securities      

 The Fund’s NAV and performance will fluctuate in response to stock market movements

 

 The Fund could lose money because of foreign government actions, political instability, or lack of adequate and/or accurate information

 

 Because the Fund employs a passive management style, it will not take defensive positions even during adverse market, economic, political or other conditions

  

 Stocks held by the Fund and the Underlying Fund have generally outperformed more stable investments (such as bonds and cash equivalents) over the long term

 

 Foreign investments, which represent a major portion of the world’s securities, offer attractive potential performance and opportunities for diversification

  

 The Fund plans to remain fully invested in accordance with its policies

 

 In addition to the securities described in the “What are the Fund’s main investment strategies?” section, equity securities held by the Fund or the Underlying Fund may include foreign common stocks, convertible securities1, preferred stocks2, depositary receipts, (such as American Depositary Receipts and European Depositary Receipts), trust or partnership interests, warrants and rights3 and investment company securities

     

 

1 Convertible securities are bonds or preferred stock that can convert to common stock.

 

2 Preferred stock is a class of stock that generally pays a dividend at a specified rate and has preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and in liquidation.

 

3 Warrants and rights are securities, typically issued with preferred stock or bonds, that give the holder the right to buy a proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price.

 

 
DECEMBER 16, 2015         21   


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Risk and Reward Elements for the Fund (continued)

 

POTENTIAL RISKS    POTENTIAL REWARDS    POLICIES TO BALANCE RISK AND REWARD
Derivatives*      

 Derivatives, such as futures and forward foreign currency contracts,1 may be used to manage cash flows and to seek performance that corresponds to the Underlying Index and this could result in losses to the Fund that would not have otherwise occurred

 

 The Fund may have difficulty exiting a derivatives position

 

 Derivatives may not have the intended effects and may result in losses or missed opportunities

 

 The counterparty to a derivatives contract could default

 

 Certain types of derivatives involve costs to the Fund which can reduce returns

 

 Segregated or earmarked assets and collateral accounts established in connection with derivatives may limit the Fund’s investment flexibility

 

 Derivatives may, for tax purposes, affect the character of gain and loss realized by the Fund, accelerate recognition of income to the Fund, affect the holding period of the Fund’s assets and defer recognition of certain of the Fund’s losses

  

 The Fund could make money and protect against losses if management’s analysis proves correct

  

 The Fund uses derivatives to manage cash flows and to gain exposure to particular foreign securities or markets.

 

 The Fund segregates or earmarks liquid assets to cover its derivatives and offset a portion of the leverage risk

     

 

* The Fund is not subject to registration or regulation as a “commodity pool operator” as defined in the Commodity Exchange Act because the Fund has claimed an exclusion from that definition.

 

1 A futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell a set quantity of an underlying instrument at a future date, or to make or receive a cash payment based on changes in the value of a securities index. A forward foreign currency contract is an obligation to buy or sell a given currency on a future date and at a set price.

 

 
22       J.P. MORGAN EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS


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Financial Highlights

 

This section would ordinarily include Financial Highlights. The Financial Highlights table is intended to help you understand the Fund’s performance for the Fund’s periods of operations. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this prospectus, no Financial Highlights are shown.

 

 
DECEMBER 16, 2015         23   


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HOW TO REACH US

 

MORE INFORMATION

For investors who want more information on the Fund the following documents are available free upon request:

ANNUAL AND SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS

The Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports, when available, will contain more information about the Fund’s investments and performance. The annual report will also include details about the market conditions and investment strategies that have a significant effect on the Fund’s performance.

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION (SAI)

The SAI contains more detailed information about the Fund and its policies. It is incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This means, by law, it is considered to be part of this prospectus.

You can get a free copy of these documents and other information, or ask us any questions, by calling us at 1-844-457-6383 (844-4JPM ETF) or writing to:

J.P. Morgan Exchange-Traded Funds

270 Park Avenue

NY1-K108

New York, NY 10017

You can write or e-mail the SEC’s Public Reference Room and ask them to mail you information about the Fund, including the SAI. They will charge you a copying fee for this service. You can also visit the Public Reference Room and copy the documents while you are there.

Public Reference Room of the SEC

Washington, DC 20549-1520

1-202-551-8090

Email: publicinfo@sec.gov

Reports, a copy of the SAI and other information about the Fund are also available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

Investment Company Act File No. for the Fund is 811-22903.

 

©JPMorgan Chase & Co., 2015. All rights reserved. December 2015.

 

PR-ECHETF-1215-2

  LOGO


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STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

PART I

December 16, 2015, as supplemented March 30, 2016

J.P. MORGAN EXCHANGE-TRADED FUND TRUST (the “Trust”)

 

Fund Name    Ticker    Listing Exchange

JPMorgan Diversified Return Europe Equity ETF (the “Europe Equity ETF”)

   JPEU    NYSE Arca

JPMorgan Diversified Return Europe Currency Hedged ETF
(the “Europe Currency Hedged ETF”)

   JPEH    NYSE Arca

(each a “Fund” and collectively, the “Funds”)

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus, but contains additional information which should be read in conjunction with the prospectus for the Funds, dated December 16, 2015, as supplemented from time to time (“Prospectus”). The Prospectus is available without charge upon request by contacting SEI Investments Distribution Co. (the “Distributor”), the Funds’ distributor, at One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456.

This SAI is divided into two Parts — Part I and Part II. Part I of this SAI contains information that is particular to the Funds. Part II of this SAI contains additional information that more generally applies to the Funds.

For more information about the Funds, simply write or call:

J.P. Morgan Exchange-Traded Funds

270 Park Ave

NY1-K108

New York, NY 10017

1-844-457-6383 (844-4JPM ETF)

SAI-EEECHETF-316


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

 

GENERAL

     1   

The Trust and the Funds

     1   

Miscellaneous

     1   

INVESTMENT POLICIES

     1   

INVESTMENT PRACTICES

     3   

DIVERSIFICATION

     5   

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

     5   

TRUSTEES

     5   

Standing Committees

     5   

Ownership of Securities

     5   

Trustee Compensation

     6   

INVESTMENT ADVISER

     6   

Investment Advisory Fees

     6   

PORTFOLIO MANAGERS

     6   

Portfolio Managers’ Other Accounts Managed

     6   

Portfolio Managers’ Ownership of Securities

     7   

ADMINISTRATOR

     7   

Administrator Fees

     7   

FUND ACCOUNTING AGENT

     7   

Fund Accounting Fees

     7   

BROKERAGE

     7   

Brokerage Commissions

     7   

Broker Research

     7   

Securities of Regular Broker-Dealers

     7   

PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS

     8   

PURCHASES BY OTHER INVESTMENT COMPANIES

     8   

FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES

     8   

Compensation Payments

     8   

TAX MATTERS

     8   

Capital Loss Carryforwards

     8   

SHARE OWNERSHIP

     9   

Trustees and Officers

     9   

Principal Holders

     9   

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     9   

PLEASE SEE PART II OF THIS SAI FOR ITS TABLE OF CONTENTS


Table of Contents

GENERAL

The Trust and the Funds

Each Fund is a series of J.P. Morgan Exchange-Traded Fund Trust (the “Trust”), an open-end, management investment company formed as a statutory trust under the laws of the State of Delaware on February 25, 2010 and governed by a Declaration of Trust as amended and restated on February 19, 2014.

Each Fund will offer and issue shares at net asset value (“NAV”) only in aggregations of a specified number of shares (each a “Creation Unit” or a “Creation Unit Aggregation”). The shares of each Fund are collectively referred to as the “Shares” in this SAI. Each Fund’s Shares will be listed and traded on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”). Fund Shares will trade on the Exchange at market prices that may be below, at or above NAV. Shares are redeemable only in Creation Unit Aggregations and, generally, in exchange for portfolio securities held by a Fund and/or a specified cash payment. The amount of Shares in a Creation Unit for each Fund is 100,000 Shares for Europe Equity ETF and 50,000 Shares for Europe Currency Hedged ETF.

In the event of the liquidation of a Fund, the Trust may lower the number of Shares in a Creation Unit. The Trust reserves the right to offer a full or partial “cash” option for creations and/or redemptions of Fund Shares. Fund Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of a basket of equity securities and other investments (“Deposit Instruments”) included in each Fund’s index (“Underlying Index”) subject to various conditions. See the “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” section in Appendix A. In each instance of such cash creations or redemptions, transaction fees may be imposed that will be higher than the transaction fees associated with in-kind creations or redemptions. In all cases, such fees will be limited in accordance with the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) applicable to management investment companies offering redeemable securities.

Miscellaneous

This SAI describes the financial history, investment strategies and policies, management and operation of each Fund in order to enable investors to determine whether the particular Fund best suits their needs.

This SAI provides additional information with respect to the Funds and should be read in conjunction with each Fund’s current Prospectus. Capitalized terms not otherwise defined herein have the meanings accorded to them in the Prospectus. The Funds’ executive offices are located at 270 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

The Trust’s Board of Trustees is referred to herein as the “Board of Trustees,” and each trustee is referred to as a “Trustee.” J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. (“JPMIM” or “Adviser”) is the investment adviser to the Funds. Investments in a Fund are not deposits or obligations of, nor guaranteed or endorsed by, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (“JPMorgan Chase Bank”), an affiliate of the Adviser, or any other bank. Shares of a Fund are not federally insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board or any other governmental agency. An investment in a Fund is subject to risks that may cause the value of the investment to fluctuate, and when the investment is redeemed, the value may be higher or lower than the amount originally invested by the investor.

INVESTMENT POLICIES

The following investment policies have been adopted by the Trust with respect to the Funds. The investment policies listed below under the heading “Fundamental Investment Policies” are “fundamental” policies which, under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), may not be changed without the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of a Fund, as such term is defined in the “Additional Information” section in Part II of this SAI. All other investment policies of a Fund (including its investment objective) are non- fundamental, unless otherwise designated in the Prospectus or herein, and may be changed by the Trustees of the Funds without shareholder approval.

Except for each of the restrictions on borrowings set forth in the fundamental investment policies below, the percentage limitations contained in the policies below apply at the time of purchase of the securities. If a percentage or rating restriction on investment or use of assets set forth in a fundamental investment policy or a non- fundamental investment policy or in the Prospectus is adhered to at the time of investment, later changes in percentage resulting from any cause other than actions by a Fund will not be considered a violation. If the value of a Fund’s holdings of illiquid securities at any time exceeds the percentage limitation applicable at the time of acquisition due to subsequent fluctuations in value or other reasons, the Board of Trustees, or persons designated by

 

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the Board to make such determination, will consider what actions, if any, are appropriate to maintain adequate liquidity. With respect to each fundamental investment policy on borrowing, the 1940 Act generally limits a Fund’s ability to borrow money on a non-temporary basis if such borrowings constitute “senior securities.” As noted in “Investment Strategies and Policies — Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks — Borrowings” in SAI Part II, in addition to temporary borrowing, a Fund may borrow from any bank, provided that immediately after any such borrowing there is an asset coverage of at least 300% for all borrowings by the Fund and provided further, that in the event that such asset coverage shall at any time fall below 300%, the Fund shall, within three days (not including Sundays or holidays) thereafter or such longer period as the SEC may prescribe by rules and regulations, reduce the amount of its borrowings to such an extent that the asset coverage of such borrowing shall be at least 300%. A Fund may also borrow money or engage in economically similar transactions if those transactions do not constitute “senior securities” under the 1940 Act. Under current pronouncements, certain Fund positions (e.g., reverse repurchase agreements) are excluded from the definition of “senior security” so long as a Fund maintains adequate cover, segregation of assets or otherwise. Similarly, a short sale will not be considered a senior security if the Fund takes certain steps contemplated by SEC staff pronouncements, such as ensuring the short sale transaction is adequately covered.

For purposes of a Fund’s fundamental investment policy regarding industry concentration, “to concentrate” generally means to invest 25% or more of the Fund’s assets, taken at market value at the time of investment.

In addition, each Fund has an 80% investment policy which is described in the Funds’ Prospectus. In calculating “Assets” for the purposes of each Fund’s 80% investment policy, Assets are net assets plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes. This policy may be changed by the Board of Trustees without shareholder approval. However, a Fund will provide shareholders with written notice at least 60 days prior to a change in its policy to invest at least 80% of its Assets in securities that are included its benchmark index (including for the Europe Currency Hedged ETF indirect investments through the Europe Equity ETF).

Finally, each Fund is subject to the fundamental and non-fundamental investment policies and investment restrictions applicable to the Fund that are described herein and by any restrictions imposed by applicable law.

Fundamental Investment Policies.

Each Fund:

 

  (1) May purchase any security which would cause the Fund to concentrate 25% or more of its investments in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in any particular industry or group of industries to the extent the index which the Fund replicates and which may be changed is concentrated in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in any particular industry or group of industries, but will not concentrate in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in any particular industry or group of industries at any time when the Fund’s index is not concentrated. This policy does not apply to investments in securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities, or repurchase agreements secured thereby, and futures and options transactions issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities;

 

  (2) May not issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act or any rule, order or interpretation thereunder;

 

  (3) May not borrow money, except to the extent permitted by applicable law;

 

  (4) May not underwrite securities of other issuers, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed an underwriter under certain securities laws in disposing of portfolio securities or in connection with investments in other investment companies;

 

  (5) May not invest directly in real estate unless it is acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments. This restriction shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments (a) issued by companies that invest, deal or otherwise engage in transactions in real estate, or (b) backed or secured by real estate or interests in real estate;

 

  (6)

May not purchase or sell commodities or commodity contracts except as may be permitted by the 1940 Act or unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments issued by persons that purchase or sell commodities or commodities contracts; but this shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing, selling and entering into financial futures contracts (including futures contracts on indices of securities, interest rates and currencies), options on financial futures contracts (including futures contracts

 

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  on indices of securities, interest rates and currencies), warrants, swaps, forward contracts, foreign currency spot and forward contracts or other derivative instruments including derivatives related to physical commodities;

 

  (7) May make loans to other persons, in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies and to the extent permitted by applicable law;

 

  (8) May not make any investment inconsistent with its classification as a diversified investment company under the 1940 Act.

Each Fund may invest in types of investments and engage in transactions that are considered lending transactions. The types of investments and strategies that a Fund may use are described in further detail in the Prospectus and this SAI.

Non-Fundamental Investment Policies.

Each Fund:

 

  (1) May not acquire any illiquid securities, such as repurchase agreements with more than seven days to maturity or fixed time deposits with a duration of over seven days, if as a result thereof, more than 15% of the market value of the Fund’s net assets would be in investments which are illiquid.

In addition, the Europe Equity ETF may not acquire the securities of registered open-end investment companies or registered unit investment trusts in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.

INVESTMENT PRACTICES

Although Europe Currency Hedged ETF mainly invests in the Europe Equity ETF, to the extent permitted by applicable law or the exemptive relief obtained from the SEC, the Europe Currency Hedged ETF may also invest in securities and other financial instruments as described below. These strategies and techniques may also be used by the Europe Equity ETF as discussed in the Prospectus and this SAI. For a more complete discussion, see the “Investment Strategies and Policies” section in Part II of this SAI.

 

Fund Name    Fund Code  

Europe Equity ETF

     1   

Europe Currency Hedged ETF

     2   

 

Instrument   Fund Code  

Part II

Section Reference

Borrowings: A Fund may borrow for temporary purposes and/or for investment purposes. Such a practice will result in leveraging of a Fund’s assets and may cause a Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it would not be advantageous to do so. A Fund must maintain continuous asset coverage of 300% of the amount borrowed, with the exception for borrowings not in excess of 5% of the Fund’s total assets made for temporary administrative purposes.   1-2   Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks
Common Stock: Shares of ownership of a company.   1-2   Equity Securities, Warrants and Rights
Common Stock Warrants and Rights: Securities, typically issued with preferred stock or bonds, that give the holder the right to buy a proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price.   1-2   Equity Securities, Warrants and Rights
Convertible Securities: Bonds or preferred stock that can convert to common stock.   1-2   Convertible Securities
Exchange-Traded Funds (“ETFs”): Ownership interest in unit investment trusts, depositary receipts, and other pooled investment vehicles that hold a portfolio of securities or stocks designed to track the price performance and dividend yield of a particular broad-based, sector or international index. ETFs include a wide range of investments.   2  

Investment Company Securities and

Exchange-Traded Funds

 

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Instrument    Fund Code   

Part II

Section Reference

Foreign Currency Transactions: Strategies used to hedged against currency risks, for other risk management purposes or to increase income or gain to the Fund. These strategies may consist of use of any of the following: options on currencies, currency futures, options on such futures, forward foreign currency transactions (including non-deliverable forwards (“NDFs”)), forward rate agreements and currency swaps, caps and floors.    1-2    Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)
Foreign Investments: Equity securities of foreign entities and obligations of foreign branches of U.S. banks and foreign banks. Foreign securities may also include American Depositary Receipts (“ADR”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDR”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDR”) and American Depositary Securities (“ADS”). A Fund may also use forward foreign currency contracts in connection with its foreign investments.    1-2    Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)
Futures Transactions: A Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts on securities and indexes of securities.    1-2    Futures Transactions
Investment Company Securities: Shares of other investment companies, including money market funds for which the Adviser and/or its affiliates serve as investment adviser or administrator. The Adviser will waive certain fees when investing in funds for which it serves as investment adviser, to the extent required by law or by contract.    1-2    Investment Company Securities and Exchange-Traded Funds
Preferred Stock: A class of stock that generally pays a dividend at a specified rate and has preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and in liquidation.    1-2    Equity Securities, Warrants and Rights
Private Placements, Restricted Securities and Other Unregistered Securities: Securities not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, such as privately placed commercial paper and Rule 144A securities.    1-2    Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks
Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”): Pooled investment vehicles which invest primarily in income producing real estate or real estate related loans or interest.    1-2    Real Estate Investment Trusts
Securities Issued in Connection with Reorganizations and Corporate Restructurings: In connection with reorganizing or restructuring of an issuer, an issuer may issue common stock or other securities to holders of its debt securities.    1-2    Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION REGARDING FUND INVESTMENT PRACTICES

Exemptive Application Requirements

Each Fund must comply with the requirements of the exemptive application which allows it to operate as an exchange-traded fund. Because each Fund is passively managed, it must invest at least 80% of its assets, exclusive of collateral held from securities lending (if any) in component securities of the index which each Fund seeks to track (each, an “Underlying Index”) and in depositary receipts representing such component securities. The Europe Currency Hedged ETF may meet this requirement through its investment in the Underlying Fund. Any depositary receipts held by a Fund will be negotiable securities that represent ownership of a non-U.S. company’s publicly traded stock. The Adviser believes that, in certain cases, holding one or more depositary receipts (including for the Europe Currency Hedged ETF through the Europe Equity ETF) rather than the component securities of the relevant Underlying Index, will improve the liquidity, tradability, and settlement of that Fund’s then current portfolio deposit (thereby improving the efficiency of the creation and redemption process and facilitating efficient arbitrage activity), while at the same time permitting a Fund to maintain direct exposure to component securities of its Underlying Index.

 

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DIVERSIFICATION

The Trust is a registered management investment company. Each Fund is a diversified series of the Trust. Each Fund intends to meet the diversification requirements of the 1940 Act. For a more complete discussion, see the “Diversification” section in Part II of this SAI.

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

A portfolio turnover rate is, in summary, the percentage computed by dividing the lesser of a Fund’s purchases or sales of securities (excluding short-term securities) by the average market value of the Fund. The Adviser intends to manage each Fund’s assets by buying and selling securities to help attain its investment objective. A rate of 100% indicates that the equivalent of all of a Fund’s assets have been sold and reinvested in a year. High portfolio turnover may affect the amount, timing and character of distributions, and, as a result, may increase the amount of taxes payable by shareholders. Higher portfolio turnover also results in higher transaction costs. To the extent that net short-term capital gains are realized by a Fund, any distributions resulting from such gains are considered ordinary income for federal income tax purposes. For a more complete discussion, see the “Distributions and Tax Matters” section in Part II of this SAI. Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, the Funds did not have any portfolio turnover rate to report as of October 31, 2015.

TRUSTEES

Standing Committees

There is one standing committee of the Board of Trustees: the Audit and Valuation Committee. During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2015, the Audit and Valuation Committee met four times. For a more complete discussion, see the “Trustees” section in Part II of this SAI.

Ownership of Securities

The following table shows the dollar range of each Trustee’s beneficial ownership in the Funds and each Trustee’s aggregate dollar range of ownership in the funds that the Trustee oversees in the Family of Investment Companies as of December 31, 2015:

 

Name of Trustee

     Dollar Range
of Equity
Securities in
Europe
Equity ETF
     Dollar Range
of Equity
Securities in
Europe
Currency
Hedged ETF
     Aggregate Dollar Range
of Equity Securities in
All Registered
Investment Companies
Overseen by the
Trustee in Family of
Investment
Companies1

Independent Trustees

              

Gary L. French2

     None      None      $10,001–$50,000

Robert J. Grassi

     None      None      $10,001–$50,000

Thomas P. Lemke

     None      None      $10,001–$50,000

Lawrence R. Maffia

     None      None      $10,001–$50,000

Emily A. Youssouf

     None      None      $10,001–$50,000

Interested Trustee

              

Robert Deutsch

     None      None      Over $100,000

 

1 A Family of Investment Companies means two or more registered investment companies that (1) hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services and (2) share the same investment adviser or principal underwriter.
2 As of December 31, 2015, Mr. French inadvertently owned 179 shares of JPMorgan Chase & Co. common stock, the indirect parent of JPMIM, in discretionary accounts fully managed by investment managers under the direction of his financial adviser. As of the date of this SAI, Mr. French has sold all of these shares and is considered an Independent Trustee.

 

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Trustee Compensation

Trustee aggregate compensation paid by the Trust for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2015, is set forth below:

 

Name of Trustee

     Total
Compensation
Paid by the
Fund
Complex1
 

Independent Trustees

    

Gary L. French2

     $ 45,000   

Robert J. Grassi

       40,000   

Thomas P. Lemke

       45,000   

Lawrence Maffia

       40,000   

Emily Youssouf

       40,000   

Interested Trustee

    

Robert Deutsch3

       0   

 

1 A Fund Complex means two or more registered investment companies that (i) hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services or (ii) have a common investment adviser or have an investment adviser that is an affiliated person of the investment adviser of any of the other registered investment companies. The J.P. Morgan Funds Complex for which the Board of Trustees currently serves includes one registered investment company (13 Funds).
2 See information above in “Ownership of Securities” for information concerning Mr. French’s ownership of shares of JPMorgan Chase & Co.
3 Mr. Deutsch received no compensation directly from the Trust.

The Funds included in this SAI had not commenced operations as of the end of the fiscal year. See “TRUSTEES — Trustee Compensation” in Part II of this SAI for more information.

INVESTMENT ADVISER

Investment Advisory Fees

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, the Funds did not have any investment advisory fees to report as of October 31, 2015. For more information about the Adviser, see the “Investment Adviser” section in Part II of this SAI.

PORTFOLIO MANAGERS

Portfolio Managers’ Other Accounts Managed*

The following table shows information regarding all of the other accounts for which advisory fees are not based on the performance of the accounts that are managed by each Fund’s portfolio managers as of October 31, 2015:

 

     Non-Performance Based Fee Advisory Accounts  
     Registered Investment
Companies
     Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
     Other Accounts  
     Number
of
Accounts
     Total Assets
($thousands)
     Number
of
Accounts
     Total Assets
($thousands)
     Number
of
Accounts
     Total Assets
($thousands)
 

Europe Equity ETF

                 

James Ford

     0       $ 0         0       $ 0         0       $ 0   

Richard Morillot

     0         0         0         0         0         0   

Europe Currency Hedged ETF

                 

James Ford

     0         0         0         0         0         0   

Richard Morillot

     0         0         0         0         0         0   

Roger Hallam

     0         0         1         91,867         0         0   

Danny Sage

     0         0         0         0         0         0   

 

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The following table shows information on the other accounts managed by each Fund’s portfolio managers that have advisory fees wholly or partly based on performance as of October 31, 2015:

 

     Performance Based Fee Advisory Accounts  
     Registered Investment
Companies
     Other Pooled Investment
Vehicles
     Other Accounts  
     Number
of
Accounts
     Total Assets
($thousands)
     Number
of
Accounts
     Total Assets
($thousands)
     Number
of
Accounts
     Total Assets
($thousands)
 

Europe Equity ETF

                 

James Ford

     0       $ 0         0       $ 0         0       $ 0   

Richard Morillot

     0         0         0         0         0         0   

Europe Currency Hedged ETF

                 

James Ford

     0         0         0         0         0         0   

Richard Morillot

     0         0         0         0         0         0   

Roger Hallam

     0         0         0         0         0         0   

Danny Sage

     0         0         0         0         0         0   

 

* The value and number of accounts managed by a portfolio manager may include sub-accounts of asset allocation multi-managed and other accounts.

Portfolio Managers’ Ownership of Securities

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, the portfolio managers did not own any Shares of the Funds as of October 31, 2015. For a discussion of the portfolio managers’ compensation, see the “Portfolio Manager Compensation” section in Part II of this SAI.

ADMINISTRATOR

Administrator Fees

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, the Funds did not have any administrator fees to report as of October 31, 2015. For more information about the Administrator, see the “Administrator” section in Part II of this SAI.

FUND ACCOUNTING AGENT

Fund Accounting Fees

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, the Funds did not have any accounting fees to report as of October 31, 2015. For more information about the Fund Accounting Agent, see the “Fund Accounting Agent” section in Part II of this SAI.

BROKERAGE

Brokerage Commissions

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, the Funds did not have any brokerage commissions to report as of October 31, 2015.

Broker Research

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, there was no allocation of brokerage commissions to brokers who provided broker research including third party broker research for the Fund as of October 31, 2015.

Securities of Regular Broker-Dealers

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, the Funds did not own securities of its regular broker-dealers (or parents) as of October 31, 2015.

For a more complete discussion, see the “Portfolio Transactions” section in Part II of this SAI.

 

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PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS

The Trust will issue and sell its Shares only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load, at the NAV next determined after receipt of an order in proper form as described in “Placement of Creation Orders Outside NSCC Clearing Process-Domestic Funds” in Appendix A to Part II of this SAI.

 

FUND

   CREATION*      REDEMPTION*  

Europe Equity ETF

     100,000         100,000   

Europe Currency Hedged ETF

     50,000         50,000   

 

* May be revised at any time without notice.

CREATION AND REDEMPTION TRANSACTION FEES. A transaction fee, as set forth in the table below, is imposed for the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the purchase or redemption of Creation Units, as applicable. Investors who are authorized to deal in Creation Units (“Authorized Participants”) will be required to pay a fixed creation transaction fee and/or a fixed redemption transaction fee, as applicable, on a given day regardless of the number of Creation Units created or redeemed on that day. The Funds may adjust the transaction fee from time to time. An additional charge or a variable charge (discussed below) will be applied to certain creation and redemption transactions, including non-standard orders and whole or partial cash purchases or redemptions. With respect to creation orders, Authorized Participants are responsible for the costs of transferring the securities constituting the Deposit Instruments to the account of the Trust and with respect to redemption orders, Authorized Participants are responsible for the costs of transferring the Redemption Instruments from the Trust to their account or on their order. Investors who use the services of a broker or other such intermediary may also be charged a fee for such services.

 

FUND

   TRANSACTION FEE*, **  

Europe Equity ETF

   $ 6,000   

Europe Currency Hedged ETF

     300   

 

* From time to time, a Fund may waive all or a portion of its applicable transaction fee(s).
** In addition to the transaction fees listed above, a Fund may charge an additional variable fee for creations and redemptions in cash of up to 3% of the amount of a creation transaction and of up to 2% of the amount of a redemption transaction to offset brokerage and impact expenses associated with the cash transaction. The variable transaction fee will be calculated based on the actual transaction costs associated with the cash transaction up to the maximum transaction fee.

PURCHASES BY OTHER INVESTMENT COMPANIES

For purposes of the 1940 Act, each Fund is treated as a registered investment company. Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Shares of each Fund. Although the SEC has granted an exemptive order to the Trust permitting registered investment companies that enter into an agreement with the Trust (“Investing Funds”) to invest in series of the Trust beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act subject to certain terms and conditions, such exemptive relief is not applicable to Europe Currency Hedged ETF. Accordingly, Investing Funds must adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act when investing in the Europe Currency Hedged ETF.

FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES

Compensation Payments

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, neither JPMIM nor any other affiliates of JPMorgan Chase & Co. (JPMorgan Chase) made any compensation payments to intermediaries with respect to the Funds as of October 31, 2015. For a more complete discussion, see the “Compensation to Intermediaries” section in Part II of this SAI.

TAX MATTERS

Capital Loss Carryforwards

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, the Funds have not had any capital loss carryforwards as of October 31, 2015. For more information on tax matters, see the “Distributions and Tax Matters” section in Part II of this SAI.

 

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SHARE OWNERSHIP

Trustees and Officers

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, the officers and Trustees do not own any Shares as of commencement of operations of the applicable Fund.

Principal Holders

No Shares of the Funds have been issued as of commencement of operations of the applicable Fund.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Since the Funds have recently commenced operations, there are no financial statements available for the Funds. When they become available, financial statements will be available without charge upon request by calling 1-844-457-6383 (844-4JPM ETF).

 

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J.P. Morgan Exchange-Traded Fund Trust

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

PART II

Part II of this SAI describes policies and practices that apply to each of the J.P. Morgan Exchange-Traded Funds (“ETF Funds”), for which Part I precedes this Part II. Part II is not a standalone document and must be read in conjunction with Part I. References in this Part II to a “Fund” mean each of the ETF Funds, unless noted otherwise. Capitalized terms used and not otherwise defined in this Part II have the meanings given to them in Part I of this SAI.


Table of Contents

PART II

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

     1   

Bank Obligations

     1   

Commercial Paper

     1   

Convertible Securities

     2   

Debt Instruments

     2   

Impact of Market Conditions on the Risks associated with Debt Securities

     5   

Equity Securities, Warrants and Rights

     5   

Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)

     6   

Inverse Floaters and Interest Rate Caps

     12   

Investment Company Securities and Exchange-Traded Funds

     12   

Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks

     13   

Mortgage-Related Securities

     16   

Options and Futures Transactions

     21   

Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”)

     25   

Recent Events Relating to the Overall Economy

     25   

Repurchase Agreements

     26   

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

     26   

Short Selling

     27   

Short-Term Funding Agreements

     27   

Swaps and Related Swap Products

     28   

Treasury Receipts

     30   

U.S. Government Obligations

     30   

When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments

     31   

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION REGARDING FUND INVESTMENT PRACTICES

     32   

Investments in the Asia Pacific Region

     32   

Investments in the China Region

     32   

Investments in European Markets

     34   

Investments in India

     34   

Investments in Japan

     35   

Investments in Latin America

     36   

Investments in the Middle East and Africa

     37   

Investments in Russia

     37   

RISK MANAGEMENT

     38   

DIVERSIFICATION

     39   

DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAX MATTERS

     39   

Qualification as a Regulated Investment Company

     39   

Excise Tax on Regulated Investment Companies

     41   

Fund Distributions

     41   

Sale or Redemption of Shares

     42   

Fund Investments

     43   

Investment in Other Funds

     46   

Backup Withholding

     46   

Foreign Shareholders

     47   

Foreign Taxes

     48   

Exempt-Interest Dividends

     49   

Creation Units

     49   

State and Local Tax Matters

     49   

Tax Shelter Reporting Regulations

     50   

General Considerations

     50   

 

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TRUSTEES

     50   

Qualifications of Trustees

     52   

Board Leadership Structure and Oversight

     53   

Standing Committee

     53   

Trustee Compensation

     53   

OFFICERS

     54   

INVESTMENT ADVISER

     55   

J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. (“JPMIM”)

     55   

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

     56   

PORTFOLIO MANAGER COMPENSATION

     58   

CODES OF ETHICS

     59   

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS

     59   

Investment Decisions and Portfolio Transactions.

     59   

Brokerage and Research Services.

     60   

ADMINISTRATOR

     62   

DISTRIBUTOR

     63   

CUSTODIAN

     63   

CUSTODY FEES AND EXPENSES

     63   

FUND ACCOUNTING AGENT

     63   

TRANSFER AGENT

     64   

EXPENSES

     64   

COMPENSATION TO INTERMEDIARIES

     64   

TRUST COUNSEL

     65   

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

     65   

DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS

     65   

NET ASSET VALUE

     65   

DELAWARE TRUST

     66   

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

     67   

PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE

     68   

PROXY VOTING PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES

     68   

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     71   

APPENDIX A — PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS

     A-1   

 

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INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

As noted in the applicable Prospectuses for each of the Funds, in addition to the main investment strategy and the main investment risks described in the Prospectuses, each Fund may employ other investment strategies and may be subject to other risks, which are described below. The Funds may engage in the practices described below to the extent consistent with their investment objectives, strategies, policies and restrictions. Because the following is a combined description of investment strategies of all of the Funds, certain matters described herein may not apply to particular Funds.

For a list of investment strategies and policies employed by each Fund, see “INVESTMENT PRACTICES” in Part I of this SAI.

Bank Obligations

Bank obligations consist of bankers’ acceptances, certificates of deposit, and time deposits.

Bankers’ acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange typically drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are “accepted” by a bank, meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument on maturity. To be eligible for purchase by a Fund, a bankers’ acceptance must be guaranteed by a domestic or foreign bank or savings and loan association having, at the time of investment, total assets in excess of $1 billion (as of the date of its most recently published financial statements).

Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank or a savings and loan association for a definite period of time and earning a specified return. Certificates of deposit may also include those issued by foreign banks outside the United States (“U.S.”) with total assets at the time of purchase in excess of the equivalent of $1 billion. Such certificates of deposit include Eurodollar and Yankee certificates of deposit. Eurodollar certificates of deposit are U.S. dollar-denominated certificates of deposit issued by branches of foreign and domestic banks located outside the U.S. Yankee certificates of deposit are certificates of deposit issued by a U.S. branch of a foreign bank denominated in U.S. dollars and held in the U.S. Certain Funds may also invest in obligations (including bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit) denominated in foreign currencies (see “Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)”) herein. With regard to certificates of deposit issued by U.S. banks and savings and loan associations, to be eligible for purchase by a Fund, a certificate of deposit must be issued by (i) a domestic or foreign branch of a U.S. commercial bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System or the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or (ii) a domestic savings and loan association, the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation provided that, in each case, at the time of purchase, such institution has total assets in excess of $1 billion (as of the date of its most recently published financial statements).

Time deposits are interest-bearing non-negotiable deposits at a bank or a savings and loan association that have a specific maturity date. A time deposit earns a specific rate of interest over a definite period of time. Time deposits cannot be traded on the secondary market and those exceeding seven days and with a withdrawal penalty are considered to be illiquid. Time deposits will be maintained only at banks and savings and loan associations from which a Fund could purchase certificates of deposit.

The Funds will not invest in obligations for which a Fund’s Adviser, or any of its affiliated persons, is the ultimate obligor or accepting bank, provided, however, that the Funds maintain demand deposits at their affiliated custodian, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (“JPMorgan Chase Bank”).

Subject to the Funds’ limitations on concentration in a particular industry, there is no limitation on the amount of a Fund’s assets which may be invested in obligations of banks which meet the conditions set forth herein.

Commercial Paper

Commercial paper is defined as short-term obligations, generally with maturities from 1 to 270 days issued by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies. Although commercial paper is generally unsecured, the Funds may also purchase secured commercial paper. In the event of a default of an issuer of secured commercial paper, a Fund may hold the securities and other investments that were pledged as collateral even if it does not invest in such securities or investments. In such a case, the Fund would take steps to dispose of such securities or investments in a commercially reasonable manner. Commercial paper includes master demand obligations. See “Variable and Floating Rate Instruments” below.

Certain Funds may also invest in Canadian commercial paper, which is commercial paper issued by a Canadian corporation or a Canadian counterpart of a U.S. corporation, and in Europaper, which is U.S. dollar denominated commercial paper of a foreign issuer. See “Risk Factors of Foreign Investments” below.

 

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Convertible Securities

A Fund may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities include any debt securities or preferred stock which may be converted into common stock or which carry the right to purchase common stock. Generally, convertible securities entitle the holder to exchange the securities for a specified number of shares of common stock, usually of the same company, at specified prices within a certain period of time.

The terms of any convertible security determine its ranking in a company’s capital structure. In the case of subordinated convertible debentures, the holders’ claims on assets and earnings are subordinated to the claims of other creditors, and are senior to the claims of preferred and common shareholders. In the case of convertible preferred stock, the holders’ claims on assets and earnings are subordinated to the claims of all creditors and are senior to the claims of common shareholders.

Convertible securities have characteristics similar to both debt and equity securities. Due to the conversion feature, the market value of convertible securities tends to move together with the market value of the underlying common stock. As a result, selection of convertible securities, to a great extent, is based on the potential for capital appreciation that may exist in the underlying stock. The value of convertible securities is also affected by prevailing interest rates, the credit quality of the issuer, and any call provisions. In some cases, the issuer may cause a convertible security to convert to common stock. In other situations, it may be advantageous for a Fund to cause the conversion of convertible securities to common stock. If a convertible security converts to common stock, a Fund may hold such common stock in its portfolio even if it does not ordinarily invest in common stock.

Debt Instruments

Corporate Debt Securities. Corporate debt securities may include bonds and other debt securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers, including obligations of industrial, utility, banking and other corporate issuers. All debt securities are subject to the risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payments on the obligation and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as market interest rates, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity.

High Yield/High Risk Securities/Junk Bonds. Certain Funds may invest in high yield securities, to varying degrees. High yield, high risk bonds are securities that are generally rated below investment grade by the primary rating agencies (BB+ or lower by S&P and Bal or lower by Moody’s) or unrated but determined by the Fund’s Adviser to be of comparable quality. Other terms used to describe such securities include “lower rated bonds,” “non-investment grade bonds,” “below investment grade bonds,” and “junk bonds.” These securities are considered to be high-risk investments.

High yield securities are regarded as predominately speculative. There is a greater risk that issuers of lower rated securities will default than issuers of higher rated securities. Issuers of lower rated securities generally are less creditworthy and may be highly indebted, financially distressed, or bankrupt. These issuers are more vulnerable to real or perceived economic changes, political changes or adverse industry developments. In addition, high yield securities are frequently subordinated to the prior payment of senior indebtedness. If an issuer fails to pay principal or interest, a Fund would experience a decrease in income and a decline in the market value of its investments. A Fund may also incur additional expenses in seeking recovery from the issuer.

The income and market value of lower rated securities may fluctuate more than higher rated securities. Non-investment grade securities are more sensitive to short-term corporate, economic and market developments. During periods of economic uncertainty and change, the market price of the investments in lower rated securities may be volatile. The default rate for high yield bonds tends to be cyclical, with defaults rising in periods of economic downturn.

It is often more difficult to value lower rated securities than higher rated securities. If an issuer’s financial condition deteriorates, accurate financial and business information may be limited or unavailable. The lower rated investments may be thinly traded and there may be no established secondary market. Because of the lack of market pricing and current information for investments in lower rated securities, valuation of such investments is much more dependent on the judgment of the Adviser than is the case with higher rated securities. In addition, relatively few institutional purchasers may hold a major portion of an issue of lower-rated securities at times. As a result, a Fund that invests in lower rated securities may be required to sell investments at substantial losses or retain them indefinitely even where an issuer’s financial condition is deteriorating.

Credit quality of non-investment grade securities can change suddenly and unexpectedly, and even recently issued credit ratings may not fully reflect the actual risks posed by a particular high-yield security.

 

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Future legislation may have a possible negative impact on the market for high yield, high risk bonds. As an example, in the late 1980’s, legislation required federally-insured savings and loan associations to divest their investments in high yield, high risk bonds. New legislation, if enacted, could have a material negative effect on a Fund’s investments in lower rated securities.

Inflation-Linked Debt Securities. Inflation-linked securities include fixed and floating rate debt securities of varying maturities issued by the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities, such as Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (“TIPS”), as well as securities issued by other entities such as corporations, municipalities, foreign governments and foreign issuers, including foreign issuers from emerging markets. See also “Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies).” Typically, such securities are structured as fixed income investments whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. The following two structures are common: (i) the U.S. Treasury and some other issuers issue inflation-linked securities that accrue inflation into the principal value of the security and (ii) other issuers may pay out the Consumer Price Index (“CPI”) accruals as part of a semi-annual coupon. Other types of inflation-linked securities exist which use an inflation index other than the CPI.

Inflation-linked securities issued by the U.S. Treasury, such as TIPS, have maturities of approximately five, ten or thirty years, although it is possible that securities with other maturities will be issued in the future. Typically, TIPS pay interest on a semi-annual basis equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. For example, if a Fund purchased an inflation-indexed bond with a par value of $1,000 and a 3% real rate of return coupon (payable 1.5% semi-annually), and the rate of inflation over the first six months was 1%, the mid-year par value of the bond would be $1,010 and the first semi-annual interest payment would be $15.15 ($1,010 times 1.5%). If inflation during the second half of the year resulted in the whole year’s inflation of 3%, the end-of-year par value of the bond would be $1,030 and the second semi-annual interest payment would be $15.45 ($1,030 times 1.5%).

If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of TIPS, even during a period of deflation, although the inflation-adjusted principal received could be less than the inflation-adjusted principal that had accrued to the bond at the time of purchase. However, the current market value of the bonds is not guaranteed and will fluctuate. Other inflation- related bonds exist which may or may not provide a similar guarantee. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.

The value of inflation-linked securities is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates in turn are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if the rate of inflation rises at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-linked securities.

While inflation-linked securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure.

The periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-linked securities is tied to the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (“CPI-U”), which is not seasonably adjusted and which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-linked securities issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index calculated by that government. There can be no assurance that the CPI-U or a foreign inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the U.S.

Any increase in the principal amount of an inflation-linked security will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though investors do not receive their principal until maturity.

Variable and Floating Rate Instruments. Certain obligations purchased by the Funds may carry variable or floating rates of interest, may involve a conditional or unconditional demand feature and may include variable amount master demand notes. Variable and floating rate instruments are issued by a wide variety of issuers and may be issued for a wide variety of purposes, including as a method of reconstructing cash flows.

 

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Subject to their investment objective policies and restrictions, certain Funds may acquire variable and floating rate instruments. A variable rate instrument is one whose terms provide for the adjustment of its interest rate on set dates and which, upon such adjustment, can reasonably be expected to have a market value that approximates its par value. Certain Funds may purchase extendable commercial notes. Extendable commercial notes are variable rate notes which normally mature within a short period of time (e.g., 1 month) but which may be extended by the issuer for a maximum maturity of thirteen months.

A floating rate instrument is one whose terms provide for the adjustment of its interest rate whenever a specified interest rate changes and which, at any time, can reasonably be expected to have a market value that approximates its par value. Floating rate instruments are frequently not rated by credit rating agencies; however, unrated variable and floating rate instruments purchased by a Fund will be determined by the Fund’s Adviser to be of comparable quality at the time of purchase to rated instruments eligible for purchase under the Fund’s investment policies. In making such determinations, a Fund’s Adviser will consider the earning power, cash flow and other liquidity ratios of the issuers of such instruments (such issuers include financial, merchandising, bank holding and other companies) and will continuously monitor their financial condition. There may be no active secondary market with respect to a particular variable or floating rate instrument purchased by a Fund. The absence of such an active secondary market could make it difficult for the Fund to dispose of the variable or floating rate instrument involved in the event the issuer of the instrument defaulted on its payment obligations, and the Fund could, for this or other reasons, suffer a loss to the extent of the default. Variable or floating rate instruments may be secured by bank letters of credit or other assets. A Fund may purchase a variable or floating rate instrument to facilitate portfolio liquidity or to permit investment of the Fund’s assets at a favorable rate of return.

As a result of the floating and variable rate nature of these investments, the Funds’ yields may decline, and they may forego the opportunity for capital appreciation during periods when interest rates decline; however, during periods when interest rates increase, the Funds’ yields may increase, and they may have reduced risk of capital depreciation.

Past periods of high inflation, together with the fiscal measures adopted to attempt to deal with it, have seen wide fluctuations in interest rates, particularly “prime rates” charged by banks. While the value of the underlying floating or variable rate securities may change with changes in interest rates generally, the nature of the underlying floating or variable rate should minimize changes in value of the instruments. Accordingly, as interest rates decrease or increase, the potential for capital appreciation and the risk of potential capital depreciation is less than would be the case with a portfolio of fixed rate securities. A Fund’s portfolio may contain floating or variable rate securities on which stated minimum or maximum rates, or maximum rates set by state law limit the degree to which interest on such floating or variable rate securities may fluctuate; to the extent it does, increases or decreases in value may be somewhat greater than would be the case without such limits. Because the adjustment of interest rates on the floating or variable rate securities is made in relation to movements of the applicable banks’ “prime rates” or other short-term rate securities adjustment indices, the floating or variable rate securities are not comparable to long-term fixed rate securities. Accordingly, interest rates on the floating or variable rate securities may be higher or lower than current market rates for fixed rate obligations of comparable quality with similar maturities.

Variable Amount Master Notes. Variable amount master notes are notes, which may possess a demand feature, that permit the indebtedness to vary and provide for periodic adjustments in the interest rate according to the terms of the instrument. Variable amount master notes may not be secured by collateral.

Because master notes are direct lending arrangements between a Fund and the issuer of the notes, they are not normally traded. Although there is no secondary market in the notes, a Fund may demand payment of principal and accrued interest. If the Fund is not repaid such principal and accrued interest, the Fund may not be able to dispose of the notes due to the lack of a secondary market.

While master notes are not typically rated by credit rating agencies, issuers of variable amount master notes (which are normally manufacturing, retail, financial, brokerage, investment banking and other business concerns) must satisfy the same criteria as those set forth with respect to commercial paper, if any, in Part I of this SAI under the heading “Diversification”. A Fund’s Adviser will consider the credit risk of the issuers of such notes, including its earning power, cash flow, and other liquidity ratios of such issuers and will continuously monitor their financial status and ability to meet payment on demand. In determining average weighted portfolio maturity, a variable amount master note will be deemed to have a maturity equal to the period of time remaining until the principal amount can be recovered from the issuer.

Limitations on the Use of Variable and Floating Rate Notes. Variable and floating rate instruments for which no readily available market exists (e.g., illiquid securities) will be purchased in an amount which, together with

 

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securities with legal or contractual restrictions on resale or for which no readily available market exists (including repurchase agreements providing for settlement more than seven days after notice), exceeds 15% of a Fund’s net assets only if such instruments are subject to a demand feature that will permit the Fund to demand payment of the principal within seven days after demand by the Fund. There is no limit on the extent to which a Fund may purchase demand instruments that are not illiquid or deemed to be liquid in accordance with the Adviser’s liquidity determination procedures. If not rated, such instruments must be found by the Fund’s Adviser to be of comparable quality to instruments in which a Fund may invest. A rating may be relied upon only if it is provided by an NRSRO that is not affiliated with the issuer or guarantor of the instruments.

Zero-Coupon, Pay-in-Kind and Deferred Payment Securities. Zero-coupon securities are securities that are sold at a discount to par value and on which interest payments are not made during the life of the security. Upon maturity, the holder is entitled to receive the par value of the security. Pay-in-kind securities are securities that have interest payable by delivery of additional securities. Upon maturity, the holder is entitled to receive the aggregate par value of the securities. A Fund accrues income with respect to zero-coupon and pay-in-kind securities prior to the receipt of cash payments. Deferred payment securities are securities that remain zero-coupon securities until a predetermined date, at which time the stated coupon rate becomes effective and interest becomes payable at regular intervals. While interest payments are not made on such securities, holders of such securities are deemed to have received “phantom income.” Because a Fund will distribute “phantom income” to shareholders, to the extent that shareholders elect to receive dividends in cash rather than reinvesting such dividends in additional shares, the applicable Fund will have fewer assets with which to purchase income-producing securities. Zero-coupon, pay-in-kind and deferred payment securities may be subject to greater fluctuation in value and lesser liquidity in the event of adverse market conditions than comparably rated securities paying cash interest at regular interest payment periods.

Impact of Market Conditions on the Risks associated with Debt Securities

Current market conditions pose heightened risks for Funds that invest in debt securities. While the U.S. is experiencing historically low interest rate levels, signs of economic recovery and the tapering of the Federal Reserve Board’s quantitative easing program have increased the risk that interest rates will rise in the near future. Any future interest rate increases could cause the value of any Fund that invests in debt securities to decrease. As such, debt securities markets may experience heightened levels of interest rate and liquidity risk, as well as increased volatility. If rising interest rates cause a Fund to lose value, the Fund could also face increased shareholder redemptions, which would further impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives.

Equity Securities, Warrants and Rights

Common Stock. Common stock represents a share of ownership in a company and usually carries voting rights and may earn dividends. Unlike preferred stock, common stock dividends are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the issuer’s board of directors. Common stock occupies the most junior position in a company’s capital structure. As with all equity securities, the price of common stock fluctuates based on changes in a company’s financial condition, including those that result from management’s performance or changes to the business of the company, and overall market and economic conditions.

Common Stock Warrants and Rights. Common stock warrants entitle the holder to buy common stock from the issuer of the warrant at a specific price (the “strike price”) for a specific period of time. The market price of warrants may be substantially lower than the current market price of the underlying common stock, yet warrants are subject to similar price fluctuations. As a result, warrants may be more volatile investments than the underlying common stock. If a warrant is exercised, a Fund may hold common stock in its portfolio even if it does not ordinarily invest in common stock.

Rights are similar to warrants but normally have a shorter duration and are typically distributed directly by the issuers to existing shareholders, while warrants are typically attached to new debt or preferred stock issuances.

Warrants and rights generally do not entitle the holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying common stock and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer company. Warrants and rights will expire if not exercised on or prior to the expiration date.

Preferred Stock. Preferred stock is a class of stock that generally pays dividends at a specified rate and has preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and liquidation. Preferred stock generally does not carry voting rights. As with all equity securities, the price of preferred stock fluctuates based on changes in a company’s

 

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financial condition and on overall market and economic conditions. Because preferred stocks generally pay dividends only after the issuing company makes required payments to holders of its bonds and other debt, the value of preferred stocks is more sensitive than bonds and other debt to actual or perceived changes in the company’s financial condition or prospects.

Initial Public Offerings (“IPOs”). The Funds may purchase securities in IPOs. These securities are subject to many of the same risks as investing in companies with smaller market capitalizations. Securities issued in IPOs have no trading history, and information about the companies may be available for very limited periods. The prices of securities sold in IPOs may be highly volatile. At any particular time or from time to time, a Fund may not be able to invest in securities issued in IPOs, or invest to the extent desired, because, for example, only a small portion (if any) of the securities being offered in an IPO may be made available to a Fund. In addition, under certain market conditions, a relatively small number of companies may issue securities in IPOs. Similarly, as the number of Funds to which IPO securities are allocated increases, the number of securities issued to any one Fund may decrease. The investment performance of a Fund during periods when it is unable to invest significantly or at all in IPOs may be lower than during periods when the Fund is able to do so. In addition, as a Fund increases in size, the impact of IPOs on the Fund’s performance will generally decrease.

Foreign Investments (including Foreign Currencies)

Some of the Funds may invest in certain obligations or securities of foreign issuers. For purposes of a Fund’s investment policies and unless described otherwise in a Fund’s prospectus, an issuer of a security will be deemed to be located in a particular country if: (i) the principal trading market for the security is in such country, (ii) the issuer is organized under the laws of such country or (iii) the issuer derives at least 50% of its revenues or profits from such country or has at least 50% of its total assets situated in such country. Possible investments include equity securities and debt securities (e.g., bonds and commercial paper) of foreign entities, obligations of foreign branches of U.S. banks and of foreign banks, including, without limitation, Eurodollar Certificates of Deposit, Eurodollar Time Deposits, Eurodollar Bankers’ Acceptances, Canadian Time Deposits and Yankee Certificates of Deposit, and investments in Canadian Commercial Paper, and Europaper. Securities of foreign issuers may include sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). Therefore, there may be less information available about the issuers of unsponsored ADRs than the issuers of sponsored ADRs. Unsponsored ADRs are restricted securities.

Risk Factors of Foreign Investments. The following is a summary of certain risks associated with foreign investments:

Political and Exchange Risks. Foreign investments may subject a Fund to investment risks that differ in some respects from those related to investments in obligations of U.S. domestic issuers. Such risks include potential future adverse political and economic developments, sanctions or other measures by the United States or other governments, possible imposition of withholding taxes on interest or other income, possible seizure, nationalization or expropriation of foreign deposits, possible establishment of exchange controls or taxation at the source, greater fluctuations in value due to changes in exchange rates, or the adoption of other foreign governmental restrictions which might adversely affect the payment of principal and interest on such obligations.

Higher Transaction Costs. Foreign investments may entail higher custodial fees and sales commissions than domestic investments.

Accounting and Regulatory Differences. Foreign issuers of securities or obligations are often subject to accounting treatment and engage in business practices different from those of domestic issuers of similar securities or obligations. In addition, foreign issuers are usually not subject to the same degree of regulation as domestic issuers, and their securities may trade on relatively small markets, causing their securities to experience potentially higher volatility and more limited liquidity than securities of domestic issuers. Foreign branches of U.S. banks and foreign banks are not regulated by U.S. banking authorities and may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements than those applicable to domestic branches of U.S. banks. In addition, foreign banks generally are not bound by accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards comparable to those applicable to U.S. banks. Dividends and interest paid by foreign issuers may be subject to withholding and other foreign taxes which may decrease the net return on foreign investments as compared to dividends and interest paid to a Fund by domestic companies.

Currency Risk. Foreign securities may be denominated in foreign currencies, although foreign issuers may also issue securities denominated in U.S. dollars. The value of a Fund’s investments denominated in foreign currencies and any funds held in foreign currencies will be affected by changes in currency exchange rates, the relative strength

 

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of those currencies and the U.S. dollar, and exchange-control regulations. Changes in the foreign currency exchange rates also may affect the value of dividends and interest earned, gains and losses realized on the sale of securities and net investment income and gains, if any, to be distributed to shareholders by a Fund. The exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies are determined by the forces of supply and demand in foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investments in different countries, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and other complex factors, as seen from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Currency exchange rates also can be affected by intervention (or lack of intervention) by the United States or foreign governments or central banks or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or elsewhere. Accordingly, the ability of a Fund that invests in foreign securities as part of its principal investment strategy to achieve its investment objective may depend, to a certain extent, on exchange rate movements. In addition, while the volume of transactions effected on foreign stock exchanges has increased in recent years, in most cases it remains appreciably below that of domestic securities exchanges. Accordingly, a Fund’s foreign investments may be less liquid and their prices may be more volatile than comparable investments in securities of U.S. companies. In buying and selling securities on foreign exchanges, purchasers normally pay fixed commissions that are generally higher than the negotiated commissions charged in the U.S. In addition, there is generally less government supervision and regulation of securities exchanges, brokers and issuers located in foreign countries than in the U.S.

Settlement Risk. The settlement periods for foreign securities and instruments are often longer than those for securities or obligations of U.S. issuers or instruments denominated in U.S. dollars. Delayed settlement may affect the liquidity of a Fund’s holdings. Certain types of securities and other instruments are not traded “delivery versus payment” in certain markets (e.g., government bonds in Russia) meaning that a Fund may deliver securities or instruments before payment is received from the counterparty. In such markets, a Fund may not receive timely payment for securities or other instruments it has delivered and may be subject to increased risk that the counterparty will fail to make payments when due or default completely.

Brady Bonds. Brady bonds are securities created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to public and private entities in certain emerging markets for new bonds in connection with debt restructurings. Brady bonds have been issued since 1989. In light of the history of defaults of countries issuing Brady bonds on their commercial bank loans, investments in Brady bonds may be viewed as speculative and subject to the same risks as emerging market securities. Brady bonds may be fully or partially collateralized or uncollateralized, are issued in various currencies (but primarily the U.S. dollar) and are actively traded in over-the-counter (“OTC”) secondary markets. Incomplete collateralization of interest or principal payment obligations results in increased credit risk. Dollar-denominated collateralized Brady bonds, which may be either fixed-rate or floating rate bonds, are generally collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities.

Obligations of Supranational Entities. Obligations of supranational entities include securities designated or supported by governmental entities to promote economic reconstruction or development of international banking institutions and related government agencies. Examples include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the “World Bank”), the European Coal and Steel Community, the Asian Development Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. Each supranational entity’s lending activities are limited to a percentage of its total capital (including “callable capital” contributed by its governmental members at the entity’s call), reserves and net income. There is no assurance that participating governments will be able or willing to honor their commitments to make capital contributions to a supranational entity.

Emerging Market Securities. Investing in companies domiciled in emerging market countries may be subject to potentially higher risks than investments in developed countries. These risks include: (i) less social, political, and economic stability; (ii) greater illiquidity and price volatility due to smaller or limited local capital markets for such securities, or low non-existent trading volumes; (iii) less scrutiny and regulation by local authorities of the foreign exchanges and broker-dealers; (iv) the seizure or confiscation by local governments of securities held by foreign investors, and the possible suspension or limiting by local governments of an issuer’s ability to make dividend or interest payments; (v) limiting or entirely restricting repatriation of invested capital, profits, and dividends by local governments; (vi) possible local taxation of capital gains, including on a retroactive basis; (vii) the attempt by issuers facing restrictions on dollar or euro payments imposed by local governments to make dividend or interest payments to foreign investors in the local currency; (viii) difficulty in enforcing legal claims related to the securities and/or local judges favoring the interests of the issuer over those of foreign investors; (ix) bankruptcy judgments being paid in the local currency; (x) greater difficulty in determining market valuations of the securities due to limited public information regarding the issuer, and (xi) difficulty of ascertaining the financial health of an issuer due to lax financial reporting on a regular basis, substandard disclosure and differences in accounting standards.

 

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Emerging country securities markets are typically marked by a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of ownership of such securities by a limited number of investors. Although some emerging markets have become more established and tend to issue securities of higher credit quality, the markets for securities in other emerging countries are in the earliest stages of their development, and these countries issue securities across the credit spectrum. Even the markets for relatively widely traded securities in emerging countries may not be able to absorb, without price disruptions, a significant increase in trading volume or trades of a size customarily undertaken by institutional investors in the securities markets of developed countries. The limited size of many of these securities markets can cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the soundness and competitiveness of the securities issuers. For example, prices may be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions in these markets. Additionally, market making and arbitrage activities are generally less extensive in such markets, which may contribute to increased volatility and reduced liquidity of such markets. The limited liquidity of emerging country securities may also affect a Fund’s ability to accurately value its portfolio securities or to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so or in order to meet redemption requests.

Many emerging market countries suffer from uncertainty and corruption in their legal frameworks. Legislation may be difficult to interpret and laws may be too new to provide any precedential value. Laws regarding foreign investment and private property may be weak or non-existent. Sudden changes in governments may result in policies which are less favorable to investors, such as policies designed to expropriate or nationalize “sovereign” assets. Certain emerging market countries in the past have expropriated large amounts of private property, in many cases with little or no compensation, and there can be no assurance that such expropriation will not occur in the future.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions may limit a Fund’s investment in certain emerging countries and may increase the expenses of the Fund. Certain emerging countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or to a specific class of securities, which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals.

Many developing countries lack the social, political, and economic stability characteristics of the U.S. Political instability among emerging market countries can be common and may be caused by an uneven distribution of wealth, social unrest, labor strikes, civil wars, and religious oppression. Economic instability in emerging market countries may take the form of: (i) high interest rates; (ii) high levels of inflation, including hyperinflation; (iii) high levels of unemployment or underemployment; (iv) changes in government economic and tax policies, including confiscatory taxation; and (v) imposition of trade barriers.

Currencies of emerging market countries are subject to significantly greater risks than currencies of developed countries. Many emerging market countries have experienced steady declines or even sudden devaluations of their currencies relative to the U.S. dollar. Some emerging market currencies may not be internationally traded or may be subject to strict controls by local governments, resulting in undervalued or overvalued currencies.

Some emerging market countries have experienced balance of payment deficits and shortages in foreign exchange reserves. Governments have responded by restricting currency conversions. Future restrictive exchange controls could prevent or restrict a company’s ability to make dividend or interest payments in the original currency of the obligation (usually U.S. dollars). In addition, even though the currencies of some emerging market countries may be convertible into U.S. dollars, the conversion rates may be artificial to their actual market values.

A Fund’s income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests, and treaties between the U.S. and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates. Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of a Fund remains uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of a Fund to make intended security purchases or sales due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities, in the Fund deeming those securities to be illiquid, or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, in possible liability to the purchaser.

In the past, governments within the emerging markets have become overly reliant on the international capital markets and other forms of foreign credit to finance large public spending programs which cause huge budget deficits.

 

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Often, interest payments have become too overwhelming for a government to meet, representing a large percentage of total gross domestic product (“GDP”). These foreign obligations have become the subject of political debate and have served as fuel for political parties of the opposition, which pressure the government not to make payments to foreign creditors, but instead to use these funds for social programs. Either due to an inability to pay or submission to political pressure, foreign governments have been forced to seek a restructuring of their loan and/or bond obligations, have declared a temporary suspension of interest payments or have defaulted. These events have adversely affected the values of securities issued by foreign governments and corporations domiciled in emerging market countries and have negatively affected not only their cost of borrowing, but their ability to borrow in the future as well.

Sovereign Obligations. Sovereign debt includes investments in securities issued or guaranteed by a foreign sovereign government or its agencies, authorities or political subdivisions. An investment in sovereign debt obligations involves special risks not present in corporate debt obligations. The issuer of the sovereign debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due, and a Fund may have limited recourse in the event of a default. During periods of economic uncertainty, the market prices of sovereign debt, and the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”), may be more volatile than prices of U.S. debt obligations. In the past, certain emerging markets have encountered difficulties in servicing their debt obligations, withheld payments of principal and interest and declared moratoria on the payment of principal and interest on their sovereign debts.

A sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange, the relative size of the debt service burden, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward principal international lenders and local political constraints. Sovereign debtors may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and other entities to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt. The failure of a sovereign debtor to implement economic reforms, achieve specified levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of third-party commitments to lend funds to the sovereign debtor, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts.

Foreign Currency Transactions. Certain Funds may engage in foreign currency transactions which include the following, some of which also have been described elsewhere in this SAI: currency futures, options on such futures, forward foreign currency transactions, forward rate agreements and currency swaps, caps and floors. Certain Funds may engage in such transactions in both U.S. and non-U.S. markets. To the extent a Fund enters into such transactions in markets other than in the U.S., the Fund may be subject to certain currency, settlement, liquidity, trading and other risks similar to those described above with respect to the Fund’s investments in foreign securities including emerging markets securities. Certain Funds may engage in such transactions to hedge against currency risks, as a substitute for securities in which the Fund invests, to increase or decrease exposure to a foreign currency, to shift exposure from one foreign currency to another, for risk management purposes or to increase income or gain to the Fund. To the extent that a Fund uses foreign currency transactions for hedging purposes, the Fund may hedge either specific transactions or portfolio positions.

While a Fund’s use of hedging strategies is intended to reduce the volatility of the NAV of Fund shares, the NAV of the Fund will fluctuate. There can be no assurance that a Fund’s hedging transactions will be effective. Furthermore, a Fund (other than the Europe Currency Hedged ETF and International Currency Hedged ETF which intends to engage in hedging on a regular basis) may only engage in hedging activities from time to time and may not necessarily be engaging in hedging activities when movements in currency exchange rates occur.

Certain Funds are authorized to deal in forward foreign exchange between currencies of the different countries in which the Fund will invest and multi-national currency units as a hedge against possible variations in the foreign exchange rate between these currencies. This is accomplished through contractual agreements entered into in the interbank market to purchase or sell one specified currency for another currency at a specified future date (up to one year) and price at the time of the contract.

Transaction Hedging. Generally, when a Fund engages in transaction hedging, it enters into foreign currency transactions with respect to specific receivables or payables of the Fund generally arising in connection with the purchase or sale of its portfolio securities. A Fund may engage in transaction hedging when it desires to “lock in” the U.S. dollar price (or a non-U.S. dollar currency (“reference currency”)) of a security it has agreed to purchase or sell, or the U.S. dollar equivalent of a dividend or interest payment in a foreign currency. By transaction hedging, a Fund attempts to protect itself against a possible loss resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar or other reference currency and the applicable foreign currency during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold, or on which the dividend or interest payment is declared, and the date on which such payments are made or received.

 

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A Fund may purchase or sell a foreign currency on a spot (or cash) basis at the prevailing spot rate in connection with the settlement of transactions in portfolio securities denominated in that foreign currency. Certain Funds reserve the right to purchase and sell foreign currency futures contracts traded in the U.S. and subject to regulation by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”).

For transaction hedging purposes, a Fund may also purchase U.S. exchange-listed call and put options on foreign currency futures contracts and on foreign currencies. A put option on a futures contract gives a Fund the right to assume a short position in the foreign currency futures contract until expiration of the option. A put option on currency gives a Fund the right to sell a currency at an exercise price until the expiration of the option. A call option on a futures contract gives a Fund the right to assume a long position in the futures contract until the expiration of the option. A call option on currency gives a Fund the right to purchase a currency at the exercise price until the expiration of the option.

Position Hedging. When engaging in position hedging, a Fund will enter into foreign currency exchange transactions to protect against a decline in the values of the foreign currencies in which its portfolio securities are denominated or an increase in the value of currency for securities which a Fund’s Adviser expects to purchase. In connection with the position hedging, the Fund may purchase or sell foreign currency forward contracts or foreign currency on a spot basis. A Fund may purchase U.S. exchange-listed put or call options on foreign currency and foreign currency futures contracts and buy or sell foreign currency futures contracts traded in the U.S. and subject to regulation by the CFTC.

The precise matching of the amounts of foreign currency exchange transactions and the value of the portfolio securities involved will not generally be possible because the future value of such securities in foreign currencies will change as a consequence of market movements in the value of those securities between the dates the currency exchange transactions are entered into and the dates they mature.

Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts. Certain Funds may purchase forward foreign currency exchange contracts, sometimes referred to as “currency forwards” (“Forward Contracts”), which involve an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract as agreed by the parties in an amount and at a price set at the time of the contract. In the case of a cancelable Forward Contract, the holder has the unilateral right to cancel the contract at maturity by paying a specified fee. The contracts are traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers, so no intermediary is required. A Forward Contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are charged at any stage for trades.

At the maturity of a Forward Contract, a Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract or, at or prior to maturity, enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to forward contracts are usually effected with the currency trader who is a party to the original forward contract. For forward foreign currency contracts (other than Non-Deliverable Forwards) that require physical settlement, the Funds will segregate or earmark liquid assets equal to the current notional value of each contract. In calculating the notional value, the Funds may net long and short contracts with the same currency and the same settlement date. With respect to trades that do not settle through CLS Bank International, the Funds may only net long and short contracts if the contracts are with the same counterparty. Certain Funds may also engage in non-deliverable forwards which are cash settled and which do not involve delivery of the currency specified in the contract. For more information on Non-Deliverable Forwards, see “Non-Deliverable Forwards” below.

Foreign Currency Futures Contracts. Certain Funds may purchase foreign currency futures contracts. Foreign currency futures contracts traded in the U.S. are designed by and traded on exchanges regulated by the CFTC, such as the New York Mercantile Exchange. A Fund may enter into foreign currency futures contracts for hedging purposes and other risk management purposes as defined in CFTC regulations. Certain Funds may also enter into foreign currency futures transactions to increase exposure to a foreign currency, to shift exposure from one foreign currency to another or to increase income or gain to the Fund.

At the maturity of a futures contract, the Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract, or at or prior to maturity enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to futures contracts are effected on a commodities exchange; a clearing corporation associated with the exchange assumes responsibility for closing out such contracts.

Positions in the foreign currency futures contracts may be closed out only on an exchange or board of trade which provides a secondary market in such contracts. There is no assurance that a secondary market on an exchange

 

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or board of trade will exist for any particular contract or at any particular time. In such event, it may not be possible to close a futures position; in the event of adverse price movements, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin.

For more information on futures contracts, see “Futures Contracts” under the heading “Options and Futures Transactions” below.

Non-Deliverable Forwards. Some of the Funds may also invest in non-deliverable forwards (“NDFs”). NDFs are cash-settled, short-term forward contracts on foreign currencies (each a “Reference Currency”) that are non-convertible and that may be thinly traded or illiquid. NDFs involve an obligation to pay an amount (the “Settlement Amount”) equal to the difference between the prevailing market exchange rate for the Reference Currency and the agreed upon exchange rate (the “NDF Rate”), with respect to an agreed notional amount. NDFs have a fixing date and a settlement (delivery) date. The fixing date is the date and time at which the difference between the prevailing market exchange rate and the agreed upon exchange rate is calculated. The settlement (delivery) date is the date by which the payment of the Settlement Amount is due to the party receiving payment.

Although NDFs are similar to forward foreign currency exchange contracts, NDFs do not require physical delivery of the Reference Currency on the settlement date. Rather, on the settlement date, the only transfer between the counterparties is the monetary settlement amount representing the difference between the NDF Rate and the prevailing market exchange rate. NDFs typically may have terms from one month up to two years and are settled in U.S. dollars.

NDFs are subject to many of the risks associated with derivatives in general and forward currency transactions including risks associated with fluctuations in foreign currency and the risk that the counterparty will fail to fulfill its obligations. The Funds will segregate or earmark liquid assets in an amount equal to the marked to market value, on a daily basis of the NDF. In calculating the mark-to-market value, the Funds may net opposing NDF contracts with the same currency and the same settlement date. With respect to trades that do not settle through CLS Bank International, the Funds may only net opposing NDF contracts if the contracts are with the same counterparty.

The Funds will typically use NDFs for hedging purposes, but may also use such instruments to increase income or gain. The use of NDFs for hedging or to increase income or gain may not be successful, resulting in losses to a Fund, and the cost of such strategies may reduce the Funds’ respective returns.

Under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), NDFs are regulated as swaps and are subject to rules requiring central clearing and mandatory trading on an exchange or facility that is regulated by the CFTC. NDFs traded in the over-the-counter market are subject to margin requirements that are expected to be implemented with respect to the Funds beginning in 2017. Implementation of the regulations regarding clearing, mandatory trading and margining of NDFs may increase the cost to the Fund of hedging currency risk and, as a result, may affect returns to investors in the Fund.

Asset Coverage for Forward Contracts. A Fund will earmark and reserve Fund assets, in cash or liquid securities, in connection with its use of forward contracts to the extent required by the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). A Fund will earmark and reserve liquid assets in an amount equal to the current mark-to-market exposure, on a daily basis, of a forward contract that is contractually required to cash settle. Forward contracts that settle physically will be treated as cash settled for asset coverage purposes when a Fund has entered into a contractual arrangement with a counterparty to off-set the Fund’s exposure under the contract and, failing that, to assign its delivery obligation under the contract to the counterparty. Earmarked assets cannot be sold while the forward contract is outstanding unless they are replaced with other suitable assets. By setting aside assets equal only to its net obligation under cash-settled forward contracts (including forward contracts that settle physically but are treated as cash settled as described above), the Fund will have the ability to have exposure to such instruments to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to set aside assets equal to the full notional value of such contracts. There is a possibility that earmarking and reservation of a large percentage of the Fund’s assets could impede portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

Foreign Currency Conversion. Although foreign exchange dealers do not charge a fee for currency conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (the “spread”) between prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to a Fund at one rate while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the Fund desire to resell that currency to the dealer.

Other Foreign Currency Hedging Strategies. New options and futures contracts and other financial products, and various combinations thereof, continue to be developed, and certain Funds may invest in any such options, contracts and products as may be developed to the extent consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and the regulatory requirements applicable to investment companies, and subject to the supervision of the Trust’s Board of Trustees.

 

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Risk Factors in Foreign Currency Transactions. The following is a summary of certain risks associated with foreign currency transactions:

Imperfect Correlation. Foreign currency transactions present certain risks. In particular, the variable degree of correlation between price movements of the currency instruments and price movements in the substituted securities creates the possibility that losses on the currency transaction may be greater than gains in the value of a Fund’s securities.

Liquidity. Currency instruments may not be liquid in all circumstances. As a result, in volatile markets, the Funds may not be able to dispose of or offset a transaction without incurring losses. The use of these instruments could tend to limit any potential gain which might result from an increase in the value of the substituted security.

Leverage and Volatility Risk. Derivative instruments, including foreign currency derivatives, may sometimes increase or leverage a Fund’s exposure to a particular market risk. Leverage enhances the price volatility of derivative instruments held by a Fund.

Strategy Risk. The Funds may use foreign currency derivatives to gain or adjust exposure to securities markets. There is no guarantee that these strategies will succeed and their use may subject a Fund to greater volatility and loss. Foreign currency transactions involve complex securities transactions that involve risks in addition to direct investments in securities including leverage risk and the risks associated with derivatives in general, currencies, and investments in foreign and emerging markets.

Judgment of the Adviser. Successful use of foreign currency transactions by a Fund depends upon the ability of the Adviser to predict correctly movements in the direction of interest and currency rates and other factors affecting markets for securities. If the expectations of the Adviser are not met, a Fund would be in a worse position than if a foreign currency transaction had not been pursued.

Other Risks. Such sales of securities may, but will not necessarily, be at increased prices which reflect the rising market. Thus, a Fund may have to sell securities at a time when it is disadvantageous to do so.

Transaction and position hedging do not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities which a Fund owns or expects to purchase or sell. Rather, the Adviser may employ these techniques in an effort to maintain an investment portfolio that is relatively neutral to fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to major foreign currencies and establish a rate of exchange which one can achieve at some future point in time. Additionally, although these techniques tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currency, they also tend to limit any potential gain which might result from the increase in the value of such currency. Moreover, it may not be possible for a Fund to hedge against a devaluation that is so generally anticipated that the Fund is not able to contract to sell the currency at a price above the anticipated devaluation level.

Inverse Floaters and Interest Rate Caps

Inverse floaters are instruments whose interest rates bear an inverse relationship to the interest rate on another security or the value of an index. The market value of an inverse floater will vary inversely with changes in market interest rates and will be more volatile in response to interest rate changes than that of a fixed rate obligation. Interest rate caps are financial instruments under which payments occur if an interest rate index exceeds a certain predetermined interest rate level, known as the cap rate, which is tied to a specific index. These financial products will be more volatile in price than securities which do not include such a structure.

Investment Company Securities and Exchange-Traded Funds

Investment Company Securities. A Fund may acquire the securities of other investment companies (“acquired funds”) to the extent permitted under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”) and consistent with its investment objective and strategies. As a shareholder of another investment company, a Fund would bear, along with other shareholders, its pro rata portion of the other investment company’s expenses, including advisory fees. These expenses would be in addition to the advisory and other expenses that a Fund bears directly in connection with its own operations. Except as described below, the 1940 Act currently requires that, as determined immediately after a purchase is made, (i) not more than 5% of the value of a Fund’s total assets will be invested in the securities of any one investment company, (ii) not more than 10% of the value of its total assets will be invested in the aggregate in securities of investment companies as a group and (iii) not more than 3% of the outstanding voting stock of any one investment company will be owned by a Fund.

The limitations described above do not apply to investments in money market funds subject to certain conditions. The Funds may invest in affiliated and unaffiliated money market funds without limit under Rule 12d1-1 of the 1940 Act subject to the acquiring fund’s investment policies and restrictions and the conditions of the Rule.

 

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Exchange-Traded Funds (“ETFs”). ETFs are pooled investment vehicles whose ownership interests are purchased and sold on a securities exchange. ETFs may be structured investment companies, depositary receipts or other pooled investment vehicles. As shareholders of an ETF, the Funds will bear their pro rata portion of any fees and expenses of the ETFs. Although shares of ETFs are traded on an exchange, shares of certain ETFs may not be redeemable by the ETF. In addition, ETFs may trade at a price below their net asset value (also known as a discount).

Certain Funds may use ETFs to gain exposure to various asset classes and markets or types of strategies and investments By way of example, ETFs may be structured as broad based ETFs that invest in a broad group of stocks from different industries and market sectors; select sector; or market ETFs that invest in debt securities from a select sector of the economy, a single industry or related industries; or ETFs that invest in foreign and emerging markets securities. Other types of ETFs continue to be developed and the Fund may invest in them to the extent consistent with such Funds’ investment objectives, policies and restrictions. The ETFs in which the Funds invest are subject to the risks applicable to the types of securities and investments used by the ETFs (e.g., debt securities are subject to risks like credit and interest rate risks; emerging markets securities are subject risks like currency risks and foreign and emerging markets risk; derivatives are subject to leverage and counterparty risk).

ETFs may be actively managed or index-based. Actively managed ETFs are subject to management risk and may not achieve their objective if the ETF’s manager’s expectations regarding particular securities or markets are not met. An index based ETF’s objective is to track the performance of a specified index. Index based ETFs invest in a securities portfolio that includes substantially all of the securities in substantially the same amount as the securities included in the designated index. Because passively managed ETFs are designed to track an index, securities may be purchased, retained and sold at times when an actively managed ETF would not do so. As a result, shareholders of a Fund that invest in such an ETF can expect greater risk of loss (and a correspondingly greater prospect of gain) from changes in the value of securities that are heavily weighted in the index than would be the case if ETF were not fully invested in such securities. This risk is increased if a few component securities represent a highly concentrated weighting in the designated index.

Unless permitted by the 1940 Act or an order or rule issued by the SEC (see “Investment Company Securities” above for more information), the Fund’s investments in unaffiliated ETFs that are structured as investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act are subject to certain percentage limitations of the 1940 Act regarding investments in other investment companies. As a general matter, these percentage limitations currently require a Fund to limit its investments in any one issue of ETFs to 5% of the Fund’s total assets and 3% of the outstanding voting securities of the ETF issue. Moreover, a Fund’s investments in all ETFs may not currently exceed 10% of the Fund’s total assets under the 1940 Act, when aggregated with all other investments in investment companies. ETFs that are not structured as investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act are not subject to these percentage limitations.

SEC exemptive orders granted to various ETFs and their investment advisers permit the Funds to invest beyond the 1940 Act limits, subject to certain terms and conditions, including a finding of the Board of Trustees that the advisory fees charged by the Adviser to the Fund are for services that are in addition to, and not duplicative of, the advisory services provided to those ETFs.

Miscellaneous Investment Strategies and Risks

Borrowings. The Funds may borrow for temporary purposes and/or for investment purposes. Such a practice will result in leveraging of a Fund’s assets and may cause a Fund to liquidate portfolio positions when it would not be advantageous to do so. This borrowing may be secured or unsecured. If a Fund utilizes borrowings, for investment purposes or otherwise, it may pledge up to 331/3% of its total assets to secure such borrowings. Provisions of the 1940 Act require a Fund to maintain continuous asset coverage (that is, total assets including borrowings, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of the amount borrowed, with an exception for borrowings not in excess of 5% of a Fund’s total assets made for temporary administrative or emergency purposes. Any borrowings for temporary administrative purposes in excess of 5% of a Fund’s total assets must maintain continuous asset coverage. If the 300% asset coverage should decline as a result of market fluctuations or other reasons, a Fund may be required to sell some of its portfolio holdings within three days to reduce the debt and restore the 300% asset coverage, even though it may be disadvantageous from an investment standpoint to sell securities at that time. Borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on NAV of any increase or decrease in the market value of a Fund’s portfolio. Money borrowed will be subject to interest costs which may or may not be recovered by appreciation of the securities purchased. A Fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with such borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.

 

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Certain types of investments are considered to be borrowings under precedents issued by the SEC. Such investments are subject to the limitations as well as asset segregation requirements.

Commodity-Linked Derivatives. Commodity-linked derivatives are derivative instruments the value of which is linked to the value of a commodity, commodity index or commodity futures contract. A Fund’s investment in commodity-linked derivative instruments may subject the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities, particularly if the instruments involve leverage. The value of commodity-linked derivative instruments may be affected by changes in overall market movements, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates, or factors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments. Use of leveraged commodity-linked derivatives creates the possibility for greater loss (including the likelihood of greater volatility of the Fund’s NAV), and there can be no assurance that a Fund’s use of leverage will be successful. Tax considerations may limit a Fund’s ability to pursue investments in commodity-linked derivatives.

Cyber Security Risk. As the use of technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, the Funds have become more susceptible to operational and financial risks associated with cyber security, including: theft, loss, misuse, improper release, corruption and destruction of, or unauthorized access to, confidential or highly restricted data relating to a Fund and its shareholders; and compromises or failures to systems, networks, devices and applications relating to the operations of a Fund and its service providers. Cyber security risks may result in financial losses to a Fund and its shareholders; the inability of a Fund to transact business with its shareholders; delays or mistakes in the calculation of a Fund’s NAV or other materials provided to shareholders; the inability to process transactions with shareholders or other parties; violations of privacy and other laws; regulatory fines, penalties and reputational damage; and compliance and remediation costs, legal fees and other expenses. A Fund’s service providers (including, but not limited to, its investment adviser, any sub-advisers, administrator, transfer agent, and custodian or their agents), financial intermediaries, companies in which a Fund invests and parties with which a Fund engages in portfolio or other transactions also may be adversely impacted by cyber security risks in their own businesses, which could result in losses to a Fund or its shareholders. While measures have been developed which are designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there is no guarantee that those measures will be effective, particularly since the Funds do not directly control the cyber security defenses or plans of their service providers, financial intermediaries and companies in which they invest or with which they do business.

Volcker Rule Risk. Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act and certain rules promulgated thereunder (known as the Volcker Rule) places restrictions on the activities of banking entities, including the adviser and its affiliates, and may impact the long-term viability of a Fund. Under the Volcker Rule, if the adviser or its affiliates own 25% or more of the ownership interests of a Fund outside of the permitted seeding time period, a Fund could be subject to restrictions on trading that would adversely impact a Fund’s ability to execute its investment strategy. As a result, the adviser and/or its affiliates may be required to reduce their ownership interests in a Fund at a time that is sooner than would otherwise be desirable. This may require the sale of Fund securities, which may result in losses, increased transaction costs and adverse tax consequences. In addition, the ongoing viability of a Fund may be adversely impacted by the anticipated or actual redemption of Fund shares owned by the adviser and its affiliates and could result in a Fund’s liquidation.

Government Intervention in Financial Markets. Events in the financial sector over the past several years have resulted in reduced liquidity in credit and fixed income markets and in an unusually high degree of volatility in the financial markets, both domestically and internationally. While entire markets have been impacted, issuers that have exposure to the real estate, mortgage and credit markets have been particularly affected. These events and the potential for continuing market turbulence may have an adverse effect on the Funds’ investments. It is uncertain how long these conditions will continue.

Recent instability in the financial markets has led governments and regulators around the world to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and segments of the financial markets that have experienced extreme volatility, and in some cases a lack of liquidity. Governments, their regulatory agencies, or self regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the instruments in which a Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Legislation or regulation may also change the way in which a Fund is regulated. Such legislation or regulation could limit or preclude a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

Governments or their agencies may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such a program may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of

 

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a Fund’s portfolio holdings. Furthermore, volatile financial markets can expose a Fund to greater market and liquidity risk and potential difficulty in valuing portfolio instruments held by a Fund.

Private Placements, Restricted Securities and Other Unregistered Securities. Subject to its policy limitation, a Fund may acquire investments that are illiquid or have limited liquidity, such as commercial obligations issued in reliance on the so-called “private placement” exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), and cannot be offered for public sale in the U.S. without first being registered under the 1933 Act. An illiquid investment is any investment that cannot be disposed of within seven days in the normal course of business at approximately the amount at which it is valued by a Fund. The price a Fund pays for illiquid securities or receives upon resale may be lower than the price paid or received for similar securities with a more liquid market. Accordingly the valuation of these securities will reflect any limitations on their liquidity.

A Fund is subject to a risk that should the Fund decide to sell illiquid securities when a ready buyer is not available at a price the Fund deems representative of their value, the value of the Fund’s net assets could be adversely affected. Where an illiquid security must be registered under the 1933 Act before it may be sold, a Fund may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expenses, and a considerable period may elapse between the time of the decision to sell and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, a Fund might obtain a less favorable price than prevailed when it decided to sell.

The Funds may invest in commercial paper issued in reliance on the exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the 1933 Act and other restricted securities (i.e., other securities subject to restrictions on resale). Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper (“4(a)(2) paper”) is restricted as to disposition under federal securities law and is generally sold to institutional investors, such as the Funds, that agree that they are purchasing the paper for investment purposes and not with a view to public distribution. Any resale by the purchaser must be in an exempt transaction. 4(a)(2) paper is normally resold to other institutional investors through or with the assistance of the issuer or investment dealers who make a market in 4(a)(2) paper, thus providing liquidity. The Funds believe that 4(a)(2) paper and possibly certain other restricted securities which meet the criteria for liquidity established by the Trustees are quite liquid. The Funds intend, therefore, to treat restricted securities that meet the liquidity criteria established by the Board of Trustees, including 4(a)(2) paper and Rule 144A Securities, as determined by the Adviser, as liquid and not subject to the investment limitation applicable to illiquid securities.

The ability of the Trustees to determine the liquidity of certain restricted securities is permitted under an SEC Staff position set forth in the adopting release for Rule 144A under the 1933 Act (“Rule 144A”). Rule 144A is a nonexclusive safe-harbor for certain secondary market transactions involving securities subject to restrictions on resale under federal securities laws. Rule 144A provides an exemption from registration for resales of otherwise restricted securities to qualified institutional buyers. Rule 144A was expected to further enhance the liquidity of the secondary market for securities eligible for resale. The Funds believe that the Staff of the SEC has left the question of determining the liquidity of all restricted securities to the Trustees. The Trustees have directed the Adviser to consider the following criteria in determining the liquidity of certain restricted securities:

 

   

the frequency of trades and quotes for the security;

 

   

the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security and the number of other potential buyers;

 

   

dealer undertakings to make a market in the security; and

 

   

the nature of the security and the nature of the marketplace trades.

Certain 4(a)(2) paper programs cannot rely on Rule 144A because, among other things, they were established before the adoption of the rule. However, the Trustees may determine for purposes of the Trust’s liquidity requirements that an issue of 4(a)(2) paper is liquid if the following conditions, which are set forth in a 1994 SEC no-action letter, are met:

 

   

The 4(a)(2) paper must not be traded flat or in default as to principal or interest;

 

   

The 4(a)(2) paper must be rated in one of the two highest rating categories by at least two NRSROs, or if only one NRSRO rates the security, by that NRSRO, or if unrated, is determined by the Adviser to be of equivalent quality;

 

   

The Fund’s Adviser must consider the trading market for the specific security, taking into account all relevant factors, including but not limited to, whether the paper is the subject of a commercial paper program that is administered by an issuing and paying agent bank and for which there exists a dealer willing to make a market in that paper, or whether the paper is administered by a direct issuer pursuant to a direct placement program;

 

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The Fund’s Adviser shall monitor the liquidity of the 4(a)(2) paper purchased and shall report to the Board of Trustees promptly if any such securities are no longer determined to be liquid if such determination causes a Fund to hold more than 10% of its net assets in illiquid securities in order for the Board of Trustees to consider what action, if any, should be taken on behalf of the Trust, unless the Fund’s Adviser is able to dispose of illiquid assets in an orderly manner in an amount that reduces the Fund’s holdings of illiquid assets to less than 10% of its net assets; and

 

   

The Fund’s Adviser shall report to the Board of Trustees on the appropriateness of the purchase and retention of liquid restricted securities under these guidelines no less frequently than quarterly.

Securities Issued in Connection with Reorganizations and Corporate Restructuring. Debt securities may be downgraded and issuers of debt securities including investment grade securities may default in the payment of principal or interest or be subject to bankruptcy proceedings. In connection with reorganizing or restructuring of an issuer, an issuer may issue common stock or other securities to holders of its debt securities. A Fund may hold such common stock and other securities even though it does not ordinarily invest in such securities.

Temporary Defensive Positions. To respond to unusual market conditions, the actively managed Funds may invest their assets in cash or cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are highly liquid, high quality instruments with maturities of three months or less on the date they are purchased (“Cash Equivalents”) for temporary defensive purposes. These investments may result in a lower yield than lower-quality or longer term investments and may prevent the Funds from meeting their investment objectives. The percentage of Fund’s total assets that a Fund may invest in cash or cash equivalents is described in the applicable Fund’s Prospectuses. They include securities issued by the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities, repurchase agreements with maturities of 7 days or less (other than equity repurchase agreements), certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, commercial paper (rated in one of the two highest rating categories), variable rate master demand notes, money market mutual funds, and bank money market deposit accounts. In order to invest in repurchase agreements with the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for temporary defensive purposes, certain Funds may engage in periodic “test” trading in order to assess operational abilities at times when the Fund would otherwise not enter into such a position. These exercises may vary in size and frequency.

Mortgage-Related Securities

Mortgage-Backed Securities (“CMOs” and “REMICs”). Mortgage-backed securities include collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (“REMICs”). A REMIC is a CMO that qualifies for special tax treatment under the Code and invests in certain mortgages principally secured by interests in real property and other permitted investments.

Mortgage-backed securities represent pools of mortgage loans assembled for sale to investors by:

 

   

various governmental agencies such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”);

 

   

organizations such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”); and

 

   

non-governmental issuers such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, mortgage bankers, and private mortgage insurance companies (non-governmental mortgage securities cannot be treated as U.S. government securities for purposes of investment policies).

There are a number of important differences among the agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government that issue mortgage-related securities and among the securities that they issue.

Ginnie Mae Securities. Mortgage-related securities issued by Ginnie Mae include Ginnie Mae Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates which are guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by Ginnie Mae. Ginnie Mae’s guarantee is backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Ginnie Mae is a wholly-owned U.S. government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Ginnie Mae certificates also are supported by the authority of Ginnie Mae to borrow funds from the U.S. Treasury to make payments under its guarantee.

Fannie Mae Securities. Mortgage-related securities issued by Fannie Mae include Fannie Mae Guaranteed Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates which are solely the obligations of Fannie Mae and are not backed by or entitled to the full faith and credit of the U.S. Fannie Mae is a government-sponsored organization owned entirely by private stockholders. Fannie Mae Certificates are guaranteed as to timely payment of the principal and interest by Fannie Mae.

 

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Freddie Mac Securities. Mortgage-related securities issued by Freddie Mac include Freddie Mac Mortgage Participation Certificates. Freddie Mac is a corporate instrumentality of the U.S., created pursuant to an Act of Congress, which is owned by private stockholders. Freddie Mac Certificates are not guaranteed by the U.S. or by any Federal Home Loan Bank and do not constitute a debt or obligation of the U.S. or of any Federal Home Loan Bank. Freddie Mac Certificates entitle the holder to timely payment of interest, which is guaranteed by Freddie Mac. Freddie Mac guarantees either ultimate collection or timely payment of all principal payments on the underlying mortgage loans. When Freddie Mac does not guarantee timely payment of principal, Freddie Mac may remit the amount due on account of its guarantee of ultimate payment of principal at any time after default on an underlying mortgage, but in no event later than one year after it becomes payable.

For more information on recent events impacting Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac securities, see “Recent Events Regarding Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Securities” under the heading “Risk Factors of Mortgage-Related Securities” below.

CMOs and guaranteed REMIC pass-through certificates (“REMIC Certificates”) issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Ginnie Mae and private issuers are types of multiple class pass-through securities. Investors may purchase beneficial interests in REMICs, which are known as “regular” interests or “residual” interests. The Funds do not currently intend to purchase residual interests in REMICs. The REMIC Certificates represent beneficial ownership interests in a REMIC Trust, generally consisting of mortgage loans or Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae guaranteed mortgage pass-through certificates (the “Mortgage Assets”). The obligations of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae under their respective guaranty of the REMIC Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae, respectively.

Fannie Mae REMIC Certificates. Fannie Mae REMIC Certificates are issued and guaranteed as to timely distribution of principal and interest by Fannie Mae. In addition, Fannie Mae will be obligated to distribute the principal balance of each class of REMIC Certificates in full, whether or not sufficient funds are otherwise available.

Freddie Mac REMIC Certificates. Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest, and also guarantees the payment of principal as payments are required to be made on the underlying mortgage participation certificates (“PCs”). PCs represent undivided interests in specified residential mortgages or participation therein purchased by Freddie Mac and placed in a PC pool. With respect to principal payments on PCs, Freddie Mac generally guarantees ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans without offset or deduction. Freddie Mac also guarantees timely payment of principal on certain PCs referred to as “Gold PCs.”

Ginnie Mae REMIC Certificates. Ginnie Mae guarantees the full and timely payment of interest and principal on each class of securities (in accordance with the terms of those classes as specified in the related offering circular supplement). The Ginnie Mae guarantee is backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S.

REMIC Certificates issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae are treated as U.S. Government securities for purposes of investment policies.

CMOs and REMIC Certificates provide for the redistribution of cash flow to multiple classes. Each class of CMOs or REMIC Certificates, often referred to as a “tranche,” is issued at a specific adjustable or fixed interest rate and must be fully retired no later than its final distribution date. This reallocation of interest and principal results in the redistribution of prepayment risk across different classes. This allows for the creation of bonds with more or less risk than the underlying collateral exhibits. Principal prepayments on the mortgage loans or the Mortgage Assets underlying the CMOs or REMIC Certificates may cause some or all of the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates to be retired substantially earlier than their final distribution dates. Generally, interest is paid or accrues on all classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates on a monthly basis.

The principal of and interest on the Mortgage Assets may be allocated among the several classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in various ways. In certain structures (known as “sequential pay” CMOs or REMIC Certificates), payments of principal, including any principal prepayments, on the Mortgage Assets generally are applied to the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in the order of their respective final distribution dates. Thus, no payment of principal will be made on any class of sequential pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates until all other classes having an earlier final distribution date have been paid in full.

 

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Additional structures of CMOs and REMIC Certificates include, among others, principal only structures, interest only structures, inverse floaters and “parallel pay” CMOs and REMIC Certificates. Certain of these structures may be more volatile than other types of CMO and REMIC structures. Parallel pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates are those which are structured to apply principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets to two or more classes concurrently on a proportionate or disproportionate basis. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class.

A wide variety of REMIC Certificates may be issued in the parallel pay or sequential pay structures. These securities include accrual certificates (also known as “Z-Bonds”), which only accrue interest at a specified rate until all other certificates having an earlier final distribution date have been retired and are converted thereafter to an interest-paying security, and planned amortization class (“PAC”) certificates, which are parallel pay REMIC Certificates which generally require that specified amounts of principal be applied on each payment date to one or more classes of REMIC Certificates (the “PAC Certificates”), even though all other principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets are then required to be applied to one or more other classes of the certificates. The scheduled principal payments for the PAC Certificates generally have the highest priority on each payment date after interest due has been paid to all classes entitled to receive interest currently. Shortfalls, if any, are added to the amount of principal payable on the next payment date. The PAC Certificate payment schedule is taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class of PAC. In order to create PAC tranches, one or more tranches generally must be created that absorb most of the volatility in the underlying Mortgage Assets. These tranches tend to have market prices and yields that are much more volatile than the PAC classes. The Z-Bonds in which the Funds may invest may bear the same non-credit-related risks as do other types of Z-Bonds. Z-Bonds in which the Fund may invest will not include residual interest.

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses set forth in the fee table and Financial Highlights section of each Fund’s Prospectuses do not include any expenses associated with investments in certain structured or synthetic products that may rely on the exception for the definition of “investment company” provided by section 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) of the 1940 Act.

Mortgage TBAs. A Fund may invest in mortgage pass-through securities eligible to be sold in the “to-be-announced” or TBA market (“Mortgage TBAs”). Mortgage TBAs provide for the forward or delayed delivery of the underlying instrument with settlement up to 180 days. The term TBA comes from the fact that the actual mortgage-backed security that will be delivered to fulfill a TBA trade is not designated at the time the trade is made, but rather is generally announced 48 hours before the settlement date. Mortgage TBAs are subject to the risks described in the “When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments” section.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls. In a mortgage dollar roll transaction, one party sells mortgage-backed securities, principally Mortgage TBAs, for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase similar (same type, coupon and maturity) but not identical securities on a specified future date. When a Fund enters into TBAs/mortgage dollar rolls, the Fund will segregate or earmark until the settlement date liquid assets, in an amount equal to the original purchase price. TBA positions with the same agency, coupon, and maturity, are generally permitted to be netted if the short position settles on the same date or before the long position. During the period between the sale and repurchase in a mortgage dollar roll transaction, the Fund will not be entitled to receive interest and principal payments on securities sold. Losses may arise due to changes in the value of the securities or if the counterparty does not perform under the terms of the agreement. If the counterparty files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the Fund’s right to repurchase or sell securities may be limited. Mortgage dollar rolls may be subject to leverage risks. In addition, mortgage dollar rolls may increase interest rate risk and result in an increased portfolio turnover rate which increases costs and may increase taxable gains. The benefits of mortgage dollar rolls may depend upon a Fund’s Adviser’s ability to predict mortgage prepayments and interest rates. There is no assurance that mortgage dollar rolls can be successfully employed. For purposes of diversification and investment limitations, mortgage dollar rolls are considered to be mortgage-backed securities.

Risk Factors of Mortgage-Related Securities. The following is a summary of certain risks associated with Mortgage-Related Securities:

Guarantor Risk. There can be no assurance that the U.S. government would provide financial support to Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac if necessary in the future. Although certain mortgage-related securities are guaranteed by a third party or otherwise similarly secured, the market value of the security, which may fluctuate, is not so secured.

Interest Rate Sensitivity. If a Fund purchases a mortgage-related security at a premium, that portion may be lost if there is a decline in the market value of the security whether resulting from changes in interest rates or

 

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prepayments in the underlying mortgage collateral. As with other interest-bearing securities, the prices of such securities are inversely affected by changes in interest rates. Although the value of a mortgage-related security may decline when interest rates rise, the converse is not necessarily true since in periods of declining interest rates the mortgages underlying the securities are prone to prepayment. For this and other reasons, a mortgage-related security’s stated maturity may be shortened by unscheduled prepayments on the underlying mortgages and, therefore, it is not possible to predict accurately the security’s return to the Fund. In addition, regular payments received in respect of mortgage-related securities include both interest and principal. No assurance can be given as to the return the Fund will receive when these amounts are reinvested.

Market Value. The market value of the Fund’s adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities may be adversely affected if interest rates increase faster than the rates of interest payable on such securities or by the adjustable rate mortgage loans underlying such securities. Furthermore, adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities or the mortgage loans underlying such securities may contain provisions limiting the amount by which rates may be adjusted upward and downward and may limit the amount by which monthly payments may be increased or decreased to accommodate upward and downward adjustments in interest rates. When the market value of the properties underlying the Mortgage-Backed Securities suffer broad declines on a regional or national level, the values of the corresponding Mortgage-Backed Securities or Mortgage-Backed Securities as a whole, may be adversely affected as well.

Prepayments. Adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities have less potential for capital appreciation than fixed rate Mortgage-Backed Securities because their coupon rates will decline in response to market interest rate declines. The market value of fixed rate Mortgage-Backed Securities may be adversely affected as a result of increases in interest rates and, because of the risk of unscheduled principal prepayments, may benefit less than other fixed rate securities of similar maturity from declining interest rates. Finally, to the extent Mortgage-Backed Securities are purchased at a premium, mortgage foreclosures and unscheduled principal prepayments may result in some loss of the Fund’s principal investment to the extent of the premium paid. On the other hand, if such securities are purchased at a discount, both a scheduled payment of principal and an unscheduled prepayment of principal will increase current and total returns and will accelerate the recognition of income.

Yield Characteristics. The yield characteristics of Mortgage-Backed Securities differ from those of traditional fixed income securities. The major differences typically include more frequent interest and principal payments, usually monthly, and the possibility that prepayments of principal may be made at any time. Prepayment rates are influenced by changes in current interest rates and a variety of economic, geographic, social and other factors and cannot be predicted with certainty. As with fixed rate mortgage loans, adjustable rate mortgage loans may be subject to a greater prepayment rate in a declining interest rate environment. The yields to maturity of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which the Funds invest will be affected by the actual rate of payment (including prepayments) of principal of the underlying mortgage loans. The mortgage loans underlying such securities generally may be prepaid at any time without penalty. In a fluctuating interest rate environment, a predominant factor affecting the prepayment rate on a pool of mortgage loans is the difference between the interest rates on the mortgage loans and prevailing mortgage loan interest rates taking into account the cost of any refinancing. In general, if mortgage loan interest rates fall sufficiently below the interest rates on fixed rate mortgage loans underlying mortgage pass-through securities, the rate of prepayment would be expected to increase. Conversely, if mortgage loan interest rates rise above the interest rates on the fixed rate mortgage loans underlying the mortgage pass-through securities, the rate of prepayment may be expected to decrease.

Recent Events Regarding Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Securities. On September 6, 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into conservatorship. As the conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and of any stockholder, officer or director of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac with respect to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the assets of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. FHFA selected a new chief executive officer and chairman of the board of directors for each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In connection with the conservatorship, the U.S. Treasury entered into a Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement with each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac pursuant to which the U.S. Treasury will purchase up to an aggregate of $100 billion of each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to maintain a positive net worth in each enterprise. This agreement contains various covenants, discussed below, that severely limit each enterprise’s operations. In exchange for entering into these agreements, the U.S. Treasury received $1 billion of each enterprise’s senior preferred stock and warrants to purchase 79.9% of each enterprise’s common stock. In 2009, the U.S. Treasury announced that it was doubling the size of its commitment to each enterprise under the Senior Preferred Stock Program to $200 billion. The U.S. Treasury’s obligations under the Senior Preferred Stock Program are for an indefinite period of time for a maximum amount of $200 billion per enterprise. In 2009, the U.S. Treasury

 

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further amended the Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement to allow the cap on the U.S. Treasury’s funding commitment to increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s net worth through the end of 2012. In August 2012, the Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement was further amended to, among other things, accelerate the wind down of the retained portfolio, terminate the requirement that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac each pay a 10% dividend annually on all amounts received under the funding commitment, and require the submission of an annual risk management plan to the U.S. Treasury.

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are continuing to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remain liable for all of its obligations, including its guaranty obligations, associated with its mortgage-backed securities. The Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement is intended to enhance each of Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s ability to meet its obligations. The FHFA has indicated that the conservatorship of each enterprise will end when the director of FHFA determines that FHFA’s plan to restore the enterprise to a safe and solvent condition has been completed.

Under the Federal Housing Finance Regulatory Reform Act of 2008 (theReform Act”), which was included as part of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, FHFA, as conservator or receiver, has the power to repudiate any contract entered into by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac prior to FHFA’s appointment as conservator or receiver, as applicable, if FHFA determines, in its sole discretion, that performance of the contract is burdensome and that repudiation of the contract promotes the orderly administration of Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s affairs. The Reform Act requires FHFA to exercise its right to repudiate any contract within a reasonable period of time after its appointment as conservator or receiver. FHFA, in its capacity as conservator, has indicated that it has no intention to repudiate the guaranty obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac because FHFA views repudiation as incompatible with the goals of the conservatorship. However, in the event that FHFA, as conservator or if it is later appointed as receiver for Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, were to repudiate any such guaranty obligation, the conservatorship or receivership estate, as applicable, would be liable for actual direct compensatory damages in accordance with the provisions of the Reform Act. Any such liability could be satisfied only to the extent of Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s assets available therefor. In the event of repudiation, the payments of interest to holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would be reduced if payments on the mortgage loans represented in the mortgage loan groups related to such mortgage-backed securities are not made by the borrowers or advanced by the servicer. Any actual direct compensatory damages for repudiating these guaranty obligations may not be sufficient to offset any shortfalls experienced by such mortgage-backed security holders. Further, in its capacity as conservator or receiver, FHFA has the right to transfer or sell any asset or liability of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac without any approval, assignment or consent. Although FHFA has stated that it has no present intention to do so, if FHFA, as conservator or receiver, were to transfer any such guaranty obligation to another party, holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would have to rely on that party for satisfaction of the guaranty obligation and would be exposed to the credit risk of that party.

In addition, certain rights provided to holders of mortgage-backed securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac under the operative documents related to such securities may not be enforced against FHFA, or enforcement of such rights may be delayed, during the conservatorship or any future receivership. The operative documents for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities may provide (or with respect to securities issued prior to the date of the appointment of the conservator may have provided) that upon the occurrence of an event of default on the part of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, in its capacity as guarantor, which includes the appointment of a conservator or receiver, holders of such mortgage-backed securities have the right to replace Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac as trustee if the requisite percentage of mortgage-backed securities holders consent. The Reform Act prevents mortgage-backed security holders from enforcing such rights if the event of default arises solely because a conservator or receiver has been appointed. The Reform Act also provides that no person may exercise any right or power to terminate, accelerate or declare an event of default under certain contracts to which Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac is a party, or obtain possession of or exercise control over any property of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, or affect any contractual rights of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, without the approval of FHFA, as conservator or receiver, for a period of 45 or 90 days following the appointment of FHFA as conservator or receiver, respectively.

In addition, in a February 2011 report to Congress from the Treasury Department and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Obama administration provided a plan to reform America’s housing finance market. The plan would reduce the role of and eventually eliminate Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Notably, the plan does not propose similar significant changes to Ginnie Mae, which guarantees payments on mortgage-related securities backed by federally insured or guaranteed loans such as those issued by the Federal Housing Association or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs. The report also identified three proposals for Congress and the administration to consider for the long-term structure of the housing finance markets after the elimination of Fannie

 

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Mae and Freddie Mac, including implementing: (i) a privatized system of housing finance that limits government insurance to very limited groups of creditworthy low- and moderate-income borrowers; (ii) a privatized system with a government backstop mechanism that would allow the government to insure a larger share of the housing finance market during a future housing crisis; and (iii) a privatized system where the government would offer reinsurance to holders of certain highly-rated mortgage-related securities insured by private insurers and would pay out under the reinsurance arrangements only if the private mortgage insurers were insolvent.

The conditions attached to the financial contribution made by the Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and the issuance of senior preferred stock place significant restrictions on the activities of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae must obtain the consent of the Treasury to, among other things, (i) make any payment to purchase or redeem its capital stock or pay any dividend other than in respect of the senior preferred stock, (ii) issue capital stock of any kind, (iii) terminate the conservatorship of the FHFA except in connection with a receivership, or (iv) increase its debt beyond certain specified levels. In addition, significant restrictions are placed on the maximum size of each of Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s respective portfolios of mortgages and mortgage- backed securities, and the purchase agreements entered into by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae provide that the maximum size of their portfolios of these assets must decrease by a specified percentage each year. The future status and role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae could be impacted by (among other things) the actions taken and restrictions placed on Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae by the FHFA in is role as conservator, the restrictions placed on Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s operations and activities as a result of the senior preferred stock investment made by the U.S. Treasury, market responses to developments at Freddie Mac and Fannie Mac, and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of these institutions, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, including any such mortgage-backed securities held by a Fund.

Options and Futures Transactions

A Fund may purchase and sell (a) exchange traded put and call options on securities, on indexes of securities and other types of instruments, and on futures contracts on securities and indexes of securities and other instruments such as interest rate futures and global interest rate futures and (b) futures contracts on securities and other types of instruments and on indexes of securities and other types of instruments. Each of these instruments is a derivative instrument as its value derives from the underlying asset or index.

Subject to its investment objective and policies, a Fund may use futures contracts and options for hedging and risk management purposes and to seek to enhance portfolio performance.

Options and futures contracts may be used to manage a Fund’s exposure to changing interest rates and/or security prices. Some options and futures strategies, including selling futures contracts and buying puts, tend to hedge a Fund’s investments against price fluctuations. Other strategies, including buying futures contracts and buying calls, tend to increase market exposure. Options and futures contracts may be combined with each other or with forward contracts in order to adjust the risk and return characteristics of a Fund’s overall strategy in a manner deemed appropriate by the Adviser and consistent with the Fund’s objective and policies.

The use of options and futures is a highly specialized activity which involves investment strategies and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions, and there can be no guarantee that their use will increase a Fund’s return. While the use of these instruments by a Fund may reduce certain risks associated with owning its portfolio securities, these techniques themselves entail certain other risks. If the Adviser applies a strategy at an inappropriate time or judges market conditions or trends incorrectly, options and futures strategies may lower a Fund’s return. Certain strategies limit a Fund’s possibilities to realize gains, as well as its exposure to losses. A Fund could also experience losses if the prices of its options and futures positions were poorly correlated with its other investments, or if it could not close out its positions because of an illiquid secondary market. In addition, a Fund will incur transaction costs, including trading commissions and option premiums, in connection with its futures and options transactions, and these transactions could significantly increase the Fund’s turnover rate.

Certain Funds have filed a notice under the Commodity Exchange Act under Regulation 4.5 and are operated by a person that has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act and, therefore, is not subject to registration or regulation as a pool operator under the Commodity Exchange Act.

Purchasing Put and Call Options. By purchasing a put option, a Fund obtains the right (but not the obligation) to sell the instrument underlying the option at a fixed strike price. In return for this right, a Fund pays the current market price for the option (known as the option premium). Options have various types of underlying

 

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instruments, including specific securities, indexes of securities, indexes of securities prices, and futures contracts. A Fund may terminate its position in a put option it has purchased by allowing it to expire or by exercising the option. A Fund may also close out a put option position by entering into an offsetting transaction, if a liquid market exists. If the option is allowed to expire, a Fund will lose the entire premium it paid. If a Fund exercises a put option on a security, it will sell the instrument underlying the option at the strike price. If a Fund exercises an option on an index, settlement is in cash and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. If an option is American style, it may be exercised on any day up to its expiration date. A European style option may be exercised only on its expiration date.

The buyer of a typical put option can expect to realize a gain if the value of the underlying instrument falls substantially. However, if the price of the instrument underlying the option does not fall enough to offset the cost of purchasing the option, a put buyer can expect to suffer a loss (limited to the amount of the premium paid, plus related transaction costs).

The features of call options are essentially the same as those of put options, except that the purchaser of a call option obtains the right to purchase, rather than sell, the instrument underlying the option at the option’s strike price. A call buyer typically attempts to participate in potential price increases of the instrument underlying the option with risk limited to the cost of the option if security prices fall. At the same time, the buyer can expect to suffer a loss if security prices do not rise sufficiently to offset the cost of the option.

Selling (Writing) Put and Call Options on Securities. When a Fund writes a put option on a security, it takes the opposite side of the transaction from the option’s purchaser. In return for the receipt of the premium, a Fund assumes the obligation to pay the strike price for the security underlying the option if the other party to the option chooses to exercise it. A Fund may seek to terminate its position in a put option it writes before exercise by purchasing an offsetting option in the market at its current price. If the market is not liquid for a put option a Fund has written, however, it must continue to be prepared to pay the strike price while the option is outstanding, regardless of price changes, and must continue to post margin as discussed below. If the market value of the underlying securities does not move to a level that would make exercise of the option profitable to its holder, the option will generally expire unexercised, and the Fund will realize as profit the premium it received.

If the price of the underlying securities rises, a put writer would generally expect to profit, although its gain would be limited to the amount of the premium it received. If security prices remain the same over time, it is likely that the writer will also profit, because it should be able to close out the option at a lower price. If security prices fall, the put writer would expect to suffer a loss. This loss should be less than the loss from purchasing and holding the underlying security directly, however, because the premium received for writing the option should offset a portion of the decline.

Writing a call option obligates a Fund to sell or deliver the option’s underlying security in return for the strike price upon exercise of the option. The characteristics of writing call options are similar to those of writing put options, except that writing calls generally is a profitable strategy if prices remain the same or fall. Through receipt of the option premium a call writer offsets part of the effect of a price decline. At the same time, because a call writer must be prepared to deliver the underlying instrument in return for the strike price, even if its current value is greater, a call writer gives up some ability to participate in security price increases.

In order to meet its asset coverage requirements, when a Fund writes an exchange traded put or call option on a security, it will be required to deposit cash or securities or a letter of credit as margin and to make mark to market payments of variation margin as the position becomes unprofitable.

Certain Funds will usually sell covered call options or cash-secured put options on securities. A call option is covered if the writer either owns the underlying security (or comparable securities satisfying the cover requirements of the securities exchanges) or has the right to acquire such securities. A put option is cash-secured if the writer segregates cash, high-grade short-term debt obligations, or other permissible collateral equal to the exercise price. As the writer of a covered call option, the Fund foregoes, during the option’s life, the opportunity to profit from increases in the market value of the security covering the call option above the sum of the premium and the strike price of the call, but has retained the risk of loss should the price of the underlying security decline. As the Fund writes covered calls over more of its portfolio, its ability to benefit from capital appreciation becomes more limited. The writer of an option has no control over the time when it may be required to fulfill its obligation, but may terminate its position by entering into an offsetting option. Once an option writer has received an exercise notice, it cannot effect an offsetting transaction in order to terminate its obligation under the option and must deliver the underlying security at the exercise price.

 

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When the Fund writes cash-secured put options, it bears the risk of loss if the value of the underlying stock declines below the exercise price minus the put premium. If the option is exercised, the Fund could incur a loss if it is required to purchase the stock underlying the put option at a price greater than the market price of the stock at the time of exercise plus the put premium the Fund received when it wrote the option. While the Fund’s potential gain in writing a cash-secured put option is limited to distributions earned on the liquid assets securing the put option plus the premium received from the purchaser of the put option, the Fund risks a loss equal to the entire exercise price of the option minus the put premium.

Options on Indexes. Certain Funds may purchase and sell options on securities indexes and other types of indexes. Options on indexes are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of index options may be settled by cash payments (or in some instances by a futures contract) and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities or the instruments in the index. In addition, these options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or instruments or segment of the securities’ or instruments’ market rather than price fluctuations in a single security or instrument. A Fund, in purchasing or selling index options, is subject to the risk that the value of its portfolio may not change as much as an index because a Fund’s investments generally will not match the composition of an index. Unlike call options on securities, index options are cash settled, or settled with a futures contract in some instances, rather than settled by delivery of the underlying index securities or instruments.

Certain Funds purchase and sell credit options which are options on indexes of derivative instruments such as credit default swap indexes. Like other index options, credit options can be cash settled or settled with a futures contract in some instances. In addition, credit options can also be settled in some instances by delivery of the underlying index instrument. Credit options may be used for a variety of purposes including hedging, risk management such as positioning a portfolio for anticipated volatility or increasing income or gain to a Fund. There is no guarantee that the strategy of using options on indexes or credit options in particular will be successful.

For a number of reasons, a liquid market may not exist and thus a Fund may not be able to close out an option position that it has previously entered into. When a Fund purchases an OTC option (as defined below), it will be relying on its counterparty to perform its obligations and the Fund may incur additional losses if the counterparty is unable to perform.

Futures Contracts. When a Fund purchases a futures contract, it agrees to purchase a specified quantity of an underlying instrument at a specified future date or, in the case of an index futures contract, to make a cash payment based on the value of a securities index. When a Fund sells a futures contract, it agrees to sell a specified quantity of the underlying instrument at a specified future date or, in the case of an index futures contract, to receive a cash payment based on the value of a securities index. The price at which the purchase and sale will take place is fixed when a Fund enters into the contract. Futures can be held until their delivery dates or the position can be (and normally is) closed out before then. There is no assurance, however, that a liquid market will exist when the Fund wishes to close out a particular position.

When a Fund purchases a futures contract, the value of the futures contract tends to increase and decrease in tandem with the value of its underlying instrument. Therefore, purchasing futures contracts will tend to increase a Fund’s exposure to positive and negative price fluctuations in the underlying instrument, much as if it had purchased the underlying instrument directly. When a Fund sells a futures contract, by contrast, the value of its futures position will tend to move in a direction contrary to the value of the underlying instrument. Selling futures contracts, therefore, will tend to offset both positive and negative market price changes, much as if the underlying instrument had been sold.

The purchaser or seller of a futures contract is not required to deliver or pay for the underlying instrument unless the contract is held until the delivery date. However, when a Fund buys or sells a futures contract it will be required to deposit “initial margin” with a futures commission merchant (“FCM”). Initial margin deposits are typically equal to a small percentage of the contract’s value. If the value of either party’s position declines, that party will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments equal to the change in value on a daily basis. The party that has a gain may be entitled to receive all or a portion of this amount. A Fund may be obligated to make payments of variation margin at a time when it is disadvantageous to do so. Furthermore, it may not always be possible for a Fund to close out its futures positions. Until it closes out a futures position, a Fund will be obligated to continue to pay variation margin. Initial and variation margin payments do not constitute purchasing on margin for purposes of a Fund’s investment restrictions. In the event of the bankruptcy of an FCM that holds margin on behalf of a Fund, the Fund may be entitled to return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the FCM’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the Fund. For cash-settled futures, the Fund will segregate or earmark liquid assets in an amount equal to the mark-to-market value. For physically settled futures, the Fund

 

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will earmark or segregate liquid assets in an amount equal to the notional value. In calculating the segregation amount, netting of similar contracts is generally permitted. Such assets cannot be sold while the futures contract or option is outstanding unless they are replaced with other suitable assets. By setting aside assets equal only to its net obligation under cash-settled futures, a Fund will have the ability to have exposure to such instruments to a greater extent than if a Fund were required to set aside assets equal to the full notional value of such contracts. There is a possibility that earmarking and reservation of a large percentage of a Fund’s assets could impede portfolio management or a Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

A Fund only invests in futures contracts to the extent they could invest in the underlying instrument directly. Certain Funds may also invest in index futures where the underlying securities or instruments are not available for direct investments by the Funds.

Cash Equitization. The objective where equity futures are used to “equitize” cash is to match the notional value of all futures contracts to a Fund’s cash balance. The notional values of the futures contracts and of the cash are monitored daily. As the cash is invested in securities and/or paid out to participants in redemptions, the Adviser simultaneously adjusts the futures positions. Through such procedures, a Fund not only gains equity exposure from the use of futures, but also benefits from increased flexibility in responding to client cash flow needs. Additionally, because it can be less expensive to trade a list of securities as a package or program trade rather than as a group of individual orders, futures provide a means through which transaction costs can be reduced. Such non-hedging risk management techniques involve leverage, and thus present, as do all leveraged transactions, the possibility of losses as well as gains that are greater than if these techniques involved the purchase and sale of the securities themselves rather than their synthetic derivatives.

Correlation of Price Changes. Because there are a limited number of types of exchange-traded options and futures contracts, it is likely that the standardized options and futures contracts available will not match a Fund’s current or anticipated investments exactly. A Fund may invest in options and futures contracts based on securities or instruments with different issuers, maturities, or other characteristics from the securities in which it typically invests, which involves a risk that the options or futures position will not track the performance of a Fund’s other investments.

Options and futures contracts prices can also diverge from the prices of their underlying instruments, even if the underlying instruments match a Fund’s investments well. Options and futures contracts prices are affected by such factors as current and anticipated short term interest rates, changes in volatility of the underlying instrument, and the time remaining until expiration of the contract, which may not affect security prices the same way. Imperfect correlation may also result from differing levels of demand in the options and futures markets and the securities markets, from structural differences in how options and futures and securities are traded, or from imposition of daily price fluctuation limits or trading halts. A Fund may purchase [or sell] options and futures contracts with a greater or lesser value than the securities it wishes to hedge or intends to purchase in order to attempt to compensate for differences in volatility between the contract and the securities, although this may not be successful in all cases. If price changes in a Fund’s options or futures positions are poorly correlated with its other investments, the positions may fail to produce anticipated gains or result in losses that are not offset by gains in other investments.

Liquidity of Options and Futures Contracts. There is no assurance that a liquid market will exist for any particular options or futures contract at any particular time even if the contract is traded on an exchange. In addition, exchanges may establish daily price fluctuation limits for options and futures contracts and may halt trading if a contract’s price moves up or down more than the limit in a given day. On volatile trading days when the price fluctuation limit is reached or a trading halt is imposed, it may be impossible for a Fund to enter into new positions or close out existing positions. If the market for a contract is not liquid because of price fluctuation limits or otherwise, it could prevent prompt liquidation of unfavorable positions, and could potentially require a Fund to continue to hold a position until delivery or expiration regardless of changes in its value. As a result, a Fund’s access to other assets held to cover its options or futures positions could also be impaired. (See “Exchange-Traded and OTC Options” above for a discussion of the liquidity of options not traded on an exchange.)

Position Limits. Futures exchanges can limit the number of futures and options on futures contracts that can be held or controlled by an entity. If an adequate exemption cannot be obtained, a Fund or the Adviser may be required to reduce the size of its futures and options positions or may not be able to trade a certain futures or options contract in order to avoid exceeding such limits.

Asset Coverage for Options and Futures Contracts and Options Positions. A Fund will comply with guidelines established by the SEC with respect to coverage of options and futures contracts by investment

 

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companies, and if the guidelines so require, will set aside or earmark appropriate liquid assets in the amount prescribed. Such assets cannot be sold while the futures contract or option is outstanding, unless they are replaced with other suitable assets. As a result, there is a possibility that the reservation of a large percentage of a Fund’s assets could impede portfolio management or a Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”)

Certain of the Funds may invest in equity interests or debt obligations issued by REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles which invest primarily in income producing real estate or real estate related loans or interest. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or a combination of equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling property that has appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. Similar to investment companies, REITs are not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with several requirements of the Internal Revenue Code (“Code”). A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of expenses incurred by REITs in which a Fund invests in addition to the expenses incurred directly by a Fund.

Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks in addition to those risks associated with investing in the real estate industry in general. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills and on cash flows, are not diversified, and are subject to default by borrowers and self-liquidation. REITs are also subject to the possibilities of failing to qualify for tax free pass-through of income under the Code and failing to maintain their exemption from registration under the 1940 Act.

REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are also subject to interest rate risks. When interest rates decline, the value of a REIT’s investment in fixed rate obligations can be expected to rise. Conversely, when interest rates rise, the value of a REIT’s investment in fixed rate obligations can be expected to decline. In contrast, as interest rates on adjustable rate mortgage loans are reset periodically, yields on a REIT’s investment in such loans will gradually align themselves to fluctuate less dramatically in response to interest rate fluctuations than would investments in fixed rate obligations.

Investment in REITs involves risks similar to those associated with investing in small capitalization companies. These risks include:

 

   

limited financial resources;

 

   

infrequent or limited trading; and

 

   

more abrupt or erratic price movements than larger company securities.

In addition, small capitalization stocks, such as certain REITs, historically have been more volatile in price than the larger capitalization stocks included in the S&P 500® Index.

Recent Events Relating to the Overall Economy

The U.S. Government, the Federal Reserve, the Treasury, the SEC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and other governmental and regulatory bodies have taken actions to address the financial crisis. These actions included, in part, the enactment by the United States Congress of the “Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act”, which was signed into law on July 21, 2010 and imposed a new regulatory framework over the U.S. financial services industry and the consumer credit markets in general, and proposed and final regulations by the SEC. Given the broad scope, sweeping nature, and relatively recent enactment of some of these regulatory measures, the potential impact they could have on securities held by a Fund is unknown. There can be no assurance that these measures will not have an adverse effect on the value or marketability of securities held by a Fund. Furthermore, no assurance can be made that the U.S. Government or any U.S. regulatory body (or other authority or regulatory body) will not continue to take further legislative or regulatory action, and the effect of such actions, if taken, cannot be known.

 

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Repurchase Agreements

Repurchase agreements may be entered into with brokers, dealers or banks or other entities that meet the Adviser’s credit guidelines. A Fund will enter into repurchase agreements only with member banks of the Federal Reserve System and securities dealers or other entities believed by the Adviser to be creditworthy. The Adviser may consider the collateral received and any applicable guarantees in making its determination. In a repurchase agreement, a Fund buys a security from a seller that has agreed to repurchase the same security at a mutually agreed upon date and price. The resale price normally is in excess of the purchase price, reflecting an agreed upon interest rate. This interest rate is effective for the period of time a Fund is invested in the agreement and is not related to the coupon rate on the underlying security. A repurchase agreement may also be viewed as a fully collateralized loan of money by a Fund to the seller. Except in the case of a tri-party agreement, the maximum maturity of a repurchase agreement will be seven days. In the case of a tri-party agreement, the maximum maturity permitted for a non- “putable” repurchase agreement will be 190 days. In the case of a tri-party agreement, the maximum notice period permitted for a “putable” repurchase agreement (i.e., where the Fund has a right to put the repurchase agreement to the counterparty at par plus accrued interest at a specified notice period) will be 190 days. The securities which are subject to repurchase agreements, however, may have maturity dates in excess of 190 days from the effective date of the repurchase agreement. In addition, the maturity of a “putable” repurchase agreement may be in excess of 190 days. Repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days (or where the put right requires greater than seven days’ notice) are treated as illiquid for purposes of a Fund’s restrictions on purchases of illiquid securities. A Fund will always receive securities as collateral during the term of the agreement whose market value is at least equal to 100% of the dollar amount invested by the Fund in each agreement plus accrued interest. The repurchase agreements further authorize the Fund to demand additional collateral in the event that the dollar value of the collateral falls below 100%. A Fund will make payment for such securities only upon physical delivery or upon evidence of book entry transfer to the account of the custodian. Repurchase agreements are considered under the 1940 Act to be loans collateralized by the underlying securities.

All of the Funds that are permitted to invest in repurchase agreements may engage in repurchase agreement transactions that are collateralized fully as defined in Rule 5b-3(c)(1) of the 1940 Act, which has the effect of enabling a Fund to look to the collateral, rather than the counterparty, for determining whether its assets are “diversified” for 1940 Act purposes. The Adviser may consider the collateral received and any applicable guarantees in making its determination. Certain Funds may, in addition, engage in repurchase agreement transactions that are collateralized by money market instruments, debt securities, loan participations, equity securities or other securities including securities that are rated below investment grade by the requisite NRSROs or unrated securities of comparable quality. For these types of repurchase agreement transactions, the Fund would look to the counterparty, and not the collateral, for determining such diversification.

A repurchase agreement is subject to the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the security. In the event of default by the seller under a repurchase agreement construed to be a collateralized loan, the underlying securities would not be owned by the Fund, but would only constitute collateral for the seller’s obligation to pay the repurchase price. Therefore, a Fund may suffer time delays and incur costs in connection with the disposition of the collateral. The collateral underlying repurchase agreements may be more susceptible to claims of the seller’s creditors than would be the case with securities owned by the Fund.

Under existing guidance from the SEC, certain Funds may transfer uninvested cash balances into a joint account, along with cash of other Funds and certain other accounts. These balances may be invested in one or more repurchase agreements and/or short-term money market instruments.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

In a reverse repurchase agreement, a Fund sells a security and agrees to repurchase the same security at a mutually agreed upon date and price reflecting the interest rate effective for the term of the agreement. For purposes of the 1940 Act, a reverse repurchase agreement is considered borrowing by a Fund and, therefore, a form of leverage. Leverage may cause any gains or losses for a Fund to be magnified. The Funds will invest the proceeds of borrowings under reverse repurchase agreements. In addition, except for liquidity purposes, a Fund will enter into a reverse repurchase agreement only when the expected return from the investment of the proceeds is greater than the expense of the transaction. A Fund will not invest the proceeds of a reverse repurchase agreement for a period which exceeds the duration of the reverse repurchase agreement. A Fund would be required to pay interest on amounts obtained through reverse repurchase agreements, which are considered borrowings under federal securities laws. The repurchase price is generally equal to the original sales price plus interest. Reverse repurchase agreements are

 

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usually for seven days or less and cannot be repaid prior to their expiration dates. Each Fund will earmark and reserve Fund assets, in cash or liquid securities, in an amount at least equal to its purchase obligations under its reverse repurchase agreements. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of the portfolio securities transferred may decline below the price at which a Fund is obliged to purchase the securities. All forms of borrowing (including reverse repurchase agreements) are limited in the aggregate and may not exceed 33  1/3% of a Fund’s total assets, except as permitted by law.

Short Selling

In short selling transactions, a Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the security. To complete the transaction, a Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. A Fund is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing it subsequently at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by a Fund, which may result in a loss or gain, respectively. Unlike taking a long position in a security by purchasing the security, where potential losses are limited to the purchase price, short sales have no cap on maximum losses, and gains are limited to the price of the security at the time of the short sale.

Short sales of forward commitments and derivatives do not involve borrowing a security. These types of short sales may include futures, options, contracts for differences, forward contracts on financial instruments and options such as contracts, credit linked instruments, and swap contracts.

A Fund may not always be able to borrow a security it wants to sell short. A Fund also may be unable to close out an established short position at an acceptable price and may have to sell long positions at disadvantageous times to cover its short positions. The NAV of a Fund will fluctuate in response to movements in the market. Fund performance also will depend on the effectiveness of the Adviser’s research and the management team’s investment decisions. The SEC and financial industry regulatory authorities in other countries may impose prohibitions, restrictions or other regulatory requirements on short sales, which could inhibit the ability of the Adviser to sell securities short on behalf of the Fund. For example, in September 2008, in response to spreading turmoil in the financial markets, the SEC temporarily banned short selling in the stocks of numerous financial services companies, and also promulgated new disclosure requirements with respect to short positions held by investment managers. The SEC’s temporary ban on short selling of such stocks has since expired, but should similar restrictions and/or additional disclosure requirements be promulgated, especially if market turmoil occurs, a Fund may be forced to cover short positions more quickly than otherwise intended and may suffer losses as a result. Such restrictions may also adversely affect the ability of a Fund (especially if a Fund utilizes short selling as a significant portion of its investment strategy) to execute its investment strategies generally.

Short sales also involve other costs. A Fund must repay to the lender an amount equal to any dividends or interest that accrues while the loan is outstanding. To borrow the security, a Fund may be required to pay a premium. A Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short sales. The amount of any ultimate gain for a Fund resulting from a short sale will be decreased and the amount of any ultimate loss will be increased by the amount of premiums, interest or expenses a Fund may be required to pay in connection with the short sale. Until a Fund closes the short position, it will earmark and reserve Fund assets, in cash or liquid securities, to offset a portion of the leverage risk. Realized gains from short sales are typically treated as short-term gains/losses.

Certain of a Fund’s service providers may have agreed to waive fees and reimburse expenses to limit the Fund’s operating expenses in the amount and for the time period specified in the Fund’s prospectuses. The expense limitation does not include certain expenses including, to the extent indicated in the Fund’s prospectuses, dividend and interest expense on short sales. In calculating the interest expense on short sales for purposes of this exclusion, the Fund will recognize all economic elements of interest costs, including premium and discount adjustments.

Short-Term Funding Agreements

Short-term funding agreements issued by insurance companies are sometimes referred to as Guaranteed Investment Contracts (“GICs”), while those issued by banks are referred to as Bank Investment Contracts (“BICs”). Pursuant to such agreements, a Fund makes cash contributions to a deposit account at a bank or insurance company. The bank or insurance company then credits to the Fund on a monthly basis guaranteed interest at either a fixed, variable or floating rate. These contracts are general obligations of the issuing bank or insurance company (although they may be the obligations of an insurance company separate account) and are paid from the general assets of the issuing entity.

 

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A Fund will purchase short-term funding agreements only from banks and insurance companies which, at the time of purchase, are rated in one of the three highest rating categories and have assets of $1 billion or more. Generally, there is no active secondary market in short-term funding agreements. Therefore, short-term funding agreements may be considered by a Fund to be illiquid investments. To the extent that a short-term funding agreement is determined to be illiquid, such agreements will be acquired by a Fund only if, at the time of purchase, no more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets will be invested in short-term funding agreements and other illiquid securities.

Swaps and Related Swap Products

Swap transactions may include, but are not limited to, interest rate swaps, currency swaps, cross-currency interest rate swaps, forward rate agreements, contracts for differences, total return swaps, index swaps, basket swaps, specific security swaps, fixed income sectors swaps, commodity swaps, asset-backed swaps (ABX), commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS) and indexes of CMBS (CMBX), credit default swaps, interest rate caps, price lock swaps, floors and collars and swaptions (collectively defined as “swap transactions”).

A Fund may enter into swap transactions for any legal purpose consistent with its investment objective and policies, such as for the purpose of attempting to obtain or preserve a particular return or spread at a lower cost than obtaining that return or spread through purchases and/or sales of instruments in cash markets, to protect against currency fluctuations, to protect against any increase in the price of securities a Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date, or to gain exposure to certain markets in the most economical way possible.

Swap agreements are two-party contracts entered into primarily by institutional counterparties for periods ranging from a few weeks to several years. In a standard swap transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) that would be earned or realized on specified notional investments or instruments. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are calculated by reference to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency or commodity, or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. The purchaser of an interest rate cap or floor, upon payment of a fee, has the right to receive payments (and the seller of the cap or floor is obligated to make payments) to the extent a specified interest rate exceeds (in the case of a cap) or is less than (in the case of a floor) a specified level over a specified period of time or at specified dates. The purchaser of an interest rate collar, upon payment of a fee, has the right to receive payments (and the seller of the collar is obligated to make payments) to the extent that a specified interest rate falls outside an agreed upon range over a specified period of time or at specified dates. The purchaser of an option on an interest rate swap, also known as a “swaption,” upon payment of a fee (either at the time of purchase or in the form of higher payments or lower receipts within an interest rate swap transaction) has the right, but not the obligation, to initiate a new swap transaction of a pre-specified notional amount with pre-specified terms with the seller of the swaption as the counterparty.

The “notional amount” of a swap transaction is the agreed upon basis for calculating the payments that the parties have agreed to exchange. For example, one swap counterparty may agree to pay a floating rate of interest (e.g., 3 month LIBOR) calculated based on a $10 million notional amount on a quarterly basis in exchange for receipt of payments calculated based on the same notional amount and a fixed rate of interest on a semi-annual basis. In the event a Fund is obligated to make payments more frequently than it receives payments from the other party, it will incur incremental credit exposure to that swap counterparty. This risk may be mitigated somewhat by the use of swap agreements which call for a net payment to be made by the party with the larger payment obligation when the obligations of the parties fall due on the same date. Under most swap agreements entered into by a Fund, payments by the parties will be exchanged on a “net basis”, and a Fund will receive or pay, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments.

The amount of a Fund’s potential gain or loss on any swap transaction is not subject to any fixed limit. Nor is there any fixed limit on a Fund’s potential loss if it sells a cap or collar. If a Fund buys a cap, floor or collar, however, the Fund’s potential loss is limited to the amount of the fee that it has paid. When measured against the initial amount of cash required to initiate the transaction, which is typically zero in the case of most conventional swap transactions, swaps, caps, floors and collars tend to be more volatile than many other types of instruments.

The use of swap transactions, caps, floors and collars involves investment techniques and risks that are different from those associated with portfolio security transactions. If a Fund’s Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates, and other applicable factors, the investment performance of the Fund will be less favorable than if these techniques had not been used. These instruments are typically not traded on exchanges.

 

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Accordingly, there is a risk that the other party to certain of these instruments will not perform its obligations to a Fund or that a Fund may be unable to enter into offsetting positions to terminate its exposure or liquidate its position under certain of these instruments when it wishes to do so. Such occurrences could result in losses to a Fund. A Fund’s Adviser will consider such risks and will enter into swap and other derivatives transactions only when it believes that the risks are not unreasonable.

A Fund will earmark and reserve Fund assets, in cash or liquid securities, in an amount sufficient at all times to cover its current obligations under its swap transactions, caps, floors and collars. If a Fund enters into a swap agreement on a net basis, it will earmark and reserve assets with a daily value at least equal to the excess, if any, of a Fund’s accrued obligations under the swap agreement over the accrued amount a Fund is entitled to receive under the agreement. If a Fund enters into a swap agreement on other than a net basis, or sells a cap, floor or collar, it will earmark and reserve assets with a daily value at least equal to the full amount of a Fund’s accrued obligations under the agreement. A Fund will not enter into any swap transaction, cap, floor, or collar, unless the counterparty to the transaction is deemed creditworthy by the Fund’s Adviser. If a counterparty defaults, a Fund may have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction. The swap markets in which many types of swap transactions are traded have grown substantially in recent years, with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the markets for certain types of swaps (e.g., interest rate swaps) have become relatively liquid. The markets for some types of caps, floors and collars are less liquid.

The liquidity of swap transactions, caps, floors and collars will be as set forth in guidelines established by a Fund’s Adviser and approved by the Trustees which are based on various factors, including: (1) the availability of dealer quotations and the estimated transaction volume for the instrument, (2) the number of dealers and end users for the instrument in the marketplace, (3) the level of market making by dealers in the type of instrument, (4) the nature of the instrument (including any right of a party to terminate it on demand) and (5) the nature of the marketplace for trades (including the ability to assign or offset a Fund’s rights and obligations relating to the instrument). Such determination will govern whether the instrument will be deemed within the applicable liquidity restriction on investments in securities that are not readily marketable.

During the term of a swap, cap, floor or collar, changes in the value of the instrument are recognized as unrealized gains or losses by marking to market to reflect the market value of the instrument. When the instrument is terminated, a Fund will record a realized gain or loss equal to the difference, if any, between the proceeds from (or cost of) the closing transaction and a Fund’s basis in the contract.

The federal income tax treatment with respect to swap transactions, caps, floors, and collars may impose limitations on the extent to which a Fund may engage in such transactions.

Credit Default Swaps. As described above, swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a few weeks to more than one year. In the case of a credit default swap (“CDS”), the contract gives one party (the buyer) the right to recoup the economic value of a decline in the value of debt securities of the reference issuer if the credit event (a downgrade or default) occurs. This value is obtained by delivering a debt security of the reference issuer to the party in return for a previously agreed payment from the other party (frequently, the par value of the debt security). CDS include credit default swaps, which are contracts on individual securities, and CDX, which are contracts on baskets or indices of securities.

Credit default swaps may require initial premium (discount) payments as well as periodic payments (receipts) related to the interest leg of the swap or to the default of a reference obligation. In cases where a Fund is a seller of a CDS contract including a CDX contract, the Fund will segregate or earmark liquid assets equal the notional amount of the contract. Furthermore, a Fund will segregate or earmark liquid assets to cover any accrued payment obligations when it is the buyer of a CDS including CDX. In calculating the amount to be segregated for this purpose, the Fund is not considered to have an accrued payment obligation when it is the buyer of a CDS including a CDX when the contract is in gain position as no additional amount owed to the counterparty. In cases where a Fund is a buyer of a CDS contract including a CDX contract, the Fund will segregate or earmark liquid assets equal to the mark-to-market value when the contract is in a loss position.

If a Fund is a seller of protection under a CDS contract, the Fund would be required to pay the par (or other agreed upon) value of a referenced debt obligation to the counterparty in the event of a default or other credit event by the reference issuer, such as a U.S. or foreign corporate issuer, with respect to such debt obligations. In return, a Fund would receive from the counterparty a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract provided that no event of default has occurred. If no default occurs, a Fund would keep the stream of payments and would have no

 

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payment obligations. As the seller, a Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap.

If a Fund is a buyer of protection under a CDS contract, the Fund would have the right to deliver a referenced debt obligation and receive the par (or other agreed-upon) value of such debt obligation from the counterparty in the event of a default or other credit event (such as a downgrade in credit rating) by the reference issuer, such as a U.S. or foreign corporation, with respect to its debt obligations. In return, the Fund would pay the counterparty a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract provided that no event of default has occurred. If no default occurs, the counterparty would keep the stream of payments and would have no further obligations to the Fund.

The use of CDSs, like all swap agreements, is subject to certain risks. If a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of the swap would likely decline. Moreover, there is no guarantee that a Fund could eliminate its exposure under an outstanding swap agreement by entering into an offsetting swap agreement with the same or another party. In addition to general market risks, CDSs involve liquidity, credit and counterparty risks. The recent increase in corporate defaults further raises these liquidity and credit risks, increasing the possibility that sellers will not have sufficient funds to make payments. As unregulated instruments, CDSs are difficult to value and are therefore susceptible to liquidity and credit risks. Counterparty risks also stem from the lack of regulation of CDSs. Collateral posting requirements are individually negotiated between counterparties and there is no regulatory requirement concerning the amount of collateral that a counterparty must post to secure its obligations under a CDS. Because they are unregulated, there is no requirement that parties to a contract be informed in advance when a CDS is sold. As a result, investors may have difficulty identifying the party responsible for payment of their claims.

If a counterparty’s credit becomes significantly impaired, multiple requests for collateral posting in a short period of time could increase the risk that the Fund may not receive adequate collateral. There is no readily available market for trading out of CDS contracts. In order to eliminate a position it has taken in a CDS, the Fund must terminate the existing CDS contract or enter into an offsetting trade. The Fund may only exit its obligations under a CDS contract by terminating the contract and paying applicable breakage fees, which could result in additional losses to the Fund. Furthermore, the cost of entering into an offsetting CDS position could cause the Fund to incur losses.

Treasury Receipts

A Fund may purchase interests in separately traded interest and principal component parts of U.S. Treasury obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and are created by depositing U.S. Treasury notes and U.S. Treasury bonds into a special account at a custodian bank. Receipts include Treasury Receipts (“TRs”), Treasury Investment Growth Receipts (“TIGRs”), and Certificates of Accrual on Treasury Securities (“CATS”). Receipts in which an entity other than the government separates the interest and principal components are not considered government securities unless such securities are issued through the Treasury Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities (“STRIPS”) program.

U.S. Government Obligations

U.S. government obligations may include direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury, including Treasury bills, notes and bonds, all of which are backed as to principal and interest payments by the full faith and credit of the U.S., and separately traded principal and interest component parts of such obligations that are transferable through the Federal book-entry system known as STRIPS and Coupon Under Book Entry Safekeeping (“CUBES”). The Funds may also invest in TIPS. U.S. government obligations are subject to market risk, interest rate risk and credit risk.

The principal and interest components of U.S. Treasury bonds with remaining maturities of longer than ten years are eligible to be traded independently under the STRIPS program. Under the STRIPS program, the principal and interest components are separately issued by the U.S. Treasury at the request of depository financial institutions, which then trade the component parts separately. The interest component of STRIPS may be more volatile than that of U.S. Treasury bills with comparable maturities.

Other obligations include those issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities. These obligations may or may not be backed by the “full faith and credit” of the U.S. Securities which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. include obligations of the Government National Mortgage Association, the Farmers Home Administration, and the Export-Import Bank. In the case of securities not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S., the Funds must look principally to the federal agency issuing or guaranteeing the obligation for ultimate repayment and may not be able to assert a claim against the U.S. itself in the event the agency or instrumentality

 

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does not meet its commitments. Securities in which the Funds may invest that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. include, but are not limited to: (i) obligations of the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Federal Home Loan Banks and the U.S. Postal Service, each of which has the right to borrow from the U.S. Treasury to meet its obligations; (ii) securities issued by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, which are supported only by the credit of such securities, but for which the Secretary of the Treasury has discretionary authority to purchase limited amounts of the agency’s obligations; and (iii) obligations of the Federal Farm Credit System and the Student Loan Marketing Association, each of whose obligations may be satisfied only by the individual credits of the issuing agency.

The total public debt of the United States and other countries around the globe as a percent of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt level may increase market pressures to meet government funding needs, which may drive debt cost higher and cause a country to sell additional debt, thereby increasing refinancing risk. A high national debt also raises concerns that a government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. Unsustainable debt levels can cause devaluations of currency, prevent a government from implementing effective counter-cyclical fiscal policy in economic downturns, and contribute to market volatility.

In the past, U.S. sovereign credit has experienced downgrades and there can be no guarantee that it will not experience further downgrades in the future by rating agencies. The market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government may be adversely affected by a rating agency’s decision to downgrade the sovereign credit rating of the United States.

When-Issued Securities, Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments

Securities may be purchased on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis. For example, delivery of and payment for these securities can take place a month or more after the date of the purchase commitment. The purchase price and the interest rate payable, if any, on the securities are fixed on the purchase commitment date or at the time the settlement date is fixed. The value of such securities is subject to market fluctuation, and for money market instruments and other fixed income securities, no interest accrues to a Fund until settlement takes place. At the time a Fund makes the commitment to purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis, it will record the transaction, reflect the value each day of such securities in determining its NAV and, if applicable, calculate the maturity for the purposes of average maturity from that date. At the time of settlement, a when-issued security may be valued at less than the purchase price. To facilitate such acquisitions, each Fund will earmark and reserve Fund assets, in cash or liquid securities, in an amount at least equal to such commitments. On delivery dates for such transactions, each Fund will meet its obligations from maturities or sales of the securities earmarked and reserved for such purpose and/or from cash flow. If a Fund chooses to dispose of the right to acquire a when-issued security prior to its acquisition, it could, as with the disposition of any other portfolio obligation, incur a gain or loss due to market fluctuation. Also, a Fund may be disadvantaged if the other party to the transaction defaults.

Forward Commitments. Securities may be purchased for delivery at a future date, which may increase their overall investment exposure and involves a risk of loss if the value of the securities declines prior to the settlement date. In order to invest a Fund’s assets immediately, while awaiting delivery of securities purchased on a forward commitment basis, short-term obligations that offer same-day settlement and earnings will normally be purchased. When a Fund makes a commitment to purchase a security on a forward commitment basis, cash or liquid securities equal to the amount of such Fund’s commitments will be reserved for payment of the commitment. For the purpose of determining the adequacy of the securities reserved for payment of commitments, the reserved securities will be valued at market value. If the market value of such securities declines, additional cash, cash equivalents or highly liquid securities will be reserved for payment of the commitment so that the value of the Fund’s assets reserved for payment of the commitments will equal the amount of such commitments purchased by the respective Fund.

Purchases of securities on a forward commitment basis may involve more risk than other types of purchases. Securities purchased on a forward commitment basis and the securities held in the respective Fund’s portfolio are subject to changes in value based upon the public’s perception of the issuer and changes, real or anticipated, in the level of interest rates. Purchasing securities on a forward commitment basis can involve the risk that the yields available in the market when the delivery takes place may actually be higher or lower than those obtained in the transaction itself. On the settlement date of the forward commitment transaction, the respective Fund will meet its obligations from then-available cash flow, sale of securities reserved for payment of the commitment, sale of other securities or, although it would not normally expect to do so, from sale of the forward commitment securities

 

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themselves (which may have a value greater or lesser than such Fund’s payment obligations). The sale of securities to meet such obligations may result in the realization of capital gains or losses. Purchasing securities on a forward commitment basis can also involve the risk of default by the other party on its obligation, delaying or preventing the Fund from recovering the collateral or completing the transaction. To the extent a Fund engages in forward commitment transactions, it will do so for the purpose of acquiring securities consistent with its investment objective and policies and not for the purpose of investment leverage.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION REGARDING FUND INVESTMENT PRACTICES

Investments in the Asia Pacific Region

The economies in the Asia Pacific region are in all stages of economic development and may be intertwined. The small size of securities markets and the low trading volume in some countries in the Asia Pacific region may lead to a lack of liquidity. The share prices of companies in the region tend to be volatile and there is a significant possibility of loss. Many of the countries in the region are developing, both politically and economically, and as a result companies in the region may be subject to risks like nationalization or other forms of government interference, and/or may be heavily reliant on only a few industries or commodities. Investments in the region may also be subject to currency risks, such as restrictions on the flow of money in and out of the country, extreme volatility relative to the U.S. dollar, and devaluation, all of which could decrease the value of a Fund.

Investments in the China Region

Investing in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan (collectively, “the China Region”) involves a high degree of risk and special considerations not typically associated with investing in other more established economies or securities markets. Such risks may include: (a) the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; (b) greater social, economic and political uncertainty (including the risk of war); (c) dependency on exports and the corresponding importance of international trade; (d) the increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies; (e) greater price volatility and significantly smaller market capitalization of securities markets, particularly in China; (f) substantially less liquidity, particularly of certain share classes of Chinese securities; (g) currency exchange rate fluctuations and the lack of available currency hedging instruments; (h) higher rates of inflation; (i) controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on a Fund’s ability to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; (j) greater governmental involvement in and control over the economy; (k) the risk that the Chinese government may decide not to continue to support the economic reform programs implemented since 1978 and could return to the prior, completely centrally planned, economy; (l) the fact that China region companies, particularly those located in China, may be smaller, less seasoned and newly-organized companies; (m) the difference in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers, particularly in China; (n) the fact that statistical information regarding the economy of China may be inaccurate or not comparable to statistical information regarding the U.S. or other economies; (o) the less extensive, and still developing, regulation of the securities markets, business entities and commercial transactions; (p) the fact that the settlement period of securities transactions in foreign markets may be longer; (q) the willingness and ability of the Chinese government to support the Chinese and Hong Kong economies and markets is uncertain; (r) the risk that it may be more difficult, or impossible, to obtain and/or enforce a judgment than in other countries; (s) the rapidity and erratic nature of growth, particularly in China, resulting in inefficiencies and dislocations; (t) the risk of withholding on realized capital gains; and (u) the risk that, because of the degree of interconnectivity between the economies and financial markets of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, any sizable reduction in the demand for goods from China, or an economic downturn in China, could negatively affect the economies and financial markets of Hong Kong and Taiwan, as well.

Investment in the China Region is subject to certain political risks. Following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China by the Communist Party in 1949, the Chinese government renounced various debt obligations incurred by China’s predecessor governments, which obligations remain in default, and expropriated assets without compensation. There can be no assurance that the Chinese government will not take similar action in the future. An investment in a Fund involves risk of a total loss. The political reunification of China and Taiwan is a highly problematic issue and is unlikely to be settled in the near future. This situation poses a threat to Taiwan’s economy and could negatively affect its stock market. China has committed by treaty to preserve Hong Kong’s autonomy and its economic, political and social freedoms for fifty years from the July 1, 1997 transfer of sovereignty from Great Britain to China. However, if China would exert its authority so as to alter the economic, political or legal structures or the existing social policy of Hong Kong, investor and business confidence in Hong Kong could be negatively affected, which in turn could negatively affect markets and business performance.

 

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As with all transition economies, China’s ability to develop and sustain a credible legal, regulatory, monetary, and socioeconomic system could influence the course of outside investment. Hong Kong is closely tied to China, economically and through China’s 1997 acquisition of the country as a Special Autonomous Region (SAR). Hong Kong’s success depends, in large part, on its ability to retain the legal, financial, and monetary systems that allow economic freedom and market expansion.

In addition to the risks inherent in investing in the emerging markets, the risks of investing in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan merit special consideration.

People’s Republic of China. The government of the People’s Republic of China is dominated by the one-party rule of the Chinese Communist Party.

China’s economy has transitioned from a rigidly central-planned state-run economy to one that has been only partially reformed by more market-oriented policies. Although the Chinese government has implemented economic reform measures, reduced state ownership of companies and established better corporate governance practices, a substantial portion of productive assets in China are still owned by the Chinese government. The government continues to exercise significant control over regulating industrial development and, ultimately, control over China’s economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

Growth has also put a strain on China’s economy. The government has attempted to slow down the pace of growth through monetary tightening and administrative measures; however that policy started reversing in September 2008 in part due to the current global economic crisis, which has led to lower levels of economic growth and lower exports and foreign investments in the country. The Chinese government has taken unprecedented steps to shore up economic growth, however, the results of these measures are unpredictable. Over the long term the country’s major challenges will be dealing with its aging infrastructure, worsening environmental conditions and rapidly widening urban and rural income gap.

As with all transition economies, China’s ability to develop and sustain a credible legal, regulatory, monetary, and socioeconomic system could influence the course of outside investment. The Chinese legal system, in particular, constitutes a significant risk factor for investors. The Chinese legal system is based on statutes. Over the past 25 years, Chinese legislative bodies have promulgated laws and regulations dealing with various economic matters such as foreign investment, corporate organization and governance, commerce, taxation, and trade. However, these laws are relatively new and published court decisions based on these laws are limited and non-binding. The interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations are uncertain.

Hong Kong. In 1997, Great Britain handed over control of Hong Kong to the Chinese mainland government. Since that time, Hong Kong has been governed by a semi-constitution known as the Basic Law, which guarantees a high degree of autonomy in certain matters until 2047, while defense and foreign affairs are the responsibility of the central government in Beijing. The chief executive of Hong Kong is appointed by the Chinese government. Hong Kong is able to participate in international organizations and agreements and it continues to function as an international financial center, with no exchange controls, free convertibility of the Hong Kong dollar and free inward and outward movement of capital. The Basic Law guarantees existing freedoms, including free speech and assembly, press, religion, and the right to strike and travel. Business ownership, private property, the right of inheritance and foreign investment are also protected by law. China has committed by treaty to preserve Hong Kong’s autonomy until 2047; however, if China were to exert its authority so as to alter the economic, political, or legal structures or the existing social policy of Hong Kong, investor and business confidence in Hong Kong could be negatively affected, which in turn could negatively affect markets and business performance. In addition, Hong Kong’s economy has entered a recession as a result of the current global economic crisis. Near term improvement in its economy appears unlikely.

Taiwan. For decades, a state of hostility has existed between Taiwan and the People’s Republic of China. Beijing has long deemed Taiwan a part of the “one China” and has made a nationalist cause of recovering it. In the past, China has staged frequent military provocations off the coast of Taiwan and made threats of full-scale military action. Foreign trade has been the engine of rapid growth in Taiwan and has transformed the island into one of Asia’s great exporting nations. However, investing in Taiwan involves the possibility of the imposition of exchange controls, such as restrictions on the repatriation of Fund investments or on the conversion of local currency into foreign currencies. As an export-oriented economy, Taiwan depends on an open world trade regime and remains vulnerable to downturns in the world economy. Taiwanese companies continue to compete mostly on price, producing generic products or branded merchandise on behalf of multinational companies. Accordingly, these

 

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businesses can be particularly vulnerable to currency volatility and increasing competition from neighboring lower-cost countries. Moreover, many Taiwanese companies are heavily invested in mainland China and other countries throughout Southeast Asia, making them susceptible to political events and economic crises in these parts of the region. Although Taiwan has not yet suffered any major economic setbacks due to the current global economic crisis, it is possible its economy could still be impacted.

A Fund may hold securities listed on either the Shanghai and/or Shenzhen stock exchanges. Securities listed on these exchanges are divided into two classes, A shares, which are mostly limited to domestic investors, and B shares, which are allocated for both international and domestic investors. A Fund’s exposure to securities listed on either the Shanghai or Shenzhen exchanges will initially be through B shares. The government of China has announced plans to exchange B shares for A shares and to merge the two markets. Such an event may produce greater liquidity and stability for the combined markets. However, it is uncertain whether or the extent to which these plans will be implemented. In addition to B shares, a Fund may also invest in Hong Kong listed H shares.

Investments in European Markets

Some of the Funds may invest in securities in European markets. A Fund’s performance will be affected by political, social and economic conditions in Europe, such as growth of the economic output (the gross national product), the rate of inflation, the rate at which capital is reinvested into European economies, the success of governmental actions to reduce budget deficits, the resource self-sufficiency of European countries and interest and monetary exchange rates between European countries. European financial markets may experience volatility due to concerns about high government debt levels, credit rating downgrades, rising unemployment, the future of the euro as a common currency, possible restructuring of government debt and other government measures responding to those concerns, and fiscal and monetary controls imposed on member countries of the European Economic and Monetary Union. In addition, if one or more countries were to abandon the use of the euro as a currency, the value of investments tied to those countries or the euro could decline significantly and unpredictably.

Investments in India

Securities of many issuers in the Indian market may be less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable domestic issuers, but may offer the potential for higher returns over the long term. Indian securities will generally be denominated in foreign currency, mainly the rupee. Accordingly, the value of a Fund will fluctuate depending on the rate of exchange between the U.S. dollar and such foreign currency. India has less developed clearance and settlement procedures, and there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities and have been significantly delayed. The Indian stock exchanges have in the past been subject to closure, broker defaults and broker strikes, and there can be no certainty that this will not recur. In addition, significant delays are common in registering transfers of securities and the Fund may be unable to sell securities until the registration process is completed and may experience delays in receipt of dividends and other entitlements.

The value of investments in Indian securities may also be affected by political and economic developments, social, religious or regional tensions, changes in government regulation and government intervention, high rates of inflation or interest rates and withholding tax affecting India. The risk of loss may also be increased because there may be less information available about Indian issuers since they are not subject to the extensive accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices which are applicable in North America. There is also a lower level of regulation and monitoring of the Indian securities market and its participants than in other more developed markets.

Foreign investment in the securities of issuers in India is usually restricted or controlled to some degree. In addition, the availability of financial instruments with exposure to Indian financial markets may be substantially limited by the restrictions on Foreign Institutional Investors (“FIIs”). Only registered FIIs and non-Indian funds that comply with certain statutory conditions may make direct portfolio investments in exchange-traded Indian securities. JPMIM is a registered FII. FIIs are required to observe certain investment restrictions which may limit the Fund’s ability to invest in issuers or to fully pursue its investment objective. Income, gains and initial capital with respect to such investments are freely repatriable, subject to payment of applicable Indian taxes.

India’s guidelines under which foreign investors may invest in Indian securities are new and evolving. There can be no assurance that these investment control regimes will not change in a way that makes it more difficult or impossible for a Fund to implement investment objective or repatriate its income, gains and initial capital from these countries. Similar risks and considerations will be applicable to the extent that a Fund invests in other countries.

 

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Recently, certain policies have served to restrict foreign investment, and such policies may have the effect of reducing demand for such investments.

India may require withholding on dividends paid on portfolio securities and on realized capital gains. In the past, these taxes have sometimes been substantial. There can be no assurance that restrictions on repatriation of a Fund’s income, gains or initial capital from India will not occur.

A high proportion of the shares of many issuers in India may be held by a limited number of persons and financial institutions, which may limit the number of shares available for investment. In addition, further issuances, or the perception that such issuances may occur, of securities by Indian issuers in which a Fund has invested could dilute the earnings per share of a Fund’s investment and could adversely affect the market price of such securities. Sales of securities by such issuer’s major shareholders, or the perception that such sales may occur, may also significantly and adversely affect the market price of such securities and, in turn, a Fund’s investment. The prices at which investments may be acquired may be affected by trading by persons with material non-public information and by securities transactions by brokers in anticipation of transactions by a Fund in particular securities. Similarly, volume and liquidity in the bond markets in India are less than in the United States and, at times, price volatility can be greater than in the United States. The limited liquidity of securities markets in India may also affect a Fund’s ability to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so. In addition, India’s securities markets are susceptible to being influenced by large investors trading significant blocks of securities.

India’s stock market is undergoing a period of growth and change which may result in trading volatility and difficulties in the settlement and recording of transactions, and in interpreting and applying the relevant law and regulations. The securities industry in India is comparatively underdeveloped. Stockbrokers and other intermediaries in India may not perform as well as their counterparts in the United States and other more developed securities markets.

Political and economic structures in India are undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of the United States. The risks described above, including the risks of nationalization or expropriation of assets, may be heightened. In addition, unanticipated political or social developments may affect the values of investments in India and the availability of additional investments. The laws in India relating to limited liability of corporate shareholders, fiduciary duties of officers and directors, and the bankruptcy of state enterprises are generally less well developed than or different from such laws in the United States. It may be more difficult to obtain or enforce a judgment in the courts in India than it is in the United States. Monsoons and natural disasters also can affect the value of investments.

Religious and border disputes persist in India. Moreover, India has from time to time experienced civil unrest and hostilities with neighboring countries such as Pakistan. The Indian government has confronted separatist movements in several Indian states. The longstanding dispute with Pakistan over the bordering Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, a majority of whose population is Muslim, remains unresolved. If the Indian government is unable to control the violence and disruption associated with these tensions, the results could destabilize the economy and consequently, adversely affect the Fund’s investments.

A Fund may use P-notes. Indian-based brokerages may buy Indian-based securities and then issue P-notes to foreign investors. Any dividends or capital gains collected from the underlying securities may be remitted to the foreign investors. However, unlike ADRs, notes are subject to credit risk based on the uncertainty of the counterparty’s (i.e., the Indian-based brokerage’s) ability to meet its obligations.

Investments in Japan

The Japanese economy may be subject to economic, political and social instability, which could have a negative impact on Japanese securities. In the past, Japan’s economic growth rate has remained relatively low, and it may remain low in the future. At times, the Japanese economy has been adversely impacted by government intervention and protectionism, changes in its labor market, and an unstable financial services sector. International trade, government support of the financial services sector and other troubled sectors, government policy, natural disasters and/or geopolitical developments could significantly affect the Japanese economy. A significant portion of Japan’s trade is conducted with developing nations and can be affected by conditions in these nations or by currency fluctuations. Japan is an island state with few natural resources and limited land area and is reliant on imports for its commodity needs. Any fluctuations or shortages in the commodity markets could have a negative impact on the Japanese economy.

 

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Investments in Latin America

As an emerging market, Latin America has long suffered from political, economic, and social instability. For investors, this has meant additional risk caused by periods of regional conflict, political corruption, totalitarianism, protectionist measures, nationalization, hyperinflation, debt crises, sudden and large currency devaluation, and intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres. However, much has changed in the past decade. Democracy is beginning to become well established in some countries. A move to a more mature and accountable political environment is well under way. Domestic economies have been deregulated, privatization of state-owned companies is almost completed and foreign trade restrictions have been relaxed. Nonetheless, to the extent that events such as those listed above continue in the future, they could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization, and removal of trade barriers, and result in significant disruption in securities markets in the region. Investors in the region continue to face a number of potential risks. Governments of many Latin American countries have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. Governmental actions in the future could have a significant effect on economic conditions in Latin American countries, which could affect the companies in which a Fund invests and, therefore, the value of Fund shares.

Certain Latin American countries may experience sudden and large adjustments in their currency which, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. For example, in late 1994 the Mexican peso lost more than one-third of its value relative to the U.S. dollar. In 1999, the Brazilian real lost 30% of its value against the U.S. dollar. Certain Latin American countries may impose restrictions on the free conversion of their currency into foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar. There is no significant foreign exchange market for many currencies and it would, as a result, be difficult for certain Funds to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of the Funds’ interests in securities denominated in such currencies.

Almost all of the region’s economies have become highly dependent upon foreign credit and loans from external sources to fuel their state-sponsored economic plans. Government profligacy and ill-conceived plans for modernization have exhausted these resources with little benefit accruing to the economy and most countries have been forced to restructure their loans or risk default on their debt obligations. In addition, interest on the debt is subject to market conditions and may reach levels that would impair economic activity and create a difficult and costly environment for borrowers. Accordingly, these governments may be forced to reschedule or freeze their debt repayment, which could negatively affect the stock market. Latin American economies that depend on foreign credit and loans could fall into recession because of tighter international credit supplies due to the current global economic crisis.

Substantial limitations may exist in certain countries with respect to a Fund’s ability to repatriate investment income, capital or the proceeds of sales of securities. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to the Fund of any restrictions on investments.

Certain Latin American countries have entered into regional trade agreements that are designed to, among other things, reduce barriers between countries, increase competition among companies and reduce government subsidies in certain industries. No assurance can be given that these changes will be successful in the long term, or that these changes will result in the economic stability intended. There is a possibility that these trade arrangements will not be fully implemented, or will be partially or completely unwound. It is also possible that a significant participant could choose to abandon a trade agreement, which could diminish its credibility and influence. Any of these occurrences could have adverse effects on the markets of both participating and non-participating countries, including sharp appreciation or depreciation of participants’ national currencies and a significant increase in exchange rate volatility, a resurgence in economic protectionism, an undermining of confidence in the Latin American markets, an undermining of Latin American economic stability, the collapse or slowdown of the drive towards Latin American economic unity, and/or reversion of the attempts to lower government debt and inflation rates that were introduced in anticipation of such trade agreements. Such developments could have an adverse impact on a Fund’s investments in Latin America generally or in specific countries participating in such trade agreements.

Terrorism and related geo-political risks have led, and may in the future lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on world economies and markets generally.

 

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Investments in the Middle East and Africa

Certain countries in the region are in early stages of development. As a result, there may be a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of investors and financial intermediaries. Brokers may be fewer in number and less well capitalized than brokers in more developed regions. Certain economies in the region depend to a significant degree upon exports of commodities and are vulnerable to changes in commodity prices, which in turn may be affected by a variety of factors. In addition, certain governments in the region have exercised substantial influence over the private sector, including ownership or control of companies. Governmental actions in the future could have a significant economic impact. Certain armed conflict, territorial disputes, historical animosities, regional instability, terrorist activities and religious, ethnic and/or socioeconomic unrest. Such developments could have a negative effect on economic growth and could result in significant disruptions in the securities markets, including securities held by a Fund. Certain Middle Eastern and African countries have currencies pegged to the U.S. dollar, which, if abandoned, could cause sudden and significant currency adjustments, which could impact the Fund’s investment returns in those countries. The legal systems, and the unpredictability thereof, in certain countries in the region also may have an adverse impact on the Fund and may expose the Fund to significant or unlimited liabilities. Investment in certain countries in the region by the Fund may be restricted or prohibited under applicable regulation, and the Fund, as a foreign investor, may be required to obtain approvals and may have to invest on less advantageous terms (including price) than nationals. A Fund’s investments in securities of a country in the region may be subject to economic sanctions or other government restrictions, which may negatively impact the value or liquidity of the Fund’s investments. Investments in the region may adversely impact the operations of the Fund through the delay of the Fund’s ability to exercise its rights as a security holder. Substantial limitations may exist in the region with respect to the Fund’s ability to repatriate investment income, capital gains or its investment. Securities which are subject to material legal restrictions on repatriation of assets will be considered illiquid securities by the Fund and subject to the limitations on illiquid investments.

Investments in Russia

Investing in Russian securities is highly speculative and involves significant risks and special considerations not typically associated with investing in the securities markets of the U.S. and most other developed countries.

Over the past century, Russia has experienced political, social and economic turbulence and has endured decades of communist rule under which the property of tens of millions of its citizens was collectivized into state agricultural and industrial enterprises. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia’s government has been faced with the daunting task of stabilizing its domestic economy, while transforming it into a modern and efficient structure able to compete in international markets and respond to the needs of its citizens. However, to date, many of the country’s economic reform initiatives have floundered as the proceeds of International Monetary Fund and other economic assistance have been squandered or stolen. In this environment, there is always the risk that the nation’s government will abandon the current program of economic reform and replace it with radically different political and economic policies that would be detrimental to the interests of foreign investors. This could entail a return to a centrally planned economy and nationalization of private enterprises similar to what existed in the Soviet Union.

Many of Russia’s businesses have failed to mobilize the available factors of production because the country’s privatization program virtually ensured the predominance of the old management teams that are largely non-market-oriented in their management approach. Poor accounting standards, inept management, pervasive corruption, insider trading and crime, and inadequate regulatory protection for the rights of investors all pose a significant risk, particularly to foreign investors. In addition, there is the risk that the Russian tax system will not be reformed to prevent inconsistent, retroactive, and/or exorbitant taxation, or, in the alternative, the risk that a reformed tax system may result in the inconsistent and unpredictable enforcement of the new tax laws.

Compared to most national stock markets, the Russian securities market suffers from a variety of problems not encountered in more developed markets. There is little long-term historical data on the Russian securities market because it is relatively new and a substantial proportion of securities transactions in Russia are privately negotiated outside of stock exchanges. The inexperience of the Russian securities market and the limited volume of trading in securities in the market may make obtaining accurate prices on portfolio securities from independent sources more difficult than in more developed markets. Additionally, because of less stringent auditing and financial reporting standards that apply to companies operating in Russia, there is little solid corporate information available to investors. As a result, it may be difficult to assess the value or prospects of an investment in Russian companies. Stocks of Russian companies also may experience greater price volatility than stocks of U.S. companies.

 

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Settlement, clearing and registration of securities transactions in Russia are subject to additional risks because of the recent formation of the Russian securities market, the underdeveloped state of the banking and telecommunications systems, and the overall legal and regulatory framework. Prior to 2013, there was no central registration system for equity share registration in Russia and registration was carried out by either the issuers themselves or by registrars located throughout Russia. Such registrars were not necessarily subject to effective state supervision nor were they licensed with any governmental entity, thereby increasing the risk that a Fund could lose ownership of its securities through fraud, negligence, or even mere oversight. With the implementation of the National Settlement Depository (“NSD”) in Russia as a recognized central securities depository, title to Russian equities is now based on the records of the Depository and not the registrars. Although the implementation of the NSD is generally expected to decrease the risk of loss in connection with recording and transferring title to securities, issues resulting in loss still might occur. In addition, issuers and registrars are still prominent in the validation and approval of documentation requirements for corporate action processing in Russia. Because the documentation requirements and approval criteria vary between registrars and/or issuers, there remain unclear and inconsistent market standards in the Russian market with respect to the completion and submission of corporate action elections. To the extent that a Fund suffers a loss relating to title or corporate actions relating to its portfolio securities, it may be difficult for the Fund to enforce its rights or otherwise remedy the loss.

The Russian economy is heavily dependent upon the export of a range of commodities including most industrial metals, forestry products, oil, and gas. Accordingly, it is strongly affected by international commodity prices and is particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products.

Foreign investors also face a high degree of currency risk when investing in Russian securities and a lack of available currency hedging instruments. In a surprise move in August 1998, Russia devalued the ruble, defaulted on short-term domestic bonds, and imposed a moratorium on the repayment of its international debt and the restructuring of the repayment terms. These actions have negatively affected Russian borrowers’ ability to access international capital markets and have had a damaging impact on the Russian economy. In light of these and other government actions, foreign investors face the possibility of further devaluations. In addition, there is a risk that the government may impose capital controls on foreign portfolio investments in the event of extreme financial or political crisis. Such capital controls would prevent the sale of a portfolio of foreign assets and the repatriation of investment income and capital. The current economic turmoil in Russia and the effects on the current global economic crisis on the Russian economy may cause flight from the Russian ruble into U.S. dollars and other currencies, which could force the Russian central bank to spend reserves to maintain the value of the ruble. If the Russian central bank falters in its defense of the ruble, there could be additional pressure on Russia’s banks and its currency.

The United States may impose economic sanctions against companies in various sectors of the Russian economy, including, but not limited to, the financial services, energy, metals and mining, engineering, and defense and defense-related materials sectors. These sanctions, if imposed, could impair a Fund’s ability to invest in securities it views as attractive investment opportunities. For example, a Fund may be prohibited from investing in securities issued by companies subject to such sanctions. In addition, the sanctions may require a Fund to freeze its existing investments in Russian companies, prohibiting the Fund from selling or otherwise transacting in these investments. This could impact a Fund’s ability to sell securities or other financial instruments as needed to meet shareholder redemptions.

Terrorism and related geo-political risks have led, and may in the future lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on world economies and markets generally.

RISK MANAGEMENT

Each actively managed Fund may employ non-hedging risk management techniques. Risk management strategies are used to keep the Funds fully invested and to reduce the transaction costs associated with cash flows into and out of a Fund. The Funds use a wide variety of instruments and strategies for risk management and the examples below are not meant to be exhaustive.

Examples of risk management strategies include synthetically altering the duration of a portfolio or the mix of securities in a portfolio. For example, if the Adviser wishes to extend maturities in a fixed income portfolio in order to take advantage of an anticipated decline in interest rates, but does not wish to purchase the underlying long-term securities, it might cause a Fund to purchase futures contracts on long term debt securities. Likewise, if the Adviser wishes to gain exposure to an instrument but does not wish to purchase the instrument it may use swaps and related instruments. Similarly, if the Adviser wishes to decrease exposure to fixed income securities or purchase equities, it

 

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could cause the Fund to sell futures contracts on debt securities and purchase futures contracts on a stock index. Such non-hedging risk management techniques involve leverage, and thus, present, as do all leveraged transactions, the possibility of losses as well as gains that are greater than if these techniques involved the purchase and sale of the securities themselves rather than their synthetic derivatives.

DIVERSIFICATION

Each Fund is a diversified fund and as such intends to meet the diversification requirements of the 1940 Act Current 1940 Act diversification requirements require that with respect to 75% of the assets of a Fund, the Fund may not invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of any one issuer or own more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer, except cash or cash items, obligations of the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities, and securities of other investment companies. As for the other 25% of a Fund’s assets not subject to the limitation described above, there is no limitation on investment of these assets under the 1940 Act, so that all of such assets may be invested in securities of any one issuer. Investments not subject to the limitations described above could involve an increased risk to a Fund should an issuer be unable to make interest or principal payments or should the market value of such securities decline.

The Funds will also comply with the diversification requirements imposed by the Code for qualification as a regulated investment company. See “Distributions and Tax Matters.”

DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAX MATTERS

The following discussion is a brief summary of some of the important federal (and, where noted, state) income tax consequences affecting the Funds and their shareholders. There may be other tax considerations applicable to particular shareholders. Except as otherwise noted in a Fund’s Prospectus, a Fund is not intended for foreign shareholders. As a result, this section does not address in detail the tax consequences affecting any shareholder who, as to the U.S., is a nonresident alien individual, foreign trust or estate, foreign corporation, or foreign partnership. This section is based on the Code, the regulations thereunder, published rulings and court decisions, all as currently in effect. These laws are subject to change, possibly on a retroactive basis. The following tax discussion is very general; therefore, prospective investors are urged to consult their tax advisors about the impact an investment in a Fund may have on their own tax situations and the possible application of foreign, state and local law.

The Funds generally will be treated as a separate entity for federal income tax purposes, and thus the provisions of the Code generally will be applied to a Fund and not at the Trust level. Net long-term and short-term capital gain, net income and operating expenses therefore will be determined separately for a Fund.

Special tax rules apply to investments held through defined contribution plans and other tax-qualified plans. Shareholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the suitability of shares of a Fund as an investment through such plans.

Qualification as a Regulated Investment Company

Each Fund intends to elect to be treated and qualify each year as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code. In order to qualify for the special tax treatment accorded regulated investment companies and their shareholders, each Fund must, among other things:

 

  (a) derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from (i) dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, and gain from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities, or foreign currencies, or other income (including, but not limited to, gain from options, swaps, futures, or forward contracts) derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities, or currencies and (ii) net income derived from interests in “qualified publicly traded partnerships” (“QPTPs”, defined below);

 

  (b)

diversify its holdings so that, at the end of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year, (i) at least 50% of the market value of the Fund’s total assets is represented by cash and cash items, U.S. government securities, securities of other regulated investment companies, and other securities, limited in respect of any one issuer to an amount not greater than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (ii) not more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is invested (x) in the securities (other than cash or cash items, or securities issued by the U.S. government or other regulated investment companies) of any one issuer or of two or more issuers that the Fund controls and that are engaged in the same, similar, or related trades or businesses, or (y) in the securities of one or more QPTPs. In the case of a Fund’s investments in loan participations, the Fund shall

 

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  treat both the financial intermediary and the issuer of the underlying loan as an issuer for the purposes of meeting this diversification requirement; and

 

  (c) distribute with respect to each taxable year at least 90% of the sum of its investment company taxable income (as that term is defined in the Code, without regard to the deduction for dividends paid — generally, taxable ordinary income and any excess of net short-term capital gain over net long-term capital loss) and net tax-exempt interest income, for such year.

In general, for purposes of the 90% gross income requirement described in paragraph (a) above, income derived from a partnership will be treated as qualifying income only to the extent such income is attributable to items of income of the partnership which would be qualifying income if realized by the regulated investment company. However, 100% of the net income derived from an interest in a “qualified publicly traded partnership” (defined as a partnership (x) interests in which are traded on an established securities markets or readily tradable on a secondary market as the substantial equivalents thereof, (y) that derives at least 90% of its income from passive income sources defined in Code section 7704(d), and (z) that derives less than 90% of its income from the qualifying income described in (a)(i) above) will be treated as qualifying income. Although income from a QPTP is qualifying income, as discussed above, investments in QPTPs cannot exceed 25% of the Fund’s assets. In addition, although in general the passive loss rules of the Code do not apply to regulated investment companies, such rules do apply to a regulated investment company with respect to items attributable to an interest in a QPTP.

Gains from foreign currencies (including foreign currency options, foreign currency swaps, foreign currency futures and foreign currency forward contracts) currently constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 90% test, described in paragraph (a) above. However, the Treasury Department has the authority to issue regulations (possibly with retroactive effect) excluding from the definition of “qualifying income” a fund’s foreign currency gains to the extent that such income is not directly related to the Fund’s principal business of investing in stock or securities.

For purposes of paragraph (b) above, the term “outstanding voting securities of such issuer” will include the equity securities of a QPTP. A Fund’s investment in MLPs may qualify as an investment in (1) a QPTP, (2) a “regular” partnership, (3) a “passive foreign investment company” (a “PFIC”) or (4) a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The treatment of particular master limited partnerships (“MLPs”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes will affect the extent to which a Fund can invest in MLPs. The U.S. federal income tax consequences of a Fund’s investments in “PFICs” and “regular” partnerships are discussed in greater detail below.

If a Fund qualifies for a taxable year as a regulated investment company that is accorded special tax treatment, the Fund will not be subject to federal income tax on income distributed in a timely manner to its shareholders in the form of dividends (including Capital Gain Dividends, defined below). If a Fund were to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company accorded special tax treatment in any taxable year, the Fund would be subject to taxation on its taxable income at corporate rates, and all distributions from earnings and profits, including any distributions of net tax-exempt income and net long-term capital gain, would be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income. Some portions of such distributions may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of corporate shareholders and for treatment as qualified dividend income in the case of individual shareholders. In addition, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gain, pay substantial taxes and interest, and make substantial distributions before re-qualifying as a regulated investment company that is accorded special tax treatment.

Each Fund intends to distribute at least annually to its shareholders all or substantially all of its investment company taxable income (computed without regard to the dividends-paid deduction) and may distribute its net capital gain (that is the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss). Investment company taxable income which is retained by a Fund will be subject to tax at regular corporate tax rates. Each Fund might also retain for investment its net capital gain. If a Fund does retain such net capital gain, such gain will be subject to tax at regular corporate rates on the amount retained, but the Fund may designate the retained amount as undistributed capital gain in a notice to its shareholders who (i) will be required to include in income for federal income tax purposes, as long-term capital gain, their respective shares of the undistributed amount, and (ii) will be entitled to credit their respective shares of the tax paid by a Fund on such undistributed amount against their federal income tax liabilities, if any, and to claim refunds to the extent the credit exceeds such liabilities. For federal income tax purposes, the tax basis of shares owned by a shareholder of a Fund will be increased by an amount equal under current law to the difference between the amount of undistributed capital gain included in the shareholder’s gross income and the tax deemed paid by the shareholder under clause (ii) of the preceding sentence.

In determining its net capital gain, including in connection with determining the amount available to support a Capital Gain Dividend, its taxable income and its earnings and profits, a Fund may elect to treat part or all of any

 

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post-October capital loss (defined as any net capital loss attributable to the portion of the taxable year after October 31, or if there is no net capital loss, any net long-term capital loss or any net short-term capital loss attributable to the portion of the taxable year after that date) or late-year ordinary loss (generally, (i) net ordinary loss from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of property, attributable to the portion of the taxable year after October 31, plus (ii) other net ordinary loss attributable to the portion of the taxable year after December 31) as if incurred in the succeeding taxable year.

Excise Tax on Regulated Investment Companies

If a Fund fails to distribute in a calendar year an amount at least equal to the sum of 98% of its ordinary income (taking into account certain deferrals and elections) for such year and 98.2% of its capital gain net income for the one-year period ending October 31 (or later if the Fund is permitted to elect and so elects), plus any retained amount from the prior year, the Fund will be subject to a nondeductible 4% excise tax on the undistributed amounts. Each Fund intends to make distributions sufficient to avoid imposition of the 4% excise tax, although each Fund reserves the right to pay an excise tax rather than make an additional distribution when circumstances warrant (e.g., the excise tax amount is deemed by a Fund to be de minimis). Certain derivative instruments give rise to ordinary income and loss. If a Fund has a taxable year that begins in one calendar year and ends in the next calendar year, the Fund will be required to make this excise tax distribution during its taxable year. There is a risk that a Fund could recognize income prior to making this excise tax distribution and could recognize losses after making this distribution. As a result, an excise tax distribution could constitute a return of capital (see discussion below).

Fund Distributions

Each Fund anticipates distributing substantially all of its net investment income for each taxable year. Distributions are taxable to shareholders even if they are paid from income or gain earned by the Fund before a shareholder’s investment (and thus were included in the price the shareholder paid). Distributions are taxable whether shareholders receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional shares. A shareholder whose distributions are reinvested in shares will be treated as having received a dividend equal to the amount of cash that the shareholder would have received if such shareholder had elected to receive the distribution in cash.

Dividends and distributions on a Fund’s shares generally are subject to federal income tax as described herein to the extent they do not exceed the Fund’s realized income and gains, even though such dividends and distributions may represent economically a return of a particular shareholder’s investment. Such dividends and distributions are likely to occur in respect of shares purchased at a time when a Fund’s NAV reflects gains that are either (i) unrealized, or (ii) realized but not distributed.

For federal income tax purposes, distributions of net investment income generally are taxable as ordinary income. Taxes on distributions of capital gain are determined by how long a Fund owned the investment that generated it, rather than how long a shareholder may have owned shares in the Fund. Distributions of net capital gain from the sale of investments that a Fund owned for more than one year and that are properly designated by the Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gain. Distributions of capital gain generally are made after applying any available capital loss carryovers. The maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains is either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. A distribution of gain from the sale of investments that a Fund owned for one year or less will be taxable as ordinary income. Distributions attributable to gain from the sale of MLPs that is characterized as ordinary income under the Code’s recapture provisions will be taxable as ordinary income.

Distributions of investment income designated by a Fund as derived from “qualified dividend income” will be taxed in the hands of individuals at the rates applicable to long-term capital gain. In order for some portion of the dividends received by a Fund shareholder to be qualified dividend income, the Fund must meet certain holding-period and other requirements with respect to some portion of the dividend-paying stocks in its portfolio, and the shareholder must meet certain holding-period and other requirements with respect to the Fund’s shares. A dividend will not be treated as qualified dividend income (at either the Fund or shareholder level) (i) if the dividend is received with respect to any share of stock held for fewer than 61 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date which is 60 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (or, in the case of certain preferred stock, 91 days during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date), (ii) to the extent that the recipient is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property, (iii) if the recipient elects to have the dividend income treated as investment interest for purposes of the limitation on deductibility of investment interest,

 

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or (iv) if the dividend is received from a foreign corporation that is (a) not eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty with the U.S. (with the exception of dividends paid on stock of such a foreign corporation readily tradable on an established securities market in the U.S.) or (b) treated as a PFIC.

In general, distributions of investment income designated by a Fund as derived from qualified dividend income will be treated as qualified dividend income by a non-corporate taxable shareholder so long as the shareholder meets the holding period and other requirements described above with respect to the Fund’s shares. In any event, if the qualified dividend income received by a Fund during any taxable year is equal to or greater than 95% of its “gross income”, then 100% of the Fund’s dividends (other than dividends that are properly designated as Capital Gain Dividends) will be eligible to be treated as qualified dividend income. For this purpose, the only gain included in the term “gross income” is the excess of net short-term capital gain over net long-term capital loss.

If a Fund receives dividends from an underlying fund, and the underlying fund designates such dividends as “qualified dividend income,” then the Fund may, in turn, designate a portion of its distributions as “qualified dividend income” as well, provided the Fund meets the holding-period and other requirements with respect to shares of the underlying fund.

Any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of any Capital Gain Dividends received by the shareholder with respect to those shares. All or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Fund shares will be disallowed if other shares of such Fund are purchased within 30 days before or after the disposition. In such a case, the basis of the newly purchased shares will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.

A distribution paid to shareholders by a Fund in January of a year generally is deemed to have been received by shareholders on December 31 of the preceding year, if the distribution was declared and payable to shareholders of record on a date in October, November, or December of that preceding year. A Fund will provide federal tax information annually, including information about dividends and distributions paid during the preceding year to taxable investors and others requesting such information.

If a Fund makes a distribution to its shareholders in excess of its current and accumulated “earnings and profits” in any taxable year, the excess distribution will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of each shareholder’s basis (for tax purposes) in its shares, and any distribution in excess of basis will be treated as capital gain. A return of capital is not taxable, but it reduces the shareholder’s basis in its shares, which reduces the loss (or increases the gain) on a subsequent taxable disposition by such shareholder of the shares.

Dividends of net investment income received by corporate shareholders (other than shareholders that are S corporations) of a Fund will qualify for the 70% dividends-received deduction generally available to corporations to the extent of the amount of qualifying dividends received by the Fund from domestic corporations for the taxable year. A dividend received by a Fund will not be treated as a qualifying dividend (1) if the stock on which the dividend is paid is considered to be “debt-financed” (generally, acquired with borrowed funds), (2) if it has been received with respect to any share of stock that the Fund has held less than 46 days (91 days in the case of certain preferred stock) during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before such date in the case of certain preferred stock) or (3) to the extent that the Fund is under an obligation (pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property. Moreover, the dividends-received deduction may be disallowed or reduced (1) if the corporate shareholder fails to satisfy the foregoing requirements with respect to its shares of a Fund or (2) by application of the Code. However, any distributions received by a Fund from REITs and PFICs will not qualify for the corporate dividends-received deduction.

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from a Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares, but excluding any exempt interest dividends from a Fund) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.

Sale or Redemption of Shares

The sale, exchange, or redemption of Fund shares may give rise to a gain or loss. In general, any gain or loss arising from (or treated as arising from) the sale or redemption of shares of a Fund will be considered capital gain or loss and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the shares were held for more than one year. However, any capital

 

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loss arising from the sale or redemption of shares held for six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of the amount of capital gain dividends received on (or undistributed capital gains credited with respect to) such shares. Additionally, any loss realized upon the sale or exchange of Fund shares with a tax holding period of six months or less may be disallowed to the extent of any distributions treated as exempt interest dividends with respect to such shares. The maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains is either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. Capital gain of a corporate shareholder is taxed at the same rate as ordinary income.

Fund Investments

The following applies to Fund investments to the extent a Fund is permitted to invest in such investments.

Certain investments of a Fund, including transactions in options, swaptions, futures contracts, forward contracts, straddles, swaps, short sales, foreign currencies, inflation-linked securities and foreign securities, including for hedging purposes, will be subject to special tax rules (including mark-to-market, constructive sale, straddle, wash sale and short sale rules). In a given case, these rules may accelerate income to a Fund, defer losses to a Fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of a Fund’s securities, convert long-term capital gain into short-term capital gain, convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital loss, or otherwise affect the character of a Fund’s income. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders and cause differences between a Fund’s book income and its taxable income. If a Fund’s book income exceeds its taxable income, the distribution (if any) of such excess generally will be treated as (i) a dividend to the extent of the Fund’s remaining earnings and profits (including earnings and profits arising from tax-exempt income), (ii) thereafter, as a return of capital to the extent of the recipient’s basis in its shares, and (iii) thereafter, as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset. If a Fund’s book income is less than taxable income, the Fund could be required to make distributions exceeding book income to qualify as a regulated investment company that is accorded special tax treatment. Income earned as a result of these transactions would, in general, not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction or for treatment as exempt-interest dividends when distributed to shareholders. Each Fund will endeavor to make any available elections pertaining to such transactions in a manner believed to be in the best interest of a Fund and its shareholders.

A Fund’s participation in loans of securities may affect the amount, timing, and character of distributions to shareholders. With respect to any security subject to a securities loan, any (i) amounts received by the Fund in place of dividends earned on the security during the period that such security was not directly held by the Fund will not give rise to qualified dividend income and (ii) withholding taxes accrued on dividends during the period that such security was not directly held by the Fund will not qualify as a foreign tax paid by the Fund and therefore cannot be passed through to shareholders even if the Fund meets the requirements described in “Foreign Taxes,” below.

Certain debt securities purchased by a Fund are sold at an original issue discount and thus do not make periodic cash interest payments. Similarly, zero-coupon bonds do not make periodic interest payments. Generally, the amount of the original issue discount is treated as interest income and is included in taxable income (and required to be distributed) over the term of the debt security even though payment of that amount is not received until a later time, usually when the debt security matures. In addition, payment-in-kind securities will give rise to income that is required to be distributed and is taxable even though a Fund holding the security receives no interest payment in cash on the security during the year. Because each Fund distributes substantially all of its net investment income to its shareholders (including such imputed interest), a Fund may have to sell portfolio securities in order to generate the cash necessary for the required distributions. Such sales may occur at a time when the Adviser would not otherwise have chosen to sell such securities and may result in a taxable gain or loss. Some of the Funds may invest in inflation-linked debt securities. Any increase in the principal amount of an inflation-linked debt security will be original issue discount, which is taxable as ordinary income and is required to be distributed, even though the Fund will not receive the principal, including any increase thereto, until maturity. A Fund investing in such securities may be required to liquidate other investments, including at times when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to satisfy its distribution requirements and to eliminate any possible taxation at the Fund level. Certain debt securities that may be acquired by a Fund in the secondary market may be treated as having market discount. Generally, any gain recognized on the disposition of, and any partial payment of principal on, a debt security having market discount is treated as ordinary income to the extent the gain, or principal payment, does not exceed the “accrued market discount” on such debt security. Market discount generally accrues in equal daily installments. A Fund may make one or more of the elections applicable to debt securities having market discount, which could affect the character and timing of recognition of income.

 

 

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A Fund may invest to a significant extent in debt obligations that are in the lowest rated categories (or are unrated), including debt obligations of issuers that are not currently paying interest or that are in default. Investments in debt obligations that are at risk of being in default (or are presently in default) present special tax issues for a Fund. Tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as when a Fund may cease to accrue interest, original issue discount or market discount, when and to what extent deductions may be taken for bad debts or worthless securities and how payments received on obligations in default should be allocated between principal and income. These and other related issues will be addressed by a Fund when, as and if it invests in such securities, in order to seek to ensure that it distributes sufficient income to preserve its status as a regulated investment company and does not become subject to U.S. federal income taxation or any excise tax.

A Fund’s investments in foreign currencies, foreign currency denominated debt securities and certain options, futures or forward foreign currency contracts (and similar instruments) will be subject to special tax rules. Generally, transactions in foreign currencies give rise to ordinary income or loss. An election under Section 988(a)(1)(B) may be available to treat foreign currency gain or loss attributable to certain forward, futures and option contracts as capital, including certain “foreign currency contracts.” A “foreign currency contract” is a contract that (1) requires delivery of, or settlement of, a foreign currency that is a currency in which positions are also traded through regulated futures contracts, (2) is traded in the interbank market, and (3) is entered into at an arm’s-length price determined by reference to the price in the interbank market. If this Section 988(a)(1)(B) election is made, foreign currency contracts are treated as 60% long-term capital gain or loss and 40% short-term capital gain or loss under the Section 1256 mark-to-market rules. All other forward contracts under this 988(a)(1)(B) election would be characterized as capital and generally gain or loss would be recognized when the contract is closed and completed. Other rules apply to options, futures or forward foreign currency contracts that may be part of a straddle or a Section 988 hedging transaction within the meaning of Code Section 988(d).

Special tax considerations apply if a Fund invests in investment companies that are taxable as partnerships for federal income tax purposes. In general, a Fund will not recognize income earned by such an investment company until the close of the investment company’s taxable year. But a Fund will recognize such income as it is earned by the investment company for purposes of determining whether it is subject to the 4% excise tax. Therefore, if a Fund and such an investment company have different taxable years, the Fund may be compelled to make distributions in excess of the income recognized from such an investment company in order to avoid the imposition of the 4% excise tax. A Fund’s receipt of a non-liquidating cash distribution from an investment company taxable as a partnership generally will result in recognized gain (but not loss) only to the extent that the amount of the distribution exceeds the Fund’s adjusted basis in shares of such investment company before the distribution. A Fund that receives a liquidating cash distribution from an investment company taxable as a partnership will recognize capital gain or loss to the extent of the difference between the proceeds received by the Fund and the Fund’s adjusted tax basis in shares of such investment company; however, the Fund will recognize ordinary income, rather than capital gain, to the extent that the Fund’s allocable share of “unrealized receivables” (including any accrued but untaxed market discount) exceeds the shareholder’s share of the basis in those unrealized receivables.

Some of the Funds may invest in REITs. Such investments in REIT equity securities may require the Fund to accrue and distribute income not yet received. In order to generate sufficient cash to make the requisite distributions, the Fund may be required to sell securities in its portfolio (including when it is not advantageous to do so) that it otherwise would have continued to hold. A Fund’s investments in REIT equity securities may at other times result in the Fund’s receipt of cash in excess of the REIT’s earnings; if the Fund distributes such amounts, such distribution could constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for federal income tax purposes. Dividends received by the Fund from a REIT generally will not constitute qualified dividend income.

A Fund might invest directly or indirectly in residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMICs”) or equity interests in taxable mortgage pools (“TMPS”). Under a notice issued by the IRS in October 2006 and Treasury regulations that have not yet been issued (but may apply with retroactive effect) a portion of a Fund’s income from a REIT that is attributable to the REIT’s residual interest in a REMIC or a TMP (referred to in the Code as an “excess inclusion”) will be subject to federal income taxation in all events. This notice also provides, and the regulations are expected to provide, that excess inclusion income of a regulated investment company, such as a Fund, will generally be allocated to shareholders of the regulated investment company in proportion to the dividends received by such shareholders, with the same consequences as if the shareholders held the related REMIC or TMP residual interest directly.

In general, excess inclusion income allocated to shareholders (i) cannot be offset by net operating losses (subject to a limited exception for certain thrift institutions) and (ii) will constitute unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”)

 

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to entities (including a qualified pension plan, an individual retirement account, a 401(k) plan, a Keogh plan or other tax-exempt entity) subject to tax on UBTI, thereby potentially requiring such an entity that is allocated excess inclusion income, and otherwise might not be required to file a tax return, to file a tax return and pay tax on such income. In addition, because the Code provides that excess inclusion income is ineligible for treaty benefits, a regulated investment company must withhold tax on excess inclusions attributable to its foreign shareholders at a 30% rate of withholding, regardless of any treaty benefits for which a shareholder is otherwise eligible.

Any investment in residual interests of a CMO that has elected to be treated as a REMIC can create complex tax problems, especially if the Fund has state or local governments or other tax-exempt organizations as shareholders. Under current law, the Fund serves to block UBTI from being realized by its tax-exempt shareholders. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a tax-exempt shareholder will recognize UBTI by virtue of its investment in the Fund if shares in a Fund constitute debt-financed property in the hands of the tax-exempt shareholder within the meaning of Code Section 514(b). Furthermore, a tax-exempt shareholder may recognize UBTI if a Fund recognizes “excess inclusion income” derived from direct or indirect investments in REMIC residual interests or TMPs if the amount of such income recognized by the Fund exceeds the Fund’s investment company taxable income (after taking into account deductions for dividends paid by the Fund).

In addition, special tax consequences apply to charitable remainder trusts (“CRTs”) that invest in regulated investment companies that invest directly or indirectly in residual interests in REMICs or in TMPs. Under legislation enacted in December 2006, a CRT, as defined in section 664 of the Code, that realizes UBTI for a taxable year must pay an excise tax annually of an amount equal to such UBTI. Under IRS guidance issued in October 2006, a CRT will not recognize UBTI solely as a result of investing in a Fund that recognizes “excess inclusion income.” Rather, if at any time during any taxable year a CRT (or one of certain other tax-exempt shareholders, such as the U.S., a state or political subdivision, or an agency or instrumentality thereof, and certain energy cooperatives) is a record holder of a share in a Fund that recognizes “excess inclusion income,” then the Fund will be subject to a tax on that portion of its “excess inclusion income” for the taxable year that is allocable to such shareholders at the highest federal corporate income tax rate. The extent to which this IRS guidance remains applicable in light of the December 2006 legislation is unclear. To the extent permitted under the 1940 Act, each Fund may elect to specially allocate any such tax to the applicable CRT, or other shareholder, and thus reduce such shareholder’s distributions for the year by the amount of the tax that relates to such shareholder’s interest in the Fund. The Funds have not yet determined whether such an election will be made. CRTs are urged to consult their tax advisors concerning the consequences of investing in a Fund.

If a Fund invests in PFICs, certain special tax consequences may apply. A PFIC is any foreign corporation in which (i) 75% or more of the gross income for the taxable year is passive income, or (ii) the average percentage of the assets (generally by value, but by adjusted tax basis in certain cases) that produce or are held for the production of passive income is at least 50%. Generally, passive income for this purpose means dividends, interest (including income equivalent to interest), royalties, rents, annuities, the excess of gains over losses from certain property transactions and commodities transactions, and foreign currency gains. Passive income for this purpose does not include rents and royalties received by the foreign corporation from active business and certain income received from related persons. A Fund’s investments in certain PFICs could subject the Fund to a U.S. federal income tax (including interest charges) on distributions received from the company or on proceeds received from the disposition of shares in the company. This tax cannot be eliminated by making distributions to Fund shareholders. In addition, certain interest charges may be imposed on the Fund as a result of such distributions.

If a Fund is in a position to treat a PFIC as a “qualified electing fund” (“QEF”), the Fund will be required to include its share of the company’s income and net capital gain annually, regardless of whether it receives any distributions from the company. Alternately, a Fund may make an election to mark the gains (and to a limited extent losses) in such holdings “to the market” as though it had sold and repurchased its holdings in those PFICs on the last day of the Fund’s taxable year. Such gain and loss are treated as ordinary income and loss. The QEF and mark-to-market elections may have the effect of accelerating the recognition of income (without the receipt of cash) and increasing the amount required to be distributed by a Fund to avoid taxation. Making either of these elections, therefore, may require the Fund to liquidate other investments (including when it is not advantageous to do so) to meet its distribution requirement, which also may accelerate the recognition of gain and affect the Fund’s total return. A fund that invests indirectly in PFICs by virtue of the fund’s investment in other investment companies that qualify as “U.S. persons” within the meaning of the Code may not make a QEF election; rather, such underlying investment companies investing directly in the PFICs would decide whether to make such election. Dividends paid by PFICs will not be eligible to be treated as “qualified dividend income.”

 

 

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The ability of a Fund to invest directly in commodities, and in certain commodity-related securities and other instruments, is subject to significant limitations in order to enable a Fund to maintain its status as a regulated investment company under the Code.

Investment in Other Funds

If a Fund invests in shares of mutual funds, other ETFs or other companies that are taxable as regulated investment companies, as well as certain investments in REITs (collectively, “underlying funds”), its distributable income and gains will normally consist, in part, of distributions from the underlying funds and gains and losses on the disposition of shares of the underlying funds. To the extent that an underlying fund realizes net losses on its investments for a given taxable year, the Fund will not be able to recognize its share of those losses (so as to offset distributions of net income or capital gains from other underlying funds) until it disposes of shares of the underlying fund. Moreover, even when the Fund does make such a disposition, a portion of its loss may be recognized as a long-term capital loss, which will not be treated as favorably for federal income tax purposes as a short-term capital loss or an ordinary deduction. In particular, the Fund will not be able to offset any capital losses from its dispositions of underlying fund shares against its ordinary income (including distributions of any net short-term capital gain realized by an underlying fund).

In addition, in certain circumstances, the “wash sale” rules under Section 1091 of the Code may apply to a Fund’s sales of underlying fund shares that have generated losses. A wash sale occurs if shares of an underlying fund are sold by the Fund at a loss and the Fund acquires substantially identical shares of that same underlying fund 30 days before or after the date of the sale. The wash-sale rules could defer losses in the Fund’s hands on sales of underlying fund shares (to the extent such sales are wash sales) for extended (and, in certain cases, potentially indefinite) periods of time.

As a result of the foregoing rules, and certain other special rules, the amount of net investment income and net capital gain that each Fund will be required to distribute to shareholders may be greater than what such amounts would have been had the Fund directly invested in the securities held by the underlying funds, rather than investing in shares of the underlying funds. For similar reasons, the character of distributions from the Fund (e.g., long-term capital gain, exempt interest, eligibility for dividends-received deduction, etc.) will not necessarily be the same as it would have been had the Fund invested directly in the securities held by the underlying funds.

If a Fund received dividends from an underlying fund that qualifies as a regulated investment company, and the underlying fund designates such dividends as “qualified dividend income”, then the Fund is permitted in turn to designate a portion of its distributions as “qualified dividend income”, provided the Fund meets holding period and other requirements with respect to shares of the underlying fund.

Depending on a Fund’s percentage ownership in an underlying fund, both before and after a redemption, a redemption of shares of an underlying fund by a Fund may cause the Fund to be treated as receiving a Section 301 distribution taxable as a dividend to the extent of its allocable shares of earnings and profits, on the full amount of the distribution instead of receiving capital gain income on the shares of the underlying fund. Such a distribution may be treated as qualified dividend income and thus eligible to be taxed at the rates applicable to long-term capital gain. If qualified dividend income treatment is not available, the distribution may be taxed as ordinary income. This could cause shareholders of a Fund to recognize higher amounts of ordinary income than if the shareholders had held the shares of the underlying funds directly.

A Fund may elect to pass through to shareholders foreign tax credits from an underlying fund and exempt-interest dividends from an underlying fund, provided that at least 50% of the Fund’s total assets are invested in other regulated investment companies at the end of each quarter of the taxable year.

Backup Withholding

Each Fund generally is required to backup withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable dividends and other distributions paid to, and the proceeds of share sales, exchanges, or redemptions made by, any individual shareholder who fails to properly furnish the Fund with a correct taxpayer identification number (“TIN”), who has under-reported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify to the Fund that he or she is not subject to backup withholding. The backup withholding rules may also apply to distributions that are properly designated as exempt-interest dividends. The backup withholding tax rate is 28%.

 

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Foreign Shareholders

Shares of the Funds have not been registered for sale outside of the United States. This SAI is not intended for distribution to prospective investors outside of the United States. The Funds generally do not market or sell Shares to investors domiciled outside of the United States, even, with regard to individuals, if they are citizens or lawful permanent residents of the United States.

Distributions properly designated as Capital Gain Dividends and exempt-interest dividends generally will not be subject to withholding of federal income tax. However, exempt-interest dividends may be subject to backup withholding (as discussed above). In general, dividends other than Capital Gain Dividends and exempt-interest dividends paid by a Fund to a shareholder that is not a “U.S. person” within the meaning of the Code (a “foreign person”) are subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) even if they are funded by income or gains (such as portfolio interest, short-term capital gains, or foreign-source dividend and interest income) that, if paid to a foreign person directly, would not be subject to withholding. However, under an exemption recently made permanent by Congress, the Fund will not be required to withhold any amounts (i) with respect to distributions (other than distributions to a foreign person (w) that has not provided a satisfactory statement that the beneficial owner is not a U.S. person, (x) to the extent that the dividend is attributable to certain interest on an obligation if the foreign person is the issuer or is a 10% shareholder of the issuer, (y) that is within certain foreign countries that have inadequate information exchange with the United States, or (z) to the extent the dividend is attributable to interest paid by a person that is a related person of the foreign person and the foreign person is a controlled foreign corporation) from U.S.-source interest income of types similar to those not subject to U.S. federal income tax if earned directly by an individual foreign person, to the extent such distributions are properly designated by the Fund (“interest-related dividends”), and (ii) with respect to distributions (other than (a) distributions to an individual foreign person who is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the distribution and (b) distributions subject to special rules regarding the disposition of U.S. real property interests (as described below)) of net short-term capital gains in excess of net long-term capital losses to the extent such distributions are properly designated by the Fund (“short-term capital gain dividends”). Depending on the circumstances, a Fund may make designations of interest-related and/or short-term capital gain dividends with respect to all, some or none of its potentially eligible dividends and/or treat such dividends, in whole or in part, as ineligible for these exemptions from withholding. In the case of shares held through an intermediary, the intermediary may withhold even if a Fund makes a designation with respect to a payment. Foreign persons should contact their intermediaries regarding the application of these rules to their accounts.

A beneficial holder of shares who is a foreign person is not, in general, subject to U.S. federal income tax on gains (and is not allowed a deduction for losses) realized on the sale of shares of a Fund or on Capital Gain Dividends or exempt-interest dividends unless (i) such gain or dividend is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business carried on by such holder within the United States or (ii) in the case of an individual holder, the holder is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the sale or the receipt of the Capital Gain Dividend and certain other conditions are met or (iii) the shares constitute “U.S. real property interests” (“USRPIs”) or the Capital Gain Dividends are attributable to gains from the sale or exchange of USRPIs in accordance with the rules set forth below.

Special rules apply to distributions to foreign shareholders from a Fund that is either a “U.S. real property holding corporation” (“USRPHC”) or would be a USRPHC but for the operation of the exceptions to the definition thereof described below. Additionally, special rules apply to the sale of shares in a Fund that is a USRPHC. Very generally, a USRPHC is a domestic corporation that holds U.S. real property interests (“USRPIs”) — USRPIs are defined as any interest in U.S. real property or any equity interest in a USRPHC — the fair market value of which equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market values of the corporation’s USRPIs, interests in real property located outside the United States and certain other assets. A Fund that holds (directly or indirectly) significant interests in REITs may be a USRPHC. The special rules discussed in the next paragraph will also generally apply to distributions from a Fund that would be a USRPHC absent exclusions from USRPI treatment for interests in domestically controlled REITs or regulated investment companies and not-greater-than-5% interests in publicly traded classes of stock in REITs or regulated investment companies.

In the case of a Fund that is a USRPHC or would be a USRPHC but for the exceptions from the definition of USRPI (described immediately above), distributions by the Fund that are attributable to (a) gains realized on the disposition of USRPIs by the Fund and (b) distributions received by the Fund from a lower-tier regulated investment company or REIT that the Fund is required to treat as USRPI gain in its hands will retain their character as gains

 

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realized from USRPIs in the hands of the Fund’s foreign shareholders. If the foreign shareholder holds (or has held in the prior year) more than a 5% interest in a Fund, such distributions will be treated as gains “effectively connected” with the conduct of a “U.S. trade or business,” and subject to tax at graduated rates. Moreover, such shareholders will be required to file a U.S. income tax return for the year in which the gain was recognized and a Fund will be required to withhold 35% of the amount of such distribution. In the case of all other foreign shareholders (i.e., those whose interest in the Fund did not exceed 5% at any time during the prior year), the USRPI distribution will be treated as ordinary income (regardless of any designation by the Fund that such distribution is a short-term capital gain dividend or a Capital Gain Dividend), and the Fund must withhold 30% (or a lower applicable treaty rate) of the amount of the distribution paid to such foreign shareholder. Foreign shareholders of a Fund are also subject to “wash sale” rules to prevent the avoidance of the tax-filing and -payment obligations discussed above through the sale and repurchase of Fund shares.

In addition, if a Fund is a USRPHC, it must typically withhold 10% of the amount realized in a redemption by a greater-than-5% foreign shareholder, and that shareholder must file a U.S. income tax return for the year of the disposition of the USRPI and pay any additional tax due on the gain. No withholding is generally required with respect to amounts paid in redemption of shares of a Fund if the Fund is a domestically controlled USRPHC or, in certain limited cases, if the Fund (whether or not domestically controlled) holds substantial investments in regulated investment companies that are domestically controlled USRPHCs.

In order to qualify for any exemptions from withholding described above or for lower withholding tax rates under income tax treaties, or to establish an exemption from backup withholding, the foreign investor must comply with special certification and filing requirements relating to its non-US status (including, in general, furnishing an applicable IRS Form W-8 or substitute form). Foreign investors in a Fund should consult their tax advisers in this regard.

If a shareholder is eligible for the benefits of a tax treaty, any effectively connected income or gain will generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis only if it is also attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the shareholder in the United States.

A beneficial holder of shares who is a foreign person may be subject to state and local tax and to the U.S. federal estate tax in addition to the federal tax on income referred to above. Foreign shareholders in a Fund should consult their tax advisors with respect to the potential application of the above rules.

A Fund is required to withhold U.S. tax (at a 30% rate) on payments of taxable dividends and (effective January 1, 2019) redemption proceeds and certain capital gain dividends made to certain non-U.S. entities that fail to comply (or be deemed compliant) with extensive new reporting and withholding requirements designed to inform the U.S. Department of the Treasury of U.S.-owned foreign investment accounts. Shareholders may be requested to provide additional information to a Fund to enable the Fund to determine whether withholding is required.

Foreign Taxes

Certain Funds may be subject to foreign withholding taxes or other foreign taxes with respect to income (possibly including, in some cases, capital gain) received from sources within foreign countries. Tax conventions between certain countries and the U.S. may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If more than 50% of a Fund’s assets at year end consists of the securities of foreign corporations, or if at least 50% of the value of a Fund’s total assets at the close of each quarter of its taxable year is represented by interests in other regulated investment companies, the Fund may elect to permit shareholders to claim a credit or deduction on their income tax returns for their pro rata portion of qualified taxes paid by the Fund to foreign countries in respect of foreign securities the Fund has held for at least the minimum period specified in the Code. In such a case, shareholders will include in gross income from foreign sources their pro rata shares of such taxes. A shareholder’s ability to claim a foreign tax credit or deduction in respect of foreign taxes paid by a Fund may be subject to certain limitations imposed by the Code and the Treasury Regulations issued thereunder, as a result of which a shareholder may not get a full credit or deduction for the amount of such taxes. In particular, shareholders must hold their Fund shares (without protection from risk of loss) on the ex-dividend date and for at least 15 additional days during the 30-day period surrounding the ex-dividend date to be eligible to claim a foreign tax credit with respect to a given dividend. Shareholders who do not itemize on their federal income tax returns may claim a credit (but no deduction) for such foreign taxes.

If a Fund does not make the above election or if more than 50% of its assets at the end of the year do not consist of securities of foreign corporations, the Fund’s net income will be reduced by the foreign taxes paid or withheld. In such cases, shareholders will not be entitled to claim a credit or deduction with respect to foreign taxes.

 

 

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The foregoing is only a general description of the treatment of foreign source income or foreign taxes under the U.S. federal income tax laws. Because the availability of a credit or deduction depends on the particular circumstances of each shareholder, shareholders are advised to consult their own tax advisors.

Exempt-Interest Dividends

Some of the Funds intend to qualify to pay exempt-interest dividends to their respective shareholders. In order to qualify to pay exempt-interest dividends, at least 50% of the value of a Fund’s total assets must consist of tax-exempt municipal bonds at the close of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year, or at least 50% of the value of a Fund’s total assets at the close of each quarter of its taxable year must be represented by interests in other regulated investment companies. An exempt-interest dividend is that part of a dividend that is properly designated as an exempt-interest dividend and that consists of interest received by a Fund on such tax-exempt securities. Shareholders of a Fund that pays exempt-interest dividends would not incur any regular federal income tax on the amount of exempt-interest dividends received by them from a Fund, but an investment in such a Fund may result in liability for federal and state alternative minimum taxation and may be subject to state and local taxes.

Interest on indebtedness incurred or continued by a shareholder, whether a corporation or an individual, to purchase or carry shares of a Fund is not deductible to the extent it relates to exempt-interest dividends received by the shareholder from a Fund. Any loss incurred on the sale or redemption of a Fund’s shares held for six months or less may be disallowed to the extent of exempt-interest dividends received with respect to such shares.

Interest on certain tax-exempt bonds that are private activity bonds within the meaning of the Code is treated as a tax preference item for purposes of the alternative minimum tax, and any such interest received by a Fund and distributed to shareholders will be so treated for purposes of any alternative minimum tax liability of shareholders to the extent of the dividend’s proportionate share of a Fund’s income consisting of such interest. All exempt-interest dividends are subject to the corporate alternative minimum tax.

The exemption from federal income tax for exempt-interest dividends does not necessarily result in exemption for such dividends under the income or other tax laws of any state or local authority. Shareholders that receive social security or railroad retirement benefits should consult their tax advisors to determine what effect, if any, an investment in a Fund may have on the federal taxation of their benefits.

From time to time legislation may be introduced or litigation may arise that would change the tax treatment of exempt-interest dividends. Such legislation or litigation may have the effect of raising the state or other taxes payable by shareholders on such dividends. Shareholders should consult their tax advisors for the current federal, state and local law on exempt-interest dividends.

Creation Units

As a result of U.S. federal income tax requirements, the Trust on behalf of a Fund, has the right to reject an order for a creation of Shares if the creator (or group of creators) would, upon obtaining the Shares so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares of a Fund and if, pursuant to Section 351 of the Code, the Fund would have a basis in the Deposit Instruments different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Trust also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial share ownership for purposes of the 80% determination. See “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units—Procedures for Creation of Creation Units” in Appendix A.

State and Local Tax Matters

Depending on the residence of the shareholders for tax purposes, distributions may also be subject to state and local taxation. Rules of state and local taxation regarding qualified dividend income, ordinary income dividends and capital gain dividends from regulated investment companies may differ from the rules of U.S. federal income tax in many respects. Shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors as to the consequences of these and other state and local tax rules affecting investment in a Fund.

Most states provide that a regulated investment company may pass through (without restriction) to its shareholders state and local income tax exemptions available to direct owners of certain types of U.S. government securities (such as U.S. Treasury obligations). Thus, for residents of these states, distributions derived from a Fund’s investment in certain types of U.S. government securities should be free from state and local income taxation to the extent that the interest income from such investments would have been exempt from state and local taxes if such securities had been held directly by the respective shareholders. Certain states, however, do not allow a regulated

 

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investment company to pass through to its shareholders the state and local income tax exemptions available to direct owners of certain types of U.S. government securities unless a Fund holds at least a required amount of U.S. government securities. Accordingly, for residents of these states, distributions derived from a Fund’s investment in certain types of U.S. government securities may not be entitled to the exemptions from state and local income taxes that would be available if the shareholders had purchased U.S. government securities directly. The exemption from state and local income taxes does not preclude states from asserting other taxes on the ownership of U.S. government securities. To the extent that a Fund invests to a substantial degree in U.S. government securities which are subject to favorable state and local tax treatment, shareholders of the Fund will be notified as to the extent to which distributions from the Fund are attributable to interest on such securities.

Tax Shelter Reporting Regulations

If a shareholder realizes a loss on disposition of a Fund’s shares of $2 million or more for an individual shareholder or $10 million or more for a corporate shareholder, the shareholder must file with the Internal Revenue Service a disclosure statement on Form 8886. Direct shareholders of portfolio securities are in many cases excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a regulated investment company are not excepted. Future guidance may extend the current exception from this reporting requirement to shareholders of most or all regulated investment companies. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Shareholders should consult their tax advisers to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.

General Considerations

The federal income tax discussion set forth above is for general information only. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisers regarding the specific federal tax consequences of purchasing, holding, and disposing of shares of each of the Funds, as well as the effects of state, local and foreign tax law and any proposed tax law changes.

TRUSTEES

The names of the Trustees of the Trust, together with information regarding their year of birth, the year each Trustee became a Board member of the Trust, principal occupations and other board memberships, including those in any company with a class of securities registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Securities Exchange Act”) or subject to the requirements of Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act or any company registered as an investment company under the 1940 Act, are shown below. The contact address for each of the Trustees is 270 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

 

Name (Year of Birth; Positions
with the Funds since)

 

Principal Occupation
During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Funds
in Fund Complex
Overseen by
Trustee(1)

 

Other Directorships Held
During the Past 5 Years

Independent Trustees

     

Gary L. French(2)

(1951); Trustee of the
Trust since 2014

  Real Estate Investor (2011–present); Senior Consultant for The Regulatory Fundamentals Group LLC (2011–present); Senior Vice President–Fund Administration, State Street Corporation (2002–2010).   13   Independent Trustee, The China Fund, Inc. (2013–present); Exchange Traded Concepts Trust II (2012–2014); Exchange Traded Concepts Trust I (2011–2014).

Robert J. Grassi

(1957); Trustee of the
Trust since 2014

  Sole Proprietor, Academy Hills Advisors LLC (2012–present); Pension Director, Corning Incorporated (2002–2012).   13   None.

 

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Name (Year of Birth; Positions
with the Funds since)

 

Principal Occupation
During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Funds
in Fund Complex
Overseen by
Trustee(1)

 

Other Directorships Held
During the Past 5 Years

Thomas P. Lemke

(1954); Trustee of the
Trust since 2014

  Retired; Executive Vice President and General Counsel, Legg Mason (2005–2013).   13   Independent Trustee of AXA Premier VIP Trust (2014–present); SEI family of funds (Independent Trustee of Advisors’ Inner Circle Fund III (5 portfolios) (from February 2014 to present), Independent Trustee of O’Connor EQUUS (May 2014–present), Independent Trustee of Winton Series Trust (December 2014–present); Independent Director of The Victory Funds (or their predecessor funds) (35 portfolios) (2014–March 2015).

Lawrence R. Maffia

(1950); Trustee of the
Trust since 2014

  Retired; Director and President, ICI Mutual Insurance Company (2006–2013).   13   Director, ICI Mutual Insurance Company (1999–2013).

Emily A. Youssouf

(1951); Trustee of the
Trust since 2014

  Clinical Professor, NYU Schack Institute of Real Estate (2009–present); Board Member, NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation (2005–present); Board Member and Member of the Audit Committee and Related Parties Committee, PennyMac Financial Services, Inc. (2013–present).   13   Trustee, NYC School Construction Authority (2009–present); Board Member, NYS Job Development Authority (2008–present); Trustee (2015–present) and Chair of the Audit Committee (2015–present) of the TransitCenter; Vice Chair (2011–2013) and Board Member (2013–2014) of New York City Housing Authority.

Interested Trustee

     

Robert F. Deutsch(3)

(1957); Chairman and Trustee of the Trust since 2014

  Head of the Global ETF Business for JPMorgan Asset Management (2013–present); Head of the Global Liquidity Business for JPMorgan Asset Management (2003–2013).   13   None.

 

(1) A Fund Complex means two or more registered investment companies that hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services or have a common investment adviser or have an investment adviser that is an affiliated person of the investment adviser of any of the other registered investment companies. Five series of the Trust have commenced operations, but six additional series have been created and are expected to commence operations in the future.
(2) As of December 31, 2015, Mr. French inadvertently owned 179 shares of JPMorgan Chase & Co. common stock, the indirect parent of JPMIM, in discretionary accounts fully managed by investment managers under the direction of his financial adviser. As of the date of this SAI, Mr. French has sold all of these shares and is considered an Independent Trustee.
(3) Mr. Deutsch is an interested trustee because he is an employee of the Adviser.

 

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The Trustees serve for an indefinite term. The Board of Trustees decides upon general policies and is responsible for overseeing the business affairs of the Trust.

Qualifications of Trustees

The Board believes that each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills on an individual basis and in combination with those of the other Trustees lead to the conclusion that the Board possesses the requisite skills and attributes to carry out its oversight responsibilities with respect to the Trust. The Board believes that the significance of each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes or skills is an individual matter (meaning that experience that is important for one Trustee may not have the same value for another) and that these factors are best evaluated at the Board level, with no single Trustee, or particular factor, being indicative of Board effectiveness. However, the Board believes that Trustees need to be able to critically review, evaluate, question and discuss information provided to them, and to interact effectively with Trust management, service providers and counsel, in order to exercise effective business judgment in the performance of their duties. The Board believes that each of its members has these abilities.

The summaries below, relating to the experience, qualifications, attributes and skills of the each Trustee, are required by the registration form adopted by the SEC, do not constitute holding out the Board or any Trustee as having any special expertise or experience, and do not impose any greater responsibility or liability on any such person or on the Board as a whole than would otherwise be the case. The following is a summary of specific experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of each Trustee:

Gary L. French. Mr. French has over 30 years of experience in the financial services industry and related fields, including serving in various leadership roles with large financial institutions that operated and administered services to investment companies. He has familiarity with a variety of financial, accounting, investment, regulatory and operational matters through his prior experience (including as Senior Vice President and Business Head in the Fund Administration Division at State Street Bank) and through his current position as a Senior Consultant for The Regulatory Fundamentals Group LLC. He also gained experience serving as an independent director and officer of several other registered investment companies, and in his current position as an independent director with The China Fund, Inc.

Robert J. Grassi. Mr. Grassi has over 25 years of experience in a variety of business and financial matters, including experience in senior management positions. He has familiarity with a variety of financial, accounting, investment and regulatory matters through his prior experience (including as Director of Pensions and Investments at Corning Incorporated) and through his current position as Sole Proprietor of Academy Hills Advisors LLC, an investment consulting firm.

Thomas P. Lemke. Mr. Lemke has over 35 years of experience in the financial services industry, including experience in various senior management positions with financial services firms in addition to multiple years of service with a regulatory agency and major law firms. In addition, he has a background in internal controls, including legal, compliance, internal audit, risk management and fund administration, and has served as general counsel for several financial services firms. He has familiarity with a variety of financial, accounting, investment, regulatory and operational matters through his prior experience (including as Executive Vice President, General Counsel, and Head of the Governance Group of Legg Mason, Inc.). He has also gained experience as an independent director of other registered investment companies, including his current position with each of AXA Premier VIP Trust, The Advisors’ Inner Circle III Funds, and The Munder Funds, and his prior position as independent director of ICI Mutual Insurance Company.

Lawrence R. Maffia. Mr. Maffia has over 30 years of experience in the financial services industry, including positions held at a public auditing firm and various other positions in the mutual fund industry. He has familiarity with a variety of financial, accounting, investment and regulatory matters through his prior experience (including as President and Company Director at ICI Mutual Insurance Company, a provider of D&O/E&O liability insurance and fidelity bonding for the U.S. mutual fund industry, and his prior positions as chief financial officer of Stein Roe & Farnham Mutual Funds and chief operations officer of Stein Roe & Farnham Mutual Funds’ transfer agent).

Emily A. Youssouf. Ms. Youssouf has over 25 years of business experience in the financial services industry and related fields, including serving in several executive level positions within the investment banking and housing finance industries. In addition, she has an extensive background in strategic planning and financial analysis based on her current positions as a Board Member of the NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation (where she serves as the Chair of the Audit Committee, Chair of the Capital Committee and Member of the Finance Committee), as a Board Member of PennyMac Financial Services, Inc. (where she serves as a member of the Related Party Committee and the Audit Committee), as a Board Member of the NYC School Construction Authority, as a Board Member of the NYS Job Development Authority (where she also serves as a member of the Audit Committee) and as a Trustee

 

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of the TransitCenter (where she also serves as Chair of the Audit Committee), and as a Clinical Professor at NYU Schack Institute of Real Estate. She has familiarity with a variety of financial, accounting, investment and regulatory matters through her prior experience and through her current positions described above.

Robert F. Deutsch. Mr. Deutsch has over 25 years of experience in the financial services industry. He has substantial mutual fund experience and is experienced with financial, accounting, investment and regulatory matters due to time at J.P. Morgan Asset Management (“JPMAM”), including his current position as head of the Global ETF Business and his prior position as head of the Global Liquidity Business. He was a client advisor at Goldman Sachs Asset Management for a broad range of institutional, intermediary and subadvisory clients.

Board Leadership Structure and Oversight

The Board has adopted a committee structure that allows it to effectively perform its oversight function for all of the Funds in the complex. As described under “Standing Committee,” the Board has one committee: the Audit and Valuation Committee. The Board has determined that the leadership and committee structure is appropriate for the Funds and allows the Board to effectively and efficiently evaluate issues that impact the Trust as a whole as well as issues that are unique to each Fund.

The Board and the Audit and Valuation Committee take an active role in risk oversight including the risks associated with exchange-traded funds, including investment risk, compliance and valuation. In connection with its oversight, the Board receives regular reports from the Chief Compliance Officer (“CCO”), the Adviser and the Administrator. The Board also receives periodic reports from the Chief Risk Officer of JPMAM, including reports concerning operational controls that are designed to address market risk, credit risk, and liquidity risk among others. The Board also receives regular reports from personnel responsible for JPMAM’s business resiliency and disaster recovery.

In addition, the Board and the Audit and Valuation Committee work on an ongoing basis in fulfilling the oversight function. The Audit and Valuation Committee is responsible for oversight of the performance of the Fund’s audit, accounting and financial reporting policies, practices and internal controls and valuation policies, assisting the Board in its oversight of the valuation of the Funds’ securities by the Adviser, overseeing the quality and objectivity of the Funds’ independent audit and the financial statements of the Funds, and acting as a liaison between the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm and the full Board. After each meeting of the committee, the Audit and Valuation Committee reports its committee proceedings to the full Board. This committee structure allows the Board to efficiently evaluate a large amount of material and effectively fulfill its oversight function. Annually, the Board considers the efficiency of this committee structure.

Standing Committee

The Board of Trustees has one standing committee, the Audit and Valuation Committee. All members of the Board of Trustees, with the exception of Mr. Deutsch, serve on the Audit and Valuation Committee.

For details of the number of times the Audit and Valuation Committee met during the most recent fiscal year, see “TRUSTEES — Standing Committees” in Part I of this SAI.

For details of the dollar range of equity securities owned by each Trustee in the Funds, see “TRUSTEES  — Ownership of Securities” in Part I of this SAI.

Trustee Compensation

The Funds overseen by the Trustees will pay each Trustee an annual fee of $40,000 and will reimburse each Trustee for expenses incurred in connection with service as a Trustee. In addition, the Funds pay the lead Independent Trustee and Audit and Valuation Committee Chair an additional annual fee of $5,000. The Trustees may hold various other directorships unrelated to the Trust.

The Declaration of Trust provides that the Trust will indemnify its Trustees and officers against liabilities and expenses incurred in connection with litigation in which they may be involved because of their offices with the Trust, unless, as to liability to the Trust or its shareholders, it is finally adjudicated that they engaged in willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in their offices (collectively, “disabling conduct”). In the case of settlement, such indemnification will not be provided unless it has been determined by a court or other body approving the settlement or disposition, or in the absence of such a determination, there has been a dismissal of the proceeding by the court or other body before it was brought for insufficiency of evidence of any disabling conduct with which the Trustee or officer has been charged, or by a reasonable determination based upon a

 

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review of readily available facts, by vote of a majority of disinterested Trustees or in a written opinion of independent counsel, that such officers or Trustees did not engage in disabling conduct.

For details of Trustee compensation paid by the Fund, including deferred compensation, see “TRUSTEES — Trustee Compensation” in Part I of this SAI.

OFFICERS

The Trust’s executive officers (listed below) generally are employees of the Adviser or one of its affiliates. The officers conduct and supervise the business operations of the Trust. The officers hold office until a successor has been elected and duly qualified. The Trust has no employees. The names of the officers of the Funds, together with their year of birth, information regarding their positions held with the Trust and principal occupations are shown below. The contact address for each of the officers, unless otherwise noted, is 270 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

 

Name (Year of Birth),

Positions Held with

the Trusts (Since)

  

Principal Occupations During Past 5 Years

Robert F. Deutsch (1957),

President (2014)*

   Managing Director, global head of J.P. Morgan Asset Management’s Exchange Traded Funds and a member of the J.P. Morgan Global Funds Operating Committee. Previously, head of the Global Liquidity Business from 2003 to 2013 and National Sales Manager for J.P. Morgan’s U.S. Mutual Funds Business prior to 2003.

Lauren Paino (1973),

Treasurer (2016)

   Executive Director, JPMorgan Funds Management, Inc. since August 2013; Director, Credit Suisse Asset Management (2000-2013); Manager, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (1995-2000)

Brian Shlissel (1964),

Vice President (2016)

   Managing Director and Chief Administrative Officer, leads the JPMorgan U.S. Platform Management team for JPMorgan’s pooled vehicles, including ETFs and mutual funds since 2014. Prior to joining JPMorgan in 2014, President and Chief Executive Officer for Mutual Funds and Head of Mutual Fund Services for Allianz Global Investors.

Paul Shield (1960),

Vice President and Assistant Treasurer (2016)

   Managing Director and head of Business Management for JPMorgan Asset Management’s Exchange Traded Fund platform since 2013. Senior Global Product Manager of Alternative Investments for BNY Mellon from 2011 to 2013 and Global Product Head for Exchange Traded Funds at JPMorgan Chase Bank from 2008 to 2011.

Frank J. Nasta (1964),

Secretary (2014)

   Managing Director and Associate General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase since 2008; Previously, Director, Managing Director, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, J. & W. Seligman & Co. Incorporated; Secretary of each of the investment companies of the Seligman Group of Funds and Seligman Data Corp.; Director and Corporate Secretary, Seligman Advisors, Inc. and Seligman Services, Inc.
Stephen M. Ungerman (1953), Chief Compliance Officer (2014)    Managing Director, JPMorgan Chase & Co.; Mr. Ungerman has been with JPMorgan Chase & Co. since 2000.
Elizabeth A. Davin (1964), Assistant Secretary (2014)**    Executive Director and Assistant General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase since February 2012; formerly Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase from 2005 until February 2012; Senior Counsel, JPMorgan Chase (formerly Bank One Corporation) from 2004 to 2005.
Jessica K. Ditullio (1962), Assistant Secretary (2014)**    Executive Director and Assistant General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase since February 2011; Ms. Ditullio has served as an attorney with various titles for JPMorgan Chase (formerly Bank One Corporation) since 1990.
John T. Fitzgerald (1975), Assistant Secretary (2014)    Executive Director and Assistant General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase since February 2011; formerly, Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase from 2005 until February 2011.

 

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Name (Year of Birth),

Positions Held with

the Trusts (Since)

  

Principal Occupations During Past 5 Years

Carmine Lekstutis (1980), Assistant Secretary (2014)    Executive Director and Assistant General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase since February 2015; formerly Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase from 2011 to February 2015; Associate, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP (law firm) from 2006 to 2011.
Gregory S. Samuels (1980), Assistant Secretary (2014)    Executive Director and Assistant General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase since February 2014; formerly Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase from 2010 to February 2014; Associate, Ropes & Gray (law firm) from 2008 to 2010; Associate, Clifford Chance LLP (law firm) from 2005 to 2008.
Pamela L. Woodley (1971), Assistant Secretary (2014)***    Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, JPMorgan Chase since November 2004.

Rick J. Cavaliere (1978),

Assistant Treasurer (2015)

   Vice President, JPMorgan Funds Management, Inc. since September 2011; formerly, Vice President of J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. (2010-2011). Mr. Cavaliere has been with JPMorgan since May 2006.
Michael M. D’Ambrosio (1969), Assistant Treasurer (2014)    Managing Director, JPMorgan Funds Management, Inc. since May 2014; Executive Director, JPMorgan Funds Management, Inc. from 2012 to May 2014; prior to joining JPMorgan Chase, Mr. D’Ambrosio was a Tax Director at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP since 2006.
Julie A. Roach (1971), Assistant Treasurer (2014)**    Vice President, JPMorgan Funds Management, Inc. from August 2012; prior to joining JPMorgan Chase, Ms. Roach was a Senior Manager with Deloitte since 2001.
Jason Ronca (1978), Assistant Treasurer (2014)****    Vice President, Assistant Treasurer and ETF Platform Manager for J.P. Morgan Asset Management since May 2014. ETF Product Manager for Corporate Investment Bank responsible for setting the strategy and control agenda for the ETF servicing business from 2010 to May 2014; Prior to 2010, a Vice President in Fund Accounting within J.P. Morgan Investor Services, supporting a series of U.S. registered mutual funds.

 

* The contact address for the officer is 500 Stanton Christiana Road, CC Commons North/South, Floor 02, Newark, DE 19173.
** The contact address for the officer is 460 Polaris Parkway, Westerville, OH 43082.
*** The contact address for the officer is 4 New York Plaza, 21st Floor, NY, NY 10004.
**** The contact address for the officer is One Beacon Street, Floor 18, Boston, MA 02108.

For details of the percentage of shares of the Funds owned by the officers and Trustees, as a group, see “SHARE OWNERSHIP — Trustees and Officers” in Part I of this SAI.

INVESTMENT ADVISER

Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement, JPMIM serves as investment adviser to the Funds.

The Trust’s Shares are not sponsored, endorsed or guaranteed by, and do not constitute obligations or deposits of JPMorgan Chase, any bank affiliate of JPMIM or any other bank, and are not insured by the FDIC or issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or any of its agencies.

For details of the investment advisory fees paid under the advisory agreement, see “INVESTMENT ADVISER — Investment Advisory Fees” in Part I of the SAI for the Fund.

For details of the dollar range of shares of the Funds beneficially owned by the portfolio managers who serve on a teams that manage the Funds, see “PORTFOLIO MANAGERS — Portfolio Managers’ Other Accounts Managed” in Part I of this SAI.

J.P. Morgan Investment Management Inc. (“JPMIM”)

JPMIM serves as investment adviser to the Funds pursuant to the investment advisory agreement between JPMIM and the Trust (the “JPMIM Advisory Agreement”). JPMIM is a wholly-owned subsidiary of JPMorgan Asset Management Holdings Inc., which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of JPMorgan Chase & Co. (“JPMorgan Chase”).

 

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JPMIM is a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended. JPMIM is located at 270 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017.

Under the JPMIM Advisory Agreement, JPMIM provides investment advisory services to each Fund, which include managing the purchase, retention and disposition of each Fund’s investments. JPMIM may delegate its responsibilities to a sub-adviser. Any subadvisory agreements must be approved by the Trust’s Board of Trustees and the applicable Fund’s shareholders, to the extent required by the 1940 Act.

Under separate agreements, JPMorgan Chase Bank, and JPMorgan Funds Management, Inc. (“JPMFM”) provide certain custodial, lead recordkeeping and administrative services to the Trust. JPMorgan Chase Bank and JPMFM are each subsidiaries of JPMorgan Chase and affiliates of the Adviser. See the “Custodian,” “Administrator,” and “Transfer Agent” sections.

Under the terms of the JPMIM Advisory Agreement, the investment advisory services JPMIM provides to the Funds are not exclusive. JPMIM is free to and does render similar investment advisory services to others. JPMIM serves as investment adviser to personal investors and other investment companies and acts as fiduciary for trusts, estates and employee benefit plans. Certain of the assets of trusts and estates under management are invested in common trust funds for which JPMIM serves as trustee. The accounts which are managed or advised by JPMIM have varying investment objectives, and JPMIM invests assets of such accounts in investments substantially similar to, or the same as, those which are expected to constitute the principal investments of the Fund. Such accounts are supervised by employees of JPMIM who may also be acting in similar capacities for the Fund. See “Portfolio Transactions.”

Each Fund is managed by employees of JPMIM who, in acting for their customers, including the Fund, do not discuss their investment decisions with any personnel of JPMorgan Chase or any personnel of other divisions of JPMIM or with any of their affiliated persons, with the exception of certain other investment management affiliates of JPMorgan Chase which execute transactions on behalf of a Fund.

As compensation for the services rendered and related expenses, such as salaries of advisory personnel borne by JPMIM under the JPMIM Advisory Agreement, the Trust, on behalf of each Fund, has agreed to pay JPMIM a fee, which is computed daily and may be paid monthly, equal to the annual rate of each Fund’s average daily net assets as described in the applicable Prospectuses.

The JPMIM Advisory Agreement continues in effect for annual periods beyond 2016 of each year only if specifically approved thereafter annually in the same manner as the Distribution Agreement; except that for new funds, the initial approval will continue for up to two years, after which annual approvals are required. See the “Distributor” section. The JPMIM Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically if assigned and is terminable at any time without penalty by a vote of a majority of the Trustees, or by a vote of the holders of a majority of a Fund’s outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act), on 60 days’ written notice to JPMIM and by JPMIM on 90 days’ written notice to the Trust.

The JPMIM Advisory Agreement provides that the Adviser shall not be liable for any error of judgment or mistake of law or for any loss suffered by any Fund in connection with the matters to when the JPMIM Advisory Agreement relates, except a loss resulting from willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Adviser in the performance of its duties or from reckless disregard by it of its duties and obligations thereunder, or, a loss resulting from a breach of fiduciary duty with respect to the receipt of compensation for services.

Subject to the supervision of the Trust’s Board of Trustees, JPMIM provides or will cause to be provided a continuous investment program for a Fund, including investment research and management with respect to all securities and investments and cash equivalents. JPMIM may delegate its responsibilities to a sub-adviser. Any subadvisory agreement must be approved by the Trust’s Board of Trustees and the Funds’ shareholders, to the extent required by the 1940 Act.

JPMorgan Chase Bank and JPMFM are each subsidiaries of JPMorgan Chase and affiliates of JPMIM. See the “Custodian” and “Administrator” sections.

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The chart in Part I of this SAI entitled “Portfolio Managers’ Other Accounts Managed” shows the number, type and market value as of a specified date of the accounts other than the Funds that are managed by the Funds’ portfolio managers. The potential for conflicts of interest exists when portfolio managers manage other accounts with similar investment objectives and strategies as the Fund (“Similar Accounts”). Potential conflicts may include,

 

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for example, conflicts between investment strategies and conflicts in the allocation of investment opportunities. Responsibility for managing the Adviser’s and its affiliates’ clients’ portfolios is organized according to investment strategies within asset classes. Generally, client portfolios with similar strategies are managed by portfolio managers in the same portfolio management group using the same objectives, approach and philosophy. Underlying sectors or strategy allocations within a larger portfolio are likewise managed by portfolio managers who use the same approach and philosophy as similarly managed portfolios. Therefore, portfolio holdings, relative position sizes and industry and sector exposures tend to be similar across similar portfolios and strategies, which minimize the potential for conflicts of interest.

The Adviser and/or its affiliates (together “JPMorgan”) perform investment services, including rendering investment advice, to varied clients, including the Funds. The Adviser, JPMorgan and their directors, officers, agents, and/or employees may render similar or differing investment advisory services to clients, including the Funds, and may give advice or exercise investment responsibility and take such other action with respect to any of their other clients that differs from the advice given or the timing or nature of action taken with respect to another client or group of clients, including the Funds. It is the Adviser’s policy, to the extent practicable, to allocate, within its reasonable discretion, investment opportunities among clients, including the Funds, over a period of time on a fair and equitable basis. One or more of the Adviser’s other client accounts may at any time hold, acquire, increase, decrease, dispose, or otherwise deal with positions in investments in which another client account, including the Funds, may have an interest from time-to-time.

The Adviser, JPMorgan, JPMorgan Chase and any of their directors, partners, officers, agents or employees, may also buy, sell, or trade securities for their own accounts or the proprietary accounts of the Adviser, JPMorgan and/or JPMorgan Chase. The Adviser, JPMorgan and/or JPMorgan Chase, within their discretion may make different investment decisions and other actions with respect to their own proprietary accounts than they make for client accounts, including the Funds, including the timing or nature of such investment decisions or actions. Further, the Adviser is not required to purchase or sell for any client accounts, including the Funds, securities that it, JPMorgan, JPMorgan Chase and/or any of their employees, principals, or agents may purchase or sell for their own accounts or the proprietary accounts of the Adviser, JPMorgan or JPMorgan Chase or their clients.

The Adviser and/or its affiliates may receive more compensation with respect to certain Similar Accounts than that received with respect to the Funds or may receive compensation based in part on the performance of certain Similar Accounts. This may create a potential conflict of interest for the Adviser and its affiliates or the portfolio managers by providing an incentive to favor these Similar Accounts when, for example, placing securities transactions. In addition, the Adviser or its affiliates could be viewed as having a conflict of interest to the extent that the Adviser or an affiliate has a proprietary investment in Similar Accounts, the portfolio managers have personal investments in Similar Accounts or the Similar Accounts are investment options in the Adviser’s or its affiliates’ employee benefit plans.

Potential conflicts of interest may arise with both the aggregation and allocation of securities transactions and allocation of investment opportunities because of market factors or investment restrictions imposed upon the Adviser and its affiliates by law, regulation, contract or internal policies. Allocations of aggregated trades, particularly trade orders that were only partially completed due to limited availability and allocation of investment opportunities generally, could raise a potential conflict of interest, as the Adviser or its affiliates may have an incentive to allocate securities that are expected to increase in value to favored accounts. Initial public offerings, in particular, are frequently of very limited availability. The Adviser and its affiliates may be perceived as causing accounts they manage to participate in an offering to increase the Adviser’s and its affiliates’ overall allocation of securities in that offering. In addition, a potential conflict of interest also may be perceived to arise if transactions in one account closely follow related transactions in a different account, such as when a purchase increases the value of securities previously purchased by another account, or when a sale in one account lowers the sale price received in a sale by a second account. If the Adviser or its affiliates manage accounts that engage in short sales of securities of the type in which a Fund invests, the Adviser or its affiliates could be seen as harming the performance of the Fund for the benefit of the accounts engaging in short sales if the short sales cause the market value of the securities to fall.

As an internal policy matter, the Adviser or its affiliates may from time to time maintain certain overall investment limitations on the securities positions or positions in other financial instruments the Adviser or its affiliates will take on behalf of its various clients due to, among other things, liquidity concerns and regulatory restrictions. Such policies may preclude the Funds from purchasing particular securities or financial instruments, even if such securities or financial instruments would otherwise meet the Fund’s objective.

 

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The Adviser and/or its affiliates serve as adviser to the Funds, as well as certain funds of funds. The funds of funds may invest in shares of the Funds. Because the Adviser and/or its affiliates is the adviser to the Funds and it or its affiliates is adviser to the funds of funds, it may be subject to certain potential conflicts of interest when allocating the assets of the funds of funds to a Fund. Purchases and sales of Fund shares by a fund of funds due to reallocations or rebalancings, to the extent they result in creation and redemption activity, may result in a Fund having to sell securities or invest cash when it otherwise would not do so. Such transactions could accelerate the realization of taxable income if sales of securities resulted in gains and could also increase the Fund’s transaction costs. Reallocations or rebalancings away from a Fund by an affiliated fund of funds may cause the Fund’s expense ratio to increase due to a resulting smaller asset base.

The goal of the Adviser and its affiliates is to meet their fiduciary obligation with respect to all clients. The Adviser and its affiliates have policies and procedures that seek to manage conflicts. The Adviser and its affiliates monitor a variety of areas, including compliance with fund guidelines, review of allocation decisions and compliance with the Adviser’s Code of Ethics and JPMorgan Chase and Co.’s Code of Conduct. With respect to the allocation of investment opportunities, the Adviser and its affiliates also have certain policies designed to achieve fair and equitable allocation of investment opportunities among its clients over time. For example:

Orders for the same equity security traded through a single trading desk or system are aggregated on a continual basis throughout each trading day consistent with the Adviser’s and its affiliates’ duty of best execution for its clients. If aggregated trades are fully executed, accounts participating in the trade will be allocated their pro rata share on an average price basis. Partially completed orders generally will be allocated among the participating accounts on a pro-rata average price basis, subject to certain limited exceptions. For example, accounts that would receive a de minimis allocation relative to their size may be excluded from the order. Another exception may occur when thin markets or price volatility require that an aggregated order be completed in multiple executions over several days. If partial completion of the order would result in an uneconomic allocation to an account due to fixed transaction or custody costs, the Adviser and its affiliates may exclude small orders until 50% of the total order is completed. Then the small orders will be executed. Following this procedure, small orders will lag in the early execution of the order, but will be completed before completion of the total order.

Purchases of money market instruments and fixed income securities cannot always be allocated pro-rata across the accounts with the same investment strategy and objective. However, the Adviser and its affiliates attempt to mitigate any potential unfairness by basing non-pro-rata allocations traded through a single trading desk or system upon objective predetermined criteria for the selection of investments and a disciplined process for allocating securities with similar duration, credit quality and liquidity in the good faith judgment of the Adviser or its affiliates so that fair and equitable allocation will occur over time.

For details of the dollar range of shares of the Funds beneficially owned by the portfolio managers, see “PORTFOLIO MANAGERS — Portfolio Managers’ Ownership of Securities” in Part I of this SAI.

PORTFOLIO MANAGER COMPENSATION

The Adviser’s portfolio managers participate in a competitive compensation program that is designed to attract, retain and motivate talented people and closely link the performance of investment professionals to client investment objectives. The total compensation program includes a base salary fixed from year to year and a variable discretionary incentive award. Base salaries are reviewed annually and awarded based on individual performance and business results taking into account level and scope of position, experience and market competitiveness. The variable discretionary performance based incentive award consists of cash incentives and deferred compensation which includes mandatory notional investments (as described below) in selected mutual funds advised by the Adviser or its affiliates (“Mandatory Investment Plan”). These elements reflect individual performance and the performance of the Adviser’s business as a whole.

Each portfolio manager’s performance is formally evaluated annually based on a variety of factors including the aggregate size and blended performance of the portfolios such portfolio manager manages, individual contribution relative to client risk and return objectives, and adherence with the Adviser’s compliance, risk and regulatory procedures. In evaluating each portfolio manager’s performance with respect to the mutual funds and/or ETFs he or she manages, a Fund’s pre-tax performance (or the portion of the funds managed by the portfolio manager) is compared to the appropriate market peer group and to the Fund’s benchmark index listed in the Fund’s Prospectus over one, three and five year periods (or such shorter time as the portfolio manager has managed the Fund). Investment performance is generally more heavily weighted to the long-term.

 

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Deferred compensation granted as part of an employee’s annual incentive compensation comprises from 0% to 60% of a portfolio manager’s total performance-based incentives. As the level of incentive compensation increases, the percentage of compensation awarded in deferred incentives also increases. The Adviser’s portfolio managers are required to notionally invest a certain percentage of their deferred compensation (typically 20% to 50% depending on the level of compensation) into the selected Funds they manage. The remaining portion of the non-cash incentive is elective and may be notionally invested in any of the mutual funds available in the Mandatory Investment Plan or can be placed in restricted stock. When these awards vest over time, the portfolio manager receives cash equal to the market value of the notional investment in the selected mutual funds.

CODES OF ETHICS

The Trust, the Adviser and the Distributor have each adopted codes of ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act (and pursuant to Rule 204A-1 under the Advisers Act with respect to the Adviser).

The Trust’s code of ethics includes policies which require “access persons” (as defined in Rule 17j-1) to: (i) place the interest of Trust shareholders first; (ii) conduct personal securities transactions in a manner that avoids any actual or potential conflict of interest or any abuse of a position of trust and responsibility; and (iii) refrain from taking inappropriate advantage of his or her position with the Trust or a Fund. The Trust’s code of ethics prohibits any access person from: (i) employing any device, scheme or artifice to defraud the Trust or a Fund; (ii) making to the Trust or a Fund any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state to the Trust or a Fund a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they are made, not misleading; (iii) engaging in any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon the Trust or a Fund; or (iv) engaging in any manipulative practice with respect to the Trust or a Fund. The Trust’s code of ethics permits personnel subject to the code to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by a Fund so long as such investment transactions are not in contravention of the above noted policies and prohibitions.

The code of ethics adopted by the Adviser requires that all employees must: (i) place the interest of the accounts which are managed by the Adviser first; (ii) conduct all personal securities transactions in a manner that is consistent with the code of ethics and the individual employee’s position of trust and responsibility; and (iii) refrain from taking inappropriate advantage of their position. Employees of the Adviser are also prohibited from certain mutual fund trading activity including excessive trading of shares of a mutual fund and effecting or facilitating a mutual fund transaction to engage in market timing. The Adviser’s code of ethics permits personnel subject to the code to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by a Fund subject to certain restrictions. However, all employees are required to preclear securities trades (except for certain types of securities such as non-proprietary mutual fund shares and U.S. government securities).

The Distributor’s code of ethics requires that all employees of the Distributor must: (i) conduct themselves and their personal securities transactions in a manner that does not create conflicts of interest with the firm’s clients; (ii) conduct all personal securities transactions in a manner that is consistent with the code of ethics and the individual employee’s position of trust and responsibility; and (iii) refrain from taking inappropriate advantage of their positions. Employees of the Distributor are also prohibited from certain mutual fund trading activity, including excessive trading of shares of a mutual fund, or effecting or facilitating a mutual fund transaction to engage in market timing. The Distributor’s code of ethics permits personnel subject to the code to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by a Fund subject to the policies and restrictions in such code of ethics.

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS

Investment Decisions and Portfolio Transactions

Pursuant to the JPMIM Advisory Agreement, the Adviser determines, subject to the general supervision of the Board of Trustees of the Trust and in accordance with a Fund’s investment objective and restrictions, which securities are to be purchased and sold by a Fund and which brokers are to be eligible to execute its portfolio transactions. The Adviser operates independently in providing services to their respective clients. Investment decisions are the product of many factors in addition to basic suitability for the particular client involved. Thus, for example, a particular security may be bought or sold for certain clients even though it could have been bought or sold for other clients at the same time. Likewise, a particular security may be bought for one or more clients when one or more other clients are selling the security. In some instances, one client may sell a particular security to another client. It also happens that two or more clients may simultaneously buy or sell the same security, in which

 

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event each day’s transactions in such security are, insofar as possible, averaged as to price and allocated between such clients in a manner which in the opinion of the Adviser is equitable to each and in accordance with the amount being purchased or sold by each. There may be circumstances when purchases or sales of portfolio securities for one or more clients will have an adverse effect on other clients.

Brokerage and Research Services

On behalf of a Fund, the Adviser places orders for all purchases and sales of portfolio securities, enters into repurchase agreements, and may enter into reverse repurchase agreements and execute loans of portfolio securities on behalf of a Fund unless otherwise prohibited. See “Investment Strategies and Policies.”

Fixed income and debt securities and municipal bonds and notes are generally traded at a net price with dealers acting as principal for their own accounts without a stated commission. The price of the security usually includes profit to the dealers. In underwritten offerings, securities are purchased at a fixed price, which includes an amount of compensation to the underwriter, generally referred to as the underwriter’s concession or discount. Transactions on stock exchanges (other than foreign stock exchanges) involve the payment of negotiated brokerage commissions. Such commissions vary among different brokers. Also, a particular broker may charge different commissions according to such factors as the difficulty and size of the transaction. Transactions in foreign securities generally involve payment of fixed brokerage commissions, which are generally higher than those in the U.S. On occasion, certain securities may be purchased directly from an issuer, in which case no commissions or discounts are paid.

In connection with portfolio transactions, the overriding objective is to obtain the best execution of purchase and sales orders. In making this determination, the Adviser considers a number of factors including, but not limited to: the price per unit of the security, the broker’s execution capabilities, the commissions charged, the broker’s reliability for prompt, accurate confirmations and on-time delivery of securities, the broker-dealer firm’s financial condition, the broker’s ability to provide access to public offerings, as well as the quality of research services provided. As permitted by Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act, the Adviser may cause the Funds to pay a broker-dealer which provides brokerage and research services to the Adviser, or the Funds and/or other accounts for which the Adviser exercises investment discretion an amount of commission for effecting a securities transaction for a Fund in excess of the amount other broker-dealers would have charged for the transaction if the Adviser determines in good faith that the greater commission is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided by the executing broker-dealer viewed in terms of either a particular transaction or the Adviser’s overall responsibilities to accounts over which it exercises investment discretion. Not all such services are useful or of value in advising a Fund. The Adviser reports to the Board of Trustees regarding overall commissions paid by a Fund and their reasonableness in relation to the benefits to the Funds. In accordance with Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act and consistent with applicable SEC guidance and interpretation, the term “brokerage and research services” includes (i) advice as to the value of securities; (ii) the advisability of investing in, purchasing or selling securities; (iii) the availability of securities or of purchasers or sellers of securities; (iv) furnishing analyses and reports concerning issues, industries, securities, economic factors and trends, portfolio strategy and the performance of accounts; and (v) effecting securities transactions and performing functions incidental thereto (such as clearance, settlement, and custody) or required by rule or regulation in connection with such transactions.

Brokerage and research services received from such broker-dealers will be in addition to, and not in lieu of, the services required to be performed by an Adviser under the Advisory Agreement. The fees that a Fund pays to the Adviser are not reduced as a consequence of the Adviser’s receipt of brokerage and research services. To the extent a Fund’s portfolio transactions are used to obtain such services, the brokerage commissions paid by the Funds may exceed those that might otherwise be paid by an amount that cannot be presently determined. Such services generally would be useful and of value to the Adviser in serving one or more of its other clients and, conversely, such services obtained by the placement of brokerage business of other clients generally would be useful to the Adviser in carrying out its obligations to a Fund. While such services are not expected to reduce the expenses of the Adviser, the Adviser would, through use of the services, avoid the additional expenses that would be incurred if it should attempt to develop comparable information through its own staff.

Subject to the overriding objective of obtaining the best execution of orders, the Adviser may allocate a portion of a Fund’s brokerage transactions to affiliates of the Adviser. Under the 1940 Act, persons affiliated with a Fund and persons who are affiliated with such persons are prohibited from dealing with the Fund as principal in the purchase and sale of securities unless an exemptive order allowing such transactions is obtained from the SEC. The SEC has granted an exemptive order permitting each Fund to engage in principal transactions with J.P. Morgan

 

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Securities LLC, an affiliated broker, involving taxable money market instruments (including commercial paper, banker acceptances and medium term notes) and repurchase agreements. The orders are subject to certain conditions. An affiliated person of a Fund may serve as its broker in listed or over-the-counter transactions conducted on an agency basis provided that, among other things, the fee or commission received by such affiliated broker is reasonable and fair compared to the fee or commission received by non-affiliated brokers in connection with comparable transactions.

In addition, a Fund may not purchase securities during the existence of any underwriting syndicate for such securities of which JPMorgan Chase Bank or an affiliate is a member or in a private placement in which JPMorgan Chase Bank or an affiliate serves as placement agent, except pursuant to procedures adopted by the Board of Trustees that either comply with rules adopted by the SEC or with interpretations of the SEC’s staff. Each Fund expects to purchase securities from underwriting syndicates of which certain affiliates of JPMorgan Chase act as a member or manager. Such purchases will be effected in accordance with the conditions set forth in Rule 10f-3 under the 1940 Act and related procedures adopted by the Trustees, including a majority of the Trustees who are not “interested persons” of a Fund. Among the conditions are that the issuer of any purchased securities will have been in operation for at least three years, that not more than 25% of the underwriting will be purchased by a Fund and all other accounts over which the same investment adviser has discretion, and that no shares will be purchased from any of the Adviser’s affiliates.

On those occasions when the Adviser deems the purchase or sale of a security to be in the best interests of a Fund as well as other customers, including other Funds, the Adviser, to the extent permitted by applicable laws and regulations, may, but is not obligated to, aggregate the securities to be sold or purchased for a Fund with those to be sold or purchased for other customers in order to obtain best execution, including lower brokerage commissions if appropriate. In such event, allocation of the securities so purchased or sold as well as any expenses incurred in the transaction will be made by the Adviser in the manner it considers to be most equitable and consistent with its fiduciary obligations to its customers, including the Funds. In some instances, the allocation procedure might not permit a Fund to participate in the benefits of the aggregated trade.

Allocation of transactions, including their frequency, to various broker-dealers is determined by a Fund’s Adviser based on its best judgment and in a manner deemed fair and reasonable to Shareholders and consistent with the Adviser’s obligation to obtain the best execution of purchase and sales orders. In making this determination, the Adviser considers the same factors for the best execution of purchase and sales orders listed above. Accordingly, in selecting broker-dealers to execute a particular transaction, and in evaluating the best overall terms available, the Adviser is authorized to consider the brokerage and research services (as those terms are defined in Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act) provided to a Fund and/or other accounts over which the Adviser exercises investment discretion. The Adviser may cause a Fund to pay a broker-dealer that furnishes brokerage and research services a higher commission than that which might be charged by another broker-dealer for effecting the same transaction, provided that the Adviser determines in good faith that such commission is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided by such broker-dealer, viewed in terms of either the particular transaction or the overall responsibilities of the Adviser to that Fund. To the extent such services are permissible under the safe harbor requirements of Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act and consistent with applicable SEC guidance and interpretation, such brokerage and research services might consist of advice as to the value of securities, the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities, the availability of securities or purchasers or sellers of securities; analyses and reports concerning issuers, industries, securities, economic factors and trends, portfolio strategy, and the performance of accounts, market data, stock quotes, last sale prices, and trading volumes. Shareholders of a Fund should understand that the services provided by such brokers may be useful to the Adviser in connection with its services to other clients and not all the services may be used by the Adviser in connection with the Fund.

Under the policy for JPMIM, “soft dollar” services refer to arrangements that fall within the safe harbor requirements of Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act, which allow JPMIM to allocate client brokerage transactions to a broker-dealer in exchange for products or services that are research and brokerage-related and provide lawful and appropriate assistance in the performance of the investment decision-making process. These services include third party research, market data services, and proprietary broker-dealer research. A Fund receives proprietary research where broker-dealers typically incorporate the cost of such research into their commission structure. Many brokers do not assign a hard dollar value to the research they provide, but rather bundle the cost of such research into their commission structure. It is noted in this regard that some research that is available only under a bundled commission structure is particularly important to the investment process. However, the Funds do not participate in soft dollar arrangements for market data services and third-party research.

 

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Investment decisions for each Fund are made independently from those for the other Funds or any other investment company or account managed by the Adviser. Any such other investment company or account may also invest in the same securities as the Trust. When a purchase or sale of the same security is made at substantially the same time on behalf of a given Fund and another investment company or account, the transaction will be averaged as to price, and available investments allocated as to amount, in a manner which the Adviser of the given Fund believes to be equitable to the Fund(s) and such other investment company or account. In some instances, this procedure may adversely affect the price paid or received by a Fund or the size of the position obtained by a Fund. To the extent permitted by law, the Adviser may aggregate the securities to be sold or purchased by it for a Fund with those to be sold or purchased by it for other Funds or for other investment companies or accounts in order to obtain best execution. In making investment recommendations for the Trust, the Adviser will not inquire or take into consideration whether an issuer of securities proposed for purchase or sale by the Trust is a customer of the Adviser or their parents or subsidiaries or affiliates and in dealing with its commercial customers, the Adviser and their respective parent, subsidiaries, and affiliates will not inquire or take into consideration whether securities of such customers are held by the Trust.

For details of brokerage commissions paid by the Funds, see “BROKERAGE AND RESEARCH SERVICES — Brokerage Commissions” in Part I of this SAI.

For details of the Funds’ ownership of securities of the Funds’ regular broker dealers, see “BROKERAGE AND RESEARCH SERVICES — Securities of Regular Broker-Dealers” in Part I of this SAI.

ADMINISTRATOR

JPMorgan Funds Management, Inc. (“JPMFM” or the “Administrator”) serves as the administrator to the Funds, pursuant to an Administration Agreement (the “Administration Agreement”), between the Trust, on behalf of each Fund, and JPMFM. JPMFM is an affiliate of the Adviser and JPMorgan Chase Bank and an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of JPMorgan Chase; it has its principal place of business at 460 Polaris Parkway, Westerville, OH 43082.

Pursuant to the Administration Agreement, JPMFM performs or supervises all operations of the Funds for which it serves (other than those performed under the advisory agreement, the custodian agreement, and the transfer agency agreement for the Fund). Under the Administration Agreement, JPMFM has agreed to maintain the necessary office space for the Funds, and to furnish certain other services required by the Funds with respect to each Fund. The Administrator prepares annual and semi-annual reports to the SEC, prepares federal and state tax returns and generally assists in all aspects of the Fund’s operations other than those performed under the advisory agreement, any sub-advisory agreements, the custodian agreement, and the transfer agency agreement. JPMFM may, at its expense, subcontract with any entity or person concerning the provision of services under the Administration Agreement. SEI Investments Global Funds Services serves as the Funds’ sub-administrator (the “Sub-administrator”). The Administrator pays the Sub-administrator a fee for its services as the Funds’ Sub-administrator.

If not terminated, the Administration Agreement shall continue in effect for annual periods beyond April 30 of each year, provided that such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by the vote of a majority of those members of the Board of Trustees who are not parties to the Administration Agreement or interested persons of any such party. The Administration Agreement may be terminated without penalty, on not less than 60 days’ prior written notice, by the Board of Trustees of the Trust or by JPMFM.

The Administration Agreement provides that JPMFM shall not be liable for any error of judgment or mistake of law or any loss suffered by the Funds in connection with the matters to which the Administration Agreement relates, except a loss resulting from willful misfeasance, bad faith or negligence in the performance of its duties, or from the reckless disregard by it of its obligations and duties thereunder.

In consideration of the services to be provided by JPMFM pursuant to the Administration Agreement, JPMFM receives from each Fund a pro rata portion of a fee computed daily and paid monthly at an annual rate equal to 0.085% of average daily net assets of each Fund.

For details of the administration and administrative services fees paid or accrued, see “ADMINISTRATOR — Administrator Fees” in Part I of this SAI.

 

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DISTRIBUTOR

Shares will be continuously offered for sale by the Distributor only. The Distributor will deliver the Prospectus and, upon request, this SAI to persons purchasing Creation Unit Aggregations and will maintain records of both orders placed with it and confirmations of acceptance furnished by it. The Distributor, a wholly owned subsidiary of SEI Investments Company, is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”). Although the Distributor does not receive any fees under the Distribution Agreement with the Trust, JPMIM pays the Distributor for certain distribution related services.

Unless otherwise terminated, the Distribution Agreement will continue in effect for successive one-year terms after the initial two year term if approved at least annually by: (a) the vote of the Board of Trustees, including the vote of a majority of those members of the Board of Trustees who are not parties to the Distribution Agreement or interested persons of any such party, cast in person at a meeting for the purpose of voting on such approval, or (b) the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund. The Distribution Agreement for the Funds provides that it may be terminated as to a Fund at any time, without the payment of any penalty (i) by vote of the Trustees; (ii) by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund; or (iii) by the Distributor upon not less than 60 days’ prior written notice to the Trust. The Distribution Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act).

The Distributor may also enter into agreements with securities dealers (“Soliciting Dealers”) who will solicit purchases of Creation Unit Aggregations of Fund Shares. Such Soliciting Dealers may also be Participating Parties (as defined in “Procedures for Creation of Creation Unit Aggregations” below) and DTC Participants (as defined in “DTC Acts as Securities Depository” below).

CUSTODIAN

Pursuant to the Global Custody Agreement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, 270 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10017 (the “JPMorgan Custody Agreement”), JPMorgan Chase Bank serves as the custodian for each Fund. Pursuant to the JPMorgan Custody Agreement, JPMorgan Chase Bank is responsible for holding portfolio securities and cash and maintaining the books of account and records of portfolio transactions. JPMorgan Chase Bank is an affiliate of the Adviser and JPMFM.

CUSTODY FEES AND EXPENSES

For custodian services, each Fund pays to JPMorgan Chase Bank annual safekeeping fees of between 0.0006% and 0.35% of assets held by JPMorgan Chase Bank (depending on the domicile in which the asset is held), calculated monthly in arrears and fees between $2.50 and $80 for securities trades (depending on the domicile in which the trade is settled), as well as transaction fees on certain activities of $2.50 to $20 per transaction. JPMorgan Chase Bank is also reimbursed for its reasonable out-of pocket or incidental expenses, including, but not limited to, registration and transfer fees and related legal fees.

JPMorgan Chase Bank may also be paid $15, $35 or $60 per proxy (depending on the country where the issuer is located) for its service which helps facilitate the voting of proxies throughout the world. For securities in the U.S. market, this fee is waived if the Adviser votes the proxies directly.

Pursuant to an arrangement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, custodian fees may be reduced by amounts calculated as a percentage of uninvested balances for certain Funds.

FUND ACCOUNTING AGENT

SEI Investments Global Funds Services (“SEIIGFS”) serves as the fund accounting agent for the Trust. As such, SEIIGFS provides services for each Fund including calculating the daily NAV for each Fund, maintaining books and records for the Funds and calculating Fund performance. As compensation for these services, SEIIGFS receives certain out-of-pocket costs and asset-based fees, subject to a minimum annual fee, from the Trust. SEIIGFS, a Delaware statutory trust, has its principal business offices at One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456. SEI Investments Management Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SEI Investments Company, is the owner of all beneficial interest in the SEIIGFS.

 

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TRANSFER AGENT

JPMorgan Chase Bank also serves as the Funds’ transfer agent. As transfer agent, JPMorgan Chase Bank is also responsible for maintaining account records, detailing the ownership of Fund shares and for crediting income, capital gains and other changes in share ownership to shareholder accounts. JPMorgan Chase Bank will be paid $250 per creation or redemption transaction. The Trust may be reimbursed for all or part of this fee by the Authorized Participant placing the creation or redemption order.

EXPENSES

The Funds pay the expenses incurred in their operations, including their pro-rata share of expenses of the Trust. These expenses include: investment advisory and administrative fees; the compensation of the Trustees; registration fees; interest charges; taxes; expenses connected with the execution, recording and settlement of security transactions; fees and expenses of the Funds’ custodian for all services to the Funds, including safekeeping of funds and securities and maintaining required books and accounts; expenses of preparing and mailing reports to investors and to government offices and commissions; expenses of meetings of investors; listing fees; fees and expenses of independent accountants, legal counsel and any transfer agent, registrar or dividend disbursing agent of the Trust; insurance premiums; and expenses of calculating the NAV of, and the net income on, shares of the Funds. Service providers to the Funds may, from time to time, voluntarily waive all or a portion of any fees to which they are entitled.

The Funds’ service providers have agreed that they will waive fees or reimburse the Funds as described in the Prospectus.

COMPENSATION TO INTERMEDIARIES

JPMIM and/or its affiliates (“JPMorgan Entities”) may pay certain broker-dealers, banks and other financial intermediaries (“Intermediaries”) for certain activities related to the Funds (“Compensation”). Any Compensation by JPMorgan Entities will be paid at their own expense out of their legitimate profits and not from the assets of the Funds. Although a portion of JPMorgan Entities’ revenue comes directly or indirectly in part from fees paid by the Funds, Compensation does not increase the price paid by investors for the purchase of Shares of, or the cost of owning, a Fund. JPMorgan Entities may pay Compensation for Intermediaries’ participating in activities that are designed to make registered representatives, other professionals and individual investors more knowledgeable about the Funds or for other activities, such as participation in marketing activities and presentations, educational training programs, the support of technology platforms and/or reporting systems. In addition, JPMorgan Entities may pay Compensation to Intermediaries that make Shares available to their clients or for otherwise promoting the Funds. These may include Compensation to Intermediaries that agree not to charge their customers any trading commissions when those customers purchase or sell shares of the Funds online and/or that promote the availability of commission-free ETF trading to their customers. Compensation payments of this type are sometimes referred to as revenue-sharing payments. Compensation will only be paid to the Intermediary, never to individuals other than occasional gifts and entertainment that are permitted by rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (also known as FINRA). JPMIM has entered into a written agreement to pay Compensation to Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (“Schwab”).

The JPMorgan Entities may be motivated to pay Compensation to promote the purchase of Fund shares by clients of Intermediaries and the retention of those investments by those clients. To the extent clients of Intermediaries purchase more shares of the Funds or retain shares of the Funds in their clients’ accounts, the JPMorgan Entities benefit from the incremental management and other fees paid by the Funds with respect to those assets.

Compensation to an Intermediary may be significant to the Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your salesperson or other investment professional may also be significant for your salesperson or other investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about which investment options it will recommend or make available to its clients or what services to provide for various products based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, Compensation creates conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients and these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend the Funds over other investments. The same conflict of interest exists with respect to your salesperson or other investment professional if he or she receives similar payments from his or her Intermediary firm.

JPMorgan Entities may determine to pay Compensation based on any number of metrics. For example, JPMorgan Entities may pay Compensation at year-end or other intervals in a fixed amount, an amount based upon

 

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an Intermediary’s services at defined levels or an amount based on the Intermediary’s net sales of one or more Funds in a year or other period or calculated in basis points based on average net assets attributed to the Intermediary. Please contact your salesperson or other investment professional or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information regarding any Compensation his or her Intermediary firm may receive. Any Compensation paid by the JPMorgan Entities to an Intermediary may create the incentive for an Intermediary to encourage customers to buy shares of the Funds.

TRUST COUNSEL

The law firm of Dechert LLP, 1095 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036-6797, is counsel to the Trust.

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

The independent registered public accounting firm for the Trust and the Funds is PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PWC”). PWC conducts an annual audit of the financial statements of each of the Funds and will assist in the preparation and/or review of each Fund’s federal and state income tax returns.

DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS

Each Fund declares and pays dividends and distributions as described under “Distribution and Tax Matters” in the Prospectus.

NET ASSET VALUE

The NAV per share of a Fund is equal to the value of all the assets attributable to that class, minus the liabilities, divided by the number of outstanding shares. The NAV of each Fund is determined each business day as of the close of trading (normally 4:00 p.m ET) on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”). On occasion, the NYSE will close before 4:00 p.m. ET. When that happens, NAV will be calculated as of the time the NYSE closes. The following is a discussion of the procedures used by a Fund in valuing its assets.

Securities for which market quotations are readily available are generally valued at their current market value. Other securities and assets, including securities for which market quotations are not readily available; market quotations are determined not to be reliable; or, their value has been materially affected by events occurring after the close of trading on the exchange or market on which the security is principally traded (for example, a natural disaster affecting an entire country or region, or an event that affects an individual company) but before a Fund’s NAV is calculated, may be valued at its fair value in accordance with policies and procedures adopted by the Trust’s Board of Trustees. Fair value represents a good faith determination of the value of a security or other asset based upon specifically applied procedures. Fair valuation determinations may require subjective determinations. There can be no assurance that the fair value of an asset is the price at which the asset could have been sold during the period in which the particular fair value was used in determining the Fund’s NAV.

Equity securities listed on a North American, Central American, South American or Caribbean (“Americas”) securities exchange are generally valued at the last sale price on the exchange on which the security is principally traded that is reported before the time when the net assets of a Fund are valued. The value of securities listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market, Inc. is generally the NASDAQ official closing price.

Generally, trading of foreign securities on most foreign markets is completed before the close in trading in U.S. markets. The Funds have implemented fair value pricing on a daily basis for all equity securities other than Americas equity securities. The fair value pricing utilizes the quotations of an independent pricing service. Trading on foreign markets may also take place on days on which the U.S. markets and the Funds are closed.

Shares of exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are generally valued at the last sale price on the exchange on which the ETF is principally traded. Shares of open-end mutual funds are valued at their respective NAVs.

Fixed income securities are valued using market quotations supplied by approved independent third party pricing services, affiliated pricing services or broker/dealers. In determining security prices, pricing services and broker/dealers may consider a variety of inputs and factors, including, but not limited to proprietary models that may take into account market transactions in securities with comparable characteristics, yield curves, option-adjusted spreads, credit spreads, estimated default rates, coupon rates, underlying collateral and estimated cash flows.

 

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Assets and liabilities initially expressed in foreign currencies will be converted into U.S. dollars at the prevailing market rates from an approved independent pricing service as of 4:00 PM ET.

Options (e.g., on stock indices or equity securities) traded on U.S. equity securities exchanges are valued at the composite mean price, using the National Best Bid and Offer quotes at the close of options trading on such exchanges.

Options traded on foreign exchanges or U.S. commodities exchanges are valued at the settled price, or if no settled price is available, at the last sale price available prior to the calculation of a Fund’s NAV and will be fair valued by applying fair value factor provided by independent pricing services, as applicable, for any options involving equity reference obligations listed on exchanges other than North American, Central American, South American or Caribbean securities exchanges.

Exchange traded futures (e.g., on stock indices, debt securities or commodities) are valued at the settled price, or if no settled price is available, at the last sale price as of the close of the exchanges on which they trade. Any futures involving equity reference obligations listed on exchanges other than North American, Central American, South American or Caribbean securities exchanges will be fair valued by applying fair value factor provided by independent pricing services, as applicable.

Non-listed over-the-counter options and futures are valued utilizing market quotations provided by approved pricing service.

Swaps and structured notes are priced generally by an approved independent third party or affiliated pricing service or at an evaluated price provided by a counterparty or broker/dealer.

Any derivatives involving equity reference obligations listed on exchanges other than North American, Central American, South American or Caribbean securities exchanges will be fair valued by applying fair value factor provided by independent pricing services, as applicable.

Certain fixed income securities and swaps may be valued using market quotations or valuations provided by pricing services affiliated with the Adviser. Valuations received by a Fund from affiliated pricing services are the same as those provided to other affiliated and unaffiliated entities by these affiliated pricing services.

Securities or other assets for which market quotations are not readily available or for which market quotations do not represent the value at the time of pricing (including certain illiquid securities) are fair valued in accordance with procedures established by and under the supervision and responsibility of the Trustees. The Board of Trustees has established an Audit and Valuation Committee to assist the Board of Trustees in its oversight of the valuation of the Fund’s securities. The Fund’s Administrator has created a Valuation Committee (“VC”) to (1) make fair value determinations in certain predetermined situations as outlined in the procedures approved by the Board of Trustees and (2) provide recommendations to the Board of Trustee’s in other situations. The VC includes senior representatives from the Fund’s management as well as the Fund’s investment adviser. Fair value situations could include, but are not limited to: (1) a significant event that affects the value of a Fund’s securities (e.g., news relating to natural disasters affecting an issuer’s operations or earnings announcements); (2) illiquid securities; (3) securities that may be defaulted or de-listed from an exchange and are no longer trading; or (4) any other circumstance in which the VC believes that market quotations do not accurately reflect the value of a security.

From time to time, there may be errors in the calculation of the NAV of the Fund or the processing of creations and redemptions. Shareholders will generally not be notified of the occurrence of an error or the resolution thereof.

DELAWARE TRUST

The Trust was formed as a Delaware statutory trust on February 25, 2010 pursuant to a Declaration of Trust.

Under Delaware law, shareholders of a statutory trust shall have the same limitation of personal liability that is extended to stockholders of private corporations for profit organized under Delaware law, unless otherwise provided in the trust’s governing trust instrument. The Trust’s Declaration of Trust provides that shareholders of the Trust shall not be personally liable for the debts, liabilities, obligations and expenses incurred by, contracted for, or otherwise existing with respect to the Trust or any series thereof. In addition, the Declaration of Trust provides that neither the Trust, nor the Trustees, officers, employees, nor agents thereof shall have any power to bind personally any shareholders nor to call upon any shareholder for payment of any sum of money or assessment other than such as the shareholder may personally agree to pay. Moreover, the Trust’s Declaration of Trust expressly provides that the shareholders shall have the same limitation of personal liability that is extended to shareholders of a private corporation for profit organized under the General Corporation Law of in the State of Delaware.

 

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The Trust’s Declaration of Trust provides for the indemnification out of the assets held with respect to a particular series of shares of any shareholder or former shareholder held personally liable solely by reason of a claim or demand relating to the person being or having been a shareholder and not because of the shareholder’s acts or omissions. The Trust’s Declaration of Trust also provides that the Trust, on behalf of the applicable series, may, at its option with prior written notice, assume the defense of any claim made against a shareholder.

The Trust’s Declaration of Trust provides that the Trust will indemnify its Trustees and officers against liabilities and expenses incurred in connection with any proceeding in which they may be involved because of their offices with the Trust, unless, as to liability to the Trust or the shareholders thereof, the Trustees engaged in willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of their offices. In addition, the Declaration of Trust provides that any Trustee who has been determined to be an “audit committee financial expert” shall not be subject to a greater liability or duty of care because of such determination.

The Trust shall continue without limitation of time subject to the provisions in the Declaration of Trust concerning termination by action of the shareholders or by action of the Trustees upon written notice to the shareholders.

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

The Trust is an open-end, management investment company organized as a Delaware statutory trust. Each Fund represents a separate series of shares of beneficial interest. See “Delaware Trust.”

The Trust’s Declaration of Trust permits the Trustees to issue an unlimited number of full and fractional shares (par value $0.0001 per share (or such other value as the Trustees may determine from time to time)) of one or more series and classes within any series and to divide or combine the shares of any series or class without materially changing the proportionate beneficial interest of such shares of such series or class in the assets held with respect to that series. Each share represents an equal beneficial interest in the net assets of a Fund with each other share of that Fund. The Trustees of the Trust may authorize the issuance of shares of additional series and the creation of classes of shares within any series with such preferences, voting powers, rights, duties and privileges as the Trustees may determine; however, the Trustees may not classify or change outstanding shares in a manner materially adverse to shareholders of each share. Upon liquidation of a Fund, shareholders are entitled to share pro rata in the net assets of a Fund available for distribution to such shareholders. The rights of redemption and exchange are described in the Prospectus and elsewhere in this SAI.

The shareholders of a Fund are entitled to one vote for each dollar of NAV (or a proportionate fractional vote with respect to the remainder of the NAV of shares, if any), on matters on which shares of a Fund shall be entitled to vote. Subject to the 1940 Act, the Trustees themselves have the power to alter the number and the terms of office of the Trustees, to lengthen their own terms, or to make their terms of unlimited duration subject to certain removal procedures, and appoint their own successors, provided, however, that immediately after such appointment the requisite majority of the Trustees have been elected by the shareholders. The voting rights of shareholders are not cumulative with respect to the election of Trustees. It is the intention of the Trust not to hold meetings of shareholders annually. The Trustees may call meetings of shareholders for action by shareholder vote as may be required by either the 1940 Act or the Declaration of Trust of the Trust.

Each share of a series represents an equal proportionate interest in the assets in that series with each other share of that series. The shares of each series participate equally in the earnings, dividends and assets of the particular series. Expenses of the Trust which are not attributable to a specific series are allocated among all of their series in a manner deemed by the Trustees to be fair and equitable. Shares have no pre-emptive or conversion rights, and when issued, are fully paid and non-assessable. Shares of each series generally vote together, except when required under federal securities laws to vote separately on matters that may affect a particular class, such as the approval of distribution plans for a particular class.

The Trustees of the Trust may, without shareholder approval (unless otherwise required by applicable law): (i) cause the Trust to merge or consolidate with or into one or more trusts (or series thereof to the extent permitted by law, partnerships, associations, corporations or other business entities (including trusts, partnerships, associations, corporations, or other business entities created by the Trustees to accomplish such merger or consolidation) so long as the surviving or resulting entity is an investment company as defined in the 1940 Act, or is a series thereof, that will succeed to or assume the Trust’s registration under the 1940 Act and that is formed, organized, or existing under the laws of the U.S. or of a state, commonwealth, possession or territory of the U.S., unless otherwise permitted under the 1940 Act; (ii) cause the shares to be exchanged under or pursuant to any state

 

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or federal statute to the extent permitted by law; or (iii) cause the Trust to reorganize as a corporation, limited liability company or limited liability partnership under the laws of Delaware or any other state or jurisdiction. However, the exercise of such authority may be subject to certain restrictions under the 1940 Act.

The Trustees may, without shareholder vote, generally restate, amend or otherwise supplement the Trust’s governing instruments, including the Declaration of Trust and the By-Laws, without the approval of shareholders, subject to limited exceptions, such as the right to elect Trustees.

The Trustees, without obtaining any authorization or vote of shareholders, may change the name of any series or dissolve or terminate any series.

Shares have no subscription or preemptive rights and only such conversion or exchange rights as the Board may grant in its discretion. When issued for payment as described in the Prospectus and this SAI, Shares will be fully paid and non-assessable. In the event of a liquidation or dissolution of the Trust, Shares of a Fund are entitled to receive the assets available for distribution belonging to the Fund, and a proportionate distribution, based upon the relative asset values of a Fund, of any general assets not belonging to any particular Fund which are available for distribution.

Rule 18f-2 under the 1940 Act provides that any matter required to be submitted to the holders of the outstanding voting securities of an investment company such as the Trust shall not be deemed to have been effectively acted upon unless approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding Shares of a Fund affected by the matter. For purposes of determining whether the approval of a majority of the outstanding Shares of a Fund will be required in connection with a matter, a Fund will be deemed to be affected by a matter unless it is clear that the interests of a Fund in the matter are identical, or that the matter does not affect any interest of the Fund. Under Rule 18f-2, the approval of an investment advisory agreement or any change in investment policy would be effectively acted upon with respect to a Fund only if approved by a majority of the outstanding Shares of a Fund. However, Rule 18f-2 also provides that the ratification of independent public accountants, the approval of principal underwriting contracts, and the election of Trustees may be effectively acted upon by Shareholders of the Trust voting without regard to series.

PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE

The Trust has adopted a policy regarding the disclosure of information about each Fund’s portfolio holdings. The Board of Trustees of the Trust must approve all material amendments to this policy. A Fund’s complete portfolio holdings are publicly disseminated each day the Fund is open for business through financial reporting and news services, including publicly accessible Internet web sites. In addition, a basket composition file, which includes the security names and share quantities to deliver in exchange for Fund shares, together with estimates and actual cash components, is publicly disseminated daily prior to the opening of the Exchange via the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”). The basket represents one Creation Unit of a Fund. The Trust, the Adviser and the Distributor will not disseminate non-public information concerning the Trust, except: (i) to a party for a legitimate business purpose related to the day-to-day operations of the Funds or (ii) to any other party for a legitimate business or regulatory purpose, upon waiver or exception.

PROXY VOTING PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES

The Board of Trustees has delegated to the Adviser and its affiliated advisers, proxy voting authority with respect to a Fund’s portfolio securities. To ensure that the proxies of portfolio companies are voted in the best interests of a Fund, the Fund’s Board of Trustees has adopted the Adviser’s detailed proxy voting procedures (the “Procedures”) that incorporate guidelines (“Guidelines”) for voting proxies on specific types of issues.

The Adviser and its affiliated advisers are part of a global asset management organization with the capability to invest in securities of issuers located around the globe. Because the regulatory framework and the business cultures and practices vary from region to region, the Guidelines are customized for each region to take into account such variations. Separate Guidelines cover the regions of (1) North America, (2) Europe, Middle East, Africa, Central America and South America, (3) Asia (ex-Japan) and (4) Japan, respectively.

Notwithstanding the variations among the Guidelines, all of the Guidelines have been designed with the uniform objective of encouraging corporate action that enhances shareholder value. As a general rule, in voting proxies of a particular security, the Adviser and its affiliated advisers will apply the Guidelines of the region in which the issuer of such security is organized. Except as noted below, proxy voting decisions will be made in accordance with the Guidelines covering a multitude of both routine and non-routine matters that the Adviser and its affiliated advisers have encountered globally, based on many years of collective investment management experience.

 

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To oversee and monitor the proxy-voting process, the Adviser has established a proxy committee and appointed a proxy administrator in each global location where proxies are voted. The primary function of each proxy committee is to review periodically general proxy-voting matters, review and approve the Guidelines annually, and provide advice and recommendations on general proxy-voting matters as well as on specific voting issues. The procedures permit an independent voting service to perform certain services otherwise carried out or coordinated by the proxy administrator.

Although for many matters the Guidelines specify the votes to be cast, for many others, the Guidelines contemplate case-by-case determinations. In addition, there will undoubtedly be proxy matters that are not contemplated by the Guidelines. For both of these categories of matters and to override the Guidelines, the Procedures require a certification and review process to be completed before the vote is cast. That process is designed to identify actual or potential material conflicts of interest (between a Fund on the one hand, and the Fund’s Adviser, principal underwriter or an affiliate of any of the foregoing, on the other hand) and ensure that the proxy vote is cast in the best interests of the Fund. A conflict is deemed to exist when the proxy is for JPMorgan Chase & Co. stock or for the Fund, or when the proxy administrator has actual knowledge indicating that a JPMorgan affiliate is an investment banker or rendered a fairness opinion with respect to the matter that is the subject of the proxy vote. When such conflicts are identified, the proxy will be voted by an independent third party either in accordance with JPMorgan proxy voting guidelines or by the third party using its own guidelines.

When other types of potential material conflicts of interest are identified, the proxy administrator and, as necessary, JPMAM’s Chief Fiduciary Officer will evaluate the potential conflict of interest and determine whether such conflict actually exists, and if so, will recommend how the Adviser will vote the proxy. In addressing any material conflict, the Adviser may take one or more of the following measures (or other appropriate action): removing or “walling off” from the proxy voting process certain Adviser personnel with knowledge of the conflict, voting in accordance with any applicable Guideline if the application of the Guideline would objectively result in the casting of a proxy vote in a predetermined manner, or deferring the vote to or obtaining a recommendation from an third independent party, in which case the proxy will be voted by, or in accordance with the recommendation of, the independent third party.

The following summarizes some of the more noteworthy types of proxy voting policies of the non-U.S. Guidelines:

 

   

Corporate governance procedures differ among the countries. Because of time constraints and local customs, it is not always possible for the Adviser to receive and review all proxy materials in connection with each item submitted for a vote. Many proxy statements are in foreign languages. Proxy materials are generally mailed by the issuer to the sub-custodian which holds the securities for the client in the country where the portfolio company is organized, and there may not be sufficient time for such materials to be transmitted to the Adviser in time for a vote to be cast. In some countries, proxy statements are not mailed at all, and in some locations, the deadline for voting is two to four days after the initial announcement that a vote is to be solicited and it may not always be possible to obtain sufficient information to make an informed decision in good time to vote.

 

   

Certain markets require that shares being tendered for voting purposes are temporarily immobilized from trading until after the shareholder meeting has taken place. Elsewhere, notably emerging markets, it may not always be possible to obtain sufficient information to make an informed decision in good time to vote. Some markets require a local representative to be hired in order to attend the meeting and vote in person on our behalf, which can result in considerable cost. The Adviser also considers the cost of voting in light of the expected benefit of the vote. In certain instances, it may sometimes be in the Fund’s best interests to intentionally refrain from voting in certain overseas markets from time to time.

 

   

Where proxy issues concern corporate governance, takeover defense measures, compensation plans, capital structure changes and so forth, the Adviser pays particular attention to management’s arguments for promoting the prospective change. The Adviser’s sole criterion in determining its voting stance is whether such changes will be to the economic benefit of the beneficial owners of the shares.

 

   

The Adviser is in favor of a unitary board structure of the type found in the United Kingdom as opposed to tiered board structures. Thus, the Adviser will generally vote to encourage the gradual phasing out of tiered board structures, in favor of unitary boards. However, since tiered boards are still very prevalent in markets outside of the United Kingdom, local market practice will always be taken into account.

 

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The Adviser will use its voting powers to encourage appropriate levels of board independence, taking into account local market practice.

 

   

The Adviser will usually vote against discharging the board from responsibility in cases of pending litigation, or if there is evidence of wrongdoing for which the board must be held accountable.

 

   

The Adviser will vote in favor of increases in capital which enhance a company’s long-term prospects. The Adviser will also vote in favor of the partial suspension of preemptive rights if they are for purely technical reasons (e.g., rights offers which may not be legally offered to shareholders in certain jurisdictions). However, the Adviser will vote against increases in capital which would allow the company to adopt “poison pill” takeover defense tactics, or where the increase in authorized capital would dilute shareholder value in the long term.

 

   

The Adviser will vote in favor of proposals which will enhance a company’s long-term prospects. The Adviser will vote against an increase in bank borrowing powers which would result in the company reaching an unacceptable level of financial leverage, where such borrowing is expressly intended as part of a takeover defense, or where there is a material reduction in shareholder value.

 

   

The Adviser will generally vote against anti-takeover devices.

 

   

Where social or environmental issues are the subject of a proxy vote, the Adviser will consider the issue on a case-by-case basis, keeping in mind at all times the best economic interests of its clients.

The following summarizes some of the more noteworthy types of proxy voting policies of the U.S. Guidelines:

 

   

The Adviser considers votes on director nominees on a case-by-case basis. Votes generally will be withheld from directors who: (a) attend less than 75% of board and committee meetings without a valid excuse; (b) implement or renew a dead-hand poison pill; (c) are affiliated directors who serve on audit, compensation or nominating committees or are affiliated directors and the full board serves on such committees or the company does not have such committees; (d) ignore a shareholder proposal that is approved by a majority of either the shares outstanding or the votes cast based on a review over a consecutive two year time frame; (e) unilaterally adopt a litigation fee-shifting by-law without shareholder approval; (f) are insiders and affiliated outsiders on boards that are not at least majority independent; or (g) are CEOs of publically-traded companies who serve on more than three public boards or serve on more than four public company boards. In addition, votes are generally withheld for directors who serve on committees in certain cases. For example, the Adviser generally withholds votes from audit committee members in circumstances in which there is evidence that there exists material weaknesses in the company’s internal controls.

 

   

The Adviser votes proposals to classify boards on a case-by-case basis, but normally will vote in favor of such proposal if the issuer’s governing documents contain each of eight enumerated safeguards (for example, a majority of the board is composed of independent directors and the nominating committee is composed solely of such directors).

 

   

The Adviser also considers management poison pill proposals on a case-by-case basis, looking for shareholder-friendly provisions before voting in favor.

 

   

The Adviser votes against proposals for a super-majority vote to approve a merger.

 

   

The Adviser considers proposals to increase common and/or preferred shares and to issue shares as part of a debt restructuring plan on a case-by-case basis, taking into account such factors as the extent of dilution and whether the transaction will result in a change in control.

 

   

The Adviser considers vote proposals with respect to compensation plans on a case-by-case basis. The analysis of compensation plans focuses primarily on the transfer of shareholder wealth (the dollar cost of pay plans to shareholders) and includes an analysis of the structure of the plan and pay practices of other companies in the relevant industry and peer companies. Other matters included in the analysis are the amount of the company’s outstanding stock to be reserved for the award of stock options, whether the exercise price of an option is less than the stock’s fair market value at the date of the grant of the options, and whether the plan provides for the exchange of outstanding options for new ones at lower exercise prices.

 

   

The Adviser also considers on a case-by-case basis proposals to change an issuer’s state of incorporation, mergers and acquisitions and other corporate restructuring proposals and certain social issue proposals.

 

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The Adviser generally votes for management proposals which seek shareholder approval to make the state of incorporation the exclusive forum for disputes if the company is a Delaware corporation; otherwise, the Adviser votes on a case by case basis.

 

   

The Adviser generally supports management disclosure practices for environmental issues except for those companies that have been involved in significant controversies, fines or litigation related to environmental issues.

 

   

The Adviser reviews Say on Pay proposals on a case by case basis with additional review of proposals where the issuer’s previous year’s proposal received a low level of support.

In accordance with regulations of the SEC, the Fund’s proxy voting records for the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 are on file with the SEC and are available on the Funds’ website at www.jpmorganfunds.com and are on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

The Trust is not required to hold a meeting of Shareholders for the purpose of electing Trustees except that (i) the Trust is required to hold a Shareholders’ meeting for the election of Trustees at such time as less than a majority of the Trustees holding office have been elected by Shareholders and (ii) if, as a result of a vacancy on the Board of Trustees, less than two-thirds of the Trustees holding office have been elected by the Shareholders, that vacancy may only be filled by a vote of the Shareholders. In addition, Trustees may be removed from office by a written consent signed by the holders of Shares representing two-thirds of the outstanding Shares of a Trust at a meeting duly called for the purpose, which meeting shall be called and held in accordance with the By-Laws of the Trust. Except as set forth above, the Trustees may continue to hold office and may appoint successor Trustees.

As used in the Trust’s Prospectus and in this SAI, “assets belonging to a Fund” means the consideration received by the Trust upon the issuance or sale of Shares in the Fund, together with all income, earnings, profits, and proceeds derived from the investment thereof, including any proceeds from the sale, exchange, or liquidation of such investments, and any funds or payments derived from any reinvestment of such proceeds, and any general assets of the Trust not readily identified as belonging to the Fund that are allocated to that Fund by the Trust’s Board of Trustees. The Board of Trustees may allocate such general assets in any manner it deems fair and equitable. It is anticipated that the factor that will be used by the Board of Trustees in making allocations of general assets to particular Funds will be the relative NAV of the respective Funds at the time of allocation. Assets belonging to a particular Fund are charged with the direct liabilities and expenses in respect of that Fund, and with a share of the general liabilities and expenses of the Trust not readily identified as belonging to a particular Fund that are allocated to that Fund in proportion to the relative NAV of the respective Funds at the time of allocation. The timing of allocations of general assets and general liabilities and expenses of the Trust to a particular Fund will be determined by the Board of Trustees of the Trust and will be in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Determinations by the Board of Trustees of the Trust as to the timing of the allocation of general liabilities and expenses and as to the timing and allocable portion of any general assets with respect to a particular Fund are conclusive.

As used in this SAI and the Prospectus, the term “majority of the outstanding voting securities” of the Trust, a Fund or a particular class of a Fund means the following when the 1940 Act governs the required approval: the affirmative vote of the lesser of (a) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust, such Fund or such class of such Fund, or (b) 67% or more of the shares of the Trust, such Fund or such class of such Fund present at a meeting at which the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust, such Fund or such class of such Fund are represented in person or by proxy. Otherwise, the declaration of trust, articles of incorporation or by-laws usually govern the needed approval and generally require that if a quorum is present at a meeting, the vote of a majority of the shares of the Trust, such Fund or such class of such Fund, as applicable, shall decide the question.

Telephone calls to a Fund, a Fund’s service providers or a Financial Intermediary as Financial Intermediary may be recorded. With respect to the securities offered hereby, this SAI and the Prospectus do not contain all the information included in the Registration Statements of the Trust filed with the SEC under the 1933 Act and the 1940 Act. Pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, certain portions have been omitted. The Registration Statement, including the exhibits filed therewith, may be examined at the office of the SEC in Washington, D.C.

Statements contained in this SAI and the Prospectus concerning the contents of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, reference is made to the copy of such contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statements of the Trusts. Each such statement is qualified in all respects by such reference.

 

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No dealer, salesman or any other person has been authorized to give any information or to make any representations, other than those contained in the Prospectus and this SAI, in connection with the offer contained therein and, if given or made, such other information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by the Trust, the Fund or the Distributor. The Prospectus and this SAI do not constitute an offer by the Fund or by the Distributor to sell or solicit any offer to buy any of the securities offered hereby in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful for the Fund or the Distributor to make such offer in such jurisdictions.

 

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APPENDIX A — PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS

BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM

The following information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Funds’ Prospectus entitled “Buying and Selling Shares.”

The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) acts as securities depositary for the Shares. Shares of a Fund are represented by securities registered in the name of DTC or its nominee and deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC. Certificates will not be issued for Shares.

DTC, a limited-purpose trust company, was created to hold securities of its participants (the “DTC Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own DTC. More specifically, DTC is owned by a number of its DTC Participants and by the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and FINRA. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (the “Indirect Participants”).

Beneficial ownership of Shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in Shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to herein as “Beneficial Owners”) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of Shares.

Conveyance of all notices, statements and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. Pursuant to the Depositary Agreement between the Trust and DTC, DTC is required to make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee to be charged to the Trust a listing of the Shares holdings of each DTC Participant. The Trust shall inquire of each such DTC Participant as to the number of Beneficial Owners holding Shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement or other communication, in such form, number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such notice, statement or communication may be transmitted by such DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

Share distributions shall be made to DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all Shares. DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall credit immediately DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in Shares as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.

The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspects of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such Shares, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests or for any other aspect of the relationship between DTC and the DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.

DTC may determine to discontinue providing its service with respect to the Shares at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Trust and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Trust shall take action either to find a replacement for DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost or, if such a replacement is unavailable, to issue and deliver printed certificates representing ownership of Shares, unless the Trust makes other arrangements with respect thereto satisfactory to the Exchange.

 

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CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS

General

The Trust issues and sells Shares of the Funds only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without an initial sales load, at their NAV next determined after receipt, on any Business Day (as defined herein), of an order in proper form. An Authorized Participant (defined below) that is not a “qualified institutional buyer,” as such term is defined under Rule 144A of the Securities Act of 1933, will not be able to receive, as part of a redemption, restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A.

A “Business Day” with respect to the Fund is any day on which the Exchange is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the Exchange observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, President’s Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

Continuous Offering

The method by which Creation Units are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units are issued and sold by a Fund on an ongoing basis, at any point a “distribution,” as such term is used in the 1933 Act, may occur. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner that could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the 1933 Act.

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares and sells such shares directly to customers or if it chooses to couple the creation of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the 1933 Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a categorization as an underwriter.

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in Shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of Shares, generally are required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(a)(3) of the 1933 Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. Firms that incur a prospectus delivery obligation with respect to Shares of a Fund are reminded that, pursuant to Rule 153 under the 1933 Act, a prospectus delivery obligation under Section 5(b)(2) of the 1933 Act owed to an exchange member in connection with a sale on the Exchange is satisfied by the fact that the prospectus is available at the Exchange upon request. The prospectus delivery mechanism provided in Rule 153 is available only with respect to transactions on an exchange.

Portfolio Deposit

The consideration for a purchase of Creation Units (except with respect to certain Funds) generally consists of the in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of equity securities and other investments (the “Deposit Instruments”) included in each Fund’s Underlying Index and an amount of cash computed as described below (the “Cash Amount”). The Cash Amount together with the Deposit Instruments, as applicable, are referred to as the “Portfolio Deposit,” which represents the minimum initial and subsequent investment amount for a Creation Unit of a Fund. For certain Funds, Creation Units are issued partially or principally for cash, as specified in the Fund’s Prospectus and Part I of this SAI.

In the event a Fund requires Deposit Instruments in consideration for purchasing a Creation Unit, the portfolio of securities required may, in certain limited circumstances (such as in connection with pending changes to the Fund’s Underlying Index), be different than the portfolio of securities the Fund will deliver upon redemption of Fund Shares.

In the event a Fund requires Deposit Instruments and a Cash Amount in consideration for purchasing a Creation Unit, the function of the Cash Amount is to compensate for any differences between the NAV per Creation Unit and the Deposit Amount (as defined below). The Cash Amount would be an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of the Shares (per Creation Unit) and the “Deposit Amount,” which is an amount equal to the aggregate market value of the Deposit Instruments. If the Cash Amount is a positive number (the NAV per Creation Unit exceeds the Deposit Amount), the Authorized Participant will deliver the Cash Amount. If the Cash Amount is

 

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a negative number (the NAV per Creation Unit is less than the Deposit Amount), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Amount. Computation of the Cash Amount excludes any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses payable upon transfer of beneficial ownership of the Deposit Instruments, which shall be the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant.

The Administrator, through the NSCC, makes available on each Business Day, immediately prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m. Eastern time), the list of the names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Instrument to be included in the current Portfolio Deposit (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day), as well as information regarding the Cash Amount for a Fund. Such Portfolio Deposit is applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, in order to effect creations of Creation Units of a Fund until such time as the next-announced Portfolio Deposit composition is made available.

The identity and number of the Deposit Instruments and Cash Amount required for the Portfolio Deposit for a Fund changes as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time by the Adviser with a view to the investment objective of the Fund. The composition of the Deposit Instruments and the amount of the Cash Amount may also change in response to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities of the Fund’s Index.

In addition, the Trust reserves the right to accept a basket of securities or cash that differs from Deposit Instruments or to permit the substitution of an amount of cash (i.e., a “cash in lieu” amount) to be added to the Cash Amount to replace any Deposit Instrument which may, among other reasons, not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery, not be permitted to be re-registered in the name of the Trust as a result of an in-kind creation order pursuant to local law or market convention or which may not be eligible for transfer through the Clearing Process (described below), or which may not be eligible for trading by a Participating Party (defined below). In light of the foregoing, in order to seek to replicate the in-kind creation order process, the Trust expects to purchase the Deposit Instruments represented by the cash in lieu amount in the secondary market (“Market Purchases”). In such cases where the Trust makes Market Purchases because a Deposit Instrument may not be permitted to be re-registered in the name of the Trust as a result of an in-kind creation order pursuant to local law or market convention, or for other reasons, the Authorized Participant will reimburse the Trust for, among other things, any difference between the market value at which the securities were purchased by the Trust and the cash in lieu amount (which amount, at the Adviser’s discretion, may be capped), applicable registration fees and taxes. Brokerage commissions incurred in connection with the Trust’s acquisition of Deposit Instruments will be at the expense of a Fund and will affect the value of all Shares of the Fund; but the Adviser may adjust the transaction fee to the extent the composition of the Deposit Instruments changes or cash in lieu is added to the Cash Amount to protect ongoing shareholders. The adjustments described above will reflect changes, known to the Adviser on the date of announcement to be in effect by the time of delivery of the Portfolio Deposit, in the composition of the Index or resulting from stock splits and other corporate actions.

In addition to the list of names and numbers of securities constituting the current Deposit Instruments of a Portfolio Deposit, the Administrator, through the NSCC, also makes available on each Business Day, the estimated Cash Component adjusted through the close of the trading day. In addition, on a continuous basis throughout the day, the intra-day indicative value will be calculated and disseminated in accordance with a Fund’s relevant listing standards.

Procedures for Creation of Creation Units

To be eligible to place orders with the Distributor to create Creation Units of a Fund, an entity or person either must be (1) a “Participating Party,” i.e., a broker-dealer or other participant in the clearing process through the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC; or (2) a DTC Participant (see “Book Entry Only System”); which, in either case, must have executed an agreement with the Distributor (as it may be amended from time to time in accordance with its terms) (“Participant Agreement”) (discussed below). A Participating Party and DTC Participant are collectively referred to as an “Authorized Participant.” All Creation Units of a Fund, however created, will be entered on the records of DTC in the name of Cede & Co. for the account of a DTC Participant.

All orders to create Creation Units must be placed in multiples of a certain number of Shares of a Fund, as disclosed under “PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS” in Part I of this SAI. Except as described below, and in all cases subject to the terms of the applicable Participant Agreement, all orders to create Creation Units, whether through the NSCC Clearing Process or outside the NSCC Clearing Process through DTC or otherwise, must be received by the Distributor no later than the closing time of the regular trading session on the Exchange (“Closing Time”) (ordinarily 4:00 p.m. Eastern time), in each case on the date such order is placed in order

 

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for creation of Creation Units to be effected based on the NAV of a Fund as determined on such date. A “Custom Order” may be placed by an Authorized Participant in the event that the Trust permits or requires the substitution of an amount of cash to be added to the Cash Amount to replace any Deposit Instrument which may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or which may not be eligible for trading by such Authorized Participant or the investor for which it is acting, or other relevant reason. The Business Day on which a creation order (or order to redeem as discussed below) is placed is herein referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” Orders must be transmitted by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement, as described below (see “Placement of Creation Orders Using NSCC Clearing Process”). Severe economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure, may impede the ability to reach the Distributor, a Participating Party or a DTC Participant. Creation Units may be created in advance of the receipt by the Trust of all or a portion of the Portfolio Deposit. In such cases, the Authorized Participant will remain liable for the full deposit of the missing portion(s) of the Portfolio Deposit and will be required to post collateral with the Trust consisting of cash at least equal to a percentage of the marked-to-market value of such missing portion(s) that is specified in the Participant Agreement. The Trust may use such collateral to buy the missing portion(s) of the Portfolio Deposit at any time and will subject such Authorized Participant to liability for any shortfall between the cost to the Trust of purchasing such securities and the value of such collateral. The Trust will have no liability for any such shortfall. The Trust will return any unused portion of the collateral to the Authorized Participant once the entire Fund Deposit has been properly received by the Distributor and deposited into the Trust.

Orders to create Creation Units of a Fund shall be placed with a Participating Party or DTC Participant, as applicable, in the form required by such Participating Party or DTC Participant. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed a Participant Agreement, and that, therefore, orders to create Creation Units of a Fund may have to be placed by the investor’s broker through a Participating Party or a DTC Participant who has executed a Participant Agreement. At any given time there may be only a limited number of broker-dealers that have executed a Participant Agreement. Those placing orders to create Creation Units of the Fund through the NSCC Clearing Process should afford sufficient time to permit proper submission of the order to the Distributor prior to the Closing Time on the Transmittal Date.

Orders for creation that are effected outside the NSCC Clearing Process are likely to require transmittal by the DTC Participant earlier on the Transmittal Date than orders effected using the NSCC Clearing Process. Those persons placing orders outside the NSCC Clearing Process should ascertain the deadlines applicable to DTC and the Federal Reserve Bank wire system by contacting the operations department of the broker or depository institution effectuating such transfer of Deposit Instruments and Cash Amount.

Orders to create Creation Units of a Fund may be placed through the Clearing Process utilizing procedures applicable to domestic funds for domestic securities (“Domestic Funds”) (see “Placement of Creation Orders Using NSCC Clearing Process”) or outside the NSCC Clearing Process utilizing the procedures applicable to either Domestic Funds or Foreign Funds for foreign securities (“Foreign Funds”) (see “ Placement of Creation Orders Outside NSCC Clearing Process — Domestic Funds” and “Placement of Creation Orders Outside NSCC Clearing Process — Foreign Funds”). In the event that the Fund includes both domestic and foreign securities, the time for submitting orders is as stated in the “Placement of Creation Orders Outside NSCC Clearing Process — Foreign Funds” and “Placement of Redemption Orders Outside NSCC Clearing Process — Foreign Funds” sections below shall operate.

Placement of Creation Orders Using NSCC Clearing Process

Portfolio Deposits created through the NSCC Clearing Process, if available, must be delivered through a Participating Party that has executed a Participant Agreement.

The Participant Agreement authorizes the Distributor to transmit to the NSCC on behalf of the Participating Party such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the Participating Party’s creation order. Pursuant to such trade instructions from the Distributor to the NSCC, the Participating Party agrees to transfer the requisite Deposit Instruments (or contracts to purchase such Deposit Instruments that are expected to be delivered in a “regular way” manner by the third (3rd) Business Day) and the Cash Amount to the Trust, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor. An order to create Creation Units of a Fund through the NSCC Clearing Process is deemed received by the Distributor on the Transmittal Date if (i) such order is received by the Distributor not later than the Closing Time on such Transmittal Date and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed.

 

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Placement of Creation Orders Outside NSCC Clearing Process — Domestic Funds

Portfolio Deposits created outside the NSCC Clearing Process must be delivered through a DTC Participant that has executed a Participant Agreement. A DTC Participant who wishes to place an order creating Creation Units of a Fund to be effected outside the NSCC Clearing Process need not be a Participating Party, but such orders must state that the DTC Participant is not using the NSCC Clearing Process and that the creation of Creation Units will instead be effected through a transfer of securities and cash. The Portfolio Deposit transfer must be ordered by the DTC Participant in a timely fashion so as to ensure the delivery of the requisite number of Deposit Instruments through DTC to the account of the Trust by no later than 11:00 a.m. Eastern time, of the next Business Day immediately following the Transmittal Date. All questions as to the number of Deposit Instruments to be delivered, and the validity, form and eligibility (including time of receipt) for the deposit of any tendered securities, will be determined by the Trust, whose determination shall be final and binding. The cash equal to the Cash Component must be transferred directly to the Custodian through the Federal Reserve wire system in a timely manner so as to be received by the Custodian no later than 2:00 p.m. Eastern time, on the next Business Day immediately following the Transmittal Date. An order to create Creation Units of a Fund outside the NSCC Clearing Process is deemed received by the Distributor on the Transmittal Date if (i) such order is received by the Distributor not later than the Closing Time on such Transmittal Date; and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. However, if the Distributor does not receive both the requisite Deposit Instruments and the Cash Amount in a timely fashion on the next Business Day immediately following the Transmittal Date, such order may be cancelled. Upon written notice to the Distributor, such cancelled order may be resubmitted the following Business Day using the Portfolio Deposit as newly constituted to reflect the current NAV of the applicable Fund. The delivery of Creation Units so created will occur no later than the third (3rd) Business Day following the day on which the creation order is deemed received by the Distributor.

Additional transaction fees may be imposed with respect to transactions effected outside the NSCC Clearing Process (through a DTC Participant) and in circumstances in which any cash can be used in lieu of Deposit Instruments to create Creation Units. (See “Creation Transaction Fee” section below.)

Placement of Creation Orders Outside NSCC Clearing Process — Foreign Funds

The Distributor will inform the Transfer Agent, the Adviser and the Custodian upon receipt of a Creation Order. The Custodian will then provide such information to the appropriate subcustodian. For each Fund, the Custodian will cause the subcustodian of such Fund to maintain an account into which the Deposit Instruments (or the cash value of all or part of such securities, in the case of a permitted or required cash purchase or “cash in lieu” amount) will be delivered. Deposit Instruments must be delivered to an account maintained at the applicable local custodian. The Trust must also receive, on or before the contractual settlement date, immediately available or same day funds estimated by the Custodian to be sufficient to pay the Cash Amount next determined after receipt in proper form of the purchase order, together with the creation transaction fee described below.

Once the Transfer Agent has accepted a creation order, the Transfer Agent will confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit of the Fund against receipt of payment, at such NAV as will have been calculated after receipt in proper form of such order. The Transfer Agent will then transmit a confirmation of acceptance of such order.

Creation Units will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the Trust of the Deposit Instruments and the payment of the Cash Component have been completed. When the subcustodian has delivered to the account of the relevant subcustodian, the Distributor and the Adviser will be notified of such delivery and the Transfer Agent will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Units.

Acceptance of Creation Orders

The Trust and the Distributor reserve the absolute right to reject or revoke acceptance of a creation order transmitted to it in respect of a Fund, for example, if (a) the order is not in proper form; (b) the purchaser or group of related purchasers, upon obtaining the Creation Units of Shares, would own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares of such Fund; (c) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would have certain adverse tax consequences, such as causing the Fund no longer to meet RIC status under the Code for federal tax purposes; (d) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would, in the opinion of the Fund, be unlawful, as in the case of a purchaser who was banned from trading in securities (e) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would otherwise, in the discretion of the Fund, the Adviser and/or sub-advisers, have an adverse effect on the Fund or on the rights of the Fund’s beneficial owners; or; or (f) there exist circumstances outside the control of the Fund that make it impossible to process purchases of Creation Units of Shares for all practical purposes. Examples of such circumstances include: acts of God or public

 

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service or utility problems such as fires, floods, extreme weather conditions and power outage resulting in telephone, telecopy and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the Funds, the Adviser, any sub-adviser, the Transfer Agent, the Custodian, the Distributor, DTC, NSCC or any other participant in the purchase process; and similar extraordinary events. The Transfer Agent will notify a prospective creator of its rejection of the order of such person. The Trust, the Custodian, any subcustodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Fund Deposits to Authorized Participants nor shall either of them incur any liability to Authorized Participants for the failure to give any such notification. All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Instruments and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Trust, and the Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.

Creation Units of a Fund may be created in advance of receipt by the Trust of all or a portion of the applicable Deposit Instruments as described below. In these circumstances, the initial deposit will have a value greater than the NAV of the Shares on the date the order is placed in proper form since, in addition to available Deposit Instruments, cash must be deposited in an amount equal to the sum of (i) the Cash Amount, plus (ii) at least 105%, which the Trust may change from time to time, of the market value of the undelivered Deposit Instruments (the “Additional Cash Deposit”) with the Fund pending delivery of any missing Deposit Instruments.

If an Authorized Participant determines to post an Additional Cash Deposit as collateral for any undelivered Deposit Instruments, such Authorized Participant must deposit with the Custodian the appropriate amount of federal funds by 10:00 a.m. New York, (or such other time as specified by the Trust) on the date of requested settlement. If the Custodian does not receive the Additional Cash Deposit in the appropriate amount by such time, then the order may be deemed to be rejected and the AP shall be liable to a fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. An additional amount of cash shall be required to be deposited with the Custodian, pending delivery of the missing Deposit Instruments to the extent necessary to maintain the Additional Cash Deposit with the Trust in an amount at least equal to 105% as required, which the Trust may change from time to time, of the daily marked to market value of the missing Deposit Instruments. To the extent that missing Deposit Securities are not received by the specified time on the settlement date, or in the event a marked-to market payment is not made within one Business Day following notification by the Distributor that such a payment is required, the Trust may use the cash on deposit to purchase the missing Deposit Instruments. The Authorized Participant will be liable to the Trust for the costs incurred by the Trust in connection with any such purchases. These costs will be deemed to include the amount by which the actual purchase price of the Deposit Instruments exceeds the market value of such Deposit Instruments on the transmittal date plus the brokerage and related transaction costs associated with such purchases. The Trust will return any unused portion of the Additional Cash Deposit once all of the missing Deposit Instruments have been properly received by the Custodian or purchased by the Trust and deposited into the Trust. In addition, a transaction fee will be charged in all cases.

Creation Transaction Fee

A fixed creation transaction fee is imposed on each creation transaction regardless of the number of Creation Units purchased in the transaction. The amount of the creation transaction fee for a Fund is disclosed under “PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS” in Part I of this SAI. In addition, a variable charge for cash creations or for creations outside the NSCC Clearing Process currently of up to four times the basic creation transaction fee will be imposed. In the case of cash creations or where the Trust permits a creator to substitute cash in lieu of depositing a portion of the Deposit Instruments, the creator may be assessed an additional variable charge to compensate a Fund for the costs associated with purchasing the applicable securities. (See “Portfolio Deposit” section above.) As a result, in order to seek to replicate the in-kind creation order process, the Trust expects to purchase, in the secondary market or otherwise gain exposure to, the portfolio securities that could have been delivered as a result of an in-kind creation order pursuant to local law or market convention, or for other reasons (“Market Purchases”). In such cases where the Trust makes Market Purchases, the Authorized Participant will reimburse the Trust for, among other things, any difference between the market value at which the securities and/or financial instruments were purchased by the Trust and the cash in lieu amount (which amount, at the Adviser’s discretion, may be capped), applicable registration fees, brokerage commissions and certain taxes. The Adviser may adjust the transaction fee to the extent the composition of the creation securities changes or cash in lieu is added to the Cash Amount to protect ongoing shareholders. Creators of Creation Units are responsible for the costs of transferring the securities constituting the Deposit Instruments to the account of the Trust.

 

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Redemption of Creation Units

Shares may be redeemed only in Creation Units at their NAV next determined after receipt of a redemption request in proper form by the Distributor, only on a Business Day and only through a Participating Party or DTC Participant who has executed a Participant Agreement. The Trust will not redeem Shares in amounts less than Creation Units. Beneficial owners also may sell Shares in the secondary market, but must accumulate enough Shares to constitute a Creation Unit in order to have such Shares redeemed by the Trust. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be sufficient liquidity in the public trading market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Investors should expect to incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of Shares to constitute a redeemable Creation Unit. See with respect to each Fund, the section entitled “Summary Information — The Fund’s Main Risks” and “More About the Fund — Investment Risks” in the applicable Prospectus.

The Administrator, through NSCC, makes available immediately prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m. Eastern time) on each day that the Exchange is open for business, the identity of a Fund’s securities and/or an amount of cash that will be applicable (subject to possible amendment or correction) to redemption requests received in proper form (as defined below) on that day. A Fund’s securities received on redemption will generally correspond pro rata, to the extent practicable, to such Fund’s securities. A Fund’s securities received on redemption (“Redemption Instruments”) may include, with respect to a Fund, securities in different proportions than securities of the Underlying Index or may include securities not currently represented in the Underlying Index. Redemption Instruments received on redemption may not be identical to Deposit Instruments that are applicable to creations of Creation Units. An Authorized Participant submitting a redemption request is deemed to represent to the Trust that it (or its client) (i) owns outright or has full legal authority and legal beneficial right to tender for redemption the requisite number of Shares to be redeemed and can receive the entire proceeds of the redemption, and (ii) the Shares to be redeemed have not been loaned or pledged to another party nor are they the subject of a repurchase agreement, securities lending agreement or such other arrangement which would preclude the delivery of such Shares to the Trust. The Trust reserves the right to verify these representations at its discretion, but will typically require verification with respect to a redemption request from a Fund in connection with higher levels of redemption activity and/or short interest in the Fund. If the Authorized Participant, upon receipt of a verification request, does not provide sufficient verification of its representations as determined by the Trust, the redemption request will not be considered to have been received in proper form and may be rejected by the Trust. Unless cash redemptions are permitted or required for a Fund, the redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit generally consist of Redemption Instruments as announced by the Administrator on the Business Day of the request for redemption, plus cash in an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of the Shares being redeemed, as next determined after a receipt of a request in proper form, and the value of the Redemption Instruments, less the redemption transaction fee and variable fees described below. Should the Redemption Instruments have a value greater than the NAV of the Shares being redeemed, a compensating cash payment to the Trust equal to the differential plus the applicable redemption transaction fee will be required to be arranged for by or on behalf of the redeeming shareholder.

Redemption Transaction Fee

The basic redemption transaction fee (as described in “PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS” in Part I of this SAI) is the same no matter how many Creation Units are being redeemed pursuant to any one redemption request. An additional charge up to four times the redemption transaction fee will be charged with respect to cash redemptions or redemptions outside of the NSCC Clearing Process. An additional variable charge for cash redemptions or partial cash redemptions (when cash redemptions are permitted or required for a Fund) may also be imposed to compensate each applicable Fund for the costs associated with selling the applicable securities. As a result, in order to seek to replicate the in-kind redemption order process, the Trust expects to sell, in the secondary market, the portfolio securities or settle any financial instruments that may not be permitted to be re-registered in the name of the Participating Party as a result of an in-kind redemption order pursuant to local law or market convention, or for other reasons (“Market Sales”). In such cases where the Trust makes Market Sales, the Authorized Participant will reimburse the Trust for, among other things, any difference between the market value at which the securities and/or financial instruments were sold or settled by the Trust and the cash in lieu amount (which amount, at the Adviser’s discretion, may be capped), applicable registration fees, brokerage commissions and certain taxes (“Transaction Costs”). The Adviser may adjust the transaction fee to the extent the composition of the redemption securities changes or cash in lieu is added to the Cash Amount to protect ongoing shareholders. In no event will transaction fees charged by a Fund in connection with a redemption exceed 2% of the value of each

 

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Creation Unit. Investors who use the services of a broker or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. To the extent a Fund cannot recoup the amount of Transaction Costs incurred in connection with a redemption from the redeeming shareholder because of the 2% cap or otherwise, those Transaction Costs will be borne by the Fund’s remaining shareholders and negatively affect the Fund’s performance.

Placement of Redemption Orders Using NSCC Clearing Process

Orders to redeem Creation Units of the Fund through the NSCC Clearing Process, if available, must be delivered through a Participating Party that has executed the Participant Agreement. An order to redeem Creation Units of a Fund using the Clearing Process is deemed received on the Transmittal Date if (i) such order is received by the Distributor not later than 4:00 p.m. Eastern time on such Transmittal Date; and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed; such order will be effected based on the NAV of the Fund as next determined. An order to redeem Creation Units of the Fund using the NSCC Clearing Process made in proper form but received by the Fund after 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, will be deemed received on the next Business Day immediately following the Transmittal Date. The requisite Fund Securities (or contracts to purchase such Fund Securities which are expected to be delivered in a “regular way” manner) and the applicable cash payment will be transferred by the third (3rd) Business Day following the date on which such request for redemption is deemed received.

Placement of Redemption Orders Outside NSCC Clearing Process — Domestic Funds

Orders to redeem Creation Units of a Fund outside the NSCC Clearing Process must be delivered through a DTC Participant that has executed the Participant Agreement. A DTC Participant who wishes to place an order for redemption of Creation Units of a Fund to be effected outside the NSCC Clearing Process need not be a Participating Party, but such orders must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that redemption of Creation Units of the Fund will instead be effected through transfer of Creation Units of the Fund directly through DTC. An order to redeem Creation Units of a Fund outside the Clearing Process is deemed received by the Distributor on the Transmittal Date if (i) such order is received by the Distributor not later than 4:00 p.m. Eastern time on such Transmittal Date; (ii) such order is preceded or accompanied by the requisite number of Shares of Creation Units specified in such order, which delivery must be made through DTC to the Custodian no later than 11:00 a.m. Eastern time, on such Transmittal Date (the “DTC Cut-Off-Time”); and (iii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed.

After the Distributor has deemed an order for redemption outside the NSCC Clearing Process received, the Custodian will initiate procedures to transfer the requisite Redemption Instruments (or contracts to purchase such Redemption Instruments) which are expected to be delivered within three Business Days and the cash redemption payment to the redeeming Beneficial Owner by the third Business Day following the Transmittal Date on which such redemption order is deemed received by the Custodian. An additional variable redemption transaction fee of up to four times the basic transaction fee is applicable to redemptions outside the NSCC Clearing Process.

To the extent contemplated by an Authorized Participant’s agreement, in the event the Authorized Participant has submitted a redemption request in proper form but is unable to transfer all or part of the Creation Unit to be redeemed to the Fund’s Transfer Agent, the Transfer Agent will nonetheless accept the redemption request in reliance on the undertaking by the Authorized Participant to deliver the missing shares as soon as possible. Such undertaking shall be secured by the Authorized Participant’s delivery and maintenance of collateral consisting of cash having a value (marked to market daily) at least equal to 105%, which the Trust may change from time to time, of the value of the missing shares.

The current procedures for collateralization of missing shares require, among other things, that any cash collateral shall be in the form of U.S. dollars in immediately available funds and shall be held by the Custodian and marked to market daily, and that the fees of the Custodian and any sub-custodians in respect of the delivery, maintenance and redelivery of the cash collateral shall be payable by the Authorized Participant. The Authorized Participant’s agreement will permit the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, to purchase the missing shares or acquire the Deposit Instruments and the Cash Amount underlying such shares at any time and will subject the Authorized Participant to liability for any shortfall between the cost to the Trust of purchasing such shares, Deposit Instruments or Cash Amount and the value of the collateral.

Placement of Redemption Orders Outside NSCC Clearing Process — Foreign Funds

Arrangements satisfactory to the Trust must be in place for the Participating Party to transfer the Creation Units through DTC on or before the settlement date. Redemptions of Shares for Redemption Instruments will be subject to compliance with applicable U.S. federal and state securities laws and a Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits or

 

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requires cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Units for cash to the extent that the Fund could not lawfully deliver specific Redemption Instruments upon redemptions or could not do so without first registering the Deposit Securities under such laws.

In connection with taking delivery of Shares for Redemption Instruments upon redemption of Creation Units, a redeeming shareholder or entity acting on behalf of a redeeming shareholder must maintain appropriate custody arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank or other custody providers in each jurisdiction in which any of the Redemption Instruments are customarily traded, to which account such Redemption Instruments will be delivered. If neither the redeeming shareholder nor the entity acting on behalf of a redeeming shareholder has appropriate arrangements to take delivery of the Redemption Instruments in the applicable foreign jurisdiction and it is not possible to make other such arrangements, or if it is not possible to effect deliveries of the Redemption Instruments in such jurisdictions, the Trust may, in its discretion, exercise its option to redeem such Shares in cash, and the redeeming shareholder will be required to receive its redemption proceeds in cash.

Deliveries of redemption proceeds generally will be made within three business days. Due to the schedule of holidays in certain countries or for other reasons, however, the delivery of redemption proceeds may take longer than three business days after the day on which the redemption request is received in proper form. In such cases, the local market settlement procedures will not commence until the end of the local holiday periods.

The holidays applicable to the Foreign Funds (including the Funds) are listed below. The proclamation of new holidays, the treatment by market participants of certain days as “informal holidays” (e.g., days on which no or limited securities transactions occur, as a result of substantially shortened trading hours), the elimination of existing holidays or changes in local securities delivery practices, could affect the information set forth herein at some time in the future.

In calendar year 2016, the dates of regular holidays affecting the relevant securities markets in which the Funds invest are as follows (please note these holiday schedules are subject to potential changes in the relevant securities markets):

2016

 

ANGOLA

     

January 1

  February 9   April 4  

January 25

  March 8    

February 4

  March 25    

ARGENTINA

     

January 1

  March 24   June 20   November 28

February 8

  March 25   August 15   December 8

February 9

  May 25   October 10   December 30

AUSTRALIA

     

January 1

  April 12   August 1   December 26

January 26

  April 25   August 17   December 27

March 7

  May 2   September 26   December 28

March 8

  May 16   October 3   December 30

March 14

  June 6   November 1  

March 25

  June 13   November 2  

March 28

  June 14   December 23  

AUSTRIA

     

January 1

  May 5   October 26   December 30

January 6

  May 16   November 1  

March 25

  May 26   December 8  

March 28

  August 15   December 26  

AZERBAIJAN

     

January 1

  March 21   May 9   October 18

March 8

  April 1   June 15   November 17

 

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BAHRAIN

     

January 1

  July 7   September 14   October 12

May 1

  September 12   October 2   December 12

July 6

  September 13   October 11  

*The Bahraini market is closed every Friday.

   

BANGLADESH

     

March 17

  July 1   August 15   September 13

April 14

  July 6   August 25   October 11

June 3

  July 7   September 12   December 12
*The Bangladeshi market is closed every Friday.    

BARBADOS

     

January 1

  March 28   May 16   November 30

January 21

  April 28   August 1   December 26

March 25

  May 2   August 2   December 27

BELGIUM

     

January 1

  May 5   July 21   November 11

March 25

  May 6   August 15   December 26

March 28

  May 16   November 1  

BERMUDA

     

January 1

  June 20   September 5   December 27

March 25

  August 4   November 11  

May 24

  August 5   December 26  

BOLIVIA

     

January 1

  February 9   June 21  

January 22

  March 25    

February 8

  May 26    

BRAZIL

     

January 1

  February 9   September 7   December 30

January 20

  March 25   October 12  

January 25

  April 21   November 2  

February 8

  May 26   November 15  

BULGARIA

     

January 1

  May 6    

March 3

  May 24    

March 25

  September 6    

May 1

  September 22    

CANADA

     

January 1

  May 23   September 5   December 27

January 4

  June 24   October 10  

February 15

  July 1   November 11  

March 25

  August 1   December 26  

CHILE

     

January 1

  June 27   September 19   December 8

March 24

  August 15   October 10   December 23

March 25

  September 16   October 31   December 30

May 23

  September 18   November 1  

 

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CHINA

     

January 1

  February 16   June 9   October 7

January 18

  April 4   July 4   October 10

February 8

  May 2   September 5   November 11

February 9

  May 3   September 15   November 24

February 10

  May 4   October 3   December 26

February 11

  May 5