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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from_____to_____
Commission file number 001-34789 (Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc.)
Commission file number 333-202799-01 (Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P.)

Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc.
Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc.

Maryland
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
27-1430478
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P.

Maryland
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
80-0579682
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
11601 Wilshire Blvd., Ninth Floor, Los Angeles, California 90025
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (310) 445-5700

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
RegistrantTitle of each classTrading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc.
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
HPP
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
RegistrantTitle of each class
Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P.Common Units Representing Limited Partnership Interests

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc.  Yes  x   No  o  Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P.   Yes  x   No  o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc.  Yes  o    No  x Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P. Yes  o   No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities  Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    
Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc.  Yes  x   No  o  Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P.  Yes  x    No  o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    
Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc.  Yes  x   No  o  Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P.   Yes  x   No  o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc.
Large accelerated filer x

Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o

Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P.
Large accelerated filer o

Accelerated filer o


Non-accelerated filer x
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act.)
Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc.  Yes      No  x Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P. Yes      No  x

As of June 30, 2019, the aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (assuming for these purposes, but without conceding, that all executive officers and directors are “affiliates” of the registrant) was $5.02 billion based upon the last sales price on June 30, 2019 for the registrant’s Common Stock.

There is no public trading market for the common units of limited partnership interest of Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P. As a result, the aggregate market value of the common units of limited partnership interest held by non-affiliates of Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P. cannot be determined.

The number of shares of common stock of Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc. outstanding at February 15, 2020 was 154,709,912.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the proxy statement for the registrant’s 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held May 20, 2020 are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The proxy statement will be filed by the registrant with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, not later than 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year.




EXPLANATORY NOTE

This report combines the annual reports on Form 10-K for the period ended December 31, 2019 of Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership. Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this report to “we,” “us,” “our,” or “our Company” refer to Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc. together with its consolidated subsidiaries, including Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P. Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references to “our operating partnership” or “the operating partnership” refer to Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P. together with its consolidated subsidiaries.

Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc. is a real estate investment trust, or REIT, and the sole general partner of our operating partnership. As of December 31, 2019, Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc. owned approximately 99.0% of the ownership interest in our operating partnership (including unvested restricted units). The remaining approximately 1.0% interest was owned by certain of our executive officers and directors, certain of their affiliates and other outside investors, including unvested operating partnership performance units. As the sole general partner of our operating partnership, Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc. has the full, exclusive and complete responsibility for our operating partnership’s day-to-day management and control.

We believe combining the annual reports on Form 10-K of Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc. and the operating partnership into this single report results in the following benefits:

enhancing investors’ understanding of our Company and our operating partnership by enabling investors to view the business as a whole in the same manner as management views and operates the business;

eliminating duplicative disclosure and providing a more streamlined and readable presentation because a substantial portion of the disclosures apply to both our Company and our operating partnership; and

creating time and cost efficiencies through the preparation of one combined report instead of two separate reports.

There are a few differences between our Company and our operating partnership, which are reflected in the disclosures in this report. We believe it is important to understand the differences between our Company and our operating partnership in the context of how we operate as an interrelated, consolidated company. Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc. is a REIT, the only material assets of which are the units of partnership interest in our operating partnership. As a result, Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc. does not conduct business itself, other than acting as the sole general partner of our operating partnership, issuing equity from time to time and guaranteeing certain debt of our operating partnership. Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc. itself does not issue any indebtedness but guarantees some of the debt of our operating partnership. Our operating partnership, which is structured as a partnership with no publicly traded equity, holds substantially all of the assets of our Company and conducts substantially all of our business. Except for net proceeds from equity issuances by Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc., which are generally contributed to our operating partnership in exchange for units of partnership interest in our operating partnership, our operating partnership generates the capital required by our Company’s business through its operations, its incurrence of indebtedness or through the issuance of units of partnership interest in our operating partnership.

Non-controlling interest, stockholders’ equity and partners’ capital are the main areas of difference between the consolidated financial statements of our Company and those of our operating partnership. The common units in our operating partnership are accounted for as partners’ capital in our operating partnership’s consolidated financial statements and, to the extent not held by our Company, as a non-controlling interest in our Company’s consolidated financial statements. The differences between stockholders’ equity, partners’ capital and non-controlling interest result from the differences in the equity issued by our Company and our operating partnership.

To help investors understand the significant differences between our Company and our operating partnership, this report presents the consolidated financial statements separately for our Company and our operating partnership. All other sections of this report, including “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” are presented together for our Company and our operating partnership.

In order to establish that the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of each entity have made the requisite certifications and that our Company and our operating partnership are compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act and 18 U.S.C. §1350, this report also includes separate Part II, Item 9A “Controls and Procedures” sections and separate Exhibit 31 and 32 certifications for each of Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc. and our operating partnership.
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HUDSON PACIFIC PROPERTIES, INC. AND HUDSON PACIFIC PROPERTIES, L.P.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page


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PART I
ITEM 1. Business

Company Overview

We are a vertically integrated real estate company focused on acquiring, repositioning, developing and operating high-quality office and state-of-the-art studio properties in high-growth, high-barrier-to-entry submarkets throughout Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada. We invest across the risk-return spectrum, favoring opportunities where we can employ leasing, capital investment and management expertise to create additional value. As of December 31, 2019, our portfolio included office properties, comprising an aggregate of approximately 14.9 million square feet, and studio properties, comprising approximately 1.2 million square feet of sound-stage, office and supporting production facilities. We also own undeveloped density rights for approximately 2.7 million square feet of future office and residential space.

We were formed as a Maryland corporation in 2009 to succeed to the business of Hudson Capital, LLC, a Los Angeles-based real estate investment firm founded by Victor J. Coleman, our Chief Executive Officer. On June 29, 2010, we completed our initial public offering (“IPO”). We own our interests in all of our properties and conduct substantially all of our business through our operating partnership, of which we serve as the sole general partner.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes financial measures that are not in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”), which are accompanied by what the Company considers the most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. The Company presents the “Company’s share” of certain of these measures, which are non-GAAP financial measures that are calculated as the consolidated amount calculated in accordance with GAAP, plus the Company’s share of the amount from the Company’s unconsolidated joint ventures (calculated based upon the Company’s percentage ownership interest), minus the Company’s partners’ share of the amount from the Company’s consolidated joint ventures (calculated based upon the partners’ percentage ownership interests). Management believes that presenting the “Company’s share” of these measures provides useful information to investors regarding the Company’s financial condition and/or results of operations because the Company has several significant joint ventures, and in some cases the Company exercises significant influence over, but does not control, the joint venture, in which case GAAP requires that the Company account for the joint venture entity using the equity method of accounting and the Company does not consolidate it for financial reporting purposes. In other cases, GAAP requires that the Company consolidate the joint venture even though the Company’s partner(s) owns a significant percentage interest. As a result, management believes that presenting the Company’s share of various financial measures in this manner can help investors better understand the Company’s financial condition and/or results of operations after taking into account its true economic interest in these joint ventures.

Business and Growth Strategies

We invest in Class-A office and studio properties located in high barrier-to-entry, innovation-centric submarkets with significant growth potential. Our positioning within these submarkets allows us to attract and retain quality, growth companies as tenants, many in the technology and media and entertainment sectors. The purchase of properties with a value-add component, typically through off-market transactions, also facilitates our growth. These types of assets afford us the opportunity to capture embedded rent growth and occupancy upside, and to strategically invest capital to reposition and redevelop assets to generate additional cash flow. We take a more measured approach to ground-up development, with most under-construction, planned or potential projects located on ancillary sites part of existing operating assets. Management expertise across disciplines supports execution at all levels of our operations. In particular, aggressive leasing and proactive asset management, combined with a focus on conservatively managing our balance sheet, are central to our strategy. 

Major Tenants

As of December 31, 2019, our 15 largest tenants in our office portfolio represented approximately 38.6% of the Company’s share of total annualized base rent generated by our office properties. As of December 31, 2019, our two largest tenants were Netflix, Inc. and Google, Inc., which together accounted for 15.2% of the Company’s share of the annualized base rent generated by our office properties.

For further detail regarding major tenants, see Item 2 “Properties—Tenant Diversification.”

Our Competitive Position

We believe the following competitive strengths distinguish us from other real estate owners and operators and will enable us to capitalize on opportunities in the market to successfully expand and operate our portfolio.
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Experienced Management Team with a Proven Track Record of Acquiring and Operating Assets and Managing a Public Office REIT. Our senior management team has an average of over 25 years of experience in the commercial real estate industry, with a focus on acquiring, repositioning, developing and operating office properties in Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada.

Committed and Incentivized Management Team. Our senior management team is dedicated to our successful operation and growth, with no competing real estate business interests outside of our Company. Additionally, as of December 31, 2019, our senior management team owned approximately 3.3 million shares of our common stock on a fully diluted basis, thereby aligning management’s interests with those of our stockholders.

Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada Focus with Local and Regional Expertise. We are primarily focused on acquiring and managing office properties in Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada, where our senior management has significant expertise and relationships. Our markets are supply-constrained as a result of the scarcity of available land, high construction costs and restrictive entitlement processes. We believe our experience, in-depth market knowledge and meaningful industry relationships with brokers, tenants, landlords, lenders and other market participants enhance our ability to identify and capitalize on attractive acquisition opportunities, particularly those that arise in Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada.

Long-Standing Relationships that Provide Access to an Extensive Pipeline of Investment and Leasing Opportunities. We have an extensive network of long-standing relationships with real estate developers, individual and institutional real estate owners, national and regional lenders, brokers, tenants and other participants in the Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada real estate markets. These relationships have historically provided us with access to attractive acquisition opportunities, including opportunities with limited or no prior marketing by sellers. We believe they will continue to provide us access to an ongoing pipeline of attractive acquisition opportunities and additional growth capital, both of which may not be available to our competitors. Additionally, we focus on establishing strong relationships with our tenants in order to understand their long-term business needs, which we believe enhances our ability to retain quality tenants, facilitates our leasing efforts and maximizes cash flows from our properties.

Growth-Oriented, Flexible and Conservative Capital Structure. We have remained well-capitalized since our IPO, including through 16 offerings (including two public offerings of 8.375% series B Cumulative Preferred Stock, ten public offerings of our common stock, one private placement of our common stock and three public offerings of senior notes) and continuous offerings under our at-the-market (“ATM”) program for aggregate total proceeds of approximately $4.7 billion (before underwriters’ discounts and transaction costs) as of December 31, 2019. Available cash on hand and our unsecured credit facility provide us with a significant amount of capital to pursue acquisitions and execute our growth strategy while maintaining a flexible and conservative capital structure. We believe our access to capital and flexible and conservative capital structure provide us with an advantage over many of our private and public competitors as we look to take advantage of growth opportunities. As of December 31, 2019, we had total borrowing capacity of approximately $600.0 million under our unsecured revolving credit facility, $75.0 million of which had been drawn, and a total capacity of $235.0 million under our Sunset Bronson Studios/ICON/CUE revolving credit facility secured by our ICON, CUE and Sunset Bronson Studios properties, $5.0 million of which has been drawn. Additionally, we have the ability to draw up to $414.6 million under our construction loan secured by our One Westside and 10850 Pico properties, $5.6 million of which has been drawn. We believe our access to capital and flexible and conservative capital structure provide us with an advantage over many of our private and public competitors as we look to take advantage of growth opportunities. Based on the closing price of our common stock of $37.65 on December 31, 2019, we had a debt-to-market capitalization ratio (counting series A preferred units in our operating partnership, or series A preferred units, as debt) of approximately 32.4%.

We have access to and are actively pursuing a pipeline of potential acquisitions consistent with our investment strategy. We believe our significant expertise in operating in the Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada office sectors and extensive, long-term relationships with real estate owners, developers and lenders, coupled with our conservative capital structure and access to capital, will allow us to capitalize on current market opportunities.

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Competition

We compete with a number of developers, owners and operators of office and commercial real estate, many of which own properties similar to ours in the same markets in which our properties are located and some of which have greater financial resources than we do. In operating and managing our portfolio, we compete for tenants based on a number of factors, including location, rental rates, security, flexibility and expertise to design space to meet prospective tenants’ needs and the manner in which our properties are operated, maintained and marketed. As leases at our properties expire, we may encounter significant competition to renew or re-let space in light of competing properties within the markets in which we operate. As a result, we may be required to provide rent concessions or abatements, incur charges for tenant improvements and other inducements, including early termination rights or below-market renewal options, or we may not be able to timely lease vacant space. In that case, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected.

We also face competition when pursuing acquisition and disposition opportunities. Our competitors may be able to pay higher property acquisition prices, may have private access to acquisition opportunities not available to us and may otherwise be in a better position to acquire a property. Competition may also increase the price required to consummate an acquisition opportunity and generally reduce the demand for commercial office space in our markets. Likewise, competition with sellers of similar properties to locate suitable purchasers may result in us receiving lower proceeds from a sale or in us not being able to dispose of a property at a time of our choosing due to the lack of an acceptable return.

For further discussion of the potential impact of competitive conditions on our business, see Item 1A “Risk Factors.”

Segment and Geographic Financial Information

We report our results of operations through two segments: (i) office properties and (ii) studio properties. For information about our segments, refer to Part IV, Item 15(a) “Financial Statement Schedules—Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements—Segment Reporting.”

All of our business is conducted in Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada. For further detail regarding our geographic financial information, refer to Item 2 “Properties.”
 
Employees
 
At December 31, 2019, we had 347 employees. At December 31, 2019, five of our employees were subject to collective bargaining agreements. Each of these employees are on-site at the Sunset Bronson Studios property. We believe that relations with our employees are good.

Principal Executive Offices

Our principal executive offices are located at 11601 Wilshire Blvd., Ninth Floor, Los Angeles, California 90025 and our telephone number is (310) 445-5700. We believe that our current facilities are adequate for our present operations.

Regulation

General

Our properties are subject to various covenants, laws, ordinances and regulations, including regulations relating to common areas and fire and safety requirements. We believe that each of the properties in our portfolio have the necessary permits and approvals to operate its business.

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Americans with Disabilities Act

Our properties located in the United States must comply with Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) to the extent that such properties are “public accommodations” as defined by the ADA. The ADA may require removal of structural barriers to access by persons with disabilities in certain public areas of our properties where such removal is readily achievable. We have developed and undertaken continuous capital improvement programs at various properties, some of which have included ADA-related modifications. As capital improvement programs progress, certain ADA upgrades will continue to be integrated into the planned improvements, specifically at the studio properties where we are able to utilize in-house construction crews to minimize costs for required ADA-related improvements. However, some of our properties may currently be in noncompliance with the ADA. Such noncompliance could result in the incurrence of additional costs to attain compliance, the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants. The obligation to make readily achievable accommodations is an ongoing one, and we will continue to assess our properties and to make alterations as appropriate in this respect.

Environmental Matters

Under various federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the environment, as a current or former owner or operator of real property, we may be liable for costs and damages resulting from the presence or discharge of hazardous or toxic substances, waste or petroleum products at, on, in, under, or migrating from such property, including costs to investigate and clean up such contamination and liability for natural resources. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such contamination, and the liability may be joint and several. These liabilities could be substantial and the cost of any required remediation, removal, fines, or other costs could exceed the value of the property and/or our aggregate assets. In addition, the presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination at our properties may expose us to third-party liability for costs of remediation and/or personal or property damage or materially adversely affect our ability to sell, lease or develop our properties or to borrow using the properties as collateral. In addition, environmental laws may create liens on contaminated sites in favor of the government for damages and costs it incurs to address such contamination. Moreover, if contamination is discovered on our properties, environmental laws may impose restrictions on the manner in which the property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures.

Some of our properties contain, have contained, or are adjacent to or near other properties that have contained or currently contain storage tanks for the storage of petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic substances. Similarly, some of our properties were used in the past for commercial or industrial purposes, or are currently used for commercial purposes, that involve or involved the use of petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic substances, or are adjacent to or near properties that have been or are used for similar commercial or industrial purposes. As a result, some of our properties have been or may be impacted by contamination arising from the release of such hazardous substances or petroleum products. Where we have deemed appropriate, we have taken steps to address identified contamination or mitigate risks associated with such contamination; however, we are unable to ensure that further actions will not be necessary. As a result of the foregoing, we could potentially incur material liabilities.

Independent environmental consultants have conducted Phase I Environmental Site Assessments at all of our properties located in the United States using the American Society for Testing and Materials (“ASTM”) Practice E 1527-05. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment is a report prepared for real estate holdings that identifies potential or existing environmental contamination liabilities. Site assessments are intended to discover and evaluate information regarding the environmental condition of the surveyed property and surrounding properties. These assessments do not generally include soil samplings, subsurface investigations or asbestos or lead surveys. None of the recent site assessments identified any known past or present contamination that we believe would have a material adverse effect on our business, assets or operations. However, the assessments are limited in scope and may have failed to identify all environmental conditions or concerns. A prior owner or operator of a property or historic operations at our properties may have created a material environmental condition that is not known to us or the independent consultants preparing the site assessments. Material environmental conditions may have arisen after the review was completed or may arise in the future, and future laws, ordinances or regulations may impose material additional environmental liability.

Environmental laws also govern the presence, maintenance and removal of asbestos-containing building materials (“ACBM”) or lead-based paint (“LBP”) and may impose fines and penalties for failure to comply with these requirements or expose us to third party liability (e.g., liability for personal injury associated with exposure to asbestos). Such laws require that owners or operators of buildings containing ACBM and LBP (and employers in such buildings) properly manage and maintain the asbestos and lead, adequately notify or train those who may come into contact with asbestos or lead, and undertake special precautions, including removal or other abatement, if asbestos or lead would be disturbed during renovation or demolition of a building. Some of our properties contain ACBM and/or LBP and we could be liable for such damages, fines or penalties.

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In addition, the properties in our portfolio also are subject to various federal, state and local environmental and health and safety requirements, such as state and local fire requirements. Moreover, some of our tenants routinely handle and use hazardous or regulated substances and waste as part of their operations at our properties, which are subject to regulation. Such environmental and health and safety laws and regulations could subject us or our tenants to liability resulting from these activities. Environmental liabilities could affect a tenant’s ability to make rental payments to us. In addition, changes in laws could increase the potential liability for noncompliance. We sometimes require our tenants to comply with environmental and health and safety laws and regulations and to indemnify us for any related liabilities. But in the event of the bankruptcy or inability of any of our tenants to satisfy such obligations, we may be required to satisfy such obligations. In addition, we may be held directly liable for any such damages or claims regardless of whether we knew of, or were responsible for, the presence or disposal of hazardous or toxic substances or waste and irrespective of tenant lease provisions. The costs associated with such liability could be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on us.

When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Indoor air quality issues can also stem from inadequate ventilation, chemical contamination from indoor or outdoor sources, and other biological contaminants such as pollen, viruses and bacteria. Indoor exposure to airborne toxins or irritants above certain levels can be alleged to cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants at any of our properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold or other airborne contaminants from the affected property or increase indoor ventilation. In addition, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants could expose us to liability from our tenants, employees of our tenants or others if property damage or personal injury occurs. We are not presently aware of any material adverse indoor air quality issues at our properties.

Corporate Responsibility

Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) Commitment

We strive to build sustainable, healthy and equitable communities through a combination of innovative real estate solutions, meaningful cross-sector partnerships and exemplary ESG performance. This commitment informs every aspect of our business, including how we design and build new projects, operate our portfolio, collaborate with stakeholders and report progress. We believe this approach differentiates us in the market and delivers value to our tenants, employees, vendors, investors and communities in which we operate.

Environmental Stewardship

We believe we have a responsibility to minimize the energy, carbon, water and waste impacts of our business and recognize that these impacts occur not just in the daily operations of our portfolio but also through our entire value chain. As a result, we strive to reduce environmental impacts across the full life cycle of our buildings and our corporate operations.

2019 Achievements:
Five out of five stars on the Global Real Estate Sustainability Benchmark (“GRESB”)
ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year
Green Lease Leader
Achieved 100% carbon-free electricity
National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“NAREIT”) Leader in the Light Best New Entry

Building operations: We have long-term environmental performance targets for our portfolio that address energy consumption, greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions, water consumption and waste diversion rates. To achieve these targets, each of our properties maintains a Sustainability Action Plan that informs how our engineering and property management teams implement environmental best practices. To monitor progress across the portfolio, we include sustainability criteria in our annual operational audit process and use a third-party environmental management system to aggregate property-level environmental data.

Development: We are an industry leader in adaptive reuse, which means we excel at transforming older buildings in premier locations into unique, cutting-edge properties. This approach delivers significant environmental benefits, while also driving cultural/historic preservation and local economic development. In addition, we are committed to obtaining a minimum of LEED Gold certification for all new developments, including both adaptive reuse and ground-up projects.

Engagement: Because we control only a small part of our total environmental footprint, it is critical that we engage both internal and external stakeholders to drive sustainable innovation and system change. Tenant, industry and community engagement is at the core of this mission.

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Social Responsibility

A deep commitment to social responsibility is embedded in who we are as a company. We believe people are at the heart of our business and take pride in our outstanding work culture and generous approach to charitable giving. We strive to be an optimal employer to our workforce and landlord to our tenants, as well as a valued partner to our communities.

Caring for our people: We know that the first step in hiring and retaining the best talent is to create safe and inspiring workplaces where people feel valued. We offer competitive compensation and benefits to all regular full-time employees, and create spirited work environments that reward innovation and collaboration. We also aim to foster both personal and professional growth for employees at all levels of the organization.

Health and safety: The health and safety of our employees, tenants and vendors is of the utmost importance to us. We adhere to leading health and safety standards across our portfolio, and each year, we complete a portfolio-wide audit, aimed to ensure our buildings are safe, efficient and properly maintained.

Diversity and inclusion: We embrace and value diversity in all its forms, whether gender, age, ethnicity or cultural background. Equal opportunity is integral to our recruitment process, as we aim to develop a community of diverse talent. Our commitment to diversity and inclusion applies to the highest levels of the organization, including at the board level, where we recognize that diversity strengthens board performance and promotes long-term shareholder value.

Strengthening our communities: We have a long history of providing meaningful support to the communities in which we operate. Our philanthropic program, Hudson Helps, provides grants to leading non-profit organizations, primarily in the areas of housing and shelter, health and wellness, equity and inclusion, and the environment. We also provide extensive charitable support to key industry and professional organizations. Finally, we provide a matching donation program that encourages our employees to support the causes most important to them, host frequent volunteer opportunities throughout our regions, and provide each employee with 32 hours of paid time off for volunteering each year.

Governance

We view good governance as essential to creating and preserving value for our shareholders and other stakeholders. This includes compliance with all applicable laws, rules, regulations and policies as well as unwavering adherence to our values. We have an effective and highly skilled Board of Directors with five committees: Audit, Compensation, Nominating and Corporate Governance, Investment and Sustainability. We promote board independence and embrace board diversity in all its facets, including skills, experience, gender, ethnicity and race.

ESG oversight: Our VP, Sustainability and Social Impact leads our ESG efforts. This individual relies on two cross-functional, cross-regional teams—the Sustainability Council and Social Impact Council—that meet on a quarterly basis and are tasked with incorporating ESG into our day-to-day operations. The VP, Sustainability and Social Impact is a member of the ESG Leadership team, a group of senior executives from our Human Resources, Legal, Engineering/Operations, and Investor Relations teams that meet monthly to guide our ESG strategy and progress. Ultimately, responsibility for our ESG program lies with the board-level Sustainability Committee.

Accountability: We believe in holding ourselves publicly accountable to our ESG commitments. We publish information about our ESG performance on a regular basis via our website, social media channels, investor presentations, and annual Corporate Responsibility Report.

Ethics: Our directors and all employees, including senior management, conduct themselves in accordance with the highest moral and ethical standards, informed by a robust Code of Business Conduct and Ethics. We are committed to ensuring a fair workplace for our employees as well as partners with whom we do business. We have strict policies to protect against unlawful discrimination and harassment, and an Ethics Hotline that provides an alternative and anonymous method of reporting suspected compliance violations, unlawful or unethical behavior, or fraud.

Human rights: Our Human Rights Policy reflects our longstanding dedication to the preservation of basic rights and human dignity in our workplace and beyond. Hudson Pacific Properties holds human rights to be an essential component of our business. We support internationally recognized human rights principles that promote and protect human rights. The policy applies to our operations and affiliates in all assets we own and operate.

For more information on our Corporate Responsibility initiatives, please visit www.hudsonpacificproperties.com/Responsibility to view our full Sustainability Policy, as well as our Corporate Responsibility Report.

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Available Information
 
On the Investor Relations page on our Company’s Website at investors.hudsonpacificproperties.com we post the following filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”): our Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. All such filings are available to be viewed on our Investor Relations page on our Website free of charge. Also available on our Investor Relations page on our Website, free of charge, are our corporate governance guidelines, the charters of the nominating and corporate governance, audit and compensation committees of our board of directors and our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (which applies to all directors and employees, including our Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer). We intend to use our Website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Such disclosures will be included on our Website in the ‘Investor Resources’ sections. Accordingly, investors should monitor such portions of our Website, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. Information contained on or hyperlinked from our Website is not incorporated by reference into, and should not be considered part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K or our other filings with the SEC. A copy of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is available without charge upon written request to: Investor Relations, Hudson Pacific Properties, Inc., 11601 Wilshire Blvd., Ninth Floor, Los Angeles, California 90025.

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ITEM 1A. Risk Factors  

Forward-looking Statements

Certain written and oral statements made or incorporated by reference from time to time by us or our representatives in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, other filings or reports filed with the SEC, press releases, conferences, or otherwise, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, as amended, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act). In particular, statements relating to our liquidity and capital resources, portfolio performance and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Furthermore, all of the statements regarding future financial performance (including anticipated funds from operations, or FFO, market conditions and demographics) are forward-looking statements. We are including this cautionary statement to make applicable and take advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for any such forward-looking statements. We caution investors that any forward-looking statements presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or that management may make orally or in writing from time to time, are based on management’s beliefs and assumptions made by, and information currently available to, management. When used, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “estimate,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “result” and similar expressions that do not relate solely to historical matters are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Such statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions and may be affected by known and unknown risks, trends, uncertainties and factors that are beyond our control. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, estimated or projected. We expressly disclaim any responsibility to update forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Accordingly, investors should use caution in relying on past forward-looking statements, which were based on results and trends at the time they were made, to anticipate future results or trends.

Some of the risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance, liquidity or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:

adverse economic or real estate developments in our target markets;

general economic conditions;

defaults on, early terminations of or non-renewal of leases by tenants;

fluctuations in interest rates and increased operating costs;

our failure to obtain necessary outside financing or maintain an investment grade rating;

our failure to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness and maintain dividend payments;

lack or insufficient amounts of insurance;

decreased rental rates or increased vacancy rates;

difficulties in identifying properties to acquire and completing acquisitions;

our failure to successfully operate acquired properties and operations;

our failure to maintain our status as a REIT;

environmental uncertainties and risks related to adverse weather conditions and natural disasters;

financial market and foreign currency fluctuations;

risks related to acquisitions generally, including the diversion of management’s attention from ongoing business operations and the impact on customers, tenants, lenders, operating results and business;

the inability to successfully integrate acquired properties, realize the anticipated benefits of acquisitions or capitalize on value creation opportunities;

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the impact of changes in the tax laws as a result of recent federal tax reform legislation and uncertainty as to how some of those changes may be applied;

changes in real estate and zoning laws and increases in real property tax rates; and

other factors affecting the real estate industry generally.

Set forth below are some (but not all) of the factors that could adversely affect our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all such risk factors, nor can it assess the impact of all such risk factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Given these risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results.

Risks Related to Our Properties and Our Business

Our properties are located in Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada, and we are susceptible to adverse economic conditions, local regulations and natural disasters affecting those markets.

Our properties are located in Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada, which exposes us to greater economic risks than if we owned a more geographically dispersed portfolio. Further, our properties are concentrated in certain areas, including Los Angeles, San Francisco, Silicon Valley, Seattle and Vancouver, exposing us to risks associated with those specific areas. We are susceptible to adverse developments in the economic and regulatory environments of Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada (such as business layoffs or downsizing, industry slowdowns, relocations of businesses, increases in real estate and other taxes, costs of complying with governmental regulations or increased regulation), as well as to natural disasters that occur in our markets (such as earthquakes, wind, landslides, droughts, fires and other events). In addition, the State of California has had historical periods of budgetary constraints and is regarded as more litigious and more highly regulated and taxed than many other states, all of which may reduce demand for office space in California. Any adverse developments in the economy or real estate market in Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest or Western Canada, or any decrease in demand for office space resulting from the California regulatory or business environment, could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities.

We are required to pay property taxes on our properties. These taxes could increase as property tax rates increase or as properties are reassessed by the taxing authorities. For example, under the existing California law commonly referred to as Proposition 13, property tax reassessments generally occur as a result of a “change of ownership” of a property. Because the property tax authorities may take extensive time to determine if there has a been a “change of ownership” or the actual reassessed value of the property, the potential reassessment may not be determined until a period after the transaction has occurred. From time to time, including recently, lawmakers and voters have initiated efforts to repeal or amend Proposition 13, which, if successful, would increase the assessed value or tax rates for our properties in California. Additionally, there is similar legislation being proposed in other state and local jurisdictions in which our properties are located. An increase in the assessed value of our properties, property tax rates, or potential other new taxes could adversely affect our financial condition, cash flows and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders. 

We derive a significant portion of our rental revenue from tenants in the technology and media and entertainment industries, which makes us particularly susceptible to demand for rental space in those industries.

A significant portion of our rental revenue is derived from tenants in the technology and media and entertainment industries. Consequently, we are susceptible to adverse developments affecting the demand by tenants in these industries for office, production and support space in Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada and, more particularly, in Hollywood and the South of Market area of the San Francisco submarket. As we continue our development and potential acquisition activities in markets populated by knowledge-and creative-based tenants in the technology and media and entertainment industries, our tenant mix could become more concentrated, further exposing us to risks in those industries. Any adverse development in the technology and media and entertainment industries could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities.

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We may be unable to identify and complete acquisitions of properties that meet our criteria, which may impede our growth.

Our business strategy includes the acquisition of underperforming office properties. These activities require us to identify suitable acquisition candidates or investment opportunities that meet our criteria and are compatible with our growth strategies. We continue to evaluate the market of available properties and may attempt to acquire properties when strategic opportunities exist. However, we may be unable to acquire any of the properties that we may identify as potential acquisition opportunities in the future. Our ability to acquire properties on favorable terms, or at all, may be exposed to the following significant risks:

potential inability to acquire a desired property because of competition from other real estate investors with significant capital, including publicly traded REITs, private equity investors and institutional investment funds, which may be able to accept more risk than we can prudently manage, including risks with respect to the geographic proximity of investments and the payment of higher acquisition prices;

we may incur significant costs and divert management attention in connection with evaluating and negotiating potential acquisitions, including ones that we are subsequently unable to complete;

even if we enter into agreements for the acquisition of properties, these agreements are typically subject to customary conditions to closing, including the satisfactory completion of our due diligence investigations; and

we may be unable to finance the acquisition on favorable terms or at all.

If we are unable to finance property acquisitions or acquire properties on favorable terms, or at all, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities could be adversely affected. In addition, failure to identify or complete acquisitions of suitable properties could slow our growth.

Our future acquisitions may not yield the returns we expect.

Our future acquisitions and our ability to successfully operate the properties we acquire in such acquisitions may be exposed to the following significant risks:

even if we are able to acquire a desired property, competition from other potential acquirers may significantly increase the purchase price;

we may acquire properties that are not accretive to our results upon acquisition, and we may not successfully manage and lease those properties to meet our expectations;

our cash flow may be insufficient to meet our required principal and interest payments;

we may spend more than budgeted amounts to make necessary improvements or renovations to acquired properties;

we may be unable to quickly and efficiently integrate new acquisitions, particularly acquisitions of portfolios of properties, into our existing operations;

market conditions may result in higher than expected vacancy rates and lower than expected rental rates; and

we may acquire properties subject to liabilities and without any recourse, or with only limited recourse, with respect to unknown liabilities such as liabilities for clean-up of undisclosed environmental contamination, claims by tenants, vendors or other persons dealing with the former owners of the properties, liabilities incurred in the ordinary course of business and claims for indemnification by general partners, directors, officers and others indemnified by the former owners of the properties.

If we cannot operate acquired properties to meet our financial expectations, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities could be adversely affected.

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We may acquire properties or portfolios of properties through tax deferred contribution transactions, which could result in stockholder dilution and limit our ability to sell such assets.

In the future we may acquire properties or portfolios of properties through tax deferred contribution transactions in exchange for partnership interests in our operating partnership, which may result in stockholder dilution. This acquisition structure may have the effect of, among other things, reducing the amount of tax depreciation we could deduct over the tax life of the acquired properties, and may require that we agree to protect the contributors’ ability to defer recognition of taxable gain through restrictions on our ability to dispose of the acquired properties and/or the allocation of partnership debt to the contributors to maintain their tax bases. These restrictions could limit our ability to sell an asset at a time, or on terms, that would be favorable absent such restrictions.

Our growth depends on external sources of capital that are outside of our control and may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to meet various requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, including that we distribute annually at least 90% of our net taxable income, excluding any net capital gain. In addition, we will be subject to federal corporate income tax to the extent that we distribute less than 100% of our net taxable income, including any net capital gains. Because of these distribution requirements, we may not be able to fund future capital needs, including any necessary acquisition financing, from operating cash flow. Consequently, we intend to rely on third-party sources to fund our capital needs. We may not be able to obtain the financing on favorable terms or at all. Any additional debt we incur will increase our leverage and likelihood of default. Our access to third-party sources of capital depends, in part, on:

general market conditions;

the market’s perception of our growth potential;

our current debt levels;

our current and expected future earnings;

our cash flow and cash distributions; and

the market price per share of our common stock.

The credit markets can experience significant disruptions. If we cannot obtain capital from third-party sources, we may not be able to acquire or develop properties when strategic opportunities exist, meet the capital and operating needs of our existing properties, satisfy our debt service obligations or make the cash distributions to our stockholders necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT.

Changes in accounting standards may adversely impact us.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) and SEC continually change and update the financial accounting standards we must follow. The changes could have a material effect on our financial condition or results of operations, which in turn could also significantly impact the market price of our common stock.

Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, “Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019 and will impact our methodology for estimating the allowance for the Company’s receivables not subject to ASC 842 and certain other financial instruments and assets. See Part IV, Item 15(a) “Financial Statement Schedules—Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for details on ASU 2016-13 and the impact to our consolidated financial statements.

We cannot assure you that implementation of this and other new financial accounting standards, including the ability to modify our accounting systems and to update our policies, procedures, information systems, and internal controls over financial reporting, could result in materially inaccurate financial statements, which in turn could adversely effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities. Additionally, the adoption of new accounting standards could also impact the calculation of our debt covenants. It cannot be assured that we will be able to work with our
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lenders to successfully amend our debt covenants in response to changes in accounting standards and could adversely impact our compliance with financial debt covenants in the future.

Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, cash available for distribution, including cash available for payment of dividends on and the per share trading price of our securities.

If interest rates increase, then so will the interest costs on our unhedged variable rate debt, which could adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to pay principal and interest on our debt and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. Further, rising interest rates could limit our ability to refinance existing debt when it matures. We seek to manage our exposure to interest rate volatility by using interest rate hedging arrangements that involve risk, such as the risk that counterparties may fail to honor their obligations under these arrangements, and that these arrangements may not be effective in reducing our exposure to interest rate changes. Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, cash available for distribution, including cash available for payment of dividends on and the per share trading price of our securities. In addition, while such agreements are intended to lessen the impact of rising interest rates on us, they also expose us to the risk that the other parties to the agreements will not perform, we could incur significant costs associated with the settlement of the agreements, the agreements will be unenforceable and the underlying transactions will fail to qualify as highly-effective cash flow hedges under FASB, Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 815, Derivative and Hedging.

Changes in the method of determining LIBOR, or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect interest expense related to outstanding debt.

In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee (“ARRC”) has proposed that the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) is the rate that represents best practice as the alternative to USD-LIBOR for use in derivatives and other financial contracts that are currently indexed to USD-LIBOR. ARRC has proposed a paced market transition plan to SOFR from USD-LIBOR and organizations are currently working on industry-wide and company specific transition plans as it relates to derivatives and cash markets exposed to USD-LIBOR.

As of December 31, 2019, we have $625.1 million variable rate debt, of which $539.5 million is subject to interest rate swaps. If LIBOR changes or is replaced, the interest rates on our debt which is indexed to USD-LIBOR will be determined using a different successor rate, which may adversely affect interest expense and may result in interest obligations which are more than, or do not otherwise correlate over time with, the payments that would have been made on such debt if USD-LIBOR was available in its current form. These changes could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, cash available for distribution, including cash available for payment of dividends on and the per share trading price of our securities.

Mortgage debt obligations expose us to the possibility of foreclosure, which could result in the loss of our investment in a property or group of properties subject to mortgage debt.

Incurring mortgage and other secured debt obligations increases our risk of property losses because defaults on indebtedness secured by properties may result in foreclosure actions initiated by lenders and ultimately our loss of the property securing any loans for which we are in default. Any foreclosure on a mortgaged property or group of properties could adversely affect the overall value of our portfolio of properties. For tax purposes, a foreclosure of any of our properties that is subject to a nonrecourse mortgage loan would be treated as a sale of the property for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the property, we would recognize taxable income on foreclosure, but would not receive any cash proceeds.

Our unsecured revolving credit facility, registered senior notes, term loan facility and note purchase agreements restrict our ability to engage in some business activities.

Our unsecured revolving credit facility, registered senior notes, term loan facility and note purchase agreements contain customary negative covenants and other financial and operating covenants that, among other things:

restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness;

restrict our ability to make certain investments;

restrict our ability to merge with another company;

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restrict our ability to make distributions to stockholders; and

require us to maintain financial coverage ratios.

These limitations restrict our ability to engage in some business activities, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, cash available for distributions to our stockholders, and per share trading price of our securities. In addition, failure to meet any of these covenants, including the financial coverage ratios, could cause an event of default under and/or accelerate some or all of our indebtedness, which would have a material adverse effect on us. Furthermore, our unsecured revolving credit facility and term loan facility contain specific cross-default provisions with respect to specified other indebtedness, giving the lenders the right to declare a default if we are in default under other loans in some circumstances.

Adverse economic and geopolitical conditions and dislocations in the credit markets could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our securities.

Volatility in the United States and international capital markets and concern over a return to recessionary conditions in global economies, and the California economy in particular, may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities as a result of the following potential consequences, among others:

significant job losses in the financial and professional services industries may occur, which may decrease demand for our office space, causing market rental rates and property values to be negatively impacted;

our ability to obtain financing on terms and conditions that we find acceptable, or at all, may be limited, which could reduce our ability to pursue acquisition and development opportunities and refinance existing debt, reduce our returns from our acquisition and development activities and increase our future interest expense;

reduced values of our properties may limit our ability to dispose of assets at attractive prices or to obtain debt financing secured by our properties and may reduce the availability of unsecured loans; and

one or more lenders under our unsecured revolving credit facility could refuse to fund their financing commitment to us or could fail and we may not be able to replace the financing commitment of any such lenders on favorable terms, or at all.

We have a limited operating history with respect to some of our properties and may not be able to operate them successfully.

Our Bentall Centre property in Vancouver has only been under our management since it was acquired in 2019. This property may have characteristics or deficiencies unknown to us which could affect its valuation or revenue potential. In addition, there can be no assurance that the operating performance of this property will not decline under our management. We cannot assure you that we will be able to operate this property successfully.

We face significant competition, which may decrease or prevent increases in the occupancy and rental rates of our properties.

We compete with numerous developers, owners and operators of office properties, many of which own properties similar to ours in the same submarkets in which our properties are located. If our competitors offer space at rental rates below current market rates, or below the rental rates we currently charge our tenants, we may lose existing or potential tenants and we may be pressured to reduce our rental rates below those we currently charge or to offer more substantial rent abatements, tenant improvements, early termination rights or below-market renewal options in order to retain tenants when our tenants’ leases expire. As a result, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities could be adversely affected.

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We depend on significant tenants.

As of December 31, 2019, the 15 largest tenants in our office portfolio represented approximately 38.6% of the Company’s share of the total annualized base rent generated by our office properties. The inability of a significant tenant to pay rent or the bankruptcy or insolvency of a significant tenant may adversely affect the income produced by our properties. If a tenant becomes bankrupt or insolvent, federal law may prohibit us from evicting such tenant based solely upon such bankruptcy or insolvency. In addition, a bankrupt or insolvent tenant may be authorized to reject and terminate its lease with us. Any claim against such tenant for unpaid, future rent would be subject to a statutory cap that might be substantially less than the remaining rent owed under the lease. As of December 31, 2019, our two largest tenants were Netflix, Inc. and Google, Inc., which together accounted for 15.2% of the Company’s share of the annualized base rent generated by our office properties. If Netflix, Inc. and Google, Inc. were to experience a downturn or a weakening of financial condition resulting in a failure to make timely rental payments or causing a lease default, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights as landlord and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment.

In addition, WeWork Companies Inc. (“WeWork”) is also a significant tenant, accounting for 1.8% of the Company’s share of the annualized base rent generated by our office properties. In 2019, WeWork canceled their IPO and became controlled by their largest outside investor. If WeWork were to experience a weakening of financial condition resulting in a failure to make timely rental payments or causing a lease default, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights as landlord and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment. Any such event described above could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities.
                 
We may be unable to renew leases, lease vacant space or re-let space as leases expire.

As of December 31, 2019, approximately 6.3% of the Company’s share of the square footage of the office properties (including our development and redevelopment properties) in our portfolio was available, taking into account uncommenced leases signed as of December 31, 2019. An additional approximately 7.9% of the Company’s share of the square footage of the office properties in our portfolio is scheduled to expire in 2020 (includes leases scheduled to expire on December 31, 2019). We cannot assure you that leases will be renewed or that our properties will be re-let at net effective rental rates equal to or above the current average net effective rental rates or that substantial rent abatements, tenant improvements, early termination rights or below-market renewal options will not be offered to attract new tenants or retain existing tenants. If the rental rates for our properties decrease, our existing tenants do not renew their leases or we do not re-let a significant portion of our available space and space for which leases will expire, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our securities could be adversely affected.

We may be required to make rent or other concessions and/or significant capital expenditures to improve our properties in order to retain and attract tenants, causing our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our securities to be adversely affected.

To the extent adverse economic conditions continue in the real estate market and demand for office space remains low, we expect that, upon expiration of leases at our properties, we will be required to make rent or other concessions to tenants, accommodate requests for renovations, build-to-suit remodeling and other improvements or provide additional services to our tenants. As a result, we may have to make significant capital or other expenditures in order to retain tenants whose leases expire and to attract new tenants in sufficient numbers. Additionally, we may need to raise capital to make such expenditures. If we are unable to do so or capital is otherwise unavailable, we may be unable to make the required expenditures. This could result in non-renewals by tenants upon expiration of their leases, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities.

The actual rents we receive for the properties in our portfolio may be less than our asking rents, and we may experience lease roll-down from time to time.

As a result of various factors, including competitive pricing pressure in our submarkets, adverse conditions in Northern or Southern California, the Pacific Northwest or Western Canada real estate markets, a general economic downturn and the desirability of our properties compared to other properties in our submarkets, we may be unable to realize the asking rents across the properties in our portfolio. In addition, the degree of discrepancy between our asking rents and the actual rents we are able to obtain may vary both from property to property and among different leased spaces within a single property. If we are unable to obtain rental rates that are on average comparable to our asking rents across our portfolio, then our ability to generate cash flow growth will be negatively impacted. In addition, depending on asking rental rates at any given time as compared to expiring leases in our portfolio, from time to time rental rates for expiring leases may be higher than starting rental rates for new leases.

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Some of our properties are subject to ground leases, the termination or expiration of which could cause us to lose our interest in, and the right to receive rental income from, such properties.

Twelve of our consolidated properties are subject to ground leases (including properties with a portion of the land subject to a ground lease). See Part IV, Item 15(a) “Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules—Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements—Future Minimum Base Rents and Lease Payments Future Minimum Rents” for more information regarding our ground lease agreements. If any of these ground leases are terminated following a default or expire without being extended, we may lose our interest in the related property and may no longer have the right to receive any of the rental income from such property, which would adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities.

The ground sublease for the Del Amo property is subject and subordinate to a ground lease, the termination of which could result in a termination of the ground sublease.

The property on which the Del Amo building is located is subleased by Del Amo Fashion Center Operating Company, L.L.C., or Del Amo, through a long-term ground sublease. The ground sublease is subject and subordinate to the terms of a ground lease between the fee owner of the Del Amo property and the sub-landlord under the ground sublease. The fee owner has not granted to the subtenant under the ground sublease any rights of non-disturbance. Accordingly, a termination of the ground lease for any reason, including a rejection thereof by the ground tenant under the ground lease in a bankruptcy proceeding, could result in a termination of the ground sublease. In the event of a termination of the ground sublease, we may lose our interest in the Del Amo building and may no longer have the right to receive any of the rental income from the Del Amo building. In addition, our lack of any non-disturbance rights from the fee owner may impair our ability to obtain financing for the Del Amo building.

Our success depends on key personnel whose continued service is not guaranteed.

Our continued success and our ability to manage anticipated future growth depend, in large part, upon the efforts of key personnel who have extensive market knowledge and relationships and exercise substantial influence over our operational, financing, acquisition and disposition activity. Many of our other senior executives have extensive experience and strong reputations in the real estate industry, which aid us in identifying opportunities, having opportunities brought to us, and negotiating with tenants and build-to-suit prospects. The loss of services of one or more members of our senior management team, or our inability to attract and retain highly qualified personnel, could adversely affect our business, diminish our investment opportunities and weaken our relationships with lenders, business partners, existing and prospective tenants and industry personnel, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities.

Potential losses, including from adverse weather conditions, natural disasters and title claims, may not be covered by insurance.

We carry commercial property (including earthquake), liability and terrorism coverage on all the properties in our portfolio (most are covered under a blanket insurance policy while a few are under individual policies), in addition to other coverages, such as trademark and pollution coverage, that may be appropriate for certain of our properties. We have selected policy specifications and insured limits that we believe to be appropriate and adequate given the relative risk of loss, the cost of the coverage and industry practice. However, we do not carry insurance for losses such as those arising from riots or war because such coverage is not available or is not available at commercially reasonable rates. Some of our policies, like those covering losses due to terrorism or earthquakes, are insured subject to limitations involving large deductibles or co-payments and policy limits that may not be sufficient to cover losses, which could affect certain of our properties that are located in areas particularly susceptible to natural disasters. All of the properties we currently own are located in Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest and Western Canada, areas especially susceptible to earthquakes. In addition, we may discontinue earthquake, terrorism or other insurance on some or all of our properties in the future if the cost of premiums for any such policies exceeds, in our judgment, the value of the coverage discounted for the risk of loss. As a result, we may be required to incur significant costs in the event of adverse weather conditions and natural disasters. If we or one or more of our tenants experiences a loss that is uninsured or that exceeds policy limits, we could lose the capital invested in the damaged properties as well as the anticipated future cash flows from those properties. In addition, if the damaged properties are subject to recourse indebtedness, we would continue to be liable for the indebtedness, even if these properties were irreparably damaged. Furthermore, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable costs in the future as the costs associated with property and casualty renewals may be higher than anticipated. In the event that we experience a substantial or comprehensive loss of one of our properties, we may not be able to rebuild such property to its existing specifications. Further reconstruction or improvement of such a property would likely require significant upgrades to meet zoning and building code requirements.

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Future terrorist activity or engagement in war by the United States may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.

Terrorist attacks in the United States and other acts of terrorism or war may result in declining economic activity, which could harm the demand for and the value of our properties. A decrease in demand could make it difficult for us to renew or re-lease our properties at these sites at lease rates equal to or above historical rates. Terrorist activities also could directly impact the value of our properties through damage, destruction, or loss, and the availability of insurance for these acts may be less, and cost more, which could adversely affect our financial condition. To the extent that our tenants are impacted by future attacks, their businesses similarly could be adversely affected, including their ability to continue to honor their existing leases.

Terrorist attacks and engagement in war by the United States also may adversely affect the markets in which our securities trade and may cause further erosion of business and consumer confidence and spending and may result in increased volatility in national and international financial markets and economies. Any one of these events may cause decline in the demand for our office and studio leased space, delay the time in which our new or renovated properties reach stabilized occupancy, increase our operating expenses, such as those attributable to increased physical security for our properties, and limit our access to capital or increase our cost of raising capital.

We may become subject to litigation, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities.

In the future we may become subject to litigation, including claims relating to our operations, offerings, and otherwise in the ordinary course of business. Some of these claims may result in significant defense costs and potentially significant judgments against us, some of which are not, or cannot be, insured against. We generally intend to vigorously defend ourselves; however, we cannot be certain of the ultimate outcomes of any claims that may arise in the future. Resolution of these types of matters against us may result in our having to pay significant fines, judgments or settlements, which, if uninsured, or if the fines, judgments and settlements exceed insured levels, could adversely impact our earnings and cash flows, thereby having an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our securities. Certain litigation or the resolution of certain litigation may affect the availability or cost of some of our insurance coverage, which could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows, expose us to increased risks that would be uninsured, and/or adversely impact our ability to attract officers and directors.

Joint venture investments could be adversely affected by our lack of sole decision-making authority, our reliance on co-venturers’ financial condition and disputes between us and our co-venturers.

As of December 31, 2019, we have five joint ventures. See Part IV, Item 15(a) “Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules—Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for details on our joint ventures. We may co-invest in the future with other third parties through partnerships, joint ventures or other entities, acquiring non-controlling interests in or sharing responsibility for managing the affairs of a property, partnership, joint venture or other entity. These investments may, under certain circumstances, involve risks not present were a third party not involved, including the possibility that partners or co-venturers might become bankrupt or fail to fund their share of required capital contributions. Partners or co-venturers may have economic or other business interests or goals which are inconsistent with our business interests or goals, and may be in a position to take actions contrary to our policies or objectives, and they may have competing interests in our markets that could create conflict of interest issues. Such investments may also have the potential risk of impasses on decisions, such as a sale, because neither we nor the partner or co-venturer would have full control over the partnership or joint venture. In addition, prior consent of our joint venture partners may be required for a sale or transfer to a third party of our interests in the joint venture, which would restrict our ability to dispose of our interest in the joint venture. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership or limited liability company and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. Disputes between us and partners or co-venturers may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and prevent our officers and/or directors from focusing their time and effort on our business. Consequently, actions by or disputes with partners or co-venturers might result in subjecting properties owned by the partnership or joint venture to additional risk. In addition, we may in certain circumstances be liable for the actions of our third-party partners or co-venturers. Our joint ventures may be subject to debt and, in the current volatile credit market, the refinancing of such debt may require equity capital calls.

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If we fail to maintain an effective system of integrated internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results.

Effective internal and disclosure controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results would be harmed. As part of our ongoing monitoring of internal controls we may discover material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal controls. As a result of weaknesses that may be identified in our internal controls, we may also identify certain deficiencies in some of our disclosure controls and procedures that we believe require remediation. If we discover weaknesses, we will make efforts to improve our internal and disclosure controls. However, there is no assurance that we will be successful. Any failure to maintain effective controls or timely effect any necessary improvement of our internal and disclosure controls could harm operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations, which could affect our ability to remain listed with the NYSE. Ineffective internal and disclosure controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which would likely have a negative effect on the per share trading price of our securities.

We face risks associated with security breaches through cyber attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (“IT”) networks and related systems.

We face risks associated with security breaches, whether through cyber attacks or cyber intrusions, malware, computer viruses, attachments to e-mails, persons inside our organization or persons with access to systems inside our organization, and other significant disruptions of our IT networks and related systems. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber attacks or cyber intrusions, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have recently increased. Our IT networks and related systems are essential to the operation of our business and our ability to perform day-to-day operations (including managing our building systems) and, in some cases, may be critical to the operations of certain of our tenants. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our IT networks and related systems, and we have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Even the most well-protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus it is impossible for us to entirely mitigate this risk.

A security breach or other significant disruption involving our IT networks and related systems could:

disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems and therefore our operations and/or those of certain of our tenants;

result in misstated financial reports, violations of loan covenants, and/or missed reporting deadlines;

result in our inability to properly monitor our compliance with the rules and regulations regarding our qualification as a REIT;

result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of proprietary, confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of ours or others, which others could use to compete against us or for disruptive, destructive or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes;

result in our inability to maintain the building systems relied upon by our tenants for the efficient use of their leased space;

require significant management attention and resources to remedy any resulting damages;

subject us to claims for breach of contract, damages, credits, penalties or termination of leases or other agreements; or

damage our reputation among our tenants and investors generally.

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Any or all of the foregoing could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities.

Our business and operations would suffer in the event of IT networks and related systems failures.

Despite system redundancy and the planned implementation of a disaster recovery plan and security measures for our IT networks and related systems, our systems are vulnerable to damage from any number of sources, including computer viruses, energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, and telecommunication failure. We rely on our IT networks and related systems, including the Internet, to process, transmit and store electronic information and to manage or support a variety of our business processes, including financial transactions and keeping of records, which may include personal identifying information of tenants and lease data. We rely on commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide security for processing, transmitting and storing confidential tenant information, such as individually identifiable information relating to financial accounts. Any failure to maintain proper function, security and availability of our IT networks and related systems could interrupt our operations, damage our reputation and subject us to liability claims or regulatory penalties. Further, we are dependent on our personnel and, although we are working to implement a formal disaster recovery plan to assist our employees and to facilitate their maintaining continuity of operations after events such as energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, and telecommunication failures, we can provide no assurance that any of the foregoing events would not have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Risks Related to the Real Estate Industry

Our performance and value are subject to risks associated with real estate assets and the real estate industry.

Our ability to pay expected dividends to our stockholders depends on our ability to generate revenues in excess of expenses, pay scheduled principal payments on debt and pay capital expenditure requirements. Events and conditions generally applicable to owners and operators of real property that are beyond our control may decrease cash available for distribution and the value of our properties. These events include many of the risks set forth above under “—Risks Related to Our Properties and Our Business,” as well as the following:

local oversupply or reduction in demand for office or studio-related space;

adverse changes in financial conditions of buyers, sellers and tenants of properties;

vacancies or our inability to rent space on favorable terms, including possible market pressures to offer tenants rent abatements, tenant improvements, early termination rights or below-market renewal options, and the need to periodically repair, renovate and re-let space;

increased operating costs, including insurance premiums, utilities, real estate taxes and state and local taxes;

civil unrest, acts of war, terrorist attacks and natural disasters, including earthquakes and floods, which may result in uninsured or underinsured losses;

decreases in the underlying value of our real estate; and

changing submarket demographics.

In addition, periods of economic downturn or recession, rising interest rates or declining demand for real estate, or the public perception that any of these events may occur, could result in a general decline in rents or an increased incidence of defaults under existing leases, which would adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our securities.

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Illiquidity of real estate investments could significantly impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of our properties and harm our financial condition.

The real estate investments made, and to be made, by us are relatively difficult to sell quickly. As a result, our ability to promptly sell one or more properties in our portfolio in response to changing economic, financial and investment conditions is limited. Return of capital and realization of gains, if any, from an investment generally will occur upon disposition or refinancing of the underlying property. We may be unable to realize our investment objectives by sale, other disposition or refinancing at attractive prices within any given period of time or may otherwise be unable to complete any exit strategy. In particular, our ability to dispose of one or more properties within a specific time period is subject to certain limitations imposed by our tax protection agreements, as well as weakness in or even the lack of an established market for a property, changes in the financial condition or prospects of prospective purchasers, changes in national or international economic conditions, such as the current economic downturn, and changes in laws, regulations or fiscal policies of jurisdictions in which the property is located.

In addition, the Code imposes restrictions on a REIT’s ability to dispose of properties that are not applicable to other types of real estate companies. In particular, the tax laws applicable to REITs effectively require that we hold our properties for investment, rather than primarily for sale in the ordinary course of business, which may cause us to forgo or defer sales of properties that otherwise would be in our best interest.

Therefore, we may not be able to vary our portfolio in response to economic or other conditions promptly or on favorable terms, which may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our securities.

We could incur significant costs related to government regulation and litigation over environmental matters.

Under various federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the environment, as a current or former owner or operator of real property, we may be liable for costs and damages resulting from the presence or discharge of hazardous or toxic substances, waste or petroleum products at, on, in, under or migrating from such property, including costs to investigate, clean up such contamination and liability for harm to natural resources. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such contamination, and the liability may be joint and several. These liabilities could be substantial and the cost of any required remediation, removal, fines or other costs could exceed the value of the property and/or our aggregate assets. In addition, the presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination at our properties may expose us to third-party liability for costs of remediation and/or personal or property damage or materially adversely affect our ability to sell, lease or develop our properties or to borrow using the properties as collateral. In addition, environmental laws may create liens on contaminated sites in favor of the government for damages and costs it incurs to address such contamination. Moreover, if contamination is discovered on our properties, environmental laws may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures. Some of our properties have been or may be impacted by contamination arising from current or prior uses of the property, or adjacent properties, for commercial or industrial purposes. Such contamination may arise from spills of petroleum or hazardous substances or releases from tanks used to store such materials. As a result, we could potentially incur material liability for these issues, which could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities.

Environmental laws also govern the presence, maintenance and removal of ACBM and LBP and may impose fines and penalties for failure to comply with these requirements or expose us to third-party liability (e.g., liability for personal injury associated with exposure to asbestos or lead). Such laws require that owners or operators of buildings containing ACBM and LBP (and employers in such buildings) properly manage and maintain the asbestos and lead, adequately notify or train those who may come into contact with asbestos or lead, and undertake special precautions, including removal or other abatement, if asbestos or lead would be disturbed during renovation or demolition of a building. Some of our properties contain ACBM and/or LBP and we could be liable for such damages, fines or penalties.
In addition, the properties in our portfolio also are subject to various federal, state and local environmental and health and safety requirements, such as state and local fire requirements. Moreover, some of our tenants routinely handle and use hazardous or regulated substances and wastes as part of their operations at our properties, which are subject to regulation. Such environmental and health and safety laws and regulations could subject us or our tenants to liability resulting from these activities. Environmental liabilities could affect a tenant’s ability to make rental payments to us. In addition, changes in laws could increase the potential liability for noncompliance. This may result in significant unanticipated expenditures or may otherwise materially and adversely affect our operations, or those of our tenants, which could in turn have an adverse effect on us.

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We cannot assure you that costs or liabilities incurred as a result of environmental issues will not affect our ability to make distributions to our stockholders or that such costs or other remedial measures will not have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our securities. If we do incur material environmental liabilities in the future, we may face significant remediation costs, and we may find it difficult to sell any affected properties.

Our properties may contain or develop harmful mold or suffer from other air quality issues, which could lead to liability for adverse health effects and costs of remediation.

When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Indoor air quality issues can also stem from inadequate ventilation, chemical contamination from indoor or outdoor sources, and other biological contaminants such as pollen, viruses and bacteria. Indoor exposure to airborne toxins or irritants above certain levels can be alleged to cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants at any of our properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold or other airborne contaminants from the affected property or increase indoor ventilation. In addition, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants could expose us to liability from our tenants, employees of our tenants or others if property damage or personal injury is alleged to have occurred.

We may incur significant costs complying with various federal, state and local laws, regulations and covenants that are applicable to our properties.

The properties in our portfolio are subject to various covenants and federal, state and local laws and regulatory requirements, including permitting and licensing requirements. Local regulations, including municipal or local ordinances, zoning restrictions and restrictive covenants imposed by community developers may restrict our use of our properties and may require us to obtain approval from local officials or restrict our use of our properties and may require us to obtain approval from local officials of community standards organizations at any time with respect to our properties, including prior to acquiring a property or when undertaking renovations of any of our existing properties. Among other things, these restrictions may relate to fire and safety, seismic or hazardous material abatement requirements. There can be no assurance that existing laws and regulatory policies will not adversely affect us or the timing or cost of any future acquisitions or renovations, or that additional regulations will not be adopted that increase such delays or result in additional costs. Our growth strategy may be affected by our ability to obtain permits, licenses and zoning relief. Our failure to obtain such permits, licenses and zoning relief or to comply with applicable laws could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our securities.

In addition, federal and state laws and regulations, including laws such as the ADA, impose further restrictions on our properties and operations. Under the ADA, all public accommodations must meet federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Some of our properties may currently be in non-compliance with the ADA. If one or more of the properties in our portfolio is not in compliance with the ADA or any other regulatory requirements, we may be required to incur additional costs to bring the property into compliance and we might incur governmental fines or the award of damages to private litigants. In addition, we do not know whether existing requirements will change or whether future requirements will require us to make significant unanticipated expenditures that will adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our securities.

We are exposed to risks associated with property development and redevelopment.

We may engage in development and redevelopment activities with respect to certain of our properties. To the extent that we do so, we will be subject to certain risks, including the availability and pricing of financing on favorable terms or at all; construction and/or lease-up delays; cost overruns, including construction costs that exceed our original estimates; contractor and subcontractor disputes, strikes, labor disputes or supply disruptions; failure to achieve expected occupancy and/or rent levels within the projected time frame, if at all; and delays with respect to obtaining or the inability to obtain necessary zoning, occupancy, land use and other governmental permits, and changes in zoning and land use laws. These risks could result in substantial unanticipated delays or expenses and, under certain circumstances, could prevent completion of development activities once undertaken, any of which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our securities.

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Risks Related to Our Organizational Structure

The series A preferred units that were issued to some contributors in connection with our IPO in exchange for the contribution of their properties have certain preferences, which could limit our ability to pay dividends or other distributions to the holders of our securities or engage in certain business combinations, recapitalizations or other fundamental changes.

In exchange for the contribution of properties to our portfolio in connection with our IPO, some contributors received series A preferred units in our operating partnership. As of December 31, 2019, these units have an aggregate liquidation preference of approximately $9.8 million and have a preference as to distributions and upon liquidation that could limit our ability to pay dividends on common stock. The series A preferred units are senior to any other class of securities our operating partnership may issue in the future without the consent of the holders of the series A preferred units. As a result, we will be unable to issue partnership units in our operating partnership senior to the series A preferred units without the consent of the holders of series A preferred units. Any preferred stock in our Company that we issue will be subordinate to the series A preferred units. In addition, we may only engage in a fundamental change, including a recapitalization, a merger and a sale of all or substantially all of our assets, as a result of which our common stock ceases to be publicly traded or common units cease to be exchangeable (at our option) for publicly traded shares of our stock, without the consent of holders of series A preferred units if following such transaction we will maintain certain leverage ratios and equity requirements, and pay certain minimum tax distributions to holders of our outstanding series A preferred units. Alternatively, we may redeem all or any portion of the then outstanding series A preferred units for cash (at a price per unit equal to the redemption price). In addition, these provisions could increase the cost of any such fundamental change transaction, which may discourage a merger, combination or change of control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests.

Conflicts of interest exist or could arise in the future between the interests of our stockholders and the interests of holders of units in our operating partnership, which may impede business decisions that could benefit our stockholders.

Conflicts of interest exist or could arise in the future as a result of the relationships between us and our affiliates, on the one hand, and our operating partnership or any partner thereof, on the other. Our directors and officers have duties to our Company under applicable Maryland law in connection with their management of our Company. At the same time, we, as the general partner of our operating partnership, have fiduciary duties and obligations to our operating partnership and its limited partners under Maryland law and the partnership agreement of our operating partnership in connection with the management of our operating partnership. Our fiduciary duties and obligations as general partner to our operating partnership and its partners may come into conflict with the duties of our directors and officers to our Company.

Additionally, the partnership agreement provides that we and our directors and officers will not be liable or accountable to our operating partnership for losses sustained, liabilities incurred or benefits not derived if we, or such director or officer acted in good faith. The partnership agreement also provides that we will not be liable to the operating partnership or any partner for monetary damages for losses sustained, liabilities incurred or benefits not derived by the operating partnership or any limited partner, except for liability for our intentional harm or gross negligence. Moreover, the partnership agreement provides that our operating partnership is required to indemnify us and our directors, officers and employees, officers and employees of the operating partnership and our designees from and against any and all claims that relate to the operations of our operating partnership, except (i) if the act or omission of the person was material to the matter giving rise to the action and either was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (ii) for any transaction for which the indemnified party received an improper personal benefit, in money, property or services or otherwise, in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement or (iii) in the case of a criminal proceeding, if the indemnified person had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. No reported decision of a Maryland appellate court has interpreted provisions similar to the provisions of the partnership agreement of our operating partnership that modify and reduce our fiduciary duties or obligations as the general partner or reduce or eliminate our liability for money damages to the operating partnership and its partners, and we have not obtained an opinion of counsel as to the enforceability of the provisions set forth in the partnership agreement that purport to modify or reduce the fiduciary duties that would be in effect were it not for the partnership agreement.

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Our charter and bylaws, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change of control transaction, even if such a change in control may be in your interest, and as a result may depress the market price of our securities.

Our charter contains certain ownership limits. Our charter contains various provisions that are intended to preserve our qualification as a REIT and, subject to certain exceptions, authorize our directors to take such actions as are necessary or appropriate to preserve our qualification as a REIT. For example, our charter prohibits the actual, beneficial or constructive ownership by any person of more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock, and more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock. Our board of directors, in its sole and absolute discretion, may exempt a person, prospectively or retroactively, from these ownership limits if certain conditions are satisfied. The restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock may:

discourage a tender offer or other transactions or a change in management or of control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests; or

result in the transfer of shares acquired in excess of the restrictions to a trust for the benefit of a charitable beneficiary and, as a result, the forfeiture by the acquirer of the benefits of owning the additional shares.

We could increase the number of authorized shares of stock, classify and reclassify unissued stock and issue stock without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the power under our charter to amend our charter to increase the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we are authorized to issue, to authorize us to issue authorized but unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock into one or more classes or series of stock and set the terms of such newly classified or reclassified shares. Although our board of directors has no such intention at the present time, it could establish a class or series of preferred stock that could, depending on the terms of such series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for our securities or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest.

Certain provisions of Maryland law could inhibit changes in control, which may discourage third parties from conducting a tender offer or seeking other change of control transactions that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest. Certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law (“the MGCL”) may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making a proposal to acquire us or of impeding a change of control under circumstances that otherwise could be in the best interest of our stockholders, including:

“business combination” provisions that, subject to limitations, prohibit certain business combinations between us and an “interested stockholder” (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of our shares or an affiliate thereof or an affiliate or associate of ours who was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of our then outstanding voting stock at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question) for five years after the most recent date on which the stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, and thereafter impose fair price and/or supermajority and stockholder voting requirements on these combinations; and

“control share” provisions that provide that “control shares” of our Company (defined as shares that, when aggregated with other shares controlled by the stockholder, entitle the stockholder to exercise one of three increasing ranges of voting power in electing directors) acquired in a “control share acquisition” (defined as the direct or indirect acquisition of ownership or control of issued and outstanding “control shares”) have no voting rights except to the extent approved by our stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding all interested shares.

As permitted by the MGCL, we have elected, by resolution of our board of directors, to exempt from the business combination provisions of the MGCL, any business combination that is first approved by our disinterested directors and, pursuant to a provision in our bylaws, to exempt any acquisition of our stock from the control share provisions of the MGCL. However, our board of directors may by resolution elect to repeal the exemption from the business combination provisions of the MGCL and may by amendment to our bylaws opt into the control share provisions of the MGCL at any time in the future.

Certain provisions of the MGCL permit our board of directors, without stockholder approval and regardless of what is currently provided in our charter or bylaws, to implement certain corporate governance provisions, some of which (for example, a classified board) are not currently applicable to us. These provisions may have the effect of limiting or precluding a third party from making an unsolicited acquisition proposal for us or of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us under circumstances that otherwise could be in the best interest of our stockholders. Our charter contains a provision whereby we have
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elected to be subject to the provisions of Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL relating to the filling of vacancies on our board of directors.

Certain provisions in the partnership agreement of our operating partnership may delay or prevent unsolicited acquisitions of us. Provisions in the partnership agreement of our operating partnership may delay or make more difficult unsolicited acquisitions of us or changes of our control. These provisions could discourage third parties from making proposals involving an unsolicited acquisition of us or change of our control, although some stockholders might consider such proposals, if made, desirable. These provisions include, among others:

redemption rights of qualifying parties;

transfer restrictions on units;

our ability, as general partner, in some cases, to amend the partnership agreement and to cause the operating partnership to issue units with terms that could delay, defer or prevent a merger or other change of control of us or our operating partnership without the consent of the limited partners;

the right of the limited partners to consent to transfers of the general partnership interest and mergers or other transactions involving us under specified circumstances; and

restrictions on debt levels and equity requirements pursuant to the terms of our series A preferred units, as well as required distributions to holders of series A preferred units of our operating partnership, following certain changes of control of us.

Our charter, bylaws, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership and Maryland law also contain other provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest.

Our board of directors may change our investment and financing policies without stockholder approval and we may become more highly leveraged, which may increase our risk of default under our debt obligations.

Our investment and financing policies are exclusively determined by our board of directors. Accordingly, our stockholders do not control these policies. Further, our organizational documents do not limit the amount or percentage of indebtedness, funded or otherwise, that we may incur. Our board of directors may alter or eliminate our current policy on borrowing at any time without stockholder approval. If this policy changed, we could become more highly leveraged, which could result in an increase in our debt service. Higher leverage also increases the risk of default on our obligations. In addition, a change in our investment policies, including the manner in which we allocate our resources across our portfolio or the types of assets in which we seek to invest, may increase our exposure to interest rate risk, real estate market fluctuations and liquidity risk. Changes to our policies with regards to the foregoing could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our securities.

Our rights and the rights of our stockholders to take action against our directors and officers are limited.

Our charter eliminates the liability of our directors and officers to us and our stockholders for monetary damages, except for liability resulting from:

actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or
a final judgment based upon a finding of active and deliberate dishonesty by the director or officer that was material to the cause of action adjudicated.

In addition, our charter authorizes us to obligate our Company, and our bylaws require us, to indemnify our directors and officers for actions taken by them in those and certain other capacities to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. As a result, we and our stockholders may have more limited rights against our directors and officers than might otherwise exist. Accordingly, in the event that actions taken in good faith by any of our directors or officers impede the performance of our Company, your ability to recover damages from such director or officer will be limited.

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We are a holding company with no direct operations and, as such, we rely on funds received from our operating partnership to pay liabilities, and the interests of our stockholders are structurally subordinated to all liabilities and obligations of our operating partnership and its subsidiaries.

We are a holding company and conduct substantially all of our operations through our operating partnership. We do not have, apart from an interest in our operating partnership, any independent operations. As a result, we rely on distributions from our operating partnership to pay any dividends we might declare on our common stock. We also rely on distributions from our operating partnership to meet our obligations, including any tax liability on taxable income allocated to us from our operating partnership. In addition, because we are a holding company, claims of our equity holders will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and obligations (whether or not for borrowed money) of our operating partnership and its subsidiaries and subordinate to the rights of holders of series A preferred units. Therefore, in the event of our bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization, our assets and those of our operating partnership and its subsidiaries will be available to satisfy the claims of our stockholders only after all of our and our operating partnership’s and its subsidiaries’ liabilities and obligations have been paid in full.

Risks Related to Our Status as a REIT

Failure to qualify as a REIT would have significant adverse consequences to us and the value of our stock.

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2010. We believe that we have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue operating in such manner. We have not requested and do not plan to request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this Annual Report are not binding on the IRS or any court. Therefore, we cannot assure you that we have qualified as a REIT, or that we will remain qualified as such in the future. If we lose our REIT status, we will face serious tax consequences that would substantially reduce the funds available for distribution to you for each of the years involved because:

we would not be allowed a deduction for distributions to stockholders in computing our taxable income and would be subject to federal corporate income tax on our taxable income;

we also could be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax for taxable years prior to 2019 and possibly increased state and local taxes; and

unless we are entitled to relief under applicable statutory provisions, we could not elect to be taxed as a REIT for four taxable years following the year during which we were disqualified.

Any such corporate tax liability could be substantial and would reduce our cash available for, among other things, our operations and distributions to stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we would not be required to make distributions to our stockholders. As a result of all these factors, our failure to qualify as a REIT also could impair our ability to expand our business and raise capital, and could materially and adversely affect the value of our securities.

Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which there are only limited judicial and administrative interpretations. The complexity of these provisions and of the applicable Treasury regulations that have been promulgated under the Code, or the Treasury Regulations, is greater in the case of a REIT that, like us, holds its assets through a partnership. The determination of various factual matters and circumstances not entirely within our control may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT. In order to qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy a number of requirements, including requirements regarding the ownership of our stock and requirements regarding the composition of our assets and our gross income. Also, we must make distributions to stockholders aggregating annually at least 90% of our net taxable income, excluding net capital gains.

We own and may acquire direct or indirect interests in one or more entities that have elected or will elect to be taxed as REITs under the Code (each, a “Subsidiary REIT”). A Subsidiary REIT is subject to the various REIT qualification requirements and other limitations described herein that are applicable to us. If a Subsidiary REIT were to fail to qualify as a REIT, then (i) that Subsidiary REIT would become subject to federal income tax, (ii) shares in such Subsidiary REIT would cease to be qualifying assets for purposes of the asset tests applicable to REITs, and (iii) it is possible that we would fail certain of the asset tests applicable to REITs, in which event we would fail to qualify as a REIT unless we could avail ourselves of certain relief provisions.

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In addition, legislation, new regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions may materially adversely affect our investors, our ability to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes or the desirability of an investment in a REIT relative to other investments.

Even if we qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we may be subject to some federal, state and local income, property and excise taxes on our income or property and, in certain cases, a 100% penalty tax, in the event we sell property as a dealer. In addition, our taxable REIT subsidiaries will be subject to tax as regular corporations in the jurisdictions they operate.

If our operating partnership failed to qualify as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, we would cease to qualify as a REIT and suffer other adverse consequences.

We believe that our operating partnership is properly treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. As a partnership, our operating partnership is not subject to federal income tax on its income. Instead, each of its partners, including us, is allocated, and may be required to pay tax with respect to, its share of our operating partnership’s income. We cannot assure you, however, that the IRS will not challenge the status of our operating partnership or any other subsidiary partnership in which we own an interest as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If the IRS were successful in treating our operating partnership or any such other subsidiary partnership as an entity taxable as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, we would fail to meet the gross income tests and certain of the asset tests applicable to REITs and, accordingly, we would likely cease to qualify as a REIT. Also, the failure of our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnerships to qualify as a partnership would cause it to become subject to federal and state corporate income tax, which could reduce significantly the amount of cash available for debt service and for distribution to its partners, including us.

The tax imposed on REITs engaging in “prohibited transactions” may limit our ability to engage in transactions that would be treated as sales for federal income tax purposes.

A REIT’s net income from prohibited transactions is subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Although we do not intend to hold any properties that would be characterized as held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our business, such characterization is a factual determination and we cannot assure you that the IRS would agree with our characterization of our properties or that we will always be able to make use of the available safe harbors, which, if met, would prevent any such sales from being treated as prohibited transactions.

Our ownership of taxable REIT subsidiaries is subject to certain restrictions, and we will be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if our transactions with our taxable REIT subsidiaries are not conducted on arm’s length terms.

We currently own interests in two taxable REIT subsidiaries and may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to federal income tax as a regular C corporation. In addition, a 100% excise tax will be imposed on certain transactions between a taxable REIT subsidiary and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s length basis. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset tests applicable to REITs. Not more than 25% of our total assets may be represented by securities, including securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries, other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test. Further, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, not more than 20% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries. We anticipate that the aggregate value of the stock and other securities of any taxable REIT subsidiaries that we own will be less than 20% of the value of our total assets, and we will monitor the value of these investments to ensure compliance with applicable asset test limitations. In addition, we intend to structure our transactions with any taxable REIT subsidiaries that we own to ensure that they are entered into on arm’s length terms to avoid incurring the 100% excise tax described above. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to comply with these limitations or avoid application of the 100% excise tax discussed above.
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To maintain our REIT status, we may be forced to borrow funds during unfavorable market conditions.

To qualify as a REIT, we generally must distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our net taxable income each year, excluding net capital gains, and we will be subject to regular corporate income taxes to the extent that we distribute less than 100% of our net taxable income each year. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which distributions paid by us in any calendar year are less than the sum of 85% of our ordinary income, 95% of our capital gain net income and 100% of our undistributed income from prior years. In order to maintain our REIT status and avoid the payment of income and excise taxes, we may need to borrow funds to meet the REIT distribution requirements even if the then prevailing market conditions are not favorable for these borrowings. These borrowing needs could result from, among other things, differences in timing between the actual receipt of cash and inclusion of income for federal income tax purposes, or the effect of non-deductible capital expenditures, the creation of reserves or required debt or amortization payments. These sources, however, may not be available on favorable terms or at all. Our access to third-party sources of capital depends on a number of factors, including the market’s perception of our growth potential, our current debt levels, the market price of our common stock, and our current and potential future earnings. We cannot assure you that we will have access to such capital on favorable terms at the desired times, or at all, which may cause us to curtail our investment activities and/or to dispose of assets at inopportune times, and could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, cash available for distributions to our stockholders, and per share trading price of our securities.

Complying with REIT requirements may affect our profitability and may force us to liquidate or forgo otherwise attractive investments.

To qualify as a REIT, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the nature and diversification of our assets, the sources of our income and the amounts we distribute to our stockholders. We may be required to liquidate or forgo otherwise attractive investments in order to satisfy the asset and income tests or to qualify under certain statutory relief provisions. We also may be required to make distributions to stockholders at disadvantageous times or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution. As a result, having to comply with the distribution requirement could cause us to: (i) sell assets in adverse market conditions; (ii) borrow on unfavorable terms; or (iii) distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions, capital expenditures or repayment of debt. Accordingly, satisfying the REIT requirements could have an adverse effect on our business results, profitability and ability to execute our business plan. Moreover, if we are compelled to liquidate our investments to meet any of these asset, income or distribution tests, or to repay obligations to our lenders, we may be unable to comply with one or more of the requirements applicable to REITs or may be subject to a 100% tax on any resulting gain if such sales constitute prohibited transactions.

Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.

The maximum tax rate applicable to “qualified dividend income” payable to U.S. stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates is 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for these reduced rates. Under recently enacted tax legislation (the “2017 Tax Legislation”), U.S. stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates generally may deduct up to 20% of the ordinary dividends (e.g., dividends not designated as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income) received from a REIT for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. Although this deduction reduces the effective tax rate applicable to certain dividends paid by REITs (generally to 29.6% assuming the shareholder is subject to the 37% maximum rate), such tax rate is still higher than the tax rate applicable to corporate dividends that constitute qualified dividend income. Accordingly, investors who are individuals, trusts and estates may perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could materially and adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including the per share trading price of our securities.

The power of our board of directors to revoke our REIT election without stockholder approval may cause adverse consequences to our stockholders and unitholders.

Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT. If we cease to qualify as a REIT, we would become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income and would no longer be required to distribute most of our taxable income to our stockholders and accordingly, distributions Hudson Pacific Properties, L.P. makes to its unitholders could be similarly reduced.

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Legislative or other actions affecting REITs could have a negative effect on our investors and us.

The rules dealing with federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the United States Department of the Treasury. Changes to the tax laws, with or without retroactive application, could adversely affect our investors or us. We cannot predict how changes in the tax laws might affect our investors or us. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could significantly and negatively affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the federal income tax consequences of an investment in us. Also, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT.

The 2017 Tax Legislation has significantly changed the U.S. federal income taxation of U.S. businesses and their owners, including REITs and their stockholders. Changes made by the 2017 Tax Legislation that could affect us and our stockholders include:

temporarily reducing individual U.S. federal income tax rates on ordinary income; the highest individual U.S. federal income tax rate has been reduced from 39.6% to 37% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026;

permanently eliminating the progressive corporate tax rate structure, which previously imposed a maximum corporate tax rate of 35%, and replacing it with a flat corporate tax rate of 21%;

permitting a deduction for certain pass-through business income, including dividends received by our stockholders from us that are not designated by us as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income, which will allow individuals, trusts, and estates to deduct up to 20% of such amounts for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026;

reducing the highest rate of withholding with respect to our distributions to non-U.S. stockholders that are treated as attributable to gains from the sale or exchange of U.S. real property interests from 35% to 21%;

limiting our deduction for net operating losses arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 to 80% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction);

generally limiting the deduction for net business interest expense in excess of 30% of a business’s “adjusted taxable income,” except for taxpayers that engage in certain real estate businesses (including most equity REITs) and elect out of this rule (provided that such electing taxpayers must use an alternative depreciation system with longer depreciation periods); and

eliminating the corporate alternative minimum tax.

Many of these changes that are applicable to us are effective beginning with our 2018 taxable year, without any transition periods or grandfathering for existing transactions. The legislation is unclear in many respects and could be subject to potential amendments and technical corrections, as well as interpretations and implementing regulations by the IRS and the U.S. Department of the Treasury, any of which could lessen or increase the impact of the legislation. In addition, it is unclear how these U.S. federal income tax changes will affect state and local taxation, which often uses federal taxable income as a starting point for computing state and local tax liabilities. While some of the changes made by the tax legislation may adversely affect us in one or more reporting periods and prospectively, other changes may be beneficial in the future. We continue to work with our tax advisors and auditors to determine the full impact that the 2017 Tax Legislation as a whole will have on us.

ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
 
None.

ITEM 2. Properties
 
As of December 31, 2019, our portfolio consisted of 62 properties (49 wholly-owned properties, six properties owned by joint ventures, and seven land properties) located in ten California, three Seattle and one Western Canada submarkets, totaling approximately 18.8 million square feet.

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Office Portfolio

Our office portfolio consists of 52 office properties comprising an aggregate of approximately 14.9 million square feet. All of our office properties are located in Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest, and Western Canada. As of December 31, 2019, the weighted average remaining lease term for our stabilized office portfolio was 4.3 years.

In-Service Portfolio

Our in-service office properties include stabilized office properties and lease-up office properties. Stabilized office properties consist of same-store properties and non-same-store properties. Same-store properties include all of the properties owned and included in our stabilized portfolio as of January 1, 2018 and still owned and included in the stabilized portfolio as of December 31, 2019. Lease-up properties are defined as those properties that have not yet reached 92.0% occupancy since the date they were acquired or placed under redevelopment or development.

The following table summarizes information relating to the consolidated and unconsolidated in-service office properties owned as of December 31, 2019:

Percent Occupied(2)
Percent Leased(3)
Annualized Base Rent(4)
Annualized Base Rent Per Square Foot(5)
Location Submarket
Square Feet(1)
Same-store:
Greater Seattle, Washington
Northview CenterLynnwood182,009  80.1 %80.1 %$3,229,710  $22.15  
Met Park NorthDenny Triangle183,355  100.0  100.0  5,581,789  30.44  
411 FirstPioneer Square163,768  85.0  85.0  4,228,683  30.39  
505 FirstPioneer Square288,009  100.0  100.0  7,024,518  24.39  
83 KingPioneer Square183,939  96.4  96.4  7,241,685  40.84  
Subtotal1,001,080  93.3  93.3  27,306,385  29.25  
San Francisco Bay Area, California
1455 Market(6)
San Francisco1,034,977  99.2  99.2  51,506,914  50.15  
275 BrannanSan Francisco57,120  100.0  100.0  3,459,968  60.57  
625 SecondSan Francisco138,094  100.0  100.0  8,630,715  62.50  
875 HowardSan Francisco286,003  100.0  100.0  14,915,914  52.15  
901 MarketSan Francisco205,530  100.0  100.0  12,393,922  60.30  
Rincon Center(7)
San Francisco545,754  96.4  96.4  30,325,912  57.66  
Towers at Shore CenterRedwood Shores334,483  91.9  94.8  21,102,354  68.66  
Skyway LandingRedwood Shores247,173  97.1  97.1  12,577,564  52.39  
555 Twin DolphinRedwood Shores198,936  87.9  87.9  9,950,892  56.87  
3176 PorterPalo Alto42,899  100.0  100.0  3,195,129  74.48  
3400 HillviewPalo Alto207,857  100.0  100.0  14,571,358  70.10  
Clocktower SquarePalo Alto100,344  44.7  44.7  3,950,874  88.09  
Foothill Research CenterPalo Alto195,376  100.0  100.0  14,037,570  71.85  
Page Mill CenterPalo Alto176,245  64.1  64.1  8,429,895  74.64  
Page Mill HillPalo Alto182,676  88.2  92.5  11,841,560  73.53  
1740 TechnologyNorth San Jose206,879  99.6  99.6  8,284,100  40.20  
ConcourseNorth San Jose944,386  95.4  96.4  34,010,453  37.75  
Skyport PlazaNorth San Jose418,086  96.2  96.2  14,955,161  37.18  
Subtotal5,522,818  94.8  95.3  278,140,255  53.12  
Los Angeles, California
6922 HollywoodHollywood202,528  99.9  99.9  10,434,964  51.58  
6040 SunsetHollywood114,958  100.0  100.0  5,592,201  48.65  
ICONHollywood325,757  100.0  100.0  18,874,176  57.94  
3401 ExpositionWest Los Angeles63,376  100.0  100.0  2,953,500  46.60  
10900 WashingtonWest Los Angeles9,919  100.0  100.0  435,642  43.92  
10950 WashingtonWest Los Angeles159,198  100.0  100.0  6,925,613  43.50  
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Percent Occupied(2)
Percent Leased(3)
Annualized Base Rent(4)
Annualized Base Rent Per Square Foot(5)
Location Submarket
Square Feet(1)
Element LAWest Los Angeles284,037  100.0  100.0  16,838,535  59.28  
Del AmoTorrance113,000  100.0  100.0  3,327,208  29.44  
Subtotal1,272,773  100.0  100.0  65,381,839  51.38  
Total same-store7,796,671  95.5  95.8  370,828,479  49.82  
NON-SAME-STORE
Vancouver, British Columbia
Bentall Centre(8)
Downtown Vancouver1,477,142  89.5  96.3  34,389,306  26.01  
Subtotal1,477,142  89.5  96.3  34,389,306  26.01  
Greater Seattle, Washington
Hill7(6)
Denny Triangle285,310  100.0  100.0  10,901,893  38.21  
450 AlaskanPioneer Square170,974  95.4  95.4  6,526,897  40.02  
Subtotal456,284  98.3  98.3  17,428,790  38.87  
San Francisco Bay Area, California
Ferry Building(6)
San Francisco268,018  98.5  98.7  24,803,695  93.93  
Palo Alto SquarePalo Alto333,254  97.8  98.9  28,984,513  88.89  
TechmartSanta Clara284,440  97.3  97.3  13,210,533  47.74  
Metro Plaza(9)
North San Jose439,297  92.6  95.4  16,549,963  40.70  
GatewayNorth San Jose609,093  95.7  96.9  23,306,752  39.99  
Subtotal1,934,102  96.0  97.2  106,855,456  57.56  
Los Angeles, California
EPICHollywood302,102  100.0  100.0  20,786,585  68.81  
CUEHollywood94,386  100.0  100.0  5,530,567  58.60  
604 ArizonaWest Los Angeles44,260  100.0  100.0  3,023,401  68.31  
11601 WilshireWest Los Angeles500,475  94.9  96.4  21,656,496  45.60  
Fourth & TractionDowntown Los Angeles131,701  93.5  100.0  5,238,665  42.56  
MaxwellDowntown Los Angeles102,963  94.8  94.8  4,818,976