485APOS 1 d742638d485apos.htm 485APOS 485APOS
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As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on June 12, 2019

File Nos. 811-22378

333-164298

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM N-1A

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933    [X]

Pre-Effective Amendment No.

      [   ]

Post-Effective Amendment No.

       68            [X]
   and/or   

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940    [X]

Amendment No.

       75            [X]

(Check appropriate box or boxes)

DOUBLELINE FUNDS TRUST

(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

333 South Grand Avenue, Suite 1800

Los Angeles, CA 90071

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(213) 633-8200

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)

Ronald R. Redell, President

DoubleLine Funds Trust

333 South Grand Avenue, Suite 1800

Los Angeles, CA 90071

(Name and address of agent for Service)

With copies to:

Timothy W. Diggins, Esq.

Ropes & Gray LLP

Prudential Tower

800 Boylston Street

Boston, MA 02199-3600

As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement is declared effective.

(Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering)

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)

 

  [   ]

Immediately upon filing pursuant to Rule 485(b).

  [   ]

on (date) pursuant to Rule 485(b).

  [   ]

on (date) pursuant to Rule 485(a)(1).

  [   ]

60 days after filing pursuant to Rule 485 (a)(1).

  [X]

75 days after filing pursuant to Rule 485 (a)(2).

  [   ]

on (date) pursuant to Rule 485(a)(2).

If appropriate, check the following box:

 

  [   ]

This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This Post-Effective Amendment No. 68 to the Registration Statement of DoubleLine Funds Trust (the “Trust”) is being filed to register the shares of a new series of the Trust: DoubleLine Income Fund, and relates only to this series. Information contained in the Registrant’s Registration Statement relating to any other series of the Trust is neither amended nor superseded hereby.


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Subject to Completion dated June 12, 2019

The information in this Prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission becomes effective. This Prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

 

 

LOGO

DoubleLine Funds

Prospectus

[ ], 2019

DoubleLine Income Fund

Class I Shares — [ ]

Class N Shares — [ ]

Share Classes

 

LOGO LOGO

This Prospectus tells you about the Class I and Class N shares of the DoubleLine Income Fund (the “Fund”), a series of DoubleLine Funds Trust (the “Trust”).

Please read this document carefully before investing, and keep it for future reference.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved these securities or determined if this Prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

LOGO

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission, paper copies of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports. Instead, the reports will be made available on the Fund’s website (www.doublelinefunds.com), and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. You may elect to receive shareholder reports and other communications from the Fund electronically anytime by contacting your financial intermediary (such as a broker-dealer or bank) or, if you are a direct investor, by calling 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) or by sending an e-mail request to DoubleLine at fundinfo@doubleline.com.

You may elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge. If you invest through a financial intermediary, you can contact your financial intermediary to request that you continue to receive paper copies of your shareholder reports. If you invest directly with the Fund, you can call 877-DLINE11 (877-354-6311) or send an email request to fundinfo@doubleline.com to let the Fund know you wish to continue receiving paper copies of your shareholder reports. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all funds held in your account if you invest through your financial intermediary or all funds held with the fund complex if you invest directly with the Fund.

 

 


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Fund Summary DoubleLine Income Fund

     4  

Additional Information About Principal Investment Strategies and Principal Risks

     12  

Investment Objective

     12  

Principal Investment Strategies

     12  

Principal Risks

     13  

Temporary Defensive Strategies

     29  

Portfolio Holdings Information

     29  

Management of the Fund

     29  

Investment Adviser

     29  

Portfolio Managers

     29  

Advisory Agreement

     30  

Additional Information

     30  

Share Class Features

     31  

Types of Shares Available

     31  

Expenses

     31  

Choosing a Share Class

     31  

How to Buy Shares

     32  

General Information

     32  

Distribution Arrangements and Rule 12b-1 Fees (Class N Shares Only); Other Distribution-Related Payments to Financial Intermediaries

     32  

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

     32  

Calculation of NAV

     33  

Verification of Identity

     34  

Minimum Investments for Shares

     34  

New Account Application

     35  

Purchase by Mail

     35  

Purchase by Telephone

     35  

Purchase by Internet

     35  

Purchase by Wire

     36  

Automatic Investment Plan

     36  

Purchases Through an Authorized Third Party

     36  

How to Redeem Shares

     36  

General Information

     36  

Redemptions by Mail

     37  

Signature Guarantees

     37  

Redemptions by Telephone

     38  

Redemptions by Internet

     38  

Systematic Withdrawal Plan

     38  

Redemptions Through Your Financial Intermediary or Other Authorized Third Party

     39  

Other Account Policies

     39  

Trading Limits

     39  

Trading Limit Policies

     39  

Additional Trading Limit Policies

     39  

Exchange Privilege

     40  

Conversion of Shares Between Classes

     40  

Notice Regarding Delivery of Fund Documents

     40  

Lost Shareholders, Inactive Accounts and Unclaimed Property

     40  

Cost Basis Reporting

     40  

Distributions

     41  

Taxes

     41  

Financial Highlights

     42  

PRIVACY POLICY

     43  

 

 

 

2


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A Note Regarding Debt Obligations

Generally, this Prospectus uses the terms debt security, debt obligation, bond, fixed-income instrument, fixed-income obligation and fixed-income security interchangeably. These terms should be considered to include any evidence of indebtedness, including, by way of example, a security or instrument having one or more of the following characteristics: a security or instrument issued at a discount to its face value, a security or instrument that pays interest at a fixed, floating, or variable rate, or a security or instrument with a stated principal amount that requires repayment of some or all of that principal amount to the holder of the security. These terms are interpreted broadly to include any instrument or security evidencing what is commonly referred to as an IOU rather than evidencing the corporate ownership of equity unless that equity represents an indirect or derivative interest in one or more debt securities. For this purpose, the terms also include instruments that are intended to provide one or more of the characteristics of a direct investment in one or more debt securities. This Prospectus also uses the term hybrid security to refer to a security that DoubleLine Capital LP, the Fund’s investment adviser, or a third party creates by combining an income-producing debt security and the right to receive payment based on the change in the price of an equity security.

 

 

 

3


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Fund Summary

DoubleLine Income Fund

Investment Objective

The Fund’s investment objective is to maximize total return through investment principally in income-producing securities.

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

This table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund.

Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)

 

Share Class          Class I              Class N      

Maximum Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases (as a percentage of the

offering price)

   None    None

Maximum Deferred Sales Charge (Load) (as a percentage of the original

purchase price)

   None    None

Maximum Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Reinvested Dividends

   None    None

Redemption Fee (as a percentage of shares redeemed within 90 days of

purchase)

   None    None

Fee for Redemption by Wire

   $15    $15

Exchange Fee

   None    None

Account Fee

   None    None

Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

 

Share Class          Class I         Class N      

Management Fees

         [ ]%     [ ]%

Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees

         None     0.25%

Other Expenses (includes sub-transfer agent accounting or administrative

services expenses)1

         [ ]%     [ ]%

Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses1,2

         [ ]%     [ ]%

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

         [ ]%     [ ]%

Fee Waiver and/or Expense Reimbursement3

         [ ]%     [ ]%

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waiver and/or

Expense Reimbursement

         [ ]%     [ ]%
    

 

1

Based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

2

“Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses” are expenses indirectly incurred by the Fund as a result of investments in one or more underlying funds, including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) and money market funds.

3

DoubleLine Capital LP (the “Adviser”) has contractually agreed to waive its investment advisory fee and to reimburse the Fund for other ordinary operating expenses to the extent necessary to limit ordinary operating expenses to an amount not to exceed [            ]% for Class I shares and [            ]% for Class N shares. Ordinary operating expenses exclude taxes, commissions, mark-ups, litigation expenses, indemnification expenses, interest expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, and any extraordinary expenses. These expense limitations are expected to apply until at least [            ], except that they may be terminated by the Board of Trustees at any time. To the extent that the Adviser waives its investment advisory fee and/or reimburses the Fund for other ordinary operating expenses, it may seek reimbursement of a portion or all of such amounts at any time within three fiscal years after the fiscal year in which such amounts were waived or reimbursed. Any such recoupment may not cause the Fund’s ordinary operating expenses to exceed the expense limitation that was in place when the fees were waived or expenses reimbursed. Additionally, the Adviser would generally seek recoupment only in accordance with the terms of any expense limitation that is in place at the time of recoupment.

Example

This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds.

This example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all your shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same (taking into account the Fund’s expense limitation for the first year). Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:

 

            Class I       Class N      

1 Year

       $[ ]   $[ ]

3 Years

       $[ ]   $[ ]

 

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Portfolio Turnover

The Fund incurs transaction costs when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the Fund’s performance.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing in a portfolio of income-producing instruments of varying characteristics selected by the Adviser for their potential to provide a high level of current income, capital appreciation or both.

The Fund will seek to construct a portfolio that provides yield and duration characteristics that are attractive relative to those offered by a portfolio of corporate debt instruments by investing principally in a combination of mortgage-backed securities, other asset-backed securities, and collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”). Mortgage-backed securities in which the Fund will invest include residential or commercial mortgage-backed securities. The other asset-backed securities in which the Fund will invest include obligations backed or supported by consumer loans, automobile loans, student loans, leases of various types and other assets. In pursuing its investment objective, the Fund may also invest directly in residential or commercial real estate loans, individually or in pools of loans, which loans may include senior mortgage loans and mezzanine loans, second lien loans or other types of subordinated loans.

The Fund expects normally to invest principally, and potentially all of its assets, in a combination of lower quality and unrated debt instruments. The Fund may invest in securities of any credit quality and may invest without limit in securities rated below investment grade (securities rated Ba1 or below by Moody’s and BB+ or below by S&P and Fitch Ratings, Inc. (“Fitch”)) and unrated securities, including those judged by the Adviser to be of below investment grade quality. High yield corporate bonds and certain other fixed income instruments in which the Fund may invest are commonly known as “junk bonds.”

Mortgage- and asset-backed securities in which the Fund may invest include, without limitation, mortgage-related securities of any maturity or type, including those guaranteed by, or secured by collateral that is guaranteed by, the United States Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored corporations, and privately issued mortgage-backed securities, government mortgage pass-through securities, collateralized mortgage obligations, multiclass pass-through securities, private mortgage pass-through securities, stripped mortgage securities (interest-only and principal-only securities), inverse floaters, CLOs, including CLOs backed by commercial real estate loans and other asset-backed securities backed by non-mortgage assets, such as motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property and receivables from credit card agreements. The collateral for mortgage-backed securities in which the Fund may invest may include non-performing and/or re-performing loans, non-qualifying mortgage loans, and single asset, single borrower loans. The Fund may invest in any level of the capital structure of an issuer of mortgage-backed or asset-backed securities, including subordinated or residual tranches and the equity or “first loss” tranche.

In selecting among available residential or commercial mortgage-backed securities, the Fund expects to consider, among other things, available yield, duration characteristics, collateral quality, level of correlation to other risk assets, supply/demand technicals, and sponsor quality. With respect to asset-backed securities, the Fund also expects to seek diversified opportunities with varying risk/return profiles across different sectors of that market. The Fund will seek CLOs that offer, among other characteristics, attractive yields, diversification within the underlying pool of loans, and quality management.

The Adviser has broad discretion to manage the Fund’s portfolio duration; however, the Adviser expects normally to construct an investment portfolio with a dollar-weighted average effective duration similar to, or shorter than, that of its benchmark index, the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index. The Adviser monitors the duration of the Fund’s portfolio securities to seek to assess and, in its discretion, adjust the Fund’s exposure to interest rate risk. The Adviser seeks to manage the Fund’s duration based on the Adviser’s view of, among other things, future interest rates and market conditions. Duration is a measure of the expected life of a fixed income instrument that is used to determine the sensitivity of a security’s price to changes in interest rates. Effective duration is a measure of the Fund’s portfolio duration adjusted for the anticipated effect of interest rate changes on bond and mortgage pre-payment rates as determined by the Adviser. The Fund may invest in individual securities of any maturity or duration. The effective duration of the Fund’s investment portfolio may vary significantly from time to time and may be negative at certain times, and there is no assurance that the effective duration of the Fund’s investment portfolio will remain within the targeted range described above.

In managing the Fund’s portfolio, the portfolio managers typically use a controlled risk approach. The techniques of this approach attempt to control the principal risk components of the fixed income markets and may include consideration of the Adviser’s view of the following factors, among others: the potential for current income and capital appreciation presented by various market sectors, security selection available within a given sector, the risk/reward equation for different fixed income investments, liquidity conditions in various market sectors, the shape of the yield curve and projections for changes in the yield curve, potential fluctuations in the overall level of interest rates, and current fiscal policy.

Although the Fund will normally invest principally in mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities and CLOs, the Fund may invest in other debt instruments of any kind. The Adviser expects to allocate and re-allocate the Fund’s assets among income-producing investments with varying characteristics in response to changing market, financial, economic, and other conditions in an attempt to construct a portfolio that maximizes total return. In addition to the instruments described above, the Fund’s principal investments may include, without limitation, (i) U.S. Treasury obligations, (ii) bank loans, (iii) other securities or other income-producing instruments issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored corporations (including inflation-protected securities); (iv) collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”); (v) pass through certificates or other

 

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participation rights with respect to warehouse lending facilities; (vi) municipal securities and other debt obligations issued by states, local governments, and government-sponsored entities, including their agencies, authorities, and instrumentalities; (vii) inflation-indexed bonds; (viii) REIT securities (equity, preferred or debt); (ix) distressed and defaulted securities; (x) payment-in-kind bonds; (xi) zero-coupon bonds; (xii) corporate bonds and other corporate obligations, including high yield debt; (xiii) custodial receipts; (xiv) short-term, high quality investments, including, for example, cash equivalents, commercial paper, bankers’ acceptances, certificates of deposit, bank time deposits, repurchase agreements, and investments in money market mutual funds or similar pooled investments; and (xv) other instruments bearing fixed, floating, or variable interest rates of any maturity. The allocation of the Fund’s assets to different sectors and issuers will change over time, sometimes rapidly, and the Fund may invest without limit in a single sector or a small number of sectors of the fixed income universe.

The Fund may enter into derivatives transactions and other instruments of any kind for hedging purposes or otherwise to gain, or reduce, long or short exposure to one or more asset classes or issuers. The Fund may use derivatives transactions with the effect of creating investment leverage. The Adviser may seek to manage the dollar-weighted average effective duration of the Fund’s portfolio through the use of derivatives and other instruments (including, among others, Treasury futures, interest rate swaps, and options, including options on swap agreements (“swaptions”)). The Fund may incur costs in implementing hedging or duration management strategies, and there can be no assurance that the Fund will engage in hedging or duration management strategies or that any hedging or duration management strategy employed by the Fund will be successful.

The Fund may implement short positions through short sales of instruments that are eligible investments for the Fund in order to adjust the Fund’s interest rate or credit exposure.

The Adviser expects to allocate the Fund’s assets principally to domestic securities denominated in U.S. dollars; however, the Fund may invest in debt instruments of foreign issuers and debt instruments denominated in foreign currencies. The Fund does not normally expect to invest more than 20% of its assets in securities denominated in a foreign currency.

The Fund may pursue its investment objective and obtain exposures to some or all of the asset classes described above by investing in other investment companies, including, for example, other open-end or closed-end investment companies, ETFs, and domestic or foreign private investment vehicles, including investment companies sponsored or managed by the Adviser or its related parties.

The Fund may from time to time hold a portion of its assets in cash, cash equivalents, or other short-term investments for a number of reasons, including, for example, for temporary defensive purposes, to satisfy future redemption requests, pending the investment of subscription proceeds, or when the Adviser otherwise determines for investment purposes to hold a portion of the Fund’s assets in cash or similar investments.

The Fund is classified as a non-diversified fund under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), and may invest in the securities of a smaller number of issuers than a diversified fund.

Principal Risks

The value of the Fund’s shares will vary as its portfolio investments increase or decrease in value. Therefore, the value of your investment in the Fund could go down as well as up. You can lose money by investing in the Fund.

The principal risks affecting the Fund that can cause a decline in value are:

 

   

affiliated fund risk: the risk that, due to its own financial interest or other business considerations, the Adviser has an incentive to invest a portion of the Fund’s assets in investment companies sponsored or managed by the Adviser or its related parties in lieu of investments by the Fund directly in portfolio securities, or has an incentive to invest in such investment companies over investment companies sponsored or managed by others. Similarly, the Adviser has an incentive to delay or decide against the sale of interests held by the Fund in investment companies sponsored or managed by the Adviser or its related parties.

 

   

asset allocation risk: the risk that the Fund’s investment performance may depend, at least in part, on how its assets are allocated and reallocated among asset classes, sectors and/or underlying funds and that such allocation will focus on asset classes, sectors, underlying funds, or investments that perform poorly or underperform other asset classes, sectors, underlying funds, or available investments.

 

   

asset-backed securities investment risk: the risk that borrowers may default on the obligations that underlie the asset-backed security and that, during periods of falling interest rates, asset-backed securities may be called or prepaid, which may result in the Fund having to reinvest proceeds in other investments at a lower interest rate, and the risk that the impairment of the value of the collateral underlying a security in which the Fund invests (due, for example, to non-payment of loans) will result in a reduction in the value of the security.

 

   

cash position risk: to the extent that the Fund holds assets in cash, cash equivalents, and other short-term investments, the ability of the Fund to meet its objective may be limited.

 

   

collateralized debt obligations risk: the risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the quality and type of the collateral and the tranche of the CDO in which the Fund invests. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CDOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid securities; however, an active dealer market, or other relevant measures of liquidity, may exist for CDOs allowing a CDO potentially to be deemed liquid by the Adviser under liquidity policies approved by the Board. In addition to the risks associated with debt instruments (e.g., interest rate risk and credit risk), CDOs carry additional risks

 

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including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the possibility that the Fund may invest in CDOs that are subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.

 

   

counterparty risk: the risk that the Fund will be subject to credit risk with respect to the counterparties to the derivative contracts and other instruments, such as repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, entered into by the Fund. Subject to certain limitations for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the Fund is not subject to any limit with respect to the number of transactions it can enter into with a single counterparty. To the extent that the Fund enters into multiple transactions with a single or a small set of counterparties, it will be subject to increased counterparty risk.

 

   

debt securities risks:

 

     

credit risk: the risk that an issuer or counterparty will fail to pay its obligations to the Fund when they are due. As a result, the Fund’s income might be reduced, the value of the Fund’s investment might fall, and/or the Fund could lose the entire amount of its investment. Changes in the financial condition of an issuer or counterparty, changes in specific economic, social or political conditions that affect a particular type of security or other instrument or an issuer, and changes in economic, social or political conditions generally can increase the risk of default by an issuer or counterparty, which can affect a security’s or other instrument’s credit quality or value and an issuer’s or counterparty’s ability to pay interest and principal when due. The values of lower-quality debt securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”), including floating rate loans, tend to be particularly sensitive to these changes. The values of securities also may decline for a number of other reasons that relate directly to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods and services, as well as the historical and prospective earnings of the issuer and the value of its assets.

 

     

extension risk: the risk that if interest rates rise, repayments of principal on certain debt securities, including, but not limited to, floating rate loans and mortgage-related securities, may occur at a slower rate than expected and the expected maturity of those securities could lengthen as a result. Securities that are subject to extension risk generally have a greater potential for loss when prevailing interest rates rise, which could cause their values to fall sharply.

 

     

interest rate risk: the risk that debt instruments will change in value because of changes in interest rates. The value of an instrument with a longer duration (whether positive or negative) will be more sensitive to changes in interest rates than a similar instrument with a shorter duration. Bonds and other debt instruments typically have a positive duration. The value of a debt instrument with positive duration will generally decline if interest rates increase. Certain other investments, such as inverse floaters and certain derivative instruments, may have a negative duration. The value of instruments with a negative duration will generally decline if interest rates decrease. Inverse floaters, interest-only and principal-only securities are especially sensitive to interest rate changes, which can affect not only their prices but can also change the income flows and repayment assumptions about those investments. In recent years, the U.S. has experienced historically low interest rates, increasing the exposure of bond investors to the risks associated with rising interest rates.

 

     

prepayment risk: the risk that the issuer of a debt security, including floating rate loans and mortgage-related securities, repays all or a portion of the principal prior to the security’s maturity. In times of declining interest rates, there is a greater likelihood that the Fund’s higher yielding securities will be pre-paid with the Fund being unable to reinvest the proceeds in an investment with as great a yield. Prepayments can therefore result in lower yields to shareholders of the Fund.

 

   

defaulted securities risk: the risk of the uncertainty of repayment of defaulted securities (e.g., a security on which a principal or interest payment is not made when due) and obligations of distressed issuers.

 

   

derivatives risk: the risk that an investment in derivatives will not perform as anticipated by the Adviser, may not be available at the time or price desired, cannot be closed out at a favorable time or price, will increase the Fund’s transaction costs, or will increase the Fund’s volatility; that derivatives may create investment leverage; that, when a derivative is used as a substitute for or alternative to a direct cash investment, the transaction may not provide a return that corresponds precisely or at all with that of the cash investment; that the positions may be improperly executed or constructed; or that, when used for hedging purposes, derivatives will not provide the anticipated protection, causing the Fund to lose money on both the derivatives transaction and the exposure the Fund sought to hedge.

 

   

financial services risk: the risk that an investment in issuers in the financial services sector may be adversely affected by, among other things: (i) changes in governmental regulation, which may limit both the amounts and the types of loans and other financial commitments financial services companies can make, the interest rates and fees they can charge, the scope of their activities, the prices they can charge and the amount of capital they must maintain; (ii) fluctuations, including as a result of interest rate changes or increased competition, in the availability and cost of capital of funds on which the profitability of financial services companies is largely dependent; (iii) deterioration of the credit markets; (iv) credit losses resulting from financial difficulties of borrowers, especially when financial services companies are exposed to non-diversified or concentrated loan portfolios; (v) financial losses associated with investment activities, especially when financial services companies are exposed to financial leverage; (vi) the risk that any financial services company experiences substantial declines in the valuations of its assets, takes action to raise capital, or ceases operations; (vii) the risk that a market shock or other unexpected market, economic, political, regulatory, or other event might lead to a sudden decline in the values of most or all

 

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companies in the financial services sector; and (viii) the interconnectedness or interdependence among financial services companies, including the risk that the financial distress or failure of one financial services company may materially and adversely affect a number of other financial services companies.

 

   

focused investment risk: the risk that a fund that invests a substantial portion of its assets in a particular market, industry, sector, group of industries or sectors, country, region, group of countries or asset class is, relative to a fund that invests in a more diverse investment portfolio, more susceptible to any single economic, market, political, regulatory or other occurrence. This is because, for example, issuers in a particular market, industry, region, sector or asset class may react similarly to specific economic, market, regulatory, political or other developments. The particular markets, industries, regions, sectors or asset classes in which the Fund may focus its investments may change over time and the Fund may alter its focus at inopportune times.

 

   

foreign currency risk: the risk that fluctuations in exchange rates may adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments denominated in foreign currencies.

 

   

foreign investing risk: the risk that investments in foreign securities or in issuers with significant exposure to foreign markets, as compared to investments in U.S. securities or in issuers with predominantly domestic market exposure, may be more vulnerable to economic, political, and social instability and subject to less government supervision, lack of transparency, inadequate regulatory and accounting standards, and foreign taxes. In addition, foreign securities may be subject to currency exchange rates or regulations, the imposition of economic sanctions or other government restrictions, higher transaction and other costs, reduced liquidity, and delays in settlement.

 

   

high yield risk: the risk that debt instruments rated below investment grade or debt instruments that are unrated and determined by the Adviser to be of comparable quality are predominantly speculative. These instruments, commonly known as “junk bonds,” have a higher degree of default risk and may be less liquid than higher-rated bonds. These instruments may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific corporate developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of high yield investments generally, and less secondary market liquidity.

 

   

inflation-indexed bond risk: the risk that such bonds will change in value in response to actual or anticipated changes in inflation rates in a manner unanticipated by the Fund’s portfolio management team or investors generally. Inflation-indexed bonds are subject to debt securities risks.

 

   

investment company and exchange-traded fund risk: the risk that an investment company or other pooled investment vehicle, including any ETFs or money market funds, in which the Fund invests will not achieve its investment objective or execute its investment strategies effectively or that significant purchase or redemption activity by shareholders of such an investment company might negatively affect the value of the investment company’s shares. The Fund must pay its pro rata portion of an investment company’s fees and expenses.

 

   

large shareholder risk: the risk that certain account holders, including the Adviser or funds or accounts over which the Adviser (or related parties of the Adviser) has investment discretion, may from time to time own or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. The Fund is subject to the risk that a redemption by those shareholders of all or a portion of their Fund shares, including as a result of an asset allocation decision made by the Adviser (or related parties of the Adviser), will adversely affect the Fund’s performance if it is forced to sell portfolio securities or invest cash when the Adviser would not otherwise choose to do so. Redemptions of a large number of shares may affect the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio, increase the Fund’s transaction costs, and accelerate the realization of taxable income and/or gains to shareholders.

 

   

leveraging risk: the risk that certain investments by the Fund involving leverage may have the effect of increasing the volatility of the Fund’s portfolio, and the risk of loss in excess of invested capital.

 

   

limited operating history risk: the risk that a newly formed fund has no or a limited operating history to evaluate and may not attract sufficient assets to achieve or maximize investment and operational efficiencies.

 

   

liquidity risk: the risk that the Fund may be unable to sell a portfolio investment at a desirable time or at the value the Fund has placed on the investment. Illiquidity may be the result of, for example, low trading volume, lack of a market maker, or contractual or legal restrictions that limit or prevent the Fund from selling securities or closing derivatives positions. During periods of substantial market disruption, a large portion of the Fund’s assets could potentially experience significant levels of illiquidity. The values of illiquid investments are often more volatile than the values of more liquid investments. It may be more difficult for the Fund to determine a fair value of an illiquid investment than that of a more liquid comparable investment.

 

   

loan risk: includes the risk that (i) if the Fund holds a loan through another financial intermediary, or relies on a financial intermediary to administer the loan, its receipt of principal and interest on the loan may be subject to the credit risk of that financial intermediary; (ii) any collateral securing a loan may be insufficient or unavailable to the Fund, because, for example, the value of the collateral securing a loan can decline, be insufficient to meet the obligations of the borrower, or be difficult to liquidate, and the Fund’s rights to collateral may be limited by bankruptcy or insolvency laws; (iii) investments in highly leveraged loans or loans of stressed, distressed, or defaulted issuers may be subject to significant credit and liquidity risk; (iv) a bankruptcy or other court proceeding could delay or limit the ability of the Fund to collect the principal and interest payments on that borrower’s loans or adversely affect the Fund’s rights in collateral relating to

 

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a loan; (v) there may be limited public information available regarding the loan and the relevant borrower(s); (vi) the use of a particular interest rate benchmark, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), may limit the Fund’s ability to achieve a net return to shareholders that consistently approximates the average published Prime Rate of U.S. banks; (vii) the prices of certain floating rate loans that include a feature that prevents their interest rates from adjusting if market interest rates are below a specified minimum level may be more sensitive to changes in interest rates should interest rates rise but remain below the applicable minimum level; (viii) if a borrower fails to comply with various restrictive covenants that may be found in loan agreements, the borrower may default in payment of the loan; (ix) if the Fund invests in loans that contain fewer or less restrictive constraints on the borrower than certain other types of loans (“covenant-lite” loans), it may have fewer rights against the borrowers of such loans; (x) the Fund’s investments in loans may be subject to risks associated with collateral impairment or access and risks associated with investing in unsecured loans; (xi) opportunities to invest in loans or certain types of loans, such as senior loans, may be limited; (xii) transactions in loans may settle on a delayed basis, and the Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of a loan for a substantial period of time after the sale, which may result in sale proceeds related to the sale of loans not being available to make additional investments or to meet the Fund’s redemption obligations until potentially a substantial period after the sale of the loans; (xiii) loans may be difficult to value and may be illiquid, which may adversely affect an investment in the Fund; and (xiv) loans may not be classified as “securities” under the federal securities laws and, therefore, when the Fund invests in a loan, it may not be entitled to the protections against fraud and misrepresentation contained in the federal securities laws. The Fund may invest in loans directly or indirectly by investing in shares of the DoubleLine Floating Rate Fund and in either case will be subject to the risks described above.

 

   

market risk: the risk that markets will perform poorly or that the returns from the securities in which the Fund invests will underperform returns from the general securities markets or other types of investments. Markets may, in response to governmental actions or intervention, political, economic or market developments, or other external factors, experience periods of high volatility and reduced liquidity. During those periods, the Fund may experience high levels of shareholder redemptions, and may have to sell securities at times when the Fund would otherwise not do so, and potentially at unfavorable prices. Certain securities may be difficult to value during such periods. These risks may be heightened for fixed income securities due to the current historically low interest rate environment.

 

   

mortgage-backed securities risk: the risk that borrowers may default on their mortgage obligations or the guarantees underlying the mortgage-backed securities will default or otherwise fail and that, during periods of falling interest rates, mortgage-backed securities will be called or prepaid, which may result in the Fund having to reinvest proceeds in other investments at a lower interest rate. During periods of rising interest rates, the average life of a mortgage-backed security may extend, which may lock in a below-market interest rate, increase the security’s duration, and reduce the value of the security. Enforcing rights against the underlying assets or collateral may be difficult, or the underlying assets or collateral may be insufficient if the issuer defaults. The values of certain types of mortgage-backed securities, such as inverse floaters and interest-only and principal-only securities, may be extremely sensitive to changes in interest rates and prepayment rates.

 

   

non-diversification risk: the risk that, because a relatively higher percentage of the Fund’s assets may be invested in a limited number of issuers, the Fund may be more susceptible to any single economic, political, or regulatory event than a diversified fund investing in a broader range of issuers. A decline in the market value of one of the Fund’s investments may affect the Fund’s value more than if the Fund were a diversified fund.

 

   

portfolio management risk: the risk that an investment strategy may fail to produce the intended results or that the securities held by the Fund will underperform other comparable funds because of the portfolio manager’s choice of investments.

 

   

portfolio turnover risk: the risk that frequent purchases and sales of portfolio securities may result in higher Fund expenses and may result in larger distributions of taxable capital gains to investors as compared to a fund that trades less frequently.

 

   

price volatility risk: the risk that the value of the Fund’s investment portfolio will change, potentially frequently and in large amounts, as the prices of its investments go up or down.

 

   

real estate risk: the risk that real estate-related investments may decline in value as a result of factors affecting the real estate industry, such as the supply of real property in certain markets, changes in zoning laws, delays in completion of construction, changes in real estate values, changes in property taxes, levels of occupancy, and local and regional market conditions. Equity REITs, which invest primarily in direct fee ownership or leasehold ownership of real property and derive most of their income from rents, are generally affected by changes in the values of and incomes from the properties they own. Mortgage REITs invest mostly in mortgages on real estate, which may secure, for example, construction, development or long-term loans, and the main source of their income is mortgage interest payments. Mortgage REITs may be affected by the credit quality of the mortgage loans they hold. A hybrid REIT combines the characteristics of equity REITs and mortgage REITs, generally by holding both ownership interests and mortgage interests in real estate, and thus may be subject to risks associated with both real estate ownership and investments in mortgage-related securities. Along with the risks common to different types of real estate-related securities, REITs, no matter the type, involve additional risk factors, including poor performance by the REIT’s manager, adverse changes to the tax laws, and the possible failure by the REIT to qualify for the favorable tax treatment available to REITs under the Code or the exemption from registration under the 1940 Act. REITs are not diversified and are heavily dependent on cash flow.

 

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restricted securities risk: the risk that the Fund may be prevented or limited by law or the terms of an agreement from selling a security (a “restricted security”). To the extent that the Fund is permitted to sell a restricted security, there can be no assurance that a trading market will exist at any particular time, and the Fund may be unable to dispose of the security promptly at reasonable prices or at all. The Fund may have to bear the expense of registering the securities for resale and the risk of substantial delays in effecting the registration. Also, restricted securities may be difficult to value because market quotations may not be readily available, and the values of restricted securities may have significant volatility.

 

   

securities or sector selection risk: the risk that the securities held by the Fund will underperform securities held in other funds investing in similar asset classes or comparable benchmarks because of the portfolio managers’ choice of securities or sectors for investment. To the extent the Fund focuses or concentrates its investments in a particular sector or related sectors, the Fund will be more susceptible to events or factors affecting companies in that sector or related sectors. For example, the values of securities of companies in the same or related sectors may be negatively affected by the common characteristics they share, the common business risks to which they are subject, common regulatory burdens, or regulatory changes that affect them similarly. Such characteristics, risks, burdens or changes include, but are not limited to, changes in governmental regulation, inflation or deflation, rising or falling interest rates, competition from new entrants, and other economic, market, political or other developments specific to that sector or related sectors.

 

   

short position risk: the risk that an increase in the value of an instrument with respect to which the Fund has established a short position will result in a loss to the Fund.

 

   

structured products and structured notes risk: the risk that an investment in a structured product may decline in value due to changes in the underlying instruments on which the product is based. The cash flow or rate of return on the underlying investments may be apportioned among the newly issued securities to create different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, credit quality, payment priorities and interest rate provisions. The cash flow or rate of return on a structured investment may be determined by applying a multiplier to the rate of total return on the underlying investments or referenced indicator. Application of a multiplier is comparable to the use of financial leverage, a speculative technique. Holders of structured products indirectly bear risks associated with the underlying investments, index or reference obligation, and are subject to counterparty risk. Structured products are generally privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. Certain structured products may be thinly traded or have a limited trading market and may have the effect of increasing the Fund’s illiquidity to the extent that the Fund, at a particular point in time, may be unable to find qualified buyers for these securities. Structured notes are derivative securities for which the amount of principal repayment and/or interest payments is based on the movement of one or more “factors.” Investments in structured notes involve risks including interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk. Where the Fund’s investments in structured notes are based upon the movement of one or more factors, depending on the factor used and the use of multipliers or deflators, changes in interest rates and movement of the factor may cause significant price fluctuations.

 

   

U.S. Government securities risk: the risk that debt securities issued or guaranteed by certain U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities, and sponsored enterprises are not supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, and so investments in their securities or obligations issued by them involve credit risk greater than investments in other types of U.S. Government securities.

 

   

valuation risk: the risk that the valuation of the Fund’s investments involves subjective judgment. There can be no assurance that the Fund will value its investments in a manner that accurately reflects their market values or that the Fund will be able to sell any investment at a price equal to the valuation ascribed to that investment for purposes of calculating the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”). Certain securities in which the Fund may invest may be more difficult to value accurately, especially during periods of market disruptions or extreme market volatility. Incorrect valuations of the Fund’s portfolio holdings could result in the Fund’s shareholder transactions being effected at an NAV that does not accurately reflect the underlying value of the Fund’s portfolio, resulting in the dilution of shareholder interests.

Please see “Additional Information About Principal Investment Strategies and Principal Risks — Principal Risks” for a more detailed description of the risks of investing in the Fund.

Performance

Because this is a new Fund that does not yet have an operating history, a bar chart and table describing the Fund’s annual performance are not yet available. Once available, information on the Fund’s investment results, including its NAV per share, can be obtained at no charge by calling 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) or by visiting the Fund’s website at www.doublelinefunds.com.

Investment Adviser

DoubleLine Capital LP is the investment adviser to the Fund.

Portfolio Managers

The portfolio managers for the Fund are:

 

Name   

Experience with

the Fund

  

Primary Title with the

Investment Adviser

Morris Chen    Since the Fund’s inception    Portfolio Manager
Andrew Hsu    Since the Fund’s inception    Portfolio Manager
Ken Shinoda    Since the Fund’s inception    Portfolio Manager

 

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Purchase and Sale of Shares

You may purchase or redeem Class I and Class N shares on any business day when the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) opens for regular trading. You may purchase or redeem shares by written request via mail (DoubleLine Funds, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0701), by wire transfer, by telephone at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311), or through authorized dealers, brokers, or other service providers (“financial intermediaries”). Telephone transactions will be permitted unless you decline this privilege on your initial purchase application. The minimum initial and subsequent investment amounts for different types of accounts are shown below, although we may reduce or waive the minimums in some cases.

 

    

Minimum Initial

Investment:

  

Subsequent  

Investment:  

     

Regular

Accounts

  

IRAs/

HSAs

  

All Accounts    

and Automatic    

Investment Plans    

Class I Shares

   $100,000    $5,000    $100

Class N Shares

   $2,000    $500    $100

The minimum investment may be modified for certain financial intermediaries that submit trades on behalf of underlying investors. Certain financial intermediaries also may have their own investment minimums, which may differ from the Fund’s minimums, and may be waived at the intermediaries’ discretion. The Fund reserves the right to change or waive the minimum initial and subsequent investment amounts without prior notice or to waive the minimum investment amounts for certain intermediaries or individual investors in its discretion.

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions generally are taxable to you as ordinary income or capital gains, unless you are investing through a tax-advantaged arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or individual retirement account. If you invest through such tax-advantaged arrangements, you may be taxed later upon withdrawal from those arrangements.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund, the Adviser, and the Fund’s distributor or any of their affiliates may pay the financial intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the financial intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your individual salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

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Additional Information About

Principal Investment Strategies and Principal Risks

Investment Objective

The Fund’s investment objective is to maximize total return through investment principally in income-producing securities. The Fund’s investment objective is non-fundamental, which means the Fund may change its investment objective without shareholder approval or prior notice.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing in a portfolio of income-producing instruments of varying characteristics selected by the Adviser for their potential to provide a high level of current income, capital appreciation or both.

The Fund will seek to construct a portfolio that provides yield and duration characteristics that are attractive relative to those offered by a portfolio of corporate debt instruments by investing principally in a combination of mortgage-backed securities, other asset-backed securities, and CLOs. Mortgage-backed securities in which the Fund will invest include residential or commercial mortgage-backed securities. The other asset-backed securities in which the Fund will invest include obligations backed or supported by consumer loans, automobile loans, student loans, leases of various types and other assets. In pursuing its investment objective, the Fund may also invest directly in residential or commercial real estate loans, individually or in pools of loans, which loans may include senior mortgage loans and mezzanine loans, second lien loans or other types of subordinated loans.

The Fund expects normally to invest principally, and potentially all of its assets, in a combination of lower quality and unrated debt instruments. The Fund may invest in securities of any credit quality and may invest without limit in securities rated below investment grade (securities rated Ba1 or below by Moody’s and BB+ or below by S&P and Fitch Ratings, Inc. (“Fitch”)) and unrated securities, including those judged by the Adviser to be of below investment grade quality. High yield corporate bonds and certain other fixed income instruments in which the Fund may invest are commonly known as “junk bonds.”

Mortgage- and asset-backed securities in which the Fund may invest include, without limitation, mortgage-related securities of any maturity or type, including those guaranteed by, or secured by collateral that is guaranteed by, the United States Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored corporations, and privately issued mortgage-backed securities, government mortgage pass-through securities, collateralized mortgage obligations, multiclass pass-through securities, private mortgage pass-through securities, stripped mortgage securities (interest-only and principal-only securities), inverse floaters, CLOs, including CLOs backed by commercial real estate loans and other asset-backed securities backed by non-mortgage assets, such as motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property and receivables from credit card agreements. The collateral for mortgage-backed securities in which the Fund may invest may include non-performing and/or re-performing loans, non-qualifying mortgage loans, and single asset, single borrower loans. The Fund may invest in any level of the capital structure of an issuer of mortgage-backed or asset-backed securities, including subordinated or residual tranches and the equity or “first loss” tranche.

In selecting among available residential or commercial mortgage-backed securities, the Fund expects to consider, among other things, available yield, duration characteristics, collateral quality, level of correlation to other risk assets, supply/demand technicals, and sponsor quality. With respect to asset-backed securities, the Fund also expects to seek diversified opportunities with varying risk/return profiles across different sectors of that market. The Fund will seek CLOs that offer, among other characteristics, attractive yields, diversification within the underlying pool of loans, and quality management.

The Adviser has broad discretion to manage the Fund’s portfolio duration; however, the Adviser expects normally to construct an investment portfolio with a dollar-weighted average effective duration similar to, or shorter than, that of its benchmark index, the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index. The Adviser monitors the duration of the Fund’s portfolio securities to seek to assess and, in its discretion, adjust the Fund’s exposure to interest rate risk. The Adviser seeks to manage the Fund’s duration based on the Adviser’s view of, among other things, future interest rates and market conditions. Duration is a measure of the expected life of a fixed income instrument that is used to determine the sensitivity of a security’s price to changes in interest rates. Effective duration is a measure of the Fund’s portfolio duration adjusted for the anticipated effect of interest rate changes on bond and mortgage pre-payment rates as determined by the Adviser. The Fund may invest in individual securities of any maturity or duration. The effective duration of the Fund’s investment portfolio may vary significantly from time to time and may be negative at certain times, and there is no assurance that the effective duration of the Fund’s investment portfolio will remain within the targeted range described above.

In managing the Fund’s portfolio, the portfolio managers typically use a controlled risk approach. The techniques of this approach attempt to control the principal risk components of the fixed income markets and may include consideration of the Adviser’s view of the following factors, among others: the potential for current income and capital appreciation presented by various market sectors, security selection available within a given sector, the risk/reward equation for different fixed income investments, liquidity conditions in various market sectors, the shape of the yield curve and projections for changes in the yield curve, potential fluctuations in the overall level of interest rates, and current fiscal policy.

Although the Fund will normally invest principally in mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities and CLOs, the Fund may invest in other debt instruments of any kind. The Adviser expects to allocate and re-allocate the Fund’s assets among income-producing investments with varying characteristics in response to changing market, financial, economic, and other conditions in an attempt to construct a portfolio that maximizes total return. In addition to the instruments described above, the Fund’s principal investments may include, without limitation, (i)

 

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U.S. Treasury obligations, (ii) bank loans, (iii) other securities or other income-producing instruments issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored corporations (including inflation-protected securities); (iv) CDOs; (v) pass through certificates or other participation rights with respect to warehouse lending facilities; (vi) municipal securities and other debt obligations issued by states, local governments, and government-sponsored entities, including their agencies, authorities, and instrumentalities; (vii) inflation-indexed bonds; (viii) REIT securities (equity, preferred or debt); (ix) distressed and defaulted securities; (x) payment-in-kind bonds; (xi) zero-coupon bonds; (xii) corporate bonds and other corporate obligations, including high yield debt; (xiii) custodial receipts; (xiv) short-term, high quality investments, including, for example, cash equivalents, commercial paper, bankers’ acceptances, certificates of deposit, bank time deposits, repurchase agreements, and investments in money market mutual funds or similar pooled investments; and (xv) other instruments bearing fixed, floating, or variable interest rates of any maturity. The allocation of the Fund’s assets to different sectors and issuers will change over time, sometimes rapidly, and the Fund may invest without limit in a single sector or a small number of sectors of the fixed income universe.

The Fund may enter into derivatives transactions and other instruments of any kind for hedging purposes or otherwise to gain, or reduce, long or short exposure to one or more asset classes or issuers. A derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on changes in the value of one or more underlying assets, reference rates, or indexes. These instruments include, among others, options, futures contracts, forward currency contracts, swap agreements and similar instruments. The Fund may use derivatives transactions with the effect of creating investment leverage. For example, the Fund may use futures contracts and options on futures contracts, in order to gain efficient long or short investment exposures as an alternative to cash investments or to hedge against portfolio exposures; interest rate swaps, to gain indirect long or short exposures to interest rates, issuers, or currencies, or to hedge against portfolio exposures; and total return swaps and credit derivatives (such as credit default swaps), put and call options, and exchange-traded and structured notes, to take indirect long or short positions on indexes, securities, currencies, or other indicators of value. The Adviser may seek to manage the dollar-weighted average effective duration of the Fund’s portfolio through the use of derivatives and other instruments (including, among others, Treasury futures, interest rate swaps, and options, including swaptions). The Fund may incur costs in implementing hedging or duration management strategies, and there can be no assurance that the Fund will engage in hedging or duration management strategies or that any hedging or duration management strategy employed by the Fund will be successful. Any use of derivatives strategies entails the risks of investing directly in the securities or instruments underlying the derivatives strategies, as well as the risks of using derivatives generally, and in some cases the risks of leverage, described in this Prospectus and in the SAI.

The Fund may implement short positions through short sales of instruments that are eligible investments for the Fund in order to adjust the Fund’s interest rate or credit exposure.

The Adviser expects to allocate the Fund’s assets principally to domestic securities denominated in U.S. dollars; however, the Fund may invest in debt instruments of foreign issuers and debt instruments denominated in foreign currencies. The Fund does not normally expect to invest more than 20% of its assets in securities denominated in a foreign currency.

The Fund may pursue its investment objective and obtain exposures to some or all of the asset classes described above by investing in other investment companies, including, for example, other open-end or closed-end investment companies, ETFs, and domestic or foreign private investment vehicles, including investment companies sponsored or managed by the Adviser or its related parties.

Portfolio securities may be sold at any time. By way of example, sales may occur when the Adviser determines to take advantage of what it considers to be a better investment opportunity, when the Adviser believes the portfolio securities no longer represent relatively attractive investment opportunities, when the Adviser perceives deterioration in the credit fundamentals of the issuer, or when the individual security has reached the Adviser’s sell target.

Any percentage limitation and requirement as to investments will apply only at the time of an investment to which the limitation or requirement is applicable and shall not be considered violated unless an excess or deficiency occurs or exists immediately after and as a result of such investment. Accordingly, any later increase or decrease resulting from a change in values, net assets or other circumstances will not be considered in determining whether any investment complies with the Fund’s limitation or requirement.

The Fund is classified as a non-diversified fund under the 1940 Act, and may invest in the securities of a smaller number of issuers than a diversified fund.

Principal Risks

It is possible to lose money on an investment in the Fund. Among the principal risks of investing in the Fund, which could adversely affect its NAV, yield and total return, are (in alphabetical order) the following:

 

• Affiliated Fund Risk

• Asset Allocation Risk

• Asset-Backed Securities Investment

        Risk

• Cash Position Risk

• Collateralized Debt Obligations Risk

• Counterparty Risk

• Debt Securities Risks

• Defaulted Securities Risk

• Derivatives Risk

• Financial Services Risk

  

• Foreign Investing Risk

• High Yield Risk

• Inflation-Indexed Bond Risk

• Investment Company and

        Exchange-Traded Fund Risk

• Large Shareholder Risk

• Leveraging Risk

• Limited Operating History Risk

• Liquidity Risk

• Loan Risk

• Market Risk

  

• Price Volatility Risk

• Real Estate Risk

• Restricted Securities Risk

• Securities or Sector Selection

        Risk

• Short Position Risk

• Structured Products and

        Structured Notes Risk

• U.S. Government Securities

        Risk

 

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• Focused Investment Risk

• Foreign Currency Risk

  

• Mortgage-Backed Securities

        Risk

Non-Diversification Risk

• Portfolio Management Risk

• Portfolio Turnover Risk

   • Valuation Risk

Other Information Regarding Principal Investment Strategies

All percentage limitations and requirements as to investments will apply only at the time of an investment to which the limitation or requirement is applicable and shall not be considered violated unless an excess or deficiency occurs or exists immediately after and as a result of such investment. Accordingly, any later increase or decrease resulting from a change in values, net assets or other circumstances will not be considered in determining whether any investment complies with the Fund’s limitation or requirement.

Principal Risks

Risk is the chance that you will lose money on your investment or that it will not earn as much as you expect. In general, the greater the risk, the more money your investment may earn for you — and the more you can lose. Since the Fund will hold investments with fluctuating market prices, the value of the Fund’s shares will vary as its portfolio investments increase or decrease in value. Therefore, the value of your investment in the Fund could go down as well as up. You can lose money by investing in the Fund. When you sell your shares of the Fund, they could be worth more or less than what you paid for them.

The Fund is affected by changes in the economy, in portfolio securities and in the various markets for financial instruments. There is also the possibility that investment decisions the Adviser makes with respect to the investments of the Fund will not accomplish what they were designed to achieve or that the investments will have disappointing performance.

Your investment in the Fund may be subject (in varying degrees) to the following risks discussed below. The Fund may be more susceptible to some of the risks than others.

Affiliated Fund Risk

Investing in other investment companies or private investment vehicles sponsored or managed by the Adviser or related parties of the Adviser, including other series of the Trust (each, a “DoubleLine Fund” and, collectively, the “DoubleLine Funds”), involves potential conflicts of interest. For example, the Adviser or its related parties may receive fees based on the amount of assets invested in such other investment vehicles, which fees may be higher than the fees the Adviser receives for managing the Fund. Investment by the Fund in those other vehicles may be beneficial in the management of those other vehicles, by helping to achieve economies of scale or enhancing cash flows. Due to this and other factors, the Adviser will an incentive to invest a portion of the Fund’s assets in investment companies sponsored or managed by the Adviser or its related parties in lieu of investments by the Fund directly in portfolio securities, and will have an incentive to invest in such investment companies over investment companies sponsored or managed by others. Similarly, the Adviser may have an incentive to delay or decide against the sale of interests held by the Fund in investment companies sponsored or managed by the Adviser or its related parties. The Adviser has agreed to reduce its advisory fee to the extent of advisory fees paid to the Adviser or its affiliates by other investment vehicles in respect of assets of the Fund invested in those vehicles. This agreement will reduce, but will not eliminate, the conflicts described above. Due to the prohibitions contained in the 1940 Act on certain transactions between a registered investment company and affiliated persons of it, or affiliated persons of those affiliated persons, the Fund may not be able to invest in a DoubleLine Fund, even if the investment would be appropriate for the Fund.

Asset Allocation Risk

The Fund’s investment performance may depend, at least in part, on how its assets are allocated and reallocated among the asset classes, sectors, underlying funds and/ or investments in which it invests. It is possible that the Adviser will focus on asset classes, sectors, underlying funds, or investments that perform poorly or underperform other asset classes, sectors, underlying funds, or available investments under various market conditions. You could lose money on your investment in the Fund as a result of these allocation decisions. To the extent that the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in a single or limited number of asset classes, sectors, underlying funds, or investments, it will be particularly sensitive to the risks associated with the asset classes, sectors, funds, or investments in which it invests.

Asset-Backed Securities Investment Risk

Asset-backed investments tend to increase in value less than other debt securities when interest rates decline, but are subject to similar risk of decline in market value during periods of rising interest rates. In a period of declining interest rates, the Fund may be required to reinvest more frequent prepayments on asset-backed investments in lower-yielding investments. Asset-backed securities in which the Fund invests may have underlying assets that include, among others, motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, home equity loans, leases of various types of real, personal and other property (including those relating to aircrafts, telecommunication, energy, and/or other infrastructure assets and infrastructure-related assets), and receivables from credit card agreements. There is a risk that borrowers may default on their obligations in respect of those underlying obligations. Certain assets underlying asset-backed securities are subject to prepayment, which may reduce the overall return to asset-backed security holders. Holders also may experience delays in payment or losses on the securities if the full amounts due on underlying sales contracts or receivables are not realized because of unanticipated legal or administrative costs of enforcing the contracts or because of depreciation or damage to the collateral securing certain contracts, or other factors. The values of asset-backed securities may be substantially dependent on the servicing of the underlying asset pools, and are therefore subject to risks associated with the negligence or malfeasance by their servicers and to the credit risk of their servicers. In certain

 

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circumstances, the mishandling of related documentation also may affect the rights of security holders in and to the underlying collateral. The insolvency of entities that generate receivables or that utilize the assets may result in added costs and delays in addition to losses associated with a decline in the value of underlying assets. Certain asset-backed securities do not have the benefit of the same security interest in the related collateral as do mortgage-backed securities; nor are they provided government guarantees of repayment as are some mortgage-backed securities. Credit card receivables generally are unsecured, and the debtors are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. In addition, some issuers of automobile receivables permit the servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If the servicer were to sell these obligations to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the related automobile receivables. The impairment of the value of collateral or other assets underlying an asset-backed security, such as a result of non-payment of loans or non-performance of other collateral or underlying assets, may result in a reduction in the value of such asset-backed securities and losses to the Fund. It is possible that many or all asset-backed securities will fall out of favor at any time or over time with investors, affecting adversely the values and liquidity of the securities.

Equipment Trust Certificates (ETCs) and Enhanced Equipment Trust Certificates (EETCs) Risk: ETCs and EETCs are types of asset-backed securities that generally represent undivided fractional interests in a trust whose assets consist of a pool of equipment retail installment contracts or leased equipment. EETCs are similar to ETCs, except that the securities have been divided into two or more classes, each with different payment priorities and asset claims (see “—Collateralized Debt Obligations Risk” in the Fund’s SAI for information regarding how different classes or tranches of interests issued by an issuer can affect the risks of an investment in EETCs). ETCs and EETCs are typically issued by specially-created trusts established by airlines, railroads, or other transportation firms. The assets of ETCs and EETCs are used to purchase equipment, such as airplanes, railroad cars, or other equipment, which may in turn serve as collateral for the related issue of the ETCs or EETCs, and the title to such equipment is held in trust for the holders of the issue. The equipment generally is leased from the specially-created trust by the airline, railroad or other firm, which makes rental or lease payments to the specially-created trust to provide cash flow for payments to ETC and EETC holders. Holders of ETCs and EETCs must look to the collateral securing the certificates, typically together with a guarantee provided by the lessee firm or its parent company for the payment of lease obligations, in the case of default in the payment of principal and interest on the ETCs or EETCs. ETCs and EETCs are subject to the risk that the lessee or payee defaults on its payments, and risks related to potential declines in the value of the equipment that serves as collateral for the issue. ETCs and EETCs are generally regarded as obligations of the company that is leasing the equipment and may be shown as liabilities in its balance sheet as a capitalized lease in accordance with generally accepted accounting principals. The lessee company, however, does not own the equipment until all the certificates are redeemed and paid. In the event the company defaults under its lease, the trustee may terminate the lease. If another lessee is not available, then payments on the certificates would cease until another lessee is available.

Cash Position Risk

The Fund may hold any portion of its assets in cash, cash equivalents, or other short-term investments at any time or for an extended time. The Adviser will determine the amount of the Fund’s assets to be held in cash or cash equivalents at its sole discretion, based on such factors as it may consider appropriate under the circumstances. To the extent that the Fund holds assets in cash or is otherwise uninvested, the Fund’s ability to meet its objective may be limited.

Collateralized Debt Obligations Risk

The Fund may invest in CDOs, which are a type of asset-backed security, and include CBOs, CLOs, and other similarly structured securities. A CBO is a trust which may be backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. CDOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses. The cash flows from the CDO trust are generally split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. Senior tranches are paid from the cash flows from the underlying assets before the junior tranches and equity or “first loss” tranches. Losses are first borne by the equity tranches, next by the junior tranches, and finally by the senior tranches. Holders of interests in the senior tranches are entitled to the lowest interest rate payments but those interests generally represent safer investments than more junior tranches because, should there be any default, senior tranches are typically paid first. The holders of interests in the most junior tranches, such as equity tranches, typically are entitled to be paid the highest interest rate payments but suffer the highest risk of loss should the holder of an underlying debt instrument default. If some debt instruments go into default and the cash collected by the CDO is insufficient to pay all of its investors, those in the lowest, most junior tranches suffer losses first. Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CDO trust typically has higher ratings and lower potential yields than the underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, more senior CDO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults and aversion to CDO securities as a class.

The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the quality and type of the collateral and the tranche of the CDO in which the Fund invests. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CDOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid securities; however, an active dealer market, or other relevant measures of liquidity, may exist for CDOs allowing a CDO potentially to be deemed liquid by the Adviser under liquidity policies approved by the Board. In addition to the risks associated with debt instruments (e.g., interest rate risk and credit risk), CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the

 

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possibility that the Fund may invest in CDOs that are subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.

Counterparty Risk

The Fund will be subject to credit risk presented by another party (whether a clearing corporation in the case of exchange-traded or cleared instruments or another third party in the case of over-the-counter instruments) that promises to honor an obligation to the Fund with respect to the derivative contracts and other instruments, such as repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, entered into by the Fund. If such a party becomes bankrupt or insolvent or otherwise fails or is unwilling to perform its obligations to the Fund due to financial difficulties or for other reasons, the Fund may experience significant losses or delays in realizing on any collateral the counterparty has provided in respect of the counterparty’s obligations to the Fund or recovering collateral that the Fund has provided and is entitled to recover. In addition, in the event of the bankruptcy, insolvency or other event of default (e.g., cross-default) of a counterparty to a derivative transaction, the derivative transaction would typically be terminated at its fair market value. If the Fund is owed this fair market value in the termination of the derivative transaction and its claim is unsecured, the Fund will likely be treated as a general creditor of such counterparty. The Fund may obtain only a limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances. Counterparty risk with respect to certain exchange-traded and over-the-counter derivatives may be further complicated by U.S. financial reform legislation. Subject to certain U.S. federal income tax limitations, the Fund is not subject to any limit with respect to the number or the value of transactions they can enter into with a single counterparty.

Debt Securities Risks

Debt securities are subject to various risks including, among others, credit risk and interest rate risk. These risks can affect a security’s price volatility to varying degrees, depending upon the nature of the instrument.

Credit risk: refers to the risk that an issuer or counterparty will fail to pay its obligations to the Fund when they are due. Financial strength and solvency of an issuer are the primary factors influencing credit risk. Changes in the financial condition of an issuer or counterparty, changes in specific economic, social or political conditions that affect a particular type of security, other instrument or an issuer, and changes in economic, social or political conditions generally can increase the risk of default by an issuer or counterparty, which can affect a security’s or other instrument’s credit quality or value and an issuer’s or counterparty’s ability to pay interest and principal when due. The values of lower-quality debt securities (commonly known as junk bonds), including floating rate loans, tend to be particularly sensitive to these changes. The values of securities also may decline for a number of other reasons that relate directly to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods and services, as well as the historical and prospective earnings of the issuer and the value of its assets. In addition, lack of or inadequacy of collateral or credit enhancements for a fixed income security may affect its credit risk. Credit risk of a security may change over time, and securities which are rated by ratings agencies may be subject to downgrade, which may have an indirect impact on the market price of securities. Ratings are only opinions of the agencies issuing them as to the likelihood of re-payment. They are not guarantees as to quality and they do not reflect market risk. If an issuer or counterparty fails to pay interest or otherwise fails to meet its obligations to the Fund, the Fund’s income might be reduced and the value of the investment might fall, and if an issuer or counterparty fails to pay principal, the value of the investment might fall and the Fund could lose the amount of its investment.

Extension risk: refers to the risk that if interest rates rise, repayments of principal on certain debt securities, including, but not limited to, floating rate loans and mortgage-related securities, may occur at a slower rate than expected and the expected maturity of those securities could lengthen as a result. Securities that are subject to extension risk generally have a greater potential for loss when prevailing interest rates rise, which could cause their values to fall sharply.

Interest rate risk: refers to the risk that the values of debt instruments held by the Fund will change in response to changes in interest rates. In general, the value of a fixed-income instrument with positive duration will generally decline if interest rates increase, whereas the value of an instrument with negative duration will generally decline if interest rates decrease. The value of an instrument with a longer duration (whether positive or negative) will be more sensitive to increases in interest rates than a similar instrument with a shorter duration. Duration is a measure of the expected life of a bond that is used to determine the sensitivity of an instrument’s price to changes in interest rates. For example, the price of a bond fund with an average duration of three years generally would be expected to fall approximately 3% if interest rates rose by one percentage point. Inverse floaters, interest-only and principal-only securities are especially sensitive to interest rate changes, which can affect not only their prices but can also change the income flows and repayment assumptions about those investments. Adjustable rate instruments also react to interest rate changes in a similar manner although generally to a lesser degree (depending, however, on the characteristics of the reset terms, including the index chosen, frequency of reset and reset caps or floors, among other things). During periods of increasing interest rates, changes in the interest rate payments of adjustable rate instruments may lag the changes in market interest rates or may have limits on the maximum increase in interest rates. Conversely, there may not be any limitations or caps on the adjustment down of interest rate payments during periods of declining market interest rates. In recent years, the U.S. has experienced historically low interest rates, increasing the exposure of bond investors to the risks associated with rising interest rates.

Prepayment Risk: Many types of debt securities, including floating rate loans and asset-backed securities, may reflect an interest in periodic payments made by borrowers. Although debt securities and other obligations typically mature after a specified period of time, borrowers may pay them off sooner. When a prepayment happens, all or a portion of the obligation will be prepaid. A borrower is more likely to prepay an obligation which bears a relatively high rate of interest. This means that in times of declining interest rates, there is a greater likelihood that the Fund’s higher yielding securities will be pre-paid and the Fund will probably be unable to reinvest those proceeds in an investment with as great a yield, causing the Fund’s yield to decline. Securities subject to prepayment risk generally offer less potential for gains when prevailing interest rates fall. If the Fund

 

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buys those investments at a premium, accelerated prepayments on those investments could cause the Fund to lose a portion of its principal investment and result in lower yields to shareholders. The increased likelihood of prepayment when interest rates decline also limits market price appreciation, especially with respect to certain loans and asset-backed securities. The effect of prepayments on the price of a security may be difficult to predict and may increase the security’s price volatility. Interest-only and principal-only securities are especially sensitive to interest rate changes, which can affect not only their prices but can also change the income flows and repayment assumptions about those investments.

Defaulted Securities Risk

Defaulted securities risk refers to the uncertainty of repayment of defaulted securities (e.g., a security on which a principal or interest payment is not made when due) and obligations of distressed issuers. Because the issuer of such securities is in default and is likely to be in distressed financial condition, repayment of defaulted securities and obligations of distressed issuers (including insolvent issuers or issuers in payment or covenant default, in workout or restructuring or in bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings) is subject to significant uncertainties. Insolvency laws and practices in emerging market countries are different than those in the U.S. and the effect of these laws and practices cannot be predicted with certainty. Investments in defaulted securities and obligations of distressed issuers are considered speculative.

Derivatives Risk

The Fund’s use of derivatives may involve risks different from, or greater than, the risks associated with investing in more traditional investments, such as stocks and bonds. Derivatives can be highly complex and may perform in ways unanticipated by the Adviser and may not be available at the time or price desired. Derivatives positions may also be improperly executed or constructed.

The Fund’s use of derivatives involves the risk that the other party to the derivative contract will fail to make required payments or otherwise to comply with the terms of the contract. In the event the counterparty to a derivative instrument becomes insolvent, the Fund potentially could lose all or a large portion of the value of its investment in the derivative instrument. Derivatives transactions can create investment leverage and may be highly volatile, and the Fund could lose significantly more than the amount it invests. Because most derivatives involve contractual arrangements with a counterparty, the Fund’s ability to enter into them requires a willing counterparty. The Fund’s ability to close out or unwind a derivatives position prior to expiration or maturity may also depend on the ability and willingness of the counterparty to enter into a transaction closing out the position.

Derivatives may be difficult to value and highly illiquid and/or volatile. The Fund may not be able to close out or sell a derivatives position at a particular time or at an anticipated price.

Use of derivatives may affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders and, therefore, may increase the amount of taxes payable by taxable shareholders.

The Fund may use derivatives to create investment leverage and the Fund’s use of derivatives may otherwise cause its portfolio to be leveraged. Leverage increases the Fund’s portfolio losses when the value of its investments declines. Since many derivatives involve leverage, adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, rate, or index may result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative itself. Some derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment.

When the Fund enters into a derivatives transaction as a substitute for or alternative to a direct cash investment, the Fund is exposed to the risk that the derivative transaction may not provide a return that corresponds precisely or at all with that of the underlying investment. When the Fund uses a derivative for hedging purposes, it is possible that the derivative will not in fact provide the anticipated protection, and the Fund could lose money on both the derivative transaction and the exposure the Fund sought to hedge. While hedging strategies involving derivatives can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other Fund investments.

The regulation of the derivatives markets has increased over the past several years, and additional future regulation of the derivatives markets may make derivatives more costly, may limit the availability or liquidity of derivatives, or may otherwise adversely affect the value or performance of derivatives. Any such adverse developments could impair the effectiveness of the Fund’s derivatives transactions and cause the Fund to lose value. For instance, in December 2015, the SEC proposed new regulations applicable to a mutual fund’s use of derivatives and related instruments. If adopted as proposed, these regulations could significantly limit or impact the Fund’s ability to invest in derivatives and other instruments, limit the Fund’s ability to employ certain strategies that use derivatives, and adversely affect the Fund’s performance, efficiency in implementing its strategy, liquidity and ability to pursue its investment objective.

When it takes a derivatives position, the Fund may be required to maintain assets as “cover,” maintain segregated accounts, post collateral or make margin payments. Assets that are segregated or used as cover, margin or collateral may be required to be in the form of cash or liquid securities, and typically may not be sold while the derivatives position is open unless they are replaced with other appropriate assets. If markets move against the Fund’s position, the Fund may be required to maintain or post additional assets and may have to dispose of existing investments to obtain assets acceptable as collateral or margin. This may prevent the Fund from pursuing its investment objective. Assets that are segregated or used as cover, margin or collateral typically are invested, and these investments are subject to risk and may result in losses to the Fund. These losses may be substantial, and may be in addition to losses incurred by using the derivative in question. If the Fund is unable to close out its position, it may be required to continue to maintain such assets or accounts or make such payments until the position expires or matures, and the Fund will continue to be subject to investment risk on the assets. In addition, the Fund may not be able to recover the full amount of its margin from an intermediary if that intermediary were to experience financial difficulty. Segregation, cover, margin and collateral requirements may impair the Fund’s

 

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ability to sell a portfolio security or make an investment at a time when it would otherwise be favorable to do so, or require the Fund to sell a portfolio security or close out a derivatives position at a disadvantageous time or price.

Financial Services Risk

Financial services companies are subject to extensive governmental regulation which may limit both the amounts and the types of loans and other financial commitments they can make, the interest rates and fees they can charge, the scope of their activities, the prices they can charge and the amount of capital they must maintain. Profitability is largely dependent on the availability and cost of capital of funds and can fluctuate significantly when interest rates change or due to increased competition. In addition, deterioration of the credit markets generally may cause an adverse impact in a broad range of markets, including U.S. and international credit and interbank money markets generally, thereby affecting a wide range of financial institutions and markets. Certain events in the financial sector may cause an unusually high degree of volatility in the financial markets, both domestic and foreign, and cause certain financial services companies to incur large losses. Interconnectedness or interdependence among financial services companies increases the risk that the financial distress or failure of one financial services company may materially and adversely affect a number of other financial services companies. Securities of financial services companies may experience a dramatic decline in value when such companies experience substantial declines in the valuations of their assets, take action to raise capital (such as the issuance of debt or equity securities), or cease operations. Credit losses resulting from financial difficulties of borrowers can negatively impact the sector, especially when financial services companies are exposed to non-diversified or concentrated loan portfolios. Financial losses associated with investment activities can negatively impact the sector, especially when financial services companies are exposed to financial leverage. Insurance companies may be subject to severe price competition. Adverse economic, business or political developments could adversely affect financial institutions engaged in mortgage finance or other lending or investing activities directly or indirectly connected to the value of real estate.

Focused Investment Risk

A fund that invests a substantial portion of its assets in a particular market, industry, sector, group of industries or sectors, country, region, group of countries or asset class is subject to greater risk than a fund that invests in a more diverse investment portfolio. In addition, the value of such a fund is more susceptible to any single economic, market, political, regulatory or other occurrence affecting, for example, the particular markets, industries, regions, sectors or asset classes in which the fund is invested. This is because, for example, issuers in a particular market, industry, region, sector or asset class may react similarly to specific economic, market, regulatory, political or other developments. The particular markets, industries, regions, sectors or asset classes in which the Fund may focus its investments may change over time and the Fund may alter its focus at inopportune times.

To the extent the Fund invests in the securities of a limited number of issuers, it is particularly exposed to adverse developments affecting those issuers, and a decline in the market value of a particular security held by the Fund may affect the Fund’s performance more than if the Fund invested in the securities of a larger number of issuers. In addition, the limited number of issuers to which the Fund may be exposed may provide the Fund exposure to substantially the same market, industry, sector, group of industries or sectors, country, region, group of countries, or asset class, which may increase the risk of loss as a result of focusing the Fund’s investments, as discussed above.

Foreign Currency Risk

Currency risk is the risk that fluctuations in exchange rates may adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments. Currency risk includes both the risk that currencies in which the Fund’s investments are traded and/or in which the Fund receives income, or currencies in which the Fund has taken an active investment position, will decline in value relative to other currencies. In the case of hedging positions, currency risk includes the risk that the currency the Fund is seeking exposure to will decline in value relative to the foreign currency being hedged. Currency exchange rates fluctuate significantly for many reasons, including changes in supply and demand in the currency exchange markets, actual or perceived changes in interest rates, intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments, central banks, or supranational agencies such as the International Monetary Fund, and currency controls or other political and economic developments in the U.S. or abroad.

Except as otherwise provided in the Fund’s principal investment strategies, the Fund may use derivatives to acquire positions in currencies the values to which the Fund is exposed through its investments. This presents the risk that the Fund could lose money on its exposure to a particular currency and also lose money on the derivative. The Fund also may take overweighted or underweighted currency positions and/or hedge the currency exposure of the securities in which it has invested. As a result, the Fund’s currency exposure may differ (in some cases significantly) from the currency exposure of its investments and/or its benchmarks.

Foreign Investing Risk

Investments in foreign securities or in issuers with significant exposure to foreign markets may involve greater risks than investments in domestic securities because the Fund’s performance may depend on factors other than the performance of a particular company. To the extent that investments are made in a limited number of countries, events in those countries will have a more significant impact on the Fund.

As compared to U.S. companies, foreign issuers generally disclose less financial and other information publicly and are subject to less stringent and less uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards. In addition, there may be limited information generally regarding factors affecting a particular foreign market, issuer, or security.

Foreign countries typically impose less thorough regulations on brokers, dealers, stock exchanges, corporate insiders and listed companies than does the United States and foreign securities markets may be less liquid and

 

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more volatile than domestic markets. Investment in foreign securities involves higher costs than investment in U.S. securities, including higher transaction and custody costs as well as the imposition of additional taxes by foreign governments. In addition, security trading and custody practices abroad may offer less protection to investors such as the Fund. Political, social or financial instability, civil unrest and acts of terrorism are other potential risks that could adversely affect an investment in a foreign security or in foreign markets or issuers generally. Settlement of transactions in some foreign markets may be delayed or may be less frequent than in the United States which could affect the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio.

Because foreign securities generally are denominated and pay dividends or interest in foreign currencies, and the Fund may hold various foreign currencies from time to time, the value of the Fund’s assets, as measured in U.S. dollars, can be affected unfavorably by changes in exchange rates with respect to the U.S. dollar or with respect to other foreign currencies or by unfavorable currency regulations imposed by foreign governments. If the Fund invests in securities issued by foreign issuers, the Fund may be subject to these risks even the investment is denominated in United States dollars. This risk may be heightened with respect to issuers whose revenues are principally earned in a foreign currency but whose debt obligations have been issued in United States dollars or other hard currencies.

Foreign issuers may become subject to sanctions imposed by the U.S. or another country or other governmental or non-governmental organizations, which could result in the immediate freeze of the foreign issuers’ assets or securities. The imposition of such sanctions could impair the market value of the securities of such foreign issuers and limit the Fund’s ability to buy, sell, receive or deliver the securities.

High Yield Risk

Debt instruments rated below investment grade or debt instruments that are unrated and determined by the Adviser to be of comparable quality are predominantly speculative. They are usually issued by companies without long track records of sales and earnings or by companies with questionable credit strength. These instruments, commonly known as “junk bonds,” have a higher degree of default risk and may be less liquid than higher-rated bonds. These instruments may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific corporate developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of high yield investments generally, general economic downturn, and less secondary market liquidity. This potential lack of liquidity may make it more difficult for the Fund to value these instruments accurately. An economic downturn could severely affect the ability of issuers (particularly those that are highly leveraged) to service their debt obligations or to repay their obligations upon maturity.

Inflation-Indexed Bond Risk

Inflation-indexed bonds are fixed income securities whose principal values are periodically adjusted according to a measure of inflation. If the index measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-indexed bonds. For bonds that do not provide a similar guarantee, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal. With regard to municipal inflation-indexed bonds and certain corporate inflation-indexed bonds, the inflation adjustment is reflected in the semi-annual coupon payment. As a result, the principal value of municipal inflation-indexed bonds and such corporate inflation-indexed bonds does not adjust according to the rate of inflation. The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If nominal interest rates increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates may rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds. Inflation-indexed bonds may cause a potential cash flow mismatch to investors, because an increase in the principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond will be treated as interest income currently subject to tax at ordinary income rates even though investors will not receive repayment of principal until maturity. If the Fund invests in such bonds, it will be required to distribute such interest income in order to qualify for treatment as a regulated investment company and eliminate the Fund-level tax, without a corresponding receipt of cash, and therefore may be required to dispose of portfolio securities at a time when it may not be advantageous to do so in order to make such distributions.

Investment Company and Exchange-Traded Fund Risk

Investments in open-end and closed-end investment companies, and other pooled investment vehicles, including any ETFs or money market funds, involve substantially the same risks as investing directly in the instruments held by these entities. However, the total return from such investments will be reduced by the operating expenses and fees of the investment company or ETF. The Fund must pay its pro rata portion of an investment company’s or ETF’s fees and expenses, which may include performance fees that could be substantial (such as certain non-registered investment companies that may charge up to 20% or more of the gains on the Fund’s investments). An investment company or ETF may not achieve its investment objective or execute its investment strategy effectively, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Shares of a closed-end investment company or ETF may expose the Fund to risks associated with leverage and may trade at a premium or discount to the NAV of the closed-end fund’s or the ETF’s portfolio securities depending on a variety of factors, including market supply and demand. Money market mutual funds in which the Fund may invest are subject to Rule 2a-7 of the 1940 Act, and invest in a variety of short-term, high quality, dollar-denominated money market instruments. Money market funds are not designed to offer capital appreciation. In addition, certain money market funds may impose a fee upon the sale of shares or may temporarily suspend the ability of investors to redeem shares if such a fund’s liquidity falls below required minimums, which may adversely affect the Fund’s returns or liquidity. Due to its own financial interest or other business considerations, the Adviser may choose to invest a portion of the Fund’s assets in investment companies sponsored or managed by the Adviser or its related parties in lieu of investments by the Fund directly in portfolio securities, or may choose to invest in such investment companies over investment companies sponsored or managed by others. Please see “Affiliated Fund Risk” in this section for

 

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a discussion of such conflicts. Applicable law may limit the Fund’s ability to invest in other investment companies.

Large Shareholder Risk

Certain account holders, including the Adviser or funds or accounts over which the Adviser (or a related party of the Adviser) has investment discretion, may from time to time own or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. For example, the Adviser and/or its related parties currently provide asset allocation investment advice, including potentially recommending the purchase and/or sale of shares of the Fund, to a number of large investors. The Fund is subject to the risk that a redemption by large shareholders of all or a portion of their Fund shares or a purchase of Fund shares in large amounts and/or on a frequent basis, including as a result of asset allocation decisions made by the Adviser (or a related party of the Adviser), will adversely affect the Fund’s performance if it is forced to sell portfolio securities or invest cash when the Adviser would not otherwise choose to do so. This risk will be particularly pronounced if one shareholder owns a substantial portion of the Fund. Redemptions of a large number of shares may affect the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio, increase the Fund’s transaction costs and/or lead to the liquidation of the Fund. Such transactions also potentially limit the use of any capital loss carryforwards and certain other losses to offset future realized capital gains (if any).

Leveraging Risk

The Fund may use or create investment leverage in seeking to achieve its investment objective. Certain transactions, including, for example, when-issued, delayed-delivery, and forward commitment purchases, inverse floaters, loans of portfolio securities, repurchase agreements (or reverse repurchase agreements), and the use of some derivatives, can result in leverage. In addition, the Fund may achieve investment leverage by borrowing money. Leverage generally has the effect of increasing the amounts of loss or gain the Fund might realize, and creates the likelihood of greater volatility of the value of the Fund’s investments. In transactions involving leverage, a relatively small market movement or change in other underlying indicator can lead to significantly larger losses to the Fund. There is risk of loss in excess of invested capital.

Certain derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. The use of leverage may also require the Fund to liquidate its other holdings at disadvantageous times and prices in order to satisfy repayment, interest payment, or margin obligations or to meet asset segregation or coverage requirements. Some or all of the measures described above may be used to manage a Fund’s liquidity, including to meet redemption requests. See “Borrowing Risk” in the Statement of Additional Information.

Limited Operating History Risk

The Fund is newly formed and has no operating history for investors to evaluate. The Fund may not attract sufficient assets to achieve or maximize investment and operational efficiencies and remain viable. If the Fund fails to achieve sufficient scale, it may be liquidated.

Liquidity Risk

Liquidity risk is the risk that the Fund may invest in securities that trade in lower volumes and may be less liquid than other investments or that the Fund’s investments may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. When there is no willing buyer and investments cannot be readily sold or closed out, the Fund may have to sell at a lower price than the price at which the Fund is carrying the investments or may not be able to sell the investments at all, each of which would have a negative effect on the Fund’s performance. It is possible that the Fund may be unable to sell a portfolio investment at a desirable time or at the value the Fund has placed on the investment or that the Fund may be forced to sell large amounts of securities more quickly than it normally would in the ordinary course of business. In such a case, the sale proceeds received by the Fund may be substantially less than if the Fund had been able to sell the securities in more-orderly transactions, and the sale price may be substantially lower than the price previously used by the Fund to value the securities for purposes of determining the Fund’s NAV. In addition, if the Fund sells investments with extended settlement times (e.g., certain kinds of loans (see “Loan Risk”)), the settlement proceeds from the sales will not be available to meet the Fund’s redemption obligations for a substantial period of time. In order to honor redemptions pending settlement of such investments, the Fund may be forced to sell other investment positions with shorter settlement cycles when the Fund would not otherwise have done so, which may adversely affect the Fund’s performance. If another fund or investment pool in which the Fund invests is not publicly offered or there is no public market for its shares or accepts investments subject to certain legal restrictions, such as lock-up periods implemented by private funds, the Fund will typically be prohibited by the terms of its investment from selling or redeeming its shares in the fund or pool, or may not be able to find a buyer for those shares at an acceptable price. Additionally, the market for certain investments may become illiquid under adverse market or economic conditions (e.g., if interest rates rise or fall significantly, if there is significant inflation or deflation, increased selling of debt securities generally across other funds, pools and accounts, changes in investor perception, or changes in government intervention in the financial markets) independent of any specific adverse changes in the conditions of a particular issuer. In such cases, shares of the Fund, due to limitations on investments in illiquid securities and the difficulty in purchasing and selling such securities or instruments, may decline in value or the Fund may be unable to achieve its desired level of exposure to a certain issuer or sector. During periods of substantial market disruption, a large portion of the Fund’s assets could potentially experience significant levels of illiquidity. The values of illiquid investments are often more volatile than the values of more liquid investments. It may be more difficult for the Fund to determine a fair value of an illiquid investment than that of a more liquid comparable investment.

Bond markets have consistently grown over the past three decades while the growth of capacity for traditional dealer counterparties to engage in fixed income trading has not kept pace and in some cases has decreased. As a result, dealer inventories of certain types of bonds and similar instruments, which provide a core indication of the ability of financial intermediaries to “make markets,” are at or near historic lows in relation to market size. Because market makers provide stability to a market through their intermediary services, the significant reduction in dealer inventories could potentially lead to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the fixed income

 

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markets. Such issues may be exacerbated during periods of economic uncertainty.

Loan Risk

Investments in loans are generally subject to the same risks as investments in other types of debt obligations, including, among others, credit risk, interest rate risk, prepayment risk, and extension risk. In addition, in many cases loans are subject to the risks associated with below-investment grade securities. This means loans are often subject to significant credit risks, including a greater possibility that the borrower will be adversely affected by changes in market or economic conditions and may default or enter bankruptcy. This risk of default will increase in the event of an economic downturn or a substantial increase in interest rates (which will increase the cost of the borrower’s debt service).

The interest rates on floating rate loans typically adjust only periodically. Accordingly, adjustments in the interest rate payable under a loan may trail prevailing interest rates significantly, especially if there are limitations placed on the amount the interest rate on a loan may adjust in a given period. Certain floating rate loans have a feature that prevents their interest rates from adjusting if market interest rates are below a specified minimum level. When interest rates are low, this feature could result in the interest rates of those loans becoming fixed at the applicable minimum level until interest rates rise above that level. Although this feature is intended to result in these loans yielding more than they otherwise would when interest rates are low, the feature might also result in the prices of these loans becoming more sensitive to changes in interest rates should interest rates rise but remain below the applicable minimum level.

In addition, investments in loans may be difficult to value and may be illiquid. Floating rate loans generally are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale. The liquidity of floating rate loans, including the volume and frequency of secondary market trading in such loans, varies significantly over time and among individual floating rate loans. For example, if the credit quality of the borrower related to a floating rate loan unexpectedly declines significantly, secondary market trading in that floating rate loan can also decline. The secondary market for loans may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, and extended trade settlement periods, which may increase the expenses of the Fund or cause the Fund to be unable to realize the full value of its investment in the loan, resulting in a material decline in the Fund’s NAV.

Opportunities to invest in loans or certain types of loans, such as senior loans, may be limited. Alternative investments may provide lower yields and may, in the Adviser’s view, offer less attractive investment characteristics. The limited availability of loans may be due to a number of reasons, including that direct lenders may allocate only a small number of loans to new investors, including the Fund. There also may be fewer loans made or available that the Adviser considers to be attractive investment opportunities, particularly during economic downturns. Also, lenders or agents may have an incentive to market only the least desirable loans to investors such as the Fund. If the market demand for loans increases, the availably of loans for purchase and the interest paid by borrowers may decrease.

Loans and certain other forms of direct indebtedness may not be classified as “securities” under the federal securities laws and, therefore, when the Fund purchases such instruments, it may not be entitled to the protections against fraud and misrepresentation contained in the federal securities laws.

Additional risks of investments in loans may include:

Agent/Intermediary Risk. If the Fund holds a loan through another financial intermediary, as is the case with a participation, or relies on another financial intermediary to administer the loan, as is the case with most multi-lender facilities, the Fund’s receipt of principal and interest on the loan and the value of the Fund’s loan investment will depend at least in part on the credit standing of the financial intermediary and therefore will be subject to the credit risk of the intermediary. The Fund will be required to rely upon the financial intermediary from which it purchases a participation interest to collect and pass on to the Fund such payments and to enforce the Fund’s rights and may not be able to cause the financial intermediary to take what it considers to be appropriate action. As a result, an insolvency, bankruptcy or reorganization of the financial intermediary may delay or prevent the Fund from receiving principal, interest and other amounts with respect to the Fund’s interest in the loan. In addition, if the Fund relies on a financial intermediary to administer a loan, the Fund is subject to the risk that the financial intermediary may be unwilling or unable to demand and receive payments from the borrower in respect of the loan, or otherwise unwilling or unable to perform its administrative obligations.

Collateral Impairment Risk. The terms of certain loans in which the Fund may invest require that collateral be maintained to support payment of the borrower’s obligations under the loan. However, the value of the collateral may decline after the Fund invests, and the value of the collateral may not be sufficient to cover the amount owed to the Fund. In addition, the Fund’s interest in collateral securing a loan may be found invalid or may be used to pay other outstanding obligations of the borrower under applicable law. In the event that a borrower defaults, the Fund’s access to the collateral may be limited by bankruptcy and other insolvency laws. There is also the risk that the collateral may be difficult to liquidate, or that all or some of the collateral may be illiquid. The Fund may have to participate in legal proceedings or take possession of and manage assets that secure the issuer’s obligations. This could increase the Fund’s operating expenses and decrease its NAV.

Equity Securities and Warrants. The acquisition of equity securities may generally be incidental to the Fund’s purchase of a loan. These transactions may include operating loans, leveraged buyout loans, leveraged capitalization loans and other types of acquisition financing. The Fund may acquire equity securities as part of an instrument combining a loan and equity securities of a borrower or its affiliates. The Fund also may acquire equity securities issued in exchange for a loan or in connection with the default and/or restructuring of a loan, including subordinated and unsecured loans, and high-yield securities.

 

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Equity securities include common stocks, preferred stocks and securities convertible into common stock. Equity securities are subject to market risks and the risks of changes to the financial condition of the issuer, and fluctuations in value.

Highly Leveraged Transactions. The Fund may invest in loans made in connection with highly leveraged transactions. Those loans are subject to greater credit and liquidity risks than other types of loans. If the Fund voluntarily or involuntarily sold those types of loans, it might not receive the full value it expected.

Stressed, Distressed or Defaulted Borrowers. The Fund can also invest in loans of borrowers that are experiencing, or are likely to experience, financial difficulty. These loans are subject to greater credit and liquidity risks than other types of loans. In addition, the Fund can invest in loans of borrowers that have filed for bankruptcy protection or that have had involuntary bankruptcy petitions filed against them by creditors. Various laws enacted for the protection of debtors may apply to loans. A bankruptcy proceeding or other court proceeding could delay or limit the ability of the Fund to collect the principal and interest payments on that borrower’s loans or adversely affect the Fund’s rights in collateral relating to a loan. If a lawsuit is brought by creditors of a borrower under a loan, a court or a trustee in bankruptcy could take certain actions that would be adverse to the Fund. For example:

 

   

Other creditors might convince the court to set aside a loan or the collateralization of the loan as a “fraudulent conveyance” or “preferential transfer.” In that event, the court could recover from the Fund the interest and principal payments that the borrower made before becoming insolvent. There can be no assurance that the Fund would be able to prevent that recapture.

 

   

A bankruptcy court may restructure the payment obligations under the loan so as to reduce the amount to which the Fund would be entitled.

 

   

The court might discharge the amount of the loan that exceeds the value of the collateral.

 

   

The court could subordinate the Fund’s rights to the rights of other creditors of the borrower under applicable law, decreasing, potentially significantly, the likelihood of any recovery on the Fund’s investment.

Limited Information Risk. Because there is limited public information available regarding loan investments, the Fund’s investments in such instruments are particularly dependent on the analytical abilities of the Fund’s portfolio managers.

Interest Rate Benchmarks. Interest rates on loans typically adjust periodically often based on changes in a benchmark rate plus a premium or spread over the benchmark rate. The benchmark rate may be LIBOR, the Prime Rate, or other base lending rates used by commercial lenders (each as defined in the applicable loan agreement).

Some benchmark rates may reset daily; others reset less frequently. The interest rate on LIBOR-based loans is reset periodically, typically based on a period between 30 days and one year. Certain floating or variable rate loans may permit the borrower to select an interest rate reset period of up to one year or longer. Investing in loans with longer interest rate reset periods may increase fluctuations in the Fund’s NAV as a result of changes in interest rates. Investing in loans with longer interest rate reset periods may increase fluctuations in the Fund’s NAV as a result of changes in interest rates. Interest rates on loans with longer periods between benchmark resets will typically trail market interest rates in a rising interest rate environment.

Certain loans may permit the borrower to change the base lending rate during the term of the loan. One benchmark rate may not adjust to changing market or interest rates to the same degree or as rapidly as another, permitting the borrower the option to select the benchmark rate that is most advantageous to it and less advantageous to the Fund. To the extent the borrower elects this option, the interest income and total return the Fund earns on the investment may be adversely affected as compared to other investments where the borrower does not have the option to change the base lending or benchmark rate.

On July 27, 2017, the head of the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced a desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. There remains uncertainty regarding the future utilization of LIBOR and the nature of any replacement rate. As such, the potential effect of a transition away from LIBOR on the Fund or the financial instruments in which the Fund invests cannot yet be determined. Please see “LIBOR Risk” in the Fund’s SAI for more information.

Restrictive Loan Covenants. Borrowers must comply with various restrictive covenants that may be contained in loan agreements. They may include restrictions on dividend payments and other distributions to stockholders, provisions requiring the borrower to maintain specific financial ratios, and limits on total debt. They may include requirements that the borrower prepay the loan with any free cash flow. A break of a covenant that is not waived by the agent bank (or the lenders) is normally an event of default that provides the agent bank or the lenders the right to call the outstanding amount on the loan. If a lender accelerates the repayment of a loan because of the borrower’s violation of a restrictive covenant under the loan agreement, the borrower might default in payment of the loan.

Some of the loans in which the Fund may invest or to which the Fund may obtain exposure may be “covenant-lite.” Such loans contain fewer or less restrictive constraints on the borrower than certain other types of loans. Such loans generally do not include terms which allow the lender to monitor the performance of the borrower and declare a default or force a borrower into bankruptcy restructuring if certain criteria are breached. Under such loans, lenders typically must rely on covenants that restrict a borrower from incurring additional debt or engaging in certain actions. Such covenants can be breached only by an affirmative action of the borrower, rather than by a deterioration in the borrower’s financial

 

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condition. Accordingly, the Fund may have fewer rights against a borrower when it invests in or has exposure to such loans and so may have a greater risk of loss on such investments as compared to investments in or exposure to loans with additional or more conventional covenants.

Senior Loan and Subordination Risk. In addition to the risks typically associated with debt securities and loans generally, senior loans are also subject to the risk that a court could subordinate a senior loan, which typically holds a senior position in the capital structure of a borrower, to presently existing or future indebtedness or take other action detrimental to the holders of senior loans.

The Fund’s investments in senior loans may be collateralized with one or more of (1) working capital assets, such as accounts receivable and inventory, (2) tangible fixed assets, such as real property, buildings and equipment, (3) intangible assets such as trademarks or patents, or (4) security interests in shares of stock of the borrower or its subsidiaries or affiliates. In the case of loans to a non-public company, the company’s shareholders or owners may provide collateral in the form of secured guarantees and/or security interests in assets they own. However, the value of the collateral may decline after the Fund buys the senior loan, particularly if the collateral consists of equity securities of the borrower or its affiliates. If a borrower defaults, insolvency laws may limit the Fund’s access to the collateral, or the lenders may be unable to liquidate the collateral. A bankruptcy court might find that the collateral securing the senior loan is invalid or require the borrower to use the collateral to pay other outstanding obligations. If the collateral consists of stock of the borrower or its subsidiaries, the stock may lose all of its value in the event of a bankruptcy, which would leave the Fund exposed to greater potential loss. As a result, a collateralized senior loan may not be fully collateralized and can decline significantly in value.

If a borrower defaults on a collateralized senior loan, the Fund may receive assets other than cash or securities in full or partial satisfaction of the borrower’s obligation under the senior loan. Those assets may be illiquid, and the Fund might not be able to realize the benefit of the assets for legal, practical or other reasons. The Fund might hold those assets until the Adviser determined it was appropriate to dispose of them. If the collateral becomes illiquid or loses some or all of its value, the collateral may not be sufficient to protect the Fund in the event of a default of scheduled interest or principal payments.

Due to restrictions on transfers in loan agreements and the nature of the private syndication of senior loans including, for example, the lack of publicly-available information, some senior loans are not as easily purchased or sold as publicly-traded securities. Some senior loans and other Fund investments are illiquid, which may make it difficult for the Fund to value them or dispose of them at an acceptable price. Direct investments in senior loans and investments in participation interests in or assignments of senior loans may be limited.

Settlement Risk. Transactions in many loans settle on a delayed basis, and the Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of such loans for a substantial period after the sale. As a result, sale proceeds related to the sale of such loans may not be available to make additional investments or to meet the Fund’s redemption obligations until potentially a substantial period after the sale of the loans.

The Fund may invest in loans directly or indirectly by investing in shares of the DoubleLine Floating Rate Fund and in either case will be subject to the risks described above.

Market Risk

Various market risks can affect the price or liquidity of an issuer’s securities in which the Fund may invest. Returns from the securities in which the Fund invests may underperform returns from the various general securities markets. Different types of securities tend to go through cycles of outperformance and underperformance in comparison to the general securities markets. Adverse events occurring with respect to an issuer’s performance or financial position can depress the value of the issuer’s securities. The liquidity in a market for a particular security will affect its value and may be affected by factors relating to the issuer, as well as the depth of the market for that security. Other market risks that can affect value include a market’s current attitudes about types of securities, market reactions to political or economic events, including litigation, and tax and regulatory effects (including lack of adequate regulations for a market or particular type of instrument). During periods of severe market stress, it is possible that the market for loans may become highly illiquid. In such an event, the Fund may find it difficult to sell loans it holds, and, for loans it is able to sell in such circumstances, the trade settlement period may be longer than anticipated.

Markets may, in response to governmental actions or intervention, political, economic or market developments, or other external factors, experience periods of high volatility and reduced liquidity. During those periods, the Fund may experience high levels of shareholder redemptions, and may have to sell securities at times when they would otherwise not do so, and potentially at unfavorable prices. Securities may be difficult to value during such periods. These risks may be heightened for fixed income securities due to the current low interest rate environment.

The United States and other governments and the Federal Reserve and certain foreign central banks have taken steps to support financial markets. For example, during the last decade, governmental financial regulators, including the U.S. Federal Reserve, took steps to maintain historically low interest rates, such as by purchasing bonds. Steps by those regulators, including, for example, steps to reverse, withdraw, curtail or taper such activities, could have a material adverse effect on prices for the Fund’s portfolio of investments and on the management of the Fund. The withdrawal of support, failure of efforts in response to a financial crisis, or investor perception that those efforts are not succeeding could negatively affect financial markets generally as well as the values and liquidity of certain securities. Federal, state, and other governments, their regulatory agencies, or self regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the securities in which the Fund invests or

 

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the issuers of such securities in ways that are unforeseeable. Legislation or regulation also may change the way in which the Fund or the Adviser are regulated. Such legislation, regulation, or other government action could limit or preclude the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective and affect the Fund’s performance.

Political, social or financial instability, civil unrest and acts of terrorism are other potential risks that could adversely affect an investment in a security or in markets or issuers generally. In addition, political developments in foreign countries or the United States may at times subject such countries to sanctions from the U.S. government, foreign governments and/or international institutions that could negatively affect the Fund’s investments in issuers located in, doing business in or with assets in such countries.

Continuing uncertainty as to the status of the Euro and the European Economic and Monetary Union (“EMU”) and the potential for certain countries to withdraw from the institution has created significant volatility in currency and financial markets generally. Any partial or complete dissolution of the European Union (the “EU”) could have significant adverse effects on currency and financial markets, and on the values of the Fund’s portfolio investments. In June 2016, the United Kingdom approved a referendum to leave the EU and, in March 2017, the United Kingdom commenced the formal process of withdrawing from the EU. The withdrawal agreement between the United Kingdom and the EU, endorsed by the European Council on November 25, 2018, sets out the basis on which the United Kingdom will withdraw from the EU and includes certain transitional provisions that have the effect of preserving the application of EU law in the United Kingdom until December 31, 2020 (or such other later date as may be agreed). The withdrawal agreement, and the associated transitional provisions, will become effective only once approved by the United Kingdom’s Parliament, which approval has not yet happened and may not happen, meaning that the United Kingdom may leave the EU without any transitional period (a so-called “hard Brexit”). On April 11, 2019, the United Kingdom came to an agreement with the EU to delay the deadline for withdrawal. Unless the United Kingdom’s Parliament approves the withdrawal agreement by October 31, 2019, it is expected that there will be a hard Brexit on that date absent any further agreements to delay the withdrawal. Significant uncertainty remains in the market regarding the ramifications of these developments, and the range and potential implications of possible political, regulatory, economic and market outcomes are difficult to predict. As and to the extent the United Kingdom moves forward with its withdrawal from the EU and makes various decisions regarding its post EU-status, markets may be further disrupted at various times given the uncertainty surrounding the country’s trade, financial, and other arrangements.

The Fund may continue to accept new subscriptions and to make additional investments in instruments in accordance with the Fund’s principal investment strategies to strive to meet the Fund’s investment objective under all types of market conditions, including unfavorable market conditions.

Mortgage-Backed Securities Risk

Mortgage-backed securities include, among other things, participation interests in pools of residential mortgage loans purchased from individual lenders by a federal agency or originated and issued by private lenders and involve, among others, the following risks:

Credit and Market Risks of Mortgage-Backed Securities. Investments by the Fund in fixed rate and floating rate mortgage-backed securities will entail credit risks (i.e., the risk of non-payment of interest and principal) and market risks (i.e., the risk that interest rates and other factors could cause the value of the instrument to decline). Many issuers or servicers of mortgage-backed securities guarantee timely payment of interest and principal on the securities, whether or not payments are made when due on the underlying mortgages. This kind of guarantee generally increases the quality of a security, but does not mean that the security’s market value and yield will not change. The values of mortgage-backed securities may change because of changes in the market’s perception of the credit quality of the assets held by the issuer of the mortgage-backed securities or an entity, if any, providing credit support in respect of the mortgage-backed securities. In addition, an unexpectedly high rate of defaults on the mortgages held by a mortgage pool may limit substantially the pool’s ability to make payments of principal or interest to the Fund as a holder of such securities, reducing the values of those securities or in some cases rendering them worthless. The Fund also may purchase securities that are not guaranteed or subject to any credit support. An investment in a privately issued mortgage-backed security may be less liquid and subject to greater credit risks than an investment in a mortgage-backed security that is issued or otherwise guaranteed by a federal government agency.

Like bond investments, the value of fixed rate mortgage-backed securities will tend to rise when interest rates fall, and fall when rates rise. Floating rate mortgage-backed securities generally tend to have more moderate changes in price when interest rates rise or fall, but their current yield will be affected. In addition, the mortgage-backed securities market in general may be adversely affected by changes in governmental legislation or regulation. Factors that could affect the value of a mortgage-backed security include, among other things, the types and amounts of insurance which an individual mortgage or that specific mortgage-backed security carries, the default and delinquency rate of the mortgage pool, the amount of time the mortgage loan has been outstanding, the loan-to-value ratio of each mortgage and the amount of overcollateralization or undercollateralization of a mortgage pool.

The residential mortgage market in the United States has experienced difficulties that may adversely affect the performance and market value of certain of the Fund’s mortgage-related investments. Delinquencies and losses on residential mortgage loans (especially subprime and second-lien mortgage loans) generally increased in the last decade and potentially could begin to increase again. A decline in or flattening of housing values (as has been experienced in the last decade and may continue to be experienced in many housing markets) may exacerbate such delinquencies and losses. Borrowers with adjustable rate mortgage loans may be more sensitive to changes in interest rates, which affect their monthly mortgage payments, and may be unable to secure replacement mortgages at comparably low interest rates. Also, a number of residential mortgage loan originators have experienced serious financial difficulties or bankruptcy. Reduced investor demand for mortgage-related securities has resulted and may continue to result in limited new issuances of mortgage-related securities and limited liquidity in the secondary market for mortgage-related securities, which can adversely affect the market value of mortgage-related securities and limit the availability of attractive investment opportunities for the Fund. It

 

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is possible that such limited liquidity in secondary markets could continue or worsen.

Ongoing developments in the residential mortgage market may have additional consequences to the market for mortgage-backed securities. In past years, delinquencies and losses generally increased with respect to securitizations involving residential mortgage loans and potentially could begin increasing again as a result of a weakening housing market and the seasoning of securitized pools of mortgage loans. Many so-called sub-prime mortgage pools are currently distressed and may be trading at significant discounts to their face value.

Additionally, mortgage lenders have adjusted their loan programs and underwriting standards, which has reduced the availability of mortgage credit to prospective mortgagors. This has resulted in reduced availability of financing alternatives for mortgagors seeking to refinance their mortgage loans. The reduced availability of refinancing options for mortgagors has resulted in higher rates of delinquencies, defaults and losses on mortgage loans, particularly in the case of, but not limited to, mortgagors with adjustable rate mortgage loans or interest-only mortgage loans that experience significant increases in their monthly payments following the adjustment date or the end of the interest-only period (see “Adjustable Rate Mortgages” below for further discussion of adjustable rate mortgage risks). These events, alone or in combination with each other and with deteriorating economic conditions in the general economy, may continue to contribute to higher delinquency and default rates on mortgage loans. The tighter underwriting guidelines for residential mortgage loans, together with lower levels of home sales and reduced refinance activity, also may have contributed to a reduction in the prepayment rate for mortgage loans generally and this may continue. The values of mortgage-backed securities may be substantially dependent on the servicing of the underlying mortgage pools, and therefore are subject to risks associated with the negligence or malfeasance by their servicers and to the credit risk of their servicers. In certain circumstances, the mishandling of related documentation also may affect the rights of security holders in and to the underlying collateral.

The U. S. Government conservatorship of Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and the Federal National Mortgage Corporation (“Fannie Mae”) in September 2008 and its ultimate resolution may adversely affect the real estate market, the value of real estate-related assets generally and markets generally. In addition, there may be proposals from the U.S. Congress or other branches of the U.S. Government regarding the conservatorship, including regarding reforming Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac or winding down their operations, which may or may not come to fruition. There can be no assurance that such proposals, even those that are not adopted, will not adversely affect the values of the Fund’s assets.

The Federal Housing Finance Agent (“FHFA”), as conservator or receiver of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, has the power to repudiate any contract entered into by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac prior to its appointment if it determines that performance of the contract is burdensome and repudiation of the contract promotes the orderly administration of Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s affairs. In the event the guaranty obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac are repudiated, the payments of interest to holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would be reduced if payments on the mortgage loans represented in the mortgage loan groups related to such mortgage-backed securities are not made by the borrowers or advanced by the servicer. Any actual direct compensatory damages for repudiating these guaranty obligations may not be sufficient to offset any shortfalls experienced by such mortgage-backed security holders.

Further, in its capacity as conservator or receiver, FHFA has the right to transfer or sell any asset or liability of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac without any approval, assignment or consent. If FHFA were to transfer any such guaranty obligation to another party, holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would have to rely on that party for satisfaction of the guaranty obligation and would be exposed to the credit risk of that party.

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (“CMBS”). CMBS include securities that reflect an interest in, or are secured by, mortgage loans on commercial real property. Many of the risks of investing in commercial mortgage-backed securities reflect the risks of investing in the real estate securing the underlying mortgage loans. These risks reflect the effects of local and other economic conditions on real estate markets, the ability of tenants to make loan payments and the ability of a property to attract and retain tenants. Commercial mortgage-backed securities may be less liquid and exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or asset-backed securities.

Prepayment, Extension and Redemption Risks of Mortgage-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities may reflect an interest in monthly payments made by the borrowers who receive the underlying mortgage loans. Although the underlying mortgage loans are for specified periods of time, such as 20 or 30 years, the borrowers can, and historically have paid them off sooner. When a prepayment happens, a portion of the mortgage-backed security which represents an interest in the underlying mortgage loan will be prepaid. A borrower is more likely to prepay a mortgage which bears a relatively high rate of interest. This means that in times of declining interest rates, a portion of the Fund’s higher yielding securities are likely to be redeemed and the Fund will probably be unable to replace them with securities having as great a yield. Prepayments can result in lower yields to shareholders. The increased likelihood of prepayment when interest rates decline also limits market price appreciation. This is known as prepayment risk. Mortgage-backed securities also are subject to extension risk. Extension risk is the possibility that rising interest rates may cause prepayments to occur at a slower than expected rate. This particular risk may effectively change a security which was considered short or intermediate term into a long-term security. The values of long-term securities generally fluctuate more widely in response to changes in interest rates than short or intermediate-term securities. In addition, a mortgage-backed security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer. If a mortgage-backed security held by the Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to permit the issuer to redeem or pay-off the security, which could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

Liquidity Risk of Mortgage-Backed Securities. The liquidity of mortgage-backed securities varies by type of security; at certain times the Fund may encounter difficulty in disposing of such investments. Investments in privately issued mortgage-backed securities may have less liquidity than mortgage-backed securities that are issued by a federal government agency. Because mortgage-backed securities have the potential to be less liquid

 

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than other securities, the Fund may be more susceptible to liquidity risks than funds that invest in other securities. In the past, in stressed markets, certain types of mortgage-backed securities suffered periods of illiquidity when disfavored by the market. It is possible that the Fund may be unable to sell a mortgage-backed security at a desirable time or at the value the Fund has placed on the investment.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. There are certain risks associated specifically with collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”). CMOs are debt obligations collateralized by mortgage loans or mortgage pass-through securities. The expected average life of CMOs is determined using mathematical models that incorporate prepayment assumptions and other factors that involve estimates of future economic and market conditions. These estimates may vary from actual future results, particularly during periods of extreme market volatility. Further, under certain market conditions, such as those that occurred in 1994, 2007, 2008 and 2009, the average weighted life of certain CMOs may not accurately reflect the price volatility of such securities. For example, in periods of supply and demand imbalances in the market for such securities and/or in periods of sharp interest rate movements, the prices of CMOs may fluctuate to a greater extent than would be expected from interest rate movements alone. CMOs issued by private entities are not obligations issued or guaranteed by the U. S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities and are not guaranteed by any government agency, although the securities underlying a CMO may be subject to a guarantee. Therefore, if the collateral securing the CMO, as well as any third party credit support or guarantees, is insufficient to make payments when due, the holder could sustain a loss.

CMOs and other mortgage-backed securities may be structured similarly to CDOs and may be subject to similar risks. See “—Collateralized Debt Obligations Risk” in the Prospectus and SAI for more information. For example, the cash flows from a CMO trust may be split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. Senior tranches are paid from the cash flows from the underlying assets before the junior tranches and equity or “first loss” tranches. Losses are first borne by the equity tranches, next by the junior tranches, and finally by the senior tranches. Interest holders in senior tranches are entitled to the lowest interest rates but are generally safer investments than more junior tranches because, should there be any default, senior tranches are typically paid first. The most junior tranches, such as equity tranches, typically are due to be paid the highest interest rates but suffer the highest risk of loss should the holder of an underlying mortgage loan default. If some loans default and the cash collected by the CMO is insufficient to pay all of its investors, those in the lowest, most junior tranches suffer losses first.

Adjustable Rate Mortgages. Adjustable Rate Mortgages (“ARMs”) contain maximum and minimum rates beyond which the mortgage interest rate may not vary over the lifetime of the security. In addition, many ARMs provide for additional limitations on the maximum amount by which the mortgage interest rate may adjust for any single adjustment period. Alternatively, certain ARMs contain limitations on changes in the required monthly payment. In the event that a monthly payment is not sufficient to pay the interest accruing on an ARM, any excess interest is added to the principal balance of the mortgage loan, which is repaid through future monthly payments. If the monthly payment for such an instrument exceeds the sum of the interest accrued at the applicable mortgage interest rate and the principal payment required at such point to amortize the outstanding principal balance over the remaining term of the loan, the excess is used to reduce the then-outstanding principal balance of the ARM.

In addition, certain ARMs may provide for an initial fixed, below-market or teaser interest rate. During this initial fixed-rate period, the payment due from the related mortgagor may be less than that of a traditional loan. However, after the teaser rate expires, the monthly payment required to be made by the mortgagor may increase dramatically when the interest rate on the mortgage loan adjusts. This increased burden on the mortgagor may increase the risk of delinquency or default on the mortgage loan and in turn, losses on the mortgage-backed security into which that loan has been bundled.

Interest and Principal Only Securities Risk. Stripped mortgage-backed securities are usually structured with two classes that receive different portions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of debt instruments, such as mortgage loans. In one type of stripped mortgage-backed security, one class will receive all of the interest from the mortgage assets (the interest-only, or “IO” class), while the other class will receive all of the principal from the mortgage assets (the principal-only, or “PO” class). The yield to maturity (the expected rate of return on a bond if held until the end of its lifetime) on an IO class is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s yield to maturity from these securities. If the assets underlying the IO class experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, the Fund may fail to recoup fully, or at all, its initial investment in these securities. PO class securities tend to decline in value if prepayments are slower than anticipated.

Inverse Floaters and Related Securities Risk. Investments in inverse floaters and similar instruments expose the Fund to the same risks as investments in debt securities and derivatives, as well as other risks, including those associated with leverage and increased volatility. An investment in these securities typically will involve greater risk than an investment in a fixed rate security. Distributions on inverse floaters and similar instruments will typically bear an inverse relationship to short-term interest rates and typically will be reduced or, potentially, eliminated as interest rates rise. Inverse floaters may be considered to be leveraged, including if their interest rates vary by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in a reference rate of interest (typically a short-term interest rate). The leverage inherent in inverse floaters is associated with greater volatility in their market values. Investments in inverse floaters and similar instruments that have mortgage-backed securities underlying them will expose the Fund to the risks associated with those mortgage-backed securities and the values of those investments may be especially sensitive to changes in prepayment rates on the underlying mortgage-backed securities.

Mortgage-backed securities are a type of asset-backed security and therefore are subject to the risks described above under “Asset-Backed Security Investment Risk.”

Non-Diversification Risk

 

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As a non-diversified fund, the Fund may invest its assets in a smaller number of issuers than may a diversified mutual fund. Accordingly, the Fund may be more susceptible to any single economic, political, or regulatory occurrence than a diversified fund investing in a broader range of issuers. A decline in the market value of one of the Fund’s investments may affect the Fund’s value more than if the Fund were a diversified fund.

Portfolio Management Risk

Portfolio management risk is the risk that an investment strategy may fail to produce the intended results. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. The Adviser’s judgments about the attractiveness, value and potential appreciation of particular asset classes, sectors, securities, or other investments may prove to be incorrect and may not anticipate actual market movements or the impact of economic conditions generally. No matter how well a portfolio manager evaluates market conditions, the investments a portfolio manager chooses may fail to produce the intended result, and you could lose money on your investment in the Fund.

Portfolio Turnover Risk

The length of time the Fund has held a particular security is not generally a consideration in investment decisions. A change in the securities held by the Fund is known as portfolio turnover. Portfolio turnover generally involves a number of direct and indirect costs and expenses to the Fund, including, for example, brokerage commissions, dealer mark-ups and bid/ask spreads, and transaction costs on the sale of securities and reinvestment in other securities, and may result in the realization of taxable capital gains (including short-term capital gains, which are generally taxable to shareholders subject to tax at ordinary income rates). Such costs are not reflected in the Fund’s Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses set forth under “Fees and Expenses” but do have the effect of reducing the Fund’s investment return. The Fund and its shareholders will also share in the costs and tax effects of portfolio turnover in any underlying funds in which the Fund invests.

Price Volatility Risk

The value of the Fund’s investment portfolio will change, potentially frequently and in large amounts, as the prices of its investments go up or down. Different parts of the market and different types of securities can react differently to political or economic or other developments. Issuer, political or economic developments can affect a single issuer, multiple issuers within an industry or economic sector or geographic region or market as a whole. Prices of some securities tend to be more volatile in the short-term. The fewer the number of issuers in which the Fund invests and/or the greater the use of leverage, the greater the potential volatility of the Fund’s portfolio.

Real Estate Risk

The value of the Fund’s portfolio could change in light of factors affecting the real estate industry. Factors affecting real estate values include the supply of real property in certain markets, changes in zoning laws, delays in completion of construction, changes in real estate values, changes in property taxes, levels of occupancy, adequacy of rent to cover operating expenses, and local and regional market conditions. The value of real estate-related investments also may be affected by changes in interest rates, macroeconomic developments, and social and economic trends.

Equity REITs, which invest primarily in direct fee ownership or leasehold ownership of real property and derive most of their income from rents, are generally affected by changes in the values of and incomes from the properties they own. Mortgage REITs invest mostly in mortgages on real estate, which may secure, for example, construction, development or long-term loans, and the main source of their income is mortgage interest payments. Mortgage REITs may be affected by the credit quality of the mortgage loans they hold. A hybrid REIT combines the characteristics of equity REITs and mortgage REITs, generally by holding both ownership interests and mortgage interests in real estate, and thus may be subject to risks associated with both real estate ownership and investments in mortgage-related securities. Along with the risks common to different types of real estate-related securities, REITs, no matter the type, involve additional risk factors, including poor performance by the REIT’s manager, adverse changes to the tax laws, and the possible failure by the REIT to qualify for the favorable tax treatment available to REITs under the Code or the exemption from registration under the 1940 Act. REITs are not diversified and are heavily dependent on cash flow.

Restricted Securities Risk

The Fund may hold securities that the Fund is prevented or limited by law or the terms of an agreement from selling (a “restricted security”). To the extent that the Fund is permitted to sell a restricted security, there can be no assurance that a trading market will exist at any particular time, and the Fund may be unable to dispose of the security promptly at reasonable prices or at all. The Fund may have to bear the expense of registering the securities for resale and the risk of substantial delays in effecting the registration. Also, restricted securities may be difficult to value because market quotations may not be readily available, and the values of restricted securities may have significant volatility.

Securities or Sector Selection Risk

The risk that the securities held by the Fund will underperform securities held in other funds investing in similar asset classes or comparable benchmarks because of a portfolio manager’s choice of securities or sectors for investment. To the extent the Fund focuses or concentrates its investments in a particular sector or related sectors, the Fund will be more susceptible to events or factors affecting companies in that sector or related sectors. For example, the values of securities of companies in the same or related sectors may be negatively affected by the common characteristics they share, the common business risks to which they are subject, common regulatory burdens, or regulatory changes that affect them similarly. Such characteristics, risks, burdens or changes include, but are not limited to, changes in governmental regulation, inflation or deflation, rising or falling interest rates, competition from new entrants, and other economic, market, political or other developments specific to that sector or related sectors.

 

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Short Position Risk

The Fund may borrow an instrument from a broker or other institution and sell it to establish a short position in the instrument. The Fund may also enter into a derivative transaction in order to establish a short position with respect to a reference asset. The Fund may make a profit or incur a loss depending upon whether the market price of the instrument or the value of the position decreases or increases between the date the Fund established the short position and the date on which the Fund must replace the borrowed instrument or otherwise close out the transaction. An increase in the value of an instrument with respect to which the Fund has established a short position will result in a loss to the Fund, and there can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to close out the position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. The loss to the Fund from a short position is potentially unlimited.

Structured Products and Structured Notes Risk

Generally, structured investments are interests in entities organized and operated for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of underlying investment interests or securities. These investment entities may be structured as trusts or other types of pooled investment vehicles. This type of restructuring generally involves the deposit with or purchase by an entity of the underlying investments and the issuance by that entity of one or more classes of securities backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying investments or referencing an indicator related to such investments. The cash flow or rate of return on the underlying investments may be apportioned among the newly issued securities to create different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, credit quality, payment priorities and interest rate provisions.

The cash flow or rate of return on a structured investment may be determined by applying a multiplier to the rate of total return on the underlying investments or referenced indicator. Application of a multiplier is comparable to the use of financial leverage, a speculative technique. Leverage magnifies the potential for gain and the risk of loss. As a result, a relatively small decline in the value of the underlying investments or referenced indicator could result in a relatively large loss in the value of a structured product. Holders of structured products indirectly bear risks associated with the underlying investments, index or reference obligation, and are subject to counterparty risk. The Fund generally has the right to receive payments to which it is entitled only from the structured product, and generally does not have direct rights against the issuer. While certain structured investment vehicles enable the investor to acquire interests in a pool of securities without the brokerage and other expenses associated with directly holding the same securities, investors in structured vehicles generally pay their share of the investment vehicle’s administrative and other expenses.

Structured products are generally privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. Certain structured products may be thinly traded or have a limited trading market and may have the effect of increasing the Fund’s illiquidity to the extent that the Fund, at a particular point in time, may be unable to find qualified buyers for these securities. In addition to the general risks associated with fixed income securities discussed herein, structured products carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from underlying investments will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the underlying investments may decline in value or default; (iii) the possibility that the security may be subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.

Structured products include, among other things, CDOs, mortgage-backed securities, other types of asset-backed securities and certain types of structured notes.

Structured notes are derivative securities for which the amount of principal repayment and/or interest payments is based on the movement of one or more “factors.” These factors may include, but are not limited to, currency exchange rates, interest rates (such as the prime lending rate or LIBOR), referenced bonds and stock indices. Some of these factors may or may not correlate to the total rate of return on one or more underlying instruments referenced in such notes. In some cases, the impact of the movements of these factors may increase or decrease through the use of multipliers or deflators.

Investments in structured notes involve risks including interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk. Where the Fund’s investments in structured notes are based upon the movement of one or more factors, depending on the factor used and the use of multipliers or deflators, changes in interest rates and movement of the factor may cause significant price fluctuations. Additionally, changes in the reference instrument or security may cause the interest rate on the structured note to be reduced to zero and any further changes in the reference instrument may then reduce the principal amount payable on maturity. In the case of structured notes where the reference instrument is a debt instrument, such as credit-linked notes, the Fund will be subject to the credit risk of the issuer of the reference instrument and the issuer of the structured note.

U.S. Government Securities Risk

Some U.S. Government securities, such as Treasury bills, notes, and bonds and mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae), are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States; others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; others are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase the agency’s obligations; still others are supported only by the credit of the issuing agency, instrumentality, or enterprise. Although U.S. Government-sponsored enterprises may be chartered or sponsored by Congress, they are not funded by Congressional appropriations, and their securities are not issued by the U.S. Treasury, their obligations are not supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, and so investments in their securities or obligations issued by them involve greater risk than investments in other types of U.S. Government securities. In addition, certain governmental entities have been subject to regulatory scrutiny regarding their accounting policies and practices and other concerns that may result in legislation, changes in regulatory oversight and/or other consequences that could adversely affect the credit quality, availability or investment character of securities issued or guaranteed by these entities.

 

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The events surrounding the U.S. federal government debt ceiling and any resulting agreement could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. On August 5, 2011, S&P lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. The downgrade by S&P and other future downgrades could increase volatility in both stock and bond markets, result in higher interest rates and lower Treasury prices and increase the costs of all kinds of debt. These events and similar events in other areas of the world could have significant adverse effects on the economy generally and could result in significant adverse impacts on issuers of securities held by the Fund and the Fund itself. The Adviser cannot predict the effects of these or similar events in the future on the U.S. economy and securities markets or on the Fund’s portfolio. The Adviser may not timely anticipate or manage existing, new or additional risks, contingencies or developments.

In recent periods, the values of U.S. Government securities have been affected substantially by increased demand for them around the world. Changes in the demand for U.S. Government securities may occur at any time and may result in increased volatility in the values of those securities.

Valuation Risk

The valuation of the Fund’s investments involves subjective judgment. There can be no assurance that the Fund will value its investments in a manner that accurately reflects their market values or that the Fund will be able to sell any investment at a price equal to the valuation ascribed to that investment for purposes of calculating the Fund’s NAV. Certain securities in which the Fund may invest, including, for example, high yield bonds, commodities, derivatives, emerging market securities, mortgage-related securities, complex securities, and thinly-traded or illiquid investments may be more difficult to value accurately, especially during periods of market disruptions or extreme market volatility. Technological issues or other service disruption issues involving third party service providers may also cause the Fund to value its investments incorrectly. Incorrect valuations of the Fund’s portfolio holdings could result in the Fund’s shareholder transactions being effected at an NAV that does not accurately reflect the underlying value of the Fund’s portfolio, resulting in the dilution of shareholder interests.

Temporary Defensive Strategies

When attempting to respond to adverse market, economic, political, or other conditions, the Fund may take temporary defensive positions that may be inconsistent (including materially inconsistent) with the Fund’s principal investment strategies. The Adviser then may, but is not required to, temporarily use alternative strategies that are mainly designed to limit the Fund’s exposure to such adverse conditions under the circumstances. In implementing these strategies, the Fund may invest primarily in, among other things, U.S. Government and agency obligations, fixed or floating rate investments, derivative instruments, cash or money market instruments (including money market funds), or any other securities or instruments that the portfolio managers consider consistent with such defensive strategies or deemed consistent with the then existing market conditions. By way of example, the Fund may hold a higher than normal proportion of its assets in cash in times of extreme market stress. The Fund may also use derivatives, such as futures contracts, interest rate swaps, and credit default swaps, as an efficient means to adjust the Fund’s interest rate, credit, and other exposures in connection with taking such temporary defensive positions. During periods when the Fund has taken temporary defensive positions, the Fund may not achieve its investment objective.

Portfolio Holdings Information

A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of its portfolio securities is available in the SAI. Currently, disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is required by law to be made within 60 days of the end of each fiscal quarter in the annual report and semi-annual report to shareholders and in the holdings reports on Form N-PORT. The SAI, annual report, and semi-annual report will be available, free of charge, on the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Form N-PORT will be available, free of charge, on the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov for the third month of each fiscal quarter of the Fund for the months ended September 30, 2019 and later. For the period through August 31, 2019, portfolio holdings information for, as applicable, the first and third quarters of the Fund’s fiscal year will be available, free of charge, on the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

Management of the Fund

Investment Adviser

The investment adviser for the Fund is DoubleLine Capital LP, with offices at 333 South Grand Avenue, Suite 1800, Los Angeles, California 90071. The Adviser is registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended. The Adviser has been investment adviser to the Fund since the inception of the Fund. The Adviser manages the investment portfolio and business affairs of the Fund pursuant to an Investment Management Agreement between the Fund and the Adviser.

The Adviser was co-founded by Jeffrey E. Gundlach and Philip A. Barach in December 2009. Mr. Gundlach serves as the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Investment Officer of the Adviser. Mr. Barach serves as President of the Adviser.

As of April 30, 2019, the Adviser had approximately $131 billion of assets under management.

Portfolio Managers

The following individuals serve as portfolio managers and are together jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio. Please see the SAI for additional information about other accounts managed by the portfolio managers, the portfolio managers’ compensation, and the portfolio managers’ ownership of shares of the Fund. The composition of the portfolio management team, including individual portfolio managers, may change over time.

 

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Portfolio Manager

  

Length of Service

with the Fund

  

Business Experience During

the Past Five Years

Morris Chen    Since the Fund’s inception    Mr. Chen joined DoubleLine in 2009. He is a Portfolio Manager and heads the Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (CMBS) and Commercial Real Estate (CRE) Debt group. He is a permanent member of the Fixed Income Asset Allocation and Structured Products Committees.
Andrew Hsu    Since the Fund’s inception    Mr. Hsu joined DoubleLine in 2009. He is a Portfolio Manager and heads the Global Infrastructure and Asset-Backed Securities (ABS) group. He is a permanent member of the Fixed Income Asset Allocation and Structured Products Committees.
Ken Shinoda    Since the Fund’s inception    Mr. Shinoda joined DoubleLine in 2009. He is a Portfolio Manager and heads the Residential Mortgage-Backed Securities (RMBS) group. He is a permanent member of the Fixed Income Asset Allocation and Structured Products Committees.

Advisory Agreement

The Trust and the Adviser have entered into an Investment Management Agreement (the “Advisory Agreement”), under the terms of which the Fund has employed the Adviser to manage the investment of the assets of the Fund, to place orders for the purchase and sale of its portfolio securities, and to be responsible for overall management of the Fund’s business affairs, subject to the oversight of the Board of Trustees.

Under the Advisory Agreement, the Fund pays to the Adviser as compensation for the services rendered, facilities furnished, and expenses paid by it, fees at the following annual rate:

 

Fund   

Annual

Management

Fee Rate

(As a Percentage

of the Fund’s

Average Daily

                              Net Asset Value)                            

DoubleLine Income Fund

   [ ]%

The Adviser has agreed to waive its investment advisory fee and to reimburse other ordinary operating expenses of the Fund to the extent necessary to limit the ordinary operating expenses of each class of the Fund’s shares to an amount not to exceed the following annual rates (based on each share class’s average daily net assets):

 

Fund    Class I               Class N        

DoubleLine Income Fund

   [ ]%           [ ]%    

Ordinary operating expenses exclude taxes, commissions, mark-ups, litigation expenses, indemnification expenses, interest expenses, Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, and any extraordinary expenses. The expense limitations described in the table above are expected to apply until at least [ ], and may only be terminated sooner by vote of the Fund’s Board of Trustees at any time.

Fees waived or expenses reimbursed by the Adviser may be recouped from the Fund in the three fiscal years following the fiscal year in which the fees were waived or expenses reimbursed. Any such recoupment is subject to the review of the Fund’s Board of Trustees and may not cause the Fund’s ordinary operating expenses to exceed the Fund’s expense limitation that was in place when the fees were waived or expenses reimbursed. Additionally, DoubleLine Capital would generally seek recoupment only in accordance with the terms of any expense limitation of the Fund that is in place at the time of recoupment. Further information about fees recouped and fees subject to potential recoupment may be found in the SAI.

If the Fund invests in other investment vehicles sponsored by the Adviser or its related parties (“other DoubleLine funds”), the Adviser will waive its advisory fees in an amount equal to the advisory fees paid to the Adviser or a related party by other DoubleLine funds in respect of Fund assets so invested.

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund will be contained in the Fund’s report to shareholders for the period ending [ ].

The Advisory Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Adviser, or reckless disregard of its obligations and duties under the Advisory Agreement, the Adviser, including its officers, directors, and partners, shall not be subject to any liability to the Trust or the Fund, or to any shareholder, officer, director, partner, or Trustee thereof, for any act or omission in the course of, or connected with, rendering services under the Advisory Agreement.

Additional Information

The Trustees of the Trust oversee generally the operations of the Fund and the Trust. The Trust enters into

 

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contractual arrangements with various parties, including among others the Fund’s investment adviser, custodian, transfer agent, and accountants, who provide services to the Fund.

Shareholders are not parties to any such contractual arrangements and are not intended third party (or other form of) beneficiaries of those contractual arrangements. The Trust’s and the Fund’s contractual arrangements are not intended to create any shareholder rights to enforce such contracts directly against the service providers or to seek any remedy under those contracts directly against the service providers.

This Prospectus has been designed to meet the regulatory purpose of providing information concerning the Trust and the Fund that you should consider carefully in determining whether to purchase shares of the Fund. Neither this Prospectus, the SAI, nor the Fund’s registration statement, is intended, or should be read, to be or to give rise to an agreement or contract between the Trust or the Fund and any shareholder, or to give rise to any rights in any shareholder or other person other than any rights under federal or state law that may not be waived.

Share Class  Features

Types of Shares Available

Class I and Class N shares are offered in this Prospectus. Expenses vary between the classes. You should consider carefully and consult your financial intermediary regarding which of these share classes you may be eligible to purchase. Class I shares are available directly from the Fund or through certain financial intermediaries, without the payment of any sales load. Class N shares are available directly from the Fund or through certain financial intermediaries, without the payment of any sales load.

You should consider carefully, and ask your financial intermediary about, the amount of any 12b-1 fee that will apply to your investment in the Fund and whether you would pay a lower 12b-1 fee if you were to purchase shares of another share class or if you were to purchase shares of the Fund directly from the Fund or through a different platform or intermediary.

Expenses

There are two types of expenses related to mutual funds: expenses you pay directly (called a sales load) and expenses that are deducted from fund assets.

Expenses You Pay Directly. Neither Class I nor Class N shares have sales loads.

Expenses You Pay Through the Fund. The costs of managing and administering the Fund are spread among shareholders of each class of shares. These operating costs cover such things as investment management, distribution (“Rule 12b-1 fees”) and shareholder servicing, custody, auditing, administrative and transfer agency expenses, and fees and expenses of Trustees.

Choosing a Share Class

The different share classes have different expense structures and eligibility requirements. You should choose the cost structure that best meets your needs and for which you are eligible. You will have higher ongoing operating expenses if you purchase Class N shares than you would if you purchased Class I shares. However, Class I shares require a substantially higher initial investment.

You should consider that all or a portion of the Rule 12b-1 fees relating to your investment in Class N shares may serve as compensation to your financial intermediary for services it provides.

Please see the eligibility requirements for each share class below.

The chart below summarizes the features of the different share classes. If you purchase shares through a broker or other financial intermediary, your broker or other financial intermediary may charge a commission for effecting the transaction or charge you other fees. The shares of the Fund are available in two share classes with different fees and expenses. The chart below summarizes the features of the different share classes.

This chart is only a general summary, and you should read the description of the fees and expenses of each share class below and in the Fund Summary in this Prospectus.

 

    

Minimum

Initial

Investment:

    

Subsequent

        Investment:        

                
     

Regular

    Accounts    

    

IRAs/

    HSAs    

    

All

Accounts

and

Automatic

    Investment    

Plans

    

Initial

Sales

    Charge    

(Load)

  

Maximum

    Contingent    

Deferred

Sales

Load

  

    Annual    

12b-1

Fee

Class I

Shares

     $100,000        $5,000        $100          None    None    None

Class N

Shares

     $2,000        $500        $100          None    None    0.25%

 

 

The Trust may suspend the offering of the Fund’s shares for any period of time.

Class I Shares

If you meet the initial $100,000 investment minimum for regular accounts or $5,000 for IRA/HSA accounts, you

 

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may purchase Class I shares at their current NAV directly from the Fund by contacting the Fund’s transfer agent, or from financial intermediaries that make shares of the Fund available to their customers. Class I shares are not subject to a sales charge or to any 12b-1 fees.

Class N Shares

You may purchase Class N shares of the Fund at their current NAV directly from the Fund or through certain financial intermediaries, such as a bank, trust company, broker-dealer, or other financial organization, that charge an advisory fee, management fee, consulting fee, fee in lieu of brokerage commissions or other similar fee for their services and that have made special arrangements with the Fund’s distributor to offer Class N shares to their clients. Class N shares are not subject to a sales charge. Class N shares are subject to a 12b-1 fee of 0.25%.

How to Buy Shares

General Information

The Fund offers more than one class of shares. Shares of each class of the Fund represent an equal pro rata interest in that share class of the Fund.

Class I shares are offered at their current NAV. If you meet the initial $100,000 investment minimum for regular accounts or $5,000 for IRA/HSA accounts, you may purchase Class I shares directly from the Fund by contacting the Fund’s transfer agent, or from financial intermediaries that make shares of the Fund available to their customers.

You may purchase Class N shares of the Fund at their current NAV directly from the Fund or through certain financial intermediaries, such as a bank, trust company, broker-dealer, or other financial organization, that charge an advisory fee, management fee, consulting fee, a fee in lieu of brokerage commissions or other similar fee for their services and that have made special arrangements with the Fund’s distributor to offer Class N shares to their clients.

You pay no sales charge to invest in Class I or Class N shares of the Fund. The price you pay for the Fund’s shares is the Class’s NAV per share, plus any applicable sales load.

Your order to purchase shares will be priced based on the next NAV calculated after your order is received in good order by the Fund. A purchase order is not in good order if the Fund does not, for example, receive all required documentation and information. In order for you to receive the Fund’s share price next calculated, the Fund, the Fund’s transfer agent, or an authorized financial intermediary must receive your order in good order. In the case of a request furnished to an authorized financial intermediary, the request must be subsequently communicated properly to the Fund; your financial intermediary is responsible for ensuring that your request is received by the Fund timely and in good order. Because financial intermediaries’ processing times and arrangements with the Fund may vary, please ask your financial intermediary or plan administrator, if any, when your account will be credited. The Fund may at its discretion reject any purchase order for Fund shares.

Distribution Arrangements and Rule 12b-1 Fees (Class N Shares Only); Other Distribution-Related Payments to Financial Intermediaries

The Fund has adopted a plan pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act (the “Plan”) with respect to its Class N shares. The Fund makes payments under the Plan to the Fund’s distributor to compensate it for services provided and expenses incurred by it to promote the sale of the relevant class of shares, reduce redemptions of those shares, and maintain or improve services provided to shareholders of that class of shares by financial intermediaries. The Plan is a compensation plan that provides for payments at an annual rate (based on average daily net assets) of 0.25% for Class N shares. Because the Fund’s Rule 12b-1 fees attributable to Class N shares are paid out of the Fund’s Class N assets, on an ongoing basis, they will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of sales loads. All shareholders of Class N shares share in the expense of Rule 12b-1 fees paid from the assets attributable to that Class; however, because these shareholders hold their shares through varying arrangements (for example, directly or through financial intermediaries), they may not share equally in the benefits of the Plan applicable to their class of shares. The Fund may pay distribution fees and other amounts described in this Prospectus at a time when shares of the Fund are unavailable for purchase.

In addition to payments under the Plan, the Fund may enter into non-Plan agreements and also may reimburse its distributor or other related parties for some or all of certain payments made to financial intermediaries by the distributor or other parties, or may make payments directly to financial intermediaries, that provide certain administrative, recordkeeping, and account maintenance services. (For more information regarding these payments, see “Payments to Financial Intermediaries” below). The amount of the payments made by the Fund is reviewed by the Trustees periodically.

Payments to Financial Intermediaries

Financial intermediaries are firms that, for compensation, sell shares of mutual funds, including shares of a DoubleLine Fund, and/or provide certain administrative, recordkeeping, and account maintenance services to mutual fund shareholders. Financial intermediaries may include, among others, brokers, registered broker-dealers, financial planners or advisors, retirement plan service providers, banks, and insurance companies. In some cases, a financial intermediary may hold its clients’ Fund shares in nominee or street name. Shareholder services provided by a financial intermediary may (though will not necessarily) include, among other things: processing and mailing trade confirmations, periodic statements, prospectuses, annual reports, semi-annual reports, shareholder notices, and other SEC-required communications; capturing and processing tax data; issuing and mailing dividend checks to shareholders who have selected cash distributions; preparing record date shareholder lists for proxy solicitations; collecting and posting distributions to shareholder accounts; and establishing and maintaining systematic withdrawals and automated investment plans and shareholder account

 

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registrations. The compensation paid to a financial intermediary by the Fund’s distributor, the Adviser, or the Fund in respect of these services is typically paid periodically over time, during the period when the financial intermediary’s clients hold investments in the Fund. The amount of continuing compensation paid to different financial intermediaries for distribution and/ or shareholder services varies. In most cases, the compensation is a percentage of the value of the financial intermediary’s clients’ investments in the Fund. Variations in compensation may, but will not necessarily, reflect enhanced or additional services provided by the financial intermediary. In addition to payments under the Plan described above, the Fund may reimburse its distributor and/or other related parties some or all of certain types of payments made to financial intermediaries, or may make payments directly to financial intermediaries, that provide certain administrative, recordkeeping, and account maintenance services. The amount of the payments made by the Fund is reviewed by the Trustees periodically.

The Adviser, at its own expense and out of its own assets, also may provide other compensation to financial intermediaries in connection with sales of the Fund’s shares. Such compensation may include, but is not limited to, financial assistance to financial intermediaries in connection with conferences, sales, or training programs for their employees; business building programs and seminars or informational meetings for the public; advertising or sales campaigns; or other financial intermediary-sponsored special events, including support in respect of marketing materials. In some instances, this compensation may be made available only to certain financial intermediaries whose representatives have sold or are expected to sell significant amounts of Fund shares. Dealers may not use sales of the Fund’s shares to qualify for this compensation to the extent prohibited by the laws or rules of any state or any self-regulatory agency, such as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

The amount of payments made to different financial intermediaries may not be the same. These payments may provide incentives for such financial intermediaries to make shares of the Fund available to their customers, and may allow the Fund greater access to such financial intermediaries, their employees and their customers than would be the case if no payments were made. Such access advantages include, but are not limited to, placement of the Fund on a list of mutual funds offered as investment options to the financial intermediary’s customers (sometimes referred to as “Shelf Space”); access to the financial intermediary’s registered representatives; and/or the ability to assist in training and educating the financial intermediary’s registered representatives.

Although the amount of such payments may be more or less, payments made by the Adviser from its own assets to a financial intermediary for the sale of the Fund’s shares where the financial intermediary is compensated based on its customers’ assets are generally made at an annual rate that ranges between 0.05% and 0.15% of the intermediary’s customers’ assets invested in the Fund. These payments are in addition to payments an intermediary may receive from the Fund’s Rule 12b-1 fees or from the Fund for shareholder services as discussed above.

If payments to financial intermediaries in respect of a particular mutual fund complex exceed payments made by other mutual fund complexes, your financial advisor and the financial intermediary employing him or her may have an incentive to recommend that fund complex over others. Please speak with your financial advisor to learn more about the total amounts paid to your financial advisor and his or her firm in respect of shares of the Fund and by sponsors of other mutual funds he or she may recommend to you. You should also consult disclosures made by your financial intermediary at the time of purchase.

Calculation of NAV

The NAV of each class of the Fund, except as noted below, is typically calculated as of the close of trading on the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time) each day the NYSE opens for regular trading, and the Fund is not available for purchase or redemption on holidays when the NYSE is scheduled to be closed. The Fund’s assets are normally valued as of this time for the purpose of computing the Fund’s NAV. The time as of which shares are priced and the time until which purchase and redemption orders are accepted for processing at the NAV calculated that day may be changed by the Fund in its discretion as permitted by applicable law or the SEC. In calculating its NAV, the Fund generally will not consider information that first becomes available to the market only after the time as of which the Fund calculates its NAV, such as securities transactions that occur after that time.

The Fund values its portfolio securities for purposes of calculating its NAV using procedures approved by the Fund’s Board of Trustees. Those procedures allow for a variety of methodologies to be used to value the Fund’s securities. The specific methodologies used for a particular security may vary based on the market data available for a specific security at the time the Fund calculates its NAV or based on other considerations. The procedures also permit a level of judgment to be used in the valuation process. Accordingly, the methodologies summarized below are not an exhaustive list of the methodologies the Fund may use to value a security and they may not represent the means by which the Fund’s investments are valued on any particular business day.

A share class’s NAV is determined by adding the values of the Fund’s securities, cash and other assets attributable to that class, subtracting all of the Fund’s expenses and liabilities attributable to that class, and then dividing by the total number of shares outstanding for that class of the Fund (assets-liabilities/# of shares = NAV). The Fund’s investments for which market quotations are readily available are valued based on market value. Equity securities are typically valued at the last reported sales price on the principal exchange or market on which they are traded or, if there were no sales that day, at the mean between the closing bid and asked prices.

Securities traded on the NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC (“NASDAQ”) are generally valued at the NASDAQ official closing price, which may not be the last sales price. If the NASDAQ official closing price is not available for a security, that security will generally be valued using the mean between the closing bid and asked prices.

Market values for domestic and foreign fixed income securities are normally determined on the basis of valuations provided by independent pricing services. Prices obtained from independent pricing services use various inputs, including, but not limited to, information provided by broker-dealers; pricing formulas, such as dividend discount models; option valuation formulas; estimates of market values obtained from yield data relating to investments or

 

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securities with similar characteristics; and discounted cash flow models that might be applicable. The Fund will generally value over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives on the basis of valuations obtained from counterparties, published index closing levels or evaluated prices supplied by independent pricing services, some or all of which may be based on market data from trading on exchanges that closed significantly before the time as of which the Fund calculates its NAV. Forward foreign currency contracts are generally valued based on rates provided by independent data providers. Exchange traded options, futures and options on futures are generally valued at the settlement price determined by the relevant exchange on which they principally trade. The Fund will generally value its investments in other investment companies and private funds, such as hedge funds, at their reported NAVs, to the extent available.

The Fund may hold investment positions in sizes smaller than institutionally-sized round lot positions (sometimes referred to as ‘odd lots’). Pricing services generally provide evaluations on the basis of institutionally-sized round lots. The Fund does not generally apply discounts to pricing service evaluations of securities when it holds and values odd lot positions. If the Fund sells a position in an odd-lot transaction, the sale price may be less than the value at which the position has been held by the Fund.

Investments denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are valued in U.S. dollars using exchange rates obtained from independent data providers. As a result, the NAV of the Fund’s shares may be affected by changes in the values of currencies in relation to the U.S. dollar.

If market quotations are unavailable or deemed unreliable for a security or if a security’s value may have been significantly affected by events occurring after the close of a securities market on which the security principally trades but before the Fund calculates its NAV, the Fund may, in accordance with procedures adopted by the Board of Trustees, attempt to assign a value to the security. This fair value may be higher or lower than any available market price or quotation for such security and, because this process necessarily depends upon judgment, this value also may vary from valuations determined by other funds using their own valuation procedures. While the Fund’s use of fair value pricing is intended to result in calculation of an NAV that fairly reflects security values as of the time of pricing, the Fund cannot guarantee that any fair value price will, in fact, approximate the amount the Fund would actually realize upon the sale of the securities in question.

The valuations of securities that trade principally on a foreign market that closes before the time as of which the Fund calculates its NAV will generally be based on quotations or other information as of that earlier closing time. If significant events occur after that earlier closing time but before the time as of which the Fund calculates its NAV, the Fund may fair value those securities in accordance with the Fund’s valuation policies. For purposes of valuing, in U.S. dollars, the Fund’s securities or other assets that are denominated in a foreign currency, the Fund will normally use the currency exchange rates as of the time the Fund calculates its NAV. Foreign markets may be closed on days when the Fund prices its shares (e.g., on non-U.S. holidays), and foreign markets may be open on weekends and other days when the Fund does not price its shares. The value of such assets or the Fund’s shares may change significantly on days when the Fund’s shares are not able to be purchased, redeemed or exchanged.

Verification of Identity

To help the government fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering activities, federal law requires that investment companies such as the Trust obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person who opens an account. What this means for you is that when you open an account directly with the Fund, the Fund’s transfer agent will ask you for your name, address, date of birth, taxpayer identification number and permanent street address. If you are opening the account in the name of a legal entity (e.g., partnership, limited liability company, business trust, corporation, etc.), you may also be required to supply the identity of the beneficial owners. Mailing addresses containing only a P.O. Box will not be accepted (though an APO or FPO box number can be used by active duty military personnel). The transfer agent also may ask to see your driver’s license or other identification documents, and may consult third-party databases to help verify your identity.

The Fund will generally reject your new account application if you do not provide the required identifying information. The Fund will attempt to collect any missing information required on the application by contacting you, or if applicable, your broker. If the Fund is unable to obtain this information within a timeframe established by the transfer agent in its sole discretion (for example, 72 hours), which may change from time to time, your application will be rejected. With respect to opened accounts, the Fund reserves the right to close your account at the then-current day’s NAV and remit proceeds to you via check if it is unable to verify your identity. The Fund will attempt to verify your identity within a timeframe established at its sole discretion (for example, 96 hours), which may change from time to time. If you are purchasing shares of the Fund through a financial intermediary, check with the financial intermediary for details concerning these requirements.

Minimum Investments for Shares

The minimum investment requirements for initial and subsequent investment in shares of the Fund are as follows:

 

    

        Minimum Initial        

Investment:

    

Subsequent

Investment:

 
     

Regular

Accounts

    

IRAs/

HSAs

    

All

Accounts

and

Automatic

Investment

Plans

 

Class I Shares

     $100,000        $5,000        $100  

Class N Shares

     $2,000        $500        $100  

 

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The minimum initial and subsequent investment amounts may be modified for certain financial intermediaries that submit trades on behalf of underlying investors. The minimum initial and subsequent purchase amounts may be reduced or waived by the Fund’s distributor, the Adviser, or the Fund for specific investors or types of investors, including, without limitation, employee benefit plans, retirement plans, a financial intermediary authorized to sell shares of the Fund, employees of the Adviser and their family members, the Adviser’s affiliates or related parties, employees of the Adviser’s affiliates or related parties and their family members; investment advisory clients of the Adviser; and current or former Trustees of the Trust and their family members. A person’s family members include a person’s spouse or life partner and other members of the person’s immediate family, including step and adoptive relationships. Certain intermediaries also may have investment minimums, which may differ from the Fund’s minimums, and may be waived at the intermediaries’ discretion. The Fund reserves the right to change the minimum investment amounts without prior notice.

If your non-retirement account in the Fund falls below the minimum investment necessary to open the particular type of account as a result of redemptions and or exchanges for six months or more, the Fund may close your account and send you the proceeds upon 60 days’ written notice.

New Account Application

If you are making your initial investment in the Fund and need a New Account Application or need help completing the New Account Application, please contact the transfer agent at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) or speak with your representative at your financial intermediary.

Purchase by Mail

You may purchase shares by sending a check made payable to “DoubleLine Funds,” together with a completed New Account Application in the case of an initial investment, to:

Via Regular Mail

DoubleLine Funds

c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, LLC

P.O. Box 701

Milwaukee, WI 53201-0701

Via Express, Registered or Certified Mail

DoubleLine Funds

c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, LLC

615 E. Michigan Street, 3rd Floor

Milwaukee, WI 53202

Subsequent investments should be accompanied by the Invest by Mail form that is attached to your account statement (if applicable) or a note specifying the Fund name, your account number, and the name(s) your account is registered in.

All investments must be in U.S. dollars drawn on domestic banks. The Fund will not accept cash, money orders, checks drawn on banks outside the U.S., travelers’ checks, starter checks, or credit card checks. Third-party checks, except those payable to an existing shareholder, will not be accepted. In addition, the Fund will not accept post-dated checks or any conditional order or payment. If your check does not clear, you will be responsible for any loss the Fund incurs. You also will be charged $25 for every check returned unpaid.

The Fund does not consider the U.S. Postal Service or other independent delivery services to be its agents. Therefore, deposits in the mail or with such services, or receipt at a U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC post office box, of purchase orders or redemption requests does not constitute receipt by the transfer agent of the Fund. Receipt of purchase orders or redemption requests is based on when the order is received at the transfer agent’s offices.

Additionally, shares of the Fund have not been registered for sale outside of the United States. The Fund generally does not sell shares to investors residing outside of the United States even if they are United States citizens or lawful permanent residents, except to investors with United States military APO or FPO addresses.

Purchase by Telephone

If you have not declined telephone transaction privileges on your account application, you may purchase additional shares of the Fund by calling 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311). If your account has been open for at least 7 business days, telephone orders will be accepted via electronic funds transfer from your bank account through the Automated Clearing House (“ACH”) network. You must have banking information established on your account prior to making this purchase. If your purchase order is received in good order before the close of trading on the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time) on a day the NYSE opens for regular trading, your shares will be purchased at the NAV plus any applicable sales charge calculated on that day. Please see “How to Buy Shares — General Information” for information on purchasing shares through a financial intermediary.

Purchase by Internet

If you have an existing account and are placing a subsequent investment, you may do so by accessing your account online at DoubleLineFunds.com. An investor must first establish a direct account by completing and mailing the appropriate New Account Application.

If a shareholder elects to place purchases for their direct account online, the shareholder will be required to establish a user ID and password. Shareholders are responsible for keeping their user IDs and passwords private. The Fund will not be liable for relying on any instructions submitted online. Submitting transactions online

 

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may be difficult (or impossible) during times when online communications may be under unusual stress. If a shareholder elects not to view their account or effect transactions online, the shareholder should not establish online account access. If online account access has already been established and the shareholder no longer wants the account accessible online, the shareholder can call 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) and request to suspend online access.

Purchase by Wire

If you are making your first investment in the Fund, before you wire funds, the transfer agent must have a completed New Account Application. You may mail or overnight deliver your New Account Application to the transfer agent. Upon receipt of your completed New Account Application, the transfer agent will establish an account for you. The shareholder account number assigned will be required as part of the instruction that should be provided to your bank to send the wire. Your bank must include both the name of the Fund you are purchasing, the shareholder account number, and the name on the account per the New Account Application so that monies can be correctly applied.

U.S. Bank, N.A.

777 E. Wisconsin Avenue

Milwaukee, WI 53202

ABA No. 075000022

Credit: U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC

Account No. 112-952-137

Further Credit: DoubleLine Funds [Name of Fund and Share Class]

(Shareholder Account Number, Shareholder Name)

Before sending your fed wire, please call the transfer agent at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) to advise them of the wire. This will ensure prompt and accurate credit to your account upon receipt of the fed wire.

Wired funds must be received prior to 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time to be eligible for same day pricing. The Fund and U.S. Bank, N.A. are not responsible for the consequences of delays resulting from the banking or Federal Reserve wire system or from incomplete wiring instructions.

Automatic Investment Plan

Generally, once your account has been opened with the initial minimum investment you may make additional purchases at regular intervals through the Automatic Investment Plan (“AIP”). The AIP provides a convenient method to have monies deducted from your bank account for investment into the Fund (if your AIP falls on a weekend or holiday, it will be processed on the following business day). In order to participate in the AIP each purchase must be in the amount of $100 or more and your financial institution must be a member of the ACH network. If your financial institution rejects your payment, the Fund’s transfer agent will charge a $25 fee to your Fund account. To begin participating in the AIP, please complete the AIP section on the New Account Application or call the Fund’s transfer agent at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) for instructions. Generally, your signed New Account Application must be received by the Fund’s transfer agent at least 7 business days prior to the initial transaction through the AIP. Any request to change or terminate your AIP should be submitted to the transfer agent at least five calendar days prior to the effective date of the next transaction.

Purchases Through an Authorized Third Party

You may buy the Fund’s shares through certain broker-dealers and financial intermediaries. If purchases of the Fund’s shares are arranged and settlement is made at an investor’s election through a registered broker-dealer, other than the Fund’s distributor, that broker-dealer may, at its discretion, charge a fee for that service. From time to time, shares of the Fund may only be available from a single broker-dealer or a limited number of broker-dealers, which may limit the Fund’s ability to attract assets.

How to Redeem Shares

General Information

You may redeem shares on any day when the NYSE opens for regular trading. Your shares will be redeemed at the next NAV calculated after your order is received by the Fund in good order. A redemption request in good order must include, among other things, the exact name in which the shares are registered, the account number, and the number of shares or the dollar amount of shares to be redeemed, and, for written requests, a signature matching the account registration, together with any other materials or information required by the Fund, the transfer agent or any other agents duly appointed for that purpose. If you invest or hold your shares through a financial intermediary, see “Redemptions Through Your Financial Intermediary or Other Authorized Third Party” below.

The Fund typically seeks to send redemption proceeds on the next business day (as provided above) after the redemption request is received in good order and prior to market close, regardless of whether the redemption proceeds are sent via check, wire, or ACH transfer; however, the Fund reserves the right to pay redemption proceeds as long as seven days after the receipt of a redemption request. In case of emergencies or when trading on the NYSE is restricted, or as otherwise permitted by the SEC or applicable law, the Fund may suspend redemptions or postpone payment for more than seven days. If any portion of the shares to be redeemed represents an investment made by check or electronic funds transfer through the ACH network, the Fund may delay the payment of the redemption proceeds until the transfer agent is reasonably satisfied that the purchase amount has been collected. This may take up to 15 calendar days from the date of purchase.

The Adviser expects to use a variety of resources to honor requests to redeem shares of the Fund, including

 

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available cash; short-term investments; interest, dividend income and other monies earned on portfolio investments; the proceeds from the sale or maturity of portfolio holdings; and various other techniques, including, without limitation, repurchase agreements. The Fund may also have available to it uncommitted lines of credit that it may draw on to manage its liquidity needs. A DoubleLine Fund that invests in securities with longer settlement cycles, such as DoubleLine Floating Rate Fund, may use a committed credit facility, when available, to manage its liquidity needs and honor redemption requests. There can be no assurance that any credit facility, even a committed credit facility, will be available to the Fund or available in sufficient amounts to the Fund under all circumstances. A variety of other measures, such as redemptions in kind (i.e., payment in portfolio investments rather than cash), may also be used to honor redemptions. The Adviser does not expect to honor redemption requests in kind regularly, but reserves the right to do so. If your shares are redeemed in kind you will incur transaction costs upon disposition of the assets received in the distribution, as well as taxes on any capital gains from the sale. In addition, you would continue to be subject to the risks of any market fluctuation in the value of the assets you receive in kind until they are sold. The Adviser expects to use the resources and measures discussed above, among others, to meet redemption requests in regular and stressed market conditions.

A signature guarantee may be required of all account holders for any redemption request in excess of $100,000 where proceeds are requested to be sent by check, when a redemption request is received by the transfer agent and the account address has changed within the last 30 calendar days, when redemption proceeds are to be sent or payable to any person, address or bank account not on the Fund’s records, or if ownership is being changed on your account. Signature guarantees will generally be accepted from domestic banks, brokers, dealers, credit unions, national securities exchanges, registered securities associations, clearing agencies and savings associations, as well as from participants in the New York Stock Exchange Medallion Signature Program and the Securities Transfer Agents Medallion Program (“STAMP”). A notary public is not an acceptable signature guarantor. Investors should check with their Financial Intermediary to determine if it is subject to these arrangements.

Shareholders who have an IRA or other retirement plan must indicate on their written redemption request whether or not to withhold federal income tax. Redemption requests failing to indicate an election not to have tax withheld will generally be subject to 10% withholding.

Shares held in IRA or other retirement plan accounts may be redeemed by telephone at 1-877-354-6311. Investors should consider whether or not to withhold taxes from any such redemption.

Redemptions by Mail

You may sell shares by writing a letter that includes:

 

   

your name(s) and signature(s) as they appear on the New Account Application form

 

   

your account number

 

   

the Fund name

 

   

the dollar amount or number of shares you want to redeem

 

   

how and where to send the proceeds

Mail your letter of instruction to:

Via Regular Mail

DoubleLine Funds

c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, LLC

P.O. Box 701

Milwaukee, WI 53201-0701

Via Express, Registered or Certified Mail

DoubleLine Funds

c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, LLC

615 E. Michigan Street, 3rd Floor

Milwaukee, WI 53202

Your letter of instruction must be accompanied by a signature guarantee or other documentation, if required (see “Signature Guarantees” below).

The Fund does not consider the U.S. Postal Service or other independent delivery services to be its agents. Therefore, deposits in the mail or with such services, or receipt at a U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC post office box, of purchase orders or redemption requests does not constitute receipt by the transfer agent of the Fund. Receipt of purchase orders or redemption requests is based on when the order is received at the transfer agent’s offices.

Signature Guarantees

Some circumstances require written orders, along with a signature guarantee from either a Medallion program member or a non-Medallion program member. These include:

 

   

Redemption requests for amounts in excess of $100,000, where proceeds are requested to be sent by check;

 

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When a redemption request is received by the transfer agent and the account address has changed within the last 30 calendar days;

 

   

when redemption proceeds are to be sent or payable to any person, address or bank account not on the Fund’s record; or

 

   

if ownership is being changed on your account.

The Fund and/or the transfer agent may require a signature guarantee or other acceptable signature authentication in other instances based on the circumstances relative to the particular situation. The Fund or the transfer agent reserves the right to waive any signature guarantee requirement at its discretion. Investors who have purchased shares through a financial intermediary may be subject to different requirements and should check with their financial intermediary to determine whether signature guarantee requirements or other security arrangements apply to their accounts.

A signature guarantee helps protect against fraud. You can obtain one from most banks, securities dealers, credit unions or savings associations but not from a notary public. You may be required to pay a fee for a signature guarantee. Please call 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) to ensure that your signature guarantee will be processed correctly.

Non-financial transactions including establishing or modifying certain services on an account may require a signature guarantee, signature verification from a Signature Verification Program member, or other acceptable form of authentication from a financial institution source.

Redemptions by Telephone

You may redeem shares by telephone request unless you have declined to have this option. You may have a check sent to the address of record, proceeds may be wired to your bank account of record, or funds may be sent via electronic funds transfer through the ACH network using the bank instructions previously established on your account. Redemption proceeds will typically be sent on the business day following your redemption. Wires are subject to a $15 fee. There is no charge to have proceeds sent via ACH and proceeds are typically credited to your bank within two to three business days after redemption. Except as noted above under “—General Information,” proceeds will be processed within seven calendar days after the Fund receives your redemption request in good order. Call the transfer agent at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) to request a redemption. Telephone redemption requests must be for a minimum of $100.

By establishing telephone redemptions, you authorize the Fund’s transfer agent to act upon telephone instructions. Before executing an instruction received by telephone, the Fund’s transfer agent will use reasonable procedures to seek to confirm that the telephone instructions are provided by a person authorized to transact on the account. These procedures will include recording the telephone call and asking the caller for a form of personal identification. The Fund and its agents are not liable to shareholders for any loss, expense or cost arising out of any telephone redemption request that the Fund and its agents reasonably believed to be genuine pursuant to these procedures, including fraudulent or unauthorized requests. If an account has more than one owner or authorized person, the Fund will accept telephone instructions from any one owner or authorized person. Once a telephone transaction has been placed, it cannot be canceled or modified after the close of regular trading on the NYSE (generally, 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time).

During periods of high market activity, shareholders may encounter higher than usual wait times. Please allow sufficient time to place your telephone transaction.

Redemptions by Internet

If you have an existing account and are placing a redemption request, you may do so by accessing your account online at DoubleLineFunds.com. Proceeds from online redemptions may be sent via check, ACH or wire to the bank account of record. Online redemptions are not available for all direct accounts because in certain cases, a signature guarantee may be required.

If a shareholder elects to place redemptions for their direct account online, the shareholder will be required to establish a user ID and password. Shareholders are responsible for keeping their user IDs and passwords private. The Fund will not be liable for relying on any instructions submitted online. Submitting transactions online may be difficult (or impossible) during times when online communications may be under unusual stress. If a shareholder elects not to view their account or effect transactions online, the shareholder should not establish online account access. If online account access has already been established and the shareholder no longer wants the account accessible online, the shareholder can call 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) and request to suspend online access.

Systematic Withdrawal Plan

As another convenience, you may redeem shares through the systematic withdrawal plan (“SWP”). To begin participating in the SWP, please complete the SWP section on the New Account Application or call the Fund’s transfer agent at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) for instructions.

Under the SWP, you may choose to receive a specified dollar amount generated from the redemption of shares in your account. In order to participate in the SWP, your account balance must be at least $10,000 and there must be a minimum withdrawal of $500. If you elect this redemption method, the Fund will send a check to your address of record, or will send the payment via electronic funds transfer through the ACH network, directly to your bank account. For payment through the ACH network, your bank must be an ACH member and your bank account information must be on file with the Fund. The plan may be terminated by the Fund at any time.

You may elect to terminate your participation in the SWP at any time by contacting the transfer agent five days

 

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prior to the effective date or next scheduled withdrawal.

To reach the transfer agent, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, call toll free in the U.S. 877-DLine11  (877-354-6311). Outside the U.S. call 213-633-8200 (collect).

Redemptions Through Your Financial Intermediary or Other Authorized Third Party

You may redeem shares through certain financial intermediaries. If redemptions of the Fund’s shares are arranged and settlement is made at an investor’s election through a financial intermediary, that financial intermediary may, at its discretion, charge a fee for that service.

You may sell your shares of the Fund back to the Fund through your financial intermediary on any day when the NYSE opens for regular trading. The financial intermediary may charge you a fee for its services. Redemption requests will be priced at the NAV next determined after they are received in good order by the Fund. In the case of a request furnished to an authorized financial intermediary, the request must be subsequently communicated properly to the Fund; your financial intermediary is responsible for ensuring that your request is received by the Fund timely and in good order. Please contact your financial intermediary for instructions on how to place redemption requests. Because financial intermediaries’ processing times and arrangements with the Fund may vary, please ask your financial intermediary when your account will be debited.

If you redeem shares through your financial intermediary, your financial intermediary is responsible for ensuring that the Fund’s transfer agent receives your redemption request in good order. If your financial intermediary receives Federal Reserve wires, you may instruct that your redemption proceeds be forwarded by wire to your account with it; you also may instruct that your redemption proceeds be forwarded to you by a wire transfer. Please indicate your financial intermediary’s or your own complete wiring instructions. Your financial intermediary may charge you separately for this service.

Other Account Policies

Trading Limits

Frequent trading activity by Fund shareholders can reduce the Fund’s long-term performance in a variety of ways, including as a result of increased trading and transaction costs, disruption to the Fund’s stated portfolio management strategy, and the need to maintain an elevated cash position to meet redemptions (and lost opportunity costs as a result thereof) and forced liquidations. In addition, certain short-term trading activities that attempt to take advantage of inefficiencies in the valuation of the Fund’s securities holdings may dilute the interests of the remaining shareholders and result in unwanted distributions of capital gains to fund shareholders, including short term capital gains taxable to shareholders subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates. A DoubleLine Fund with foreign investment exposure may be subject to elevated risks of market timing activities by investors. For example, a DoubleLine Fund may have exposure to assets that trade on exchanges that close before the time it calculates its NAV. Some investors may seek to take advantage of perceived price arbitrage opportunities that those circumstances may present. Such shareholder activity presents the potential for existing investors’ interests to be diluted.

Accordingly, the Board of Trustees has adopted policies and procedures that are designed to discourage frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares by Fund shareholders. These policies and procedures include:

Trading Limit Policies

 

   

The Fund may reject any purchase order for any reason and without prior notice. The Fund or the Fund’s transfer agent may reject a purchase order of any investor or group of investors or person acting on behalf of any investor or investors, whose pattern of trading or transaction history involves, in the opinion of the Fund’s Adviser or the Fund’s transfer agent, actual or potential harm to the Fund.

Additional Trading Limit Policies

 

   

The Trust reserves the right to prohibit any acquisition of the Fund’s shares (through either a purchase or exchange from another DoubleLine Fund) in which the acquirer has previously completed multiple round trip transactions in the Fund in accordance with the Trust’s policies and procedures. For this purpose, a round trip transaction consists of the acquisition of shares of a particular DoubleLine Fund (through either a purchase or exchange from another DoubleLine Fund) and the subsequent redemption of shares of that DoubleLine Fund (through either a sale or an exchange into another DoubleLine Fund). These limits on round trip transactions do not, however, limit a shareholder’s right to redeem their shares.

 

   

The Trust monitors exchanges and redemptions out of the Fund in accordance with the Trust’s policies and procedures.

 

   

Exceptions to these trading limits must be approved by the Fund’s President or designee and reported to the Board of Trustees on a quarterly basis.

These restrictions do not necessarily apply to asset allocation programs (including mutual funds that invest in other mutual funds for asset allocation purposes, and not for short-term trading) or (except to the extent noted in the next paragraph) to omnibus accounts, i.e., accounts on behalf of multiple, undisclosed investors, maintained by brokers and other financial intermediaries (including 401(k) or other group retirement accounts), or to involuntary transactions and automatic investment programs, such as dividend reinvestment, or transactions pursuant to the Fund’s systematic investment or withdrawal program. The Fund also may waive these restrictions on terms acceptable to the Fund and the Adviser, including in connection with investments by financial institutions

 

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related to obligations the financial institutions may have to third parties. The limitations and monitoring activities described above may not be applied to transactions below certain thresholds.

While financial intermediaries that maintain omnibus accounts may be required to or may voluntarily impose restrictions on the trading activity of accounts traded through those financial intermediaries, the Fund’s ability to impose restrictions with respect to accounts traded through particular intermediaries may vary depending on the intermediaries’ systems’ capabilities, applicable contractual and legal restrictions, and cooperation of those financial intermediaries. Moreover, the Trust cannot always identify or reasonably detect excessive trading through omnibus accounts or accounts otherwise facilitated by financial intermediaries that transmit purchase, exchange and redemption orders to the Fund, and thus the Fund may have difficulty curtailing such activity. In lieu of applying round trip transaction or other limits at the omnibus account level, the Trust or the Adviser may determine to take other action to detect and deter frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares, including, potentially, requesting and reviewing the underlying trading information for the sub-accounts trading through an omnibus account or permitting a financial intermediary to apply its own policies or procedures designed to detect and prevent excessive or abusive short-term trading in lieu of applying the Fund’s procedures.

The Trust and the Adviser may rely on the Fund’s service providers, including the Fund’s transfer agent and/or administrator, to monitor for abusive short-term trading activities.

Exchange Privilege

You can exchange your Class I shares or Class N shares in the Fund for Class I or Class N shares, respectively, in another DoubleLine Fund (if available). Any exchange is subject to the same minimums as an initial or subsequent investment, as applicable. You can request your exchange in writing, by calling the transfer agent at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311), or by accessing your account online at DoubleLineFunds.com. Be sure to read the current Prospectus for the DoubleLine Fund into which you are exchanging. Exchanges may only be made on days when both affected DoubleLine Funds are open for business. Any new account established through an exchange will have the same registration as the account from which you are exchanging and will have the same privileges as your original account (as long as they are available). In addition, the Trust reserves the right to change or discontinue its exchange privilege, or temporarily suspend this privilege during unusual market conditions, to the extent permitted under applicable SEC rules.

Conversion of Shares Between Classes

From time to time, the Fund may authorize the conversion of shares of one class to another share class, provided that the shares of the other class are eligible for sale in the owner’s state of residence and all other applicable terms and conditions are met. Further information about conversion of shares between classes may be found in the SAI.

Notice Regarding Delivery of Fund Documents

You will receive periodic mailings regarding the Fund. In order to reduce the volume of mail you receive, only one copy of each mailing (including, for example, fund Prospectuses) may be sent to an address shared by two or more accounts or to shareholders we reasonably believe are from the same family or household. If you would like to receive one copy of a mailing for each account, please call 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) to request individual copies of these documents. You must submit a written request to receive individual copies of a Prospectus or shareholder report. It may take up to thirty days to process your request.

Lost Shareholders, Inactive Accounts and Unclaimed Property

It is important that the Fund maintain a correct address for each investor. An incorrect address may cause an investor’s account statements and other mailings to be returned to the Fund. In accordance with state statutory requirements for returned mail, the Fund will attempt to locate the investor or rightful owner of the account. If the Fund is unable to locate the investor, then it will determine whether the investor’s account can legally be considered abandoned. Your mutual fund account may be transferred to the state government of your state of residence if no activity occurs within your account during the inactivity period specified in your state’s abandoned property laws, which varies by state. The Fund is legally obligated to escheat (or transfer) abandoned property to the appropriate state’s unclaimed property administrator in accordance with statutory requirements. The investor’s last known address of record determines which state has jurisdiction. The state may redeem escheated shares and, if you subsequently seek to reclaim your proceeds of liquidation from the state, you may only be able to recover the amount received when the shares were redeemed. To help protect their accounts, shareholders should keep their accounts up-to-date and active, which may include calling the Fund at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) to generate shareholder initiated activity such as completing an account transaction. Investors who are residents of the state of Texas may designate a representative to receive legislatively required unclaimed property due diligence notifications. Please contact the Fund to complete a Texas Designation of Representative form.

Cost Basis Reporting

When you redeem or exchange Fund shares, the Fund or, if you purchase your shares through a financial intermediary, your financial intermediary generally is required to report to you and the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) on an IRS Form 1099-B or other applicable form cost-basis information with respect to those shares, as well as information about whether any gain or loss on your redemption or exchange is short- or long-term and whether any loss is disallowed under the “wash sale” rules. Such reporting generally is not required for shares held in a retirement or other tax-advantaged account. Cost basis is typically the price you pay for your shares (including reinvested dividends), with adjustments for certain commissions, wash-sales, organizational actions, and other items, including any returns of capital paid to you by the Fund in respect of your shares. Cost basis is used to determine your net gains and losses on any shares you redeem or exchange in a taxable account.

The Fund or your financial intermediary, as applicable, will permit you to select from a list of alternative cost basis reporting methods to determine your cost basis in Fund shares. If you do not select a particular cost basis

 

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reporting method, the Fund or financial intermediary will apply its default cost basis reporting method to your shares. If you hold your shares directly in the Fund account, the Fund’s default method (or the method you have selected by notifying the Fund) will apply; if you hold your shares in an account with a financial intermediary, the intermediary’s default method (or the method you have selected by notifying the intermediary) will apply. Please contact the Fund at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) or consult your financial intermediary, as appropriate, for more information on the available methods for cost basis reporting and how to select or change a particular method. You should consult your tax advisor concerning the application of these rules to your investment in the Fund, and to determine which available cost basis method is best for you.

Distributions

The amount of distributions of net investment income and of net realized long- and short-term capital gains payable to shareholders will be determined separately for each Fund class. Dividends of net investment income of the Fund, if any, will be declared and paid at least monthly. The Fund will distribute net realized short-term capital gains and net realized long-term capital gains, if any, at least annually. Your distributions will be reinvested in the Fund unless you instruct the Fund otherwise. You may change your distribution election in writing or by telephone. Any change should be submitted to the transfer agent by phone at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) or in writing to DoubleLine Funds, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, LLC, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0701 at least five calendar days prior to the record date of the next distribution. The Fund does not charge any fees or sales loads on shares purchased through the automatic reinvestment of distributions. You may request that distributions be paid by check. If you elect to receive distributions of net investment income and/or capital gains paid in cash and the U.S. Postal Service cannot deliver the check, or if a check remains outstanding for six months, the Fund reserves the right to reinvest the distribution check in your account at the Fund’s then current NAV and will reinvest all subsequent distributions until instructed otherwise.

Taxes

This section provides a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to an investment in the Fund; it is not intended to be a full discussion of tax laws and the effects of such laws on you, or to address all aspects of taxation that may apply to specific types of shareholders, such as foreign persons. Furthermore, this discussion is based on the Code and Treasury regulations issued thereunder that are in effect as of the date of this Prospectus, which provisions are subject to change, including retroactively. There may be other federal, state, or local tax considerations applicable to a particular investor. You are urged to consult your own tax advisor regarding your investment in the Fund (including the status of your distributions from the Fund). Additional tax information may be found in the SAI.

Taxes on Dividends and Distributions. For U.S. federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment income generally are taxable to you as ordinary income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains are determined by how long the Fund owned (or is deemed to have owned) the investments that generated the gains, rather than how long you have owned your shares. Distributions that the Fund properly reports to you as gains from investments that the Fund owned (or is deemed to have owned) for more than one year generally are treated as long-term capital gains includible in your net capital gain and taxed to individuals at reduced rates. Distributions of gains from investments that the Fund owned (or is deemed to have owned) for one year or less and gains on the sale of or payments on bonds characterized as having market discount generally are taxable to you as ordinary income. Distributions of investment income that the Fund properly reports to you as derived from qualified dividend income are taxed in the hands of individuals at the reduced rates applicable to net capital gains, provided holding period and other requirements are met at both the shareholder and Fund level. The Fund does not expect a significant portion of its distributions to derive from qualified dividend income.

The Code generally imposes a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on the “net investment income” of certain individuals, estates and trusts to the extent their income exceeds certain threshold amounts. For these purposes, net investment income generally includes dividends paid by the Fund, including any capital gain dividends, and net gains recognized on the sale, redemption, exchange or other taxable disposition of shares of the Fund. Shareholders are advised to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of this tax on their investment in the Fund.

Distributions are taxable to you even if they are paid from income or gains earned by the Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the price you paid). Distributions are taxable in the manner described herein whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional shares of the Fund.

Distributions by the Fund to retirement plans and other tax-advantaged accounts that qualify for tax-advantaged treatment under federal income tax laws generally will not be taxable. Special tax rules apply to investments through such plans and/or accounts. You should consult your tax advisor to determine the suitability of the Fund as an investment through such a plan and/or account and the tax treatment of distributions (including distributions of amounts attributable to an investment in the Fund) from such a plan and/or account.

The Fund’s investment in certain debt obligations, derivatives and hedging transactions can cause the Fund to recognize taxable income in excess of the cash generated by such investments. Thus, the Fund could be required at times to liquidate investments, including at times when it may not be advantageous to do so, in order to satisfy its distribution requirements (see “Tax Status of the Fund” below). Such dispositions could result in realization of capital gains, including short-term capital gains generally taxable to shareholders at ordinary income rates when distributed to them.

Distributions by the Fund to shareholders that are not “U.S. persons” within the meaning of the Code (“foreign shareholders”) properly reported by the Fund as (1) Capital Gain Dividends, (2) short-term capital gain dividends or (3) interest-related dividends, each as defined and subject to certain conditions described in the SAI, generally are not subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax.

 

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Distributions by the Fund to foreign shareholders other than Capital Gain Dividends, short-term capital gain dividends and interest-related dividends (e.g., dividends attributable to dividend and foreign-source interest income or to short-term capital gains or U.S. source interest income to which the exception from withholding described above does not apply) are generally subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate).

If you are a non-U.S. investor, please consult your own tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of investing in the Fund.

Taxes When You Sell, Redeem or Exchange Your Shares. Any gain resulting from a sale, redemption, or exchange (including an exchange for shares of another fund) of your shares in the Fund generally will be subject to federal income tax at either short-term or long-term capital gain rates depending on how long you owned your shares.

Tax Status of the Fund. The Fund intends to elect and intends to qualify and to be eligible to be treated each year as a regulated investment company under the Code, such that the Fund will not be subject to federal income tax on income and gains timely distributed to shareholders. In order to qualify for the special tax treatment accorded regulated investment companies and their shareholders, the Fund must meet requirements with respect to the sources of its income, the diversification of its assets, and the distribution of its income. The Fund could in some cases cure a failure to comply with these requirements, including by paying a Fund-level tax and, in the case of a diversification failure, disposing of certain assets. If the Fund were ineligible to or otherwise did not cure such a failure, or if the Fund were otherwise to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company, the Fund would be subject to federal income tax on its net income at regular corporate rates without reduction for distributions to shareholders. When distributed, that income would also be taxable to shareholders as an ordinary dividend to the extent attributable to the Fund’s earnings and profits, thereby potentially diminishing shareholder returns.

Investments in Foreign Securities. The Fund’s investments in foreign securities may be subject to foreign withholding or other taxes. In that case, the Fund’s return on those securities may be decreased. If the Fund meets certain requirements with respect to its asset holdings, it will be eligible to elect to permit shareholders of the Fund to claim a credit or deduction with respect to foreign taxes paid by the Fund. In addition, investments in foreign securities or foreign currencies may increase or accelerate the Fund’s recognition of ordinary income and may affect the timing or amount of the Fund’s distributions.

Derivatives. The Fund’s use of derivatives may affect the amount, timing, and character of distributions to shareholders and, therefore, may increase the amount of taxes payable by shareholders. In addition, the tax rules applicable to derivatives are in many cases uncertain under current law. An adverse determination, future guidance by the IRS or Treasury regulations, in each case with potentially retroactive effect, might bear adversely on the Fund’s ability to satisfy the distribution or other requirements to maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company and avoid a fund-level tax.

Investments in Other Funds. Special tax consequences may apply to shareholders of the Fund as a result of its investments in other funds. Please see the SAI under “Distributions and Taxes” for more information.

Backup Withholding. The Fund will be required in certain cases to withhold on distributions paid to a shareholder who (1) has provided the Fund either an incorrect tax identification number or no number at all, (2) who is subject to backup withholding by the IRS for failure to properly report payments of interest or dividends, or (3) who has failed to certify to the Fund that such shareholder is not subject to backup withholding.

Reporting. Shareholders will be advised annually as to the federal tax status of distributions made by the Fund for the preceding calendar year.

Consult your tax advisor about other possible tax consequences. This is a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences of investing in the Fund. You should consult your tax advisor for more information on your own tax situation, including possible other federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of investing in the Fund. For more information, see “Distributions and Taxes” in the SAI.

Financial Highlights

Because the Fund is newly formed, there is no financial or performance information for the Fund included in this Prospectus. You may request this information, when it becomes available, at no charge by calling 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) or visiting the Fund’s website at www.doublelinefunds.com.

 

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PRIVACY POLICY

 

 

What Does DoubleLine Do With Your Personal Information?

This notice provides information about how DoubleLine collects, shares, and protects your personal information, and how you might choose to limit our ability to share certain information about you. Please read this notice carefully.

Why do we need your personal information?

All financial companies need to share customers’ personal information to run their everyday businesses, to appropriately tailor the services offered to you (where applicable), and to comply with our regulatory obligations. Accordingly, information, confidential and proprietary, plays an important role in the success of our business. However, we recognize that you have entrusted us with your personal and financial data, and we recognize our obligation to keep this information secure. Maintaining your privacy is important to us, and we hold ourselves to a high standard in its safekeeping and use. Most importantly, DoubleLine does not sell its customers’ non-public personal information to any third parties. DoubleLine uses its customers’ non-public personal information primarily to complete financial transactions that its customers request (where applicable) to make its customers aware of other financial products and services offered by a DoubleLine affiliated company, and to satisfy obligations we owe to regulatory bodies.

Information we may collect

We may collect various types of personal data about you, including:

 

   

Your personal identification information, which may include your name and passport information, your IP address, politically exposed person (“PEP”) status, and such other information as may be necessary for us to provide our services to you and to complete our customer due diligence process and discharge anti-money laundering obligations;

 

   

Your contact information, which may include postal address and e-mail address and your home and mobile telephone numbers;

 

   

Your family relationships, which may include your marital status, the identity of your spouse and the number of children that you have;

 

   

Your professional and employment information, which may include your level of education and professional qualifications, your employment, employer’s name and details of directorships and other offices which you may hold; and

 

   

Financial information, risk tolerance, sources of wealth and your assets, which may include details of shareholdings and beneficial interests in financial instruments, your bank details and your credit history.

Where we obtain your personal information

DoubleLine may collect non-public information about you from the following sources:

 

   

Information we receive about you on applications or other forms;

 

   

Information you may give us orally;

 

   

Information about your transactions with us or others;

 

   

Information you submit to us in correspondence, including emails or other electronic communications; and

 

   

Information about any bank account you use for transfers between your bank account and any Fund account, including information provided when effecting wire transfers.

Information Collected from Websites

Websites maintained by DoubleLine or its service providers may use a variety of technologies to collect information that help DoubleLine and its service providers understand how the website is used. Information collected from your web browser (including small files stored on your device that are commonly referred to as “cookies”) allow the websites to recognize your web browser and help to personalize and improve your user experience and enhance navigation of the website. You can change your cookie preferences by changing the setting on your web browser to delete or reject cookies. If you delete or reject cookies, some website pages may not function properly. Certain portions of doublelinefunds.com are maintained or controlled by third parties, each of which has privacy policies which may differ, in some cases significantly, from the privacy policies described in this notice. Please contact your DoubleLine representative if you would like to receive more information about the

 

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privacy policies of third parties.

How and why we may share your information

DoubleLine does not disclose any non-public personal information about our customers or former customers without the customer’s authorization, except that we may disclose the information listed above, as follows:

 

   

It may be necessary for DoubleLine to provide information to nonaffiliated third parties in connection with our performance of the services we have agreed to provide you. For example, it might be necessary to do so in order to process transactions and maintain accounts.

 

   

DoubleLine will release any of the non-public information listed above about a customer if directed to do so by that customer or if DoubleLine is authorized by law to do so, such as in the case of a court order, legal investigation, or other properly executed governmental request.

 

   

In order to alert a customer to other financial products and services offered by an affiliate, DoubleLine may share information with an affiliate, including companies using the DoubleLine name. Such products and services may include, for example, other investment products offered by a DoubleLine company. If you prefer that we not disclose non-public personal information about you to our affiliates for this purpose, you may direct us not to make such disclosures (other than disclosures permitted by law) by calling 1 (213) 633-8200. If you limit this sharing and you have a joint account, your decision will be applied to all owners of the account.

We will limit access to your personal account information to those agents and vendors who need to know that information to provide products and services to you. Your information is not provided by us to nonaffiliated third parties for marketing purposes. We maintain physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to guard your non-public personal information.

Notice to “natural persons” residing in the European Economic Area (the “EEA”)

If you reside in the EEA, we may transfer your personal information outside the EEA, and will ensure that it is protected and transferred in a manner consistent with legal requirements applicable to the information. This can be done in a number of different ways, for instance:

 

 

the country to which we send the personal information may have been assessed by the European Commission as providing an “adequate” level of protection for personal data;

 

 

the recipient may have signed a contract based on standard contractual clauses approved by the European Commission; or

 

 

where the recipient is located in the U.S., it may be a certified member of the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield scheme.

In other circumstances, the law may permit us to otherwise transfer your personal information outside the EEA. In all cases, however, any transfer of your personal information will be compliant with applicable data protection law.

Retention of personal information and security

Your personal information will be retained for as long as required:

 

 

for the purposes for which the personal information was collected;

 

 

in order to establish or defend legal rights or obligations or to satisfy any reporting or accounting obligations; and/or

 

 

as required by data protection laws and any other applicable laws or regulatory requirements, including, but not limited to, U.S. laws and regulations applicable to our business.

We will undertake commercially reasonable efforts to protect the personal information that we hold with appropriate security measures.

Access To and Control of Your Personal Information

Depending on your country of domicile, you may have the following rights in respect of the personal information about you that we process:

 

 

the right to access and port personal information;

 

 

the right to rectify personal information;

 

 

the right to restrict the use of personal information;

 

 

the right to request that personal information is erased; and

 

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the right to object to processing of personal information.

Although you have the right to request that your personal information be deleted at any time, applicable laws or regulatory requirements may prohibit us from doing so. If you are an investor in the DoubleLine funds, certain of the rights described above that may apply to direct clients of DoubleLine domiciled or resident outside the United States will not apply to you. In addition, if you invest in a DoubleLine fund through a financial intermediary, DoubleLine may not have access to personal information about you.

If you wish to exercise any of the rights set out above, please contact privacy@doubleline.com.

Changes to DoubleLine’s Privacy Policy

As required by U.S. federal law, DoubleLine will notify customers of DoubleLine’s Privacy Policy annually. DoubleLine reserves the right to modify its privacy policy at any time, but in the event that there is a change that affects the content of this notice materially, DoubleLine will promptly inform its customers of that change, in accordance with applicable law.

 

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LOGO

DoubleLine Funds

You can find more information about the Fund in the following documents:

Statement of Additional Information (SAI)

The Fund’s SAI provides more details about the Fund’s investments and its policies. A current SAI is on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and is incorporated by reference into this document and is legally considered part of this Prospectus. The SAI is available on the EDGAR Database on the Commission’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov, and may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at publicinfo@sec.gov.

Annual and Semi-Annual Reports

Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders.

TO OBTAIN INFORMATION

You can obtain a free copy of these documents (when available), request other information, or make general inquiries about the Fund by contacting the Fund:

By Internet:

Go to www.doublelinefunds.com

By Telephone:

Call 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) or your financial intermediary.

By Mail:

Write to:

DoubleLine Funds

c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, LLC

P.O. Box 701

Milwaukee, WI 53201

From the SEC

Reports and other information about the Fund (including the statement of additional information) are available on the EDGAR Database on the Commission’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov, and copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at publicinfo@sec.gov.

DoubleLine Funds Trust Investment Company Act File Number 811-22378

 

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333 S. Grand Ave., Suite 1800 Los Angeles, CA 90071

1 (877) DLINE11 or 1 (877) 354-6311

fundinfo@doubleline.com www.doublelinefunds.com

 

DL-INCPRO

  LOGO

 

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Subject to Completion dated June 12, 2019

The information in this Statement of Additional Information is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission becomes effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

LOGO

DoubleLine Funds Trust

333 South Grand Avenue, Suite 1800

Los Angeles, California 90071

(213) 633-8200

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

[ ], 2019

DoubleLine Income Fund

Class I Ticker [ ]

Class N Ticker [ ]

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) relates to the Prospectus (the “Prospectus”), dated [ ], as supplemented from time to time, for the DoubleLine Income Fund (the “Fund”). The Fund is an investment series of DoubleLine Funds Trust (the “Trust”). Class I and Class N shares of the Fund are offered through the Prospectus. The Fund is also offered through a Summary Prospectus. This SAI is not a prospectus but contains information in addition to that set forth in the Prospectus, as supplemented from time to time. This SAI should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus. A Prospectus or Summary Prospectus may be obtained at no charge by calling 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) or on the Fund’s website at www.doublelinefunds.com. This SAI, although not in itself a prospectus, is incorporated by reference into the Prospectus in its entirety.

The Fund’s audited financial statements in the Annual Report to Shareholders (when available) may be obtained upon request at no charge by calling 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) and on the Fund’s website at www.doublelinefunds.com.

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

     3  

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

     3  

INVESTMENT STRATEGIES

     4  

RISK CONSIDERATIONS

     39  

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

     61  

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO INFORMATION

     62  

BROKERAGE, ALLOCATION AND OTHER TRADING PRACTICES

     62  

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

     64  

INVESTMENT ADVISORY AGREEMENT

     70  

CODE OF ETHICS

     70  

PROXY VOTING POLICIES

     71  

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

     71  

PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

     72  

DISTRIBUTION OF TRUST SHARES

     74  

SHAREHOLDER SERVICING ARRANGEMENTS

     75  

PAYMENTS BY THE ADVISER

     75  

ADMINISTRATION AGREEMENT

     76  

CONVERSION OF SHARES BETWEEN CLASSES

     76  

HOW TO BUY AND REDEEM SHARES

     76  

PURCHASES IN KIND

     76  

DISTRIBUTIONS IN KIND

     76  

DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES

     77  

SHARES AND VOTING RIGHTS

     86  

TRANSFER AGENT

     86  

CUSTODIAN

     86  

LEGAL COUNSEL

     86  

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM AND FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     86  

APPENDIX A

     87  

APPENDIX B

     88  


Table of Contents

GENERAL INFORMATION

The Trust was formed as a Delaware statutory trust on January 11, 2010, and is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) as an open-end management investment company. DoubleLine Capital LP (“DoubleLine Capital” or the “Adviser”) acts as the investment adviser for the Fund.

The Fund offers two classes of shares: Class I shares and Class N shares.

The Fund is classified as a non-diversified fund under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”).

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

Fundamental Investment Policies

The investment restrictions numbered 1 through 7 below have been adopted as fundamental policies for the Fund.

1. The Fund may not issue any class of securities which is senior to the Fund’s shares of beneficial interest, except to the extent the Fund is permitted to borrow money and except as otherwise consistent with applicable law from time to time.

2. The Fund may borrow money to the extent permitted by applicable law from time to time.

3. The Fund may not act as underwriter of securities of other issuers except to the extent that, in connection with the disposition of portfolio securities or in connection with the purchase of securities directly from the issuer thereof, it may be deemed to be an underwriter under certain federal securities laws.

4. The Fund may not purchase any security if as a result 25% or more of the Fund’s total assets (taken at current value) would be invested in securities of issuers in a single industry (for purposes of this restriction, (i) bank loans and loan participations will be considered investments in the industry of the underlying borrower, (ii) investment companies are not considered to constitute an industry, and (iii) derivatives counterparties are not considered to be part of any industry).

5. The Fund may make loans, including to affiliated investment companies, except to the extent the Fund is prohibited from doing so by applicable law. The Fund may purchase loan participations or otherwise invest in loans or similar obligations, and may make loans directly to borrowers, itself or as part of a lending syndicate. The Fund may purchase debt obligations or other financial instruments in which the Fund may invest consistent with its investment policies, enter into repurchase agreements, or lend its portfolio securities.

6. The Fund may purchase or sell commodities to the extent permitted by applicable law from time to time.

7. The Fund will not purchase real estate directly, but may possess, hold, purchase and/or dispose of it in connection with managing or exercising its rights in respect of its investments. The Fund may, for clarity, (i) purchase interests in issuers which deal or invest in real estate, including limited partnership interests of limited partnerships that invest or deal in real estate, (ii) purchase securities which are secured by real estate or interests in real estate, including real estate mortgage loans, and (iii) acquire (by way of foreclosure or otherwise), hold and/or dispose of real estate that secured, or is otherwise related to, an investment of the Fund. (For purposes of this restriction, investments by the Fund in mortgage-backed securities and other securities representing interests in mortgage pools shall not constitute the purchase or sale of real estate.)

For purposes of applying the terms of the Fund’s fundamental policy number 4, the Adviser will, on behalf of the Fund, make reasonable determinations as to the appropriate industry classification to assign to each issuer of securities in which the Fund invests. As a general matter, the Fund considers an industry to be a group of companies whose principal activities, products or services offered give them a similar economic risk profile vis à vis issuers active in other sectors of the economy. The definition of what constitutes a particular industry is therefore an evolving one, particularly for issuers in industries that are new or are undergoing rapid development. Some issuers could reasonably fall within more than one industry category. For example, some companies that sell goods over the Internet (including issuers of securities in which the Fund may invest) were initially classified as Internet companies, but over time have evolved into the economic risk profiles of retail companies. Further, the Fund takes the position that mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities, whether government-issued or privately issued, do not represent interests in any particular industry or group of industries, and therefore the 25% concentration restrictions noted above do not apply to such securities.

For purposes of the Fund’s policies (including the fundamental policies discussed above), any actions taken or omitted or investments made in reliance on, or in accordance with, exemptive relief, no action relief, interpretive guidance or other regulatory or governmental action or guidance, shall be considered to have been taken, made, or omitted in accordance with applicable law.

Other Investment Policies

All percentage limitations and requirements (including those set forth in the fundamental policies discussed above) as to investments will apply only at the time of an investment to which the limitation or requirement is applicable and shall not be considered violated unless an excess or deficiency occurs or exists immediately after and as a result of such investment. Accordingly, any later increase or decrease resulting from a change in values, net assets or other circumstances will not be considered in determining whether any investment complies with the Fund’s limitation or requirement. Such percentage limitations and requirements do not apply to the asset coverage test set forth in Section 18(f)(1) of the 1940 Act.

The 1940 Act provides that a “vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities” of the Fund means the affirmative vote of the lesser of (1) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund, or (2) 67% or more of the shares present at a meeting if more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are represented at the meeting in person.

 

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It is contrary to the current policy of the Fund, which policy may be changed without shareholder approval, to invest more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets in securities which are determined to be illiquid by the Fund’s Board of Trustees (the “Board” or the “Trustees”), or persons designated by the Board to make such determinations (such as the Adviser) in accordance with procedures adopted by the Board.

INVESTMENT STRATEGIES

The Fund’s Prospectus describes the Fund’s principal investment strategies. The following provides information that supplements the information provided in the Fund’s Prospectus.

Certain strategies and instruments described below may not apply to the Fund. Unless a strategy, instrument or policy described below is specifically prohibited by the investment restrictions listed in the Fund’s Prospectus, under “Investment Restrictions” in this SAI, or by applicable law, the Fund may, but will not necessarily, engage in each of the investment practices described below. Except as stated elsewhere in the Fund’s Prospectus or this SAI, to the extent the Fund has reserved the freedom to invest in a type of investment or to utilize a particular investment practice, the Fund may invest in such investment or engage in such investment practice without limit.

The Adviser’s investment process may take into account a number of factors. These factors may include, among others, standard of living convergence, consumer deleveraging, private sector debt transference and demographic shifts, position in the business cycle, sector returns, relative growth, monetary and fiscal policy, risk integration, market sentiment, behavioral analysis, relative value, market technicals, and government and /or regulatory intervention.

The Fund will attempt to achieve its objective by investing in a variety of investments (that may be obligations of domestic or foreign entities), such as but not limited to (as specified in greater detail below), (i) project bonds; (ii) debt obligations issued or guaranteed by governments or governmental agencies (iii) U.S. Government Securities; (iv) corporate debt securities, including bonds, notes and debentures; (v) corporate and asset-backed commercial paper; (vi) mortgage and other asset-backed securities of all kinds, including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”), Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (“REMICs”) and Re-REMICs (which are REMICs that have been resecuritized); (vii) Enhanced Equipment Trust Certificates (“EETCs”) and Equipment Trust Certificate (“ETCs”) (viii) variable and floating rate debt securities (including inverse floaters and floating rate notes); (ix) subordinated corporate, mortgage, and asset-backed securities; (x) equity securities of any kind; (xi) commodities; (xii) bank certificates of deposit; (xiii) fixed time deposits and bankers’ acceptances; (xiv) money market securities; (xv) repurchase agreements and reverse repurchase agreements; (xvi) hybrid securities; (xvii) obligations of foreign governments or their subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities or foreign corporate issuers; (xviii) loan participations and assignments; (xix) commercial or residential whole mortgage loans; (xx) derivatives (including but not limited to options, futures contracts, including Treasury futures, swap agreements such as credit default swaps, interest rate swaps, and total and excess return swaps, and currency-related transactions, including forward exchange contracts and futures contracts); (xxi) private placements, including Regulation S and Rule 144A securities; (xxii) futures and options on futures relating to currencies, indexes and other financial factors; (xxiii) loans including, without limitation, secured and unsecured senior loans, term loan Bs, mezzanine, second lien, and other subordinated loans, delayed funding loans, revolving credit facilities, non-performing loans, re-performing loans, and other fixed and floating rate loans (as well as various forms of securitizations of these and other types of loans); (xxiv) distressed and defaulted debt securities; (xxv) mortgage dollar rolls; (xxvi) other mutual funds, including Exchange Traded Funds (“ETFs”), such as SPDRs or iShares; (xxvii) unrated securities; (xxviii) structured notes; (xxix) municipal bonds and securities; (xxx) collateralized debt obligations such as collateralized loan obligations and collateralized bond obligations; (xxxi) perpetual maturity bonds; (xxxii) inflation-indexed bonds; (xxxiii) convertible securities; (xxxiv) preferred securities; (xxxv) payment-in-kind bonds; (xxxvi) zero-coupon bonds; (xxxvii) custodial receipts, cash and cash equivalents; (xxxviii) short-term, high quality investments, including, for example, commercial paper, bankers’ acceptances, certificates of deposit, and bank time deposits; (xxxix) real estate investment trusts (“REITs”); (xl) credit-linked notes; (xli) pass-through notes; (xlii) contingent value rights; (xliii) Private Investments in Public Companies (“PIPEs”); (xliv) global depositary notes (“GDNs”); and (xlv) bank capital securities. The Fund generally will invest in some, but generally not all, of these types of investments at any given time, each of which may be denominated in United States Dollars (“USD”) or any other currency worldwide as permitted by the Fund’s investment objective and strategies. Depending on the Fund’s principal investment strategies, the amount of the Fund’s assets that may be committed to any of these types of investments (if any) may vary. The above list of investments is not intended to be an exhaustive list of the types of investments in which the Fund may invest.

Strategies and Investments

In attempting to achieve its investment objective, the Fund may utilize, among others, one or more of the strategies or securities set forth below. The Fund may, in addition, invest in other instruments (including derivative investments) or use other investment strategies that are developed or become available in the future and that are consistent with its objective and restrictions. The investment strategies described below may be pursued directly by the Fund.

Borrowing and Other Forms of Leverage. The Fund may borrow money to the extent permitted by its investment policies and restrictions and applicable law. When the Fund borrows money or otherwise leverages its portfolio, the value of an investment in the Fund will be more volatile and other investment risks will tend to be compounded. This is because leverage tends to exaggerate the effect of any increase or decrease in the value of the Fund’s holdings. In addition to borrowing money from banks, the Fund may engage in certain other investment transactions that may be viewed as forms of financial leverage – for example, entering into reverse repurchase agreements, investing collateral from loans of portfolio securities, entering into when-issued, delayed-delivery, or forward commitment transactions, or using derivatives such as swaps, futures, forwards, and options.

Custodial Receipts. The Fund may invest in custodial receipts representing interests in securities held by a custodian. The securities so held may include U.S. Government Securities or other types of securities in which the Fund may invest. The custodial receipts may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts may not be considered obligations of the U.S. government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. As a holder of custodial

 

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receipts, the Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account.

Derivatives. Some of the instruments in which the Fund may invest may be referred to as “derivatives,” because their value “derives” from the value of an underlying asset, reference rate or index. These instruments include options, futures contracts, forward currency contracts, swap agreements and similar instruments. The market value of derivative instruments and securities sometimes may be more volatile than those of other instruments and each type of derivative instrument may have its own special risks.

Some over-the-counter derivative instruments may expose the Fund to the credit risk of its counterparty. In the event the counterparty to such a derivative instrument becomes insolvent, the Fund potentially could lose all or a large portion of its investment in the derivative instrument.

Investing for hedging purposes or to increase the Fund’s return may result in certain additional transaction costs that may reduce the Fund’s performance. In addition, when used for hedging purposes, no assurance can be given that each derivative position will achieve a close correlation with the security or currency that is the subject of the hedge, or that a particular derivative position will be available when sought by the Adviser. While hedging strategies involving derivatives can reduce the risk of loss, they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or even result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other Fund investments. Certain derivatives may create a risk of loss greater than the amount invested. The Fund or its agents will earmark or segregate liquid assets on its books against its derivatives exposures to the extent required by applicable law.

Equity Securities. The Fund may invest in equity securities. Equity securities are securities that represent an ownership interest (or the right to acquire such an interest) in a company and include common and preferred stock. Common stocks represent an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. Preferred stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer that pays dividends at a specified rate and that has priority over common stock in the payment of dividends. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds take priority over holders of preferred stock, whose claims take priority over the claims of those who own common stock.

While offering greater potential for long-term growth, equity securities generally are more volatile and riskier than some other forms of investment, although under certain market conditions various fixed-income investments have comparable or greater price volatility. Therefore, the value of an investment in the Fund may at times decrease instead of increase. The Fund’s investments may include securities traded over-the-counter as well as those traded on a securities exchange. Some securities, particularly over-the-counter securities, may be more difficult to sell under some market conditions.

Smaller Company Equity Securities. The Fund may invest in equity securities of companies with small market capitalizations. Such investments may involve greater risk than is usually associated with larger, more established companies. Companies with small market capitalizations often have limited product lines, markets or financial resources and may be dependent upon a relatively small management group. These securities may have limited marketability and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic movements in price than securities of companies with larger market capitalizations or market averages in general. To the extent the Fund invests in securities with small market capitalizations, the net asset value (“NAV”) of the Fund may fluctuate more widely than market averages.

Exchange-Traded Funds and other Investment Companies. The Fund may invest in shares of both open- or closed-end investment companies (including money market funds, single country funds, and ETFs) and trusts, limited partnerships, limited liability companies or other forms of business organizations, including other pooled investment vehicles sponsored, advised, distributed or serviced by, or otherwise affiliated with, the Adviser, related parties of the Adviser or other service providers to the Fund. Investing in another pooled vehicle exposes the Fund to all the risks of that pooled vehicle.

As the shareholder of another investment company, the Fund would bear, along with other shareholders, its pro rata portion of the other investment company’s expenses, including advisory fees. Such expenses are in addition to the expenses the Fund pays in connection with its own operations. If the Fund invests in pooled or other investment vehicles sponsored by the Adviser or related parties of the Adviser (“other DoubleLine Funds”), the Adviser will waive its advisory fee in an amount equal to the advisory fees paid to the Adviser or a related party by other DoubleLine Funds and other pooled investment vehicles in respect of Fund assets so invested. The Fund’s investments in other investment companies may be limited by applicable law. It is possible that, under certain circumstances, the Fund may be prevented by applicable law from investing in other investment companies when doing so may otherwise be the most efficient way for the Fund to obtain exposure to a portfolio of debt securities.

Despite the possibility of greater fees and expenses, investments in other investment companies may nonetheless be attractive for several reasons, especially in connection with foreign investments. Because of restrictions on direct investment by U.S. entities in certain countries, investing indirectly in such countries (by purchasing shares of another fund that is permitted to invest in such countries) may be the most practical and efficient way for the Fund to invest in such countries. In other cases, when a portfolio manager desires to make only a relatively small investment in a particular country, investing through another fund that holds a diversified portfolio in that country may be more effective than investing directly in issuers in that country.

Among the types of investment companies in which the Fund may invest are Portfolio Depositary Receipts (“PDRs”) and Index Fund Shares (PDRs and Index Fund Shares are collectively referred to as ETFs). PDRs represent interests in a unit investment trust (“UIT”) holding a portfolio of securities that may be obtained from the UIT or purchased in the secondary market. Each PDR is intended to track the underlying securities, trade like a share of common stock, and pay to PDR holders periodic dividends proportionate to those paid with respect to the underlying securities, less certain expenses. Index Fund Shares are shares issued by an open-end management investment company that seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally to the price and yield performance of a specified index (Index Fund). Individual investments in PDRs generally are not redeemable, except upon termination of the UIT. Similarly, individual investments in Index Fund Shares generally are not redeemable.

 

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However, large quantities of PDRs known as “Creation Units” are redeemable from the sponsor of the UIT. ETFs include, among others, Standard & Poor’s Depositary Receipts (“SPDRs”), Optimized Funds as Listed Securities (“OPALS”), Dow Jones Industrial Average Instruments (“Diamonds”), NASDAQ 100 tracking shares (“QQQ”) and I-Shares.

SPDRs. The SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust tracks the performance of a basket of stocks intended to track the price performance and dividend yields of the S&P 500 until a specified maturity date. SPDRs are listed on the NYSE MKT LLC. Holders of SPDRs are entitled to receive quarterly distributions corresponding to dividends received on shares contained in the underlying basket of stocks net of expenses. On the maturity date of the SPDRs’ UIT, the holders will receive the value of the underlying basket of stocks.

OPALS. OPALS track the performance of adjustable baskets of stocks until a specified maturity date. Holders of OPALS are entitled to receive semi-annual distributions corresponding to dividends received on shares contained in the underlying basket of stocks, net of expenses. On the maturity date of the OPALS’ UIT, the holders will receive the physical securities comprising the underlying baskets.

I-Shares. I-Shares are Index Fund Shares. I-Shares track the performance of specified equity market indexes, including the S&P 500. I-Shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange Arca and the Chicago Board Option Exchange. Holders of I-Shares are entitled to receive distributions not less frequently than annually corresponding to dividends and other distributions received on shares contained in the underlying basket of stocks net of expenses.

Block sizes of ETF shares, also known as “Creation Units,” are redeemable from the issuing ETF. The liquidity of smaller holdings of ETF shares will depend upon the existence of a secondary market.

Disruptions in the markets for the securities underlying ETFs purchased or sold by the Fund could result in losses on investments in ETFs. ETFs also carry the risk that the price the Fund pays or receives may be higher or lower than the ETF’s NAV. ETFs are also subject to certain additional risks, including the risks of illiquidity and of possible trading halts due to market conditions or other reasons, based on the policies of the relevant exchange. ETFs and other investment companies in which the Fund may invest may be leveraged, which would increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.

Fixed-Income Securities. The Fund may invest in fixed-income securities. Fixed-income securities include a broad array of short-, medium-, and long-term obligations issued by the U.S. or foreign governments, government or international agencies and instrumentalities, and corporate and private issuers of various types. The maturity date is the date on which a fixed-income security matures. This is the date on which the borrower must pay back the borrowed amount, which is known as the principal. Some fixed-income securities represent uncollateralized obligations of their issuers; in other cases, the securities may be backed by specific assets (such as mortgages or other receivables) that have been set aside as collateral for the issuer’s obligation. Fixed-income securities generally involve an obligation of the issuer to pay interest or dividends on either a current basis or at the maturity of the security, as well as the obligation to repay the principal amount of the security at maturity. The rate of interest on fixed-income securities may be fixed, floating, or variable. Some securities pay a higher interest rate than the current market rate. An investor may have to pay more than the security’s principal to compensate the seller for the value of the higher interest rate. This additional payment is a premium.

Fixed-income securities are subject to credit risk, market risk, and interest rate risk. Except to the extent values are affected by other factors such as developments relating to a specific issuer, generally the value of a fixed-income security can be expected to rise when interest rates decline and, conversely, the value of such a security can be expected to fall when interest rates rise. Some fixed-income securities may be subject to extension risk. This is the risk that if interest rates rise, repayments of principal on certain debt securities, including, but not limited to, floating rate loans and mortgage-related securities, may occur at a slower rate than expected and the expected maturity of those securities could lengthen as a result. Some fixed-income securities also involve prepayment or call risk. This is the risk that the issuer will repay the Fund the principal on the security before it is due, thus depriving the Fund of a favorable stream of future interest or dividend payments. The Fund could buy another security, but that other security might pay a lower interest rate. In addition, many fixed-income securities contain call or buy-back features that permit their issuers to call or repurchase the securities from their holders. Such securities may present risks based on payment expectations. Although the Fund would typically receive a premium if an issuer were to redeem a security, if an issuer were to exercise a call option and redeem the security during times of declining interest rates, the Fund may realize a capital loss on its investment if the security was purchased at a premium and the Fund may be forced to replace the called security with a lower yielding security.

Changes by nationally recognized securities rating organizations (“NRSROs”) in their ratings of any fixed-income security or the issuer of a fixed-income security and changes in the ability of an issuer to make payments of interest and principal may also affect the value of these investments. Changes in the value of portfolio securities generally will not affect income derived from these securities, but will affect the Fund’s NAV.

Because interest rates vary, it is impossible to predict the income, if any, for any particular period for the Fund that invests in fixed-income securities. Fluctuations in the value of the Fund’s investments in fixed-income securities will cause the NAV of each class of the Fund to fluctuate also.

Duration is an estimate of how much a bond Fund’s share price will fluctuate in response to a change in interest rates. In general, the value of a fixed-income security with positive duration will generally decline if interest rates increase, whereas the value of a security with negative duration will generally decline if interest rates decrease. If interest rates rise by one percentage point, the share price of the Fund representing a portfolio of debt securities with an average duration of five years would be expected to decline by approximately 5%. If rates decrease by a percentage point, the share price of the Fund representing a portfolio of debt securities with an average duration of five years would be expected to rise by approximately 5%. The greater the duration of a bond (whether positive or negative), the greater its percentage price volatility. Only a pure discount bond – that is, one with no coupon or sinking-fund payments – has a duration equal to the remaining maturity of the bond, because only in this case does the present value of the final redemption payment represent the entirety of the present value of the bond. For all other bonds, duration is less than maturity.

 

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The Fund may invest in variable- or floating-rate securities that bear interest at rates subject to periodic adjustment or provide for periodic recovery of principal on demand. Variable- and floating-rate securities may include, without limitations, floating rate notes issued by the U.S. Treasury, catastrophe and other event-linked bonds, bank capital securities, unsecured bank loans, corporate bonds, money market instruments and certain types of mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities. The value of the Fund’s investment in certain of these securities may depend on the Fund’s right to demand that a specified bank, broker-dealer, or other financial institution either purchase such securities from the Fund at par or make payment on short notice to the Fund of unpaid principal and/or interest on the securities. These securities are subject to, among others, interest rate risk and credit risk.

The Fund may invest in commercial paper, which is a short-term debt obligation that is usually issued by banks, corporations, and other borrowers and often sold on a discount basis in order to finance their current operations. Commercial paper is typically bought by investors to earn returns on a short-term basis, and it is usually repaid at maturity by the issuer from the proceeds of the issuance of new commercial paper. As a result, investments in commercial paper are subject to the risk that the issuer cannot issue enough new commercial paper to satisfy its outstanding commercial paper, also known as rollover risk. In addition, under certain circumstances commercial paper may become illiquid or may suffer from reduced liquidity. These instruments are generally unsecured, which increases the credit risk associated with this type of investment.

Commercial paper purchasable by the Fund may include “Section 4(a)(2) paper,” a term that includes debt obligations issued in reliance on the “private placement” exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). Section 4(a)(2) paper is restricted as to disposition under the Federal securities laws, and is frequently sold (and resold) to institutional investors such as the Fund through or with the assistance of investment dealers who make a market in the Section 4(a)(2) paper, thereby providing liquidity. Section 4(a)(2) paper is sold to institutional investors who must agree to purchase the paper for investment and not with a view to public distribution. Any resale by the purchaser must be in a transaction exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act. Section 4(a)(2) paper normally is resold to other institutional investors like the Fund through or with the assistance of the issuer or investment dealers that make a market in Section 4(a)(2) paper. As a result it is subject to liquidity risk, the risk that the securities may be difficult to value because of the absence of an active market, and the risk that it may be sold only after considerable expense and delay, if at all. There can be no assurance that a liquid trading market will exist at any time for any particular Section 4(a)(2) paper securities.

The Fund also may purchase asset-backed commercial paper, which includes debt obligations issued in reliance on an exemption from registration available in Section 3(a)(3) of the Securities Act. Asset-backed commercial paper issued pursuant to Section 3(a)(3) must not have a maturity exceeding nine months. Asset-backed commercial paper is subject to similar liquidity risks associated with Section 4(a)(2) paper described in the paragraph above.

Generally, the Adviser uses the terms debt security, debt obligation, bond, fixed-income instrument and fixed-income security interchangeably. These terms should be considered to include any evidence of indebtedness, including, by way of example, a security or instrument having one or more of the following characteristics: a security or instrument issued at a discount to its face value, a security or instrument that pays interest at a fixed, floating, or variable rate, or a security or instrument with a stated principal amount that requires repayment of some or all of that principal amount to the holder of the security. These terms are interpreted broadly to include any instrument or security evidencing what is commonly referred to as an IOU rather than evidencing the corporate ownership of equity unless that equity represents an indirect or derivative interest in one or more debt securities. For this purpose, the terms also include instruments that are intended to provide one or more of the characteristics of a direct investment in one or more debt securities. As new fixed-income instruments are developed, the Adviser may invest in those opportunities for the Fund as well.

Contingent Value Rights. The Fund may invest in contingent value rights (“CVRs”). A CVR gives its holder the right to receive an amount, which may be fixed or determined by a formula, in the event that a specified corporate action or other business event or trigger occurs (or fails to occur) during the term of the CVR. CVRs are often awarded to shareholders as a result of a corporate acquisition or restructuring. For example, shareholders of an acquired company may receive CVRs that enable them to receive additional shares of the acquiring company upon certain trigger events such as a specified drop in the acquiring company’s share price. Risks associated with investments in CVRs are generally similar to risks associated with the use of options, such as the risk that the trigger event does not occur prior to the CVR’s expiration, causing it to expire with no value. CVRs also may be subject to risks associated with unregistered securities as well as illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, and credit risk. In addition, CVRs may be subject to valuation risk because they may be valued based on the likelihood of the occurrence of a trigger event, which may require subjective modeling and judgment.

Futures Contracts. The Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts (each a “futures contract”), including interest rate futures and security index futures contracts, futures contracts on commodities or commodity-related derivatives, Treasury futures, currency and currency index futures contracts, on securities or currencies eligible for purchase by the Fund.

The Fund may enter into interest rate futures contracts and securities index futures contracts (collectively referred to as “financial futures contracts”) for hedging or other purposes. Interest rate futures contracts obligate the long or short holder to take or make delivery of a specified quantity of a financial instrument during a specified future period at a specified price. Securities index futures contracts, which are contracts to buy or sell units of a securities index at a specified future date at a price agreed upon when the contract is made, are similar in economic effect, but they are based on a specific index of securities (rather than on specified securities) and are settled in cash.

The following example illustrates generally the manner in which index futures contracts operate. The Standard & Poor’s 100 Stock Index (the “S&P 100 Index”) is composed of 100 selected common stocks, most of which are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”). The S&P 100 Index assigns relative weightings to the common stocks included in that index, and the index fluctuates with changes in the market values of those common stocks. In the case of the S&P 100 Index, contracts are to buy or sell 100 units. Thus, if the value of the S&P 100 Index were $180, one contract would be worth $18,000 (100 units x $180). The stock index futures contract specifies that no delivery of the actual stocks making up the index will take place. Instead, settlement in cash must occur upon the termination of the contract, with the settlement being the difference between the contract price and the actual level of the stock index at the expiration of the contract. For example, if the Fund enters into a futures contract to buy 100 units of the S&P 100 Index at a specified future date at a contract price of

 

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$180 and the S&P 100 Index is at $184 on that future date, the Fund will gain $400 (100 units x gain of $4). If the Fund enters into a futures contract to sell 100 units of the stock index at a specified future date at a contract price of $180 and the S&P 100 Index is at $182 on that future date, the Fund will lose $200 (100 units x loss of $2).

Positions in index futures may be closed out only on an exchange or board of trade which provides a secondary market for such futures.

Treasury futures are futures contracts that track the prices of specific U.S. Treasury securities.

In order to hedge its investments successfully using financial futures contracts, the Fund must invest in futures contracts with respect to securities, indexes or sub-indexes the movements of which will, in the Adviser’s judgment, have a significant correlation with movements in the prices of the Fund’s portfolio securities.

There are special risks associated with entering into financial futures contracts. The skills needed to use financial futures contracts effectively are different from those needed to select the Fund’s investments. There may be an imperfect correlation between the price movements of financial futures contracts and the price movements of the securities in which the Fund invests. There is also a risk that the Fund will be unable to close a futures position when desired because there is no liquid secondary market for it.

The risk of loss in trading financial futures can be substantial due to the low margin deposits required and the extremely high degree of leverage involved in futures pricing. Relatively small price movements in a financial futures contract could have an immediate and substantial impact, which may be favorable or unfavorable to the Fund. It is possible for a price-related loss to exceed the amount of the Fund’s margin deposit.

Although some financial futures contracts by their terms call for the actual delivery or acquisition of securities at expiration, in most cases the contractual commitment is closed out before expiration. The offsetting of a contractual obligation is accomplished by purchasing (or selling as the case may be) on a commodities or futures exchange an identical financial futures contract calling for delivery in the same month. Such a transaction, if effected through a member of an exchange, cancels the obligation to make or take delivery of the securities. The Fund will incur brokerage fees when it purchases or sells financial futures contracts, and will be required to maintain margin deposits. If a liquid secondary market does not exist when the Fund wishes to close out a financial futures contract, it will not be able to do so and will continue to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin in the event of adverse price movements. There is no assurance that the Fund will be able to enter into closing transactions.

The Fund may enter into futures contracts on other underlying assets or indexes, including physical commodities and indexes of physical commodities.

At any time prior to expiration of a futures contract, the Fund may seek to close the position by taking an opposite position which would typically operate to terminate the Fund’s position in the futures contract. A final determination of any variation margin is then made, additional cash is required to be paid by or released to the Fund and the Fund realizes a loss or gain.

Margin Payments. When the Fund purchases or sells a futures contract, it is required to deposit with its custodian an amount of cash, U.S. Treasury bills, or other permissible collateral equal to a small percentage of the amount of the futures contract. This amount is known as initial margin. Initial margin requirements are established by the exchanges on which futures contracts trade and may, from time to time, change. The nature of initial margin is different from that of margin in security transactions in that it does not involve borrowing money to finance transactions. Rather, initial margin is similar to a performance bond or good faith deposit that is returned to the Fund upon termination of the contract, assuming the Fund satisfies its contractual obligations. In addition, brokers may establish margin deposit requirements in excess of those required by the exchanges.

Subsequent payments to and from the broker occur on a daily basis in a process known as marking to market. These payments are called variation margin and are made as the value of the underlying futures contract fluctuates. For example, when the Fund sells a futures contract and the price of the underlying index rises above the delivery price, the Fund’s position declines in value. The Fund then pays the broker a variation margin payment equal to the difference between the delivery price of the futures contract and the value of the index underlying the futures contract. Conversely, if the price of the underlying index falls below the delivery price of the contract, the Fund’s futures position increases in value. The broker then must make a variation margin payment equal to the difference between the delivery price of the futures contract and the value of the index underlying the futures contract.

When the Fund terminates a position in a futures contract, a final determination of variation margin is made, additional cash is paid by or to the Fund, and the Fund realizes a loss or a gain. Such closing transactions involve additional commission costs.

Options on Financial Futures Contracts. The Fund may purchase and write call and put options on financial futures contracts. An option on a financial futures contract gives the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in an index futures contract (a long position if the option is a call and a short position if the option is a put) at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option. Upon exercise of the option, the holder would assume the underlying futures position and would receive a variation margin payment of cash or securities approximating the increase in the value of the holder’s option position. If an option is exercised on the last trading day prior to the expiration date of the option, the settlement will be made entirely in cash based on the difference between the exercise price of the option and the closing level of the index on which the futures contract is based on the expiration date. Purchasers of options who fail to exercise their options prior to the exercise date suffer a loss of the premium paid.

Special Risks of Transactions in Futures Contracts and Related Options. Financial futures contracts entail risks. If the Adviser’s judgment about the general direction of interest rates or markets is wrong, the Fund’s overall performance may be poorer than if no financial futures contracts had been entered into. For example, in some cases, securities called for by a financial futures contract may not have been issued at the time the contract was written. In addition, the market prices of

 

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financial futures contracts may be affected by certain factors.

Liquidity Risks. Positions in futures contracts may be closed out only on an exchange or board of trade which provides a secondary market for such futures. Although the Fund may intend to purchase or sell futures only on exchanges or boards of trade where there appears to be an active secondary market, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange or board of trade will exist for any particular contract or at any particular time. If there is not a liquid secondary market at a particular time, it may not be possible to close a futures position at such time and, in the event of adverse price movements, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin. However, in the event financial futures are used to hedge portfolio securities, such securities will not generally be sold until the financial futures can be terminated. In such circumstances, an increase in the price of the portfolio securities, if any, may partially or completely offset losses on the financial futures.

The ability to establish and close out positions in options on futures contracts will be subject to the development and maintenance of a liquid secondary market. It is not certain that such a market will develop. Although the Fund generally will purchase only those options for which there appears to be an active secondary market, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange will exist for any particular option or at any particular time. In the event no such market exists for particular options, it might not be possible to effect closing transactions in such options, with the result that the Fund would have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit.

Hedging Risks. There are several risks in connection with the use by the Fund of futures contracts and related options as a hedging device. One risk arises because of the imperfect correlation between movements in the prices of the futures contracts and options and movements in the underlying securities or index or movements in the prices of the Fund’s securities which are the subject of a hedge. The Adviser will, however, attempt to reduce this risk by purchasing and selling, to the extent possible, futures contracts and related options on securities and indexes the movements of which will, in its judgment, correlate closely with movements in the prices of the underlying securities or index and the Fund’s portfolio securities sought to be hedged.

Successful use of futures contracts and options by the Fund for hedging purposes is also subject to the Adviser’s ability to correctly predict movements in the direction of the market. It is possible that, where the Fund has purchased puts on futures contracts to hedge its portfolio against a decline in the market, the securities or index on which the puts are purchased may increase in value and the value of securities held in the portfolio may decline. If this occurred, the Fund would lose money on the puts and also experience a decline in the value of its portfolio securities. In addition, the prices of futures, for a number of reasons, may not correlate perfectly with movements in the underlying securities or index due to certain market distortions. First, all participants in the futures market are subject to margin deposit requirements. Such requirements may cause investors to close futures contracts through offsetting transactions which could distort the normal relationship between the underlying security or index and futures markets. Second, the margin requirements in the futures markets are less onerous than margin requirements in the securities markets in general, and as a result the futures markets may attract more speculators than the securities markets do. Increased participation by speculators in the futures markets may also cause temporary price distortions. Due to the possibility of price distortion, even a correct forecast of general market trends by the Adviser still may not result in a successful hedging transaction over a very short time period.

Other Risks. The Fund will incur brokerage fees in connection with its futures and options transactions. In addition, while futures contracts and options on futures will be purchased and sold to reduce certain risks, those transactions themselves entail certain other risks. Thus, while the Fund may benefit from the use of futures and related options, unanticipated changes in interest rates or stock price movements may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not entered into any futures contracts or options transactions. Moreover, in the event of an imperfect correlation between the futures position and the portfolio position that is intended to be protected, the desired protection may not be obtained and the Fund may be exposed to risk of loss.

The risks associated with purchasing and writing put and call options on financial futures contracts can be influenced by the market for financial futures contracts. An increase in the market value of a financial futures contract on which the Fund has written an option may cause the option to be exercised. In this situation, the benefit to the Fund would be limited to the value of the exercise price of the option and, if the Fund closes out the option, the cost of entering into the offsetting transaction could exceed the premium the Fund initially received for writing the option. In addition, the Fund’s ability to enter into an offsetting transaction depends upon the market’s demand for such financial futures contracts. If a purchased option expires unexercised, the Fund would realize a loss in the amount of the premium paid for the option.

The Adviser has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) pursuant to U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) Regulation 4.5 (the “exclusion”). Accordingly, the Adviser currently is not subject to registration or regulation as a pool operator under the CEA. The Fund currently expects to operate in a manner that would permit the Adviser to continue to claim the exclusion under Rule 4.5, which may adversely affect the Adviser’s ability to manage the Fund under certain market conditions and may adversely affect the Fund’s total returns. In the event the Adviser becomes unable to rely on the exclusion in Rule 4.5 with respect to the Fund and is required to register with the CFTC as a commodity pool operator, the Fund’s expenses may increase and the Fund may be adversely affected. The Fund may be limited in its ability to use futures and options on futures and to engage in certain swaps transactions during any period where its investment adviser is not registered as a Commodity Pool Operator or Commodity Trading Advisor. Such limitations are not expected to affect the normal operations of the Fund.

Congress, various exchanges and regulatory and self-regulatory authorities have undertaken reviews of options and futures trading in light of market volatility. Among the actions that have been taken or are proposed to be taken are new limits and reporting requirements for speculative positions, particularly in the energy markets, new or more stringent daily price fluctuation limits for futures and options transactions, and increased margin requirements for various types of futures transactions. Additional measures are under active consideration and as a result there may be further actions that adversely affect the regulation of the instruments in which the Fund may invest. Subject to certain limitations, the Fund may enter into futures contracts or options on such contracts to attempt to protect against possible changes in the market value of securities held in or to be purchased by the Fund resulting from interest rate or market fluctuations, to protect the Fund’s unrealized gains in the value of its portfolio securities, to facilitate the sale of such securities for investment purposes, to manage its

 

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effective maturity or duration, or to establish a position in the derivatives markets as a temporary substitute for purchasing or selling particular securities. In connection with the purchase or sale of futures contracts, the Fund will be required to either (i) segregate sufficient cash or other liquid assets to cover the outstanding position or (ii) cover the futures contract by either owning the instruments underlying the futures contracts or by holding a portfolio of securities with characteristics substantially similar to the underlying index or stock index comprising the futures contracts or by holding a separate offsetting option permitting it to purchase or sell the same futures contract.

The Fund may purchase or sell interest rate futures for the purpose of hedging some or all of the value of its portfolio securities against changes in prevailing interest rates or to manage its duration or effective maturity. If the Adviser anticipates that interest rates may rise and, concomitantly, the price of certain of its portfolio securities may fall, the Fund may sell futures contracts. If declining interest rates are anticipated, the Fund may purchase futures contracts to protect against a potential increase in the price of securities the Fund intends to purchase. Subsequently, appropriate securities may be purchased by the Fund in an orderly fashion; as securities are purchased, corresponding futures positions would be terminated by offsetting sales of contracts.

High Yield Securities (“Junk Bonds”). Corporate bonds and certain other fixed income instruments (for purposes of this discussion, all such instruments are herein referred to as “securities”) rated below investment grade, or such instruments that are unrated and are determined by the Adviser to be of comparable quality, are high yield, high risk bonds, commonly known as “junk bonds.” A security is generally considered to be below investment grade if it is rated Ba1 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) and BB+ by S&P Global Ratings (“S&P”), or lower, or the equivalent by any other nationally recognized statistical rating organization. See Appendix A for a description of these ratings.

While offering a greater potential opportunity for capital appreciation and higher yields compared to higher-rated fixed income securities, high yield investments typically entail greater potential price volatility and may be less liquid than higher-rated securities. Junk bonds and high yield investments may be regarded as predominately speculative with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to meet principal and interest payments. They may also be more susceptible to real or perceived adverse economic and competitive industry conditions than higher-rated securities. Issuers of securities in default may fail to resume principal or interest payments, in which case the Fund may lose its entire investment.

The lower ratings of certain securities held by the Fund reflect a greater possibility that adverse changes in the financial condition of the issuer, or in general economic conditions, or both, or an unanticipated rise in interest rates, may impair the ability of the issuer to make payments of interest and principal. The inability (or perceived inability) of issuers to make timely payment of interest and principal would likely make the values of securities held by the Fund more volatile and could limit the Fund’s ability to sell its securities at prices approximating the values the Fund had placed on such securities. In the absence of a liquid trading market for securities held by it, the Fund may be unable at times to establish the fair market value of such securities. The rating assigned to a security by Moody’s, S&P, or any other NRSRO does not reflect an assessment of the volatility of the security’s market value or of the liquidity of an investment in the security.

Like those of other fixed-income securities, the values of lower-rated securities fluctuate in response to changes in interest rates. Thus, a decrease in interest rates generally will result in an increase in the value of the Fund’s fixed-income securities. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, the value of the Fund’s fixed-income securities generally will decline. In addition, the values of such securities are also affected by changes in general economic conditions and business conditions affecting the specific industries of their issuers. Changes by recognized rating services in their ratings of any fixed-income security and in the ability of an issuer to make payments of interest and principal may also affect the value of these investments. Changes in the values of portfolio securities generally will not affect cash income derived from such securities, but will affect the Fund’s NAV.

Issuers of lower-rated securities are often highly leveraged, so that their ability to service their debt obligations during an economic downturn or during sustained periods of rising interest rates may be impaired. In addition, such issuers may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them, and may be unable to repay debt at maturity by refinancing. The risk of loss due to default in payment of interest or principal by such issuers is significantly greater because such securities frequently are unsecured and subordinated to the prior payment of senior indebtedness. Certain of the lower-rated securities in which the Fund may invest are issued to raise funds in connection with the acquisition of a company, in so-called leveraged buy-out transactions. The highly leveraged capital structure of such issuers may make them especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic conditions.

Under adverse market or economic conditions or in the event of adverse changes in the financial condition of the issuer, the Fund could find it more difficult to sell lower-rated securities when the Adviser believes it advisable to do so or may be able to sell such securities only at prices lower than might otherwise be available. In many cases, lower-rated securities may be purchased in private placements and, accordingly, will be subject to restrictions on resale as a matter of contract or under securities laws. Under such circumstances, it may also be more difficult to determine the fair value of such securities for purposes of computing the Fund’s NAV. In order to enforce its rights in the event of a default under lower-rated securities, the Fund may be required to take possession of and manage assets securing the issuer’s obligations on such securities, which may increase the Fund’s operating expenses and adversely affect the Fund’s NAV. The Fund may also be limited in its ability to enforce its rights and may incur greater costs in enforcing its rights in the event an issuer becomes the subject of bankruptcy proceedings. In addition, the Fund’s intention to qualify as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), may limit the extent to which the Fund may exercise its rights by taking possession of such assets.

Certain securities held by the Fund may permit the issuer at its option to call, or redeem, its securities. If an issuer were to redeem securities held by the Fund during a time of declining interest rates, the Fund may not be able to reinvest the proceeds in securities providing the same investment return as the securities redeemed.

Lower-rated securities may be subject to certain risks not typically associated with investment grade securities, such as the following: (1) reliable and objective information about the value of lower rated obligations may be difficult to obtain because the market for such securities may be thinner and less active than that for investment grade obligations; (2) adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the values and liquidity of lower than

 

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investment grade obligations, and, in turn, adversely affect their market; (3) companies that issue lower rated obligations may be in the growth stage of their development, or may be financially troubled or highly leveraged, so they may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them; (4) when other institutional investors dispose of their holdings of lower rated debt securities, the general market and the prices for such securities could be adversely affected; and (5) the market for lower rated securities could be impaired if legislative proposals to limit their use in connection with corporate reorganizations or to limit their tax and other advantages are enacted.

Unrated Securities. Subject to its investment policies, the Fund may purchase unrated securities (which are not rated by a rating agency) if the Adviser determines that the securities are of comparable quality to rated securities that the Fund may purchase. Unrated securities may be less liquid than comparable rated securities and involve the risk that the Adviser may not accurately evaluate the security’s comparative creditworthiness. To the extent the Fund invests in unrated securities, the Fund’s success in achieving its investment objective may depend more heavily on the Adviser’s analysis than if the Fund invested exclusively in rated securities.

Money Market Instruments. The Fund may invest in money market instruments. These instruments include, but are not limited to:

U.S. Government Securities. Obligations issued or guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States or its agencies (such as the Export-Import Bank of the United States, Federal Housing Administration and Government National Mortgage Association) or its instrumentalities (such as the Federal Home Loan Bank), including Treasury bills, notes and bonds.

Bank Obligations. Obligations including certificates of deposit, fixed time deposits and bankers’ acceptances, commercial paper (see below) and other debt obligations of banks subject to regulation by the U.S. Government and having total assets of $1 billion or more, and instruments secured by such obligations, not including obligations of foreign branches of domestic banks except as permitted below.

Eurodollar Certificates of Deposit. Eurodollar certificates of deposit issued by foreign branches of domestic banks having total assets of $1 billion or more (investments in Eurodollar certificates may be affected by changes in currency rates or exchange control regulations, or changes in governmental administration or economic or monetary policy in the United States and abroad).

Obligations of Savings Institutions. Certificates of deposit of savings banks and savings and loan associations, having total assets of $1 billion or more (investments in savings institutions above $100,000 in principal amount are not protected by federal deposit insurance).

Fully Insured Certificates of Deposit. Certificates of deposit of banks and savings institutions, having total assets of less than $1 billion, if the principal amount of the obligation is insured by the Bank Insurance Fund or the Savings Association Insurance Fund (each of which is administered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation), limited to $250,000 principal amount per certificate and to 15% or less of the Fund’s net assets in all such obligations and in all illiquid assets, in the aggregate.

Commercial Paper. The Fund may purchase commercial paper rated within the highest ratings categories by S&P or Moody’s or the equivalent by any other NRSRO or, if not rated, the security is determined by the Adviser to be of comparable quality (see “—Fixed Income Securities” above for more information regarding commercial paper).

Money Market Mutual Funds. Shares of United States money market investment companies. Money market mutual funds in which the Fund may invest are subject to Rule 2a-7 of the 1940 Act, and invest in a variety of short-term, high quality, dollar-denominated money market instruments. Money market funds are not designed to offer capital appreciation. Certain money market funds may impose a fee upon the sale of shares or may temporarily suspend the ability of investors to redeem shares if such fund’s liquidity falls below required minimums, which may adversely affect the Fund’s returns or liquidity.

Other Short-Term Obligations. Debt securities initially issued with a remaining maturity of 397 days or less and that have a short-term rating within ratings categories of at least A-1 by S&P or P-1 by Moody’s or the equivalent by any other NRSRO.

Options. The Fund may purchase and write (sell) call and put options, including options listed on U.S. or foreign securities exchanges or written in over-the-counter transactions (“OTC Options”). Exchange-listed options are issued by the Options Clearing Corporation (“OCC”) (in the U.S.) or other clearing corporation or exchange which assures that all transactions in such options are properly executed. OTC Options are purchased from or sold (written) to dealers or financial institutions which have entered into direct agreements with the Fund. With OTC Options, such variables as expiration date, exercise price and premium will be agreed upon between the Fund and the transacting dealer, without the intermediation of a third party such as the OCC. In the event the counterparty to such a derivative instrument becomes insolvent, the Fund will lose all or substantially all of its investment in the derivative instrument, as well as the benefits derived therefrom. It is the position of the SEC that OTC Options are generally illiquid.

Purchasing Call and Put Options. The Fund may purchase a call option in order to close out a covered call position (see “Covered Call Writing” below), to protect against an increase in price of a security it anticipates purchasing. The purchase of the call option to effect a closing transaction on a call written over-the-counter may be a listed or an OTC Option. In either case, the call purchased is likely to be on the same securities and have the same terms as the written option. If purchased over-the-counter, the option would generally be acquired from the dealer or financial institution which purchased the call written by the Fund.

The Fund may purchase put options on securities which it holds in its portfolio to protect itself against a decline in the value of the security and to close out written put option positions. If the value of the underlying security were to fall below the exercise price of the put purchased in an amount greater than the premium paid for the option, the Fund would incur no additional loss. In addition, the Fund may sell a put option which it has previously purchased prior to the sale of the securities underlying such option. Such a sale would result in a net gain or loss depending whether the amount received on the sale is

 

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more or less than the premium and other transaction costs paid on the put option which is sold. Such gain or loss could be offset in whole or in part by a change in the market value of the underlying security. If a put option purchased by the Fund expired without being sold or exercised, the premium would be lost.

Covered Call Writing. The Fund is permitted to write covered call options on securities. Generally, a call option is covered if the Fund owns, or has the right to acquire, without additional cash consideration (or for additional cash consideration held for the Fund by its custodian in a segregated account) the underlying security subject to the option, or otherwise segregates sufficient cash or U.S. Government securities or other liquid securities to cover the outstanding position. A call option is also covered if the Fund holds a call on the same security as the underlying security of the written option, where the exercise price of the call used for coverage is equal to or less than the exercise price of the call written.

The writer of an option receives from the purchaser, in return for a call it has written, a premium (i.e., the price of the option). Receipt of these premiums may better enable the Fund to earn a higher level of current income than it would earn from holding the underlying securities alone. Moreover, the premium received will offset a portion of the potential loss incurred by the Fund if the securities underlying the option are ultimately sold by the Fund at a loss. Furthermore, a premium received on a call written on a foreign currency will ameliorate any potential loss of value on the portfolio security due to a decline in the value of the currency.

However, during the option period, the covered call writer has, in return for the premium on the option, given up the opportunity for capital appreciation above the exercise price should the market price of the underlying security increase, but has retained the risk of loss should the price of the underlying security decline. The premium received will fluctuate with varying economic market conditions. If the market value of the portfolio securities upon which call options have been written increases, the Fund may receive a lower total return from the portion of its portfolio upon which calls have been written than it would have had such calls not been written.

With respect to listed options and certain OTC Options, during the option period, the Fund may be required, at any time, to deliver the underlying security against payment of the exercise price on any calls it has written (exercise of certain listed and OTC Options may be limited to specific expiration dates). This obligation is terminated upon the expiration of the option period or at such earlier time when the writer effects a closing purchase transaction. A closing purchase transaction is accomplished by purchasing an option of the same series as the option previously written. However, once the Fund has been assigned an exercise notice, the Fund will be unable to effect a closing purchase transaction.

Closing purchase transactions are ordinarily effected to realize a profit or loss on an outstanding call option, to prevent an underlying security from being called, to permit the sale of an underlying security or to enable the Fund to write another call option on the underlying security with either a different exercise price or expiration date or both. The Fund may realize a net gain or loss from a closing purchase transaction depending upon whether the amount of the premium received on the call option is more or less than the cost of effecting the closing purchase transaction. Any loss incurred in a closing purchase transaction may be wholly or partially offset by unrealized appreciation in the market value of the underlying security. Conversely, a gain resulting from a closing purchase transaction could be offset in whole or in part or exceeded by a decline in the market value of the underlying security.

If a call option expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a gain in the amount of the premium on the option less the commission paid. Such a gain, however, may be offset by depreciation in the market value of the underlying security during the option period. If a call option is exercised, the Fund realizes a gain or loss from the sale of the underlying security equal to the difference between the purchase price of the underlying security and the proceeds of the sale of the security plus the premium received on the option less the commission paid.

Covered Put Writing. The Fund is permitted to write covered put options on securities. As a writer of a covered put option, the Fund incurs an obligation to buy the security underlying the option from the purchaser of the put at the option’s exercise price at any time during the option period at the purchaser’s election (certain listed and OTC put options written by the Fund will be exercisable by the purchaser only on a specific date). A put is covered if, at all times during the option period, the Fund maintains, in a segregated account, cash or other liquid assets in an amount equal to at least the exercise price of the option. Similarly, a short put position could be covered by the Fund by its purchase of a put option on the same security as the underlying security of the written option, where the exercise price of the purchased option is equal to or more than the exercise price of the put written or less than the exercise price of the put written if the marked to market difference is maintained by the Fund in cash or other liquid assets which the Fund holds in a segregated account. In writing puts, the Fund assumes the risk of loss should the market value of the underlying security decline below the exercise price of the option (any loss being decreased by the receipt of the premium on the option written). In the case of listed options, during the option period, the Fund may be required, at any time, to make payment of the exercise price against delivery of the underlying security. The operation of and limitations on covered put options in other respects are substantially identical to those of call options.

Options on Foreign Currencies. The Fund may purchase and write options on foreign currencies for purposes similar to those involved with investing in foreign currency forward contracts. For example, in order to protect against declines in the dollar value of portfolio securities which are denominated in a foreign currency, the Fund may purchase put options on an amount of such foreign currency equivalent to the current value of the portfolio securities involved. As a result, the Fund would be enabled to sell the foreign currency for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, thereby locking in the dollar value of the portfolio securities (less the amount of the premiums paid for the options). Conversely, the Fund may purchase call options on foreign currencies in which securities it anticipates purchasing are denominated to secure a set U.S. dollar price for such securities and protect against a decline in the value of the U.S. dollar against such foreign currency. The Fund may also purchase call and put options to close out written option positions. As with securities, these options may be covered.

The Fund may also write call options on foreign currency to protect against potential declines in its portfolio securities which are denominated in foreign currencies. If the U.S. dollar value of the portfolio securities falls as a result of a decline in the exchange rate between the foreign currency in which it is denominated and the U.S. dollar, then a loss to the Fund occasioned by such value decline would be ameliorated by receipt of the premium on the option sold. At the same time, however, the Fund gives up the benefit of any rise in value of the relevant portfolio securities above the exercise price of the option and, in

 

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fact, only receives a benefit from the writing of the option to the extent that the value of the portfolio securities falls below the price of the premium received. The Fund may also write options to close out long call option positions. A put option on a foreign currency would be written by the Fund for the same reason it would purchase a call option, namely, to hedge against an increase in the U.S. dollar value of a foreign security which the Fund anticipates purchasing. Here, the receipt of the premium would offset, to the extent of the size of the premium, any increased cost to the Fund resulting from an increase in the U.S. dollar value of the foreign security. However, the Fund could not benefit from any decline in the cost of the foreign security which is greater than the price of the premium received. The Fund may also write options to close out long put and call option positions.

The Fund’s ability to establish and close out positions on foreign currency options is subject to the maintenance of a liquid secondary market for such options. Although the Fund will not purchase or write such options unless and until, in the opinion of the Adviser, the market for them has developed sufficiently to ensure that the risks in connection with such options are not greater than the risks in connection with the underlying currency, there can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for a particular option at any specific time. In addition, options on foreign currencies are affected by all of those factors which influence foreign exchange rates and investments generally.

The value of a foreign currency option depends upon the value of the underlying currency relative to the U.S. dollar. As a result, the price of the option position may vary with changes in the value of either or both currencies and have no relationship to the investment merits of a foreign security, including foreign securities held in a hedged investment portfolio. Because foreign currency transactions occurring in the interbank market involve substantially larger amounts than those that may be involved in the use of foreign currency options, investors may be disadvantaged by having to deal in an odd lot market (generally consisting of transactions of less than $1 million) for the underlying foreign currencies at prices that are less favorable than for round lots.

Options on Futures Contracts. The Fund may also purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts which are traded on an exchange and enter into closing transactions with respect to such options to terminate an existing position. An option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right (in return for the premium paid) to assume a position in a futures contract (a long position if the option is a call and a short position if the option is a put) at a specified exercise price at any time during the term of the option.

The Fund will purchase and write options on futures contracts for identical purposes to those set forth above for the purchase of a futures contract (purchase of a call option or sale of a put option) and the sale of a futures contract (purchase of a put option or sale of a call option), or to close out a long or short position in futures contracts. If, for example, the Fund wished to protect against an increase in interest rates and the resulting negative impact on the value of a portion of its fixed-income portfolio, it might write a call option on an interest rate futures contract, the underlying security of which correlates with the portion of the portfolio the Fund seeks to hedge. Any premiums received in the writing of options on futures contracts may, of course, provide a further hedge against losses resulting from price declines in portions of the Fund’s portfolio.

Repurchase Agreements. Repurchase agreements, which may be viewed as a type of secured lending by the Fund, typically involve the acquisition by the Fund of debt securities from a selling financial institution such as a bank, savings and loan association or broker-dealer. The repurchase agreements will provide that the Fund will sell back to the institution, and that the institution will repurchase, the underlying security (“collateral”) at a specified price and at a fixed time in the future, usually not more than seven days from the date of purchase. The collateral will be maintained in a segregated account and, with respect to United States repurchase agreements, will be marked to market daily to ensure that the full value of the collateral, as specified in the repurchase agreement, does not decrease below the repurchase price plus accrued interest. If such a decrease occurs, additional collateral will be requested and, when received, added to the account to maintain full collateralization. The Fund will accrue interest from the institution until the date the repurchase occurs. Although this date is deemed by the Fund to be the maturity date of a repurchase agreement, the maturities of the collateral securities are not subject to any limits and may exceed one year. Repurchase agreements that have more than seven days remaining to maturity will be considered illiquid for purposes of the restriction on the Fund’s investment in illiquid and restricted securities.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements. Reverse repurchase agreements involve sales by the Fund of portfolio securities concurrently with an agreement by the Fund to repurchase the same securities at a later date at a fixed price. Reverse repurchase agreements are speculative techniques involving leverage. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of the securities the Fund is obligated to repurchase under the agreement may decline below the repurchase price. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the buyer of the securities sold might be unable to deliver them when the Fund seeks to repurchase the securities. If the buyer files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the Fund may be delayed or prevented from recovering the security that it sold.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls. The Fund may enter into mortgage dollar rolls with a bank or a broker-dealer. A mortgage dollar roll is a transaction in which the Fund sells mortgage-related securities for immediate settlement and simultaneously purchases substantially similar securities for forward settlement at a discount. While the Fund begins accruing interest on the newly purchased securities from the purchase or trade date, it is able to invest the proceeds from the sale of its previously owned securities, which will be used to pay for the new securities. The use of mortgage dollar rolls is a speculative technique involving leverage, and can have an economic effect similar to borrowing money for investment purposes.

Securities Loans. The Fund may make secured loans of its portfolio securities, on either a short-term or long-term basis, amounting to not more than 331/3% of its total assets, thereby potentially realizing additional income. The risks in lending portfolio securities, as with other extensions of credit, consist of possible delay in recovery of the securities or possible loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially. If a borrower defaults, the value of the collateral may decline before the Fund can dispose of it. As a matter of policy, securities loans are made to broker-dealers pursuant to agreements requiring that the loans be continuously secured by collateral consisting of cash or short-term debt obligations at least equal at all times to the value of the securities on loan, marked-to-market daily. The borrower pays to the Fund an amount equal to any dividends or interest received on securities lent. The Fund retains all or a portion of the interest received on investment of the cash collateral or receives a fee from the borrower. The Fund bears the risk of any loss on the investment of the collateral; any such loss may exceed, potentially by a substantial amount, any profit to the Fund from its securities lending activities. Although voting rights, or rights to consent, with respect to the loaned securities may pass to the borrower, the Fund retains

 

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the right to call the loans at any time on reasonable notice, and it will do so to enable the Fund to exercise voting rights on any matters materially affecting the investment. The Fund may also call such loans in order to sell the securities. The Fund may pay fees in connection with arranging loans of its portfolio securities.

Swap Agreements. The Fund may enter into swap agreements and other types of over-the-counter transactions such as caps, floors and collars with broker-dealers or other financial institutions for hedging or investment purposes. An example of one type of swap involves the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive cash flows, for example, an exchange of floating rate payments for fixed-rate payments. The purchase of a cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index or other underlying financial measure exceeds a predetermined value on a predetermined date or dates, to receive payments on a notional principal amount from the party selling the cap. The purchase of a floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index or other underlying financial measure falls or other underlying measure below a predetermined value on a predetermined date or dates, to receive payments on a notional principal amount from the party selling the floor. A collar combines elements of a cap and a floor.

Swap agreements and similar transactions can be individually negotiated and structured to include exposure to a variety of different types of investments or market factors. Depending on their structures, swap agreements may increase or decrease the Fund’s exposure to long-or short-term interest rates (in the United States or abroad), foreign currency values, mortgage securities, mortgage rates, corporate borrowing rates, or other factors such as security prices, inflation rates or the volatility of an index or one or more securities. For example, if the Fund agrees to exchange payments in U.S. dollars for payments in a non-U.S. currency, the swap agreement would tend to decrease the Fund’s exposure to U.S. interest rates and increase its exposure to that non-U.S. currency and interest rates. The value of the Fund’s swap positions would increase or decrease depending on the changes in value of the underlying rates, currency values, volatility or other indices or measures. Caps and floors have an effect similar to buying or writing options. Depending on how they are used, swap agreements may increase or decrease the overall volatility of the Fund’s investments and its share price. The Fund’s ability to engage in certain swap transactions may be limited by tax considerations.

The Fund’s ability to realize a profit from such transactions will depend on the ability of the financial institutions with which it enters into the transactions to meet their obligations to the Fund. If a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of the agreement would be likely to decline, potentially resulting in losses. If a default occurs by the other party to such transaction, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction, which may be limited by applicable law in the case of a counterparty’s insolvency. Under certain circumstances, suitable transactions may not be available to the Fund, or the Fund may be unable to close out its position under such transactions at the same time, or at the same price, as if it had purchased comparable publicly traded securities. Swaps carry counterparty risks that cannot be fully anticipated. Also, because swap transactions typically involve a contract between the two parties, such swap investments can be extremely illiquid, as it is uncertain as to whether another counterparty would wish to take assignment of the rights under the swap contract at a price acceptable to the Fund.

The Fund may also enter into options on swap agreements (“swaptions”). A swaption is a contract that gives a counterparty the right (but not the obligation) to enter into a new swap agreement or to shorten, extend, cancel or otherwise modify an existing swap agreement, at some designated future time on specified terms. The Fund may write (sell) and purchase put and call swaptions to the same extent it may make use of standard options on securities or other instruments. Swaptions are generally subject to the same risks involved in the Fund’s use of options.

Credit Default Swaps. A credit default swap is an agreement between the Fund and a counterparty that enables the Fund to buy or sell protection against a credit event related to a particular issuer. One party, acting as a protection buyer, makes periodic payments, which may be based on, among other things, a fixed or floating rate of interest, to the other party, a protection seller, in exchange for a promise by the protection seller to make a payment to the protection buyer if a negative credit event (such as a delinquent payment or default) occurs with respect to a referenced bond or group of bonds. Credit default swaps may also be structured based on the debt of a basket of issuers, rather than a single issuer, and may be customized with respect to the default event that triggers purchase or other factors (for example, the Nth default within a basket, or defaults by a particular combination of issuers within the basket, may trigger a payment obligation). As a credit protection seller in a credit default swap contract, the Fund would be required to pay the par (or other agreed-upon) value of a referenced debt obligation to the counterparty following certain negative credit events as to a specified third-party debtor, such as default by a U.S. or non-U.S. corporate issuer on its debt obligations. In return for its obligation, the Fund would receive from the counterparty a periodic stream of payments, which may be based on, among other things, a fixed or floating rate of interest, over the term of the contract provided that no event of default has occurred. If no default occurs, the Fund would keep the stream of payments, and would have no payment obligations to the counterparty. The Fund may sell credit protection in order to earn additional income and/or to take a synthetic long position in the underlying security or basket of securities.

The Fund may enter into credit default swap contracts as protection buyer in order to hedge against the risk of default on the debt of a particular issuer or basket of issuers or attempt to profit from a deterioration or perceived deterioration in the creditworthiness of the particular issuer(s) (also known as buying credit protection). This would involve the risk that the investment may expire worthless and would only generate gain in the event of an actual default by the issuer(s) of the underlying obligation(s) (or, as applicable, a credit downgrade or other indication of financial instability). It would also involve the risk that the seller may fail to satisfy its payment obligations to the Fund. The purchase of credit default swaps involves costs, which will reduce the Fund’s return.

Credit default swaps involve a number of special risks. A protection seller may have to pay out amounts following a negative credit event greater than the value of the reference obligation delivered to it by its counterparty and the amount of periodic payments previously received by it from the counterparty. When the Fund acts as a seller of a credit default swap, it is exposed to, among other things, leverage risk because if an event of default occurs the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value of the reference obligation. Each party to a credit default swap is subject to the credit risk of its counterparty (the risk that its counterparty may be unwilling or unable to perform its obligations on the swap as they come due). The value of the credit default swap to each party will change based on changes in the actual or perceived creditworthiness of the underlying issuer.

 

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A protection buyer may lose its investment and recover nothing should an event of default not occur. The Fund may seek to realize gains on its credit default swap positions, or limit losses on its positions, by selling those positions in the secondary market. There can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist at any given time for any particular credit default swap or for credit default swaps generally.

The market for credit default swaps has at times become more volatile as the creditworthiness of certain counterparties has been questioned and/or downgraded. The parties to a credit default swap may be required to post collateral to each other. If the Fund posts initial or periodic collateral to its counterparty, it may not be able to recover that collateral from the counterparty in accordance with the terms of the swap. In addition, if the Fund receives collateral from its counterparty, it may be delayed or prevented from realizing on the collateral in the event of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty. The Fund may exit its obligations under a credit default swap only by terminating the contract and paying applicable breakage fees, or by entering into an offsetting credit default swap position, which may cause the Fund to incur more losses.

Total and Excess Return Swaps. The Fund may also enter into total and excess return swap agreements, which are contracts in which one party agrees to make periodic payments to another party based on the change in market value of the assets underlying the contract, which may include a specified security or commodity, basket of securities or commodities, or securities or commodities indices during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Total and excess return swap agreements may be used to obtain exposure to a security, commodity, or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security or investing directly in such market. Total and excess return swap agreements may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap.

Total and excess return swap agreements are subject to the risk that a counterparty will default on its payment obligations to the Fund thereunder. Swap agreements also bear the risk that the Fund will not be able to meet its obligation to the counterparty. The Fund may enter into total and excess return swaps on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted against one another with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments). The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each total or excess return swap will be accrued on a daily basis, and an amount of liquid assets having an aggregate NAV at least equal to the accrued excess will be segregated by the Fund. If the total or excess return swap transaction is entered into on other than a net basis, the full amount of the Fund’s obligations will be accrued on a daily basis, and the full amount of the Fund’s obligations will be segregated by the Fund in an amount equal to or greater than the market value of the liabilities under the total or excess return swap agreement or the amount it would have cost the Fund initially to make an equivalent direct investment, plus or minus any amount the Fund is obligated to pay or is to receive under the total or excess return swap agreement.

Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Many over-the-counter derivatives are complex and their valuation often requires modeling and judgment, which increases the risk of mispricing or incorrect valuation. The pricing models used may not produce valuations that are consistent with the values the Fund realizes when it closes or sells an over-the-counter derivative. Valuation risk is more pronounced when the Fund enters into over-the-counter derivatives with specialized terms because the market value of those derivatives in some cases is determined in part by reference to similar derivatives with more standardized terms. Incorrect valuations may result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties, undercollateralization and/or errors in calculation of the Fund’s NAV.

When, As and If Issued Securities. The Fund may purchase securities on a “when, as and if issued” basis under which the issuance of the security depends upon the occurrence of a subsequent event, such as approval of a merger, corporate reorganization, leveraged buyout or debt restructuring. The commitment for the purchase of any such security will not be recognized in the portfolio of the Fund until the Adviser determines that issuance of the security is probable. The Fund may purchase securities on such basis without limit. The purchase of securities on a “when, as and if issued” basis may create investment leverage and increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV. The Fund may also sell securities on a “when, as and if issued” basis provided that the issuance of the security will result automatically from the exchange or conversion of a security owned by the Fund at the time of the sale.

When-Issued and Delayed Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments. When purchasing a security on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment basis, the Fund assumes many of the benefits and risks of ownership of the security, including the risk of price and yield fluctuations, but does not take delivery of the security until a date substantially after the date the transaction is entered into. Because the Fund is not required to pay for the security until the delivery date, these transactions may create investment leverage. When the Fund has sold a security on a when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment basis, the Fund does not participate in future gains or losses with respect to the security. Recently finalized rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) would impose mandatory margin requirements for certain types of when-issued, delayed delivery, or forward commitment transactions, with limited exceptions. Such transactions historically have not been required to be collateralized, and, if those rules are implemented, mandatory collateralization could increase the cost of such transactions and impose added operational complexity.

Mortgage-backed and Asset-backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities, including CMOs and certain stripped mortgage-backed securities, represent a participation in, or are secured by, mortgage loans. Asset-backed securities are structured like mortgage-backed securities, but instead of mortgage loans or interests in mortgage loans, the underlying assets may include such items as motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, home equity loans, leases of various types of real, personal and other property (including those relating to aircrafts, railcars, containers, or telecommunication, energy, and/or other infrastructure assets and infrastructure-related assets), and receivables from credit card agreements. The cash flow generated by the underlying assets is applied to make required payments on the securities and to pay related administrative expenses. The amount of residual cash flow resulting from a particular issue of asset-backed or mortgage-backed securities depends on, among other things, the characteristics of the underlying assets, the coupon rates on the securities, prevailing interest rates, the amount of administrative expenses and the actual prepayment experience on the underlying assets. The Fund may invest in any such instruments or variations as may be developed, to the extent consistent with its investment objective and policies and applicable regulatory requirements. In general, the collateral supporting asset-backed securities is of a shorter maturity than mortgage loans and is likely to experience substantial prepayments.

Mortgage-backed securities have yield and maturity characteristics corresponding to the underlying assets. Unlike traditional

 

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debt securities, which may pay a fixed rate of interest until maturity, when the entire principal amount comes due, payments on certain mortgage-backed securities include both interest and a partial repayment of principal. Besides the scheduled repayment of principal, repayments of principal may result from the voluntary prepayment, refinancing or foreclosure of the underlying mortgage loans. If property owners make unscheduled prepayments of their mortgage loans, these prepayments will result in early payment of the applicable mortgage-backed securities. In that event the Fund may be unable to invest the proceeds from the early payment of the mortgage-backed securities in an investment that provides as high a yield as the mortgage-backed securities. Consequently, early payment associated with mortgage-backed securities may cause these securities to experience significantly greater price and yield volatility than that experienced by traditional fixed-income securities. The occurrence of mortgage prepayments is affected by factors including the level of interest rates, general economic conditions, the location and age of the mortgage and other social and demographic conditions. During periods of falling interest rates, the rate of mortgage prepayments tends to increase, thereby tending to decrease the life of mortgage-backed securities. During periods of rising interest rates, the rate of mortgage prepayments usually decreases, thereby tending to increase the life of mortgage-backed securities. If the life of a mortgage-backed security is inaccurately predicted, the Fund may not be able to realize the rate of return it expected.

Adjustable rate mortgage securities (“ARMs”), like traditional mortgage-backed securities, are interests in pools of mortgage loans that provide investors with payments consisting of both principal and interest as mortgage loans in the underlying mortgage pool are paid off by the borrowers. Unlike fixed-rate mortgage-backed securities, ARMs are collateralized by or represent interests in mortgage loans with variable rates of interest. These interest rates are reset at periodic intervals, usually by reference to an interest rate index or market interest rate. Although the rate adjustment feature may act as a buffer to reduce sharp changes in the value of adjustable rate securities, these securities are still subject to changes in value based on, among other things, changes in market interest rates or changes in the issuer’s creditworthiness. Because the interest rates are reset only periodically, changes in the interest rate on ARMs may lag changes in prevailing market interest rates. Also, some ARMs (or the underlying mortgages) are subject to caps or floors that limit the maximum change in the interest rate during a specified period or over the life of the security. As a result, changes in the interest rate on an ARM may not fully reflect changes in prevailing market interest rates during certain periods.

The Fund may also invest in hybrid ARMs, whose underlying mortgages combine fixed-rate and adjustable rate features.

Mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities are less effective than other types of securities as a means of locking in attractive long-term interest rates. One reason is the need to reinvest prepayments of principal; another is the possibility of significant unscheduled prepayments resulting from declines in interest rates. These prepayments would have to be reinvested at lower rates. The automatic interest rate adjustment feature of mortgages underlying ARMs likewise reduces the ability to lock-in attractive rates. As a result, mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities may have less potential for capital appreciation during periods of declining interest rates than other securities of comparable maturities, although they may have a similar risk of decline in market value during periods of rising interest rates. Prepayments may also significantly shorten the effective maturities of these securities, especially during periods of declining interest rates. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, a reduction in prepayments may increase the effective maturities of these securities, subjecting them to a greater risk of decline in market value in response to rising interest rates than traditional debt securities, and, therefore, potentially increasing the volatility of the Fund.

At times, some mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities will have higher than market interest rates and therefore will be purchased at a premium above their par value. Prepayments may cause losses on securities purchased at a premium.

CMOs may be issued by a U.S. Government agency or instrumentality or by a private issuer. Although payment of the principal of, and interest on, the underlying collateral securing privately issued CMOs may be guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities, these CMOs represent obligations solely of the private issuer and are not insured or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities or any other person or entity.

Prepayments could cause early retirement of CMOs. CMOs are designed to reduce the risk of prepayment for certain investors by issuing multiple classes of securities, each having different maturities, interest rates and payment schedules, and with the principal and interest on the underlying mortgages allocated among the several classes in various ways. Payment of interest or principal on some classes or series of CMOs may be subject to contingencies or some classes or series may bear some or all of the risk of default on the underlying mortgages. CMOs of different classes or series are generally retired in sequence as the underlying mortgage loans in the mortgage pool are repaid. If enough mortgages are repaid ahead of schedule, the classes or series of a CMO with the earliest maturities generally will be retired prior to their maturities. Thus, the early retirement of particular classes or series of a CMO would have the same effect as the prepayment of mortgages underlying other mortgage-backed securities. Conversely, slower than anticipated prepayments can extend the effective maturities of CMOs, subjecting them to a greater risk of decline in market value in response to rising interest rates than traditional debt securities, and, therefore, potentially increasing their volatility.

Prepayments could result in losses on stripped mortgage-backed securities. Stripped mortgage-backed securities are usually structured with two classes that receive different portions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of mortgage loans. The yield to maturity on an interest only (“IO”) class of stripped mortgage-backed securities is extremely sensitive not only to changes in prevailing interest rates but also to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the underlying assets. A rapid rate of principal prepayments may have a measurable adverse effect on the Fund’s yield to maturity to the extent it invests in IOs. If the assets underlying the IO experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, the Fund may fail to recoup fully its initial investment in these securities. Principal only (“POs”) tend to increase in value if prepayments are greater than anticipated and decline if prepayments are slower than anticipated. The secondary market for stripped mortgage-backed securities may be more volatile and less liquid than that for other mortgage-backed securities, potentially limiting the Fund’s ability to buy or sell those securities at any particular time.

Subprime mortgage loans, which typically are made to less creditworthy borrowers, have a higher risk of default than conventional mortgage loans. Therefore, mortgage-backed securities backed by subprime mortgage loans may suffer significantly greater declines in value due to defaults or the increased risk of default.

The risks associated with other asset-backed securities (including in particular the risks of issuer default and of early

 

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prepayment) are generally similar to those described above for CMOs. In addition, because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in the underlying assets that is comparable to a mortgage (though certain asset-backed securities, such as ETCs and EETCs, may be structured such that there is a security interest in the underlying asset), asset-backed securities may present certain additional risks that are not commonly present with mortgage-backed securities. The ability of an issuer of asset-backed securities to enforce its security interest in the underlying assets may be limited. For example, revolving credit receivables are generally unsecured and the debtors on such receivables are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give debtors the right to set-off certain amounts owed, thereby reducing the balance due. Automobile receivables generally are secured, but by automobiles, rather than by real property. Similarly, ETCs and EETCs are often secured by different types of equipment (see “--Equipment Trust Certificates (ETCs) and Enhanced Equipment Trust Certificates (EETCs)”).

Asset-backed securities may be collateralized by the fees earned by service providers. The values of asset-backed securities may be substantially dependent on the servicing of the underlying asset and are therefore subject to risks associated with the negligence or malfeasance by their servicers and to the credit risk of their servicers. In certain circumstances, the mishandling of related documentation may also affect the rights of the security holders in and to the underlying collateral. The insolvency of entities that generate receivables or that utilize the assets may result in added costs and delays in addition to losses associated with a decline in the value of the underlying assets.

Federal, state and local government officials and representatives as well as certain private parties have proposed actions to assist homeowners who own or occupy property subject to mortgages. Certain of those proposals involve actions that would likely affect the mortgages that underlie or relate to certain mortgage-related securities, including securities or other instruments which the Fund may hold or in which it may invest. Some of those proposals include, among other things, lowering or forgiving principal balances; forbearing, lowering or eliminating interest payments; or utilizing eminent domain powers to seize mortgages, potentially for below market compensation. The prospective or actual implementation of one or more of these proposals may significantly and adversely affect the value and liquidity of securities held by the Fund and could cause the Fund’s NAV to decline, potentially significantly. Significant uncertainty remains in the market concerning the resolution of these issues; the range of proposals and the potential implications of any implemented solution are impossible to predict.

The Fund may invest in any level of the capital structure of an issuer of mortgage-backed or asset-backed securities, including the equity or “first loss” tranche. See “—Collateralized Debt Obligations” below.

Consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, the Adviser may also cause the Fund to invest in other types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities offered currently or in the future, including certain yet-to-be-developed types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities which may be created as the market evolves.

Equipment Trust Certificates (ETCs) and Enhanced Equipment Trust Certificates (EETCs). ETCs and EETCs are types of asset-backed securities that generally represent undivided fractional interests in a trust whose assets consist of a pool of equipment retail installment contracts or leased equipment. EETCs are similar to ETCs, except that the securities have been divided into two or more classes, each with different payment priorities and asset claims (see “—Collateralized Debt Obligations Risk” below for information regarding how different classes or tranches of interests issued by an issuer can affect the risks of an investment in EETCs). ETCs and EETCs are typically issued by specially-created trusts established by airlines, railroads, or other transportation firms. The assets of ETCs and EETCs are used to purchase equipment, such as airplanes, railroad cars, or other equipment, which may in turn serve as collateral for the related issue of the ETCs or EETCs, and the title to such equipment is held in trust for the holders of the issue. The equipment generally is leased from the specially-created trust by the airline, railroad or other firm, which makes rental or lease payments to the specially-created trust to provide cash flow for payments to ETC and EETC holders. Holders of ETCs and EETCs must look to the collateral securing the certificates, typically together with a guarantee provided by the lessee firm or its parent company for the payment of lease obligations, in the case of default in the payment of principal and interest on the ETCs or EETCs.

ETCs and EETCs are subject to the risk that the lessee or payee defaults on its payments, and risks related to potential declines in the value of the equipment that serves as collateral for the issue. ETCs and EETCs are generally regarded as obligations of the company that is leasing the equipment and may be shown as liabilities in its balance sheet as a capitalized lease in accordance with generally accepted accounting principals. The lessee company, however, does not own the equipment until all the certificates are redeemed and paid. In the event the company defaults under its lease, the trustee may terminate the lease. If another lessee is not available, then payments on the certificates would cease until another lessee is available.

Pass-Through Notes. The Fund may invest in pass-through notes, which are a type of pass-through obligation of the operator of a marketplace lending platform. The operator of a marketplace lending platform may purchase loan(s) from a funding bank at par using the funds of multiple lenders on deposit in a segregated deposit account held by the operator, and then issue to each such lender at par a pass-through note of the operator (or an affiliate of the operator) representing the right to receive the lender’s proportionate share of all principal and interest payments received by the operator from the borrower on the loan funded by such lender (net of the platform servicing fees). Pass-through notes are not direct obligations of the borrowers under the underlying marketplace loans originated by such platforms. As such, holders of certain pass-through notes are exposed to the credit risk of the operator. An operator that becomes subject to bankruptcy proceedings may be unable to make full and timely payments on its pass-through notes even if the borrowers of the underlying marketplace loans timely make all payments due from them. In addition, pass-through notes are non-recourse obligations (except to the extent that the operator actually receives payments from the borrower on the loan). Accordingly, lenders assume all of the borrower credit risk on the loans they fund and are not entitled to recover any deficiency of principal or interest from the operator if the borrower defaults on its payments.

There may be a delay between the time the Fund commits to purchase a pass-through note and the issuance of such note and, during such delay, the funds committed to such an investment will not be available for investment in any other instruments. Because the funds committed to an investment in pass-through notes do not earn interest until the issuance of the note, the delay in issuance will have the effect of reducing the effective rate of return on the investment.

 

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Collateralized Debt Obligations. Collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”) are a type of asset-backed security and include, among other things, collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”) and other similarly structured securities. A CBO is a trust which may be backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. The cash flows from the CDO trust are generally split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. Senior tranches are paid from the cash flows from the underlying assets before the junior tranches and equity or “first loss” tranches. Losses are first borne by the equity tranches, next by the junior tranches, and finally by the senior tranches. Senior tranches pay the lowest interest rates but are generally safer investments than more junior tranches because, should there be any default, senior tranches are typically paid first. The most junior tranches, such as equity tranches, would attract the highest interest rates but suffer the highest risk of loss should the holder of an underlying loan default. If some loans default and the cash collected by the CDO is insufficient to pay all of its investors, those in the lowest, most junior tranches suffer losses first. Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CDO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than the underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, more senior CDO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults and aversion to CDO securities as a class.

The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the quality and type of the collateral and the tranche of the CDO in which the Fund invests. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CDOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid securities; however, an active dealer market, or other relevant measures of liquidity, may exist for CDOs allowing a CDO potentially to be deemed liquid by the Adviser under liquidity policies approved by the Board. In addition to the risks associated with debt instruments (e.g., interest rate risk and credit risk), CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral securities will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the possibility that the Fund may invest in CDOs that are subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.

The Fund may invest in CDOs (including CLOs and CBOs) and other structured products (see “Structured Products and Structured Notes Risk”) sponsored or managed by, or otherwise affiliated with, the Adviser or related parties of the Adviser. Such investments may include investments in debt or equity interests issued of the CDO or structured product as well as investments purchased on the secondary market, and the Fund may invest in any tranche of the CDO or structured product, including an equity tranche.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs) and Multiclass Pass-Through Securities. CMOs are debt obligations collateralized by mortgage loans or mortgage pass-through securities. CMOs may be collateralized by Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), or Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) certificates, but also may be collateralized by whole loans or private mortgage pass-through securities (such collateral is collectively hereinafter referred to as “Mortgage Assets”). Mortgage Assets may be collateralized by commercial or residential uses. Multiclass pass-through securities are equity interests in a trust composed of Mortgage Assets. Payments of principal of and interest on the Mortgage Assets, and any reinvestment income thereon, may require the Fund to pay debt service on the CMOs or make scheduled distributions on the multiclass pass-through securities. CMOs may be issued by federal agencies, or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. The issuer of a series of mortgage pass-through securities may elect to be treated as a REMIC. REMICs include governmental and/or private entities that issue a fixed pool of mortgages secured by an interest in real property. REMICs are similar to CMOs in that they issue multiple classes of securities, but unlike CMOs, which are required to be structured as debt securities, REMICs may be structured as indirect ownership interests in the underlying assets of the REMICs themselves. Although CMOs and REMICs differ in certain respects, characteristics of CMOs described below apply in most cases to REMICs, as well.

In a CMO, a series of bonds or certificates is issued in multiple classes. Each class of CMOs, often referred to as a tranche, is issued at a specific fixed or floating coupon rate and has a stated maturity or final distribution date. Principal prepayments on the Mortgage Assets may cause the CMOs to be retired substantially earlier than their stated maturities or final distribution dates. Interest is paid or accrues on all classes of the CMOs on a monthly, quarterly or semiannual basis. Certain CMOs may have variable or floating interest rates and others may be stripped mortgage securities. For more information on stripped mortgage securities, see “Stripped Mortgage Securities” below. The Fund’s investment in CMOs may include investment in Z Bonds. Interest on a Z Bond is accrued and added to principal and a like amount is paid as principal on the other tranches of the CMO currently being paid off. When the other tranches of the CMO are paid in full, interest and principal on the Z Bond begin to be paid currently; as a result, Z Bonds typically have a longer average life relative to other tranches of the CMO.

The principal of and interest on the Mortgage Assets may be allocated among the several classes of a CMO series in a number of different ways. Generally, the purpose of the allocation of the cash flow of a CMO to the various classes is to obtain a more predictable cash flow to certain of the individual tranches than exists with the underlying collateral of the CMO. As a general rule, the more predictable the cash flow is on a CMO tranche, the lower the anticipated yield will be on that tranche at the time of issuance relative to prevailing market yields on other mortgage-backed securities. As part of the process of creating more predictable cash flows on most of the tranches in a series of CMOs, one or more tranches generally must be created that absorb most of the volatility in the cash flows on the underlying mortgage loans. The yields on these tranches are generally higher than prevailing market yields on mortgage-backed securities with similar maturities. As a result of the uncertainty of the cash flows of these tranches, the market prices of and yield on these tranches generally are more volatile. See “—Collateralized Debt Obligations” above for a discussion on investments in structured products with multiple tranches.

CMO Residuals. CMO residuals are mortgage securities issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, homebuilders, mortgage

 

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banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose entities of the foregoing. The cash flow generated by the mortgage assets underlying a series of a CMO is applied first to make required payments of principal and interest on the securities or certificates issued by the CMO and second to pay the related administrative expenses and any management fee of the issuer. The residual in a CMO structure generally represents the interest in any excess cash flow remaining after making the foregoing payments. Each payment of such excess cash flow to a holder of the related CMO residual represents income and/or a return of capital. The amount of residual cash flow resulting from a CMO will depend on, among other things, the characteristics of the mortgage assets, the coupon rate of each class of CMO, prevailing interest rates, the amount of administrative expenses and the pre-payment experience on the mortgage assets. In particular, the yield to maturity on CMO residuals is extremely sensitive to pre-payments on the related underlying mortgage assets. In addition, if a series of a CMO includes a class that bears interest at an adjustable rate, the yield to maturity on the related CMO residual will also be extremely sensitive to changes in the level of the index upon which interest rate adjustments are based. As described below with respect to stripped mortgage-backed securities, in certain circumstances the Fund may fail to recoup fully its initial investment in a CMO residual. CMO residuals are generally purchased and sold by institutional investors through several investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers. In addition, CMO residuals may, or pursuant to an exemption therefrom, may not have been registered under the Securities Act. CMO residuals, whether or not registered under the Securities Act, may be subject to certain restrictions on transferability, and may be deemed “illiquid.”

Government Mortgage Pass-Through Securities. The Fund may invest in mortgage pass-through securities representing participation interests in pools of residential mortgage loans purchased from individual lenders by an agency, instrumentality or sponsored corporation of the U.S. Government (“Federal Agency”) or originated by private lenders and guaranteed, to the extent provided in such securities, by a Federal Agency. Such securities, which are ownership interests in the underlying mortgage loans, differ from conventional debt securities, which provide for periodic payment of interest in fixed amounts (usually semiannually) and principal payments at payments (not necessarily in fixed amounts) that are a pass-through of the monthly interest and principal payments (including any prepayments) made by the individual borrowers on the pooled mortgage loans, net of any fees paid to the guarantor of such securities and the servicer of the underlying mortgage loans.

The government mortgage pass-through securities in which the Fund may invest include those issued or guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Ginnie Mae certificates are direct obligations of the U.S. Government and, as such, are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. Fannie Mae is a federally chartered, privately owned corporation and Freddie Mac is a corporate instrumentality of the United States. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac certificates are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States but the issuing agency or instrumentality has the right to borrow, to meet its obligations, from an existing line of credit with the U.S. Treasury. The U.S. Treasury has no legal obligation to provide such line of credit and may choose not to do so.

Certificates for these types of mortgage-backed securities evidence an interest in a specific pool of mortgages. These certificates are, in most cases, modified pass-through instruments, wherein the issuing agency guarantees the payment of principal and interest on mortgages underlying the certificates, whether or not such amounts are collected by the issuer on the underlying mortgages.

The Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (“HERA”) authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to support Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the Federal Home Loan Banks (“FHLBs”) (collectively, the “GSEs”) by purchasing obligations and other securities from those government-sponsored enterprises. HERA gave the Secretary of the Treasury broad authority to determine the conditions and amounts of such purchases.

On September 6, 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into conservatorship. As the conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and of any stockholder, officer or director of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac with respect to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the assets of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. FHFA selected a new chief executive officer and chairman of the board of directors for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

In connection with the conservatorship, the U.S. Treasury, exercising powers granted to it under HERA, entered into a Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement (“SPA”) with each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac pursuant to which the U.S. Treasury will purchase up to an aggregate of $100 billion of each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to maintain a positive net worth in each enterprise. This agreement contains various covenants that severely limit each enterprise’s operations. In exchange for entering into these agreements, the U.S. Treasury received $1 billion of each enterprise’s senior preferred stock and warrants to purchase 79.9% of each enterprise’s common stock. On February 18, 2009, the U.S. Treasury announced that it was doubling the size of its commitment to each enterprise under the Senior Preferred Stock Program to $200 billion. The U.S. Treasury’s obligations under the Senior Preferred Stock Program are for an indefinite period of time for a maximum amount of $200 billion per enterprise. On December 24, 2009, the U.S. Treasury announced further amendments to the SPAs which included additional financial support for each GSE through the end of 2012 and changes to the limits on their retained mortgage portfolios. Although legislation has been enacted to support certain GSEs, including the FHLBs, Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, there is no assurance that GSE obligations will be satisfied in full, or that such obligations will not decrease in value or default. It is difficult, if not impossible, to predict the future political, regulatory or economic changes that could impact the GSEs and the values of their related securities or obligations.

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are continuing to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remains liable for all of its obligations, including its guaranty obligations, associated with its mortgage-backed securities. The SPA is intended to enhance each of Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s ability to meet its obligations. The FHFA has indicated that the conservatorship of each enterprise will end when the director of FHFA determines that FHFA’s plan to restore the enterprise to a safe and solvent condition has been completed.

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac may be dependent upon the continued support of the U.S. Treasury and the FHFA in order to continue operating their businesses. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac also receive substantial support from the Federal Reserve, which may cease at any time. The conservatorship has no specified termination date. There can be no assurance as to when or how the conservatorship will be terminated or whether Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac will continue to exist following the conservatorship or what their respective businesses structures will be during or following the conservatorship.

 

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Under the Federal Housing Finance Regulatory Reform Act of 2008 (the “Reform Act”), which was included as part of Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, FHFA, as conservator or receiver, has the power to repudiate any contract entered into by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac prior to FHFA’s appointment as conservator or receiver, as applicable, if FHFA determines, in its sole discretion, that performance of the contract is burdensome and that repudiation of the contract promotes the orderly administration of Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s affairs. The Reform Act requires FHFA to exercise its right to repudiate any contract within a reasonable period of time after its appointment as conservator or receiver.

FHFA, in its capacity as conservator, has indicated that it has no intention to repudiate the guaranty obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac because FHFA views repudiation as incompatible with the goals of the conservatorship. However, in the event that FHFA, as conservator or if it is later appointed as receiver for Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, were to repudiate any such guaranty obligation, the conservatorship or receivership estate, as applicable, would be liable for actual direct compensatory damages in accordance with the provisions of the Reform Act. Any such liability could be satisfied only to the extent of Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s available assets. The future financial performance of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac is heavily dependent on the performance of the U.S. housing market. See “Credit and Market Risks of Mortgage-Backed Securities” below for more information regarding the conservatorship and related risks.

Certain rights provided to holders of mortgage-backed securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac under the operative documents related to such securities may not be enforced against FHFA, or enforcement of such rights may be delayed, during the conservatorship or any future receivership. The operative documents for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities may provide (or with respect to securities issued prior to the date of the appointment of the conservator may have provided) that upon the occurrence of an event of default on the part of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, in its capacity as guarantor, which includes the appointment of a conservator or receiver, holders of such mortgage-backed securities have the right to replace Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac as trustee if the requisite percentage of mortgage-backed security holders consent. The Reform Act prevents mortgage-backed security holders from enforcing such rights if the event of default arises solely because a conservator or receiver has been appointed. The Reform Act also provides that no person may exercise any right or power to terminate, accelerate or declare an event of default under certain contracts to which Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac is a party, or obtain possession of or exercise control over any property of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, or affect any contractual rights of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, without the approval of FHFA, as conservator or receiver, for a period of 45 or 90 days following the appointment of FHFA as conservator or receiver, respectively.

In a February 2011 report to Congress from the Treasury Department and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Obama administration provided a plan to reform America’s housing finance market. The plan would reduce the role of and eventually eliminate Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Notably, the plan does not propose similar significant changes to Ginnie Mae, which guarantees payments on mortgage-related securities backed by federally insured or guaranteed loans such as those issued by the Federal Housing Association or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs. The report also identified three proposals for Congress and the administration to consider for the long-term structure of the housing finance markets after the elimination of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, including implementing: (i) a privatized system of housing finance that limits government insurance to very limited groups of creditworthy low- and moderate-income borrowers; (ii) a privatized system with a government backstop mechanism that would allow the government to insure a larger share of the housing finance market during a future housing crisis; and (iii) a privatized system where the government would offer reinsurance to holders of certain highly-rated mortgage-related securities insured by private insurers and would pay out under the reinsurance arrangements only if the private mortgage insurers were insolvent.

As of the date of this SAI, there have been ongoing discussions regarding the operation of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac; there can be no assurance as to the outcome of these discussions, nor any prediction about the resulting impact on the U.S. housing or financial markets.

Inverse Floaters. An inverse floater is a type of instrument that bears a floating or variable interest rate that moves in the opposite direction to interest rates generally or the interest rate on another security or index. Changes in interest rates generally, or the interest rate of the other security or index, inversely affect the interest rate paid on the inverse floater, with the result that the inverse floater’s price will be considerably more volatile than that of a fixed-rate bond. Brokers typically create inverse floaters by depositing an income-producing instrument, which may be a mortgage-backed security, in a trust. The trust in turn issues a variable rate security and inverse floaters. The returns on the inverse floaters may be leveraged, increasing substantially their volatility and interest rate sensitivity. The rate at which interest is paid by the trust on an inverse floater may vary by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in a reference rate of interest (typically a short term interest rate), and the market prices of inverse floaters may as a result be highly sensitive to changes in interest rates and in prepayment rates on the underlying securities, and may decrease significantly when interest rates increase or prepayment rates change. The interest rate for the variable rate security is typically determined by an index or an auction process, while the inverse floater holder receives the balance of the income from the underlying income-producing instrument less an auction fee.

Loans, Assignments, and Participations. The Fund may make loans, and may acquire or invest in loans made by others. The Fund may acquire a loan interest directly by acting as a member of the original lending syndicate. Alternatively, the Fund may acquire some or all of the interest of a bank or other lending institution in a loan to a particular borrower, by means of an assignment or a participation. In an assignment, the Fund assumes all of the rights of a lending institution in a loan, including the right to receive payments of principal and interest and other amounts directly from the borrower and to enforce its rights as a lender directly against the borrower. The Fund assumes the position of a co-lender with other syndicate members. As an alternative, the Fund may purchase a participating interest in a portion of the rights of a lending institution in a loan. In such case, the Fund will generally be entitled to receive from the lending institution amounts equal to the payments of principal, interest and premium, if any, on the loan received by the institution, but will not generally be entitled to enforce its rights directly against the agent bank or the borrower, and must rely for that purpose on the lending institution. In the case of a participation, the value of the Fund’s loan investment will depend at least in part on the credit standing of the assigning or participating institution. The loans in which the Fund may invest include those that pay fixed rates of interest and those that pay floating rates – i.e., rates that adjust periodically based on a known lending rate, such as a bank’s prime rate. Investments in loans may be of any quality, including “distressed” loans. The Fund also may gain exposure to loans and related investments through the use of total and excess return swaps and/or other derivative instruments and through private funds and other pooled investment vehicles, including some which may be sponsored or advised by the Adviser or its related parties

 

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(see “Derivatives”).

Many loans are made by a syndicate of banks, represented by an agent bank (the “Agent”) which has negotiated and structured the loan and which is responsible generally for collecting interest, principal, and other amounts from the borrower on its own behalf and on behalf of the other lending institutions in the syndicate (the “Lenders”), and for enforcing its and their other rights against the borrower. Each of the lending institutions, which may include the Agent, lends to the borrower a portion of the total amount of the loan, and retains the corresponding interest in the loan. Unless, under the terms of the loan or other indebtedness, the Fund has direct recourse against the borrower, the Fund may have to rely on the Agent or other financial intermediary to apply appropriate credit remedies against a borrower.

The Fund’s ability to receive payments of principal and interest and other amounts in connection with loan participations held by it will depend primarily on the financial condition of the borrower (and, in some cases, the lending institution from which it purchases the loan). The value of collateral, if any, securing a loan can decline, or may be insufficient to meet the borrower’s obligations or may be difficult to liquidate. In addition, the Fund’s access to collateral may be limited by bankruptcy or other insolvency laws. The failure by the Fund to receive scheduled interest or principal payments on a loan would adversely affect the income of the Fund and would likely reduce the value of its assets, which would be reflected in a reduction in the Fund’s NAV. Loans that are fully secured offer the Fund more protection than an unsecured loan in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal. However, there is no assurance that the liquidation of collateral from a secured loan would satisfy the corporate borrower’s obligation, or that the collateral can be liquidated. Indebtedness of companies whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks, and may be highly speculative. Some companies may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. Consequently, when investing in indebtedness of companies with poor credit, the Fund bears a substantial risk of losing the entire amount invested.

Banks and other lending institutions generally perform a credit analysis of the borrower before originating a loan or participating in a lending syndicate. In selecting the loans in which the Fund will invest, however, the Adviser will not rely solely on that credit analysis, but will perform its own investment analysis of the borrowers. The Adviser’s analysis may include consideration of the borrower’s financial strength and managerial experience, debt coverage, additional borrowing requirements or debt maturity schedules, changing financial conditions, and responsiveness to changes in business conditions and interest rates. Because loans in which the Fund may invest may not be rated by independent credit rating agencies, a decision by the Fund to invest in a particular loan may depend heavily on the Adviser’s or the original lending institution’s credit analysis of the borrower.

Loans and other types of direct indebtedness may not be readily marketable and may be subject to restrictions on resale. In some cases, negotiations involved in disposing of indebtedness may require weeks to complete. Consequently, some indebtedness may be difficult or impossible to dispose of readily at what the Adviser believes to be a fair price. Additionally, even where there is a market for certain loans the settlement period may be extended, up to several weeks or longer. That means the Fund may have a limited ability to receive payment promptly on the sale of some of the loans in its portfolio. In addition, valuation of illiquid indebtedness involves a greater degree of judgment in determining the Fund’s NAV than if that value were based on available market quotations, and could result in significant variations in the Fund’s daily share price. At the same time, some loan interests are traded among certain financial institutions and accordingly may be deemed liquid. The Adviser will determine the liquidity of the Fund’s investments by reference to, among other things, market conditions and contractual provisions. Assignments and participations are generally not registered under the Securities Act, and thus investments in them may be limited by the Fund’s limitations on investment in illiquid securities.

Investments in loans through a direct loan may involve additional risks to the Fund. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral. In addition, it is conceivable that under emerging legal theories of lender liability, the Fund could be held liable as co-owner. Lender liability may be founded upon the premise that an institutional lender has violated a duty of good faith and fair dealing owed to the borrower or has assumed a degree of control over the borrower resulting in creation of a fiduciary duty owed to the borrower or its other creditors or shareholders. In addition, courts have in some cases applied the doctrine of equitable subordination to subordinate the claim of a lending institution against a borrower to claims of other creditors of the borrower when the lending institution is found to have engaged in unfair, inequitable, or fraudulent conduct.

Loans and certain other forms of direct indebtedness may not be classified as “securities” under the federal securities laws and, therefore, purchasers of such instruments may not be entitled to the protections against fraud and misrepresentation contained in the federal securities laws.

It is the position of the SEC that, in the case of loan participations or assignments where a bank or other lending institution serves as a financial intermediary between the Fund and the corporate borrower, if the participation does not shift to the Fund the direct debtor-creditor relationship with the borrower, the Fund should treat both the lending bank or other lending institution and the borrower as “issuers.” If and to the extent the Fund treats a financial intermediary as an issuer of indebtedness, the Fund may in certain circumstances be limited in its ability to invest in indebtedness related to a single financial intermediary, or a group of intermediaries engaged in the same industry, even if the underlying borrowers represent many different companies and industries.

Economic exposure to loan interests through the use of derivative transactions, including, among others, total and excess return swaps, may involve greater risks than if the Fund had invested in the loan interest directly during a primary distribution or through assignments of, or participations in, a bank loan acquired in secondary markets since, in addition to the risks described above, certain derivative transactions may be subject to leverage risk and greater illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, valuation risk and other risks.

In managing the Fund, the Adviser may seek to avoid the receipt of material, non-public information (“Confidential Information”) about the issuers of floating rate loans or other investments being considered for acquisition by the Fund or held in the Fund’s portfolio if the receipt of the Confidential Information would restrict one or more of the Adviser’s clients, including, potentially, the Fund, from trading in securities they hold or in which they may invest. In many instances, issuers offer to furnish Confidential Information to prospective purchasers or holders of the issuer’s loans or other securities. In

 

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circumstances when the Adviser declines to receive Confidential Information from these issuers, the Fund may be disadvantaged in comparison to other investors, including with respect to evaluating the issuer and the price the Fund would pay or receive when it buys or sells those investments, and the Fund may not take advantage of investment opportunities that it otherwise might have if it had received such Confidential Information. Further, in situations when the Fund is asked, for example, to grant consents, waivers or amendments with respect to such investments, the Adviser’s ability to assess such consents, waivers and amendments may be compromised. In certain circumstances, the Adviser may determine to receive Confidential Information, including on behalf of clients other than the Fund. Receipt of Confidential Information by the Adviser could limit the Fund’s ability to sell certain investments held by the Fund or pursue certain investment opportunities on behalf of the Fund, potentially for a substantial period of time. In certain situations, the Adviser may create information walls around persons having access to the Confidential Information to limit the restrictions on others at the Adviser. Those measures could impair the ability of those persons to assist in managing the Fund. Also, certain issuers of senior floating rate loans, other bank loans and related investments may not have any publicly traded securities (“Private Issuers”) and may offer private information pursuant to confidentiality agreements or similar arrangements. The Adviser may access such private information, while recognizing that the receipt of that information could potentially limit the Fund’s ability to trade in certain securities if the Private Issuer later issues publicly traded securities. If the Adviser intentionally or unintentionally comes into possession of Confidential Information, it may be unable, potentially for a substantial period of time, to sell certain investments held by the Fund.

The Adviser is, and may be in the future, affiliated with certain large financial institutions (“affiliates”) that hold interests in an entity that are of a different class or type than the class or type of interest held by the Fund. For example, an affiliate may hold securities in an entity that are senior or junior to the securities held by the Fund, which could mean that the affiliate will be entitled to different payments or other rights, or that in a workout or other distressed scenario the interests of the affiliate might be adverse to those of the Fund and the affiliate might recover all or part of its investment while the Fund might not. Conflicts also will arise in cases where the Fund and affiliates invest in different parts of an issuer’s capital structure, including circumstances in which one or more affiliates may own private securities or obligations of an issuer and the Fund may own public securities of the same issuer. For example, an affiliate may acquire a loan, loan participation, or a loan assignment of a particular borrower in which the Fund has an equity investment. In negotiating the terms and conditions of any such investments, or any subsequent amendments or waivers, the Adviser may find that its own interests, the interests of an affiliate, and/or the interests of the Fund could conflict. The Adviser may seek to avoid such conflicts, and, as a result, the Adviser may choose not to make such investments on behalf of the Fund. Those foregone investment opportunities may adversely affect the Fund’s performance if similarly attractive opportunities are not available or cannot be identified.

Lending Fees. In the process of buying, selling and holding loans, the Fund may receive and/or pay certain fees. These fees are in addition to interest payments received and may include facility fees, commitment fees, commissions and prepayment penalty fees. When the Fund buys a loan it may receive a facility fee and when it sells a loan it may pay a facility fee. On an ongoing basis, the Fund may receive a commitment fee based on the undrawn portion of the underlying line of credit portion of the loan. In certain circumstances, the Fund may receive a prepayment penalty fee upon the prepayment of a loan by a borrower. Other fees received by the Fund may include covenant waiver fees and covenant modification fees.

Borrower Covenants. A borrower under a loan may be required to comply with various restrictive covenants contained in a loan agreement or note purchase agreement between the borrower and the Lender or lending syndicate (the “Loan Agreement”). Such covenants, in addition to requiring the scheduled payment of interest and principal, may include restrictions on dividend payments and other distributions to stockholders, provisions requiring the borrower to maintain specific minimum financial ratios and limits on total debt. In addition, the Loan Agreement may contain a covenant requiring the borrower to prepay the loan with a certain portion of excess cash flow. Excess cash flow is generally defined as net income after scheduled debt service payments, taxes paid in cash and permitted capital expenditures but before depreciation and amortization among other adjustments. A breach of a covenant which is not waived by the Agent, or by the lenders directly, as the case may be, is normally an event of acceleration; i.e., the Agent, or the lenders directly, as the case may be, has the right to call the outstanding loan. The typical practice of an Agent or a Lender in relying exclusively or primarily on reports from the borrower may involve a risk of fraud by the borrower. In the case of a loan in the form of a participation, the agreement between the buyer and seller may limit the rights of the participant to vote on certain changes which may be made to the Loan Agreement, such as waiving a breach of a covenant.

Some of the loans in which the Fund may invest or to which the Fund may obtain exposure may contain fewer or less restrictive constraints on the borrower than certain other types of loans (“covenant-lite” loans).

Administration of Loans. In certain loans, the Agent administers the terms of the Loan Agreement. In such cases, the Agent is normally responsible for the collection of principal and interest payments from the borrower and the apportionment of these payments to the credit of all institutions which are parties to the Loan Agreement. The Fund will generally rely upon the Agent or an intermediate participant to receive and forward to the Fund its portion of the principal and interest payments on the loan. Furthermore, unless under the terms of a participation agreement the Fund has direct recourse against the borrower, the Fund will rely on the Agent and the other members of the lending syndicate to use appropriate credit remedies against the borrower. The Agent is typically responsible for monitoring compliance with covenants contained in the Loan Agreement based upon reports prepared by the borrower. The Agent usually does, but is often not obligated to, notify holders of loans of any failures of compliance. In certain loans such as asset-backed loans, the Agent may monitor the value of the collateral, if any, and if the value of such collateral declines, may accelerate the loan, may give the borrower an opportunity to provide additional collateral or may seek other protection for the benefit of the participants in the loan. The Agent is compensated by the borrower for providing these services under a Loan Agreement, and such compensation may include special fees paid upon structuring and funding the loan and other fees paid on a continuing basis. With respect to loans for which the Agent does not perform such administrative and enforcement functions, the Adviser will perform such tasks on behalf of the Fund, although a collateral bank will typically hold any collateral on behalf of the Fund and the other lenders pursuant to the applicable Loan Agreement.

A financial institution’s appointment as Agent may usually be terminated in the event that it fails to observe the requisite standard of care or becomes insolvent, enters Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) receivership, or, if not FDIC insured, enters into bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings. A successor Agent would generally be appointed to replace the terminated Agent, and assets held by the Agent under the Loan Agreement should remain available to holders of loans.

 

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However, if assets held by the Agent for the benefit of the Fund were determined to be subject to the claims of the Agent’s general creditors, the Fund might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a loan, or suffer a loss of principal and/or interest. In situations involving other intermediate participants similar risks may arise.

Prepayments. Loans may require, in addition to scheduled payments of interest and principal, the prepayment of the loan from free cash flow, as defined above. The degree to which borrowers prepay loans, whether as a contractual requirement or at their election, may be affected by general business conditions, the financial condition of the borrower and competitive conditions among lenders, among others. As such, prepayments cannot be predicted with accuracy. Upon a prepayment, either in part or in full, the actual outstanding debt on which the Fund derives interest income will be reduced. However, the Fund may, but will not necessarily, receive both a prepayment penalty fee from the prepaying borrower and a facility fee upon the purchase of a new loan with the proceeds from the prepayment of the former.

Bridge Financings. Loans may be designed to provide temporary or “bridge” financing to a borrower pending the sale of identified assets or the arrangement of longer-term loans or the issuance and sale of debt obligations. Loans may also be obligations of borrowers who have obtained bridge loans from other parties. A borrower’s use of bridge loans involves a risk that the borrower may be unable to locate permanent financing to replace the bridge loan, which may impair the borrower’s perceived creditworthiness or its willingness or ability to repay the bridge loan.

Senior Loans. Senior floating rate loans may be made to or issued by U.S. or non-U.S. banks or other corporations (“Senior Loans”). Senior Loans include senior floating rate loans and institutionally traded senior floating rate debt obligations issued by asset-backed pools and other issues, and interests therein. Senior Loan interests may be acquired from U.S. or foreign commercial banks, insurance companies, finance companies or other financial institutions that have made loans or are members of a lending syndicate or from other holders of loan interests. Senior Loans typically pay interest at rates which are re-determined periodically on the basis of a floating base lending rate (such as the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate, “LIBOR”) plus a premium. Senior Loans generally (but not always) hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a borrower and, if below investment grade quality, are often secured with collateral.

From time to time, the Adviser and its related parties may borrow money from various banks in connection with their business activities. Such banks may also sell Senior Loans to or acquire them from the Fund or may be intermediate participants with respect to Senior Loans in which the Fund owns interests. Such banks may also act as Agents for Senior Loans held by the Fund.

To the extent that the collateral, if any, securing a Senior Loan consists of the stock of the borrower’s subsidiaries or other affiliates, the Fund will be subject to the risk that this stock will decline in value. Such a decline, whether as a result of bankruptcy proceedings or otherwise, could cause the Senior Loan to be undercollateralized or unsecured. In most credit agreements there is no requirement to pledge additional collateral. In addition, a Senior Loan may be guaranteed by, or fully secured by assets of, shareholders or owners, even if the Senior Loans are not otherwise collateralized by assets of the borrower. There may be temporary periods when the principal asset held by a borrower is the stock of a related company, which may not legally be pledged to secure a secured Senior Loan. On occasions when such stock cannot be pledged, the secured Senior Loan will be temporarily unsecured until the stock can be pledged or is exchanged for or replaced by other assets, which will be pledged as security for such Senior Loan. However, the borrower’s ability to dispose of such securities, other than in connection with such pledge or replacement, will be strictly limited for the protection of the holders of secured Senior Loans.

If a borrower becomes involved in bankruptcy proceedings, a court under certain circumstances potentially could invalidate the Fund’s security interest in any loan collateral or subordinate the Fund’s rights under a secured Senior Loan to the interests of the borrower’s unsecured creditors. Such action by a court could be based, for example, on a “fraudulent conveyance” claim to the effect that the borrower did not receive “reasonably equivalent value” for granting the security interest in the loan collateral to the Fund. For secured Senior Loans made in connection with a highly leveraged transaction, consideration for granting a security interest may be deemed inadequate if the proceeds of such loan were not received or retained by the borrower, but were instead paid to other persons, such as shareholders of the borrower, in an amount which left the borrower insolvent or without sufficient working capital. There are also other events, such as the failure to perfect a security interest due to faulty documentation or faulty official filings, which could lead to the invalidation of the Fund’s security interest in any loan collateral. If the Fund’s security interest in loan collateral is invalidated or a secured Senior Loan is subordinated to other debt of a borrower in bankruptcy or other proceedings, it is unlikely that the Fund would be able to recover the full amount of the principal and interest due on the secured Senior Loan.

Delayed Funding Loans and Revolving Credit Facilities. Delayed funding loans and revolving credit facilities are borrowing arrangements in which the lender agrees to make loans up to a maximum amount upon demand by the borrower during a specified term. A revolving credit facility differs from a delayed funding loan in that as the borrower repays the loan, an amount equal to the repayment may be borrowed again during the term of the revolving credit facility. Delayed funding loans and revolving credit facilities usually provide for floating or variable rates of interest. These commitments may have the effect of requiring the Fund to increase its exposure to a company at a time when it might not otherwise be desirable to do so (including a time when the company’s financial condition makes it unlikely that such amounts will be repaid or which the Fund needs to sell other assets to raise cash to satisfy its obligor).

Private Mortgage Pass-Through Securities. Private mortgage pass-through securities are structured similarly to the Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mortgage pass-through securities and are issued by United States and foreign private issuers such as originators of and investors in mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. These securities usually are backed by a pool of conventional fixed rate or adjustable rate mortgage loans. Since private mortgage pass-through securities typically are not guaranteed by an entity having the credit status of Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, such securities generally are structured with one or more types of credit enhancement.

Mortgage Assets often consist of a pool of assets representing the obligations of a number of different parties. There are usually fewer properties in a pool of assets backing commercial mortgage-backed securities than in a pool of assets backing residential mortgage-backed securities hence they may be more sensitive to the performance of fewer Mortgage Assets. To

 

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lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, those securities may contain elements of credit support, which fall into two categories: (i) liquidity protection and (ii) protection against losses resulting from ultimate default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, generally by the entity administering the pool of assets, to ensure that the receipt of payments on the underlying pool occurs in a timely fashion. Protection against losses resulting from default ensures ultimate payment of the obligations on at least a portion of the assets in the pool. This protection may be provided through guarantees, insurance policies or letters of credit obtained by the issuer or sponsor from third parties, through various means of structuring the transaction or through a combination of such approaches. The degree of credit support provided for each issue is generally based on historical information respecting the level of credit risk associated with the underlying assets. Delinquencies or losses in excess of those anticipated could adversely affect the return on an investment in a security.

Loan Pool Investments. The Fund may invest in pools of loans through a trust or other entity that issues interests in the loans, some of which may be senior to others. Alternatively, the Fund may invest directly in a pool of loans, itself or with other clients of the Adviser or its related parties. The Fund’s direct investments in pools of loans present risks that may differ from the Fund’s investments in mortgage and other asset-backed securities. For example, if it were to invest directly in such pools, the Fund would share in all losses incurred on the loans in the pool. However, if the Fund were to invest in a senior tranche of a mortgage- or other asset-backed security, it might have a more limited exposure to losses on the loans. In connection with the Fund’s purchase of certain loan portfolios, the Fund will incur costs, which may include the costs of various diligence-related services. The diligence-related services the Fund may require in connection with such investments may include, without limitation, loan file review, underwriting documentation review, and site visits. The Adviser would typically rely on information and analysis provided by these diligence-related services in determining whether to invest in a particular loan portfolio. The costs associated with investments in a pool of loans may be significant and will reduce the performance contribution of such loans and, potentially, the Fund’s performance.

Stripped Mortgage Securities. Stripped mortgage securities may be issued by Federal Agencies, or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. Stripped mortgage securities issued by Federal Agencies generally will be treated by the Fund as liquid securities under procedures adopted by the Fund and approved by the Fund’s Board.

Stripped mortgage securities usually are structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distribution of a pool of mortgage assets. A common type of stripped mortgage security will have one class receiving some of the interest and most of the principal from the mortgage assets, while the other class will receive most of the interest and the remainder of the principal. In the most extreme case, one class will receive all of the interest from the mortgage assets (the interest-only or “IO” class), while the other class will receive all of the principal from the mortgage assets (the principal-only or “PO” class). PO classes generate income through the accretion of the deep discount at which such securities are purchased, and, while PO classes do not receive periodic payments of interest, they receive monthly payments associated with scheduled amortization and principal prepayment from the mortgage assets underlying the PO class. The yield to maturity (the expected rate of return on a bond if held until the end of its lifetime) on a PO or an IO class security is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets. A slower than expected rate of principal payments may have an adverse effect on a PO class security’s yield to maturity. If the underlying mortgage assets experience slower than anticipated principal repayment, the Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment in these securities. Conversely, a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on an IO class security’s yield to maturity. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments or principal, the Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment in these securities.

The Fund may purchase stripped mortgage securities for income, or for hedging purposes to protect the Fund’s portfolio against interest rate fluctuations. For example, since an IO class will tend to increase in value as interest rates rise, it may be utilized to hedge against a decrease in value of other fixed-income securities in a rising interest rate environment.

Yankee Dollar Obligations, Eurobonds, Global Bonds. Certain debt securities purchased by the Fund may take the forms of Yankee dollar obligations, Eurobonds or global bonds. Yankee dollar obligations are U.S. dollar-denominated obligations issued in the U.S. capital markets by foreign issuers, such as corporations and banks. A Eurobond is a bond issued in a currency other than the currency of the country or market in which it is issued. Global bonds are bonds that can be offered within multiple markets simultaneously. Unlike Eurobonds, global bonds can be issued in the local currency of the country of issuance.

Foreign Currency Transactions. The Fund may engage in currency exchange transactions to protect against uncertainty in the level of future foreign currency exchange rates and to increase current return. There can be no assurance that appropriate foreign currency transactions will be available for the Fund at any time or that the Fund will enter into such transactions at any time or under any circumstances even if appropriate transactions are available to it. While foreign currency transactions may be available, the cost of these transactions may be prohibitively expensive so that the Fund may not to be able to effectively use them.

The Fund may engage in both transaction hedging and position hedging. When it engages in transaction hedging, the Fund enters into foreign currency transactions with respect to specific receivables or payables of the Fund generally arising in connection with the purchase or sale of its portfolio securities. The Fund may engage in transaction hedging when it desires to lock in the U.S. dollar price of a security it has agreed to purchase or sell, or the U.S. dollar equivalent of a dividend or interest payment in a foreign currency. By transaction hedging, the Fund may attempt to protect against a possible loss resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and the applicable foreign currency during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold or on which the dividend or interest payment is declared, and the date on which such payments are made or received.

The Fund may purchase or sell a foreign currency on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the prevailing spot rate in connection with transaction hedging. The Fund may also enter into contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies at a future date (“forward contracts”) and purchase and sell foreign currency futures contracts.

For transaction hedging purposes, the Fund may also purchase exchange-listed and over-the-counter call and put options on

 

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foreign currency futures contracts and on foreign currencies. A put option on a futures contract gives the Fund the right to assume a short position in the futures contract until expiration of the option. A put option on currency gives the Fund the right to sell a currency at a specified exercise price until the expiration of the option. A call option on a futures contract gives the Fund the right to assume a long position in the futures contract until the expiration of the option. A call option on currency gives the Fund the right to purchase a currency at the exercise price until the expiration of the option. The Fund will engage in over-the-counter transactions only when appropriate exchange-traded transactions are unavailable and when, in the opinion of the Adviser, the pricing mechanism and liquidity are satisfactory and the participants are responsible parties likely to meet their contractual obligations.

The Fund may engage in foreign currency exchange transactions to protect against a decline in the values of the foreign currencies in which securities held by the Fund are denominated or are quoted in their principal trading markets or an increase in the value of currency for securities which the Fund expects to purchase. In connection with position hedging, the Fund may purchase put or call options on foreign currency and foreign currency futures contracts and buy or sell forward contracts and foreign currency futures contracts. The Fund may also purchase or sell foreign currency on a spot basis.

The precise matching of the amounts of foreign currency exchange transactions and the value of the portfolio securities involved will not generally be possible since the future value of such securities in foreign currencies will change as a consequence of market movements in the values of those securities between the dates the currency exchange transactions are entered into and the dates they mature.

It is impossible to forecast with precision the market value of the Fund’s portfolio securities at the expiration or maturity of a forward or futures contract. Accordingly, it may be necessary for the Fund to purchase additional foreign currency on the spot market (and bear the expense of such purchase) if the market value of the security or securities being hedged is less than the amount of foreign currency the Fund is obligated to deliver and if a decision is made to sell the security or securities and make delivery of the foreign currency. Conversely, it may be necessary to sell on the spot market some of the foreign currency received upon the sale of the portfolio security or securities of the Fund if the market value of such security or securities exceeds the amount of foreign currency the Fund is obligated to deliver. To offset some of the costs of hedging against fluctuations in currency exchange rates, the Fund may write covered call options on those currencies.

Transaction and position hedging do not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities that the Fund owns or intends to purchase or sell. They simply establish a rate of exchange that one can achieve at some future point in time. Additionally, although these techniques tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currency, they tend to limit any potential gain which might result from the increase in the value of such currency.

The Fund may also seek to increase its current return by purchasing and selling foreign currency on a spot basis, by purchasing and selling futures contracts on foreign currencies and options on foreign currencies and on foreign currency futures contracts, and by purchasing and selling foreign currency forward contracts.

The value of any currency, including U.S. dollars and foreign currencies, may be affected by complex political, social, and economic factors applicable to the issuing country. In addition, the exchange rates of foreign currencies (and therefore the values of foreign currency options, forward contracts, and futures contracts) may be affected significantly, fixed, or supported directly or indirectly by U.S. and foreign government actions. Government intervention may increase risks involved in purchasing or selling foreign currency options, forward contracts, and futures contracts, since exchange rates may not be free to fluctuate in response to other market forces. Foreign governmental restrictions or taxes could result in adverse changes in the cost of acquiring or disposing of foreign currencies.

Currency Forward and Futures Contracts. A forward foreign currency exchange contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract as agreed by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. In the case of a cancelable forward contract, the holder has the unilateral right to cancel the contract at maturity by paying a specified fee. The contracts are traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are charged at any stage for trades. A foreign currency futures contract is a standardized contract for the future delivery of a specified amount of a foreign currency at a future date at a price set at the time of the contract. Foreign currency futures contracts traded in the United States are designed by and traded on exchanges regulated by the CFTC, such as the New York Mercantile Exchange.

The Fund may enter into foreign currency forward contracts in order to protect against the risk that the U.S. dollar value of the Fund’s dividends, interest, net realized capital gains, sales proceeds or investments denominated in foreign currency will decline, including to the extent of any devaluation of the currency during the intervals between (a) (i) the time the Fund becomes entitled to receive or receives dividends, interest, net realized capital gains or sales proceeds or (ii) the time an investor gives notice of a requested redemption of a certain amount and (b) the time such amount(s) are converted into U.S. dollars for remittance out of the particular country or countries.

Forward foreign currency exchange contracts differ from foreign currency futures contracts in certain respects. For example, the maturity date of a forward contract may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, rather than a predetermined date in a given month. Forward contracts may be in any amounts agreed upon by the parties rather than predetermined amounts. Also, forward foreign exchange contracts are traded directly between currency traders so that no intermediary is required. A forward contract generally requires no margin or other deposit.

At the maturity of a forward or futures contract, the Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract, or at or prior to maturity enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to forward contracts are usually effected with the currency trader who is a party to the original forward contract. Closing transactions with respect to futures contracts are effected on a commodities exchange; a clearing corporation associated with the exchange assumes responsibility for closing out such contracts.

Positions in foreign currency futures contracts and related options may be closed out only on an exchange or board of trade

 

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which provides a secondary market in such contracts or options. Although the Fund will normally purchase or sell foreign currency futures contracts and related options only on exchanges or boards of trade where there appears to be an active secondary market, there is no assurance that a secondary market on an exchange or board of trade will exist for any particular contract or option or at any particular time. In such event, it may not be possible to close a futures or related option position and, in the event of adverse price movements, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin on its futures positions.

Foreign Currency Options. Options on foreign currencies operate similarly to options on securities, and are traded primarily in the over-the-counter market, although options on foreign currencies are listed on several exchanges. Such options will be purchased or written only when the Adviser believes that a liquid secondary market exists for such options. There can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for a particular option at any specific time. Options on foreign currencies are affected by all of those factors which influence exchange rates and investments generally.

The value of a foreign currency option is dependent upon the value of the foreign currency and the U.S. dollar, and may have no relationship to the investment merits of a foreign security. Because foreign currency transactions occurring in the interbank market involve substantially larger amounts than those that may be involved in the use of foreign currency options, investors may be disadvantaged by having to deal in an odd lot market (generally consisting of transactions of less than $1 million) for the underlying foreign currencies at prices that are less favorable than for round lots.

There is no systematic reporting of last-sale information for foreign currencies and there is no regulatory requirement that quotations available through dealers or other market sources be firm or revised on a timely basis. Available quotation information is generally representative of very large transactions in the interbank market and thus may not reflect relatively smaller transactions (less than $1 million) where rates may be less favorable. The interbank market in foreign currencies is a global, around-the-clock market. To the extent that the U.S. options markets are closed while the markets for the underlying currencies remain open, significant price and rate movements may take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the U.S. options markets.

Foreign Currency Conversion. Although foreign exchange dealers do not charge a fee for currency conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (the “spread”) between prices at which they buy and sell various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency to the Fund at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the Fund desire to resell that currency to the dealer.

Foreign Investments and Related Risks. The Fund may invest in securities issued by a foreign issuer or by an issuer with significant revenue or other exposure to foreign markets. There may be less information publicly available about a foreign market, issuer, or security than about U.S. markets or a U.S. issuer or security, and foreign issuers may not be subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices comparable to those in the United States. In addition, there may be less (or less effective) regulation of exchanges, brokers and listed companies in some foreign countries. The securities of some foreign issuers are less liquid and at times more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. issuers. Foreign brokerage commissions, custodial expenses and other fees are also generally higher than in the United States.

Foreign settlement procedures and trade regulations may be more complex and involve certain risks (such as delay in payment or delivery of securities or in the recovery of the Fund’s assets held abroad) and expenses not present in the settlement of investments in U.S. markets. For example, settlement of transactions involving foreign securities or foreign currencies (see below) may occur within a foreign country, and the Fund may accept or make delivery of the underlying securities or currency in conformity with any applicable U.S. or foreign restrictions or regulations, and may pay fees, taxes or charges associated with such delivery. In addition, local market holidays or other factors may extend the time for settlement of purchases and sales of the Fund’s investments in securities that trade on foreign markets. Such investments may also involve the risk that an entity involved in the settlement may not meet its obligations. Extended settlement cycles or other delays in settlement may increase the Fund’s liquidity risk and require the Fund to employ alternative methods (e.g., through borrowings) to satisfy redemption requests during periods of large redemption activity in Fund shares.

In addition, foreign securities may be subject to the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets, imposition of currency exchange controls, foreign withholding or other taxes or restrictions on the repatriation of foreign currency, confiscatory taxation, political, social or financial instability and diplomatic developments which could affect the value of the Fund’s investments in certain foreign countries. Dividends or interest on, or proceeds from the sale of, foreign securities may be subject to foreign withholding or other taxes, and special U.S. tax considerations may apply.

Foreign issuers may become subject to sanctions imposed by the U.S. or another country or other governmental or non-governmental organizations, which could result in the immediate freeze of the foreign issuers’ assets or securities. The imposition of such sanctions could impair the market value of the securities of such foreign issuers and limit the Fund’s ability to buy, sell, receive or deliver the securities.

Legal remedies available to investors in certain foreign countries may be more limited than those available with respect to investments in the United States or in other foreign countries. The laws of some foreign countries may limit the Fund’s ability to invest in securities of certain issuers organized under the laws of those foreign countries. For example, certain countries may require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular company. Certain countries may also limit investment by foreign persons to only a specific class of securities that may have less advantageous terms, and such securities may be less liquid than other classes of securities of an issuer.

To the extent the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in a specific geographic region, countries or group of countries, the Fund will have greater exposure to risks associated with such region, country or group of countries. See “Risk Considerations – Focused Investment Risk” in this SAI.

The risks described above, including the risks of nationalization or expropriation of assets, typically are increased in connection with investments in developing countries, also known as emerging markets. For example, political and economic

 

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structures in these countries may be in their infancy and developing rapidly, and such countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. Certain of these countries have in the past failed to recognize private property rights and have at times nationalized and expropriated the assets of private companies. In addition, the economies of certain developing or emerging market countries may be dependent on a single industry or limited group of industries, which may increase the risks described above and make those countries particularly vulnerable to global economic and market changes.

There may also be limited counterparties available in developing markets, which may increase the Fund’s credit risks. Foreign government regulations may restrict potential counterparties to certain financial institutions that are located in or operating in a particular country. Such counterparties may not possess creditworthiness standards, financial reporting standards, and legal protections similar to counterparties located in developed markets, which can increase the risk associated with the Fund’s investments in such markets.

The values of foreign securities may be adversely affected by changes in currency exchange rates. This may be because the foreign securities are denominated and/or traded in a foreign currency or because the assets or revenues of an issuer are denominated in a currency different from the issuer’s debt or other obligations. For example, the credit quality of issuers who have outstanding debt denominated in the U.S. dollar, and the values of their debt obligations, may be adversely affected if the value of the U.S. dollar strengthens relative to the value of the currency in which the issuer’s assets or revenues are denominated. In addition, the Fund is required to compute and distribute its income in U.S. dollars. Therefore, if the exchange rate for a foreign currency declines after the Fund’s income has been earned and translated into U.S. dollars (but before payment), the Fund could be required to liquidate portfolio securities to make such distributions. Similarly, if an exchange rate declines between the time the Fund incurs expenses in U.S. dollars and the time such expenses are paid, the amount of such currency required to be converted into U.S. dollars in order to pay such expenses in U.S. dollars will be greater than the equivalent amount in any such currency of such expenses at the time they were incurred. High rates of inflation or currency devaluations may adversely affect the economies and securities markets of such countries and the values of the Fund’s investments in those markets. A foreign government may seek to devalue its currency if it has issued debt in its local currency because any such devaluation reduces the burden on it of repaying its debt obligations. Any devaluation of a

currency in which the Fund’s portfolio holdings are denominated will reduce the value of and return on the investment to the Fund when translated into U.S. dollars.

Any partial or complete dissolution of the European Monetary Union (the “EMU”) could have significant adverse effects on currency and financial markets, and on the values of the Fund’s portfolio investments. If one or more EMU countries were to stop using the euro as its primary currency, the Fund’s investments in such countries may be redenominated into a different or newly adopted currency. As a result, the value of those investments could decline significantly and unpredictably. In addition, securities or other investments that are redenominated may be subject to liquidity risk and the risk that the Fund may not be able to value investments accurately to a greater extent than similar investments currently denominated in euros. To the extent a currency used for redenomination purposes is not specified in respect of certain EMU-related investments, or should the euro cease to be used entirely, the currency in which such investments are denominated may be unclear, making such investments particularly difficult to value or dispose of. The Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent it is required to seek judicial or other clarification of the denomination or value of such securities.

The currencies of certain emerging market countries have experienced devaluations relative to the U.S. dollar, and future devaluations may adversely affect the value of assets denominated in such currencies. Many emerging market countries have experienced substantial, and in some periods extremely high, rates of inflation or deflation for many years, and future inflation may adversely affect the economies and securities markets of such countries. When debt and similar obligations issued by foreign issuers are denominated in a currency (e.g., the U.S. dollar or the Euro) other than the local currency of the issuer, the subsequent strengthening of the non-local currency against the local currency will generally increase the burden of repayment on the issuer and may increase significantly the risk of default by the issuer.

In addition, unanticipated political or social developments may affect the value of investments in emerging markets and the availability of additional investments in these markets. The small size, limited trading volume and relative inexperience of the securities markets in these countries may make investments in securities traded in emerging markets illiquid and more volatile than investments in securities traded in more developed countries, and the Fund may be required to establish special custodial or other arrangements before making investments in securities traded in emerging markets. There may be little financial or accounting information available with respect to issuers of emerging market securities, and it may be difficult as a result to assess the value or prospects of an investment in such securities.

American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) as well as other hybrid forms of ADRs, including European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer. These certificates are issued by depositary banks and generally trade on an established market in the United States or elsewhere. The underlying shares are held in trust by a custodian bank or similar financial institution in the issuer’s home country. The depositary bank may not have physical custody of the underlying securities at all times and may charge fees for various services, including forwarding dividends and interest and corporate actions. ADRs are alternatives to directly purchasing the underlying foreign securities in their national markets and currencies. However, ADRs continue to be subject to many of the risks associated with investing in foreign securities.

Foreign securities and emerging markets securities include Global Depositary Notes (“GDNs”). A GDN is a debt instrument created by a bank that evidences ownership of local currency-denominated debt securities. GDNs reflect the terms of particular local currency-denominated bonds. GDNs trade, settle, and pay interest and principal in U.S. dollars but typically are restricted securities that do not trade on an exchange. Any distributions paid to the holders of GDNs are usually subject to a fee charged by the depositary bank. In addition to the risks associated with foreign investments, the Fund’s investments in GDNs are subject to the risks associated with the underlying local currency-denominated bond and derivative instruments including credit risk, default risk, counterparty risk, interest rate risk, leverage risk, liquidity risk, and reliance on the adviser risk. Holders of GDNs may have limited rights, and investment restrictions in certain countries may adversely impact the value of GDNs because such restrictions may limit the ability to convert the bonds into GDNs and vice versa. Such restrictions may cause bonds of the underlying issuer to trade at a discount or premium to the market price of the GDN.

 

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Certain of the foregoing risks may also apply to some extent to securities of U.S. issuers that are denominated in foreign currencies or that are traded in foreign markets, or securities of U.S. issuers having significant foreign operations or other exposure to foreign markets. If the Fund invests in securities issued by foreign issuers, the Fund may be subject to the risks described above even if all of the Fund’s investments are denominated in United States dollars, especially with respect to issuers whose revenues are principally earned in a foreign currency but whose debt obligations have been issued in United States dollars or other hard currencies.

Forward Commitments and Dollar Rolls. The Fund may enter into contracts to purchase securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond customary settlement time (“forward commitments”) if the Fund sets aside on its books liquid assets in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price, or if the Fund enters into offsetting contracts for the forward sale of other securities it owns. In the case of to-be-announced (“TBA”) purchase commitments, the unit price and the estimated principal amount are established when the Fund enters into a contract, with the actual principal amount being within a specified range of the estimate. Forward commitments may be considered securities in themselves, and involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date, which risk is in addition to the risk of decline in the value of the Fund’s other assets. Where such purchases are made through dealers, the Fund relies on the dealer to consummate the sale. The dealer’s failure to do so may result in the loss to the Fund of an advantageous yield or price. Although the Fund will generally enter into forward commitments with the intention of acquiring securities for its portfolio or for delivery pursuant to options contracts it has entered into, the Fund may dispose of a commitment prior to settlement if the Adviser deems it appropriate to do so. The Fund may realize short-term profits or losses upon the sale of forward commitments.

The Fund may enter into TBA sale commitments to hedge its portfolio positions or to sell securities it owns under delayed delivery arrangements. Proceeds of TBA sale commitments are not received until the contractual settlement date. Unsettled TBA sale commitments are valued at current market value of the underlying securities. If the TBA sale commitment is closed through the acquisition of an offsetting purchase commitment, the Fund realizes a gain or loss on the commitment without regard to any unrealized gain or loss on the underlying security. If the Fund delivers securities under the commitment, the Fund realizes a gain or loss from the sale of the securities based upon the unit price established at the date the commitment was entered into.

The Fund may enter into dollar roll transactions (generally using TBAs) in which it sells a fixed income security for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts to purchase similar securities (for example, same type, coupon and maturity) at an agreed upon future time. By engaging in a dollar roll transaction, the Fund foregoes principal and interest paid on the security that is sold, but receives the difference between the current sales price and the forward price for the future purchase. The Fund would also be able to earn interest on the proceeds of the sale before they are reinvested. The Fund accounts for dollar rolls as purchases and sales. Dollar rolls may be used to create investment leverage and may increase the Fund’s risk and volatility.

The obligation to purchase securities on a specified future date involves the risk that the market value of the securities that the Fund is obligated to purchase may decline below the purchase price. In addition, in the event the other party to the transaction files for bankruptcy, becomes insolvent or defaults on its obligation, the Fund may be adversely affected.

Recently finalized FINRA rules include mandatory margin requirements for the TBA market that would require the Fund to post collateral in connection with its TBA transactions. There is no similar requirement applicable to the Fund’s TBA counterparties. If those rules are implemented, the required collateralization of TBA trades could increase the cost of TBA transactions to the Fund and impose added operational complexity.

Hybrid Securities. The Fund may acquire hybrid securities. A third party or Adviser may create a hybrid security by combining an income-producing debt security (“income producing component”) and the right to receive payment based on the change in the price of an equity security (“equity component”). The income-producing component is achieved by investing in non-convertible, income-producing securities such as bonds, preferred stocks and money market instruments, which may be represented by derivative instruments. The equity component is achieved by investing in securities or instruments such as cash-settled warrants or options to receive a payment based on whether the price of a common stock surpasses a certain exercise price, or options on a stock index. A hybrid security comprises two or more separate securities, each with its own market value. Therefore, the market value of a hybrid security is derived from the values of its income-producing component and its equity component.

A holder of a hybrid security faces the risk of a decline in the price of the security or the level of the index involved in the equity component, causing a decline in the value of the security or instrument, such as a call option or warrant, purchased to create the hybrid security. The equity component has risks typical to a purchased call option. Should the price of the stock fall below the exercise price and remain there throughout the exercise period, the entire amount paid for the call option or warrant would be lost. Because a hybrid security includes the income-producing component as well, the holder of a hybrid security also faces risks typical to all debt securities.

Sovereign Debt Obligations. The Fund may invest in sovereign debt, including of emerging market countries. Investors should be aware that certain sovereign debt instruments in which the Fund may invest may involve great risk and may be deemed to be the equivalent in terms of credit quality to securities rated below investment grade by Moody’s and S&P.

Sovereign debt may be issued by foreign developed and emerging market governments and their respective sub-divisions, agencies or instrumentalities, government sponsored enterprises and supranational government entities. Supranational entities include international organizations that are organized or supported by one or more government entities to promote economic reconstruction or development and by international banking institutions and related governmental agencies. Investment in sovereign debt can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of sovereign debt may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of the debt. A governmental entity’s willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves or its inability to sufficiently manage fluctuations in relative currency valuations, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity’s policy toward principal international lenders such as the International Monetary Fund, and the political and social constraints to which a

 

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governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities also may depend on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity’s implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties’ commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Consequently, governmental entities may decide to default on their sovereign debt in whole or in part. Holders of sovereign debt (including the Fund) may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental entities. There is no bankruptcy proceeding through which holders of sovereign debt (including the Fund) may attempt to collect all or a portion of their investment upon a default, which could result in significant losses to the Fund.

The Fund may invest in Brady Bonds, sovereign debt securities created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to sovereign entities for new obligations in connection with debt restructurings under a debt restructuring plan. Brady Bonds may be collateralized or uncollateralized, are issued in various currencies (primarily the U.S. dollar) and are actively traded in the over-the-counter secondary market. Investments in Brady Bonds involve various risks associated with investing in sovereign debt securities and may be subject to restructuring arrangements or to requests for new credit, which may cause the Fund to lose interest or principal on holdings consisting of Brady Bonds.

The Fund’s investments in foreign currency denominated debt obligations and hedging activities will likely produce a difference between its book income and its taxable income. This difference may cause a portion of the Fund’s income distributions to constitute returns of capital for tax purposes or require the Fund to make distributions exceeding book income to qualify as a RIC for federal tax purposes. See “Distributions and Taxes” below.

Some of the countries in which the Fund may invest have encountered difficulties in servicing their sovereign debt. Some of these countries have withheld payments of interest and/or principal of sovereign debt. These difficulties have also led to agreements to restructure external debt obligations; in particular, commercial bank loans, typically by rescheduling principal payments, reducing interest rates and extending new credits to finance interest payments on existing debt. Unlike most corporate debt restructurings, the fees and expenses of financial and legal advisers to the creditors in connection with a restructuring may be borne by the holders of the sovereign debt securities instead of the sovereign entity itself. Some sovereign debtors have in the past been able to restructure their debt payments without the approval of some or all debt holders or to declare moratoria on payments, and similar occurrences may happen in the future where holders of sovereign debt may be requested to participate in similar rescheduling of such debt.

The ability or willingness of foreign governments to make timely payments on their sovereign debt is likely to be influenced strongly by a country’s balance of trade and its access to trade and other international credits. A country whose exports are concentrated in a few commodities could be vulnerable to a decline in the international prices of one or more of such commodities. Increased protectionism on the part of a country’s trading partners could also adversely affect its exports. Such events could extinguish a country’s trade account surplus, if any. To the extent that a country receives payment for its exports in currencies other than hard currencies, its ability to make hard currency payments could be affected.

The occurrence of political, social, economic and diplomatic changes in one or more of the countries issuing sovereign debt could adversely affect the Fund’s investments. The countries issuing such instruments may be faced with social and political issues and some of them have experienced high rates of inflation and have extensive internal debt. Among other effects, high inflation and internal debt service requirements may adversely affect the cost and availability of future domestic sovereign borrowing to finance governmental programs, and may have other adverse social, political and economic consequences. Political changes or a deterioration of a country’s domestic economy or balance of trade may affect the willingness of countries to services their sovereign debt. There can be no assurance that adverse political changes will not cause the Fund to suffer a loss of interest or principal on any of its holdings.

As a result of all of the foregoing, a government obligor may default on its obligations and/or the values of its obligations may decline significantly. If an event of default occurs, the Fund may have limited legal recourse against the issuer and/or guarantor. Remedies must, in some cases, be pursued in the courts of the defaulting party itself, and the ability of the holder of foreign government debt securities to obtain recourse may be subject to the political climate in the relevant country. Bankruptcy, moratorium and other similar laws designed to protect and enforce the rights of creditors may not apply to issuers of sovereign debt obligations in many jurisdictions may be substantially different from those applicable to issuers of private debt obligations, and/or may be ineffective in enforcing the Fund’s rights or effecting a recovery on the Fund’s investment. In addition, no assurance can be given that the holders of commercial bank debt will not contest payments to the holders of other foreign government debt obligations in the event of default under their commercial bank loan agreements. Periods of economic uncertainty may result in the volatility of market prices of sovereign debt and in turn, the Fund’s NAV, to a greater extent than the volatility inherent in domestic securities. The value of sovereign debt will likely vary inversely with changes in prevailing interest rates, which are subject to considerable variance in the international market.

Commodities. The Fund may invest directly or indirectly in commodities (such as precious metals, industrial metals, natural gas or other energy commodities, and agriculture and livestock). Commodity prices can be more volatile than prices of other types of investments and can be affected by a wide range of factors, including changes in overall market movements, speculative activity of other investors, real or perceived inflationary trends, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates or currency exchange rates, population growth and changing demographics, nationalization, expropriation or other confiscation, economic or other sanctions, international regulatory, political, and economic developments (for example, regime changes and changes in economic activity levels), and developments affecting a particular sector, industry, or commodity, such as drought, floods, or other weather conditions, livestock disease, trade embargoes, competition from substitute products, transportation bottlenecks or shortages, fluctuations in supply and demand, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments. Certain commodities may also originate from or be produced in countries or regions that are experiencing or may experience social and political unrest and may be subject to risks associated with economic, social or political developments in those countries or regions.

The Fund may also use commodity-related derivatives such as commodity-linked swaps, commodity index-linked structured

 

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notes and other derivative instruments that provide exposure to the investment returns of the commodity markets without direct investment in physical commodities or commodities futures contracts. Commodity-linked swaps are derivative instruments whereby the cash flows agreed upon between counterparties are dependent upon the price of the underlying commodity or commodity index over the life of the swap. The value of the swap will rise and fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or commodity index. These swaps expose the Fund economically to movements in commodity prices. The Fund may also invest in commodity-linked notes that pay a return linked to the performance of a commodities index or basket of futures contracts with respect to all of the commodities in an index. In some cases, the return is based on a multiple of the performance of the relevant index or basket. Structured notes may be structured by the issuer or the purchaser of the note. Structured notes are derivative debt instruments with principal payments generally linked to the value of commodities, commodity futures contracts or the performance of commodity indices and interest and coupon payments pegged to a market-based interest rate, such as LIBOR or a bank’s prime rate. The value of these notes will rise or fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or related index or investment. The Fund may also take long and/or short positions in commodities by investing in other investment companies, ETFs or other pooled investment vehicles, such as commodity pools. Certain of these other investment vehicles may seek to provide exposure to commodities without actually owning physical commodities, and may therefore produce different results than they would through ownership of the commodities.

The Fund may hold positions in commodity futures contracts. Commodity futures contracts are agreements between two parties in which one party agrees to buy an asset from another party at a later date at a price and quantity that is agreed upon at the time the contract is made. Commodity futures contracts are generally traded on futures exchanges. Transactions in commodity futures that are traded on futures exchanges occur through a clearing corporation that processes trades, offers a secondary market for futures trading, and offers trading of futures contracts with standardized contract expiration dates and contract sizes. Commodity futures exchanges may have position limit rules that limit the amount of futures contracts that any one party may hold in a particular commodity at any point in time. These position limit rules are designed to prevent any one participant from controlling a significant portion of the market. Upon entering a futures transaction, the purchaser is typically required to deposit an initial margin payment to a futures commission merchant. Futures clearinghouses typically mark every futures contract to market at the end of each trading day. If the Fund’s futures positions have declined in value, the Fund may be required to post additional margin when its futures contracts are marked-to-market. Prior to the expiration of a futures contract, the Fund may elect to close out its position, at which time a final determination of variation margin is made. At that time, the Fund then realizes any loss or gain on the futures transaction.

The values of these derivatives may fluctuate more than the relevant underlying commodity or commodities or commodity index. The requirements for qualification as a RIC can limit the manner in or extent to which the Fund may enter into certain commodity-related derivatives, such as commodities futures contracts discussed above, and such derivatives may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to qualify as a RIC. See “Distributions and Taxes” below.

Convertible Securities. The Fund may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities include bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stock and other securities that may be converted into or exchanged for, at a specific price or formula within a particular period of time, a prescribed amount of common stock or other equity securities of the same or a different issuer. Convertible securities may entitle the holder to receive interest paid or accrued on debt or dividends paid or accrued on preferred stock until the security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. The Fund may invest in convertible bonds and debentures of any credit quality and maturity.

The market value of a convertible security is a function of its investment value and its conversion value. A security’s investment value represents the value of the security without its conversion feature (i.e., a nonconvertible fixed income security). The investment value may be determined by reference to its credit quality and the current value of its yield to maturity or probable call date. At any given time, investment value is dependent upon such factors as the general level of interest rates, the yield of similar nonconvertible securities, the financial strength of the issuer and the seniority of the security in the issuer’s capital structure. A security’s conversion value is determined by multiplying the number of shares the holder is entitled to receive upon conversion or exchange by the current price of the underlying security.

If the conversion value of a convertible security is significantly below its investment value, the convertible security generally trades like nonconvertible debt or preferred stock and its market value will not be influenced greatly by fluctuations in the market price of the underlying security. Conversely, if the conversion value of a convertible security is near or above its investment value, the market value of the convertible security is typically more heavily influenced by fluctuations in the market price of the underlying security. Convertible securities generally have less potential for gain than common stocks.

The Fund’s investments in convertible securities may at times include securities that have a mandatory conversion feature, pursuant to which the securities convert automatically into common stock or other equity securities at a specified date and a specified conversion ratio, or that are convertible at the option of the issuer. Because conversion of the security is not at the option of the holder, the Fund may be required to convert the security into the underlying common stock even at times when to do so is not in the best interests of the shareholders.

The Fund also may invest in “synthetic” convertible securities, which will be selected based on the similarity of their economic characteristics to those of a traditional convertible security due to the combination of separate securities or instruments that possess the two principal characteristics of a traditional convertible security, i.e., an income-producing security (“income-producing component”) and the right to acquire an equity security (“convertible component”). The income-producing component is achieved by investing in non-convertible, income-producing securities such as bonds, preferred stocks and money market instruments. The convertible component is achieved by purchasing warrants or options to buy common stock at a certain exercise price, or options on a stock index. The Fund may also purchase synthetic securities created by other parties, typically investment banks, including convertible structured notes.

The Fund’s investments in convertible securities, including synthetic convertible securities, particularly securities that are convertible into securities of an issuer other than the issuer of the convertible security, may be illiquid, in which case the Fund may not be able to dispose of such securities in a timely fashion or for a fair price, which could result in losses to the Fund.

 

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The Fund’s investment in convertible securities may also be generally subject to the risks associated with investment in fixed income securities. See “—Debt Securities Risks.”

Exchange-Traded Notes (“ETNs”). The Fund may invest in ETNs. ETNs have many features of senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities. Their returns are linked to the performance of a particular asset, such as a market index, less applicable fees and expenses. ETNs are listed on an exchange and traded in the secondary market. The Fund may hold the ETN until maturity, at which time the issuer is obligated to pay a return linked to the performance of the relevant asset. ETNs do not typically make periodic interest payments and principal is not protected.

The market value of an ETN may be influenced by, among other things, time to maturity, level of supply and demand of the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in the underlying assets, changes in the applicable interest rates, the current performance of the asset to which the ETN is linked, and the credit rating of the ETN issuer. ETNs represent an unsecured obligation and therefore carry with them the risk that the counterparty will default and the Fund may not be able to recover the current value of its investment. The market value of an ETN may differ from the performance of the applicable asset and there may be times when an ETN trades at a premium or discount to the underlying asset’s value. This difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for ETNs at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the assets on which the ETN’s return is based. A change in the issuer’s credit rating may also affect the value of an ETN despite the underlying asset remaining unchanged.

ETNs are also subject to tax risk. For tax purposes, no assurance can be given that the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) will accept, or a court will uphold, how the Fund characterizes and treats ETNs or amounts realized thereon; further, the requirements for qualification as a RIC may limit the extent to which the Fund may invest in certain ETNs. See “Distributions and Taxes” below.

An ETN that is tied to a specific market index may not be able to replicate and maintain exactly the composition and relative weighting of securities, commodities or other components in the applicable market index. ETNs also incur certain expenses not incurred by their applicable market index, and the Fund would bear a proportionate share of any fees and expenses borne by the ETN in which it invests. The Fund’s decision to sell its ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market. In addition, although an ETN may be listed on an exchange, the issuer may not be required to maintain the listing and there can be no assurance that a secondary market will exist for an ETN. Some ETNs that use leverage in an effort to amplify the returns of an underlying market index can, at times, be relatively illiquid and may therefore be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs may offer the potential for greater return, but the potential for loss and speed at which losses can be realized also are greater.

ETNs are generally similar to structured investments and hybrid instruments. For discussion of these investments and the risks generally associated with them, see “Hybrid Securities” and “Structured Investments” in this SAI.

Floating Rate and Variable Rate Demand Notes. The Fund may purchase taxable or tax-exempt floating rate and variable rate demand notes for short-term cash management or other investment purposes. Floating rate and variable rate demand notes and bonds may have a stated maturity in excess of one year, but may have features that permit a holder to demand payment of principal plus accrued interest upon a specified number of days notice. Frequently, such obligations are secured by letters of credit or other credit support arrangements provided by banks. The issuer has a corresponding right, after a given period, to prepay in its discretion the outstanding principal of the obligation plus accrued interest upon a specific number of days’ notice to the holders. The interest rate of a floating rate instrument may be based on a known lending rate, such as a bank’s prime rate, and is reset whenever such rate is adjusted. The interest rate on a variable rate demand note is reset at specified intervals at a market rate.

Inflation-Protected Securities. The Fund may invest in U.S. Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (“U.S. TIPS”), which are fixed income securities issued by the U.S. Department of Treasury, the principal amounts of which are adjusted daily based upon changes in the rate of inflation. The Fund may also invest in other inflation-protected securities issued by non-U.S. governments or by private issuers. U.S. TIPS pay interest on a semi-annual basis, equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. The interest rate on these bonds is fixed at issuance, but over the life of the bond this interest may be paid on an increasing or decreasing principal value that has been adjusted for inflation.

Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed for U.S. TIPS, even during a period of deflation. However, because the principal amount of U.S. TIPS would be adjusted downward during a period of deflation, the Fund will be subject to deflation risk with respect to its investments in these securities. In addition, the current market value of the bonds is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate. If the Fund purchases in the secondary market U.S. TIPS whose principal values have been adjusted upward due to inflation since issuance, the Fund may experience a loss if there is a subsequent period of deflation. The Fund may also invest in other inflation-related bonds which may or may not provide a guarantee of principal. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal amount.

The periodic adjustment of U.S. TIPS is currently tied to the CPI-U, which is calculated by the U.S. Department of Treasury. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-protected bonds issued by a non-U.S. government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index, calculated by that government. There can no assurance that the CPI-U or any non-U.S. inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure. In addition, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a non-U.S. country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States.

In general, the value of inflation-protected bonds is expected to fluctuate in response to changes in real interest rates, which are in turn tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-protected bonds. In contrast, if nominal interest rates increased at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise,

 

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leading to a decrease in value of inflation-protected bonds. If inflation is lower than expected during the period the Fund holds the security, the Fund may earn less on the security than on a conventional bond. Any increase in principal value is taxable in the year the increase occurs, even though holders do not receive cash representing the increase at that time. As a result, if the Fund invests in inflation-protected securities, it could be required at times to liquidate other investments, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to satisfy its distribution requirements as a RIC and to eliminate any fund-level income tax liability under the Code.

Infrastructure Investments. The Fund may invest in securities and other obligations of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers providing exposure to infrastructure investments. Infrastructure investments include, without limitation, fixed or floating-rate debt instruments or loans issued to finance (or re-finance) the ownership, development, construction, maintenance, renovation, enhancement, or operation of infrastructure assets. Infrastructure investments also include investments in the debt securities of or loans made to issuers of various types including issuers that invest in, own or hold infrastructure assets; or issuers that operate infrastructure assets or provide services, products or raw materials related to the development, construction, maintenance, renovation, enhancement or operation of infrastructure assets. Issuers in which the Fund may invest may include, among others, operating companies, special purpose vehicles, including vehicles created to hold or finance infrastructure assets, municipal issuers, and government-related issuers.

Infrastructure investments include assets or projects that support the operation, function, growth or development of a community or economy. The infrastructure assets to which the Fund may have exposure, directly or indirectly, include, without limitation, those related to transportation (e.g., airports, metro systems, subways, railroads, ports, toll roads, airplanes); electric utilities and power (e.g., power generation, transmission and distribution); energy (e.g., exploration & production, pipeline, storage, refining and distribution of energy); renewable energies (e.g., wind, solar, hydro, geothermal); communication networks and equipment; water and sewage treatment; social infrastructure (e.g., health care facilities, government accommodations, and other public service facilities); metals and mining; and shipping, cement, steel, and other resources and services related to infrastructure assets (e.g., chemical companies).

The values of the Fund’s infrastructure investments may be entirely dependent upon the successful development, construction, maintenance, renovation, enhancement or operation of infrastructure assets or infrastructure-related projects. Accordingly, the Fund may have significant exposure to adverse economic, regulatory, political, legal, demographic, environmental and other developments affecting the success of the infrastructure assets or projects in which it directly or indirectly invests.

Initial Public Offerings. The Fund may purchase debt or equity securities in initial public offerings (“IPOs”). These securities, which are often issued by unseasoned companies, may be subject to many of the same risks of investing in companies with smaller market capitalizations. Securities issued in IPOs have no trading history, and information about the companies may be available for very limited periods. Securities issued in an IPO frequently are very volatile in price, and the Fund may hold securities purchased in an IPO for a very short period of time. As a result, the Fund’s investments in IPOs may increase portfolio turnover, which increases brokerage and administrative costs and may result in distributions taxable to shareholders subject to tax.

At any particular time or from time to time the Fund may not be able to invest in securities issued in IPOs, or invest to the extent desired because, for example, only a small portion (if any) of the securities being offered in an IPO may be made available to the Fund. In addition, under certain market conditions a relatively small number of companies may issue securities in IPOs. Similarly, as the number of funds advised by the Adviser to which IPO securities are allocated increases, the number of securities issued to any one fund may decrease. The investment performance of the Fund during periods when it is unable to invest significantly or at all in IPOs may be lower than during periods when the Fund is able to do so. In addition, as the Fund increases in size, the impact of IPOs on the Fund’s performance will generally decrease. There can be no assurance that investments in IPOs will be available to the Fund or improve the Fund’s performance.

Municipal Bonds. Municipal bonds are investments of any maturity issued by states, public authorities or political subdivisions to raise money for public purposes; they include, for example, general obligations of a state or other government entity supported by its taxing powers to acquire and construct public facilities, or to provide temporary financing in anticipation of the receipt of taxes and other revenue. They also include obligations of states, public authorities or political subdivisions to finance privately owned or operated facilities or public facilities financed solely by enterprise revenues. Changes in law or adverse determinations by the IRS or a state tax authority could cause the income from some of these obligations to become taxable.

Short-term municipal bonds are generally issued by state and local governments and public authorities as interim financing in anticipation of tax collections, revenue receipts or bond sales to finance such public purposes.

Certain types of private activity bonds may be issued by public authorities to finance projects such as privately operated housing facilities; certain local facilities for supplying water, gas or electricity; sewage or solid waste disposal facilities; student loans; or public or private institutions for the construction of educational, hospital, housing and other facilities. Such obligations are included within the term municipal bonds if the interest paid thereon is, in the opinion of bond counsel, exempt from federal income tax and state personal income tax (such interest may, however, be subject to federal alternative minimum tax). Other types of private activity bonds, the proceeds of which are used for the construction, repair or improvement of, or to obtain equipment for, privately operated industrial or commercial facilities, may also constitute municipal bonds, although current federal tax laws place substantial limitations on the size of such issues.

The Fund does not expect to qualify to pass through to shareholders the tax-exempt character of interest on municipal bonds.

The Fund may also invest in certain types of municipal bonds that are not tax-exempt, such as Build America bonds. See “—Tax Credit Bonds” and “—Build America Bonds” below.

Participation interests. The Fund may invest in municipal bonds either by purchasing them directly or by purchasing certificates of accrual or similar instruments evidencing direct ownership of interest payments or principal payments, or both,

 

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on municipal bonds, provided that, in the opinion of counsel, any discount accruing on a certificate or instrument that is purchased at a yield not greater than the coupon rate of interest on the related municipal bonds will be exempt from federal income tax to the same extent as interest on the municipal bonds. The Fund may also invest in municipal bonds by purchasing from banks participation interests in all or part of specific holdings of municipal bonds. These participations may be backed in whole or in part by an irrevocable letter of credit or guarantee of the selling bank. The selling bank may receive a fee from the Fund in connection with the arrangement.

Stand-by commitments. If the Fund purchases municipal bonds, it has the authority to acquire stand-by commitments from banks and broker-dealers with respect to those municipal bonds. A stand-by commitment may be considered a security independent of the municipal bond to which it relates. The amount payable by a bank or dealer during the time a stand-by commitment is exercisable, absent unusual circumstances, would be substantially the same as the market value of the underlying municipal bond to a third party at any time. It is expected that stand-by commitments generally will be available without the payment of direct or indirect consideration.

Yields. The yields on municipal bonds depend on a variety of factors, including general money market conditions, effective marginal tax rates, the financial condition of the issuer, general conditions of the municipal bond market, the size of a particular offering, the maturity of the obligation and the rating of the issue. The ratings assigned by NRSROs represent their opinions as to the credit quality of the municipal bonds that they undertake to rate. It should be emphasized, however, that ratings are general and are not absolute standards of quality. Consequently, municipal bonds with the same maturity and interest rate but with different ratings may have the same yield. Yield disparities may occur for reasons not directly related to the investment quality of particular issues or the general movement of interest rates and may be due to such factors as changes in the overall demand or supply of various types of municipal bonds or changes in the investment objectives of investors. Subsequent to purchase by the Fund, an issue of municipal bonds or other investments may cease to be rated, or its rating may be reduced below the minimum rating required for purchase by the Fund. Neither event will require the elimination of an investment from the Fund’s portfolio, but the Adviser will consider such an event in its determination of whether the Fund should continue to hold an investment in its portfolio.

Moral obligation bonds. The Fund may invest in so-called moral obligation bonds, where repayment is backed by a moral commitment of an entity other than the issuer, if the credit of the issuer itself, without regard to the moral obligation, meets the investment criteria established for investments by the Fund.

Municipal leases. The Fund may acquire participations in lease obligations or installment purchase contract obligations (collectively, “lease obligations”) of municipal authorities or entities. Lease obligations do not constitute general obligations of the municipality for which the municipality’s taxing power is pledged. Certain of these lease obligations contain non-appropriation clauses, which provide that the municipality has no obligation to make lease or installment purchase payments in future years unless money is appropriated for such purpose on a yearly basis. In the case of a non-appropriation lease, the Fund’s ability to recover under the lease in the event of non-appropriation or default will be limited solely to the repossession of the leased property, and in any event, foreclosure of that property might prove difficult.

Pre-refunded municipal bonds. The Fund may invest in pre-refunded municipal bonds, which are a type of municipal bond where the issuer, prior to final maturity of the bond, has set aside high-quality debt instruments in a designated escrow account to fund in full the payment of the amount owed at final maturity to a call date on or before the final maturity of principal and remain outstanding in the municipal market. The payment of principal and interest of the pre-refunded municipal bonds held by the Fund is funded from the securities in the designated escrow account, which typically holds U.S. Treasury securities or other obligations of the U.S. government, including its agencies and instrumentalities (“Agency Securities”). Pre-refunded municipal bonds usually will bear an AAA rating (if a re-rating has been requested and paid for) because they typically are backed by the U.S. Treasury or Agency Securities. As the payment of principal and interest is generated from securities held in a designated escrow account, the pledge of the municipality has been fulfilled and the original pledge of revenue by the municipality is no longer in place. The escrow account securities pledged to pay the principal and interest of the pre-refunded municipal bonds held by the Fund nonetheless still subject the Fund to interest rate risk and market risk. In addition, while a secondary market exists for pre-refunded municipal bonds, if the Fund sells pre-refunded municipal bonds prior to maturity, the price received may be more or less than the original cost, depending on market conditions at the time of sale. The interest on pre-refunded bonds issued on or before December 31, 2017 is exempt from federal income tax; the interest on such bonds issued after December 31, 2017 is not exempt from federal income tax.

Revenue Bonds. The Fund may invest in revenue bonds, which are a type of municipal bond payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility, a class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise tax or other specific revenue source. Revenue bonds have been issued to fund a wide variety of capital projects including: electric, gas, water, and sewer systems; highways, bridges and tunnels; port and airport facilities; colleges and universities; hospitals; and other infrastructure assets or projects. Although some of these obligations may be unsecured, municipal bonds may provide security in the form of a debt service reserve fund the assets of which may be used to make principal and interest payments on the issuer’s obligations. In addition to a debt service reserve fund, some authorities provide further security in the form of a state’s ability (without obligation) to make up deficiencies in the debt reserve fund.

Because revenue bonds are typically payable only from revenue generated by the facility, class of facilities, facility operator, or special excise tax proceeds for payment of interest and principal, rather than the credit of the state or local government authority issuing the bonds, revenue bonds may be subject to greater credit risk than general obligations because of the relatively limited source of revenue. Industry-specific conditions may also affect the investment quality and value of revenue bonds (see “—Infrastructure Sector Risk” below).

Build America Bonds. The Fund may invest in Build America Bonds, which are taxable municipal bonds with federal subsidies for a portion of the issuer’s borrowing costs. Build America Bonds were issued through the Build America Bond program, which was created as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The objective of the program was to reduce the borrowing costs of state and local governments. Because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was not extended beyond its expiration date on December 31, 2010, tax subsidies (if any) will not apply to Build America Bonds issued following such date. However, Build America Bonds outstanding and issued before such date remain eligible for the federal interest rate subsidy, which is expected to continue for the life of the Build America Bonds.

 

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Tax Credit Bonds. If the Fund holds, directly or indirectly, one or more “tax credit bonds,” issued on or before December 31, 2017, such as Build America Bonds issued before January 1, 2011, on one or more applicable dates during a taxable year, it is possible that the Fund will elect to permit its shareholders to claim a tax credit on their income tax returns equal to each shareholder’s proportionate share of tax credits from the applicable bonds that otherwise would be allowed to the Fund. In such a case, a shareholder will be deemed to receive a distribution of money with respect to its Fund shares equal to the shareholder’s proportionate share of the amount of such credits and be allowed a credit against the shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability equal to the amount of such deemed distribution, subject to certain limitations imposed by the Code on the credits involved. Even if the Fund is eligible to pass through such tax credits to shareholders, the Fund may choose not to do so.

Additional risks. Securities in which the Fund may invest, including municipal bonds, are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the federal Bankruptcy Code (including special provisions related to municipalities and other public entities), and laws, if any, that may be enacted by Congress or state legislatures extending the time for payment of principal or interest, or both, or imposing other constraints upon enforcement of such obligations. There is also the possibility that, as a result of litigation or other conditions, such as the recent bankruptcy-type proceedings by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the power, ability or willingness of issuers to meet their obligations for the payment of interest and principal on their municipal bonds may be materially affected or their obligations may be found to be invalid or unenforceable. Such litigation or conditions may from time to time have the effect of introducing uncertainties in the market for municipal bonds or certain segments thereof, or of materially affecting the credit risk with respect to particular bonds. Adverse economic, business, legal or political developments might affect all or a substantial portion of the Fund’s municipal bonds in the same manner.

From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating the federal income tax exemption for interest on debt obligations issued by states and their political subdivisions. Federal tax laws limit the types and amounts of tax-exempt bonds issuable for certain purposes, especially industrial development bonds and private activity bonds. Such limits may affect the future supply and yields of these types of municipal bonds. Further proposals limiting the issuance of municipal bonds may well be introduced in the future.

Private Investment in Public Companies (“PIPEs”). The Fund may invest in PIPE transactions. In a typical PIPE transaction, the Fund will acquire stock of a company (such as convertible notes or convertible preferred stock) that is convertible into common stock through a private placement pursuant to Regulation D. The issuer’s common stock is usually publicly traded on a U.S. securities exchange or in the OTC markets, but the securities that are acquired in the PIPE transaction are not registered and will be subject to restrictions on their resale. Due to the potentially illiquid nature of such securities, the purchase price in a PIPE transaction will typically be fixed at a discount to the prevailing market price of the issuer’s common stock at the time of the transaction. As part of a PIPE transaction, the issuer will generally be contractually obligated to seek to register the securities under the U.S. securities laws within an agreed upon period of time after the PIPE transaction. However, the Fund may not be able to sell its shares until that registration process is completed. PIPE transactions are subject to the risk that the issuer may be unable to register the securities for public resale in a timely manner, or at all, in which case the securities could be sold only in a privately negotiated transaction and, potentially, at a price less than that paid by the Fund. Disposing of such securities may involve negotiation and legal expenses. Even if such securities are registered for public sale, the resulting market for the securities may be thin or illiquid, which could make it difficult for the Fund to dispose of such securities at an acceptable price.

Private Investment Vehicles. The Fund may also invest in private investment funds, pools, vehicles, or other structures such as, without limitation, hedge funds, private equity funds or other pooled investment vehicles, which may take the form of corporations, partnerships, trusts, limited partnerships, limited liability companies, or any other form of business organization (collectively, “private funds”), including those sponsored or advised by the Adviser or its related parties. Private funds may utilize leverage without limit and, to the extent the Fund invests in private funds that utilize leverage, the Fund will indirectly be exposed to the risks associated with that leverage and the values of its shares may be more volatile as a result. If a private fund in which the Fund invests is not publicly offered or there is no public market for its shares, the Fund will typically be prohibited by the terms of its investment from selling its shares in the private fund, or may not be able to find a buyer for those shares at an acceptable price. Securities issued by private funds are generally issued in private placements and are restricted securities. An investment in a private fund may be highly volatile and difficult to value. The Fund would bear its pro rata share of the expenses of any private fund in which it invests. See “—Private Placement and Restricted Securities” below.

An investment in private funds sponsored or advised by the Adviser or its related parties presents certain conflicts of interest. Private funds may pay the Adviser (or its related parties) different levels of fees, each based on the amount of assets invested in them. Accordingly, the Adviser or its related parties will earn fees if the Adviser invests the Fund’s assets in private funds that pay fees to the Adviser or its related parties, and will earn more in payments if the Fund’s assets are allocated to those private funds paying fees at the highest rates. This provides the Adviser an incentive to allocate the Fund’s assets into those private funds that pay the highest rate of fees to the Adviser and its related parties; however, the Adviser has a duty to disregard that incentive and allocate the Fund’s assets based on the best interest of the Fund.

Rule 144A/ Regulation S Securities. The Fund may invest in securities that are purchased in private placements and, accordingly, are subject to restrictions on resale as a matter of contract or under federal securities laws. Because there may be relatively few potential purchasers for such investments, especially under adverse market or economic conditions or in the event of adverse changes in the financial condition of the issuer, the Fund could find it more difficult to sell such securities when the Adviser believes it advisable to do so or may be able to sell such securities only at prices lower than if such securities were more widely held. At times, it may also be more difficult to determine the fair value of such securities for purposes of computing the Fund’s NAV.

While such private placements may offer attractive opportunities for investment not otherwise available on the open market, the securities so purchased are often restricted securities, i.e., securities which cannot be sold to the public without registration under the Securities Act or the availability of an exemption from registration (such as Rules 144, 144A or Regulation S), or which are not readily marketable because they are subject to other legal or contractual delays in or restrictions on resale. There may also be limited public information available regarding investments in private funds, which

 

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will make such investment particularly dependent on the analytical abilities of the Fund’s portfolio managers.

The absence of a trading market can make it difficult to ascertain a market value for illiquid investments. Disposing of illiquid investments may involve time-consuming negotiation and legal expenses, and it may be difficult or impossible for the Fund to sell them promptly at an acceptable price. The Fund may have to bear the extra expense of registering such securities for resale and the risk of substantial delay in effecting such registration. In addition, market quotations are less readily available. The judgment of the Adviser may at times play a greater role in valuing these securities than in the case of publicly traded securities.

Generally speaking, restricted securities may be sold only to qualified institutional buyers, or in a privately negotiated transaction to a limited number of purchasers, or in limited quantities after they have been held for a specified period of time and other conditions are met pursuant to an exemption from registration, or in a public offering for which a registration statement is in effect under the Securities Act. The Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act when selling restricted securities to the public, and in such event the Fund may be liable to purchasers of such securities if the registration statement prepared by the issuer, or the prospectus forming a part of it, is materially inaccurate or misleading.

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). The Fund may invest in REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles that own, and typically operate, income-producing real estate. If a REIT meets certain requirements, including distributing to shareholders substantially all of its taxable income (other than net capital gains), then it is not taxed on the income distributed to shareholders. REITs are subject to management fees and other expenses, and so the Fund will bear its proportionate share of the costs of the REITs’ operations. There are three general categories of REITs: Equity REITs, Mortgage REITs and Hybrid REITs. Equity REITs, which invest primarily in direct fee ownership or leasehold ownership of real property and derive most of their income from rents, are generally affected by changes in the values of and incomes from the properties they own. Mortgage REITs invest mostly in mortgages on real estate, which may secure, for example, construction, development or long-term loans, and the main source of their income is mortgage interest payments. Mortgage REITs may be affected by the credit quality of the mortgage loans they hold. A hybrid REIT combines the characteristics of equity REITs and mortgage REITs, generally by holding both ownership interests and mortgage interests in real estate, and thus may be subject to risks associated with both real estate ownership and investments in mortgage-related securities. Along with the risks common to different types of real estate-related investments, REITs, no matter the type, involve additional risk factors, including poor performance by the REIT’s manager, adverse changes to the tax laws, and the possible failure by the REIT to qualify for the favorable tax treatment applicable to REITs under the Code or an exemption under the 1940 Act. REITs are not diversified and are heavily dependent on cash flow earned on the property interests they hold.

Mortgage REITs are exposed to the risks specific to the real estate market as well as the risks that relate specifically to the way in which mortgage REITs are organized and operated. Mortgage REITs receive principal and interest payments from the owners of the mortgaged properties. Accordingly, mortgage REITs are subject to the credit risk of the borrowers to whom they extend credit, and are subject to the risks described below under “mortgage-backed securities risk” and “prepayment risk.” Mortgage REITs are also subject to significant interest rate risk. Mortgage REITs typically use leverage and many are highly leveraged, which exposes them to the risks of leverage. Leverage risk refers to the risk that leverage created from borrowing may impair a mortgage REIT’s liquidity, cause it to liquidate positions at an unfavorable time and increase the volatility of the values of securities issued by the mortgage REIT. The use of leverage may not be advantageous to a mortgage REIT. To the extent that a mortgage REIT incurs significant leverage, it may incur substantial losses if its borrowing costs increase or if the assets it purchases with leverage decrease in value.

The Fund’s investment in a REIT may result in the Fund making distributions that constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for federal income tax purposes. In addition, distributions attributable to REITs made by the Fund to Fund shareholders will not qualify for the corporate dividends-received deduction, or, generally, for treatment as qualified dividend income. Certain distributions made by the Fund attributable to dividends received by the Fund from REITs may qualify as “qualified REIT dividends” in the hands of non-corporate shareholders, as discussed below.

Redeemable Securities. Certain securities held by the Fund may permit the issuer at its option to call or redeem its securities. If an issuer were to redeem securities held by the Fund during a time of declining interest rates, the Fund may not be able to reinvest the proceeds in securities providing the same investment return as the securities redeemed.

Short Sales and Short Positions. Short sales are transactions in which the Fund sells an instrument it does not own, in anticipation of a decline in the market value of that instrument. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow the instrument to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund then is obligated to replace the instrument borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at or prior to the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the instrument was sold by the Fund. Until the instrument is replaced, the Fund is required to repay the lender any dividends or interest that accrues during the period of the loan. The Fund may also enter into a derivative transaction in order to establish a short position with respect to a reference asset. To borrow the instrument or establish the position, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the instrument sold or position established. The net proceeds of the short position will be retained by the broker (or by the Fund’s custodian in a special custody account), to the extent necessary to meet margin requirements, until the short position is closed out. The Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short positions.

The Fund will incur a loss as a result of the short position if the price of the instrument or the value of the reference asset increases between the date of the short sale or short position and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed instrument or otherwise closes out the transaction. The Fund will generally realize a gain if the instrument or the value of the reference asset declines in price between those dates. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of the premium, dividends, interest, or expenses the Fund may be required to pay in connection with a short position. There can be no assurance that the Fund will be able to close out the position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. The Fund’s ability to engage in short sales may from time to time be limited or prohibited because of the inability to borrow certain instruments in the market, legal restrictions on short sales, or other reasons. The loss to the Fund from a short position is potentially unlimited.

 

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Short-Term Investments. Short-term, high quality investments, including, for example, commercial paper, bankers’ acceptances, certificates of deposit, bank time deposits, repurchase agreements, and investments in money market mutual funds or similar pooled investments.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies. The Fund may invest in stock, warrants, and other securities of special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”) or similar special purpose entities that pool funds to seek potential acquisition opportunities. Unless and until an acquisition meeting the SPAC’s requirements is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets (less a portion retained to cover expenses) in U.S. Government securities, money market securities and cash; if an acquisition that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a pre-established period of time, the invested funds are returned to the entity’s shareholders. Because SPACs and similar entities have no operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. Some SPACs may pursue acquisitions only within certain industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices. In addition, these securities, which are typically traded in the over-the-counter market, may be considered illiquid and/or be subject to restrictions on resale. The Fund’s affiliates may create a SPAC for purchase by the Fund to assist the Fund in purchasing certain assets not otherwise available to the Fund.

Stapled Securities. The Fund may invest in stapled securities, which are financial instruments comprised of two or more different instruments that are contractually bound to form a single salable unit; they cannot be bought or sold separately. Stapled securities may often include a share in a company and a unit in a trust related to that company. The resulting security is influenced by both parts, and must be treated as one unit at all times, such as when buying or selling a security. The value of stapled securities and the income, if any, derived from them may fall as well as rise. The market for stapled securities may be illiquid at times, even for those securities that are listed on a domestic or foreign exchange.

Structured Investments. A structured investment is a security having a return tied to an underlying index or other security or asset class. Structured investments generally are individually negotiated agreements and may be traded over-the-counter. Structured investments are organized and operated to restructure the investment characteristics of the underlying security. This restructuring involves the deposit with or purchase by an entity, such as a corporation or trust, or specified instruments (such as commercial bank loans) and the issuance by that entity or one or more classes of securities (“structured securities”) backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued structured securities to create securities with different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, payment priorities and interest rate provisions, and the extent of such payments made with respect to structured securities is dependent on the extent of the cash flow on the underlying instruments. Because structured securities typically involve no credit enhancement, their credit risk generally will be equivalent to that of the underlying instruments. Investments in structured securities are generally of a class of structured securities that is either subordinated or unsubordinated to the right of payment of another class. Subordinated structured securities typically have higher yields and present greater risks than unsubordinated structured securities. Structured securities are typically sold in private placement transactions, and there currently is no active trading market for structured securities. Investments in government and government-related and restructured debt instruments are subject to special risks, including the inability or unwillingness to repay principal and interest, requests to reschedule or restructure outstanding debt and requests to extend additional loan amounts.

Credit-Linked Notes. The Fund may invest in credit-linked notes, which are a type of structured note (see “—Structured Products and Structured Notes Risk”) that are typically set-up as a pass-through note structure created by a broker or bank as an alternative investment for funds or other purchasers to directly buying a bond or group of bonds. Credit-linked notes are privately negotiated transactions whose returns are linked to the returns of one or more designated securities or other instruments that are referred to as “reference securities,” such as an infrastructure-related bond. Through the purchase of a credit-linked note, the Fund assumes the risk of the default or, in some cases, other declines in credit quality of the reference securities. The Fund also is exposed to the credit risk of the issuer of the credit-linked note in the full amount of the purchase price of the note, and the notes are often not secured by the reference securities or other collateral. The Fund has the right to receive periodic interest payments from the issuer of the credit-linked note at an agreed-upon interest rate, and, if there has been no default or, if applicable, other declines in credit quality, a return of principal at the maturity date.

Credit-linked notes are also subject to the credit risk of the reference securities underlying the credit-linked notes. If one of the underlying reference securities defaults, or suffers certain other declines in credit quality, the Fund may, instead of receiving repayment of principal in whole or in part, receive the security that has defaulted.

The market for credit-linked notes may suddenly become illiquid. The other parties to the transaction may be the only investors with sufficient understanding of the derivative to be interested in bidding for it. Changes in liquidity may result in significant, rapid and unpredictable changes in the prices for credit linked notes. In certain cases, a market price for a credit-linked note may not be available or the market may not be active.

Warrants. The Fund may invest in warrants, which are instruments that give the Fund the right to purchase certain securities from an issuer at a specific price (the “strike price”) for a limited period of time. The strike price of warrants typically is much lower than the current market price of the underlying securities, yet they are subject to similar price fluctuations. As a result, warrants may be more volatile investments than the underlying securities and may offer greater potential for capital appreciation as well as capital loss. Warrants do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying securities and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. Also, the value of the warrant does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities and a warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to the expiration date. These factors can make warrants more speculative than other types of investments.

In addition to warrants on securities, the Fund may purchase put warrants and call warrants whose values vary depending on the change in the value of one or more specified securities indices (“index warrants”). Index warrants are generally issued by banks or other financial institutions and give the holder the right, at any time during the term of the warrant, to receive upon exercise of the warrant a cash payment from the issuer based on the value of the underlying index at the time of exercise. In general, if the value of the underlying index rises above the exercise price of the index warrant, the holder of a call warrant will be entitled to receive a cash payment from the issuer upon exercise based on the difference between the

 

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value of the index and the exercise price of the warrant; if the value of the underlying index falls, the holder of a put warrant will be entitled to receive a cash payment from the issuer upon exercise based on the difference between the exercise price of the warrant and the value of the index. The holder of a warrant would not be entitled to any payments from the issuer at any time when, in the case of a call warrant, the exercise price is greater than the value of the underlying index, or, in the case of a put warrant, the exercise price is less than the value of the underlying index. If the Fund were not to exercise an index warrant prior to its expiration, then the Fund would lose the amount of the purchase price paid by it for the warrant.

The Fund will normally use index warrants in a manner similar to its use of options on securities indices. The risks of the Fund’s use of index warrants are generally similar to those relating to its use of index options. Unlike most index options, however, index warrants are issued in limited amounts and are not obligations of a regulated clearing agency, but are backed only by the credit of the bank or other institution which issues the warrant. Also, index warrants generally have longer terms than index options. Index warrants are not likely to be as liquid as certain index options backed by a recognized clearing agency. In addition, the terms of index warrants may limit the Fund’s ability to exercise the warrants at such time, or in such quantities, as the Fund would otherwise wish to do.

Commercial and Residential Real Estate Loans. The Fund may acquire performing commercial whole mortgage loans secured by a first mortgage lien on commercial property, which may be structured to either permit the Fund to retain the entire loan, or sell the lower yielding senior portions of the loans and retain the higher yielding subordinate investment. Typically, borrowers of these loans are institutions and real estate operating companies and investors. These loans are generally secured by commercial real estate assets in a variety of industries with a variety of characteristics. The Fund may originate and own entire whole loans or in some cases may choose to originate and syndicate a portion of the risk or participate in syndications led by other institutions. In some cases, the Fund may originate and fund a first mortgage loan with the intention of selling the senior tranche, or an A-Note, and retaining the subordinated tranche, or a B-Note, or mezzanine loan tranche. The Fund may seek, in the future, to enhance the returns of all or a senior portion of its commercial mortgage loans through securitizations, should the market to securitize commercial mortgage loans recover. In addition to interest, the Fund may receive origination fees, extension fees, modification or similar fees in connection with our whole mortgage loans.

The Fund may also acquire performing residential mortgage loans secured by a first mortgage lien on residential property. Typically, borrowers of these loans are individuals rather than institutions, and the quality of residential real estate loans can depend largely on the credit characteristics of the underlying borrowers. In the last decade, the residential mortgage market in the United States experienced difficulties that resulted in losses on residential mortgage loans (especially subprime and second-lien mortgage loans). There can be no assurance that such difficulties would not be experienced again, which could result in losses as a result of investments in residential real estate loans. For more information regarding these and other risks, see “—Mortgage Backed Securities Risks.”

B-Notes. The Fund may originate or invest in B-Notes. A B-Note is a mortgage loan typically (i) secured by a first mortgage on a single large commercial property or group of related properties and (ii) subordinated to an A-Note secured by the same first mortgage on the same collateral. As a result, if a borrower defaults, there may not be sufficient funds remaining for B-Note holders after payment to the A-Note holders. Since each transaction is privately negotiated, B-Notes can vary in their structural characteristics and risks. For example, the rights of holders of B-Notes to control the process following a borrower default may be limited in certain investments. Further, B-Notes typically are secured by a single property, and so reflect the increased risks associated with a single property compared to a pool of properties.

Mezzanine Loans. The Fund may also originate or invest in mezzanine loans, which are loans that are subordinate in the capital structure of the borrower, meaning that there may be significant indebtedness ranking ahead of the borrower’s obligation to the Fund in the event of the borrower’s insolvency. Such loans may be collateralized with tangible fixed assets such as real property or interests in real property, or may be uncollateralized. As with other loans to corporate borrowers, repayment of a mezzanine loan is dependent on the successful operation of the borrower. Mezzanine loans may also be affected by the successful operation of other properties, the interests in which are not pledged to secure the mezzanine loan.

While mezzanine investments may benefit from the same or similar financial and other covenants as those enjoyed by the indebtedness ranking ahead of the mezzanine investments and may benefit from cross-default provisions and security over the borrower’s assets, some or all of such terms may not apply to particular mezzanine investments. Mezzanine investments generally are subject to various risks including, without limitation, (i) a subsequent characterization of an investment as a “fraudulent conveyance”; (ii) the recovery as a “preference” of liens perfected or payments made on account of a debt incurred in the 90 days before a bankruptcy filing; (iii) equitable subordination claims by other creditors; (iv) so-called “lender liability” claims by the issuer of the obligations; and (v) environmental liabilities that may arise with respect to collateral securing the obligations. In addition to interest, the Fund may receive origination fees, extension fees, modification or similar fees in connection with investments in mezzanine loans.

Income Deposit Securities. The Fund may purchase income deposit securities (“IDSs”). Each IDS represents two separate securities, shares of common stock and subordinated notes issued by the same company, that are combined into one unit that trades like a stock on an exchange. Holders of IDSs receive dividends on the common shares and interest at a fixed rate on the subordinated notes to produce a blended yield. An IDS is typically listed on a stock exchange, but the underlying securities typically are not listed on the exchange until a period of time after the listing of the IDS or upon the occurrence of certain events (e.g., a change of control of the issuer of the IDS). When the underlying securities are listed, the holders of IDSs generally have the right to separate the components of the IDSs and trade them separately.

There may be a thinner and less active market for IDSs than that available for other securities. The value of an IDS will be affected by factors generally affecting common stock and subordinated debt securities, including the issuer’s actual or perceived ability to pay interest and principal on the notes and pay dividends on the stock.

The U.S. federal income tax treatment of IDSs is not entirely clear and there is no authority that directly addresses the tax treatment of securities with terms substantially similar to IDSs. Among other things, although it is expected that the subordinated notes portion of an IDS will be treated as debt, if it were characterized as equity rather than debt, then it would be possible that the interest paid on the notes might be treated as dividends (to the extent paid out of the issuer’s earnings and

 

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profits, but it is not at all clear that such dividends would qualify for favorable long-term capital gains rates currently available to dividends on other types of equity.

Indexed Securities. The Fund may purchase securities whose prices are indexed to the prices of other securities, securities indices, currencies, precious metals or other commodities, or other financial indicators. Indexed securities typically, but not always, are debt securities or deposits whose value at maturity or coupon rate is determined by reference to a specific instrument or statistic. Gold-indexed securities, for example, typically provide for a maturity value that depends on the price of gold, resulting in a security whose price tends to rise and fall together with gold prices. Currency-indexed securities typically are short-term to intermediate-term debt securities whose maturity values or interest rates are determined by reference to the values of one or more specified foreign currencies, and may offer higher yields than U.S. dollar-denominated securities of equivalent issuers. Currency-indexed securities may be positively or negatively indexed; that is, their maturity value may increase when the specified currency value increases, resulting in a security whose price characteristics are similar to a put option on the underlying currency. Currency-indexed securities also may have prices that depend on the values of a number of different foreign currencies relative to each other.

The performance of indexed securities depends to a great extent on the performance of the security, currency, commodity or other instrument to which they are indexed, and also may be influenced by interest rate changes in the United States and abroad. At the same time, indexed securities are subject to the credit risks associated with the issuer of the security, and their values may decline substantially if the issuer’s creditworthiness deteriorates. Recent issuers of indexed securities have included banks, corporations, and certain U.S. Government agencies.

Master Limited Partnerships. The Fund may invest in master limited partnerships (“MLPs”), which are limited partnerships in which ownership units are publicly traded. MLPs often own or own interests in properties or businesses that are related to oil and gas industries, including pipelines, although MLPs may invest in other types of investments, including credit-related investments. Generally, an MLP is operated under the supervision of one or more managing general partners. Limited partners (like the Fund when it invests in an MLP) are not involved in the day-to-day management of the partnership. The Fund also may invest in companies who serve (or whose affiliates serve) as the general partner of an MLP.

Investments in MLPs are generally subject to many of the risks that apply to partnerships. For example, holders of the units of MLPs may have limited control and limited voting rights on matters affecting the partnership. There may be fewer corporate protections afforded investors in an MLP than investors in a corporation. Conflicts of interest may exist among unit holders, subordinated unit holders and the general partner of an MLP, including those arising from incentive distribution payments. MLPs that concentrate in a particular industry or region are subject to risks associated with such industry or region. MLPs holding credit-related investments are subject to interest rate risk and the risk of default on payment obligations by debt issuers. Investments held by MLPs may be illiquid. MLP units may trade infrequently and in limited volume, and they may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than securities of larger or more broadly based companies.

The Fund may also hold investments in limited liability companies that have many of the same characteristics and are subject to many of the same risks as master limited partnerships.

The manner and extent of the Fund’s investments in MLPs and limited liability companies may be limited by its intention to qualify as a RIC under the Code, and any such investments by the Fund may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to so qualify. Subject to any future regulatory guidance to the contrary, any distribution of income attributable to qualified publicly traded partnership income from the Fund’s investment in an MLP will ostensibly not qualify for the deduction that would be available to a non-corporate shareholder were the shareholder to own such MLP directly.

Zero-Coupon and Payment-in-Kind Bonds. The Fund may invest without limit in so-called zero-coupon bonds (sometimes referred to as discount notes or bonds) and payment-in-kind bonds. Zero-coupon bonds are issued at a significant discount from their principal amount in lieu of paying interest periodically. Payment-in-kind bonds allow the issuer, at its option, to make current interest payments on the bonds either in cash or in additional bonds. Because zero-coupon and payment-in-kind bonds do not pay current interest in cash, their value is subject to greater fluctuation in response to changes in market interest rates than bonds that pay interest currently. Both zero-coupon and payment-in-kind bonds allow an issuer to avoid the need to generate cash to meet current interest payments. Accordingly, such bonds may involve greater credit risks than bonds paying interest currently in cash. The Fund is required to accrue interest income on such investments and to distribute such amounts at least annually to shareholders even though the investments do not make any current interest payments. Thus, it may be necessary at times for the Fund to liquidate other investments in order to satisfy its distribution requirements under the Code.

Perpetual Bonds. Perpetual bonds offer a fixed return with no maturity date. Because they never mature, perpetual bonds can be more volatile than other types of bonds that have a maturity date and may have heightened sensitivity to changes in interest rates. An issuer of perpetual bonds is responsible for coupon payments in perpetuity but does not have to redeem the securities. Perpetual bonds are often callable after a set period of time, typically between 5 and 10 years. It is possible that one or more perpetual bonds in which the Fund may invest will be characterized as equity rather than debt for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Where such perpetual bonds are issued by non-U.S. issuers, they may be treated in turn as equity securities of a “passive foreign investment company.” See “Distributions and Taxes” below for additional information on the tax considerations relating to the Fund’s equity investments in passive foreign investment companies.

Bank Capital Securities. The Fund may invest in bank capital securities of both non-U.S. (foreign) and U.S. issuers. Bank capital securities may be issued by banks to help fulfill their regulatory capital requirements. Bank capital securities may be of any credit quality. Bank capital securities may include, among other investments, fixed-maturity dated subordinated notes; hybrid securities with characteristics of both debt obligations and preferred stocks; perpetual callable securities with no maturity date and a cumulative interest deferral feature, which permits the issuer bank to withhold payment of interest until a later undetermined date; and convertible debt securities that can be converted at the issuer’s option to equity securities. Investments in bank capital securities are subject to the risks of other debt investments, such as default and non-payment, as well as certain other risks, such as the risk that bank regulators may force the bank to dissolve, merge, restructure its capitalization or take other actions intended to prevent its failure or ensure its orderly resolution. Bank regulators in certain jurisdictions have broad authorities they may use to prevent the failure of banking institutions or to stabilize the banking industry, all of which may adversely affect the values of investments in bank capital securities and other bank obligations,

 

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including those of other banks.

The Fund may invest in contingent securities structured as contingent convertible securities also known as “CoCos.” Contingent convertible securities are typically issued by non-U.S. banks and are designed to behave like bonds in times of economic health yet absorb losses when a pre-determined trigger event occurs. A contingent convertible security is a hybrid debt security either convertible into equity at a predetermined share price or written down in value based on the specific terms of the individual security if a pre-specified trigger event occurs (the “Trigger Event”). Unlike traditional convertible securities, the conversion of a contingent convertible security from debt to equity is “contingent” and will occur only in the case of a Trigger Event. Trigger Events vary by instrument and are defined by the documents governing the contingent convertible security. Such Trigger Events may include a decline in the issuer’s capital below a specified threshold level, increase in the issuer’s risk weighted assets, the share price of the issuer falling to a particular level for a certain period of time and certain regulatory events. Contingent convertible securities are subject to the credit, interest rate, high yield security, foreign security and market risks associated with bonds and equities, and to the risks specific to convertible securities in general. Contingent convertible securities are also subject to additional risks specific to their structure including conversion risk. Because Trigger Events are not consistently defined among contingent convertible securities, this risk is greater for contingent convertible securities that are issued by banks with capital ratios close to the level specified in the Trigger Event. In addition, coupon payments on contingent convertible securities are discretionary and may be cancelled by the issuer at any point, for any reason, and for any length of time. The discretionary cancellation of payments is not an event of default and there are no remedies to require re-instatement of coupon payments or payment of any past missed payments. Coupon payments may also be subject to approval by the issuer’s regulator and may be suspended in the event there are insufficient distributable reserves. Due to uncertainty surrounding coupon payments, contingent convertible securities may be volatile and their price may decline rapidly in the event that coupon payments are suspended. Contingent convertible securities typically are structurally subordinated to traditional convertible bonds in the issuer’s capital structure. In certain scenarios, investors in contingent convertible securities may suffer a loss of capital ahead of equity holders or when equity holders do not.

Bank Obligations. The Fund may also invest in other bank obligations including, without limitation certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptance and fixed time deposits. Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates that are issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank for a definite period of time and that earn a specified return. Bankers’ acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange, normally drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are “accepted” by a bank, meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument on maturity. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligations. There are generally no contracted restrictions on the right to transfer a beneficial interest in a fixed time deposit to a third party, although there is generally no market for such deposits. The Fund may also hold funds on deposit with its custodian bank in an interest-bearing account for temporary purposes.

Litigation. The Fund or the Adviser on behalf of the Fund may participate in bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar proceedings relating to securities held by the Fund and join creditors’ committees to preserve and pursue the Fund’s rights. Further, the Adviser or the Fund may, on occasion, initiate litigation against an issuer or related parties in connection with securities presently or previously held by the Fund (whether by opting out of an existing class action lawsuit or otherwise). There can be no assurance of any recovery in any such proceeding and there may be significant delay in achieving any recovery. The Fund will bear its own costs in pursuing such actions, including, potentially, retaining counsel to represent the Fund on a contingency or other fee basis. The Fund may encounter substantial difficulties in obtaining and enforcing judgments against individuals and companies located in certain foreign jurisdictions. It may be difficult or impossible to obtain or enforce remedies against governments, their agencies and sponsored entities. The Fund could be subject to claims against it and any litigation it pursues could result in counterclaims against it, all of which could adversely affect the Fund.

RISK CONSIDERATIONS

The following risk considerations relate to investment practices undertaken by one or more series of the Trust (each, a “DoubleLine Fund” and, collectively, the “DoubleLine Funds”). Generally, since shares of a DoubleLine Fund represent an investment in securities with fluctuating market prices, shareholders should understand that the value of their Fund shares will vary as the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities increases or decreases. Therefore, the value of an investment in the Fund could go down as well as up. You can lose money by investing in the Fund. There is no guarantee of successful performance, that the Fund’s objective can be achieved or that an investment in the Fund will achieve a positive return. An investment in the Fund should be considered as a means of diversifying an investment portfolio and is not in itself a balanced investment program.

Prospective investors and shareholders should consider the following risks. Because the following is a combined description of the risks associated with investing in the DoubleLine Funds, the Fund may not be subject to certain of the risks described below or not subject to certain risks to the same degree as other DoubleLine Funds. Please see the Fund’s Prospectus for more information on the principal risks and investment strategies associated with the Fund. In addition, the Fund may be subject to any of the risks described in the Prospectus, even if it is not a principal risk of the Fund.

General

Various market risks can affect the price or liquidity of an issuer’s securities. Adverse events occurring with respect to an issuer’s performance or financial position can depress the value of the issuer’s securities. The liquidity in a market for a particular security will affect its value and may be affected by factors relating to the issuer, as well as the depth of the market for that security. Other market risks that can affect value include a market’s current attitudes about type of security, market reactions to political or economic events, and tax and regulatory effects (including lack of adequate regulations for a market or particular type of instrument). Market restrictions on trading volume can also affect price and liquidity.

Certain risks exist because of the composition and investment horizon of a particular portfolio of securities. Prices of many securities tend to be more volatile in the short-term and lack of diversification in a portfolio can also increase volatility.

 

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Affiliated Fund Risk

Investing in other investment companies or private investment vehicles sponsored or managed by the Adviser or related parties of the Adviser, including other DoubleLine Funds, involves potential conflicts of interest. For example, the Adviser or its related parties may receive fees based on the amount of assets invested by the Fund in such other investment vehicles, which fees may be higher than the fees the Adviser receives for managing the Fund. Investment by the Fund in those other vehicles may be beneficial in the management of those other vehicles, by helping to achieve economies of scale or enhancing cash flows. Due to this and other factors, the Adviser will have an incentive to invest the Fund’s assets in investment companies sponsored or managed by the Adviser or its related parties in lieu of investments by the Fund directly in portfolio securities, and will have an incentive to invest in such investment companies over investment companies sponsored or managed by others. Similarly, the Adviser will have an incentive to delay or decide against the sale of interests held by the Fund in investment companies sponsored or managed by the Adviser or its related parties. The Adviser has agreed to reduce its advisory fee to the extent of advisory fees paid to the Adviser or its related parties by other investment vehicles in respect of assets of the Fund invested in those vehicles. This agreement will reduce, but will not eliminate, the conflicts described above. In addition, the Fund must pay its pro rata portion of an affiliated investment company’s fees and expenses. With respect to investments by affiliated funds in the Fund, the Adviser may determine to redeem all or a portion of the affiliated fund’s investment in the Fund, which may adversely affect the Fund’s liquidity and NAV. Additionally, investment in another investment company may subject the Fund to the underlying risks of such investment company See “—Large Shareholder Risk” and “Portfolio Management—Conflicts.” Due to the prohibitions contained in the 1940 Act on certain transactions between a registered investment company and affiliated persons of it, or affiliated persons of those affiliated persons, the Fund may not be able to invest in other DoubleLine Funds, even if the investment would be appropriate for the Fund.

Asset-Backed Securities

Asset-backed investments tend to increase in value less than other debt securities when interest rates decline, but are subject to similar risk of decline in market value during periods of rising interest rates. In a period of declining interest rates, the Fund may be required to reinvest more frequent prepayments on asset-backed investments in lower-yielding investments. Asset-backed securities in which the Fund may invest may have underlying assets that include, among others, motor vehicle installment sales or installment loan contracts, home equity loans, leases of various types of real, personal and other property (including those relating to aircrafts, telecommunication, energy, and/or other infrastructure assets and infrastructure-related assets), and receivables from credit card agreements. There is a risk that borrowers may default on their obligations in respect of those underlying obligations. Certain assets underlying asset-backed securities are subject to prepayment, which may reduce the overall return to asset-backed security holders. Holders also may experience delays in payment or losses on the securities if the full amounts due on underlying sales contracts or receivables are not realized by a trust because of unanticipated legal or administrative costs of enforcing the contracts or because of depreciation or damage to the collateral (usually automobiles) securing certain contracts, or other factors. The values of asset-backed securities may be substantially dependent on the servicing of the underlying asset pools, and are therefore subject to risks associated with the negligence or malfeasance by their servicers and to the credit risk of their servicers. In certain circumstances, the mishandling of related documentation also may affect the rights of security holders in and to the underlying collateral. The insolvency of entities that generate receivables or that utilize the assets may result in added costs and delays in addition to losses associated with a decline in the value of underlying assets. Certain asset-backed securities do not have the benefit of the same security interest in the related collateral as do mortgage-backed securities; nor are they provided government guarantees of repayment as are some mortgage-backed securities. Credit card receivables generally are unsecured, and the debtors are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. In addition, some issuers of automobile receivables permit the servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If the servicer were to sell these obligations to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the related automobile receivables. The impairment of the value of collateral or other assets underlying an asset-backed security, such as a result of non-payment of loans or non-performance of other collateral or underlying assets, may result in a reduction in the value of such asset-backed securities and losses to the Fund. It is possible that many or all asset-backed securities will fall out of favor at any time or over time with investors, affecting adversely the values and liquidity of the securities.

Borrowing Risk

The Fund may borrow money (or engage in transactions that are economically similar to borrowing money) to make investments, to satisfy redemptions, or to obtain investment exposure to various markets or investment styles, some of which have the potential to increase the volatility of the NAV of Fund shares. Borrowing causes the Fund to incur interest expenses and potentially other borrowing fees. The costs of borrowing may reduce the Fund’s return. Borrowing may cause the Fund to liquidate positions when it may not be advantageous to do so to satisfy its repayment obligations. The Fund may maintain uncommitted or committed lines of credit and may be subject to commitment fees and other charges in addition to the stated interest rate on borrowings to maintain the lines of credit.

Capital Controls

Capital controls are measures a nation’s government can use to regulate capital entering and/or exiting a country and may include residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, limits or outright prohibitions on the transfer of currencies, securities or other assets. These measures may be economy-wide, sector-specific (usually the financial sector), or industry specific (for example, “strategic” industries). They may apply to all flows, or may differentiate by type or duration of the flow (debt, equity, direct investment; short-term vs. medium- and long-term). Types of capital controls include exchange controls that prevent or limit the buying and selling of a national currency at the market rate, caps on the allowed volume for the international sale or purchase of various financial assets, transaction taxes, minimum stay requirements, requirements for mandatory approval, or even limits on the amount of money a private citizen is allowed to remove from the country. The imposition of capital controls by a government of a country in which the Fund invests may significantly and adversely affect the values and liquidity of the Fund’s investments in the affected jurisdiction and may prevent indefinitely the repatriation of the Fund’s assets from the affected jurisdiction.

 

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Collateralized Debt Obligations Risk

The Fund may invest in CDOs, which are a type of asset-backed security and include CBOs, CLOs and other similarly structured securities. A CBO is a trust which may be backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. CDOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses. The cash flows from the CDO trust are generally split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. Senior tranches are paid from the cash flows from the underlying assets before the junior tranches and equity or “first loss” tranches. Losses are first borne by the equity tranches, next by the junior tranches, and finally by the senior tranches. Holders of interests in the senior tranches are entitled to the lowest interest rate payments but those interests generally represent safer investments than more junior tranches because, should there be any default, senior tranches are typically paid first. The holders of interests in the most junior tranches, such as equity tranches, typically are entitled to be paid the highest interest rate payments but suffer the highest risk of loss should the holder of an underlying loan default. If some loans default and the cash collected by the CDO is insufficient to pay all of its investors, those in the lowest, most junior tranches suffer losses first. Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CDO trust typically has higher ratings and lower potential yields than the underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, more senior CDO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults and aversion to CDO securities as a class.

The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the quality and type of the collateral and the tranche of the CDO in which the Fund invests. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CDOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid securities; however, an active dealer market, or other relevant measures of liquidity, may exist for CDOs allowing a CDO potentially to be deemed liquid by the Adviser under liquidity policies approved by the Board. In addition to the risks associated with debt instruments (e.g., interest rate risk and credit risk), CDOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the possibility that the Fund may invest in CDOs that are subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.

Commercial Paper Risk

Investments in commercial paper are subject to the risk that the issuer cannot issue enough new commercial paper to satisfy its obligations with respect to its outstanding commercial paper, also known as rollover risk. Commercial paper is generally unsecured, which increases the credit risk associated with this type of investment.

Concentration Risk

Concentrating investments in related investments increases the risk of loss because the investments may decline in value due to, for example, developments adversely affecting the industries in which the issuers of the investments operate. In addition, investors may buy or sell substantial amounts of the Fund’s shares in response to factors affecting or expected to affect a given industry, resulting in extreme inflows and outflows of cash into and out of the Fund. Such inflows or outflows might affect management of the Fund adversely to the extent they were to cause the Fund’s cash position or cash requirements to exceed normal levels.

Counterparty Risk

The Fund will be subject to the credit risk presented by another party (whether a clearing corporation in the case of exchange-traded or cleared instruments or another third party in the case of over-the-counter instruments) to the extent it engages in transactions, such as securities loans, repurchase agreements or certain derivatives (including swaps), which involve a promise by such party (the obligor) to honor an obligation to the Fund. The Fund’s ability to realize a profit from such transactions will depend on the ability of the obligor to meet its obligations to the Fund. If an obligor becomes bankrupt or insolvent or otherwise fails or is unwilling to perform its obligations to the Fund due to financial difficulties or for other reasons, the Fund may experience significant losses or delays in realizing on any collateral the counterparty has provided in respect of the counterparty’s obligations to the Fund or recovering collateral that the Fund has provided and is entitled to recover. The Fund anticipates that it may have to provide or may hold at various times significant amounts of collateral with respect to one or more counterparties. If a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of the agreement would be likely to decline, potentially resulting in losses.

In addition, in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of a counterparty to a derivative transaction, the derivative transaction would typically be terminated at its fair market value. If the Fund is owed this fair market value in the termination of the derivative transaction and its claim is unsecured, the Fund will likely be treated as a general creditor of such counterparty. The Fund may obtain only a limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in such circumstances. Also, in the event of a counterparty’s (or its affiliate’s) insolvency, the Fund’s ability to exercise remedies, such as the termination of transactions, netting of obligations and realization on collateral, could be stayed or eliminated under new special resolution regimes adopted in the United States, the European Union (the “EU”) and various other jurisdictions. Such regimes provide government authorities with broad authority to intervene when a financial institution is experiencing financial difficulty. Therefore, the Fund’s ability to close out certain derivative transactions with or mitigate exposure to such counterparties when it would otherwise choose to do so could be limited, which could adversely affect the Fund’s returns or the liquidity of its portfolio. Also, with respect to counterparties who are subject to such proceedings in the EU, the liabilities of such counterparties to the Fund could be reduced, eliminated, or converted to equity in such counterparties (sometimes referred to as a “bail in”). Subject to certain U.S. federal income tax limitations, the Fund is not subject to any limit with respect to the number or the value of transactions it can enter into with a single counterparty. To the extent that the Fund enters into multiple transactions with a single or a small number of counterparties, it will be subject to increased counterparty risk.

 

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Cybersecurity Risk

With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, investment companies such as the Fund and its service providers may be prone to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. In general, cyber-attacks result from deliberate attacks but unintentional events may have effects similar to those caused by cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information and causing operational disruption. Successful cyber-attacks against, or security breakdowns of, the Fund or its adviser, custodian, fund accountant, fund administrator, transfer agent, pricing vendors and/or other third party service providers may adversely impact the Fund and its shareholders. For instance, cyber-attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential Fund information, impede trading, cause reputational damage, and subject the Fund to regulatory fines, penalties or financial losses, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. The Fund also may incur substantial costs for cybersecurity risk management in order to guard against any cyber incidents in the future. While the Fund or its service providers may have established business continuity plans and systems designed to guard against such cyber-attacks or adverse effects of such attacks, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified, in large part because different unknown threats may emerge in the future. Similar types of cybersecurity risks also are present for issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause the Fund’s investment in such securities to lose value. In addition, cyber-attacks involving a counterparty to the Fund could affect such a counterparty’s ability to meets it obligations to the Fund, which may result in losses to the Fund and its shareholders.

Cyclical Opportunities Risk

The Fund may seek to take advantage of changes in the business cycle by investing in companies that are sensitive to those changes if the Adviser believes they have growth potential. The Fund might sometimes seek to take tactical advantage of short-term market movements or events affecting particular issuers or industries. There is a risk that if the event does not occur as expected, the value of the stock could fall, which in turn could depress the Fund’s share prices.

Debt Securities Risks

Debt securities are subject to various risks. Debt securities are subject to, among others, two primary (but not exclusive) types of risk: credit risk and interest rate risk. These risks can affect a security’s price volatility to varying degrees, depending upon the nature of the instrument. In addition, the depth and liquidity of the market for an individual or class of fixed income security can also affect its price and, hence, the market value of the Fund.

Credit risk: refers to the risk that an issuer or counterparty will fail to pay its obligations to the Fund when they are due. Financial strength and solvency of an issuer are the primary factors influencing credit risk. Changes in the financial condition of an issuer or counterparty, changes in specific economic, social or political conditions that affect a particular type of security, other instrument or an issuer, and changes in economic, social or political conditions generally can increase the risk of default by an issuer or counterparty, which can affect a security’s or other instrument’s credit quality or value and an issuer’s or counterparty’s ability to pay interest and principal when due. The values of lower-quality debt securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”), including floating rate loans, tend to be particularly sensitive to these changes. The values of securities also may decline for a number of other reasons that relate directly to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods and services, as well as the historical and prospective earnings of the issuer and the value of its assets. In addition, lack of or inadequacy of collateral or credit enhancements for a fixed income security may affect its credit risk. Credit risk of a security may change over time, and securities which are rated by ratings agencies may be subject to downgrade, which may have an indirect impact on the market price of securities. Ratings are only opinions of the agencies issuing them as to the likelihood of repayment. They are not guarantees as to quality and they do not reflect market risk. If an issuer or counterparty fails to pay interest or otherwise fails to meet its obligations to the Fund, the Fund’s income might be reduced and the value of the investment might fall, and if an issuer or counterparty fails to pay principal, the value of the investment might fall and the Fund could lose the amount of its investment.

Extension risk: refers to the risk that if interest rates rise, repayments of principal on certain debt securities, including, but not limited to, floating rate loans and mortgage-related securities, may occur at a slower rate than expected and the expected maturity of those securities could lengthen as a result. Securities that are subject to extension risk generally have a greater potential for loss when prevailing interest rates rise, which could cause their values to fall sharply. Interest-only and principal-only securities are especially sensitive to interest rate changes, which can affect not only their prices but can also change the income flows and repayment assumptions about those investments.

Interest rate risk: refers to the risk that the values of debt instruments held by the Fund will change in response to changes in interest rates. Interest rate changes may affect the value of a fixed income instrument directly (especially in the case of fixed rate instruments) and indirectly (especially in the case of adjustable rate instruments). In general, the value of a fixed-income instrument with positive duration will generally decline if interest rates increase, whereas the value of an instrument with negative duration will generally decline if interest rates decrease. The value of an instrument with a longer duration (whether positive or negative) will be more sensitive to increases in interest rates than a similar instrument with a shorter duration. Duration is a measure of the expected life of a bond that is used to determine the sensitivity of an instrument’s price to changes in interest rates. For example, the price of a bond fund with an average duration of three years generally would be expected to fall approximately 3% if interest rates rose by one percentage point. Inverse floaters, interest-only and principal-only securities are especially sensitive to interest rate changes, which can affect not only their prices but can also change the income flows and repayment assumptions about those investments. Adjustable rate instruments also react to interest rate changes in a similar manner although generally to a lesser degree (depending, however, on the characteristics of the reset terms, including the index chosen, frequency of reset and reset caps or floors, among other things). During periods of increasing interest rates, changes in the interest rate payments of adjustable rate instruments may lag the changes in market interest rates or may have limits on the maximum increase in interest rates. Conversely, there may not be any limitations or caps on the adjustment down of interest rate payments during periods of declining market interest rates. In recent years, the

 

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U.S. has experienced historically low interest rates, increasing the exposure of bond investors to the risks associated with rising interest rates.

Prepayment Risk. Many types of debt securities, including floating rate loans and asset-backed securities, may reflect an interest in periodic payments made by borrowers. Although debt securities and other obligations typically mature after a specified period of time, borrowers may pay them off sooner. When a prepayment happens, all or a portion of the obligation will be prepaid. A borrower is more likely to prepay an obligation which bears a relatively high rate of interest. This means that in times of declining interest rates, there is a greater likelihood that the Fund’s higher yielding securities will be pre-paid and the Fund will probably be unable to re-invest those proceeds in an investment with as great a yield, causing the Fund’s yield to decline. Securities subject to prepayment risk generally offer less potential for gains when prevailing interest rates fall. If the Fund buys those investments at a premium, accelerated prepayments on those investments could cause the Fund to lose a portion of its principal investment and result in lower yields to shareholders. The increased likelihood of prepayment when interest rates decline also limits market price appreciation, especially with respect to certain loans and asset-backed securities. The effect of prepayments on the price of a security may be difficult to predict and may increase the security’s price volatility. Interest-only and principal-only securities are especially sensitive to interest rate changes, which can affect not only their prices but can also change the income flows and repayment assumptions about those investments.

Defaulted Securities

The Fund may invest in securities in default. Defaulted securities risk refers to the uncertainty of repayment of defaulted securities (e.g., a security on which a principal or interest payment is not made when due) and obligations of distressed issuers. Because the issuer of such securities is in default and is likely to be in distressed financial condition, repayment of defaulted securities and obligations of distressed issuers (including insolvent issuers or issuers in payment or covenant default, in workout or restructuring or in bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings) is subject to significant uncertainties. Insolvency laws and practices in emerging market countries are different than those in the U.S. and the effect of these laws and practices cannot be predicted with certainty. Investments in defaulted securities and obligations of distressed issuers are considered speculative.

Emerging Market Countries

Investing in securities of emerging market countries through investment in the Fund involves certain risks, and considerations, including those set forth below, which are not typically associated with investing in the United States or other developed countries.

Political and economic structures in many emerging market countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and such countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristics of more developed countries. Some of these countries may have in the past failed to recognize private property rights and have at times nationalized or expropriated the assets of private companies.

The securities markets of emerging market countries may be substantially smaller, less developed, less liquid and more volatile than the major securities markets in the United States and other developed nations. The limited size of many securities markets in emerging market countries and limited trading volume in issuers compared to the volume in U.S. securities or securities of issuers in other developed countries could cause prices to be erratic for reasons other than factors that affect the quality of the securities. For example, limited market size may cause prices to be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions. Adverse publicity and investors’ perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the value and liquidity of portfolio securities, especially in these markets.

In addition, emerging market countries’ exchanges’ and broker-dealers may generally be subject to less regulation than their counterparts in developed countries. Brokerage commissions and dealer mark-ups, custodial expenses and other transaction costs are generally higher in emerging market countries than in developed countries. As a result, funds that invest in emerging market countries have operating expenses that are higher than funds investing in other securities markets.

Many of the emerging market countries may be subject to greater degree of economic, political and social instability than is the case in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and Western European and certain Asian countries.

Such instability may result from, among other things, (i) popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic and social conditions, and (ii) internal insurgencies. Such social, political and economic instability could disrupt the financial markets in which the Fund invests and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s assets.

In certain emerging market countries governments participate to a significant degree, through ownership or regulation, in their respective economies. Action by these governments could have a significant adverse effect on market prices of securities and payment of dividends. In addition, most emerging market countries have experienced substantial, and in some periods extremely high, rates of inflation. Inflation and rapid fluctuation in inflation rates have had and may continue to have very negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries.

Currencies of emerging market countries have sometimes experienced devaluations relative to the U.S. dollar, and major devaluations have historically occurred in certain countries. A devaluation of the currency in which portfolio securities are denominated will negatively impact the value of those securities. Emerging market countries have and may in the future impose capital controls, foreign currency controls and repatriation controls. In addition, some currency hedging techniques may be unavailable in emerging market countries, and the currencies of emerging market countries may experience greater volatility in exchange rates as compared to those of developed countries. The Fund may invest in commodities or commodity-related investments that are found in or exported from emerging market countries or the values of which are affected significantly by economic or other conditions in emerging market countries.

Investments in emerging markets may be considered speculative.

 

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Equity Issuer Risk

The market prices of common stocks and other equity securities may go up or down, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably. The values of equity securities may decline due to general market conditions that are not necessarily related to a particular company, such as real or perceived adverse economic conditions, changes in the general outlook for corporate earnings, changes in interest or currency rates, or adverse investor sentiment generally. They also may decline due to factors which affect a particular industry or industries, such as labor shortages or increased production costs and competitive conditions within an industry. In addition, the values of equity securities may decline for a number of reasons that may relate directly to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage, non-compliance with regulatory requirements, and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services. Equity securities generally have greater price volatility than bonds and other debt securities, although under certain market conditions various fixed income investments may have comparable or greater price volatility. The values of equity securities paying dividends at high rates may be more sensitive to change in interest rates than are other equity securities.

Focused Investment Risk

A fund that invests a substantial portion of its assets in a particular market, industry, sector, group of industries or sectors, country, region, group of countries, or asset class is subject to greater risk than a fund that invests in a more diverse investment portfolio. In addition, the value of such a fund is more susceptible to any single economic, market, political, regulatory or other occurrence affecting, for example, the particular markets, industries, regions, sectors, or asset classes in which the fund is invested. This is because, for example, issuers in a particular market, industry, region sector or asset class may react similarly to specific economic, market, regulatory, political, or other developments. The particular markets, industries, regions, sectors or asset classes in which the Fund may focus its investments may change over time and the Fund may alter its focus at inopportune times.

To the extent the Fund invests in the securities of a limited number of issuers or assets related to particular commodities, it is particularly exposed to adverse developments affecting those issuers or commodities, and a decline in the market value of a particular security or commodity held by the Fund may affect the Fund’s performance more than if the Fund invested in the securities of a larger number of issuers or assets related to a broader group of commodities. In addition, the limited number of issuers or commodities to which the Fund may be exposed may provide the Fund exposure to substantially the same market, industry, sector, group of industries or sectors, country, region, group of countries, or asset class, which may increase the risk of loss as a result of focusing the Fund’s investments, as discussed above.

Foreign Currency

Foreign currencies may decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments in foreign currencies, securities denominated in foreign currencies, and derivatives that provide exposure to foreign currencies. The values of foreign currencies, securities denominated in foreign currencies, or derivatives that provide exposure to foreign currencies may be adversely affected by currency exchange rates, currency exchange control regulations, foreign withholding or other taxes, restrictions or prohibitions on the repatriation of foreign currencies, changes in supply and demand in the currency exchange markets, actual or perceived changes in interest rates, intervention (or the failure to intervene) by the U.S. or foreign governments, central banks, or supranational agencies such as the International Monetary Fund, or other political and economic developments in the U.S. or abroad. The local emerging market currencies in which the Fund may be invested from time to time may experience substantially greater volatility against the U.S. dollar than the major convertible currencies of developed countries. To the extent the Fund has invested in debt instruments of companies located or doing business in foreign markets and that have issued debt instruments denominated in U.S. dollars or another non-local currency, fluctuations in currency exchange rates could also negatively impact such investments. For example, increases in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to its value at the time the debt was issued can increase the costs of interest and repayment to the issuer and could result in defaults on the issuer’s debt obligations.

Officials in foreign countries may from time to time take actions in respect of their currencies which could significantly affect the value of the Fund’s assets denominated in those currencies or the liquidity of such investments. For example, a foreign government may unilaterally devalue its currency against other currencies, which would typically have the effect of reducing the U.S. dollar value of investments denominated in that currency. A foreign government may also limit the convertibility or repatriation of its currency or assets denominated in its currency, which would adversely affect the U.S. dollar value and liquidity of investments denominated in that currency. In addition, although the Fund’s income may be received or realized in local currencies, the Fund will be required to compute and distribute its income in U.S. dollars. As a result, if the exchange rate for any such currency declines after the Fund’s income has been earned and translated into U.S. dollars but before payment to shareholders, the Fund could be required to liquidate portfolio securities to make such distributions.

Foreign Securities

Investment in foreign securities involves special risks in addition to the usual risks inherent in domestic investments. These include: political or economic instability; the unpredictability of international trade patterns; the possibility of foreign governmental actions such as expropriation, nationalization or confiscatory taxation; the imposition or modification of foreign currency or foreign investment controls; the imposition of withholding or other taxes on dividends, interest gains and proceeds; price volatility; and fluctuations in currency exchange rates. As compared to United States companies, foreign issuers generally disclose less financial and other information publicly and are subject to less stringent and less uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards. In addition, there may be limited information generally regarding factors affecting a particular foreign market, issuer, or security. Foreign countries typically impose less thorough regulations on brokers, dealers, stock exchanges, corporate insiders and listed companies than does the United States, and foreign securities markets may be less liquid and more volatile than domestic markets. Investment in foreign securities involves higher costs than investment in U.S. securities, including higher transaction and custody costs as well as the imposition of additional taxes by foreign governments. In addition, security trading and custody practices abroad may offer less protection to investors such as the Fund. Political, social or financial instability, civil unrest and acts of terrorism are other potential risks that could adversely affect an investment in a foreign security or in foreign markets or issuers generally. Settlement of transactions in some foreign markets may be delayed or may be less frequent than in the U.S., which could affect the liquidity

 

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of the Fund’s portfolio. Also, it may be more difficult to obtain and enforce legal judgments against foreign corporate issuers than against domestic issuers and it may be impossible to obtain and enforce judgments against foreign governmental issues.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures

There are certain risks inherent in the use of futures contracts and options on futures contracts. Successful use of futures contracts by the Fund is subject to the ability of the Adviser to correctly predict movements in the direction of interest rates or changes in market conditions. In addition, there can be no assurance that there will be a correlation between price movements in the underlying securities, currencies or index and the price movements in the securities which are the subject of the hedge.

Positions in futures contracts and options on futures contracts may be closed out only on the exchange or board of trade on which they were entered into, and there can be no assurance that an active market will exist for a particular contract or option at any particular time. If the Fund has hedged against the possibility of an increase in interest rates or a decrease in the value of portfolio securities and interest rates fall or the value of portfolio securities increase instead, the Fund will lose part or all of the benefit of the increased value of securities that it has hedged because it will have offsetting losses in its futures positions. In addition, in such situations, if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell securities to meet daily variation margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. These sales of securities may, but will not necessarily be at increased prices that reflect the decline in interest rates. While utilization of futures contracts and options on futures contracts may be advantageous to the Fund, if the Fund is not successful in employing such instruments in managing the Fund’s investments, the Fund’s performance will be worse than if the Fund did not make such investments.

Exchanges limit the amount by which the price of a futures contract may move on any day. If the price moves equal the daily limit on successive days, then it may prove impossible to liquidate a futures position until the daily limit moves have ceased. In the event of adverse price movements, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin on open futures positions. In such situations, if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities to meet daily variation margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. In addition, the Fund may be required to take or make delivery of the instruments underlying interest rate futures contracts it holds at a time when it is disadvantageous to do so. The inability to close out options and futures positions could also have an adverse impact on the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge its portfolio.

Futures contracts and options thereon which are purchased or sold on foreign commodities exchanges may have greater price volatility than their U.S. counterparts. Furthermore, foreign commodities exchanges may be less regulated and under less governmental scrutiny than U.S. exchanges. Brokerage commissions and dealer mark-ups, clearing costs and other transaction costs may be higher on foreign exchanges. Greater margin requirements may limit the Fund’s ability to enter into certain commodity transactions on foreign exchanges. Moreover, differences in clearance and delivery requirements on foreign exchanges may occasion delays in the settlement of the Fund’s transactions effected on foreign exchanges.

In the event of the bankruptcy of a broker through which the Fund engages in transactions in futures or options thereon, the Fund could experience delays and/or losses in liquidating open positions purchased or sold through the broker and/or incur a loss of all or part of its margin deposits with the broker. Similarly, in the event of the bankruptcy, of the writer of an OTC option purchased by the Fund, the Fund could experience a loss of all or part of the value of the option. Transactions are entered into by the Fund only with brokers or financial institutions deemed creditworthy by the Adviser.

There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for futures contracts and related options in which the Fund may invest. In the event a liquid market does not exist, it may not be possible to close out a futures position, and in the event of adverse price movements, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin. In addition, limitations imposed by an exchange or board of trade on which futures contracts are traded may compel or prevent the Fund from closing out a contract which may result in reduced gain or increased loss to the Fund. The absence of a liquid market in futures contracts might cause the Fund to make or take delivery of the underlying securities (currencies) at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so.

Compared to the purchase or sale of futures contracts, the purchase of call or put options on futures contracts involves less potential risk to the Fund because the maximum amount at risk is the premium paid for the options (plus transaction costs). However, there may be circumstances when the purchase of a call or put option on a futures contract would result in a loss to the Fund notwithstanding that the purchase or sale of a futures contract would not result in a loss, as in the instance where there is no movement in the prices of the futures contract or underlying securities (currencies).

Options on foreign currency futures contracts may involve certain additional risks. Trading options on foreign currency futures contracts is relatively new. The ability to establish and close out positions on such options is subject to the maintenance of a liquid secondary market. To reduce this risk, the Fund will not purchase or write options on foreign currency futures contracts unless and until, in the Adviser’s opinion, the market for such options has developed sufficiently that the risks in connection with such options are not greater than the risks in connection with transactions in the underlying foreign currency futures contracts.

Inflation/Deflation Risk

Inflation risk is the risk that the value of assets or income from the Fund’s investments will be worth less in the future as inflation decreases the value of payments at future dates. As inflation increases, the real value of the Fund’s portfolio could decline. Deflation risk is the risk that prices throughout the economy decline over time. Deflation may have an adverse effect on the creditworthiness of issuers and may make issuer default more likely, which may result in a decline in the value of the Fund’s portfolio.

Inflation-Indexed Bond Risk

Inflation-indexed bonds are fixed income securities whose principal values are periodically adjusted according to a measure

 

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of inflation. If the index measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-indexed bonds. For bonds that do not provide a similar guarantee, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal. With regard to municipal inflation-indexed bonds and certain corporate inflation-indexed bonds, the inflation adjustment is reflected in the semi-annual coupon payment. As a result, the principal value of municipal inflation-indexed bonds and such corporate inflation-indexed bonds does not adjust according to the rate of inflation. The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If nominal interest rates increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates may rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds. Inflation-indexed bonds may cause a potential cash flow mismatch to investors, because an increase in the principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond will be treated as interest income currently subject to tax at ordinary income rates even though investors will not receive repayment of principal until maturity. If the Fund invests in such bonds, it will be required to distribute such interest income in order to qualify for treatment as a RIC and eliminate a Fund-level tax, without a corresponding receipt of cash, and therefore may be required to dispose of portfolio securities at a time when it may not be advantageous to do so in order to make such distributions.

Infrastructure Sector Risk

The values of the Fund’s infrastructure investments may be entirely dependent upon the successful development, construction, maintenance, renovation, enhancement or operation of infrastructure assets or infrastructure-related projects. In the case of debt instruments or loans issued to finance (or refinance) the ownership, development, construction, maintenance, renovation, enhancement, or operation of infrastructure assets, the Fund may be entirely dependent on revenues or profits earned in respect of the infrastructure asset or project to receive the repayment of any principal and interest owed to it. Accordingly, the Fund has significant exposure to adverse economic, regulatory, political, legal, demographic, environmental and other developments affecting the success of the infrastructure assets or projects in which it directly or indirectly invests.

Infrastructure investments are subject to a variety of risk factors that may adversely affect their success including significant use of leverage, high financing or interest costs, costs associated with environmental and other regulations, the effects of economic slowdown and surplus capacity, increased competition from other providers of similar services, unfavorable demographic trends, obsolescence of the related service or product it provides, cost over-runs, developmental delays, uncertainties concerning the availability of fuel at reasonable prices, the effects of energy conservation policies, poor planning, unexpected maintenance capital expenditures, increased operating expenses, and other factors. Additionally, infrastructure-related projects may be subject to regulation by various governmental authorities, including with respect to the rates they can charge for their products or services, and can be significantly affected by government spending policies because infrastructure-related issuers may rely, to a significant extent, on U.S. and foreign government demand for their products and services.

Infrastructure investments (and related infrastructure assets) may also be adversely affected by natural disasters, terrorism or other catastrophes, legal challenges due to environmental, operational or other issues, the imposition of special tariffs or changes in tax laws, changes in exchange rates or interest rates, changes in prices for competitive services, economic conditions, tax treatment, removal or diminution of governmental subsidies, additional regulation, governmental intervention, litigation, negative publicity and public perception and unfavorable events in the regions where assets are located (e.g., expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property or imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and repatriation of capital, military coups, social unrest, violence or labor unrest). There is also the risk that corruption may negatively affect infrastructure projects and other infrastructure assets, especially in emerging markets, resulting in, among other things, delays and cost overruns. Infrastructure projects may face competition from government-sponsored projects, which could decrease the revenues generated from the asset or the number of available investment opportunities for the Fund.

A significant portion of the revenues of certain infrastructure assets or projects may be from one customer or a relatively small number of customers, including governmental entities and utilities. Accordingly, the values of certain infrastructure investments may be highly sensitive to the loss of one or more of those customers, and the loss of any single client may result in the issuer’s payment default.

The Fund may make investments in infrastructure assets or projects that have not yet completed the construction phases of their development and which are not yet generating cash or revenue. Unexpected delays in completion of the construction phase in relation to any such project, any “overrun” in the costs of construction or any construction or maintenance defect, may adversely affect the ability of the issuer of the Fund’s investments to service its debts. Any resulting default may adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investment.

The Fund may make investments from time to time in infrastructure loan assets which are held on existing lenders’ books, which means that a default by the counterparty may expose the Fund to losses regardless of the performance of the underlying projects or loans. The market for infrastructure bonds and loans is emerging but also rapidly developing, which means there may be fewer investment opportunities than other fixed-income sectors. There also may be fewer market participants willing to purchase infrastructure-related investments compared to other debt markets. Infrastructure assets and related investment opportunities may be more prevalent in developing or emerging markets, where certain of the risks described above, including the risk of default, may be heightened. See “—Emerging Market Countries.”

To the extent that there are environmental liabilities arising in the future in relation to any sites owned or used by an infrastructure company or project (including, for example, clean-up and remediation liabilities), a company may be required to contribute financially towards any such liabilities which in turn may increase its risk of defaulting and/or adversely affect the values of the Fund’s investments.

Some infrastructure-related projects may utilize relatively new or developing technologies and there may be issues in relation to those technologies that become apparent only in the future. Such issues may give rise to additional costs for the relevant issuer or project or may otherwise result in the financial performance of the infrastructure project being poorer than anticipated. This may adversely affect the values of the Fund’s investments. Additionally, technological advances in the

 

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future may reduce the competitive efficiency of existing or commissioned infrastructure projects, services, or networks.

Infrastructure assets, including investments related to infrastructure projects and infrastructure-related companies, may be more susceptible to adverse economic or regulatory occurrences and other specific risks affecting their industries, which may adversely affect the development and success of the infrastructure companies and projects related to assets in which the Fund may invest; delay or limit repayment of the principal and interest payments on a borrower’s loans or other debt; adversely affect the Fund’s rights in collateral relating to a loan or other investment; or otherwise adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments.

The Fund’s ability to recover in respect of a defaulted bond or loan may be limited. Some infrastructure-related debt instruments may not be secured by any assets and may not be supported by other credit enhancements. Where recourse to a guarantor, or other third party, or other assets exists, recovery on a defaulted bond or loan may require the Fund to incur significant costs and delay and/or require participation in restructuring or bankruptcy proceedings. In certain jurisdictions, the Fund may have limited or no rights in respect of such proceedings. In the case of a defaulted bond or loan, the Fund may determine to sell its investment or claim at a price substantially below what it might receive if it participated in a restructuring or bankruptcy proceeding for a variety of reasons, including to avoid incurring significant costs, delay or uncertainty, or because of the potentially adverse consequences that may occur if the Fund takes possession of certain types of assets.

In addition to the risks described above, each of which may adversely affect the values of the Fund’s investments, sector-specific risks may also adversely affect the values of the Fund’s investments. A summary of some of the principal sector-specific risks is included below. The inclusion of a specific risk below with respect to a specific sector does not mean that that risk does not apply in respect of the Fund’s other investments:

Transportation. Transportation-related infrastructure assets may be adversely affected by, among other things, economic and market changes, fuel prices, labor relations, geo-political concerns and insurance costs. Transportation-related infrastructure assets and related businesses may also be subject to significant government regulation and oversight, which may adversely affect their businesses.

Electric Utilities and Power. Deregulation may subject utility- and power-related infrastructure assets to greater competition and may adversely affect their performance. Assets in the utilities and/or power industries may have difficulty obtaining financing for large construction projects during periods of inflation or unsettled capital markets; face restrictions on operations and increased cost and delays attributable to environmental considerations and regulation; find that existing plants, equipment or products have been rendered obsolete by technological innovations; or be subject to increased costs because of the scarcity of certain fuels or the effects of man-made or natural disasters. Existing and future regulations or legislation may make it difficult for utility and power assets to operate profitably. Government regulators monitor and control utility and power revenues and costs, and therefore may limit utility-related profits. There is no assurance that regulatory authorities will grant rate increases in the future. Energy conservation and changes in climate or environmental policy may also have a significant adverse impact on the revenues and expenses of utility and power-related assets. Additionally, independent power producers may face other risks such as but not limited to (i) market risks, (ii) project risks, and (iii) structural risk.

Energy. Energy-related infrastructure assets may be highly cyclical and highly dependent on energy prices. The success of such assets can be strongly affected by one or more of the following: the levels and volatility of global energy prices, energy supply and demand, capital expenditures on exploration and production of energy sources, energy conservation efforts, exchange rates, interest rates, economic conditions, tax treatment, increased competition and technological advances. Infrastructure assets and projects in this sector may be subject to substantial government regulation and contractual fixed pricing, which may increase the cost of doing business and limit the revenue or earnings available to support the assets’ financing. Energy-related projects face a significant risk of liability from accidents resulting in injury or loss of life or property, pollution or other environmental problems, equipment malfunctions or mishandling of materials and a risk of loss from terrorism, political strife and natural disasters. Assets involving pipelines are subject to certain risks, including pipeline and equipment leaks and ruptures, explosions, fires, unscheduled downtime, transportation interruptions, discharges or releases of toxic or hazardous gases and other environmental risks. Any such event could have serious consequences for the general population of the affected area. Energy-related projects can be significantly affected by the supply of, and demand for, specific products (e.g., oil and natural gas) and services, exploration and production spending, government subsidization, world events and general economic conditions. Energy-related assets may have relatively high levels of debt and may be more likely to have to restructure their debt if there are downturns in energy markets or the economy as a whole.

Renewable Energy. Governments may provide a range of incentives and subsidies for specific types of assets, especially for renewable energy assets. Changes in the application of government policy in relation to the incentives and subsidies that they provide may have a material impact upon the profitability or viability of renewable-energy related infrastructure-related assets.

The generation of power from renewable energy sources tends to be reliant upon relatively recent technological developments (or the application thereof), and therefore unforeseen technical deficiencies with installations may occur. Moreover, the reliance of any renewable energy project, or group of projects, on a variable resource (for example, ambient light in the case of solar power projects, wind speed in the case of wind power projects and waste in the case of waste-to-energy projects) may affect the profitability of a site or sites. In addition, in the event of a failure of a utility or other private company contracted to purchase power produced by an installation or expiration of such a contract, in which the Fund has invested, difficulties may arise in contracting with a replacement power purchaser.

Communication Networks and Equipment. The telecommunications market is characterized by increasing competition and regulation by various regulatory authorities. Infrastructure assets in the telecommunications sector may encounter distressed cash flows due to the need to commit substantial capital to meet increasing competition, particularly in developing new products and services using new technology. Technological innovations may make the products and services of certain assets obsolete. Telecommunication-related infrastructure assets may depend on franchises or licenses in order to provide services in a given location. Licensing and franchise rights in the telecommunications sector are limited, which may provide an advantage to certain participants. Limited availability of such rights, high barriers to market entry and increasing regulatory

 

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oversight, among other factors, has led to consolidation within the sector, which could lead to further regulation or other negative effects in the future. Various forms of cyber attack, the sophistication and lethality of which continues to evolve, threaten communication networks and could severely hamper any infrastructure project dependent upon communication networks and equipment.

Public and Social Infrastructure. Public and social infrastructure assets, such as hospitals, schools, government accommodations, and other public service facilities projects, may be subject to risks that include, but are not limited to, costs associated with governmental, environmental and other regulations, the effects of economic slowdowns, increased competition from other providers of such services, uncertainties concerning costs, adverse political developments, and the level of government spending on infrastructure projects.

Metals and Mining. Investments in metals and mining related infrastructure assets may be speculative and subject to greater price volatility than investments in other types of companies. The performance of assets in this sector is related to, among other things, worldwide metal prices, and extraction and production costs. Worldwide metal prices may fluctuate substantially over short periods of time. Metals and mining assets may also be subject to the effects of competitive pressures in the metals and mining industry.

Industrial. Industrial-related infrastructure assets may be adversely affected by supply and demand both for their specific product or service and for industrial sector products in general. Government regulation, world events, exchange rates and economic conditions, technological developments and liabilities for environmental damage and general civil liabilities will likewise affect the performance of these assets and their ability to repay their debts. The industrials sector may also be adversely affected by changes or trends in commodity prices, which can be highly volatile.

The Fund’s investments in infrastructure investments will expose it to the risks of investing in the global commodity markets and particular commodities, and the value of the Fund’s shares may be adversely affected by changes in the values of commodity prices, which can be extremely volatile and difficult to value. The values of commodities may be affected by a wide range of factors, including changes in overall market movements, speculative activity of other investors, real or perceived inflationary trends, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates or currency exchange rates, population growth and changing demographics, nationalization, expropriation, or other confiscation, economic or other sanctions, international regulatory, political, and economic developments (for example, regime changes and changes in economic activity levels), environmental issues or regulation, and developments affecting a particular sector, industry or commodity, such as drought, floods, or other weather conditions, trade embargoes, competition from substitute products, transportation bottlenecks or shortages, fluctuations in supply and demand, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments.

Investing in Special Situations

Periodically, the Fund might use aggressive investment techniques. These might include seeking to benefit from what the Adviser perceives to be special situations, such as mergers, reorganizations, restructurings or other unusual events expected to affect a particular issuer. However, there is a risk that the change or event might not occur as expected by the Adviser, which could have a negative impact on the price of the issuer’s securities. The Fund’s investment might not produce the expected gains or could incur a loss.

Large Shareholder Risk

Certain account holders, including funds or accounts over which the Adviser has investment discretion, may from time to time own or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. For example, the Adviser and/or its related parties currently provide asset allocation investment advice, including recommending the purchase and/or sale of shares of certain of the DoubleLine Funds, to a number of large investors. The Fund is subject to the risk that a redemption by large shareholders of all or a portion of their Fund shares or a purchase of Fund shares in large amounts and/or on a frequent basis, including as a result of asset allocation decisions made by the Adviser, will adversely affect the Fund’s performance if it is forced to sell portfolio securities or invest cash when the Adviser would not otherwise choose to do so. This risk will be particularly pronounced if one shareholder owns a substantial portion of the Fund. Redemptions of a large number of shares may affect the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio, increase the Fund’s transaction costs and/or lead to the liquidation of the Fund. Such transactions also potentially limit the use of any capital loss carryforwards and certain other losses to offset future realized capital gains (if any).

Legal and Regulatory Risk

Legal, tax and regulatory changes could occur and may adversely affect the Fund and its ability to pursue its investment strategies and/or increase the costs of implementing such strategies. New (or revised) laws or regulations may be imposed by the CFTC, the SEC, the IRS, the U.S. Federal Reserve or other banking regulators, other governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations that supervise the financial markets that could adversely affect the Fund. In particular, these agencies are implementing a variety of new rules pursuant to financial reform legislation in the United States. The EU (and some other countries) are implementing similar requirements. The Fund also may be adversely affected by changes in the enforcement or interpretation of existing statutes and rules by these governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations.

In addition, the securities and futures markets are subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations and margin requirements. The CFTC, the SEC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, other regulators and self-regulatory organizations and exchanges are authorized under these statutes, regulations and otherwise to take extraordinary actions in the event of market emergencies. The Fund expects to be eligible for exemptions from certain regulations and the Adviser has historically been eligible for exemptions from certain regulations. However, there is no assurance that the Fund and the Adviser will continue to be eligible for such exemptions.

The CFTC and certain futures exchanges have established limits, referred to as “position limits,” on the maximum net long or

 

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net short positions which any person may hold or control in particular options and futures contracts. The CFTC has proposed position limits for certain swaps. All positions owned or controlled by the same person or entity, even if in different accounts, may be aggregated for purposes of determining whether the applicable position limits have been exceeded. Thus, even if the Fund does not intend to exceed applicable position limits, it is possible that different clients managed by the Adviser and its related parties may be aggregated for this purpose. Therefore it is possible that the trading decisions of the Adviser may have to be modified and that positions held by the Fund may have to be liquidated in order to avoid exceeding such limits. The modification of investment decisions or the elimination of open positions, if it occurs, may adversely affect the performance of the Fund.

The SEC has in the past adopted interim rules requiring reporting of all short positions above a certain de minimis threshold and may adopt rules requiring monthly public disclosure in the future. In addition, other non-U.S. jurisdictions where the Fund may trade have adopted reporting requirements. If the Fund’s short positions or its strategy become generally known, it could have a significant effect on the Adviser’s ability to implement its investment strategy. In particular, it would make it more likely that other investors could cause a short squeeze in the securities held short by the Fund forcing the Fund to cover its positions at a loss. Such reporting requirements may also limit the Adviser’s ability to access management and other personnel at certain companies where the Adviser seeks to take a short position. In addition, if other investors engage in copycat behavior by taking positions in the same issuers as the Fund, the cost of borrowing securities to sell short could increase drastically and the availability of such securities to the Fund could decrease drastically. Such events could make the Fund unable to execute its investment strategy. In addition, if the SEC were to adopt restrictions regarding short sales, they could restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in short sales in certain circumstances, and the Fund may be unable to execute its investment strategies as a result.

The SEC and regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions may adopt (and in certain cases, have adopted) bans on short sales of certain securities in response to market events. Bans on short selling may make it impossible for the Fund to execute certain investment strategies and may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to generate returns.

Rules implementing the credit risk retention requirements of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) for asset-backed securities require the sponsor of certain securitization vehicles (or a majority owned affiliate of such sponsor) to retain, and to refrain from transferring, selling, conveying to a third party, or hedging the credit risk on a portion of the assets transferred, sold, or conveyed through the issuance of the asset-backed securities of such vehicle, subject to certain exceptions. These requirements may increase the costs to originators, securitizers, and, in certain cases, collateral managers of securitization vehicles in which the Fund may invest, which costs could be passed along to the Fund as an investor in such vehicles. In addition, the costs imposed by the risk retention rules on originators, securitizers and/or collateral managers may result in a reduction of the number of new offerings of asset-backed securities and thus in fewer investment opportunities for the Fund. A reduction in the number of new securitizations could also reduce liquidity in the markets for certain types of financial assets that are typically held by securitization vehicles, which in turn could negatively affect the returns on the Fund’s investment in asset-backed securities.

Investors should also be aware that some EU-regulated institutions (including banks, certain investment firms, and authorized managers of alternative investment funds) are restricted from investing in securitizations (including U.S.-related securitizations), unless, in summary: (i) the institution is able to demonstrate that it has undertaken certain due diligence in respect of various matters, including its investment position, the underlying assets, and (in the case of authorized managers of alternative investment funds) the sponsor and the originator of the securitization; and (ii) the originator, sponsor, or original lender of the securitization has explicitly disclosed to the institution that it will retain, on an ongoing basis, a net economic interest of not less than 5% of specified credit risk tranches or asset exposures related to the securitization. Although the requirements do not apply to the Fund directly, the costs of compliance, in the case of any securitization within the EU risk retention rules in which the Fund has invested or is seeking to invest, could be indirectly borne by the Fund and the other investors in the securitization.

Loan Risk

Investments in loans are generally subject to the same risks as investments in other types of debt obligations, including, among others, credit risk, interest rate risk, prepayment risk, and extension risk. In addition, in many cases loans are subject to the risks associated with below-investment grade securities. This means loans are often subject to significant credit risks, including a greater possibility that the borrower will be adversely affected by changes in market or economic conditions and may default or enter bankruptcy. This risk of default will increase in the event of an economic downturn or a substantial increase in interest rates (which will increase the cost of the borrower’s debt service).

The interest rates on floating rate loans typically adjust only periodically. Accordingly, adjustments in the interest rate payable under a loan may trail prevailing interest rates significantly, especially if there are limitations placed on the amount the interest rate on a loan may adjust in a given period. Certain floating rate loans have a feature that prevents their interest rates from adjusting if market interest rates are below a specified minimum level. When interest rates are low, this feature could result in the interest rates of those loans becoming fixed at the applicable minimum level until interest rates rise above that level. Although this feature is intended to result in these loans yielding more than they otherwise would when interest rates are low, the feature might also result in the prices of these loans becoming more sensitive to changes in interest rates should interest rates rise but remain below the applicable minimum level.

In addition, investments in loans may be difficult to value and may be illiquid. Floating rate loans generally are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale. The liquidity of floating rate loans, including the volume and frequency of secondary market trading in such loans, varies significantly over time and among individual floating rate loans. For example, if the credit quality of the borrower related to a floating rate loan unexpectedly declines significantly, secondary market trading in that floating rate loan can also decline. The secondary market for loans may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, and extended trade settlement periods, which may increase the expenses of the Fund or cause the Fund to be unable to realize the full value of its investment in the loan, resulting in a material decline in the Fund’s NAV.

During periods of severe market stress, it is possible that the market for loans may become highly illiquid. In such an event, the Fund may find it difficult to sell loans it holds, and, for loans it is able to sell in such circumstances, the trade settlement

 

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period may be longer than anticipated.

Opportunities to invest in loans or certain types of loans, such as Senior Loans, may be limited. Alternative investments may provide lower yields and may, in the Adviser’s view, offer less attractive investment characteristics. The limited availability of loans may be due to a number of reasons, including that direct lenders may allocate only a small number of loans to new investors, including the Fund. There also may be fewer loans made or available that the Adviser considers to be attractive investment opportunities, particularly during economic downturns. Also, lenders or agents may have an incentive to market only the least desirable loans to investors such as the Fund. If the market demand for loans increases, the availably of loans for purchase and the interest paid by borrowers may decrease.

Additional risks of investments in loans may include:

Agent/Intermediary Risk. If the Fund holds a loan through another financial intermediary, as is the case with a participation, or relies on another financial intermediary to administer the loan, as is the case with most multi-lender facilities, the Fund’s receipt of principal and interest on the loan and the value of the Fund’s loan investment will depend at least in part on the credit standing of the financial intermediary and therefore will be subject to the credit risk of the intermediary. The Fund will be required to rely upon the financial intermediary from which it purchases a participation interest to collect and pass on to the Fund such payments and to enforce the Fund’s rights and may not be able to cause the financial intermediary to take what it considers to be appropriate action. As a result, an insolvency, bankruptcy or reorganization of the financial intermediary may delay or prevent the Fund from receiving principal interest and other amounts with respect to the Fund’s interest in the loan. In addition, if the Fund relies on a financial intermediary to administer a loan, the Fund is subject to the risk that the financial intermediary may be unwilling or unable to demand and receive payments from the borrower in respect of the loan, or otherwise unwilling or unable to perform its administrative obligations.

Collateral Impairment Risk. The terms of certain loans in which the Fund may invest require that collateral be maintained to support payment of the borrower’s obligations under the loan. However, the value of the collateral may decline after the Fund invests, and the value of the collateral may not be sufficient to cover the amount owed to the Fund. In addition, the Fund’s interest in collateral securing a loan may be found invalid or may be used to pay other outstanding obligations of the borrower under applicable law. In the event that a borrower defaults, the Fund’s access to the collateral may be limited by bankruptcy and other insolvency laws. There is also the risk that the collateral may be difficult to liquidate, or that all or some of the collateral may be illiquid. The Fund may have to participate in legal proceedings or take possession of and manage assets that secure the issuer’s obligations. This could increase the Fund’s operating expenses and decrease its NAV.

Equity Securities and Warrants. The acquisition of equity securities may generally be incidental to the Fund’s purchase of a loan. The Fund may acquire equity securities as part of an instrument combining a loan and equity securities of a borrower or its affiliates. The Fund also may acquire equity securities issued in exchange for a loan or in connection with the default and/or restructuring of a loan, including subordinated and unsecured loans, and high-yield securities. Equity securities include common stocks, preferred stocks and securities convertible into common stock. Equity securities are subject to market risks and the risks of changes to the financial condition of the issuer, and fluctuations in value.

Highly Leveraged Transactions. The Fund may invest in loans or debt instruments made in connection with highly leveraged transactions. These transactions may include operating loans, leveraged buyout loans, leveraged capitalization loans and other types of acquisition financing. Those loans are subject to greater credit and liquidity risks than other types of loans and are generally considered speculative. If the Fund voluntarily or involuntarily sold those types of loans, it might not receive the full value it expected.

Stressed, Distressed or Defaulted Borrowers. The Fund can also invest in loans of borrowers that are experiencing, or are likely to experience, financial difficulty. These loans are subject to greater credit and liquidity risks than other types of loans and are generally considered speculative. In addition, the Fund can invest in loans of borrowers that have filed for bankruptcy protection or that have had involuntary bankruptcy petitions filed against them by creditors. Various laws enacted for the protection of debtors may apply to loans. A bankruptcy proceeding or other court proceeding could delay or limit the ability of the Fund to collect the principal and interest payments on that borrower’s loans or adversely affect the Fund’s rights in collateral relating to a loan.

The Fund has authorized the Adviser to act on its behalf in pursuing the Fund’s rights in certain bankruptcy, restructuring or other “workout proceedings,” including proceedings that may occur outside of the United States, and the Adviser may designate a third party to represent the Fund’s interests in such proceedings. The risks associated with participation in such workout proceedings, and of investing in distressed investments generally, may be more pronounced in foreign jurisdictions in which the laws governing such proceedings, and the formality of such proceedings, may differ significantly from equivalent proceedings in the United States. If the Adviser’s assessment of the eventual recovery value of a distressed security proves incorrect or if the actions taken by the Adviser or its designee prove unsuccessful, the Fund may be required to accept cash or instruments worth less than originally anticipated. In addition, events, including unexpected or unforeseeable events, may occur during the workout proceedings with respect to the borrower (for example, corruption relating to the borrower or a related party or government action that might affect the proceeding) and may also adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investment. The Fund could potentially lose more than its original investment to the extent, for example, the terms of the arrangements provide for the Fund to indemnify its agents or other third parties for losses they incur in connection with their representation of the Fund in a workout proceeding.

If a lawsuit is brought by creditors of a borrower under a loan, a court or a trustee in bankruptcy could take certain actions that would be adverse to the Fund. For example:

 

   

Other creditors might convince the court to set aside a loan or the collateralization of the loan as a “fraudulent conveyance” or “preferential transfer.” In that event, the court could recover from the Fund the interest and principal payments that the borrower made before becoming insolvent. There can be no assurance that the Fund would be able to prevent that recapture.

 

   

A bankruptcy (or other) court may restructure the payment obligations under the loan so as to reduce the amount to which the Fund would be entitled.

 

   

The court might discharge the amount of the loan that exceeds the value of the collateral.

 

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The court may award (or a creditor group may negotiate to receive) securities or other forms of compensation that vary as to terms, seniority, and structure from that of the original debt investment purchase by the Fund.

 

   

The court could subordinate the Fund’s rights to the rights of other creditors of the borrower under applicable law, decreasing, potentially significantly, the likelihood of any recovery on the Fund’s investment.

Limited Information Risk. Because there is limited public information available regarding loan investments, the Fund’s investments in such instruments are particularly dependent on the analytical abilities of the Fund’s portfolio managers.

Interest Rate Benchmarks. Interest rates on loans typically adjust periodically, often based on changes in a benchmark rate, plus a premium or spread over the benchmark rate. The benchmark rate may be LIBOR, the Prime Rate, or other base lending rates used by commercial lenders (each as defined in the applicable loan agreement).

Some benchmark rates may reset daily; others reset less frequently. The interest rate on LIBOR-based loans is reset periodically, typically based on a period between 30 days and one year. Certain floating or variable rate loans may permit the borrower to select an interest rate reset period of up to one year or longer. Investing in loans with longer interest rate reset periods may increase fluctuations in the Fund’s NAV as a result of changes in interest rates. Interest rates on loans with longer periods between benchmark resets will typically trail market interest rates in a rising interest rate environment.

Certain loans may permit the borrower to change the base lending or benchmark rate during the term of the loan. One benchmark rate may not adjust to changing market or interest rates to the same degree or as rapidly as another, permitting the borrower the option to select the benchmark rate that is most advantageous to it and less advantageous to the Fund. To the extent the borrower elects this option, the interest income and total return the Fund earns on the investment may be adversely affected as compared to other investments where the borrower does not have the option to change the base lending or benchmark rate.

On July 27, 2017, the head of the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced a desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. There remains uncertainty regarding the future utilization of LIBOR and the nature of any replacement rate. As such, the potential effect of a transition away from LIBOR on the Fund or the financial instruments in which the Fund invests cannot yet be determined. Please see “LIBOR Risk” below for more information.

LIBOR Risk. In June 2017, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a group of large US banks working with the Federal Reserve, announced its selection of a new Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which is intended to be a broad measure of overnight U.S. Treasury repurchase agreement rates, as an appropriate replacement for U.S. dollar LIBOR. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York began publishing the SOFR earlier in 2018, with the expectation that it could be used on a voluntary basis in new instruments and transactions. Bank working groups and regulators in other countries have suggested other alternatives for their markets, including the Sterling Overnight Interbank Average Rate (“SONIA”) to replace sterling LIBOR.

In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, the United Kingdom’s financial regulatory body, announced that after 2021 it will cease its active encouragement of banks to provide the quotations needed to sustain LIBOR. That announcement suggests that LIBOR may cease to be published after that time.

Various financial industry groups have begun planning for that transition, but there are obstacles to converting certain longer-term securities and transactions to a new benchmark. Transaction planning is at an early stage, and neither the effect of the transition process nor its ultimate success can yet be known. The transition process might lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets that currently rely on LIBOR to determine interest rates. It could also lead to a reduction in the value of some LIBOR-based investments and reduce the effectiveness of new hedges placed against existing LIBOR-based investments. While some LIBOR-based instruments may contemplate a scenario where LIBOR is no longer available by providing for an alternative rate-setting methodology, not all may have such provisions and there may be significant uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of any such alternative methodologies. Since the usefulness of LIBOR as a benchmark could deteriorate during the transition period, these effects could occur prior to the end of 2021.

Restrictive Loan Covenants. Borrowers must comply with various restrictive covenants that may be contained in loan agreements. They may include restrictions on dividend payments and other distributions to stockholders, provisions requiring the borrower to maintain specific financial ratios, and limits on total debt. They may include requirements that the borrower prepay the loan with any free cash flow. A break of a covenant that is not waived by the agent bank (or the lenders) is normally an event of default that provides the agent bank or the lenders the right to call the outstanding amount on the loan. If a lender accelerates the repayment of a loan because of the borrower’s violation of a restrictive covenant under the loan agreement, the borrower might default in payment of the loan.

Some of the loans in which the Fund may invest or to which the Fund may obtain exposure may be “covenant-lite.” Such loans contain fewer or less restrictive constraints on the borrower than certain other types of loans. Such loans generally do not include terms which allow the lender to monitor the performance of the borrower and declare a default or force a borrower into bankruptcy restructuring if certain criteria are breached. Under such loans, lenders typically must rely on covenants that restrict a borrower from incurring additional debt or engaging in certain actions. Such covenants can be breached only by an affirmative action of the borrower, rather than by a deterioration in the borrower’s financial condition. Accordingly, the Fund may have fewer rights against a borrower when it invests in or has exposure to such loans and so may have a greater risk of loss on such investments as compared to investments in or exposure to loans with additional or more conventional covenants.

Senior Loan and Subordination Risk. In addition to the risks typically associated with debt securities and loans generally, Senior Loans are also subject to the risk that a court could subordinate a Senior Loan, which typically holds a senior position in the capital structure of a borrower, to presently existing or future indebtedness or take other action detrimental to the holders of Senior Loans.

The Fund’s investments in Senior Loans may be collateralized with one or more of (1) working capital assets, such as accounts receivable and inventory, (2) tangible fixed assets, such as real property, buildings and equipment, (3) intangible assets such as trademarks or patents, or (4) security interests in shares of stock of the borrower or its subsidiaries or affiliates. In the case of loans to a non-public company, the company’s shareholders or owners may provide collateral in the form of secured guarantees and/or security interests in assets they own. However, the value of the collateral may decline after the

 

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Fund buys the Senior Loan, particularly if the collateral consists of equity securities of the borrower or its affiliates. If a borrower defaults, insolvency laws may limit the Fund’s access to the collateral, or the lenders may be unable to liquidate the collateral. A bankruptcy court might find that the collateral securing the Senior Loan is invalid or require the borrower to use the collateral to pay other outstanding obligations. If the collateral consists of stock of the borrower or its subsidiaries, the stock may lose all of its value in the event of a bankruptcy, which would leave the Fund exposed to greater potential loss. As a result, a collateralized Senior Loan may not be fully collateralized and can decline significantly in value.

If a borrower defaults on a collateralized Senior Loan, the Fund may receive assets other than cash or securities in full or partial satisfaction of the borrower’s obligation under the Senior Loan. Those assets may be illiquid, and the Fund might not be able to realize the benefit of the assets for legal, practical or other reasons. The Fund might hold those assets until the Adviser determined it was appropriate to dispose of them. If the collateral becomes illiquid or loses some or all of its value, the collateral may not be sufficient to protect the Fund in the event of a default of scheduled interest or principal payments.

The Fund can invest in Senior Loans that are not secured. If the borrower is unable to pay interest or defaults in the payment of principal, there will be no collateral on which the Fund can foreclose. Therefore, these loans typically present greater risks than collateralized Senior Loans.

Due to restrictions on transfers in loan agreements and the nature of the private syndication of Senior Loans including, for example, the lack of publicly-available information, some Senior Loans are not as easily purchased or sold as publicly-traded securities. Some Senior Loans and other Fund investments are illiquid, which may make it difficult for the Fund to value them or dispose of them at an acceptable price. Direct investments in Senior Loans and investments in participation interests in or assignments of Senior Loans may be limited.

Settlement Risk. Transactions in many loans settle on a delayed basis, and the Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of such loans for a substantial period after the sale. As a result, sale proceeds related to the sale of such loans may not be available to make additional investments or to meet the Fund’s redemption obligations until potentially a substantial period after the sale of the loans.

Debtor-In-Possession Loan Risks. Senior obligations issued in connection with restructuring proceedings under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code or similar proceedings in other jurisdictions (“DIP financings”) are subject to additional risks. DIP financings are arranged when an entity seeks the protections of the bankruptcy court under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code and any DIP financing must be approved by the bankruptcy court. These financings are typically senior obligations of a borrower issued in connection with a restructuring that are designed to allow the entity to continue its business operations while reorganizing under Chapter 11. In DIP financings, the borrower potentially assumes large amounts of debt in order to have the financial resources to attempt to achieve its restructuring objectives. DIP financings are often fully secured by a lien on the debtor’s otherwise unencumbered assets but may also have equal priority to other senior lenders or be secured by a junior lien on the debtor’s encumbered assets (so long as requirements as to collateralization of the loan and other legal requirements are satisfied). DIP financings are often required to close in a rapid manner in order to satisfy existing creditors. In any DIP financing, there is a risk that the borrower will not emerge successfully from Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings and be forced to liquidate its assets under Chapter 7 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. In the event of liquidation, the Fund’s only recourse will be against the property securing the DIP financing and any remaining unencumbered assets. DIP financings may be subject to some of the risks described under “Highly Leveraged Transactions” above.

The Fund may invest in loans directly or by investing in the DoubleLine Floating Rate Fund.

For more information on lending risks specific to investments in infrastructure-related assets, please refer to “—Infrastructure Sector Risk” above.

Lower Rated Securities

The Fund may invest in fixed income instruments that are at the time of investment rated BB+ or lower by S&P or Ba1 or lower by Moody’s or the equivalent by any other NRSRO or that are at the time of investment unrated instruments determined by the Adviser to be of comparable quality. Corporate bonds and certain other fixed income instruments (for purposes of this discussion, all such instruments are herein referred to as “securities”) rated below investment grade, or such instruments that are unrated and are determined by the Adviser to be of comparable quality, are high yield, high risk bonds, commonly known as junk bonds.

High yield securities include (a) securities issued without an investment grade rating and (b) securities whose credit ratings have been downgraded below investment grade because of declining investment fundamentals. The first category includes securities issued by emerging credit companies and companies which have experienced a leveraged buyout or recapitalization. Although the small and medium size companies that constitute emerging credit issuers typically have significant operating histories, these companies generally do not have strong enough operating results to secure investment grade ratings from the rating agencies. In addition, at times there has been a substantial volume of high yield securities issued by companies that have converted from public to private ownership through leveraged buyout transactions and by companies that have restructured their balance sheets through leveraged recapitalizations. High yield securities issued in these situations are used primarily to pay existing stockholders for their shares or to finance special dividend distributions to shareholders. The indebtedness incurred in connection with these transactions is often substantial and, as a result, often produces highly leveraged capital structures which present special risks for the holders of such securities. Also, the market price of such securities may be more volatile to the extent that expected benefits from the restructuring do not materialize. The second category of high yield securities consists of securities of former investment grade companies that have experienced poor operating performance due to such factors as cyclical downtrends in their industry, poor management or increased foreign competition.

Generally, lower-rated debt securities provide a higher yield than higher rated debt securities of similar maturity but are subject to greater risk of loss of principal and interest than higher rated securities of similar maturity. They are generally considered to be subject to greater risk than securities with higher ratings particularly in the event of a deterioration of general economic conditions. The lower ratings of the high yield securities which the Fund will purchase reflect a greater possibility that the financial condition of the issuers, or adverse changes in general economic conditions, or both, may impair

 

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the ability of the issuers to make payments of principal and interest. The market value of a single lower-rated debt security may fluctuate more than the market value of higher rated securities, since changes in the creditworthiness of lower rated issuers and in market perceptions of the issuers’ creditworthiness tend to occur more frequently and in a more pronounced manner than in the case of higher rated issuers. High yield debt securities also tend to reflect individual corporate developments to a greater extent than higher rated securities. The securities in which the Fund may invest are frequently subordinated to senior indebtedness.

The economy and interest rates affect high yield securities differently from other securities. The prices of high yield bonds have been found to be less sensitive to interest rate changes than higher-rated investments, but more sensitive to adverse economic changes or individual corporate developments. During an economic downturn or substantial period of rising interest rates, highly leveraged issuers may experience financial stress which would adversely affect their ability to service their principal and interest payment obligations, to meet projected business goals, and to obtain additional financing. If the issuer of a bond owned by the Fund defaults, the Fund may incur additional expenses to seek recovery. In addition, periods of economic uncertainty and changes can be expected to result in increased volatility of market prices of high yield bonds and the Fund’s asset value. Furthermore, the market prices of high yield bonds structured as zero coupon or pay-in-kind securities are affected to a greater extent by interest rate changes and thereby tend to be more volatile than securities which pay interest periodically and in cash.

To the extent there is a limited retail secondary market for particular high yield bonds, these bonds may be thinly-traded and the Adviser’s ability to accurately value high yield bonds and the Fund’s assets may be more difficult because there is less reliable, objective data available. In addition, the Fund’s ability to acquire or dispose of the bonds may be negatively-impacted. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the values and liquidity of high yield bonds, especially in a thinly-traded market. To the extent the Fund owns or may acquire illiquid or restricted high yield bonds, these securities may involve special registration responsibilities, liabilities and costs, and liquidity and valuation difficulties.

Analysis of creditworthiness of issuers of high yield securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher-quality fixed income securities. To the extent that the Fund invests in high yield securities, the Fund’s success in achieving its investment objective may depend more heavily on the Adviser’s creditworthiness analysis than if the Fund invested exclusively in higher-quality securities.

Special tax considerations are associated with investing in lower rated debt securities structured as zero coupon or pay-in-kind securities. The Fund accrues income on these securities prior to the receipt of cash payments. The Fund must distribute substantially all of its income to shareholders to qualify for the favorable tax treatment afforded RICs and their shareholders under the Code and may, therefore, have to dispose of portfolio securities to satisfy distribution requirements.

Underwriting and dealer spreads associated with the purchase of lower rated bonds are typically higher than those associated with the purchase of high grade bonds.

Mortgage-Backed Securities Risks

Mortgage-backed securities include, among other things, participation interests in pools of residential mortgage loans purchased from individual lenders by a federal agency or originated and issued by private lenders and involve, among others, the following risks:

Credit and Market Risks of Mortgage-Backed Securities. Investments by the Fund in fixed rate and floating rate mortgage-backed securities will entail credit risks (i.e., the risk of non-payment of interest and principal) and market risks (i.e., the risk that interest rates and other factors could cause the value of the instrument to decline). Many issuers or servicers of mortgage-backed securities guarantee timely payment of interest and principal on the securities, whether or not payments are made when due on the underlying mortgages. This kind of guarantee generally increases the quality of a security, but does not mean that the security’s market value and yield will not change. The values of mortgage-backed securities may change because of changes in the market’s perception of the credit quality of the assets held by the issuer of the mortgage-backed securities or an entity, if any, providing credit support in respect of the mortgage-backed securities. In addition, an unexpectedly high rate of defaults on the mortgages held by a mortgage pool may limit substantially the pool’s ability to make payments of principal or interest to the Fund as a holder of such securities, reducing the values of those securities or in some cases rendering them worthless. The Fund also may purchase securities that are not guaranteed or subject to any credit support. An investment in a privately issued mortgage-backed security may be less liquid and subject to greater credit risks than an investment in a mortgage-backed security that is issued or otherwise guaranteed by a federal government agency. Like bond investments, the value of fixed rate mortgage-backed securities will tend to rise when interest rates fall, and fall when rates rise. Floating rate mortgage-backed securities generally tend to have more moderate changes in price when interest rates rise or fall, but their current yield will be affected. In addition, the mortgage-backed securities market in general may be adversely affected by changes in governmental legislation or regulation. Factors that could affect the value of a mortgage-backed security include, among other things, the types and amounts of insurance which an individual mortgage or that specific mortgage-backed security carries, the default and delinquency rate of the mortgage pool, the amount of time the mortgage loan has been outstanding, the loan-to-value ratio of each mortgage and the amount of overcollateralization or undercollateralization of a mortgage pool.

The residential mortgage market in the United States has experienced difficulties that may adversely affect the performance and market value of certain of the Fund’s mortgage-related investments. Delinquencies and losses on residential mortgage loans (especially subprime and second-lien mortgage loans) generally increased in the last decade and potentially could begin to increase again. A decline in or flattening of housing values (as has been experienced in the last decade and may continue to be experienced in many housing markets) may exacerbate such delinquencies and losses. Borrowers with adjustable rate mortgage loans may be more sensitive to changes in interest rates, which affect their monthly mortgage payments, and may be unable to secure replacement mortgages at comparably low interest rates. Also, a number of residential mortgage loan originators have experienced serious financial difficulties or bankruptcy. Reduced investor demand for mortgage-related securities has resulted and may continue to result in limited new issuances of mortgage-related securities and limited liquidity in the secondary market for mortgage-related securities, which can adversely affect the market value of mortgage-related

 

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securities and limit the availability of attractive investment opportunities for the Fund. It is possible that such limited liquidity in secondary markets could continue or worsen.

Ongoing developments in the residential mortgage market may have additional consequences to the market for mortgage-backed securities. In past years, delinquencies and losses generally increased with respect to securitizations involving residential mortgage loans and potentially could begin increasing again as a result of a weakening housing market and the seasoning of securitized pools of mortgage loans. Many so-called sub-prime mortgage pools are currently distressed and may be trading at significant discounts to their face value.

Additionally, mortgage lenders have adjusted their loan programs and underwriting standards, which has reduced the availability of mortgage credit to prospective mortgagors. This has resulted in reduced availability of financing alternatives for mortgagors seeking to refinance their mortgage loans. The reduced availability of refinancing options for mortgagors has resulted in higher rates of delinquencies, defaults and losses on mortgage loans, particularly in the case of, but not limited to, mortgagors with adjustable rate mortgage loans or interest-only mortgage loans that experience significant increases in their monthly payments following the adjustment date or the end of the interest-only period (see “Adjustable Rate Mortgages” below for further discussion of adjustable rate mortgage risks). These events, alone or in combination with each other and with deteriorating economic conditions in the general economy, may continue to contribute to higher delinquency and default rates on mortgage loans. The tighter underwriting guidelines for residential mortgage loans, together with lower levels of home sales and reduced refinance activity, also may have contributed to a reduction in the prepayment rate for mortgage loans generally and this may continue. The values of mortgage-backed securities may be substantially dependent on the servicing of the underlying mortgage pools, and therefore are subject to risks associated with the negligence or malfeasance by their servicers and to the credit risk of their servicers. In certain circumstances, the mishandling of related documentation also may affect the rights of security holders in and to the underlying collateral.

Mortgage loans may experience greater rates of delinquency and foreclosure due to underwriting standards. These mortgage loans may not meet the sponsor’s general underwriting policies for prime mortgage loans due to borrower credit characteristics. In addition, the underwriting program may permit less restrictive underwriting criteria as compared to general underwriting criteria, including additional types of mortgaged properties, categories of borrowers and/or reduced documentation requirements, such as no verification of income or no verification of assets. As a consequence, delinquencies, foreclosures and cumulative losses may be expected to be greater with respect to these mortgage loans than with respect to mortgage loans originated in conformity with the general underwriting standards. The Fund may invest in any level of the capital structure of an issuer of mortgage-backed or asset-backed securities, including the equity or “first loss” tranche. See “—Collateralized Debt Obligations” above for a discussion of investments in structured products with multiple tranches. The U. S. Government conservatorship of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae in September 2008 and its ultimate resolution may adversely affect the real estate market, the value of real estate-related assets generally and markets generally. In addition, there may be proposals from the U.S. Congress or other branches of the U.S. Government regarding the conservatorship, including regarding reforming Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac or winding down their operations, which may or may not come to fruition. There can be no assurance that such proposals, even those that are not adopted, will not adversely affect the values of the Fund’s assets.

The FHFA, as conservator or receiver of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, has the power to repudiate any contract entered into by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac prior to its appointment if it determines that performance of the contract is burdensome and repudiation of the contract promotes the orderly administration of Fannie Mae’s or Freddie Mac’s affairs. In the event the guaranty obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac are repudiated, the payments of interest to holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would be reduced if payments on the mortgage loans represented in the mortgage loan groups related to such mortgage-backed securities are not made by the borrowers or advanced by the servicer. Any actual direct compensatory damages for repudiating these guaranty obligations may not be sufficient to offset any shortfalls experienced by such mortgage-backed security holders.

Further, in its capacity as conservator or receiver, FHFA has the right to transfer or sell any asset or liability of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac without any approval, assignment or consent. If FHFA were to transfer any such guaranty obligation to another party, holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would have to rely on that party for satisfaction of the guaranty obligation and would be exposed to the credit risk of that party.

On June 3, 2019, under the FHFA’s “Single Security Initiative” intended to maximize liquidity for both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities in the TBA market, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac expect to start issuing uniform mortgage-backed securities (“UMBS”) in place of their current offerings of TBA-eligible mortgage-backed securities. The effects of the issuance of UMBS on the market for mortgage-backed securities and on the Fund’s ability to invest in UMBS are uncertain.

Liquidity Risk of Mortgage-Backed Securities. The liquidity of mortgage-backed securities varies by type of security; at certain times the Fund may be unable to dispose of such investments at a desirable time or at the value the Fund has placed on the investment. Because mortgage-backed securities may be less liquid than other securities, the Fund may be more susceptible to liquidity risks than funds that invest in other securities. In the past, in stressed markets, certain types of mortgage-backed securities suffered periods of illiquidity if disfavored by the market.

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (“CMBS”). CMBS include securities that reflect an interest in, or are secured by, mortgage loans on commercial real property. Many of the risks of investing in commercial mortgage-backed securities reflect the risks of investing in the real estate securing the underlying mortgage loans. These risks reflect the effects of local and other economic conditions on real estate markets, the ability of tenants to make loan payments and the ability of a property to attract and retain tenants. Commercial mortgage-backed securities may be less liquid and exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or asset-backed securities.

Prepayment, Extension, and Redemption Risks of Mortgage-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities may reflect an interest in monthly payments made by the borrowers who receive the underlying mortgage loans. Although the underlying mortgage loans are for specified periods of time, such as 20 or 30 years, the borrowers can, and historically have paid them off sooner. When a prepayment happens, a portion of the mortgage-backed security which represents an interest in the

 

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underlying mortgage loan will be prepaid. A borrower is more likely to prepay a mortgage which bears a relatively high rate of interest. This means that in times of declining interest rates, a portion of the Fund’s higher yielding securities are likely to be redeemed and the Fund will probably be unable to replace them with securities having as great a yield. Prepayments can result in lower yields to shareholders. The increased likelihood of prepayment when interest rates decline also limits market price appreciation. This is known as prepayment risk. Mortgage-backed securities also are subject to extension risk. Extension risk is the possibility that rising interest rates may cause prepayments to occur at a slower than expected rate. This particular risk may effectively change a security which was considered short or intermediate term into a long-term security. The values of long-term securities generally fluctuate more widely in response to changes in interest rates than short or intermediate-term securities. In addition, a mortgage-backed security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer. If a mortgage-backed security held by the Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to permit the issuer to redeem or pay-off the security, which could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs). There are certain risks associated specifically with CMOs. CMOs are debt obligations collateralized by mortgage loans or mortgage pass-through securities. The expected average life of CMOs is determined using mathematical models that incorporate prepayment assumptions and other factors that involve estimates of future economic and market conditions. These estimates may vary from actual future results, particularly during periods of extreme market volatility. Further, under certain market conditions, such as those that occurred in 1994, 2007, 2008 and 2009, the average weighted life of certain CMOs may not accurately reflect the price volatility of such securities. For example, in periods of supply and demand imbalances in the market for such securities and/or in periods of sharp interest rate movements, the prices of CMOs may fluctuate to a greater extent than would be expected from interest rate movements alone. CMOs issued by private entities are not obligations issued or guaranteed by the U. S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities and are not guaranteed by any government agency, although the securities underlying a CMO may be subject to a guarantee. Therefore, if the collateral securing the CMO, as well as any third party credit support or guarantees, is insufficient to make payments when due, the holder could sustain a loss.

CMOs and other mortgage-backed securities may be structured similarly to CDOs and may be subject to similar risks. See “—Collateralized Debt Obligations Risk.” For example, the cash flows from a CMO trust may be split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. Senior tranches are paid from the cash flows from the underlying assets before the junior tranches and equity or “first loss” tranches. Losses are first borne by the equity tranches, next by the junior tranches, and finally by the senior tranches. Interest holders in senior tranches are entitled to the lowest interest rates but are generally safer investments than more junior tranches because, should there be any default, senior tranches typically are paid first. The most junior tranches, such as equity tranches, typically are due to be paid the highest interest rates but suffer the highest risk of loss should the holder of an underlying mortgage loan default. If some loans default and the cash collected by the CMO is insufficient to pay all of its investors, those in the lowest, most junior tranches suffer losses first.

Adjustable Rate Mortgages. ARMs contain maximum and minimum rates beyond which the mortgage interest rate may not vary over the lifetime of the security. In addition, many ARMs provide for additional limitations on the maximum amount by which the mortgage interest rate may adjust for any single adjustment period. Alternatively, certain ARMs contain limitations on changes in the required monthly payment. In the event that a monthly payment is not sufficient to pay the interest accruing on an ARM, any excess interest is added to the principal balance of the mortgage loan, which is repaid through future monthly payments. If the monthly payment for such an instrument exceeds the sum of the interest accrued at the applicable mortgage interest rate and the principal payment required at such point to amortize the outstanding principal balance over the remaining term of the loan, the excess is used to reduce the then-outstanding principal balance of the ARM.

In addition, certain ARMs may provide for an initial fixed, below-market or teaser interest rate. During this initial fixed-rate period, the payment due from the related mortgagor may be less than that of a traditional loan. However, after the teaser rate expires, the monthly payment required to be made by the mortgagor may increase dramatically when the interest rate on the mortgage loan adjusts. This increased burden on the mortgagor may increase the risk of delinquency or default on the mortgage loan and in turn, losses on the mortgage-backed security into which that loan has been bundled.

Stripped Mortgage Securities. Part of the investment strategy of the Fund may involve the purchase of interest-only or principal-only Stripped Mortgage Securities. The yield to maturity on a PO or an IO class security is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets. A slower than expected rate of principal payments may have an adverse effect on a PO class security’s yield to maturity. If the underlying mortgage assets experience slower than anticipated principal repayment, the Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment in these securities. Conversely, a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on an IO class security’s yield to maturity. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments or principal, the Fund may fail to fully recoup its initial investment in these securities. These investments are highly sensitive to changes in interest and prepayment rates and tend to be less liquid than other CMOs.

Inverse Floaters. Investments in inverse floaters and similar instruments expose the Fund to the same risks as investments in debt securities and derivatives, as well as other risks, including those associated with leverage and increased volatility. An investment in these securities typically will involve greater risk than an investment in a fixed rate security. Distributions on inverse floaters and similar instruments will typically bear an inverse relationship to short-term interest rates and typically will be reduced or, potentially, eliminated as interest rates rise. Inverse floaters may be considered to be leveraged, including if their interest rates vary by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in a reference rate of interest (typically a short-term interest rate), and the market prices of inverse floaters may as a result be highly sensitive to changes in interest rates and in prepayment rates on the underlying securities, and may decrease significantly when interest rates increase or prepayment rates change. Investments in inverse floaters and similar instruments that have mortgage-backed securities underlying them will expose the Fund to the risks associated with those mortgage-backed securities and the values of those investments may be especially sensitive to changes in prepayment rates on the underlying mortgage-backed securities.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

Mortgage dollar rolls involve the risk that the market value of the securities the Fund is obligated to repurchase under an agreement may decline below the price of the security the Fund sold for immediate settlement. Mortgage dollar rolls are speculative techniques involving leverage, and are considered borrowings by the Fund. Under the requirements of the 1940

 

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Act, the Fund is required to maintain an asset coverage (including the proceeds of the borrowings) of a least 300% of all borrowings.

Options Transactions

The effective use of options depends on the Fund’s ability to terminate option positions at times when the Adviser deems it desirable to do so. Prior to exercise or expiration, an option position can only be terminated by entering into a closing purchase or sale transaction. If a covered call option writer is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction or to purchase an offsetting OTC Option, it cannot sell the underlying security until the option expires or the option is exercised. Accordingly, a covered call option writer may not be able to sell an underlying security at a time when it might otherwise be advantageous to do so. A covered put option writer who is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction or to purchase an offsetting OTC Option would continue to bear the risk of decline in the market price of the underlying security until the option expires or is exercised.

In addition, a covered put or call writer would be unable to utilize the amount held in cash, U.S. Government Securities, or other liquid securities as security for the option for other investment purposes until the exercise or expiration of the option.

The Fund’s ability to close out its position as a writer of an option is dependent upon the existence of a liquid secondary market. There is no assurance that such a market will exist, particularly in the case of OTC Options, as such options will generally only be closed out by entering into a closing purchase transaction with the purchasing dealer. However, the Fund may be able to purchase an offsetting option which does not close out its position as a writer but constitutes an asset of equal value to the obligation under the option written. If the Fund is not able to either enter into a closing purchase transaction or purchase an offsetting position, it will be required to maintain the securities subject to the call, or the collateral underlying the put, even though it might not be advantageous to do so, until a closing transaction can be entered into (or the option is exercised or expires).

There can be no assurance that a liquid market will exist when the Fund seeks to close out an option position. Reasons for the absence of a liquid secondary market on an exchange include the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening transactions or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange clearinghouse may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options). If trading were discontinued, the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist.

In addition, the hours of trading for options may not conform to the hours during which securities held by the Fund are traded. To the extent that the options markets close before the markets for underlying securities, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the options markets. In addition, the Fund’s listed options transactions will be subject to limitations established by each of the exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities on which the options are traded. These limitations govern the maximum number of options in each class which may be written or purchased by a single investor or group of investors acting in concert, regardless of whether the options are written or purchased on the same or different exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities or are held or written in one or more accounts or through one or more brokers. Thus, the number of options which the Fund may write (sell) or purchase may be affected by options written or purchased by other investment advisory clients of the Adviser. An exchange, board of trade or other trading facility may order the liquidation of positions found to be in excess of these limits, and it may impose other sanctions or restrictions. These position limits may restrict the number of listed options which the Fund may write.

In the event of the bankruptcy of a broker through which the Fund engages in transactions in options, the Fund could experience delays and/or losses in liquidating open positions purchased or sold through the broker and/or incur a loss of all or part of its margin deposits with the broker. Similarly, in the event of the bankruptcy of the writer of an OTC Option purchased by the Fund, the Fund could experience a loss of all or part of the value of the option.

The writer of an option has no control over the time when it may be required to fulfill its obligation as a writer of an option. Once an option writer has received an exercise notice, it cannot effect a closing purchase transaction in order to terminate its obligation under the option and must deliver the underlying security or the contract value of the relevant index at the exercise price. If a put or call option purchased by the Fund is not sold when it has remaining value, and if the market price of the underlying security or the value of the index remains equal to or greater than the exercise price (in the case of a put), or remains less than or equal to the exercise price (in the case of a call), the Fund will lose its entire investment in the option. Also, where a put or call option on a particular security or index is purchased to hedge against price movements in a related security or securities, the price of the put or call option may move more or less than the price of the related security or securities.

To the extent that the Fund utilizes unlisted (or “over-the-counter”) options, the Fund’s ability to terminate these options may be more limited than with exchange-traded options and may involve enhanced risk that counterparties participating in such transactions will not fulfill their obligations.

Each of the exchanges has established limitations governing the maximum number of options on the same underlying security or futures contract (whether or not covered) which may be written by a single investor, whether acting alone or in concert with others (regardless of whether such options are written on the same or different exchanges or are held or written on one or more accounts or through one or more brokers). An exchange may order the liquidation of positions found to be in violation of these limits and it may impose other sanctions or restrictions. These position limits may restrict the number of listed options which the Fund may write.

Preferred Securities Risk

 

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In addition to many of the risks associated with both fixed income securities (e.g., interest rate risk and credit risk) and common shares or other equity securities (see “Investment Practices—Equity Securities” above), preferred securities are also subject to deferral risk. Preferred securities typically contain provisions that allow an issuer, at its discretion, to defer distributions for an extended period. Preferred securities also may contain provisions that allow an issuer, under certain conditions, to skip (in the case of noncumulative preferred securities) or defer (in the case of cumulative preferred securities), dividend payments. If the Fund owns a preferred security that is deferring its distributions, the Fund may be required to report income for tax purposes while it is not receiving any distributions. Preferred stock in some instances is convertible into common shares or other securities.

Preferred securities typically contain provisions that allow for redemption in the event of tax or security law changes in addition to call features at the option of the issuer. In the event of a redemption, the Fund may not be able to reinvest the proceeds at comparable or favorable rates of return.

Preferred securities typically do not provide any voting rights, except in cases in which dividends are in arrears beyond a certain time period, which varies by issue. Preferred securities are generally subordinated to bonds and other debt instruments in a company’s capital structure in terms of priority to corporate income and liquidation payments, and therefore will be subject to greater credit risk than those debt instruments. Preferred securities may be substantially less liquid than many other securities.

Ratings Categories – Use of Credit Ratings by the Fund

A description of the rating categories as published by Moody’s and S&P is set forth in the Appendix to this SAI. (Other NRSROs use different categorizations, which may also be utilized by the Fund.) Ratings assigned by Moody’s, S&P or other NRSROs to securities acquired by the Fund reflect only the views of those agencies as to the quality of the securities they have undertaken to rate. Credit ratings are based largely on the issuer’s historical financial condition and the rating agencies’ investment analysis at the time of rating. The rating assigned to any particular issuer does not necessarily reflect the issuer’s current financial condition, and does not reflect an assessment of an investment’s volatility or liquidity. It should be emphasized, however, that ratings are relative and subjective and are not absolute standards of quality. Although the Fund’s portfolio managers may consider credit ratings in making investment decisions, they typically perform their own investment analysis. There is no assurance that a rating assigned initially will not change.

When an investment is rated by more than one NRSRO, the Adviser will utilize the highest rating for that security for purposes of applying any investment policies that incorporate credit ratings (e.g., a policy to invest a certain percentage of the Fund’s assets in securities rated investment grade) except where the Fund has a policy to invest a certain minimum percentage of its assets in securities that are rated below investment grade, in which case the Fund will utilize the lowest rating that applies to that investment.

Reinvestment Risk

Income from the Fund’s portfolio may decline when the Fund invests the proceeds from investment income, sales of portfolio securities or matured, traded or called debt obligations. For instance, during periods of declining interest rates, an issuer of debt obligations may exercise an option to redeem securities prior to maturity, forcing the Fund to reinvest the proceeds in lower-yielding securities. A decline in income received by the Fund from its investments is likely to have a negative effect on the yield and total return of the Fund’s shares.

Reliance on the Adviser

The Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective is dependent upon the Adviser’s ability to identify profitable investment opportunities for the Fund. While the portfolio managers of the Fund may have considerable experience in managing other portfolios with investment objectives, policies and strategies that are similar, the past experience of the portfolio managers, including with other strategies and funds, does not guarantee future results for the Fund.

Repurchase Agreements

In the event of a default or bankruptcy by a selling financial institution under a repurchase agreement, the Fund will seek to sell the underlying security serving as collateral. However, this could involve certain costs or delays, and, to the extent that proceeds from any sale were less than the repurchase price, the Fund could suffer a loss. The Fund follows procedures designed to minimize the risks associated with repurchase agreements, including effecting repurchase transactions only with large, well-capitalized and well-established financial institutions and specifying the required value of the collateral underlying the agreement.

Restricted Securities, Rule 144A/Regulation S Securities Risk

The Fund may invest in securities which are subject to restrictions on resale because they have not been registered under the Securities Act or are subject to contractual restrictions or which are otherwise not readily marketable. These securities are generally referred to as private placements or restricted securities. There can be no assurance that a trading market will exist at any time for any particular restricted security. Limitations on the resale of these securities may have an adverse effect on their marketability, and may prevent the Fund from disposing of them promptly at reasonable prices or at all. The Fund may have to bear the expense of registering the securities for resale and the risk of substantial delays in effecting registration. Also, restricted securities may be difficult to value because market quotations may not be readily available, and the values of restricted securities may have significant volatility. The Adviser, pursuant to procedures adopted by the Board of Trustees, will make a determination as to the liquidity of each restricted security purchased by the Fund. If a restricted security is determined to be liquid, it will not be included within the category illiquid securities, which under the Fund’s current policies may not exceed 15% of the Fund’s net assets. For example, Rule 144A permits the Fund to sell restricted securities to qualified institutional buyers without limitation. However, investing in Rule 144A securities could have the effect of increasing the level of the Fund’s illiquidity to the extent the Fund, at a particular point in time, may be unable to find

 

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qualified institutional buyers (or other purchasers qualified to buy such securities) interested in purchasing such securities. Securities eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A or Regulation S under the Securities Act, and determined to be liquid pursuant to the procedures discussed in the following paragraph, are not subject to the foregoing 15% limitation.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

A reverse repurchase agreement involves the sale of a portfolio-eligible security by the Fund, coupled with its agreement to repurchase the instrument at a specified time and price. Under a reverse repurchase agreement, the Fund continues to be entitled to receive any principal and interest payments on the underlying security during the term of the agreement. Reverse repurchase agreements involve leverage risk; the Fund may lose money as a result of declines in the values both of the security subject to the reverse repurchase agreement and the instruments in which the Fund invested the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement. Reverse repurchase agreements are considered borrowings by the Fund.

Risks Arising From Government Regulation of Derivatives

U.S. and non-U.S. legislative and regulatory reforms, including the Dodd-Frank Act, have resulted in new regulation of swap agreements, including clearing, margin, reporting, recordkeeping and registration requirements for certain types of swap contracts and other derivatives. New rules under the Dodd-Frank Act require certain over-the-counter derivatives, including certain interest rate swaps and certain index credit default swaps, to be executed on a regulated market and cleared through a central counterparty, which may result in increased margin requirements and costs for the Fund. In addition, the U.S. government and the EU have adopted mandatory minimum margin requirements for uncleared derivatives, which will require the Fund to provide more margin for its derivatives, and therefore make derivative transactions more expensive. Because these requirements are new and evolving, and certain of the rules are not yet final, their ultimate impact remains unclear. New regulations could, among other things, restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in swap transactions (for example, by making certain types of swap transactions no longer available to the Fund) and/or increase the costs of such swap transactions (for example, by increasing margin or capital requirements), and the Fund may as a result be unable to execute its investment strategies in a manner the Adviser might otherwise choose.

In addition, in December 2015, the SEC proposed new regulations applicable to a mutual fund’s use of derivatives and related instruments. If adopted as proposed, these regulations could significantly limit or impact the Fund’s ability to invest in derivatives and other instruments, limit the Fund’s ability to employ certain strategies that use derivatives and adversely affect the Fund’s performance, efficiency in implementing its strategy, liquidity and ability to pursue its investment objective.

Risks Related to the Fund’s Clearing Member and Central Clearing Counterparty

Transactions in some types of swaps (including interest rate swaps and index credit default swaps) are required to be centrally cleared. In a transaction involving those swaps (“cleared derivatives”), the Fund’s counterparty is a clearing house, rather than a bank or broker. Since the Fund is not a member of clearing houses and only members of a clearing house (“clearing members”) can participate directly in the clearing house, the Fund will hold cleared derivatives through accounts at clearing members. In cleared derivatives positions, the Fund will make payments (including margin payments) to and receive payments from a clearing house through their accounts at clearing members. Clearing members guarantee performance of their clients’ obligations to the clearing house.

There is a risk that assets deposited by the Fund with any swaps or futures clearing member as margin for futures contracts or cleared swaps may, in certain circumstances, be used to satisfy losses of other clients of the Fund’s clearing member. In addition, the assets of the Fund might not be fully protected in the event of the clearing member’s bankruptcy, as the Fund would be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds segregated on behalf of the clearing member’s customers for the relevant account class. Similarly, all customer funds held at a clearing organization in connection with any futures contracts are held in a commingled omnibus account and are not identified to the name of the clearing member’s individual customers. All customer funds held at a clearing organization with respect to cleared swaps of customers of a clearing member are also held in an omnibus account, but CFTC rules require that the clearing member notify the clearing organization of the amount of the initial margin provided by the clearing member to the clearing organization that is attributable to each customer. With respect to futures and options contracts, a clearing organization may use assets of a non-defaulting customer held in an omnibus account at the clearing organization to satisfy payment obligations of a defaulting customer of the clearing member to the clearing organization. With respect to cleared swaps, a clearing organization generally cannot do so, but may do so if the clearing member does not provide accurate reporting to the clearing organization as to the attribution of margin among its clients. Also, since clearing members generally provide to clearing organizations the net amount of variation margin required for cleared swaps for all of its customers in the aggregate, rather than the gross amount of each customer, the Fund is subject to the risk that a clearing organization will not make variation margin payments owed to the Fund if another customer of the clearing member has suffered a loss and is in default. As a result, in the event of a default or the clearing member’s other clients or the clearing member’s failure to extend its own funds in connection with any such default, the Fund may not be able to recover the full amount of assets deposited by the clearing member on behalf of the Fund with the clearing organization. In addition, in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of a clearing house, the Fund might experience a loss of funds deposited through its clearing member as margin with the clearing house, a loss of unrealized profits on its open positions, and the loss of funds owed to it as realized profits on closed positions. Such a bankruptcy or insolvency might also cause a substantial delay before the Fund could obtain the return of funds owed to it by a clearing member who was a member of such clearing house.

In some ways, cleared derivative arrangements are less favorable to mutual funds than bilateral arrangements. For example, the Fund may be required to provide more margin for cleared derivatives positions than for bilateral derivatives positions. Also, in contrast to a bilateral derivatives position, following a period of notice to the Fund, a clearing member generally can require termination of an existing cleared derivatives position at any time or an increase in margin requirements above the margin that the clearing member required at the beginning of a transaction. Clearing houses also have broad rights to increase margin requirements for existing positions or to terminate those positions at any time. Any increase in margin requirements or termination of existing cleared derivatives positions by the clearing member or the clearing house could interfere with the ability of the Fund to pursue its investment strategy. Further, any increase in margin requirements by a clearing member could expose the Fund to greater credit risk to its clearing member because margin for cleared derivatives positions in excess

 

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of a clearing house’s margin requirements may be held by the clearing member. Also, the Fund is subject to risk if it enters into a derivatives transaction that is required to be cleared (or that the Adviser expects to be cleared), and no clearing member is willing or able to clear the transaction on the Fund’s behalf. In those cases, the position might have to be terminated, and the Fund could lose some or all of the benefit of the position, including loss of an increase in the value of the position and/or loss of hedging protection, or could realize a loss. In addition, the documentation governing the relationship between the Fund and clearing members is drafted by the clearing members and generally is less favorable to the Fund than typical bilateral derivatives documentation. While futures contracts entail similar risks, the risks likely are more pronounced for cleared swaps due to their more limited liquidity and the short market history of clearing houses.

Some types of cleared derivatives are required to be executed on an exchange or on a swap execution facility. A swap execution facility is a trading platform where multiple market participants can execute derivatives by accepting bids and offers made by multiple other participants in the platform. While this execution requirement is designed to increase transparency and liquidity in the cleared derivatives market, trading on a swap execution facility can create additional costs and risks for the Fund. For example, swap execution facilities typically charge fees, and if the Fund executes derivatives on a swap execution facility through a broker intermediary, the intermediary may impose fees as well. Also, the Fund may be required to indemnify a swap execution facility, or a broker intermediary who executes cleared derivatives on a swap execution facility on the Fund’s behalf, against any losses or costs that may be incurred as a result of the Fund’s transactions on the swap execution facility.

These and other new rules and regulations could, among other things, restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in, or increase the cost to the Fund of, derivatives transactions, for example, by making some types of derivatives no longer available to the Fund, increasing margin or capital requirements, or otherwise limiting liquidity or increasing transaction costs. The implementation of the clearing requirement has increased the costs of derivatives transactions for the Fund, since the Fund has to pay fees to its clearing members and is typically required to post more margin for cleared derivatives than it has historically posted for uncleared derivatives. The costs of derivatives transactions are expected to increase further as clearing members raise their fees as to cover the costs of additional capital requirements and other regulatory changes applicable to the clearing members. These regulations are new and evolving, so their potential impact on the Fund and the financial system are not yet known. While the new regulations and central clearing of some derivatives transactions are designed to reduce systemic risk (e.g., the risk that the interdependence of large derivatives dealers could cause them to suffer liquidity, solvency or other challenges simultaneously), there is no assurance that the new clearing mechanisms will achieve that result. While these new systems are introduced into the market, as noted above, central clearing and related requirements expose the Fund to new kinds of risks and costs, not all of which are known as these new processes emerge and evolve.

Risks of Unrated Securities

The Fund may purchase unrated securities (which are not rated by a rating agency) if the Adviser determines that the security is of comparable quality to a rated security that the Fund may purchase. Unrated securities may be less liquid than comparable rated securities and involve the risk that the Adviser may not accurately evaluate the security’s comparative credit rating. To the extent that the Fund invests in unrated securities, the Fund’s success in achieving its investment objective may depend more heavily on the Adviser’s creditworthiness analysis than if the Fund invested exclusively in rated securities.

Sector Risk

The risk that the securities held by the Fund will underperform securities held in other funds investing in similar asset classes or comparable benchmarks because of a portfolio manager’s choice of securities or sectors for investment. To the extent the Fund focuses or concentrates its investments in a particular sector or related sectors, the Fund will be more susceptible to events or factors affecting companies in that sector or related sectors. For example, the values of securities of companies in the same or related sectors may be negatively affected by the common characteristics they share, the common business risks to which they are subject, common regulatory burdens, or regulatory changes that affect them similarly. Such characteristics, risks, burdens or changes include, but are not limited to, changes in governmental regulation, inflation or deflation, rising or falling interest rates, competition from new entrants, and other economic, market, political or other developments specific to that sector or related sectors. Specific types of sector risk include the following:

Financial Services Risk. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in the financial services sector or may engage in transactions with one or more counterparties in the financial services sector. Financial services companies are subject to extensive governmental regulation which may limit both the amounts and the types of loans and other financial commitments they can make, the interest rates and fees they can charge, the scope of their activities, the prices they can charge and the amount of capital they must maintain. Profitability is largely dependent on the availability and cost of capital funds and can fluctuate significantly when interest rates change or due to increased competition. In addition, deterioration of the credit markets generally may cause an adverse impact in a broad range of markets, including U.S. and international credit and interbank money markets generally, thereby affecting a wide range of financial institutions and markets. Certain events in the financial sector may cause an unusually high degree of volatility in the financial markets, both domestic and foreign, and cause certain financial services companies to incur large losses. Interconnectedness or interdependence among financial services companies increases the risk that the financial distress or failure of one financial services company may materially and adversely affect a number of other financial services companies. Securities of financial services companies may experience a dramatic decline in value when such companies experience substantial declines in the valuations of their assets, take action to raise capital (such as the issuance of debt or equity securities), or cease operations. Credit losses resulting from financial difficulties of borrowers can negatively impact the sector, especially when financial services companies are exposed to non-diversified or concentrated loan portfolios. Financial losses associated with investment activities can negatively impact the sector, especially when financial services companies are exposed to financial leverage. Insurance companies may be subject to severe price competition. Adverse economic, business or political developments could adversely affect financial institutions engaged in mortgage finance or other lending or investing activities directly or indirectly connected to the value of real estate.

Natural Resource Risk. The Fund may invest in companies that derive their value from natural resources, and therefore may be particularly subject to risks affecting those companies. Natural resources may include, without limitation, energy

 

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(including gas, petroleum, petrochemicals and other hydrocarbons), precious metals (including gold), base and industrial metals, timber and forest products, agriculture and commodities.

Natural resource prices can swing sharply in response to cyclical economic conditions, political events or the monetary policies of various countries. In addition, political and economic conditions in a limited number of natural-resource-producing countries may have a direct effect on the commercialization of natural resources, and consequently, on their prices. For example, the vast majority of gold producers are domiciled in just five countries: South Africa, the United States, Australia, Canada and Russia.

Securities Lending

The Fund may lend portfolio securities with a value up to 33 1/3% of its total assets, including collateral received for securities lent. If the Fund lends securities, there is a risk that the securities will not be available to the Fund on a timely basis, and the Fund, therefore, may lose the opportunity to sell the securities at a desirable price. In addition, as with other extensions of credit, there is the risk of possible delay in receiving additional collateral or in the recovery of the securities or possible loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially. Also, there is the risk that the value of the investment of the collateral could decline causing the Fund to lose money.

Service Providers

The Fund may be subject to credit risk with respect to its custodian or any sub-custodian in the custodian’s global network. The Fund could be adversely affected in the event of a custodian’s or sub-custodian’s bankruptcy, financial insolvency or financial distress. Even if a custodian or sub-custodian of the Fund does have sufficient assets to meet all claims, which may not always be the case, there could still be a delay before the Fund receives assets to satisfy the Fund’s claims. Market fluctuations during any period of delay could adversely affect the performance of the Fund if the Fund is unable to dispose of a security being held by the custodian. In addition, in the event of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the Fund’s administrator, transfer agent or custodian(s) there are likely to be operational and other delays and additional costs and expenses associated with changes in service provider arrangements that could adversely affect the Fund. The Fund could also be adversely affected by the misfeasance of its custodian, sub-custodians, or other service providers. The Fund is also subject to the risk of loss caused by inadequate procedures and controls, human error, and system failures by a service provider to it or an issuer of a portfolio security, each of which may negatively affect the Fund’s performance. In addition, a service provider may be unable to provide a NAV for the Fund or share class on a timely basis.

Small Companies Risk

Investing in small capitalization companies may involve special risks because those companies may have narrower product lines, more limited financial resources, fewer experienced managers, dependence on a few key employees, and a more limited trading market for their stocks, as compared with larger companies. In addition, securities of these companies are subject to the risk that, during certain periods, the liquidity of particular issuers or industries will shrink or disappear with little forewarning as a result of adverse economic or market conditions, or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate. Securities of smaller capitalization issuers may therefore be subject to greater price volatility and may decline more significantly in market downturns than securities of larger companies. Smaller capitalization issuers may also require substantial additional capital to support their operations, to finance expansion or to maintain their competitive position; and may have substantial borrowings or may otherwise have a weak financial condition, and may be susceptible to bankruptcy. Transaction costs for these investments are often higher than those of larger capitalization companies. There is typically less publicly available information about small capitalization companies.

Structured Products and Structured Notes Risk

Generally, structured investments are interests in entities organized and operated for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of underlying investment interests or securities. These investment entities may be structured as trusts or other types of pooled investment vehicles. This type of restructuring generally involves the deposit with or purchase by an entity of the underlying investments and the issuance by that entity of one or more classes of securities backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying investments or referencing an indicator related to such investments. The cash flow or rate of return on the underlying investments may be apportioned among the newly issued securities to create different investment characteristics, such as varying maturities, credit quality, payment priorities and interest rate provisions.

The cash flow or rate of return on a structured investment may be determined by applying a multiplier to the rate of total return on the underlying investments or referenced indicator. Application of a multiplier is comparable to the use of financial leverage, a speculative technique. Leverage magnifies the potential for gain and the risk of loss. As a result, a relatively small decline in the value of the underlying investments or referenced indicator could result in a relatively large loss in the value of a structured product. Holders of structured products indirectly bear risks associated with the underlying investments, index or reference obligation, and are subject to counterparty risk. The Fund generally has the right to receive payments to which it is entitled only from the structured product, and generally does not have direct rights against the issuer. While certain structured investment vehicles enable the investor to acquire interests in a pool of securities without the brokerage and other expenses associated with directly holding the same securities, investors in structured vehicles generally pay their share of the investment vehicle’s administrative and other expenses.

Structured products are generally privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. Certain structured products may be thinly traded or have a limited trading market and may have the effect of increasing the Fund’s illiquidity to the extent that the Fund, at a particular point in time, may be unable to find qualified buyers for these securities. In addition to the general risks associated with fixed income securities discussed herein, structured products carry additional risks including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from underlying investments will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the underlying investments may decline in value or default; (iii) the possibility that the security may be subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.

 

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Structured products include, among other things, CDOs, mortgage-backed securities, other types of asset-backed securities and certain types of structured notes. Other portions of this SAI provide more information about these specific structured products.

Structured notes are derivative securities for which the amount of principal repayment and/or interest payments is based on the movement of one or more “factors.” These factors may include, but are not limited to, currency exchange rates, interest rates (such as the prime lending rate or LIBOR), referenced bonds and stock indices. Some of these factors may or may not correlate to the total rate of return on one or more underlying instruments referenced in such notes. In some cases, the impact of the movements of these factors may increase or decrease through the use of multipliers or deflators.

Investments in structured notes involve risks including interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk. Where the Fund’s investments in structured notes are based upon the movement of one or more factors, depending on the factor used and the use of multipliers or deflators, changes in interest rates and movement of the factor may cause significant price fluctuations. Additionally, changes in the reference instrument or security may cause the interest rate on the structured note to be reduced to zero and any further changes in the reference instrument may then reduce the principal amount payable on maturity. In the case of structured notes where the reference instrument is a debt instrument, such as credit-linked notes, the Fund will be subject to the credit risk of the issuer of the reference instrument and the issuer of the structured note.

Temporary Defensive Strategies

When attempting to respond to adverse market, economic, political, or other conditions, the Fund may take temporary defensive positions that may be inconsistent (including materially inconsistent) with the Fund’s principal investment strategies. The Adviser then may, but is not required to, temporarily use alternative strategies that are mainly designed to limit the Fund’s exposure to such adverse conditions under the circumstances. In implementing these strategies, the Fund may invest primarily in, among other things, U.S. Government and agency obligations, fixed or floating rate investments, derivative instruments, cash or money market instruments (including, money market funds), or any other securities or instruments that the portfolio managers consider consistent with such defensive strategies or deemed consistent with the then existing market conditions. By way of example, the Fund may hold a higher than normal proportion of its assets in cash in times of extreme market stress. The Fund may also use derivatives, such as futures contracts, interest rate swaps, and credit default swaps, as an efficient means to adjust the Fund’s interest rate, credit, and other exposures in connection with taking such temporary defensive positions. During periods when the Fund has taken temporary defensive positions, the Fund may not achieve its investment objective.

U.S. Government Securities Risk

Some U.S. Government securities, such as Treasury bills, notes, and bonds and mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae), are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States; others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; others are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase the agency’s obligations; still others are supported only by the credit of the issuing agency, instrumentality, or enterprise. Although U.S. Government-sponsored enterprises may be chartered or sponsored by Congress, they are not funded by Congressional appropriations, their securities are not issued by the U.S. Treasury, their obligations are not supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, and so investments in their securities or obligations issued by them involve greater risk than investments in other types of U.S. Government securities. In addition, certain governmental entities have been subject to regulatory scrutiny regarding their accounting policies and practices and other concerns that may result in legislation, changes in regulatory oversight and/or other consequences that could adversely affect the credit quality, availability or investment character of securities issued or guaranteed by these entities.

The events surrounding the U.S. federal government debt ceiling and any resulting agreement could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. On August 5, 2011, S&P lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. The downgrade by S&P and other future downgrades could increase volatility in both stock and bond markets, result in higher interest rates and lower Treasury prices and increase the costs of all kinds of debt. These events and similar events in other areas of the world could have significant adverse effects on the economy generally and could result in significant adverse impacts on issuers of securities held by the Fund and the Fund itself. The Adviser cannot predict the effects of these or similar events in the future on the U.S. economy and securities markets or on the Fund’s portfolio. The Adviser may not timely anticipate or manage existing, new or additional risks, contingencies or developments.

Risks of Zero-Coupon Bonds

Zero-coupon bonds are issued at a significant discount from their principal amount in lieu of paying interest periodically. Because zero-coupon bonds do not pay current interest in cash, their value is subject to greater fluctuation in response to changes in market interest rates than bonds that pay interest currently. Zero-coupon bonds allow an issuer to avoid the need to generate cash to meet current interest payments. Accordingly, such bonds may involve greater credit risks than bonds paying interest currently in cash. The Fund is required to accrue interest income on such investments and to distribute such amounts at least annually to shareholders even though the investments do not make any current interest payments. Thus, it may be necessary at times for the Fund to liquidate other investments in order to satisfy its distribution requirements under the Code.

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

A portfolio turnover rate is, in summary, the percentage computed by dividing the lesser of the Fund’s purchases or sales of securities (excluding short-term securities and certain derivatives) by the average market value of the Fund. The Adviser manages the Fund’s assets by buying and selling securities to help attain its investment objective. This may result in increases or decreases in the Fund’s current income and gains available for distribution to its shareholders. The Fund may dispose of investments (including money market instruments) regardless of the holding period if, in the opinion of the Adviser, it is in the best interest of the Fund to do so, for example, because an issuer’s creditworthiness or perceived changes in a company’s

 

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growth prospects or asset value make selling them advisable. Such an investment decision may result in capital gains, including short-term capital gains taxable as ordinary income when distributed to taxable shareholders, or losses and could result in a high portfolio turnover rate during a given period. Transactions in equity securities typically involve the payment of brokerage commissions, which are borne by the Fund and negatively affect the Fund’s performance. Debt securities are normally traded on a principal basis, involving a mark-up or mark-down of the price which is an indirect transaction cost, and therefore the Fund incur transaction costs when trading them. Its costs are incorporated in purchase or sale prices and negatively affect the Fund’s performance.

DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO INFORMATION

It is the policy of the Trust to provide certain unaudited information regarding the portfolio composition of the Fund as of month-end (collectively, the “Portfolio Holdings”) to shareholders and others upon request to the Fund, beginning on the 15th calendar day after the end of the month (or, if not a business day, the next business day thereafter). This information is generally not available on the Fund’s website. Shareholders and others who wish to obtain Portfolio Holdings for a particular month may make a request by contacting the Fund at no charge at 877-DLine11 (877-354-6311) between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. Pacific Time, Monday through Friday, beginning on the 15th day following the end of that month (or, if not a business day, the next business day thereafter). Requests for Portfolio Holdings may be made on a monthly basis pursuant to this procedure, or standing requests for Portfolio Holdings may be accepted. Persons making requests will be asked to provide their name and a mailing address, e-mail address or fax number.

In addition, the Fund may disclose Portfolio Holdings at any time to analysts, ratings agencies, outside fund evaluators and data aggregators such as, but not limited to, Morningstar, Lipper, Bloomberg and Standard and Poor’s. The disclosure of Portfolio Holdings in this context is generally conditioned on the recipient agreeing to treat such Portfolio Holdings as confidential (provided that analysts and rating agencies may publish portfolio positions upon the consent of authorized personnel (as defined below), under circumstances where such personnel determine that such information is publicly available through the Fund’s website or by other means, or will become publicly available through such publication), and to not allow the Portfolio Holdings to be used by it or its employees in connection with the purchase or sale of shares of the Fund.

In addition, Portfolio Holdings are provided or otherwise available on a real-time basis to third-party service providers of the Fund (and their personnel) who require the information to provide services to the Fund, including the Adviser, the Fund’s custodian, [ ]; pricing service providers, Thomson Reuters/Lipper, Vickers Stock Research, CapitalBridge (formerly Citigate Financial); liquidity risk management program service providers, including ICE Data Pricing & Reference Data, LLC; broker-dealers who facilitate the Fund’s trading; the Fund’s accountant and administrator, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services; the Fund’s Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, [ ]; and Ropes & Gray LLP, counsel to the Fund. KPMG, LLP (“KPMG”), and its investment adviser, Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P., receive certain non-public portfolio holdings information regarding certain DoubleLine Funds in which KPMG employee retirement plans and their related persons invest, which supports KPMG’s ability to assess its compliance with independence-related requirements applicable to it as an independent public accountant or auditor.

The Trust’s Officers (for example, President, Treasurer, Chief Compliance Officer, or Secretary) (collectively, “authorized personnel”) may authorize disclosure of the Fund’s Portfolio Holdings if such authorized personnel determines that disclosure of the Fund’s Portfolio Holdings is in the best interest of the Fund’s shareholders. The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer or other authorized personnel provide periodic reports to the Trust’s Board of Trustees regarding the operation of the Trust’s policy in respect of the disclosure of Portfolio Holdings and disclosures made pursuant to it.

No compensation is received by the Fund or the Adviser in connection with the disclosure of Portfolio Holdings.

The Adviser provides advisory services to accounts other than the Fund, including other registered investment companies, other pooled investment vehicles, separate accounts and other accounts, some of which are not subject to the portfolio holding disclosure policies and procedures described above. Some of those other accounts may have investment policies and holdings substantially similar to the Fund and have access to information regarding the holdings of their accounts, including in some cases in real time. Other accounts, such as exchange-traded funds, may be subject to obligations to make their portfolio holdings available daily. In addition, the Adviser may make available information regarding portfolio metrics, model portfolios, or other potential holdings of accounts to prospective clients, clients, and their advisers or consultants in response to requests for proposal or otherwise as part of its marketing efforts of accounts or investment vehicles that may have investment strategies substantially similar to those of the Fund.

BROKERAGE, ALLOCATION AND OTHER TRADING PRACTICES

The Adviser is responsible for the placement of the Fund’s portfolio transactions and, with respect thereto, the negotiation of prices, brokerage commissions, if any, and mark-ups and mark-downs or spreads on principal transactions. The Adviser may also purchase securities on behalf of the Fund in underwritten offerings at fixed prices that include discounts to underwriters and/or concessions to dealers.

In placing a portfolio transaction, the Adviser seeks to achieve best execution. This means that, in selecting broker-dealers to execute portfolio transactions for the Fund, the Adviser seeks to select broker-dealers that will execute securities transactions in a manner such that the total cost or proceeds of each transaction is the most favorable under the circumstances. This does not mean, however, that portfolio transactions are always executed at the lowest available commission or spread, and the Adviser may effect transactions that cause the Fund to pay a commission or spread in excess of a commission or spread that another broker-dealer would have charged if the Adviser determines that, notwithstanding such commission or spread, such transaction is in the Fund’s best interest. In making this determination, the Adviser may take a variety of factors into consideration, including, without limitation, (i) execution quality in light of order size, difficulty of execution and other relevant factors; (ii) associated expenses and costs; (iii) the quality, reliability, responsiveness and value of the provided services; (iv) the operational compatibility between the broker-dealer and the Adviser; (v) the broker-dealer’s safety and soundness; and (vi) the provision of research and brokerage products and services. The provision of research and brokerage

 

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products and services is not typically considered in respect of transactions by the Fund when trading fixed income securities.

From time to time, the Adviser receives unsolicited research from various brokers, which may or may not be counterparties to trades placed on behalf of clients. While the Adviser may review and consider certain of the research received, the provision of unsolicited research does not factor into the Adviser’s broker selection process with respect to trading fixed-income securities. Research services include items such as reports on industries and companies, economic analyses, review of business conditions and portfolio strategy and various trading and quotation services. Such services also include advice from broker-dealers as to the value of securities, availability of securities, availability of buyers, and availability of sellers. These services also include recommendations as to purchase and sale of individual securities and timing of transactions.

Investment decisions for the Fund and for the other investment advisory clients of the Adviser are made with a view to achieving their respective investment objectives. Investment decisions are the product of many factors in addition to basic suitability for the particular client involved (including the Fund). Some securities considered for investment by the Fund also may be appropriate for other clients served by the Adviser. Thus, a particular security may be bought or sold for certain clients even though it could have been bought or sold for other clients at the same time, including accounts in which the Adviser, its officers or employees may have a financial interest. If a purchase or sale of securities consistent with the investment policies of the Fund and one or more of these clients served by the Adviser is considered at or about the same time, transactions in such securities will be allocated among the Fund and other clients pursuant to the Adviser’s trade allocation policy that is designed to ensure that all accounts, including the Fund, are treated fairly and equitably over time.

As of the date of this SAI, the Adviser does not expect to cause the Fund to pay brokers or dealers amounts of commissions for effecting portfolio investment transactions that are in excess of the amount of commission that another broker or dealer would have charged for effecting transactions to compensate the brokers or dealers for “brokerage and research services” (as defined in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) or to accumulate credits to purchase such services. The Adviser may modify their practice in this regard without prior notice to shareholders and, in the event the Adviser does so, the following disclosure regarding such practices shall apply.

As permitted by Section 28(e) of the Exchange Act, the Adviser may, on behalf of a client, pay a broker or dealer, including those acting in the capacity of a futures commission merchant, that provides “brokerage and research services” (as defined in the Exchange Act) to the Adviser an amount of commission for effecting a portfolio investment transaction in excess of the amount of commission that another broker or dealer would have charged for effecting that transaction, if the Adviser determines in good faith that such amount of commission was reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided by such broker or dealer, viewed in terms of either that particular transaction or the Adviser’s overall responsibilities to the client and to other client accounts over which the Adviser exercises investment discretion. Such research services include proprietary research created internally by a broker or by a third-party provider (and made available to the Adviser by a broker) such as, for example, individual stock information and research, industry and sector analysis, trend analysis and forecasting, discussions with individual stock analysts, and meetings arranged with various sources of information regarding particular issuers, industries, governmental policies, specific information about local markets and applicable regulations, economic trends, and other matters. In addition, a broker may accumulate credits for the Adviser’s account and use them to purchase brokerage and research services at the Adviser’s discretion and based on the Adviser’s determination of the relative benefits of the various services available for purchase. These arrangements are commonly known as “commission sharing arrangements.” Accordingly, the Adviser’s clients may be deemed to be paying for research and these other services with “soft” or commission dollars. Research furnished by brokers or dealers or pursuant to credits accumulated at brokers or dealers through commission sharing arrangements may be used in servicing any or all of the Adviser’s clients and may be used for client accounts other than those that pay commissions to the broker or dealer providing the research. The Adviser also may receive soft dollar credits based on certain “riskless” principal securities transactions with brokerage firms. With respect to certain products and services used for both research/brokerage and non-research/brokerage purposes, the Adviser generally allocates the costs of such products and services between their research/brokerage and non-research/brokerage uses, and generally uses soft dollars to pay only for the portion allocated to research/brokerage uses. Examples of products and services used for non-research/brokerage purposes (and not paid for with soft dollars) include equipment and exchange data (e.g., quotes, volume). Some of these services may be of value to the Adviser and its related parties in advising various of their clients (including the Fund), although not all of these services are necessarily useful and of value in managing the Fund. The management fee paid by the Fund is not reduced because the Adviser or its related parties receive these services even though the Adviser might otherwise be required to purchase some of these services for cash. The Adviser’s authority to cause the Fund to pay any such greater commissions is also subject to such policies as the Trustees may adopt from time to time.

The Adviser’s relationships with brokerage firms that provide soft dollar services to the Adviser (including brokerage firms that participate in commission sharing arrangements) may influence the Adviser’s judgment and create conflicts of interest, both in allocating brokerage business between firms that provide soft dollar services and firms that do not, and in allocating the costs of