485APOS 1 d597379d485apos.htm GOLDMAN SACHS ETF TRUST Goldman Sachs ETF Trust

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 3, 2018

1933 Act Registration No. 333-200933

1940 Act Registration No. 811-23013

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D. C. 20549

 

 

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933  
   Pre-Effective Amendment No.  
   Post-Effective Amendment No. 122  

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940  
   Amendment No. 125  

(Check appropriate box or boxes)

 

 

GOLDMAN SACHS ETF TRUST

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

 

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code: (212) 902-1000

CAROLINE KRAUS, ESQ.

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

STEPHEN H. BIER, ESQ.

ALLISON M. FUMAI, ESQ.

Dechert LLP

1095 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10036

 

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering: As soon as practicable after the effective date of the Registration Statement

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)

 

immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)

60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)

75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)

on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485.

If appropriate, check the following box:

☐ this post effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

Title of Securities Being Registered:

Shares of the Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF, Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF, Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF, Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF and Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF.

 

 

 


The information in this Prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Prospectus is not an offer to sell securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Preliminary Prospectus dated August 3, 2018

Subject to Completion

 

Prospectus

 

GOLDMAN SACHS ETF TRUST

 

 

[                ], 2018

 

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF

 

   

[Exchange]: [        ]

 

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF

 

   

[Exchange]: [        ]

 

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF

 

   

[Exchange]: [        ]

 

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF

 

   

[Exchange]: [        ]

 

 

Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF

 

   

[Exchange]: [        ]

 

THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION HAS NOT APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

AN INVESTMENT IN A FUND IS NOT A BANK DEPOSIT AND IS NOT INSURED BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION OR ANY OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCY. AN INVESTMENT IN A FUND INVOLVES INVESTMENT RISKS, AND YOU MAY LOSE MONEY IN A FUND.

 

LOGO


Table of Contents

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF – Summary        1  
Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF – Summary        6  
Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF – Summary        11  
Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF – Summary        16  
Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF – Summary        21  
Goldman Sachs Motif ETFs – Additional Summary Information        26  
Investment Management Approach        27  
Risks of the Funds        30  
Tax Advantaged Product Structure        36  
Service Providers        37  
Distributions        41  
Shareholder Guide        42  

BUYING AND SELLING SHARES

     42    

PAYMENTS TO BROKER-DEALERS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES

     42    

NET ASSET VALUE

     43    

BOOK ENTRY

     44    

CREATIONS AND REDEMPTIONS

     44    
Taxation        46  
Index Provider        48  
Other Information        49  

Appendix A

Additional Information on Portfolio Risks, Securities and Techniques

       50  

Appendix B

Financial Highlights

       57  

 


LOGO

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF—Summary

Ticker: [        ]            Stock Exchange: [        ]

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to provide investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the Motif Data-Driven World Index (the “Index”).

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

The following tables describe the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold Shares of the Fund. The table and below Example do not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares of the Fund.

 

Shareholder Fees

 
(fees paid directly from your investment)     None  

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

 
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment):  

Management Fee

    [    ]%  

Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fee

    0.00%  

Other Expenses1

    [    ]%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    [    ]%  

 

1 

The Fund’s “Other Expenses” have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred in the first fiscal year.

Expense Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of owning Shares of the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then sell all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses and expense limitation arrangement remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

1 Year

 

3 Years

$[        ]   $[        ]

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund may pay transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments (i.e., “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased transaction costs, including brokerage commissions, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains for taxable shareholders. These costs are not reflected in total annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information quoted for the Fund.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing at least 80% of its assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) in securities included in its underlying index, in depositary receipts representing securities included in its underlying index and in underlying stocks in respect of depositary receipts included in its underlying index.

The Index is designed to deliver exposure to companies with common equity securities listed on exchanges in certain developed markets that may benefit from the on-going rapid increase in electronically recorded data in the world and its impact on the lifecycle of data delivery and processing (the “Data-Driven World Theme”). This lifecycle includes the recording, transmission, storage and processing, securing and analysis of data. The focus of the Index is to identify and weight companies that originate data solutions, as well as companies that deploy data solutions to solve business problems.

 

1


 

The Data-Driven World Theme is separated into multiple sub-themes (each a “Sub-Theme,” and collectively, the “Sub-Themes”), each of which relate to a part of the data lifecycle. The Sub-Themes include:

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of the “Internet of Things” (the “Internet of Things Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, the Internet of Things is the collection of consumer and industrial network-connected devices beyond traditional appliances.

 

Companies that may benefit from the expansion in physical infrastructure to transmit and store data (the “Data Infrastructure Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Data Infrastructure is the range of hardware components needed for transmission and storage of large quantities of data, such as routers and switches, wired and wireless transmission networks, and high-density storage.

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of Big Data technologies (the “Big Data Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Big Data is the set of software technologies associated with the storage, processing and analytics of large-scale structured and unstructured data.

 

Companies that may benefit from the need to secure data in an online world (the “Cybersecurity Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Cybersecurity is the practice of ensuring the integrity, confidentiality and availability of information.

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of “Artificial Intelligence” (the “Artificial Intelligence Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Artificial Intelligence is the ability of a machine to perform cognitive tasks typically associated with human brains, such as perception, reasoning, learning, interacting with the environment and problem solving.

The eligible universe of stocks is comprised of common equity securities, including depositary receipts, of companies domiciled across developed and emerging markets worldwide, listed on exchanges in certain developed markets. Shares of companies traded on major exchanges in the following countries are eligible for inclusion (the “Eligible Trading Venues”): France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. In addition, company and stock screens are applied to set minimum liquidity and investability requirements for stocks in the eligible universe.

Motif Capital Management, Inc. (the “Index Provider”) determines the components of the Index based on their exposure to the Data-Driven World Theme, and their weights in the Index in accordance with a rules-based methodology that involves five steps.

Step 1

In the first step, a quantitative measurement is made of the exposure of companies in the eligible universe to each Sub-Theme (a “Sub-Theme Thematic Beta”). To calculate a Sub-Theme Thematic Beta, the Index Provider applies automated semantic search algorithms to multiple datasets and documents to score the relevance of a Sub-Theme to a company. The datasets and documents used include one or more of (1) regulatory filings filed in the Eligible Trading Venues, (2) academic journals, and (3) patent filings (the “Search Corpus”).

Each dataset and document in the Search Corpus is scored for the relevance of the Sub-Theme by applying an automated semantic search algorithm. This algorithm assigns a score to the dataset or document based on the topic, document length, and number of mentions of the topic, among other factors. Datasets and documents with a non-zero score are then mapped, if possible, to a company. Multiple entries within a type of Search Corpus for each company are then combined to make a single score. This results in up to three quantitative measurements of the relevance of the Sub-Theme to a company: the “Filing Search Beta,” sourced from the regulatory filings; the “Academic Beta,” sourced from academic journals; and the “Patent Beta,” sourced from patent filings. The three quantitative measurements are then combined to give a company an overall Sub-Theme Thematic Beta.

Step 2

In the second step, a company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Betas for all Sub-Themes are combined to give the company a single Data-Driven World Thematic Beta. The Index Universe consists of all companies with a non-zero Data-Driven World Thematic Beta (the “Index Universe”).

Step 3

In the third step, each company in the Index Universe is mapped, if possible, to one or more common equity securities listed on the Eligible Trading Venues. If no relevant security is found, the company is removed from the Index Universe.

Step 4

In the fourth step, liquidity, investability and theme relevance screens are applied to the Index Universe. Stocks of companies with any of the following characteristics are removed from the Index Universe:

   

An average daily trading volume of less than $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period;

   

A total market capitalization of less than $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars;

   

Less than 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period; or

   

Exposure below a fixed threshold to the Data-Driven World Theme

 

2


 

All remaining stocks are included in the Index. In addition, if the size of the remaining Index Universe is greater than [120] stocks, the final Index Universe is reduced to [120] stocks based on a function of Data-Driven World Thematic Beta, market variables and the weight of the stock from the previous rebalancing, if any.

Step 5

In the fifth step, stocks are weighted according to a function of a company’s market capitalization and Data-Driven World Thematic Beta. Maximum and minimum weights are applied to reduce concentration in individual securities and increase diversification of the Index.

The Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually on the third Friday of each January and July.

Given the Fund’s investment objective of attempting to track its Index, the Fund does not follow traditional methods of active investment management, which may involve buying and selling securities based upon analysis of economic and market factors.

The Index is comprised of equity securities, including American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). The Fund seeks to invest in the Index components in approximately the same weighting that such components have within the Index at the applicable time. The Fund may purchase a sample of securities in its Index. There may also be instances in which the Investment Adviser may choose to underweight or overweight a security in the Fund’s Index, purchase securities not in the Fund’s Index that the Investment Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in such Index or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques.

The Fund may also invest up to 20% of its assets in securities and other instruments not included in its Index but which the Investment Adviser believes are correlated to its Index, as well as in, among other instruments, futures (including index futures), swaps, other derivatives, investment companies (including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”)), preferred stocks, warrants and rights, cash and cash equivalents and money market instruments.

The Fund may concentrate its investments (i.e., hold more than 25% of its total assets) in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent that the Index is concentrated. The degree to which components of the Index represent certain sectors or industries may change over time.

The Fund may lend securities representing up to one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the value of any collateral received).

Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. Investments in the Fund involve substantial risks which prospective investors should consider carefully before investing.

Calculation Methodology Risk.  The Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index, including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund, the Index Provider nor the Investment Adviser can offer assurances that the Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers or a correct valuation of securities, nor can they guarantee the availability or timeliness of the production of the Index.

Depositary Receipts Risk.  Foreign securities may trade in the form of depositary receipts, which include ADRs and GDRs (collectively “Depositary Receipts”). To the extent the Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there may be an increased possibility that the Fund would not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted.

European Investment Risk.  The Fund is more exposed to the economic and political risks of Europe and of the European countries in which it invests than funds whose investments are more geographically diversified. Adverse economic and political events in Europe may cause the Fund’s investments to decline in value. The economies and markets of European countries are often closely connected and interdependent, and events in one country in Europe can have an adverse impact on other European countries. The Fund makes investments in securities of issuers that are domiciled in, or have significant operations in, member countries of the European Union that are subject to economic and monetary controls that can adversely affect the Fund’s investments. The European financial markets

 

3


have experienced volatility and adverse trends in recent years and these events have adversely affected the exchange rate of the euro and may continue to significantly affect European countries.

Foreign Risk.  Foreign securities may be subject to risk of loss because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. The imposition of exchange controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, confiscations, trade restrictions (including tariffs) and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody, may also result in losses. Foreign risk also involves the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time.

Geographic Risk.  If the Fund focuses its investments in issuers located in a particular country or geographic region, the Fund may be subjected, to a greater extent than if its investments were less focused, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that country or region, such as: adverse securities markets; adverse exchange rates; adverse social, political, regulatory, economic, business, environmental or other developments; or natural disasters.

Index Risk.  The Fund will be negatively affected by general declines in the securities and asset classes represented in the Index. In addition, because the Fund is not “actively” managed, unless a specific security is removed from the Index, the Fund generally would not sell a security because the security’s issuer was in financial trouble, and the Fund does not take defensive positions in declining markets. Market disruptions and regulatory restrictions could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to adjust its exposure to the required levels in order to track the Index. The Index Provider relies on third party data it believes to be reliable in constructing the Index, but it does not guarantee the accuracy or availability of such third party data, and there is no guarantee with respect to the accuracy, availability or timeliness of the production of the Index or the suitability of the Index.

Industry Concentration Risk.  In following its methodology, the Index from time to time may be concentrated to a significant degree in securities of issuers located in a single industry or sector. To the extent that the Index concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector, the Fund also may concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent. By concentrating its investments in an industry or sector, the Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified broadly over numerous industries or sectors. If the Index is not concentrated in a particular industry or sector, the Fund will not concentrate in a particular industry or sector.

Large Shareholder Risk.  Certain shareholders, including other funds advised by the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of the Fund’s Shares. In addition, a third party investor, the Investment Adviser or an affiliate of the Investment Adviser, an authorized participant, a lead market maker, or another entity may invest in the Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time solely to facilitate commencement of the Fund or to facilitate the Fund’s achieving a specified size or scale. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment, that the size of the Fund would be maintained at such levels or that the Fund would continue to meet applicable listing requirements. Redemptions by large shareholders could have a significant negative impact on the Fund. In addition, transactions by large shareholders may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on the [            ] (the “Exchange”) and may, therefore, have a material upward or downward effect on the market price of the Shares.

Market Risk.  The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets.

Market Trading Risk.  The net asset value (“NAV”) of the Fund and the value of your investment may fluctuate. Market prices of Shares may fluctuate, in some cases significantly, in response to the Fund’s NAV, the intraday value of the Fund’s holdings and supply and demand for Shares. The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to creations and redemptions, the existence of extreme market volatility or potential lack of an active trading market for Shares. Any of these factors, among others, may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to NAV, which will be reflected in the intraday bid/ask spreads and/or the closing price of Shares as compared to NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk.  Investments in mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies. These securities may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements and may lack sufficient market liquidity, and these issuers often face greater business risks.

Seed Investor Risk.  GSAM and/or its affiliates expect to make payments to one or more investors that contribute seed capital to the Fund. Such payments may continue for a specified period of time and/or until a specified dollar amount is reached. Those payments will be made from the assets of GSAM and/or such affiliates (and not the Fund). Seed investors may contribute all or a majority of the assets in the Fund. There is a risk that such seed investors may redeem their investments in the Fund. As with redemptions by other large shareholders, such redemptions could have a significant negative impact on the Fund.

 

4


 

Stock Risk.  Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future.

Technology Sector Risk.  The stock prices of technology and technology-related companies and therefore the value of the Fund may experience significant price movements as a result of intense market volatility, worldwide competition, consumer preferences, product compatibility, product obsolescence, government regulation, excessive investor optimism or pessimism, or other factors. The Fund may also invest in a relatively few number of issuers. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments.

Thematic Investing Risk.  The Fund relies on the Index Provider for the identification of themes and sub-themes and its performance may suffer if such themes or sub-themes are not correctly identified or if a theme or sub-theme develops in an unexpected manner. Performance may also suffer if the stocks included in the Index do not benefit from the development of such themes or sub-themes.

Tracking Error Risk.  Tracking error is the divergence of the Fund’s performance from that of the Index. The performance of the Fund may diverge from that of its Index for a number of reasons. Tracking error may occur because of transaction costs, the Fund’s holding of cash, differences in accrual of dividends, changes to the Index or the need to meet new or existing regulatory requirements. Unlike the Fund, the returns of the Index are not reduced by investment and other operating expenses, including the trading costs associated with implementing changes to its portfolio of investments. Tracking error risk may be heightened during times of market volatility or other unusual market conditions. The Fund may be required to deviate its investments from the securities and relative weightings of the Index to comply with the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), to meet the issuer diversification requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), applicable to regulated investment companies, or as a result of local market restrictions, or other legal reasons, including regulatory limits or other restrictions on securities that may be purchased by the Investment Adviser and its affiliates.

Valuation Risk.  The sale price the Fund could receive for a security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security and may differ from the value used by the Index, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets or that are valued using a fair value methodology. Because non-U.S. exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities or assets in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when investors will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s Shares. The Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The information may be provided by third parties that are believed to be reliable, but the information may not be accurate due to errors by such pricing sources, technological issues or otherwise. NAV calculation may also be impacted by operational risks arising from factors such as failures in systems and technology.

Performance

As the Fund had not operated for a full calendar year as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no performance information quoted for the Fund. Updated performance information is available at no additional cost at www.gsamfunds.com/ or by calling the phone number on the back of the Prospectus.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

Portfolio Managers: Raj Garigipati, Vice President, and Jamie McGregor, Vice President, have each managed the Fund since inception.

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only in a large specified number of Shares each called a “Creation Unit,” or multiples thereof. A Creation Unit consists of [        ] Shares.

Individual Shares of the Fund may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares of the Fund are anticipated to be approved for listing and trading on the Exchange, subject to notice of issuance, and because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares of the Fund may trade at a price greater than or less than NAV.

Tax Information

For important tax information, please see “Tax Information” on page [26] of the Prospectus.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

For important information about financial intermediary compensation, please see “Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” on page [26] of the Prospectus.

 

5


LOGO

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF—Summary

Ticker: [        ]            Stock Exchange: [        ]

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to provide investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the Motif Finance Reimagined Index (the “Index”).

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

The following tables describe the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold Shares of the Fund. The table and below Example do not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares of the Fund.

 

Shareholder Fees

 
(fees paid directly from your investment)     None  

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

 
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment):  

Management Fee

    [        ]%  

Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fee

    0.00%  

Other Expenses1

    [        ]%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    [        ]%  

 

1 

The Fund’s “Other Expenses” have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred in the first fiscal year.

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of owning Shares of the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then sell all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

1 Year

 

3 Years

$[        ]   $[        ]

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund may pay transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments (i.e., “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased transaction costs, including brokerage commissions, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains for taxable shareholders. These costs are not reflected in total annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information quoted for the Fund.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing at least 80% of its assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) in securities included in its underlying index, in depositary receipts representing securities included in its underlying index and in underlying stocks in respect of depositary receipts included in its underlying index.

The Index is designed to deliver exposure to companies with common equity securities listed on exchanges in certain developed markets that may benefit from the on-going structural changes in the support and delivery of financial services (the “Finance Reimagined Theme”). These structural changes include the impact of rapid technological change on the industry, including the effects of the development of blockchain technology, and the split in the asset management industry toward very low and high cost investment strategies.

The Finance Reimagined Theme is separated into multiple sub-themes (each a “Sub-Theme,” and collectively, the “Sub-Themes”). The Sub-Themes are:

 

Companies that may benefit from the digitization of traditional financial services (the “Digitization of Finance Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, the Digitization of Finance is the impact of technological changes on the support and delivery of traditional financial services, such as payments, lending and insurance.

 

6


 

 

Companies that may benefit from the bifurcation in strategies in the asset management industry (the “Asset Management Makeover Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Asset Management Makeover is the movement of assets into low cost, often passive investments such as exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) and index funds, and high cost, often complex investments such as private equity and hedge funds.

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of blockchain technology (the “Blockchain Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Blockchain is the technology underlying distributed ledgers, applicable to payments, currencies and to other fields and industries that depend on a trusted intermediary.

The eligible universe of stocks is comprised of common equity securities, including depositary receipts, of companies domiciled across developed and emerging markets worldwide, listed on exchanges in certain developed markets. Shares of companies traded on major exchanges in the following countries are eligible for inclusion (the “Eligible Trading Venues”): France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. In addition, company and stock screens are applied to set minimum liquidity and investability requirements for stocks in the eligible universe.

Motif Capital Management, Inc. (the “Index Provider”) determines the components of the Index based on their exposure to the Finance Reimagined Theme, and their weights in the Index in accordance with a rules-based methodology that involves five steps.

Step 1

In the first step, a quantitative measurement is made of the exposure of companies in the eligible universe to each Sub-Theme (a “Sub-Theme Thematic Beta”). To calculate the Sub-Theme Thematic Beta, two approaches are applied:

   

For the Digitization of Finance Sub-Theme and the Asset Management Makeover Sub-Theme, the Index Provider applies automated semantic search algorithms to multiple regulatory filings filed in the Eligible Trading Venues to score the relevance of a Sub-Theme to a company. Each regulatory filing is scored for the relevance of the Sub-Theme by applying an automated semantic search algorithm. This algorithm assigns a score to the regulatory filing based on the topic, document length, and number of mentions of the topic, among other factors. Documents with a non-zero score are then mapped, if possible, to a company. For each company that has a total market capitalization of at least $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars, a stock with an average daily trading volume of at least $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period and at least 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period, the company’s reported revenue streams are examined to determine whether each revenue stream is relevant to the Sub-Theme. The company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Beta is equal to the sum of all revenue streams of such company that are theme-relevant divided by the company’s total revenue.

   

For the Blockchain Sub-Theme, the Index Provider applies automated semantic search algorithms to multiple datasets and documents to score the relevance of a Sub-Theme to a company. The datasets and documents used include one or more of (1) regulatory filings filed in the Eligible Trading Venues, (2) academic journals, and (3) patent filings (the “Search Corpus”).

Each dataset and document in the Search Corpus is scored for the relevance of the Sub-Theme by applying an automated semantic search algorithm. This algorithm assigns a score to the dataset or document based on the topic, document length, and number of mentions of the topic, among other factors. Datasets and documents with a non-zero score are then mapped, if possible, to a company. Multiple entries within a type of Search Corpus for each company are then combined to make a single score. This results in up to three quantitative measurements of the relevance of the Sub-Theme to a company: the “Filing Search Beta,” sourced from the regulatory filings; the “Academic Beta,” sourced from academic journals; and the “Patent Beta,” sourced from patent filings. The three quantitative measurements are then combined to give a company an overall Sub-Theme Thematic Beta.

Step 2

In the second step, a company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Betas for all Sub-Themes are combined to give the company a single Finance Reimagined Thematic Beta. The Index Universe consists of all companies with a non-zero Finance Reimagined Thematic Beta (the “Index Universe”).

Step 3

In the third step, each company in the Index Universe is mapped, if possible, to one or more common equity securities listed on the Eligible Trading Venues. If no relevant security is found, the company is removed from the Index Universe.

Step 4

In the fourth step, liquidity, investability and theme relevance screens are applied to the Index Universe. Stocks of companies with any of the following characteristics are removed from the Index Universe:

   

An average daily trading volume of less than $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period;

   

A total market capitalization of less than $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars;

   

Less than 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period; or

   

Exposure below a fixed threshold to the Finance Reimagined Theme

 

7


 

All remaining stocks are included in the Index. In addition, if the size of the remaining Index Universe is greater than [120] stocks, the final Index Universe is reduced to [120] stocks based on a function of Finance Reimagined Thematic Beta, market variables and the weight of the stock from the previous rebalancing, if any.

Step 5

In the fifth step, stocks are weighted according to a function of a company’s market capitalization and Finance Reimagined Thematic Beta. Maximum and minimum weights are applied to reduce concentration in individual securities and increase diversification of the Index.

The Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually on the third Friday of each January and July.

Given the Fund’s investment objective of attempting to track its Index, the Fund does not follow traditional methods of active investment management, which may involve buying and selling securities based upon analysis of economic and market factors.

The Index is comprised of equity securities, including American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). The Fund seeks to invest in the Index components in approximately the same weighting that such components have within the Index at the applicable time. The Fund may purchase a sample of securities in its Index. There may also be instances in which the Investment Adviser may choose to underweight or overweight a security in the Fund’s Index, purchase securities not in the Fund’s Index that the Investment Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in such Index or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques.

The Fund may also invest up to 20% of its assets in securities and other instruments not included in its Index but which the Investment Adviser believes are correlated to its Index, as well as in, among other instruments, futures (including index futures), swaps, other derivatives, investment companies (including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”)), preferred stocks, warrants and rights, cash and cash equivalents and money market instruments.

The Fund may concentrate its investments (i.e., hold more than 25% of its total assets) in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent that the Index is concentrated. The degree to which components of the Index represent certain sectors or industries may change over time.

The Fund may lend securities representing up to one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the value of any collateral received).

Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. Investments in the Fund involve substantial risks which prospective investors should consider carefully before investing.

Calculation Methodology Risk.  The Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index, including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund, the Index Provider nor the Investment Adviser can offer assurances that the Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers or a correct valuation of securities, nor can they guarantee the availability or timeliness of the production of the Index.

Depositary Receipts Risk.  Foreign securities may trade in the form of depositary receipts, which include ADRs and GDRs (collectively “Depositary Receipts”). To the extent the Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there may be an increased possibility that the Fund would not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted.

European Investment Risk.  The Fund is more exposed to the economic and political risks of Europe and of the European countries in which it invests than funds whose investments are more geographically diversified. Adverse economic and political events in Europe may cause the Fund’s investments to decline in value. The economies and markets of European countries are often closely connected and interdependent, and events in one country in Europe can have an adverse impact on other European countries. The Fund makes investments in securities of issuers that are domiciled in, or have significant operations in, member countries of the European Union that are subject to economic and monetary controls that can adversely affect the Fund’s investments. The European financial markets

 

8


have experienced volatility and adverse trends in recent years and these events have adversely affected the exchange rate of the euro and may continue to significantly affect European countries.

Financial Services Sector Risk.  An adverse development in the financial services sector, including U.S. and foreign banks, broker-dealers, insurance companies, finance companies (e.g., automobile finance) and related asset-backed securities, may affect the value of the Fund’s investments more than if the Fund were not invested to such a degree in this sector. Companies in the financial services sector may be particularly susceptible to certain economic factors such as interest rate changes, fiscal, regulatory and monetary policy and general economic cycles.

Foreign Risk.  Foreign securities may be subject to risk of loss because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. The imposition of exchange controls, sanctions, confiscations, trade restrictions (including tariffs) and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody, may also result in losses. Foreign risk also involves the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time.

Geographic Risk.  If the Fund focuses its investments in issuers located in a particular country or geographic region, the Fund may be subjected, to a greater extent than if its investments were less focused, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that country or region, such as: adverse securities markets; adverse exchange rates; adverse social, political, regulatory, economic, business, environmental or other developments; or natural disasters.

Index Risk.  The Fund will be negatively affected by general declines in the securities and asset classes represented in the Index. In addition, because the Fund is not “actively” managed, unless a specific security is removed from the Index, the Fund generally would not sell a security because the security’s issuer was in financial trouble, and the Fund does not take defensive positions in declining markets. Market disruptions and regulatory restrictions could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to adjust its exposure to the required levels in order to track the Index. The Index Provider relies on third party data it believes to be reliable in constructing the Index, but it does not guarantee the accuracy or availability of such third party data, and there is no guarantee with respect to the accuracy, availability or timeliness of the production of the Index or the suitability of the Index.

Industry Concentration Risk.  In following its methodology, the Index from time to time may be concentrated to a significant degree in securities of issuers located in a single industry or sector. To the extent that the Index concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector, the Fund also may concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent. By concentrating its investments in an industry or sector, the Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified broadly over numerous industries or sectors. If the Index is not concentrated in a particular industry or sector, the Fund will not concentrate in a particular industry or sector.

Large Shareholder Risk.  Certain shareholders, including other funds advised by the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of the Fund’s Shares. In addition, a third party investor, the Investment Adviser or an affiliate of the Investment Adviser, an authorized participant, a lead market maker, or another entity may invest in the Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time solely to facilitate commencement of the Fund or to facilitate the Fund’s achieving a specified size or scale. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment, that the size of the Fund would be maintained at such levels or that the Fund would continue to meet applicable listing requirements. Redemptions by large shareholders could have a significant negative impact on the Fund. In addition, transactions by large shareholders may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on the [        ] (the “Exchange”) and may, therefore, have a material upward or downward effect on the market price of the Shares.

Market Risk.  The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets.

Market Trading Risk.  The net asset value (“NAV”) of the Fund and the value of your investment may fluctuate. Market prices of Shares may fluctuate, in some cases significantly, in response to the Fund’s NAV, the intraday value of the Fund’s holdings and supply and demand for Shares. The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to creations and redemptions, the existence of extreme market volatility or potential lack of an active trading market for Shares. Any of these factors, among others, may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to NAV, which will be reflected in the intraday bid/ask spreads and/or the closing price of Shares as compared to NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk.  Investments in mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies. These securities may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements and may lack sufficient market liquidity, and these issuers often face greater business risks.

 

9


 

Seed Investor Risk.  GSAM and/or its affiliates expect to make payments to one or more investors that contribute seed capital to the Fund. Such payments may continue for a specified period of time and/or until a specified dollar amount is reached. Those payments will be made from the assets of GSAM and/or such affiliates (and not the Fund). Seed investors may contribute all or a majority of the assets in the Fund. There is a risk that such seed investors may redeem their investments in the Fund. As with redemptions by other large shareholders, such redemptions could have a significant negative impact on the Fund.

Stock Risk.  Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future.

Technology Sector Risk.  The stock prices of technology and technology-related companies and therefore the value of the Fund may experience significant price movements as a result of intense market volatility, worldwide competition, consumer preferences, product compatibility, product obsolescence, government regulation, excessive investor optimism or pessimism, or other factors. The Fund may also invest in a relatively few number of issuers. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments.

Thematic Investing Risk.  The Fund relies on the Index Provider for the identification of themes and sub-themes and its performance may suffer if such themes or sub-themes are not correctly identified or if a theme or sub-theme develops in an unexpected manner. Performance may also suffer if the stocks included in the Index do not benefit from the development of such themes or sub-themes.

Tracking Error Risk.  Tracking error is the divergence of the Fund’s performance from that of the Index. The performance of the Fund may diverge from that of its Index for a number of reasons. Tracking error may occur because of transaction costs, the Fund’s holding of cash, differences in accrual of dividends, changes to the Index or the need to meet new or existing regulatory requirements. Unlike the Fund, the returns of the Index are not reduced by investment and other operating expenses, including the trading costs associated with implementing changes to its portfolio of investments. Tracking error risk may be heightened during times of market volatility or other unusual market conditions. The Fund may be required to deviate its investments from the securities and relative weightings of the Index to comply with the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), to meet the issuer diversification requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), applicable to regulated investment companies, or as a result of local market restrictions, or other legal reasons, including regulatory limits or other restrictions on securities that may be purchased by the Investment Adviser and its affiliates.

Valuation Risk.  The sale price the Fund could receive for a security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security and may differ from the value used by the Index, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets or that are valued using a fair value methodology. Because non-U.S. exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities or assets in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when investors will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s Shares. The Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The information may be provided by third parties that are believed to be reliable, but the information may not be accurate due to errors by such pricing sources, technological issues or otherwise. NAV calculation may also be impacted by operational risks arising from factors such as failures in systems and technology.

Performance

As the Fund had not operated for a full calendar year as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no performance information quoted for the Fund. Updated performance information is available at no additional cost at www.gsamfunds.com or by calling the phone number on the back of the Prospectus.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

Portfolio Managers: Raj Garigipati, Vice President, and Jamie McGregor, Vice President, have each managed the Fund since inception.

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only in a large specified number of Shares each called a “Creation Unit,” or multiples thereof. A Creation Unit consists of [        ] Shares.

Individual Shares of the Fund may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares of the Fund are anticipated to be approved for listing and trading on the Exchange, subject to notice of issuance, and because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares of the Fund may trade at a price greater than or less than NAV.

Tax Information

For important tax information, please see “Tax Information” on page [26] of the Prospectus.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

For important information about financial intermediary compensation, please see “Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” on page [26] of the Prospectus.

 

10


LOGO

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF—Summary

Ticker: [        ]            Stock Exchange: [        ]

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to provide investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the Motif Human Evolution Index (the “Index”).

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

The following tables describe the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold Shares of the Fund. The table and below Example do not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares of the Fund.

 

Shareholder Fees

 
(fees paid directly from your investment)     None  

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

 
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment):  

Management Fee

    [        ]%  

Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fee

    0.00%  

Other Expenses1

    [        ]%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    [        ]%  

 

1 

The Fund’s “Other Expenses” have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred in the first fiscal year.

Expense Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of owning Shares of the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then sell all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

1 Year

 

3 Years

$[        ]   $[        ]

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund may pay transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments (i.e., “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased transaction costs, including brokerage commissions, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains for taxable shareholders. These costs are not reflected in total annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information quoted for the Fund.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing at least 80% of its assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) in securities included in its underlying index, in depositary receipts representing securities included in its underlying index and in underlying stocks in respect of depositary receipts included in its underlying index.

The Index is designed to deliver exposure to companies with common equity securities listed on exchanges in certain developed markets that may benefit from the development of new knowledge, medicines and technologies for the medical treatment of the human condition, from birth to end-of-life care (the “Human Evolution Theme”).

The Human Evolution Theme is separated into multiple sub-themes (each a “Sub-Theme,” and collectively, the “Sub-Themes”). The Sub-Themes include:

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of precise medical treatments (the “Precision Medicine Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Precision Medicine refers to medical treatments or techniques that are either physically precise, targeting a specific group or type of cells, or tailored to a group of patients.

 

11


 

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of genomics (the “Genomics Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Genomics refers to the study of genomes, including genome sequencing and bioinformatics, and its application to healthcare as genomic medicine and pharmacogenomics, including gene therapy, gene editing and the use of biomarkers.

 

Companies that may benefit from the long-term demographic shift towards an older population (the “Life Extension Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Life Extension refers to medical products and services geared towards managing the health of an aging population.

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of robotic surgery (the “Robotic Surgery Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Robotic Surgery refers to technology that enables minimally invasive surgery, as well as the use of miniaturized surgical instruments and robotic systems to assist in surgical procedures.

 

Companies that may benefit from growth in demand for consumer healthcare devices and procedures (the “Consumer Healthcare Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Consumer Healthcare refers to elective procedures or device usage that enhance the daily life of the consumer, such as procedures and devices for ears, eyes and teeth.

The eligible universe of stocks is comprised of common equity securities, including depositary receipts, of companies domiciled across developed and emerging markets worldwide, listed on exchanges in certain developed markets. Shares of companies traded on major exchanges in the following countries are eligible for inclusion (the “Eligible Trading Venues”): France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. In addition, company and stock screens are applied to set minimum liquidity and investability requirements for stocks in the eligible universe.

Motif Capital Management, Inc. (the “Index Provider”) determines the components of the Index based on their exposure to the Human Evolution Theme, and their weights in the Index in accordance with a rules-based methodology that involves five steps.

Step 1

In the first step, a quantitative measurement is made of the exposure of companies in the eligible universe to each Sub-Theme (a “Sub-Theme Thematic Beta”). To calculate a Sub-Theme Thematic Beta, the Index Provider applies automated semantic search algorithms to multiple datasets and documents to score the relevance of a Sub-Theme to a company. The datasets and documents used include one or more of (1) regulatory filings filed in the Eligible Trading Venues, (2) academic journals, (3) patent filings, and (4) clinical trial data (the “Search Corpus”).

Each dataset and document in the Search Corpus is scored for the relevance of the Sub-Theme by applying an automated semantic search algorithm. This algorithm assigns a score to the dataset or document based on the topic, document length, and number of mentions of the topic, among other factors. Datasets and documents with a non-zero score are then mapped, if possible, to a company. Multiple entries within a type of Search Corpus for each company are then combined to make a single score. This results in up to four quantitative measurements of the relevance of the Sub-Theme to a company: the “Filing Search Beta,” sourced from the regulatory filings; the “Academic Beta,” sourced from academic journals; the “Patent Beta,” sourced from patent filings; and the “Clinical Trial Beta” sourced from clinical trial data. The four quantitative measurements are then combined to give a company an overall Sub-Theme Thematic Beta.

Step 2

In the second step, a company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Betas for all Sub-Themes are combined to give the company a single Human Evolution Thematic Beta. The Index Universe consists of all companies with a non-zero Human Evolution Thematic Beta (the “Index Universe”).

Step 3

In the third step, each company in the Index Universe is mapped, if possible, to one or more common equity securities listed on the Eligible Trading Venues. If no relevant security is found, the company is removed from the Index Universe.

Step 4

In the fourth step, liquidity, investability and theme relevance screens are applied to the Index Universe. Stocks of companies with any of the following characteristics are removed from the Index Universe:

   

An average daily trading volume of less than $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period;

   

A total market capitalization of less than $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars;

   

Less than 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period; or

   

Exposure below a fixed threshold to the Human Evolution Theme

All remaining stocks are included in the Index. In addition, if the size of the remaining Index Universe is greater than [120] stocks, the final Index Universe is reduced to [120] stocks based on a function of Human Evolution Thematic Beta, market variables and the weight of the stock from the previous rebalancing, if any.

 

12


 

Step 5

In the fifth step, stocks are weighted according to a function of a company’s market capitalization and Human Evolution Thematic Beta. Maximum and minimum weights are applied to reduce concentration in individual securities and increase diversification of the Index.

The Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually on the third Friday of each January and July.

Given the Fund’s investment objective of attempting to track its Index, the Fund does not follow traditional methods of active investment management, which may involve buying and selling securities based upon analysis of economic and market factors.

The Index is comprised of equity securities, including American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). The Fund seeks to invest in the Index components in approximately the same weighting that such components have within the Index at the applicable time. The Fund may purchase a sample of securities in its Index. There may also be instances in which the Investment Adviser may choose to underweight or overweight a security in the Fund’s Index, purchase securities not in the Fund’s Index that the Investment Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in such Index or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques.

The Fund may also invest up to 20% of its assets in securities and other instruments not included in its Index but which the Investment Adviser believes are correlated to its Index, as well as in, among other instruments, futures (including index futures), swaps, other derivatives, investment companies (including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”)), preferred stocks, warrants and rights, cash and cash equivalents and money market instruments.

The Fund may concentrate its investments (i.e., hold more than 25% of its total assets) in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent that the Index is concentrated. The degree to which components of the Index represent certain sectors or industries may change over time.

The Fund may lend securities representing up to one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the value of any collateral received).

Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. Investments in the Fund involve substantial risks which prospective investors should consider carefully before investing.

Calculation Methodology Risk.  The Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index, including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund, the Index Provider nor the Investment Adviser can offer assurances that the Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers or a correct valuation of securities, nor can they guarantee the availability or timeliness of the production of the Index.

Depositary Receipts Risk.  Foreign securities may trade in the form of depositary receipts, which include ADRs and GDRs (collectively “Depositary Receipts”). To the extent the Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there may be an increased possibility that the Fund would not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted.

European Investment Risk.  The Fund is more exposed to the economic and political risks of Europe and of the European countries in which it invests than funds whose investments are more geographically diversified. Adverse economic and political events in Europe may cause the Fund’s investments to decline in value. The economies and markets of European countries are often closely connected and interdependent, and events in one country in Europe can have an adverse impact on other European countries. The Fund makes investments in securities of issuers that are domiciled in, or have significant operations in, member countries of the European Union that are subject to economic and monetary controls that can adversely affect the Fund’s investments. The European financial markets have experienced volatility and adverse trends in recent years and these events have adversely affected the exchange rate of the euro and may continue to significantly affect European countries.

Foreign Risk.  Foreign securities may be subject to risk of loss because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. The imposition of exchange

 

13


controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, confiscations, trade restrictions (including tariffs) and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody, may also result in losses. Foreign risk also involves the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time.

Geographic Risk.  If the Fund focuses its investments in issuers located in a particular country or geographic region, the Fund may be subjected, to a greater extent than if its investments were less focused, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that country or region, such as: adverse securities markets; adverse exchange rates; adverse social, political, regulatory, economic, business, environmental or other developments; or natural disasters.

Index Risk.  The Fund will be negatively affected by general declines in the securities and asset classes represented in the Index. In addition, because the Fund is not “actively” managed, unless a specific security is removed from the Index, the Fund generally would not sell a security because the security’s issuer was in financial trouble, and the Fund does not take defensive positions in declining markets. Market disruptions and regulatory restrictions could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to adjust its exposure to the required levels in order to track the Index. The Index Provider relies on third party data it believes to be reliable in constructing the Index, but it does not guarantee the accuracy or availability of such third party data, and there is no guarantee with respect to the accuracy, availability or timeliness of the production of the Index or the suitability of the Index.

Industry Concentration Risk.  In following its methodology, the Index from time to time may be concentrated to a significant degree in securities of issuers located in a single industry or sector. To the extent that the Index concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector, the Fund also may concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent. By concentrating its investments in an industry or sector, the Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified broadly over numerous industries or sectors. If the Index is not concentrated in a particular industry or sector, the Fund will not concentrate in a particular industry or sector.

Large Shareholder Risk.  Certain shareholders, including other funds advised by the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of the Fund’s Shares. In addition, a third party investor, the Investment Adviser or an affiliate of the Investment Adviser, an authorized participant, a lead market maker, or another entity may invest in the Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time solely to facilitate commencement of the Fund or to facilitate the Fund’s achieving a specified size or scale. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment, that the size of the Fund would be maintained at such levels or that the Fund would continue to meet applicable listing requirements. Redemptions by large shareholders could have a significant negative impact on the Fund. In addition, transactions by large shareholders may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on the [            ] (the “Exchange”) and may, therefore, have a material upward or downward effect on the market price of the Shares.

Market Risk.  The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets.

Market Trading Risk.  The net asset value (“NAV”) of the Fund and the value of your investment may fluctuate. Market prices of Shares may fluctuate, in some cases significantly, in response to the Fund’s NAV, the intraday value of the Fund’s holdings and supply and demand for Shares. The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to creations and redemptions, the existence of extreme market volatility or potential lack of an active trading market for Shares. Any of these factors, among others, may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to NAV, which will be reflected in the intraday bid/ask spreads and/or the closing price of Shares as compared to NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk.  Investments in mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies. These securities may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements and may lack sufficient market liquidity, and these issuers often face greater business risks.

Seed Investor Risk.  GSAM and/or its affiliates expect to make payments to one or more investors that contribute seed capital to the Fund. Such payments may continue for a specified period of time and/or until a specified dollar amount is reached. Those payments will be made from the assets of GSAM and/or such affiliates (and not the Fund). Seed investors may contribute all or a majority of the assets in the Fund. There is a risk that such seed investors may redeem their investments in the Fund. As with redemptions by other large shareholders, such redemptions could have a significant negative impact on the Fund.

Stock Risk.  Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future.

Technology Sector Risk.  The stock prices of technology and technology-related companies and therefore the value of the Fund may experience significant price movements as a result of intense market volatility, worldwide competition, consumer preferences, product

 

14


compatibility, product obsolescence, government regulation, excessive investor optimism or pessimism, or other factors. The Fund may also invest in a relatively few number of issuers. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments.

Thematic Investing Risk.  The Fund relies on the Index Provider for the identification of themes and sub-themes and its performance may suffer if such themes or sub-themes are not correctly identified or if a theme or sub-theme develops in an unexpected manner. Performance may also suffer if the stocks included in the Index do not benefit from the development of such themes or sub-themes.

Tracking Error Risk.  Tracking error is the divergence of the Fund’s performance from that of the Index. The performance of the Fund may diverge from that of its Index for a number of reasons. Tracking error may occur because of transaction costs, the Fund’s holding of cash, differences in accrual of dividends, changes to the Index or the need to meet new or existing regulatory requirements. Unlike the Fund, the returns of the Index are not reduced by investment and other operating expenses, including the trading costs associated with implementing changes to its portfolio of investments. Tracking error risk may be heightened during times of market volatility or other unusual market conditions. The Fund may be required to deviate its investments from the securities and relative weightings of the Index to comply with the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), to meet the issuer diversification requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), applicable to regulated investment companies, or as a result of local market restrictions, or other legal reasons, including regulatory limits or other restrictions on securities that may be purchased by the Investment Adviser and its affiliates.

Valuation Risk.  The sale price the Fund could receive for a security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security and may differ from the value used by the Index, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets or that are valued using a fair value methodology. Because non-U.S. exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities or assets in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when investors will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s Shares. The Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The information may be provided by third parties that are believed to be reliable, but the information may not be accurate due to errors by such pricing sources, technological issues or otherwise. NAV calculation may also be impacted by operational risks arising from factors such as failures in systems and technology.

Performance

As the Fund had not operated for a full calendar year as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no performance information quoted for the Fund. Updated performance information is available at no additional cost at www.gsamfunds.com or by calling the phone number on the back of the Prospectus.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

Portfolio Managers: Raj Garigipati, Vice President, and Jamie McGregor, Vice President, have each managed the Fund since inception.

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only in a large specified number of Shares each called a “Creation Unit,” or multiples thereof. A Creation Unit consists of [            ] Shares.

Individual Shares of the Fund may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares of the Fund are anticipated to be approved for listing and trading on the Exchange, subject to notice of issuance, and because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares of the Fund may trade at a price greater than or less than NAV.

Tax Information

For important tax information, please see “Tax Information” on page [26] of the Prospectus.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

For important information about financial intermediary compensation, please see “Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” on page [26] of the Prospectus.

 

15


LOGO

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF—Summary

Ticker: [            ]            Stock Exchange: [            ]

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to provide investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the Motif Manufacturing Revolution Index (the “Index”).

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

The following tables describe the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold Shares of the Fund. The table and below Example do not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares of the Fund.

 

Shareholder Fees

 
(fees paid directly from your investment)     None  

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

 
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment):  

Management Fee

    [    ]%  

Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fee

    0.00%  

Other Expenses1

    [    ]%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    [    ]%  

 

1 

The Fund’s “Other Expenses” have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred in the first fiscal year.

Expense Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of owning Shares of the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then sell all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

1 Year

 

3 Years

$[    ]   $[    ]

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund may pay transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments (i.e., “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased transaction costs, including brokerage commissions, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains for taxable shareholders. These costs are not reflected in total annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information quoted for the Fund.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing at least 80% of its assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) in securities included in its underlying index, in depositary receipts representing securities included in its underlying index and in underlying stocks in respect of depositary receipts included in its underlying index.

The Index is designed to deliver exposure to companies with common equity securities listed on exchanges in certain developed markets that may benefit from the on-going technology-driven transformation of the manufacturing industry (the “Manufacturing Revolution Theme”). This transformation includes the use of new materials and energy sources to supply the manufacturing process, the application of new methods and processes, and the manufacture of new products. The focus of the Index is to identify and weight companies that are originating new solutions for manufacturing, as well as companies that are deploying new solutions to solve business problems.

The Manufacturing Revolution Theme is separated into multiple sub-themes (each a “Sub-Theme,” and collectively, the “Sub-Themes”). The Sub-Themes include:

 

Companies that may benefit from the increased sophistication of robotics used in the manufacturing process (the “Robotics Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Robotics refers to the ability of a machine to perform physical tasks that previously either were not possible or required a human.

 

16


 

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of 3D printing and its application in manufacturing (the “3D Printing Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, 3D Printing refers to the additive process of manufacturing a three-dimensional object from a digital design.

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of new methods of mobility (the “Future Mobility Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Future Mobility refers to road vehicles, including automobiles and trucks that apply one or both of electrification and partially or fully autonomous driving capabilities.

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of drones (the “Drones Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Drones are aerial, land or sea-based unmanned vehicles, either remotely operated or autonomous, used in military, consumer or industrial applications.

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of clean energy sources (the “Clean Energy Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Clean Energy refers to energy from renewable resources, such as solar, wind and biofuel, as well as battery technology needed for the storage of intermittent power sources.

The eligible universe of stocks is comprised of common equity securities, including depositary receipts, of companies domiciled across developed and emerging markets worldwide, listed on exchanges in certain developed markets. Shares of companies traded on major exchanges in the following countries are eligible for inclusion (the “Eligible Trading Venues”): France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. In addition, company and stock screens are applied to set minimum liquidity and investability requirements for stocks in the eligible universe.

Motif Capital Management, Inc. (the “Index Provider”) determines the components of the Index based on their exposure to the Manufacturing Revolution Theme, and their weights in the Index in accordance with a rules-based methodology that involves five steps.

Step 1

In the first step, a quantitative measurement is made of the exposure of companies in the eligible universe to each Sub-Theme (a “Sub-Theme Thematic Beta”). To calculate a Sub-Theme Thematic Beta, the Index Provider applies automated semantic search algorithms to multiple datasets and documents to score the relevance of a Sub-Theme to a company. The datasets and documents used include one or more of (1) regulatory filings filed in the Eligible Trading Venues, (2) academic journals, and (3) patent filings (the “Search Corpus”).

Each dataset and document in the Search Corpus is scored for the relevance of the Sub-Theme by applying an automated semantic search algorithm. This algorithm assigns a score to the dataset or document based on the topic, document length, and number of mentions of the topic, among other factors. Datasets and documents with a non-zero score are then mapped, if possible, to a company. Multiple entries within a type of Search Corpus for each company are then combined to make a single score. This results in up to three quantitative measurements of the relevance of the Sub-Theme to a company: the “Filing Search Beta,” sourced from the regulatory filings; the “Academic Beta,” sourced from academic journals; and the “Patent Beta,” sourced from patent filings. The three quantitative measurements are then combined to give a company an overall Sub-Theme Thematic Beta.

Step 2

In the second step, a company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Betas for all Sub-Themes are combined to give the company a single Manufacturing Revolution Thematic Beta. The Index Universe consists of all companies with a non-zero Manufacturing Revolution Thematic Beta (the “Index Universe”).

Step 3

In the third step, each company in the Index Universe is mapped, if possible, to one or more common equity securities listed on the Eligible Trading Venues. If no relevant security is found, the company is removed from the Index Universe.

Step 4

In the fourth step, liquidity, investability and theme relevance screens are applied to the Index Universe. Stocks of companies with any of the following characteristics are removed from the Index Universe:

   

An average daily trading volume of less than $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period;

   

A total market capitalization of less than $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars;

   

Less than 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period; or

   

Exposure below a fixed threshold to the Manufacturing Revolution Theme

All remaining stocks are included in the Index. In addition, if the size of the remaining Index Universe is greater than [120] stocks, the final Index Universe is reduced to [120] stocks based on a function of Manufacturing Revolution Thematic Beta, market variables and the weight of the stock from the previous rebalancing, if any.

 

17


 

Step 5

In the fifth step, stocks are weighted according to a function of a company’s market capitalization and Manufacturing Revolution Thematic Beta. Maximum and minimum weights are applied to reduce concentration in individual securities and increase diversification of the Index.

The Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually on the third Friday of each January and July.

Given the Fund’s investment objective of attempting to track its Index, the Fund does not follow traditional methods of active investment management, which may involve buying and selling securities based upon analysis of economic and market factors.

The Index is comprised of equity securities, including American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). The Fund seeks to invest in the Index components in approximately the same weighting that such components have within the Index at the applicable time. The Fund may purchase a sample of securities in its Index. There may also be instances in which the Investment Adviser may choose to underweight or overweight a security in the Fund’s Index, purchase securities not in the Fund’s Index that the Investment Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in such Index or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques.

The Fund may also invest up to 20% of its assets in securities and other instruments not included in its Index but which the Investment Adviser believes are correlated to its Index, as well as in, among other instruments, futures (including index futures), swaps, other derivatives, investment companies (including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”)), preferred stocks, warrants and rights, cash and cash equivalents and money market instruments.

The Fund may concentrate its investments (i.e., hold more than 25% of its total assets) in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent that the Index is concentrated. The degree to which components of the Index represent certain sectors or industries may change over time.

The Fund may lend securities representing up to one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the value of any collateral received).

Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. Investments in the Fund involve substantial risks which prospective investors should consider carefully before investing.

Calculation Methodology Risk.  The Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index, including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund, the Index Provider nor the Investment Adviser can offer assurances that the Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers or a correct valuation of securities, nor can they guarantee the availability or timeliness of the production of the Index.

Depositary Receipts Risk.  Foreign securities may trade in the form of depositary receipts, which include ADRs and GDRs (collectively “Depositary Receipts”). To the extent the Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there may be an increased possibility that the Fund would not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted.

European Investment Risk.  The Fund is more exposed to the economic and political risks of Europe and of the European countries in which it invests than funds whose investments are more geographically diversified. Adverse economic and political events in Europe may cause the Fund’s investments to decline in value. The economies and markets of European countries are often closely connected and interdependent, and events in one country in Europe can have an adverse impact on other European countries. The Fund makes investments in securities of issuers that are domiciled in, or have significant operations in, member countries of the European Union that are subject to economic and monetary controls that can adversely affect the Fund’s investments. The European financial markets have experienced volatility and adverse trends in recent years and these events have adversely affected the exchange rate of the euro and may continue to significantly affect European countries.

Foreign Risk.  Foreign securities may be subject to risk of loss because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. The imposition of exchange

 

18


controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, confiscations, trade restrictions (including tariffs) and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody, may also result in losses. Foreign risk also involves the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time.

Geographic Risk.  If the Fund focuses its investments in issuers located in a particular country or geographic region, the Fund may be subjected, to a greater extent than if its investments were less focused, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that country or region, such as: adverse securities markets; adverse exchange rates; adverse social, political, regulatory, economic, business, environmental or other developments; or natural disasters.

Index Risk.  The Fund will be negatively affected by general declines in the securities and asset classes represented in the Index. In addition, because the Fund is not “actively” managed, unless a specific security is removed from the Index, the Fund generally would not sell a security because the security’s issuer was in financial trouble, and the Fund does not take defensive positions in declining markets. Market disruptions and regulatory restrictions could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to adjust its exposure to the required levels in order to track the Index. The Index Provider relies on third party data it believes to be reliable in constructing the Index, but it does not guarantee the accuracy or availability of such third party data, and there is no guarantee with respect to the accuracy, availability or timeliness of the production of the Index or the suitability of the Index.

Industry Concentration Risk.  In following its methodology, the Index from time to time may be concentrated to a significant degree in securities of issuers located in a single industry or sector. To the extent that the Index concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector, the Fund also may concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent. By concentrating its investments in an industry or sector, the Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified broadly over numerous industries or sectors. If the Index is not concentrated in a particular industry or sector, the Fund will not concentrate in a particular industry or sector.

Large Shareholder Risk.  Certain shareholders, including other funds advised by the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of the Fund’s Shares. In addition, a third party investor, the Investment Adviser or an affiliate of the Investment Adviser, an authorized participant, a lead market maker, or another entity may invest in the Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time solely to facilitate commencement of the Fund or to facilitate the Fund’s achieving a specified size or scale. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment, that the size of the Fund would be maintained at such levels or that the Fund would continue to meet applicable listing requirements. Redemptions by large shareholders could have a significant negative impact on the Fund. In addition, transactions by large shareholders may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on the [            ] (the “Exchange”) and may, therefore, have a material upward or downward effect on the market price of the Shares.

Market Risk.  The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets.

Market Trading Risk.  The net asset value (“NAV”) of the Fund and the value of your investment may fluctuate. Market prices of Shares may fluctuate, in some cases significantly, in response to the Fund’s NAV, the intraday value of the Fund’s holdings and supply and demand for Shares. The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to creations and redemptions, the existence of extreme market volatility or potential lack of an active trading market for Shares. Any of these factors, among others, may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to NAV, which will be reflected in the intraday bid/ask spreads and/or the closing price of Shares as compared to NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk.  Investments in mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies. These securities may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements and may lack sufficient market liquidity, and these issuers often face greater business risks.

Seed Investor Risk.  GSAM and/or its affiliates expect to make payments to one or more investors that contribute seed capital to the Fund. Such payments may continue for a specified period of time and/or until a specified dollar amount is reached. Those payments will be made from the assets of GSAM and/or such affiliates (and not the Fund). Seed investors may contribute all or a majority of the assets in the Fund. There is a risk that such seed investors may redeem their investments in the Fund. As with redemptions by other large shareholders, such redemptions could have a significant negative impact on the Fund.

Stock Risk.  Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future.

Technology Sector Risk.  The stock prices of technology and technology-related companies and therefore the value of the Fund may experience significant price movements as a result of intense market volatility, worldwide competition, consumer preferences, product

 

19


compatibility, product obsolescence, government regulation, excessive investor optimism or pessimism, or other factors. The Fund may also invest in a relatively few number of issuers. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments.

Thematic Investing Risk.  The Fund relies on the Index Provider for the identification of themes and sub-themes and its performance may suffer if such themes or sub-themes are not correctly identified or if a theme or sub-theme develops in an unexpected manner. Performance may also suffer if the stocks included in the Index do not benefit from the development of such themes or sub-themes.

Tracking Error Risk.  Tracking error is the divergence of the Fund’s performance from that of the Index. The performance of the Fund may diverge from that of its Index for a number of reasons. Tracking error may occur because of transaction costs, the Fund’s holding of cash, differences in accrual of dividends, changes to the Index or the need to meet new or existing regulatory requirements. Unlike the Fund, the returns of the Index are not reduced by investment and other operating expenses, including the trading costs associated with implementing changes to its portfolio of investments. Tracking error risk may be heightened during times of market volatility or other unusual market conditions. The Fund may be required to deviate its investments from the securities and relative weightings of the Index to comply with the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), to meet the issuer diversification requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), applicable to regulated investment companies, or as a result of local market restrictions, or other legal reasons, including regulatory limits or other restrictions on securities that may be purchased by the Investment Adviser and its affiliates.

Valuation Risk.  The sale price the Fund could receive for a security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security and may differ from the value used by the Index, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets or that are valued using a fair value methodology. Because non-U.S. exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities or assets in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when investors will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s Shares. The Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The information may be provided by third parties that are believed to be reliable, but the information may not be accurate due to errors by such pricing sources, technological issues or otherwise. NAV calculation may also be impacted by operational risks arising from factors such as failures in systems and technology.

Performance

As the Fund had not operated for a full calendar year as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no performance information quoted for the Fund. Updated performance information is available at no additional cost at www.gsamfunds.com or by calling the phone number on the back of the Prospectus.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

Portfolio Managers: Raj Garigipati, Vice President, and Jamie McGregor, Vice President, have each managed the Fund since inception.

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only in a large specified number of Shares each called a “Creation Unit,” or multiples thereof. A Creation Unit consists of [            ] Shares.

Individual Shares of the Fund may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares of the Fund are anticipated to be approved for listing and trading on the Exchange, subject to notice of issuance, and because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares of the Fund may trade at a price greater than or less than NAV.

Tax Information

For important tax information, please see “Tax Information” on page [26] of the Prospectus.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

For important information about financial intermediary compensation, please see “Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” on page [26] of the Prospectus.

 

20


LOGO

 

Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF—Summary

Ticker: [        ]             Stock Exchange: [        ]

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to provide investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the Motif New Age Consumer Index (the “Index”).

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

The following tables describe the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold Shares of the Fund. The table and below Example do not take into account brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares of the Fund.

 

Shareholder Fees

 
(fees paid directly from your investment)     None  

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

 
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment):  

Management Fee

    [     ]%  

Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fee

    0.00%  

Other Expenses1

    [    ]%  

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    [    ]%  

 

1 

The Fund’s “Other Expenses” have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred in the first fiscal year.

Expense Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of owning Shares of the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then sell all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

1 Year

 

3 Years

$[    ]   $[    ]

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund may pay transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments (i.e., “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased transaction costs, including brokerage commissions, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains for taxable shareholders. These costs are not reflected in total annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information quoted for the Fund.

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing at least 80% of its assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) in securities included in its underlying index, in depositary receipts representing securities included in its underlying index and in underlying stocks in respect of depositary receipts included in its underlying index.

The Index is designed to deliver exposure to companies with common equity securities listed on exchanges in certain developed markets that may benefit from the on-going structural shifts in the consumer market due to changes in demographics, technology and preferences (the “New Age Consumer Theme”). The focus of the Index is to identify and weight companies that are originating and monetizing new consumer products, as well as those creating and supporting the infrastructure to produce them.

The New Age Consumer Theme is separated into multiple sub-themes (each a “Sub-Theme,” and collectively, the “Sub-Themes”). The Sub-Themes include:

 

Companies that may benefit from the expansion of e-commerce (the “E-commerce Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, E-commerce refers to the purchase and delivery of goods and services over the internet.

 

21


 

 

Companies that may benefit from the development of social media (the “Social Media Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Social Media refers to online platforms that connect people and allow members to interact with one another.

 

Companies that may benefit from the popularity of online gaming (the “Online Gaming Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Online Gaming refers to a game that is either partially or primarily played through the internet, including video games and games that may have traditionally been delivered in person, such as betting.

 

Companies that may benefit from demand for music and video delivered over the internet (the “Online Music and Video Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Online Music and Video refers to the digital distribution of music and video.

 

Companies that may benefit from demand by consumers for experiences relative to goods (the “Experiences over Goods Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Experiences over Goods refers to demand for experiences, and the goods that relate to those experiences, relative to the demand for physical goods unrelated to those experiences.

 

Companies that may benefit from the evolution of education (the “Evolution of Education Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, the Evolution of Education is the delivery of educational materials over the internet, such as interactive and non-interactive multimedia content, the streaming of lectures and the delivery of teaching and tutoring services online, and for-profit education services in emerging markets.

 

Companies that may benefit from consumer interest in health and wellness (the “Health and Wellness Sub-Theme”). For the purposes of the Index, Health and Wellness refers to consumer health-related goods and services outside of traditional healthcare, for example relating to nutrition, exercise and health tracking.

The eligible universe of stocks is comprised of common equity securities, including depositary receipts, of companies domiciled across developed and emerging markets worldwide, listed on exchanges in certain developed markets. Shares of companies traded on major exchanges in the following countries are eligible for inclusion (the “Eligible Trading Venues”): France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. In addition, company and stock screens are applied to set minimum liquidity and investability requirements for stocks in the eligible universe.

Motif Capital Management, Inc. (the “Index Provider”) determines the components of the Index based on their exposure to the New Age Consumer Theme, and their weights in the Index in accordance with a rules-based methodology that involves five steps.

Step 1

In the first step, a quantitative measurement is made of the exposure of companies in the eligible universe to each Sub-Theme (a “Sub-Theme Thematic Beta”). To calculate the Sub-Theme Thematic Beta, the Index Provider applies automated semantic search algorithms to multiple regulatory filings filed in the Eligible Trading Venues to score the relevance of a Sub-Theme to a company. Each regulatory filing is scored for the relevance of the Sub-Theme by applying an automated semantic search algorithm. This algorithm assigns a score to the regulatory filing based on the topic, document length, and number of mentions of the topic, among other factors. Documents with a non-zero score are then mapped, if possible, to a company. For each company that has a total market capitalization of at least $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars, a stock with an average daily trading volume of at least $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period and at least 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period, the company’s reported revenue streams are examined to determine whether each revenue stream is relevant to the Sub-Theme. The company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Beta is equal to the sum of all revenue streams of such company that are theme-relevant divided by the company’s total revenue.

Step 2

In the second step, a company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Betas for all Sub-Themes are combined to give the company a single New Age Consumer Thematic Beta. The Index Universe consists of all companies with a non-zero New Age Consumer Thematic Beta (the “Index Universe”).

Step 3

In the third step, each company in the Index Universe is mapped, if possible, to one or more common equity securities listed on the Eligible Trading Venues. If no relevant security is found, the company is removed from the Index Universe.

Step 4

In the fourth step, liquidity, investability and theme relevance screens are applied to the Index Universe. Stocks of companies with any of the following characteristics are removed from the Index Universe:

   

An average daily trading volume of less than $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period;

   

A total market capitalization of less than $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars;

   

Less than 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period; or

   

Exposure below a fixed threshold to the New Age Consumer Theme

All remaining stocks are included in the Index. In addition, if the size of the remaining Index Universe is greater than [120] stocks, the final Index Universe is reduced to [120] stocks based on a function of New Age Consumer Thematic Beta, market variables and the weight of the stock from the previous rebalancing, if any.

 

22


 

Step 5

In the fifth step, stocks are weighted according to a function of a company’s market capitalization and New Age Consumer Thematic Beta. Maximum and minimum weights are applied to reduce concentration in individual securities and increase diversification of the Index.

The Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually on the third Friday of each January and July.

Given the Fund’s investment objective of attempting to track its Index, the Fund does not follow traditional methods of active investment management, which may involve buying and selling securities based upon analysis of economic and market factors.

The Index is comprised of equity securities, including American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). The Fund seeks to invest in the Index components in approximately the same weighting that such components have within the Index at the applicable time. The Fund may purchase a sample of securities in its Index. There may also be instances in which the Investment Adviser may choose to underweight or overweight a security in the Fund’s Index, purchase securities not in the Fund’s Index that the Investment Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in such Index or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques.

The Fund may also invest up to 20% of its assets in securities and other instruments not included in its Index but which the Investment Adviser believes are correlated to its Index, as well as in, among other instruments, futures (including index futures), swaps, other derivatives, investment companies (including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”)), preferred stocks, warrants and rights, cash and cash equivalents and money market instruments.

The Fund may concentrate its investments (i.e., hold more than 25% of its total assets) in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent that the Index is concentrated. The degree to which components of the Index represent certain sectors or industries may change over time.

The Fund may lend securities representing up to one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the value of any collateral received).

Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective. Investments in the Fund involve substantial risks which prospective investors should consider carefully before investing.

Calculation Methodology Risk.  The Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index, including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund, the Index Provider nor the Investment Adviser can offer assurances that the Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers or a correct valuation of securities, nor can they guarantee the availability or timeliness of the production of the Index.

Depositary Receipts Risk.  Foreign securities may trade in the form of depositary receipts, which include ADRs and GDRs (collectively “Depositary Receipts”). To the extent the Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there may be an increased possibility that the Fund would not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted.

European Investment Risk.  The Fund is more exposed to the economic and political risks of Europe and of the European countries in which it invests than funds whose investments are more geographically diversified. Adverse economic and political events in Europe may cause the Fund’s investments to decline in value. The economies and markets of European countries are often closely connected and interdependent, and events in one country in Europe can have an adverse impact on other European countries. The Fund makes investments in securities of issuers that are domiciled in, or have significant operations in, member countries of the European Union that are subject to economic and monetary controls that can adversely affect the Fund’s investments. The European financial markets have experienced volatility and adverse trends in recent years and these events have adversely affected the exchange rate of the euro and may continue to significantly affect European countries.

Foreign Risk.  Foreign securities may be subject to risk of loss because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. The imposition of exchange

 

23


controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, confiscations, trade restrictions (including tariffs) and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody, may also result in losses. Foreign risk also involves the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time.

Geographic Risk.  If the Fund focuses its investments in issuers located in a particular country or geographic region, the Fund may be subjected, to a greater extent than if its investments were less focused, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that country or region, such as: adverse securities markets; adverse exchange rates; adverse social, political, regulatory, economic, business, environmental or other developments; or natural disasters

Index Risk.  The Fund will be negatively affected by general declines in the securities and asset classes represented in the Index. In addition, because the Fund is not “actively” managed, unless a specific security is removed from the Index, the Fund generally would not sell a security because the security’s issuer was in financial trouble, and the Fund does not take defensive positions in declining markets. Market disruptions and regulatory restrictions could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to adjust its exposure to the required levels in order to track the Index. The Index Provider relies on third party data it believes to be reliable in constructing the Index, but it does not guarantee the accuracy or availability of such third party data, and there is no guarantee with respect to the accuracy, availability or timeliness of the production of the Index or the suitability of the Index.

Industry Concentration Risk.  In following its methodology, the Index from time to time may be concentrated to a significant degree in securities of issuers located in a single industry or sector. To the extent that the Index concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector, the Fund also may concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent. By concentrating its investments in an industry or sector, the Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified broadly over numerous industries or sectors. If the Index is not concentrated in a particular industry or sector, the Fund will not concentrate in a particular industry or sector.

Large Shareholder Risk.  Certain shareholders, including other funds advised by the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of the Fund’s Shares. In addition, a third party investor, the Investment Adviser or an affiliate of the Investment Adviser, an authorized participant, a lead market maker, or another entity may invest in the Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time solely to facilitate commencement of the Fund or to facilitate the Fund’s achieving a specified size or scale. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment, that the size of the Fund would be maintained at such levels or that the Fund would continue to meet applicable listing requirements. Redemptions by large shareholders could have a significant negative impact on the Fund. In addition, transactions by large shareholders may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on the [            ] (the “Exchange”) and may, therefore, have a material upward or downward effect on the market price of the Shares.

Market Risk.  The value of the securities in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets.

Market Trading Risk.  The net asset value (“NAV”) of the Fund and the value of your investment may fluctuate. Market prices of Shares may fluctuate, in some cases significantly, in response to the Fund’s NAV, the intraday value of the Fund’s holdings and supply and demand for Shares. The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to creations and redemptions, the existence of extreme market volatility or potential lack of an active trading market for Shares. Any of these factors, among others, may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to NAV, which will be reflected in the intraday bid/ask spreads and/or the closing price of Shares as compared to NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk.  Investments in mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies. These securities may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements and may lack sufficient market liquidity, and these issuers often face greater business risks.

Seed Investor Risk.  GSAM and/or its affiliates expect to make payments to one or more investors that contribute seed capital to the Fund. Such payments may continue for a specified period of time and/or until a specified dollar amount is reached. Those payments will be made from the assets of GSAM and/or such affiliates (and not the Fund). Seed investors may contribute all or a majority of the assets in the Fund. There is a risk that such seed investors may redeem their investments in the Fund. As with redemptions by other large shareholders, such redemptions could have a significant negative impact on the Fund.

Stock Risk.  Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future.

Technology Sector Risk.  The stock prices of technology and technology-related companies and therefore the value of the Fund may experience significant price movements as a result of intense market volatility, worldwide competition, consumer preferences, product

 

24


compatibility, product obsolescence, government regulation, excessive investor optimism or pessimism, or other factors. The Fund may also invest in a relatively few number of issuers. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments.

Thematic Investing Risk.  The Fund relies on the Index Provider for the identification of themes and sub-themes and its performance may suffer if such themes or sub-themes are not correctly identified or if a theme or sub-theme develops in an unexpected manner. Performance may also suffer if the stocks included in the Index do not benefit from the development of such themes or sub-themes.

Tracking Error Risk.  Tracking error is the divergence of the Fund’s performance from that of the Index. The performance of the Fund may diverge from that of its Index for a number of reasons. Tracking error may occur because of transaction costs, the Fund’s holding of cash, differences in accrual of dividends, changes to the Index or the need to meet new or existing regulatory requirements. Unlike the Fund, the returns of the Index are not reduced by investment and other operating expenses, including the trading costs associated with implementing changes to its portfolio of investments. Tracking error risk may be heightened during times of market volatility or other unusual market conditions. The Fund may be required to deviate its investments from the securities and relative weightings of the Index to comply with the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), to meet the issuer diversification requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), applicable to regulated investment companies, or as a result of local market restrictions, or other legal reasons, including regulatory limits or other restrictions on securities that may be purchased by the Investment Adviser and its affiliates.

Valuation Risk.  The sale price the Fund could receive for a security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security and may differ from the value used by the Index, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets or that are valued using a fair value methodology. Because non-U.S. exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities or assets in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when investors will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s Shares. The Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The information may be provided by third parties that are believed to be reliable, but the information may not be accurate due to errors by such pricing sources, technological issues or otherwise. NAV calculation may also be impacted by operational risks arising from factors such as failures in systems and technology.

Performance

As the Fund had not operated for a full calendar year as of the date of the Prospectus, there is no performance information quoted for the Fund. Updated performance information is available at no additional cost at www.gsamfunds.com or by calling the phone number on the back of the Prospectus.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

Portfolio Managers: Raj Garigipati, Vice President, and Jamie McGregor, Vice President, have each managed the Fund since inception.

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at NAV only in a large specified number of Shares each called a “Creation Unit,” or multiples thereof. A Creation Unit consists of [            ] Shares.

Individual Shares of the Fund may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares of the Fund are anticipated to be approved for listing and trading on the Exchange, subject to notice of issuance, and because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares of the Fund may trade at a price greater than or less than NAV.

Tax Information

For important tax information, please see “Tax Information” on page [26] of the Prospectus.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

For important information about financial intermediary compensation, please see “Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” on page [26] of the Prospectus.

 

25


 

Goldman Sachs Motif ETFs – Additional Summary Information

 

Tax Information

The Funds’ distributions are taxable, and will be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains, unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account. Investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may become taxable upon withdrawal from such arrangements.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase Shares of a Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), GSAM or other related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund Shares or related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend a Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

26


 

Investment Management Approach

 

 

  INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE     

Each Fund seeks to provide investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of its respective Index. A Fund’s investment objective may be changed without shareholder approval.

 

  PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES     

Each Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing at least 80% of its assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) in securities included in its underlying index, in depositary receipts representing securities included in its underlying index and in underlying stocks in respect of depositary receipts included in its underlying index. Shareholders will be provided with sixty days’ notice in the manner prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) before any change in a Fund’s policy to invest at least 80% of its assets in securities included in its underlying index.

The Investment Adviser anticipates that, generally, each Fund will hold all of the securities that comprise its Index in approximate proportion to their weightings in such Index. However, under various circumstances, it may not be possible or practicable to purchase all of those securities in those weightings. In these circumstances, a Fund may purchase a sample of securities in its Index. There also may be instances in which the Investment Adviser may choose to underweight or overweight a security in a Fund’s Index, purchase securities not in the Fund’s Index that the Investment Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in such Index or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques. Each Fund may sell securities that are represented in its Index in anticipation of their removal from its Index or purchase securities not represented in its Index in anticipation of their addition to such Index. Each Fund may also, in order to comply with the tax diversification requirements of the Code, temporarily invest in securities not included in its Index that are expected to be correlated with the securities included in its Index.

Given each Fund’s investment objective of attempting to track its Index, the Funds do not follow traditional methods of active investment management, which may involve buying and selling securities based upon analysis of economic and market factors. Also, unlike many investment companies, the Funds do not attempt to outperform their respective Indices that they track and do not seek temporary defensive positions when markets decline or appear overvalued.

The Index Provider determines the components of each Index based on their exposure to the applicable Theme and Sub-Themes, and their weights in the Index in accordance with a rules-based methodology that involves five steps.

Step 1:

In the first step, a quantitative measurement is made of the exposure of companies in the eligible universe to each Sub-Theme (a “Sub-Theme Thematic Beta”).

With respect to the Digitization of Finance Sub-Theme and the Asset Management Makeover Sub-Theme within the Motif Finance Reimagined Index, and all Sub-Themes within the Motif New Age Consumer Index:

The Index Provider applies automated semantic search algorithms to multiple regulatory filings filed in the Eligible Trading Venues to score the relevance of a Sub-Theme to a company. Each regulatory filing is scored for the relevance of the Sub-Theme by applying an automated semantic search algorithm. This algorithm assigns a score to the regulatory filing based on the topic, document length, and number of mentions of the topic, among other factors. Documents with a non-zero score are then mapped, if possible, to a company. For each company that has a total market capitalization of at least $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars, a stock with an average daily trading volume of at least $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period and at least 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period, the company’s reported revenue streams are examined to determine whether each revenue stream is relevant to the Sub-Theme. The company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Beta is equal to the sum of all revenue streams of such company that are theme-relevant divided by the company’s total revenue.

With respect to all other Sub-Themes within each Index:

To calculate a Sub-Theme Thematic Beta, a quantitative measurement is made of the exposure of companies in the eligible universe to each Sub-Theme (a “Sub-Theme Thematic Beta”). To calculate a Sub-Theme Thematic Beta, the Index Provider

 

27


applies automated semantic search algorithms to multiple datasets and documents to score the relevance of a Sub-Theme to a company. The datasets and documents used include one or more of (1) regulatory filings filed in the Eligible Trading Venues, (2) academic journals, and (3) patent filings (the “Search Corpus”). The Search Corpus for the Motif Human Evolution Index also includes clinical trial data.

Each dataset and document in the Search Corpus is scored for the relevance of the Sub-Theme by applying an automated semantic search algorithm. This algorithm assigns a score to the dataset or document based on the topic, document length, and number of mentions of the topic, among other factors. Datasets and documents with a non-zero score are then mapped, if possible, to a company. Multiple entries within a type of Search Corpus for each company are then combined to make a single score. This results in up to three (or four, in the case of the Motif Human Evolution Index) quantitative measurements of the relevance of the Sub-Theme to a company: the “Filing Search Beta,” sourced from the regulatory filings; the “Academic Beta,” sourced from academic journals; and the “Patent Beta,” sourced from patent filings. The three (or four) quantitative measurements are then combined to give a company an overall Sub-Theme Thematic Beta. For the Motif Human Evolution Index, the “Clinical Trial Beta,” sourced from clinical trial data, is also combined to calculate a company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Beta.

Step 2:

In the second step, a company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Betas for all Sub-Themes are combined to give the company a single applicable Thematic Beta. The Index Universe consists of all companies with a non-zero applicable Thematic Beta (the “Index Universe”).

Step 3:

In the third step, each company in the Index Universe is mapped, if possible, to one or more common equity securities listed on the Eligible Trading Venues. If no relevant security is found, the company is removed from the Index Universe.

Step 4:

In the fourth step, liquidity, investability and theme relevance screens are applied to the Index Universe. Stocks of companies with any of the following characteristics are removed from the Index Universe:

   

An average daily trading volume of less than $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period;

   

A total market capitalization of less than $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars;

   

Less than 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period; or

   

Exposure below a fixed threshold to the applicable Theme

All remaining stocks are included in the Index. In addition, if the size of the remaining Index Universe is greater than [120] stocks, the final Index Universe is reduced to [120] stocks based on a function of the applicable Thematic Beta, market variables and the weight of the stock from the previous rebalancing, if any.

Step 5:

In the fifth step, stocks are weighted according to a function of a company’s market capitalization and applicable Thematic Beta. Maximum and minimum weights are applied to reduce concentration in individual securities and increase diversification of the Index.

Each Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually on the third Friday of each January and July.

Each Index was developed and is maintained by the Index Provider and calculated by Solactive AG (the “Calculation Agent”). The Index Provider determines the composition and relative weightings of the securities in each Index. A Fund may hire an affiliate of the Fund and/or the Investment Adviser to serve as calculation agent and/or index provider.

Each Fund may also invest up to 20% of its assets in securities and other instruments not included in its Index but which the Investment Adviser believes are correlated to its Index, as well as in, among other instruments, futures (including index futures), swaps, other derivatives, investment companies (including ETFs), preferred stocks, warrants and rights, cash and cash equivalents and money market instruments, consistent with each Fund’s overall investment objective of seeking to provide investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of its Index.

 

28


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

 

  OTHER INVESTMENT PRACTICES AND SECURITIES     

Although each Fund’s principal investment strategy is described in the Fund’s Summary—Principal Investment Strategies section of the Prospectus, the following tables identify some of the investment techniques that may (but are not required to) be used by the Funds in seeking to achieve their investment objective. The Funds may be subject to additional limitations on its investments not shown here. Numbers in these tables show allowable usage only; for actual usage, consult the Funds’ annual/semi-annual reports (when available). For more information about these and other investment practices and securities, see Appendix A. On each business day, before commencement of trading in Fund Shares on the Exchange, each Fund will disclose on its website (http:// www.gsamfunds.com) the identities and quantities of the portfolio securities and other assets held by the Fund that will form the basis for the Fund’s calculation of NAV at the end of the business day. In addition, a description of the Funds’ policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Funds’ portfolio holdings is available in the Funds’ Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).

 

10   Percent of total assets (including securities lending collateral) (italic type)
10   Percent of net assets (excluding borrowings for investment purposes)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage;limited only by the objective and strategies of the Fund.

A Fund may only invest up to 20% of its assets in securities and other instruments not included in its

underlying index.

 

                                                                                                                                      
     Goldman
Sachs Motif
Data-Driven
World ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
Finance
Reimagined ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
Human
Evolution ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
Manufacturing
Revolution ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
New Age
Consumer ETF
Investment Practices          

Borrowings

  33 13   33 13   33 13   33 13   33 13

Derivatives, including futures, options and swaps

         

Foreign Currency Transactions (including forward contracts)

         

Direct Equity Investment

         

Illiquid Investments*

  15   15   15   15   15

Investment Company Securities (including ETFs)**

  10   10   10   10   10

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights

         

Repurchase Agreements

         

Securities Lending

  33 13   33 13   33 13   33 13   33 13
         

 

  *

Illiquid investments are any investments which cannot be disposed of in seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the price at which a Fund values the instrument.

**

This percentage limitation does not apply to a Fund’s investments in other investment companies where a higher percentage limitation is permitted under the terms of an SEC exemptive order or SEC exemptive rule.

 

 

  No specific percentage limitation on usage;

limited only by the objective and strategies of the Fund

 

                                                                                                                                      
     Goldman
Sachs Motif
Data-Driven
World ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
Finance
Reimagined ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
Human
Evolution ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
Manufacturing
Revolution ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
New Age
Consumer ETF

Investment Securities

         

American, European and Global Depositary Receipts

         

Emerging Country Securities

         

Equity Investments

         

Foreign Securities

         

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Rights

         
         

 

29


 

Risks of the Funds

 

Loss of money is a risk of investing in each Fund. An investment in each Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other governmental agency. The principal risks of each Fund are discussed in the Summary section of the Prospectus. The following section provides additional information on the risks that apply to the Funds, which may result in a loss of your investment. None of the Funds should be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that a Fund will achieve its investment objective.

 

 

  Principal Risk
  Additional Risk

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
     Goldman
Sachs Motif
Data-Driven
World ETF
  Goldman Sachs
Motif Finance
Reimagined ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
Human
Evolution ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
Manufacturing
Revolution ETF
  Goldman
Sachs Motif
New Age
Consumer ETF

Absence of Active Market Risk

         

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk

         

Calculation Methodology Risk

         

Depositary Receipts Risk

         

Derivatives Risk

         

Emerging Countries Risk

         

European Investment Risk

         

Expenses Risk

         

Financial Services Sector Risk

         

Foreign Risk

         

Foreign Custody Risk

         

Geographic Risk

         

Index Risk

         

Industry Concentration Risk

         

Large Shareholder Risk

         

Liquidity Risk

         

Market Risk

         

Market Trading Risk

         

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk

         

Secondary Listing Risk

         

Seed Investor Risk

         

Stock Risk

         

Technology Sector Risk

         

Thematic Investing Risk

         

Tracking Error Risk

         

Trading Issues Risk

         

Valuation Risk

         
         

 

 

Absence of Active Market Risk—There can be no assurance that active trading markets for the Shares will develop or be maintained by market makers or authorized participants, and there are no obligations of market makers to make a market in each Fund’s shares or of authorized participants to submit purchase or redemption orders for creation units. ALPS Distributors, Inc., the distributor of the Shares (the “Distributor”), does not maintain a secondary market in the Shares.

Although market makers will generally take advantage of differences between the NAV and the trading price of Fund Shares through arbitrage opportunities, there is no guarantee that they will do so. Decisions by market makers or authorized participants to reduce their role or “step away” from market making or creation/redemption activities in times of market stress could inhibit the effectiveness of the arbitrage process in maintaining the relationship between the underlying value of the Fund’s portfolio securities and the Fund’s market price. This reduced effectiveness could result in Shares trading at a discount to NAV and also in greater than normal intraday bid/ask spreads for Shares.

 

30


RISKS OF THE FUNDS

 

 

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk—Only an authorized participant may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with a Fund, and the Fund may have a limited number of financial institutions that act as authorized participants. None of those authorized participants is obligated to engage in creation and/or redemption transactions. To the extent that those authorized participants exit the business or are unable to or choose not to process creation and/or redemption orders, and no other authorized participant is able to step forward to create and redeem Shares, there may be a significantly diminished trading market for Shares. As a result, Shares may trade at a discount (or premium) to NAV and possibly face trading halts and/or de-listing.

 

Calculation Methodology Risk—Each Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index (or the applicable Reference Index), including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Funds, the Index Provider nor the Investment Adviser can offer assurances that an Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers or a correct valuation of securities, nor can they guarantee the availability or timeliness of the production of the Index.

 

Depositary Receipts Risk—Foreign securities may trade in the form of Depositary Receipts. To the extent a Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there may be an increased possibility that the Fund would not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted. The Funds will not invest in any Depositary Receipts that the Investment Adviser deems to be illiquid or for which pricing information is not readily available.

 

Derivatives Risk—A Fund’s use of derivative instruments may result in losses. These instruments, which may pose risks in addition to and greater than those associated with investing directly in securities, currencies or other instruments, may be illiquid or less liquid, volatile, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of the underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to a Fund. Certain derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligations, liquidity risk and risks arising from margin requirements, which include the risk that a Fund will be required to pay additional margin or set aside additional collateral to maintain open derivative positions.

The use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with investments in more traditional securities and instruments, and there is no guarantee that the use of derivatives will achieve their intended result. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuation in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables, the use of derivatives could result in losses, which in some cases may be significant. A lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivatives and the value of the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged could also result in losses. In addition, there is a risk that the performance of the derivatives or other instruments used by the Investment Adviser to replicate the performance of a particular asset class may not accurately track the performance of that asset class.

Many of the protections afforded to cleared transactions, such as the security afforded by transacting through a clearing house, might not be available in connection with over-the-counter (“OTC”) transactions. Therefore, in those instances in which a Fund enters into OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses.

As an investment company registered with the SEC, the Funds must identify on their books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC or SEC-staff approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. For more information about these practices, see Appendix A.

 

Emerging Countries Risk—Investments in securities of issuers located in emerging countries are subject to the risks associated with investments in foreign securities. In addition, the securities markets of most emerging countries are less liquid, developed and efficient, are subject to greater price volatility, have smaller market capitalizations, have more or less government regulation and are not subject to as extensive and frequent accounting, financial and other reporting requirements as the securities markets of more developed countries. Further, investments in securities of issuers located in certain emerging countries involve the risk of loss resulting from problems in share registration, settlement or custody, substantial economic, political and social disruptions and the imposition of exchange controls (including repatriation restrictions). These risks are not normally associated with investments in more developed countries. These risks may be greater for frontier markets. For more information about these risks, see Appendix A.

 

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European Investment Risk—Adverse economic and political events in Europe may cause a Fund’s investments to decline in value. The economies and markets of European countries are often closely connected and interdependent, and events in one country in Europe can have an adverse impact on other European countries. A Fund makes investments in securities of issuers that are domiciled in, or have significant operations in, member countries of the European Union that are subject to economic and monetary controls that can adversely affect the Fund’s investments. The European financial markets have experienced volatility and adverse trends in recent years and these events have adversely affected the exchange rate of the euro and may continue to significantly affect European countries. In June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union following a referendum referred to as “Brexit,” which may result in increased market volatility and cause additional market disruption on a global basis.

 

Expenses Risk—By investing in pooled investment vehicles (including ETFs) indirectly through a Fund, the investor will incur not only a proportionate share of the expenses of the other pooled investment vehicles held by the Fund (including operating costs and investment management fees), but also expenses of the Fund.

 

Financial Services Sector Risk—An adverse development in the financial services sector, including U.S. and foreign banks, broker-dealers, insurance companies, finance companies (e.g., automobile finance) and related asset-backed securities, may affect the value of the Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF’s investments more than if the Fund were not invested to such a degree in this sector. Companies in the financial services sector may be particularly susceptible to certain economic factors such as interest rate changes, fiscal, regulatory and monetary policy and general economic cycles. For example, deteriorating economic and business conditions can disproportionately impact companies in the financial services sector due to increased defaults on payments by borrowers. Moreover, political and regulatory changes can affect the operations and financial results of companies in the financial services sector, potentially imposing additional costs and expenses or restricting the types of business activities of these companies.

 

Foreign Risk—When a Fund invests in foreign securities, it may be subject to risk of loss not typically associated with U.S. issuers. Loss may result because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information, less liquid, developed or efficient trading markets, greater volatility and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which a Fund invests. Loss may also result from, among other things, deteriorating economic and business conditions in other countries, including the United States, regional and global conflicts, the imposition of exchange controls (including repatriation restrictions), sanctions, foreign taxes, confiscations, trade restrictions (including tariffs), expropriations and other government restrictions by the United States and other governments, higher transaction costs, difficulty enforcing contractual obligations or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody. A Fund will also be subject to the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Foreign risks will normally be greatest when the Fund invests in securities of issuers located in emerging countries. For more information about these risks, see Appendix A.

 

Foreign Custody Risk—A Fund may hold foreign securities and cash with foreign banks, agents, and securities depositories appointed by the Fund’s custodian (each a “Foreign Custodian”). Some Foreign Custodians may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. In some countries, Foreign Custodians may be subject to little or no regulatory oversight over or independent evaluation of their operations. Further, the laws of certain countries may place limitations on a Fund’s ability to recover its assets if a Foreign Custodian enters bankruptcy. Investments in emerging markets may be subject to even greater custody risks than investments in more developed markets. Custody services in emerging countries are very often undeveloped and may be considerably less well regulated than in more developed countries, and this may not afford the same level of investor protection as would apply in developed countries.

 

Geographic Risk—If the Funds focus their investments in securities of issuers located in a particular country or geographic region, it will subject the Funds, to a greater extent than if investments were less focused, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that country or region, such as: adverse securities markets; adverse exchange rates; adverse social, political, regulatory, economic, business, environmental or other developments; or natural disasters.

 

Index Risk—A Fund will be negatively affected by general declines in the securities and asset classes represented in its Index. In addition, because the Funds are not “actively” managed, unless a specific security is removed from an Index, a Fund generally would not sell a security because the security’s issuer was in financial trouble. Market disruptions and regulatory restrictions could have an adverse effect on a Fund’s ability to adjust its exposure to the required levels in order to track the Index. A Fund also does not attempt to take defensive positions under any market conditions, including declining markets. Therefore, a Fund’s performance could be lower than funds that may actively shift their portfolio assets to take advantage of market opportunities or to lessen the impact of a market decline or a decline in the value of one or more issuers. The Index Provider relies on third party data it believes to be reliable in constructing each Index, but it does not guarantee the accuracy or availability of such third party data. Errors in

 

32


RISKS OF THE FUNDS

 

  index data, index computation or the construction of an Index in accordance with its methodology may occur from time to time and may not be identified and corrected by the Index Provider for a period of time or at all, which may have an adverse impact on the applicable Fund and its shareholders. In addition, neither a Fund, the Investment Adviser nor the Index Provider can guarantee the accuracy, availability or timeliness of the production of the Index.
 

Industry Concentration Risk—In following its methodology, an Index from time to time may be concentrated to a significant degree in securities of issuers located in a single industry or sector. To the extent that an Index concentrates in the securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector, a Fund also will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent. By concentrating its investments in an industry or sector, the applicable Fund may face more risks than if it were diversified broadly over numerous industries or sectors. If an Index is not concentrated in a particular industry or sector, the applicable Fund will not concentrate in a particular industry or sector.

 

Large Shareholder Risk—Certain large shareholders, including other funds advised by the Funds’ Investment Adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of a Fund’s Shares. In addition, a third party investor, the Investment Adviser or an affiliate of the Investment Adviser, an authorized participant, a lead market maker, or another entity may invest in a Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time solely to facilitate commencement of the Fund or to facilitate the Fund’s achieving a specified size or scale. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment. Dispositions of a large number of Shares by these shareholders may adversely affect a Fund’s liquidity and net assets to the extent such transactions are executed directly with the Fund in the form of redemptions through an authorized participant, rather than executed in the secondary market. These redemptions may also force a Fund to sell portfolio securities when it might not otherwise do so, which may negatively impact the Fund’s NAV and increase the Fund’s brokerage costs. To the extent these large shareholders transact in Shares on the secondary market, such transactions may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on the Exchange and may, therefore, have a material upward or downward effect on the market price of the Shares.

 

Liquidity Risk—A Fund may invest in securities or instruments that trade in lower volumes and may make investments that are less liquid than other investments. Also, a Fund may make investments that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Investments that are illiquid or that trade in lower volumes may be more difficult to value. When there is no willing buyer and investments cannot be readily sold at the desired time or price, a Fund may have to accept a lower price or may not be able to sell the security or instrument at all. An inability to sell one or more portfolio positions can adversely affect a Fund’s value.

If a Fund is forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions, such sales may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV.

 

Market Risk—The value of the securities in which a Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world. Price changes may be temporary or last for extended periods. A Fund’s investments may be overweighted from time to time in one or more sectors or countries, which will increase the Fund’s exposure to risk of loss from adverse developments affecting those sectors or countries.

Global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, and conditions and events in one country, region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. In addition, governmental and quasi-governmental organizations have taken a number of unprecedented actions designed to support the markets. Such conditions, events and actions may result in greater market risk.

 

Market Trading Risk—The net asset value (“NAV”) of a Fund and the value of your investment may fluctuate. Market prices of Shares may fluctuate, in some cases significantly, in response to a Fund’s NAV, the intraday value of a Fund’s holdings and supply and demand for Shares. Each Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to creations and redemptions, the existence of extreme market volatility or potential lack of an active trading market for Shares. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses. The Investment Adviser cannot predict whether Shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due, in large part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for Shares will be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the securities of a Fund’s Index trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time. While the creation/redemption feature is designed to make it more likely that a Fund’s Shares normally will trade on stock exchanges at prices close to the Fund’s next calculated NAV, exchange prices are not expected to correlate exactly with the Fund’s NAV due to timing reasons, supply and demand imbalances, perception of unreliability of disclosed NAV, and other factors. Any of these factors, among others, may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to NAV, which will be reflected in the intraday bid/ask spreads and/or the closing price of Shares as compared to NAV. During such periods, you may be unable to sell your Shares or may incur significant losses if you sell your Shares. There are various methods by which investors can purchase and sell Shares and various orders that may be placed.

 

33


 

 

Investors should consult their financial intermediary before purchasing or selling Shares of a Fund. Additionally, in stressed market conditions, the market for Shares may become less liquid in response to deteriorating liquidity in the markets for a Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings.

An investor that buys or sells Shares through a broker will likely incur a brokerage commission or other charge imposed by the broker. In addition, the market price of Shares, like other exchange-traded securities, includes a “bid-ask spread” (the difference between the price at which investors are willing to buy Shares and the price at which investors are willing to sell Shares). The bid-ask spread will vary over time based on a Fund’s trading volume and market liquidity and may increase as a result of a decrease in a Fund’s trading volume, the spread of a Fund’s underlying securities, or market liquidity. The bid-ask spread may increase significantly in times of market disruption, meaning that Shares may trade at a discount to the Fund’s NAV and that discount is likely to be greatest during significant market volatility.

Shares of a Fund, like other publicly-traded securities, may be sold short. Shares are therefore subject to the risk of price decreases and increased volatility associated with being sold short.

 

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk—The securities of mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements. Securities of such issuers may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable a Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price. Both mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies often have narrower markets and more limited managerial and financial resources than larger, more established companies. As a result, their performance can be more volatile and they face greater risk of business failure, which could increase the volatility of a Fund’s portfolio. Generally, the smaller the company size, the greater these risks become.

 

Secondary Listing Risk—Each Fund’s Shares may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than the U.S. stock exchange where the Fund’s primary listing is maintained. There can be no assurance that a Fund’s Shares will continue to trade on any such stock exchange or in any market or that the Fund’s Shares will continue to meet the requirements for listing or trading on any exchange or in any market. A Fund’s Shares may be less actively traded in certain markets than in others, and investors are subject to the execution and settlement risks and market standards of the market where they or their broker direct their trades for execution. Certain information available to investors who trade Fund Shares on a U.S. stock exchange during regular U.S. market hours may not be available to investors who trade in other markets, which may result in secondary market prices in such markets being less efficient.

 

Seed Investor Risk—GSAM and/or its affiliates expect to make payments to one or more investors that contribute seed capital to a Fund. Such payments may continue for a specified period of time and/or until a specified dollar amount is reached. Those payments will be made from the assets of GSAM and/or such affiliates (and not the Funds). Seed investors may contribute all or a majority of the assets in a Fund. There is a risk that such seed investors may redeem their investments in a Fund. As with redemptions by other large shareholders, such redemptions could have a significant negative impact on the Funds.

 

Stock Risk—Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future. Stock prices may fluctuate from time to time in response to the activities of individual companies and in response to general market and economic conditions. Individual companies may report poor results or be negatively affected by industry and/or economic trends and developments, and the stock prices of such companies may suffer a decline in response.

 

Technology Sector Risk—The stock prices of technology and technology-related companies and therefore the value of the Funds may experience significant price movements as a result of intense market volatility, worldwide competition, consumer preferences, product compatibility, product obsolescence, government regulation, excessive investor optimism or pessimism, or other factors. Many of the products and services offered by technology companies are subject to the risk of short product cycles. Certain technology-related companies may face special risks that their products or services may not prove to be commercially successful. Such companies also may be subject to risks relating to research and development costs and the availability and price of components. As product cycles shorten and manufacturing capacity increases, these companies could become increasingly subject to aggressive pricing and competition, which hampers profitability. The Fund may also invest in a relatively few number of issuers. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments.

 

Thematic Investing Risk. The Funds rely on the Index Provider for the identification of themes and sub-themes and its performance may suffer if such themes or sub-themes are not correctly identified or if a theme or sub-theme develops in an unexpected manner. Performance may also suffer if the stocks included in the Indexes do not benefit from the development of such themes or sub-themes. A failure to correctly identify themes or sub-themes or a failure of a theme or sub-theme to develop in the manner expected by the Index Provider may result from many causes, including government or other oppositions to certain themes or

 

34


RISKS OF THE FUNDS

 

  sub-themes, incorrect or incomplete demographic or economic data, social and political changes or natural disasters. In addition, certain themes or sub-themes may go in and out of favor, which could cause the Funds to outperform or underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ different investment strategies.
 

Tracking Error Risk—Tracking error is the divergence of a Fund’s performance from that of its Index. The performance of a Fund may diverge from that of its Index for a number of reasons. Tracking error may occur because of transaction costs, a Fund’s holding of cash, differences in accrual of dividends, changes to its Index or the need to meet new or existing regulatory requirements. Unlike a Fund, the returns of an Index are not reduced by investment and other operating expenses, including the trading costs associated with implementing changes to its portfolio of investments. Tracking error risk may be heightened during times of market volatility or other unusual market conditions. To the extent that a Fund calculates its NAV based on fair value prices and the value of its Index is based on securities’ closing prices (i.e., the value of the Index is not based on fair value prices), the Fund’s ability to track the Index may be adversely affected. A Fund may be required to deviate its investments from the securities and relative weightings of its respective Index to comply with the Investment Company Act, to meet the issuer diversification requirements of the Code applicable to regulated investment companies, or as a result of local market restrictions or other legal reasons. A Fund’s investments may also vary from the securities of its respective Index due to the Fund’s inability to invest in certain securities as a result of legal and compliance restrictions applicable to the Fund and/or the Investment Adviser and regulatory limits or other restrictions on securities that may be purchased by the Investment Adviser and its affiliates. For tax efficiency purposes, a Fund may sell certain securities to realize losses, which will result in a deviation from its Index.

 

Trading Issues Risk—Trading in Shares on the Exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to the Exchange “circuit breaker” rules. If a trading halt occurs, a shareholder may be unable to purchase or sell shares. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of the Funds will continue to be met or will remain unchanged.

 

Valuation Risk—The sale price a Fund could receive for a security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security and may differ from the value used by the Index, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets or that are valued using a fair value methodology. Because non-U.S. exchanges may be open on days when a Fund does not price its Shares, the value of foreign securities or assets in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when investors will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s Shares. Each Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The information may be provided by third parties that are believed to be reliable, but the information may not be accurate due to errors by such pricing sources, technological issues or otherwise. NAV calculation may also be impacted by operational risks arising from factors such as failures in systems and technology.

More information about the Funds’ portfolio securities and investment techniques, and their associated risks, is provided in Appendix A. You should consider the investment risks discussed in this section and in Appendix A. Both are important to your investment choice.

 

35


 

Tax Advantaged Product Structure

 

Unlike many conventional mutual funds which are only bought and sold at closing NAVs, the Shares of each Fund, like shares of certain other ETFs, have been designed to be created and redeemed principally in-kind in Creation Units at each day’s market close. These in-kind arrangements are designed to mitigate adverse effects on a Fund’s portfolio that could arise from frequent cash purchase and redemption transactions that affect the NAV of the Fund. Moreover, in contrast to conventional mutual funds, where frequent redemptions can have an adverse tax impact on taxable shareholders because of the need to sell portfolio securities which, in turn, may generate taxable gain, the in-kind redemption mechanism of the applicable Funds, to the extent used, generally is not expected to lead to a tax event for shareholders whose Shares are not being redeemed.

 

36


 

Service Providers

 

  INVESTMENT ADVISER     

 

Investment Adviser   Fund

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P.

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF

200 West Street

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF

New York, NY 10282

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF

   

Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF

 

GSAM has been registered as an investment adviser with the SEC since 1990 and is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”). Founded in 1869, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a publicly-held financial holding company and a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm. As of [            ], GSAM, including its investment advisory affiliates, had assets under supervision of approximately $[            ].

The Investment Adviser is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds and places purchase and sale orders for the Funds’ portfolio transactions in U.S. and foreign markets. As permitted by applicable law, these orders may be directed to any executing brokers, dealers, futures commission merchants or other counterparties, including Goldman Sachs and its affiliates. While the Investment Adviser is ultimately responsible for the management of the Funds, it is able to draw upon the research and expertise of its asset management affiliates with respect to managing certain portfolio securities. In addition, the Investment Adviser has access to proprietary tools developed by Goldman Sachs (subject to legal, internal, regulatory and Chinese wall restrictions), and will apply quantitative and qualitative analysis in determining the appropriate allocations among categories of issuers and types of securities.

The Investment Adviser also performs the following additional services for the Funds, to the extent such services are not required to be performed by others pursuant to the fund administration and accounting agreement, the custodian agreement, the transfer agency agreement, distribution agreement or such other agreements with service providers to the Funds that the Board has approved:

   

Supervises non-advisory operations of the Funds, including oversight of vendors hired by the Funds, oversight of Fund liquidity and risk management, oversight of regulatory inquiries and requests with respect to the Funds made to the Investment Adviser, valuation and accounting oversight and oversight of ongoing compliance with federal and state securities laws, tax regulations, and other applicable law

   

Provides personnel to perform such executive, administrative and clerical services as are reasonably necessary to provide effective administration of the Funds

   

Arranges for, at the Funds’ expense: (a) the preparation of all required tax returns, (b) the preparation and submission of reports to existing shareholders, (c) the periodic updating of prospectuses and statements of additional information and (d) the preparation of reports to be filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities

   

Maintains the records of each Fund

   

Provides office space and necessary office equipment and services for the Investment Adviser

   

Markets the Funds

An investment in a Fund may be negatively impacted because of the operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. Although the Funds attempt to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect a Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures. A Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

GSAM may manage other funds, accounts, additional pooled vehicles and/or separate accounts that have similar investment strategies to those of the Funds. These funds, pooled vehicles or accounts may perform differently than a Fund despite their similar strategies. Because the pooled vehicles may not be registered under the Investment Company Act, they are subject to fewer regulatory restraints than the Funds (e.g., fewer trading constraints) and may employ strategies that are not subject to the same constraints as the Funds.

 

37


 

GSAM and/or its affiliates expect to make payments to one or more investors that contribute seed capital to a Fund. Such payments may continue for a specified period of time and/or until a specified dollar amount is reached. Those payments will be made from the assets of GSAM and/or such affiliates (and not the Funds). Seed investors may contribute all or a majority of the assets in a Fund. There is a risk that such seed investors may redeem their investments in a Fund. As with redemptions by other large shareholders, such redemptions could have a significant negative impact on the Funds.

From time to time, Goldman Sachs or any of its affiliates may purchase and hold Shares of the Funds. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates reserve the right to redeem or sell at any time some or all of the Shares acquired for their own accounts.

GSAM and/or its affiliates expect to make payments to one or more investors that contribute seed capital to one or more Funds for so long as such capital remains invested in the Fund(s). Such payments will be made from the assets of GSAM and/or such affiliates and will be based on revenues generated by GSAM in providing services to one or more ETFs for which it serves as investment adviser. Seed investors may contribute all or a majority of the assets in a Fund. There is a risk that such seed investors may redeem their investments in a Fund. As with redemptions by other large shareholders, such redemptions could have a significant negative impact on a Fund.

 

  MANAGEMENT FEE AND OTHER EXPENSES     

Pursuant to each Fund’s Management Agreement, as compensation for its services to the Fund, the Investment Adviser is entitled to a management fee, computed daily and payable monthly, at an annual rate listed below (as a percentage of the Fund’s average daily net assets). Under the Management Agreement for each Fund, the Investment Adviser is responsible for substantially all the expenses of the Fund, excluding payments under the Fund’s 12b-1 plan (if any), interest expenses, taxes, acquired fund fees and expenses, brokerage fees, costs of holding shareholder meetings and litigation, indemnification and extraordinary expenses.

 

                                       
Fund   Fee as a
Percentage of
Average Daily
Net Assets
 

Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF

    [    ]%  

Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF

    [    ]%  

Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF

    [    ]%  

Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF

    [    ]%  

Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF

    [    ]%  
 

The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fee, including fees earned as the Investment Adviser to any of the affiliated funds in which the Funds invest, from time to time, and may discontinue or modify any such waiver in the future, consistent with the terms of any fee waiver arrangements in place.

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Management Agreement for each Fund will be available in the Fund’s first annual or semi-annual report following its launch.

 

  FUND MANAGERS     

The individuals jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds are listed below. The Funds’ portfolio managers’ individual responsibilities may differ and may include, among other things, oversight and maintenance of allocations to index securities, selecting the composition of creation and redemption baskets, general oversight of the implementation processes and management of each Fund’s portfolio.

 

Name and Title  

Primarily

Responsible

Since

  Five Year Employment History

Raj Garigipati

Vice President

  2018   Mr. Garigipati joined the ETF Portfolio Management team in 2015. Mr. Garigipati joined Goldman Sachs in 2003 as a Technology audit analyst in the Internal Audit department covering the Investment Management Division and later was the global audit lead for GSAM before joining the Quantitative Investment Strategies team in 2011 as the Chief Risk Officer.

Jamie McGregor

Vice President

  2018   Mr. McGregor is a portfolio manager on the ETF Portfolio Management team. He joined GSAM in 2015 as a vice president. Prior to joining GSAM, Mr. McGregor was a portfolio manager at Guggenheim Investments, focused on the firm’s domestic and international equity ETF suites, having joined in 2007.
   

 

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SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

For information about portfolio manager compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers and portfolio manager ownership of securities in the Funds, see the SAI.

 

  DISTRIBUTOR     

ALPS Distributors, Inc., 1290 Broadway, Suite 1100, Denver, Colorado 80203, serves as the exclusive distributor of Creation Units of shares of the Funds pursuant to a “best efforts” arrangement as provided by a distribution agreement with the Trust on behalf of the Funds. Shares of the Funds are offered and sold on a continuous basis by the Distributor, acting as agent. The Distributor does not maintain a secondary market in the Funds’ Shares.

 

  TRANSFER AGENT, CUSTODIAN AND PROVIDER OF ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES     

The Bank of New York Mellon (“BNYM”), 225 Liberty Street, New York, New York 10286, serves as the Trust’s transfer and dividend disbursing agent. Under its transfer agency agreement with the Trust, BNYM has undertaken with the Trust to provide the following services with respect to each Fund: (i) perform and facilitate the performance of purchases and redemptions of Creation Units, (ii) prepare and transmit by means of Depository Trust Company’s (“DTC”) book-entry system payments for dividends and distributions on or with respect to the Shares declared by the Trust on behalf of the applicable Fund, (iii) prepare and deliver reports, information and documents as specified in the transfer agency agreement, (iv) perform the customary services of a transfer agent and dividend disbursing agent, and (v) render certain other miscellaneous services as specified in the transfer agency agreement or as otherwise agreed upon.

BNYM is the custodian of the Trust’s portfolio securities and cash. The custodian of the Trust may change from time to time. BNYM also maintains the Trust’s accounting records. BNYM may appoint domestic and foreign sub-custodians and use depositories from time to time to hold securities and other instruments purchased by the Trust in foreign countries and to hold cash and currencies for the Trust.

BNYM provides administrative services pursuant to a fund administration agreement with the Trust (the “Fund Administration and Accounting Agreement”) pursuant to which BNYM provides certain services, including, among others, (i) preparation of certain shareholder reports and communications; (ii) preparation of certain reports and filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission; (iii) certain net asset value computation services; and (iv) such other services for the Trust as may be mutually agreed upon between the Trust and BNYM. For its services under the Fund Administration and Accounting Agreement, BNYM receives such fees based on a stated percentage of net assets as are agreed upon from time to time between the parties. In addition, BNYM is reimbursed by the Funds for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with the Fund Administration and Accounting Agreement. In addition, an affiliate of BNYM will also provide certain other services for the Trust, including, (i) providing foreign exchange transaction services and (ii) executing trades in connection with certain creation and redemption transactions effected partially in cash. For these services, the BNYM affiliate will receive compensation based on levels that are negotiated with the Trust and/or the Investment Adviser. BNYM also provides certain middle office services to GSAM pursuant to a service agreement.

 

  ACTIVITIES OF GOLDMAN SACHS AND ITS AFFILIATES AND OTHER ACCOUNTS MANAGED BY GOLDMAN SACHS     

The involvement of the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and their affiliates in the management of, or their interest in, other accounts and other activities of Goldman Sachs may present conflicts of interest with respect to a Fund or limit a Fund’s investment activities. Goldman Sachs is a worldwide, full service investment banking, broker dealer, asset management and financial services organization and a major participant in global financial markets that provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high-net-worth individuals. As such, it acts as an investor, investment banker, research provider, investment manager, financier, adviser, market maker, trader, prime broker, lender, agent and principal. In those and other capacities, Goldman Sachs advises clients in all markets and transactions and purchases, sells, holds and recommends a broad array of investments, including securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps, indices, baskets and other financial instruments and products for its own account or for the accounts of its customers and has other direct and indirect interests in the global fixed income, currency, commodity, equities, bank loans and other markets in which the Funds directly and indirectly invest. Thus, it is likely that the Funds will have multiple business relationships with and will invest in, engage in transactions with, make voting decisions with respect to, or obtain services from entities for which Goldman Sachs performs or seeks to perform investment banking or other services. The Investment Adviser and/or certain of its affiliates are the managers of the Goldman Sachs Funds. The Investment Adviser and its affili-

 

39


ates earn fees from this and other relationships with the Funds. Although these fees are generally based on asset levels, the fees are not directly contingent on Fund performance, and Goldman Sachs would still receive significant compensation from the Funds even if shareholders lose money. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates engage in proprietary trading and advise accounts and funds which have investment objectives similar to those of the Funds or which are based on the same, or substantially similar, strategies that are used in the operation of the Index and/or which engage in and compete for transactions in the same types of securities, currencies and instruments as the Funds. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates will not have any obligation to make available any information regarding their proprietary activities or strategies, or the activities or strategies used for other accounts managed by them, for the benefit of the management of the Funds. The results of a Fund’s investment activities, therefore, may differ from those of Goldman Sachs, its affiliates, and other accounts managed by Goldman Sachs and it is possible that a Fund could sustain losses during periods in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates and other accounts achieve significant profits on their trading for proprietary or other accounts. In addition, the Funds may enter into transactions in which Goldman Sachs or its other clients have an adverse interest. For example, a Fund may take a long position in a security at the same time that Goldman Sachs or other accounts managed by the Investment Adviser take a short position in the same security (or vice versa). These and other transactions undertaken by Goldman Sachs, its affiliates or Goldman Sachs advised clients may, individually or in the aggregate, adversely impact the Funds. In some cases, such adverse impacts may result from differences in the timing of transactions by Accounts relative to when the Funds execute transactions in the same securities. Transactions by one or more Goldman Sachs advised clients or the Investment Adviser may have the effect of diluting or otherwise disadvantaging the values, prices or investment strategies of the Funds. A Fund’s activities may be limited because of regulatory restrictions applicable to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates, and/or their internal policies designed to comply with such restrictions. As a global financial services firm, Goldman Sachs also provides a wide range of investment banking and financial services to issuers of securities and investors in securities. Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and others associated with it may create markets or specialize in, have positions in and effect transactions in, securities of issuers held by the Funds, and may also perform or seek to perform investment banking and financial services for those issuers. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates may have business relationships with and purchase or distribute or sell services or products from or to distributors, consultants or others who recommend the Funds or who engage in transactions with or for the Funds.

For more information about conflicts of interest, see the SAI.

Under a securities lending program approved by the Funds’ Board of Trustees, the Funds may retain an affiliate of the Investment Adviser to serve as a securities lending agent for each Fund to the extent that they engage in the securities lending program. For these services, the lending agent may receive a fee from a Fund, including a fee based on the returns earned on such Fund’s investment of the cash received as collateral for the loaned securities. The Board of Trustees periodically reviews reports on portfolio securities loan transactions for which the affiliated lending agent has acted as lending agent. The Funds may make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Funds’ portfolio investment transactions in accordance with applicable law.

 

40


 

Distributions

 

Each Fund pays distributions from its investment income and from net realized capital gains.

Distributions from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid quarterly for each Fund, and distributions from net capital gains, if any, are declared and paid annually for each Fund.

In addition to the net investment income dividends paid quarterly, a Fund may also earn additional net investment income throughout the year. Any additional net investment income will be distributed annually as a declared event and paid to shareholders of record for such events.

From time to time a portion of a Fund’s distributions may constitute a return of capital for tax purposes, and/or may include amounts in excess of the Fund’s net investment income for the period calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

Dividends and other distributions on Shares of a Fund are distributed on a pro rata basis to beneficial owners of such Shares. Dividend payments are made through Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) participants and indirect participants (each as described in the Book Entry section below) to beneficial owners then of record with proceeds received from a Fund.

No dividend reinvestment service is provided by the Funds. Broker-dealers may make available the DTC book-entry dividend reinvestment service for use by beneficial owners of the Funds for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Beneficial owners should contact their broker to determine the availability and costs of the service and the details of participation therein. Brokers may require beneficial owners to adhere to specific procedures and timetables. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and realized gains will be automatically reinvested in additional whole Shares of a Fund purchased in the secondary market.

 

41


 

Shareholder Guide

 

  BUYING AND SELLING SHARES     

Shares of a Fund may be acquired or redeemed directly from the Fund only in Creation Units or multiples thereof, as discussed in the Creations and Redemptions section of the Prospectus. Only an Authorized Participant (as defined in the Creations and Redemptions section below) may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with a Fund. Once created, Shares of the Funds generally trade in the secondary market in amounts less than a Creation Unit.

Shares of the Funds are listed for trading on a national securities exchange during the trading day. Shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like shares of other publicly traded companies. However, there can be no guarantee that an active trading market will develop or be maintained, or that the Fund Shares’ listing will continue or remain unchanged. The Trust does not impose any minimum investment for Shares of a Fund purchased on an exchange. Buying or selling a Fund’s Shares involves certain costs that apply to all securities transactions. When buying or selling Shares of a Fund through a financial intermediary, you may incur a brokerage commission or other charges determined by your financial intermediary. Due to these brokerage costs, if any, frequent trading may detract significantly from investment returns. In addition, you may also incur the cost of the spread (the difference between the bid price and the ask price). The commission is frequently a fixed amount and may be a significant cost for investors seeking to buy or sell small amounts of Shares. The spread varies over time for Shares of a Fund based on its trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally less if the Fund has more trading volume and market liquidity and more if the Fund has less trading volume and market liquidity.

Each Fund’s primary listing exchange is the Exchange. The Exchange is open for trading Monday through Friday and is closed on the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

A “business day” with respect to the Funds is each day the New York Stock Exchange, the Exchange and the Trust are open and includes any day that a Fund is required to be open under Section 22(e) of the Investment Company Act. Orders from Authorized Participants to create or redeem Creation Units will only be accepted on a business day. On days when the Exchange closes earlier than normal, the Funds may require orders to create or redeem Creation Units to be placed earlier in the day. See the SAI for more information.

The Trust’s Board of Trustees has not adopted a policy of monitoring for frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund Shares (“frequent trading”) that appear to attempt to take advantage of potential arbitrage opportunities presented by a lag between a change in the value of a Fund’s portfolio securities after the close of the primary markets for the Fund’s portfolio securities and the reflection of that change in the Fund’s NAV (“market timing”). The Trust believes this is appropriate because ETFs, such as the Funds, are intended to be attractive to arbitrageurs, as trading activity is critical to ensuring that the market price of Fund Shares remains at or close to NAV. Since the Funds issue and redeem Creation Units at NAV plus applicable transaction fees, and the Funds’ Shares may be purchased and sold on the Exchange at prevailing market prices, the risks of frequent trading are limited.

Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act restricts investments by registered investment companies and companies relying on Sections 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) of the Investment Company Act in the securities of other investment companies. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Funds beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in an SEC exemptive order issued to GSAM and the Trust, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with the Trust.

The Funds and the Distributor will have the sole right to accept orders to purchase Shares and reserve the right to reject any order in whole or in part.

 

  PAYMENTS TO BROKER-DEALERS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES     

GSAM and/or the Distributor (upon direction of a Fund) may make payments to broker-dealers or other financial intermediaries (each, a “Financial Intermediary”) related to activities that are designed to make registered representatives, other professionals and individual investors more knowledgeable about the Funds or for other activities, such as participation in marketing activities and presentations, educational training programs, the support of technology platforms and/or reporting systems. GSAM and/or the Distributor (upon direction of a Fund) may also make payments to Financial Intermediaries for certain printing, publishing and mailing costs associated with the Funds or materials relating to exchange-traded funds in general and/or for the provision of

 

42


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

analytical or other data to GSAM or its affiliates relating to sales of Fund Shares. In addition, GSAM and/or the Distributor may make payments to Financial Intermediaries that make Fund Shares available to their clients or for otherwise promoting the Funds, including through the provision of consultative services to GSAM or its affiliates relating to marketing of a Fund and/or sale of Fund Shares. Such payments, which may be significant to the Financial Intermediary, are not made by a Fund. Rather, such payments are made by GSAM and/or the Distributor from their own resources, which may come directly or indirectly in part from management fees paid by the Funds. Payments of this type are sometimes referred to as marketing support or revenue-sharing payments. A Financial Intermediary may make decisions about which investment options it recommends or makes available, or the level of services provided, to its customers based on the marketing support payments it is eligible to receive. Therefore, such payments to a Financial Intermediary create conflicts of interest between the Financial Intermediary and its customers and may cause the Financial Intermediary to recommend a Fund over another investment. More information regarding these payments is contained in the Statement of Additional Information. A shareholder should contact his or her Financial Intermediary’s salesperson or other investment professional for more information regarding any such payments the Financial Intermediary firm may receive from GSAM and/or the Distributor.

 

  NET ASSET VALUE     

Each Fund generally calculates its NAV as follows:

 

NAV =   (Value of Assets of the Fund)
– (Liabilities of the Fund)
  Number of Outstanding Shares of the Fund

Each Fund’s NAV per share is generally calculated by the Funds’ provider of administrative services on each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) or such other times as the New York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ market may officially close. A Fund’s investments for which market quotations are readily available are valued at market value on the basis of quotations provided by pricing services or securities dealers. If accurate quotations are not readily available, if the Funds’ provider of administrative services is unable for other reasons to facilitate pricing of individual securities or calculate the Funds’ NAV, or if the Investment Adviser believes that such quotations do not accurately reflect fair value, the fair value of the Funds’ investments may be determined in good faith under valuation procedures established by the Board of Trustees. Thus, such pricing may be based on subjective judgments and it is possible that the prices resulting from such valuation procedures may differ materially from the value realized on a sale.

Cases where there is no clear indication of the value of a Fund’s investments include, among others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source or a price is unavailable.

In addition, the Investment Adviser, consistent with its procedures and applicable regulatory guidance, may (but need not) determine to make an adjustment to the previous closing prices of either domestic or foreign securities in light of significant events, to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities at the time of determining a Fund’s NAV. Significant events that could affect a large number of securities in a particular market may include, but are not limited to: situations relating to one or more single issuers in a market sector; significant fluctuations in U.S. or foreign markets; market dislocations; market disruptions or unscheduled market closings; equipment failures; natural or manmade disasters or acts of God; armed conflicts; governmental actions or other developments; as well as the same or similar events which may affect specific issuers or the securities markets even though not tied directly to the securities markets. Other significant events that could relate to a single issuer may include, but are not limited to: corporate actions such as reorganizations, mergers and buy-outs; corporate announcements, including those relating to earnings, products and regulatory news; significant litigation; ratings downgrades; bankruptcies; and trading suspensions. In addition, if the third party service providers and/or data sources upon which a Fund directly or indirectly relies to calculate its NAV or price individual securities are unavailable or otherwise unable to calculate the NAV correctly, it may be necessary for alternative procedures to be followed to price the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV.

Fair valuation involves the risk that the values used by a Fund to price its investments may be different from those used by other investment companies and investors to price the same investments.

Foreign securities may trade in their local markets on days a Fund is closed. As a result, if a Fund holds foreign securities, its NAV may be impacted on days when investors may not purchase or sell Fund Shares on the secondary market or purchase or redeem Creation Units through the Fund.

 

43


 

Each Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The ability of the Funds’ accounting agent to calculate the NAV per share of each Fund is subject to operational risks associated with processing or human errors, systems or technology failures, and errors caused by third party service providers, data sources, or trading counterparties. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of a Fund’s NAV and/or the inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. The Funds may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures, and it may be necessary for alternative procedures to be followed to price portfolio securities when determining a Fund’s NAV.

 

  BOOK ENTRY     

DTC serves as securities depository for the Shares. (The Shares may be held only in book-entry form; stock certificates will not be issued.) DTC, or its nominee, is the record or registered owner of all outstanding Shares. Beneficial ownership of Shares will be shown on the records of DTC or its participants (described below). Beneficial owners of Shares are not entitled to have Shares registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of certificates in definitive form and are not considered the registered holder thereof. Accordingly, to exercise any rights of a holder of Shares, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of: (i) DTC; (ii) “DTC Participants,” i.e., securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own DTC; and (iii) “Indirect Participants,” i.e., brokers, dealers, banks and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly, through which such beneficial owner holds its interests. The Trust understands that under existing industry practice, in the event the Trust requests any action of holders of Shares, or a beneficial owner desires to take any action that DTC, as the record owner of all outstanding Shares, is entitled to take, DTC would authorize the DTC Participants to take such action and that the DTC Participants would authorize the Indirect Participants and beneficial owners acting through such DTC Participants to take such action and would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners owning through them. As described above, the Trust recognizes DTC or its nominee as the owner of all Shares for all purposes.

 

  CREATIONS AND REDEMPTIONS     

Prior to trading in the secondary market, Shares of the Funds are “created” at NAV by market makers, large investors and institutions only in block-size Creation Units or multiples thereof. Each “creator” or “Authorized Participant” enters into an authorized participant agreement with the Funds’ Distributor. The following table sets forth the number of Shares of each Fund that constitute a Creation Unit for the Fund:

 

                                                                             
Fund   Creation Unit Size

Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF

  [    ]

Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF

  [    ]

Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF

  [    ]

Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF

  [    ]

Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF

  [    ]
 

A creation transaction, which is subject to acceptance by BNYM, as the Trust’s transfer agent, generally takes place when an Authorized Participant deposits into a Fund a designated portfolio of securities (including any portion of such securities for which cash may be substituted) and a specified amount of cash approximating the holdings of the Fund in exchange for a specified number of Creation Units. To the extent practicable, the composition of such portfolio generally corresponds pro rata to the positions of a Fund’s portfolio (including cash positions). However, creation and redemption baskets may differ under certain circumstances.

Similarly, Shares can be redeemed only in Creation Units, generally for a designated portfolio of securities (including any portion of such securities for which cash may be substituted) held by a Fund and a specified amount of cash. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, Shares are not redeemable by the Funds.

The prices at which creations and redemptions occur are based on the next calculation of NAV after a creation or redemption order is received in an acceptable form under the authorized participant agreement. Please note the following with respect to the price at which transactions are processed:

   

NAV per Share is generally calculated by the accounting agent on each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) or such other times as the New York Stock Exchange or

 

44


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

  NASDAQ market may officially close. Fund shares will generally not be priced on any day the New York Stock Exchange is closed.
   

The Trust reserves the right to reprocess creation and redemption transactions that were processed at a NAV that is subsequently adjusted, and to recover amounts from (or distribute amounts to) Authorized Participants accordingly based on the official closing NAV, as adjusted.

   

The Trust reserves the right to advance the time by which creation and redemption orders must be received for same business day credit as otherwise permitted by the SEC.

   

Consistent with industry practice, investment transactions not settling on the same day are recorded and factored into a Fund’s NAV on the business day following trade date (T+1). The use of T+1 accounting generally does not, but may, result in a NAV that differs materially from the NAV that would result if all transactions were reflected on their trade dates.

Note: The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time by which orders must be received may be changed in case of an emergency or if regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange is stopped at a time other than its regularly scheduled closing time. In the event the New York Stock Exchange does not open for business, the Trust may, but is not required to, open one or more Funds for creation and redemption transactions if the Federal Reserve wire payment system is open. To learn whether a Fund is open for business during this situation, please call the appropriate phone number located on the back cover of the Prospectus.

Only an Authorized Participant may create or redeem Creation Units directly with a Fund.

In the event of a system failure or other interruption, including disruptions at market makers or Authorized Participants, orders to purchase or redeem Creation Units either may not be executed according to a Fund’s instructions or may not be executed at all, or the Fund may not be able to place or change orders.

To the extent a Fund engages in in-kind transactions, the Fund intends to comply with the U.S. federal securities laws in accepting securities for deposit and satisfying redemptions with redemption securities by, among other means, assuring that any securities accepted for deposit and any securities used to satisfy redemption requests will be sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). Further, an Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer,” as such term is defined under Rule 144A of the Securities Act, will not be able to receive restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A.

Creations and redemptions must be made through a firm that is either a member of the Continuous Net Settlement System of the National Securities Clearing Corporation or a DTC Participant and has executed an agreement with the Distributor with respect to creations and redemptions of Creation Unit aggregations. Information about the procedures regarding creation and redemption of Creation Units (including the cut-off times for receipt of creation and redemption orders) and the applicable transaction fees is included in the Funds’ SAI.

 

45


 

Taxation

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in the Funds will be taxed. The tax information below is provided as general information. More tax information is available in the SAI. You should consult your tax adviser about the federal, state, local or foreign tax consequences of your investment in the Funds. Except as otherwise noted, the tax information provided assumes that you are a U.S. citizen or resident.

Unless your investment is through an IRA or other tax-advantaged account, you should carefully consider the possible tax consequences of Fund distributions and the sale of your Fund Shares.

 

  DISTRIBUTIONS     

Each Fund contemplates declaring as dividends each year all or substantially all of its taxable income. Distributions you receive from the Funds are generally subject to federal income tax, and may also be subject to state or local taxes. This is true whether you reinvest your distributions in additional Fund Shares or receive them in cash. For federal tax purposes, the Funds’ distributions attributable to net investment income and short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income while distributions of long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned your Fund Shares.

Under current provisions of the Code, the maximum individual rate applicable to long-term capital gains is generally either 15% or 20%, depending on whether the individual’s income exceeds certain threshold amounts. Fund distributions to non-corporate shareholders attributable to dividends received by the Funds from U.S. and certain qualified foreign corporations will generally be taxed at the long-term capital gain rate, as long as certain other requirements are met. For these lower rates to apply, the non-corporate shareholder must own their Fund Shares for at least 61 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before a Fund’s ex-dividend date. The amount of a Fund’s distributions that would otherwise qualify for this favorable tax treatment will be reduced as a result of a Fund’s securities lending activities or high portfolio turnover rate.

Distributions in excess of a Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits are treated as a tax-free return of your investment to the extent of your basis in the shares, and generally as capital gain thereafter. A return of capital, which for tax purposes is treated as a return of your investment, reduces your basis in shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition of shares. A distribution will reduce a Fund’s NAV per share and may be taxable to you as ordinary income or capital gain even though, from an economic standpoint, the distribution may constitute a return of capital.

An additional 3.8% Medicare tax is imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from a Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund Shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.

A Fund’s transactions in derivatives (such as futures contracts and swaps) will be subject to special tax rules, the effect of which may be to accelerate income to the Fund, defer losses to the Fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of the Fund’s securities and convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to you. A Fund’s use of derivatives may result in the Fund realizing more short-term capital gains and ordinary income subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates than it would if it did not use derivatives.

Although distributions are generally treated as taxable to you in the year they are paid, distributions declared in October, November or December but paid in January are taxable as if they were paid in December. A percentage of the Funds’ dividends paid to corporate shareholders may be eligible for the corporate dividends-received deduction. This percentage may, however, be reduced as a result of a Fund’s securities lending activities or high portfolio turnover rate. Character and tax status of all distributions will be available to shareholders after the close of each calendar year.

Each Fund may be subject to foreign withholding or other foreign taxes on income or gain from certain foreign securities. In general, each Fund may deduct these taxes in computing its taxable income. In general, the Fund may deduct these taxes in computing its taxable income. Rather than deducting these foreign taxes, a Fund may make an election to treat a proportionate amount of those taxes as constituting a distribution to each shareholder, which would generally allow you either (i) to credit (subject to certain holding period and other limitations) that proportionate amount of taxes against your U.S. Federal income tax liability as a foreign tax credit or (ii) to take that amount as an itemized deduction.

 

46


TAXATION

 

If you buy Shares of a Fund before it makes a distribution, the distribution will be taxable to you even though it may actually be a return of a portion of your investment. This is known as “buying into a dividend.”

 

  TAXES ON CREATIONS AND REDEMPTIONS OF CREATION UNITS     

A person who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of exchange and the sum of the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered and the amount of any cash paid for such Creation Units. A person who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of the securities received. The Internal Revenue Service, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of primarily securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales,” or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons exchanging securities for Creation Units or redeeming Creation Units should consult their own tax adviser with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible and the tax treatment of any creation or redemption transaction.

Under current U.S. federal income tax laws, any capital gain or loss realized upon a redemption (or creation) of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares (or securities surrendered) have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if the Shares (or securities surrendered) have been held for one year or less.

 

  SALES OF FUND SHARES     

Your sale of Fund Shares is a taxable transaction for federal income tax purposes, and may also be subject to state and local taxes. When you sell your Shares, you will generally recognize a capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between your adjusted tax basis in the Shares and the amount received. Generally, this capital gain or loss is long-term or short-term depending on whether your holding period exceeds one year, except that any loss realized on Shares held for six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any capital gain dividends that were received on the Shares. Additionally, any loss realized on a sale or redemption of Shares of a Fund may be disallowed under “wash sale” rules to the extent the Shares disposed of are replaced with other Shares of that Fund within a period of 61 days beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the date of disposition, such as pursuant to a dividend reinvestment in Shares of that Fund. If disallowed, the loss will be reflected in an adjustment to the basis of the Shares acquired.

 

  OTHER INFORMATION     

You may be subject to backup withholding at a rate of 24% with respect to taxable distributions if you do not provide your correct taxpayer identification number, or certify that it is correct, or if you have been notified by the IRS that you are subject to backup withholding.

Non-U.S. investors are generally subject to U.S. withholding tax and may be subject to estate tax with respect to their Fund Shares. However, withholding is generally not required on properly designated distributions to non-U.S. investors of long-term capital gains. Under a provision recently made permanent by Congress, non-U.S. investors generally are not subject to U.S. federal income tax withholding on certain distributions of interest income and/or short-term capital gains that are designated by a Fund. It is expected that the Funds will generally make designations of short-term gains, to the extent permitted, but the Funds do not intend to make designations of any distributions attributable to interest income. Therefore, all distributions of interest income will be subject to withholding when paid to non-U.S. investors.

Withholding of U.S. tax (at a 30% rate) is required with respect to payments of taxable dividends and (effective January 1, 2019) certain capital gain dividends made to certain non-U.S. entities that fail to comply (or be deemed compliant) with extensive new reporting and withholding requirements designed to inform the U.S. Department of the Treasury of U.S.-owned foreign investment accounts. Shareholders may be requested to provide additional information t to enable the applicable withholding agent to determine whether withholding is required.

Reporting to you and the IRS is required annually on Form 1099-B not only the gross proceeds of Fund shares you sell or redeem but also their cost basis. Shareholders should contact their intermediaries with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections with respect to their accounts. You should carefully review the cost basis information provided by the applicable intermediary and make any additional basis, holding period or other adjustments that are required when reporting these amounts on your federal income tax returns.

You should carefully review the cost basis information provided by the applicable intermediary and make any additional basis, holding period or other adjustments that are required when reporting these amounts on your federal income tax returns.

 

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Index Provider

 

The Motif Data-Driven World Index, Motif Finance Reimagined Index, Motif Human Evolution Index, Motif Manufacturing Revolution Index and Motif New Age Consumer Index were developed and are maintained by the Index Provider and calculated by the Calculation Agent. The Index Provider determines the composition and relative weightings of the securities in each Index. The Calculation Agent publishes information regarding the market value of each Index. A Fund may hire an affiliate of the Fund and/or the Investment Adviser to serve as calculation agent and/or index provider.

“Motif” is a trademark of Motif Capital Management, Inc. or its affiliates and has been licensed for use in connection with the issuance and distribution of the Funds. The Funds are not sponsored by, endorsed, sold or promoted by Motif Capital Management, Inc., and Motif Capital Management, Inc. makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in them.

 

48


 

Other Information

 

  PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION     

The Funds have not yet commenced operations and, therefore, do not have information to report regarding how often the Shares of a Fund traded on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV of the Fund.

 

  CONTINUOUS OFFERING     

The method by which Creation Units are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units are issued and sold by the Trust on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act, may occur at any point. Broker dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

For example, a broker dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent Shares, and sells such Shares directly to customers, or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for Shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a categorization as an underwriter.

Broker dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted to ordinary secondary trading transactions), and thus dealing with Shares that are part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, would be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the Investment Company Act. As a result, broker dealer firms should note that dealers who are not underwriters but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with the Shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(3)(A) of the Securities Act would be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. Firms that incur a prospectus delivery obligation with respect to Shares are reminded that, under Rule 153 of the Securities Act, a prospectus delivery obligation under Section 5(b)(2) of the Securities Act owed to an exchange member in connection with a sale on the Exchange is satisfied by the fact that the prospectus is available at the Exchange upon request. The prospectus delivery mechanism provided in Rule 153 is only available with respect to transactions on an exchange.

In addition, certain affiliates of the Funds and the Investment Adviser may purchase and resell Fund Shares pursuant to the Prospectus.

 

  DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN     

The Board of Trustees of the Trust has adopted a distribution and service plan (“Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act. Under the Plan, each Fund is authorized to pay distribution fees in connection with the sale and distribution of its Shares and pay service fees in connection with the provision of ongoing services to shareholders of the Fund and the maintenance of shareholder accounts in an amount up to [     ]% of its average daily net assets each year.

No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Funds, and there are no current plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because these fees are paid out of each Fund’s assets on an ongoing basis, these fees will increase the cost of your investment in the Funds. By purchasing Shares subject to distribution fees and service fees, you may pay more over time than you would by purchasing Shares with other types of sales charge arrangements. Long-term shareholders may pay more than the economic equivalent of the maximum front-end sales charge permitted by the rules of FINRA. The net income attributable to Shares will be reduced by the amount of distribution fees and service fees and other expenses of the Funds.

 

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Appendix A

Additional Information on Portfolio Risks, Securities and Techniques

 

  A.    General Portfolio Risks     

The Funds are subject to the risks associated with equity investments. “Equity investments” may include common stocks, preferred stocks, interests in real estate investment trusts (“REITs”), convertible debt obligations, convertible preferred stocks, equity interests in trusts, partnerships, joint ventures, limited liability companies and similar enterprises, other investment companies (including ETFs), warrants, stock purchase rights and synthetic and derivative instruments (such as swaps and futures contracts) that have economic characteristics similar to equity securities. In general, the values of equity investments fluctuate in response to the activities of individual companies and in response to general market and economic conditions. Accordingly, the values of the equity investments that a Fund holds may decline over short or extended periods. The stock markets tend to be cyclical, with periods when stock prices generally rise and periods when prices generally decline. This volatility means that the value of your investment in a Fund may increase or decrease. In recent years, certain stock markets have experienced substantial price volatility. To the extent a Fund’s net assets decrease or increase in the future due to price volatility or share redemption or purchase activity, the Fund’s expense ratio may correspondingly increase or decrease from the expense ratio disclosed in the Prospectus.

To the extent a Fund invests in pooled investment vehicles (including investment companies and ETFs) and partnerships, that Fund will be affected by the investment policies, practices and performances of such entities in direct proportion to the amount of assets the Fund invests therein.

The following sections provide further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Funds, including their associated risks. Additional information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request. Among other things, the SAI describes certain fundamental investment restrictions that cannot be changed without shareholder approval. You should note, however, that all investment objectives, and all investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental are non-fundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval. If there is a change in a Fund’s investment objective, you should consider whether that Fund remains an appropriate investment in light of your then current financial position and needs.

 

  B.    Other Portfolio Risks     

Risks of Investing in Mid-Capitalization and Small-Capitalization Companies.  Each Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, invest in mid- and small-capitalization companies. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies involve greater risk and portfolio price volatility than investments in larger capitalization stocks. Among the reasons for the greater price volatility of these investments are the less certain growth prospects of smaller firms and the lower degree of liquidity in the markets for such securities. Mid- and small- capitalization companies may be thinly traded and may have to be sold at a discount from current market prices or in small lots over an extended period of time. In addition, these securities are subject to the risk that during certain periods the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities in particular investment categories, will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic or market conditions, or adverse investor perceptions whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, a Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and only then at a substantial drop in price. Mid- and small-capitalization companies include “unseasoned” issuers that do not have an established financial history; often have limited product lines, markets or financial resources; may depend on or use a few key personnel for management; and may be susceptible to losses and risks of bankruptcy. Mid- and small-capitalization companies may be operating at a loss or have significant variations in operating results; may be engaged in a rapidly changing business with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence; may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, to finance expansion or to maintain their competitive position; and may have substantial borrowings or may otherwise have a weak financial condition. In addition, these companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing, and other capabilities, and a larger number of qualified managerial and technical personnel. Transaction costs for these investments are often higher than those of larger capitalization companies. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies may be more difficult to price precisely than other types of securities because of their characteristics and lower trading volumes.

Risks of Foreign Investments.  The Funds may make foreign investments. Foreign investments involve special risks that are not typically associated with U.S. dollar denominated or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Foreign investments may be affected by

 

50


APPENDIX A

 

changes in currency rates, changes in foreign or U.S. laws or restrictions applicable to such investments and changes in exchange control regulations (e.g., currency blockage). A decline in the exchange rate of the currency (i.e., weakening of the currency against the U.S. dollar) in which a portfolio security is quoted or denominated relative to the U.S. dollar would reduce the value of the portfolio security. In addition, if the currency in which a Fund receives dividends, interest or other payments declines in value against the U.S. dollar before such income is distributed as dividends to shareholders or converted to U.S. dollars, the Fund may have to sell portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to pay such dividends.

Certain foreign markets may rely heavily on particular industries or foreign capital and are more vulnerable to diplomatic developments, the imposition of economic sanctions against a particular country or countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals, changes in international trading patterns, trade barriers, and other protectionist or retaliatory measures. International trade barriers or economic sanctions against foreign countries, organizations, entities and/or individuals may adversely affect a Fund’s foreign holdings or exposures.

Brokerage commissions, custodial services and other costs relating to investment in international securities markets generally are more expensive than in the United States. In addition, clearance and settlement procedures may be different in foreign countries and, in certain markets, such procedures have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, thus making it difficult to conduct such transactions.

Foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers. There may be less publicly available information about a foreign issuer than about a U.S. issuer. In addition, there is generally less government regulation of foreign markets, companies and securities dealers than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. Foreign securities markets may have substantially less volume than U.S. securities markets and securities of many foreign issuers are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable domestic issuers. Furthermore, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is a possibility of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, imposition of withholding or other taxes on dividend or interest payments (or, in some cases, capital gains distributions), limitations on the removal of funds or other assets from such countries, and risks of political or social instability or diplomatic developments which could adversely affect investments in those countries.

Certain foreign investments may become less liquid in response to social, political or market developments or adverse investor perceptions, or become illiquid after purchase by a Fund, particularly during periods of market turmoil. Certain foreign investments may become illiquid when, for instance, there are few, if any, interested buyers and sellers or when dealers are unwilling to make a market for certain securities. When a Fund holds illiquid investments, its portfolio may be harder to value, especially in changing markets.

Concentration of a Fund’s assets in one or a few countries and currencies will subject a Fund to greater risks than if a Fund’s assets were not geographically concentrated.

Investments in foreign securities may take the form of sponsored and ADRs, GDRs, European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) or other similar instruments representing securities of foreign issuers. ADRs, GDRs and EDRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a bank or other depository. ADRs and certain GDRs are traded in the United States. GDRs may be traded in either the United States or in foreign markets. EDRs are traded primarily outside the United States. Prices of ADRs are quoted in U.S. dollars. EDRs and GDRs are not necessarily quoted in the same currency as the underlying security.

Foreign Custody Risk.  A Fund may hold foreign securities and cash with Foreign Custodians. Some Foreign Custodians may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. In some countries, Foreign Custodians may be subject to little or no regulatory oversight over or independent evaluation of their operations. Further, the laws of certain countries may place limitations on a Fund’s ability to recover assets if a Foreign Custodian enters bankruptcy. Investments in emerging market countries may be subject to even greater custody risks than investments in more developed markets. Custody services in emerging market countries are very often undeveloped and may be considerably less well regulated than in more developed countries, and thus may not afford the same level of investor protection as would apply in developed countries.

Risks of Emerging Countries.  The Funds may invest in securities of issuers located in emerging countries. The risks of foreign investment are heightened when the issuer is located in an emerging country. Emerging countries are generally located in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Eastern and Central Europe, and Central and South America. The Funds’ purchase and sale of portfolio securities in certain emerging countries may be constrained by limitations relating to daily changes in the prices of listed securities, periodic trading or settlement volume and/or limitations on aggregate holdings of foreign investors. Such limitations may be

 

51


computed based on the aggregate trading volume by or holdings of the Funds, the Investment Adviser, their affiliates and their respective clients and other service providers. The Funds may not be able to sell securities in circumstances where price, trading or settlement volume limitations have been reached.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees which may limit investment in such countries or increase the administrative costs of such investments. For example, certain Asian countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals. In addition, certain countries may restrict or prohibit investment opportunities in issuers or industries deemed important to national interests. Such restrictions may affect the market price, liquidity and rights of securities that may be purchased by the Funds. The repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from certain emerging countries is subject to restrictions such as the need for governmental consents, which may make it difficult for the Funds to invest in such emerging countries. The Funds could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. In situations where a country restricts direct investment in securities (which may occur in certain Asian and other countries), the Funds may invest in such countries through other investment funds in such countries.

Many emerging countries have recently experienced currency devaluations and substantial (and, in some cases, extremely high) rates of inflation. Other emerging countries have experienced economic recessions. These circumstances have had a negative effect on the economies and securities markets of those emerging countries. Economies in emerging countries generally are dependent heavily upon commodity prices and international trade and, accordingly, have been and may continue to be affected adversely by the economies of their trading partners, trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade.

Many emerging countries are subject to a substantial degree of economic, political and social instability. Governments of some emerging countries are authoritarian in nature or have been installed or removed as a result of military coups, while governments in other emerging countries have periodically used force to suppress civil dissent. Disparities of wealth, the pace and success of democratization, and ethnic, religious and racial disaffection, among other factors, have also led to social unrest, violence and/or labor unrest in some emerging countries. Unanticipated political or social developments may result in sudden and significant investment losses. Investing in emerging countries involves greater risk of loss due to expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and on repatriation of capital invested. As an example, in the past some Eastern European governments have expropriated substantial amounts of private property, and many claims of the property owners have never been fully settled. There is no assurance that similar expropriations will not occur in other countries.

The Funds’ investment in emerging countries may also be subject to withholding or other taxes, which may be significant and may reduce the return to the Funds from an investment in issuers in such countries.

Settlement procedures in emerging countries are frequently less developed and reliable than those in the United States and may involve the Fund’s delivery of securities before receipt of payment for their sale. In addition, significant delays may occur in certain markets in registering the transfer of securities. Settlement or registration problems may make it more difficult for the Fund to value its portfolio securities and could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities, to have a portion of its assets uninvested or to incur losses due to the failure of a counterparty to pay for securities the Fund has delivered or the Fund’s inability to complete its contractual obligations because of theft or other reasons.

The creditworthiness of the local securities firms used by a Fund in emerging countries may not be as sound as the creditworthiness of firms used in more developed countries. As a result, a Fund may be subject to a greater risk of loss if a securities firm defaults in the performance of its responsibilities.

The small size and inexperience of the securities markets in certain emerging countries and the limited volume of trading in securities in those countries may make a Fund’s investments in such countries less liquid and more volatile than investments in countries with more developed securities markets (such as the United States, Japan and most Western European countries). A Fund’s investments in emerging countries are subject to the risk that the liquidity of a particular investment, or investments generally, in such countries will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political conditions or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, a Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and only then at a substantial drop in price. Investments in emerging countries may be more difficult to value precisely because of the characteristics discussed above and lower trading volumes.

 

52


APPENDIX A

 

Geographic Risk.  If a Fund focuses its investments in securities of issuers located in a particular country or geographic region, the Fund may be subjected to a greater extent than if investments were less focused, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that country or region, such as: adverse securities markets; adverse exchange rates; adverse social, political, regulatory, economic, business, environmental or other developments; or natural disasters.

Risks of Derivative Investments.  The Funds may invest in derivative instruments, including without limitation, options, futures, options on futures, forwards, participation notes, swaps, options on swaps, structured securities and other derivatives relating to foreign currency transactions. Losses from derivative instruments can result from a lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivative instruments and the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged, the potential illiquidity of the markets for derivative instruments, the failure of the counterparty to perform its contractual obligations, or the risks related to leverage factors associated with such transactions. Derivatives are also subject to risks arising from margin requirements, which include the risk that a Fund will be required to pay additional margin or set aside additional collateral to maintain open derivative positions and the risk of loss by a Fund of margin deposits in the event of the bankruptcy or other similar insolvency with respect to a broker or counterparty with whom a Fund has an open derivative position. Losses may also arise if the Funds receive cash collateral under the transactions and some or all of that collateral is invested in the market. To the extent that cash collateral is so invested, such collateral will be subject to market depreciation or appreciation, and a Fund may be responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the counterparty’s cash collateral. If cash collateral is not invested, a Fund may be exposed to additional risk of loss in the event of the insolvency of its custodian holding such collateral. The use of these management techniques also involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of the timing or level of fluctuations in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables. Derivative instruments may be harder to value, subject to greater volatility and more likely subject to changes in tax treatment than other investments.

Risks of Illiquid Securities.  Each Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities, which are those that cannot be disposed of in seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the price at which a Fund values the instrument. Illiquid securities, in which some or all of the Funds may invest, include:

   

Both domestic and foreign securities that are not readily marketable

   

Repurchase agreements and time deposits with a notice or demand period of more than seven days

   

Certain over-the-counter options

   

Certain structured securities and swap transactions

   

Certain restricted securities, unless it is determined, based upon a review of the trading markets for a specific restricted security, that such restricted security is liquid because it is so called “4(2) commercial paper” or is otherwise eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act (“144A Securities”).

Investing in 144A Securities may decrease the liquidity of a Fund’s portfolio to the extent that qualified institutional buyers become for a time uninterested in purchasing these restricted securities. The purchase price and subsequent valuation of restricted and illiquid securities normally reflect a discount, which may be significant, from the market price of comparable securities for which a liquid market exists.

Investments purchased by a Fund, particularly over-the-counter traded instruments, that are liquid at the time of purchase may subsequently become illiquid due to events relating to the issuer of the securities, markets events, economic conditions or investor perceptions. Domestic and foreign markets are becoming more and more complex and interrelated, so that events in one sector of the market or the economy, or in one geographical region, can reverberate and have negative consequences for other market, economic or regional sectors in a manner that may not be reasonably foreseen. With respect to over-the-counter traded securities, the continued viability of any over-the-counter secondary market depends on the continued willingness of dealers and other participants to purchase the instruments.

If one or more instruments in a Fund’s portfolio become illiquid, the Fund may exceed its 15 percent limitation in illiquid instruments. In the event that changes in the portfolio or other external events cause the investments in illiquid instruments to exceed 15 percent of a Fund’s net assets, the Fund must take steps to bring the aggregate amount of illiquid instruments back within the prescribed limitations as soon as reasonably practicable. This requirement would not force a Fund to liquidate any portfolio instrument where the Fund would suffer a loss on the sale of that instrument.

In cases where no clear indication of the value of a Fund’s portfolio instruments is available, the portfolio instruments will be valued at their fair value according to the valuation procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. These cases include, among others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source, or the secondary markets on which an investment has previously been traded are no longer viable, due to its lack of liquidity. For more information on fair valuation, please see “Shareholder Guide—Net Asset Value.”

 

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  C.    Portfolio Securities and Techniques     

This section provides further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Funds, including their associated risks.

The Funds may purchase other types of securities or instruments similar to those described in this section if otherwise consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. Further information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request.

Foreign Currency Transactions.  The Funds may, to the extent consistent with their investment policies, purchase or sell foreign currencies on a cash basis or through forward contracts. A forward contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date at a price set at the time of the contract. A Fund may engage in foreign currency transactions for hedging purposes and to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, certain Funds may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Fund’s performance benchmark. Certain Funds may also enter into such transactions to seek to increase total return, which presents additional risk.

Some Funds may also engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in a currency different from that in which the hedged security is denominated or quoted. A Fund may hold foreign currency received in connection with investments in foreign securities when, in the judgment of the Investment Adviser, it would be beneficial to convert such currency into U.S. dollars at a later date (e.g. the Investment Adviser may anticipate the foreign currency to appreciate against the U.S. dollar).

Certain Funds may, from time to time, engage in non-deliverable forward transactions to manage currency risk or to gain exposure to a currency without purchasing securities denominated in that currency. A non-deliverable forward is a transaction that represents an agreement between a Fund and a counterparty (usually a commercial bank) to pay the other party the amount that it would cost based on current market rates as of the termination date to buy or sell a specified (notional) amount of a particular currency at an agreed upon foreign exchange rate on an agreed upon future date. If the counterparty defaults, a Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreement related to the transaction, but the Fund may be delayed or prevented from obtaining payments owed to it pursuant to non-deliverable forward transactions. Such non-deliverable forward transactions will be settled in cash.

Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time, causing, along with other factors, a Fund’s NAV to fluctuate (when the Fund’s NAV fluctuates, the value of your shares may go up or down). Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by the intervention of U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad.

Certain forward foreign currency exchange contracts and other currency transactions are not exchange traded or cleared. The market in such forward foreign currency exchange contracts, currency swaps and other privately negotiated currency instruments offers less protection against defaults by the other party to such instruments than is available for currency instruments traded on an exchange. Such contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the contract will default on its obligations. Because these contracts are not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on a contract would deprive a Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or could force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price.

A Fund is not required to post cash collateral with its counterparties in certain foreign currency transactions. Accordingly, a Fund may remain more fully invested (and more of the Fund’s assets may be subject to investment and market risk) than if it were required to post collateral with its counterparties (which is the case with certain transactions). Where a Fund’s counterparties are not required to post cash collateral with the Fund, the Fund will be subject to additional counterparty risk.

Other Investment Companies.  Each Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies, including ETFs, subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Investment Company Act, or exemptive relief thereunder. These statutory limitations include in certain circumstances a prohibition on any Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting Shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of a Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in securities of all investment companies.

Subject to applicable law and/or pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, a Fund may invest in certain other investment companies, including ETFs and money market funds, beyond the statutory limits described above or otherwise. Some of those investment companies may be funds for which the Investment Adviser or any of their affiliates serves as investment adviser, administrator or distributor.

 

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APPENDIX A

 

A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by such other investment companies, in addition to the fees and expenses regularly borne by the Fund. Although the Funds do not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, each Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment objective, policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund.

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights.  Each Fund may invest in preferred stock, warrants and stock purchase rights (or “rights”). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer’s earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default or other non-compliance by the issuer of the preferred stock.

Warrants and other rights are options to buy a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price at any time during the life of the warrant or right. The holders of warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

Lending of Portfolio Securities. Each Fund may engage in securities lending. Securities lending involves the lending of securities owned by a Fund to financial institutions such as certain broker-dealers. The borrowers are required to secure their loans continuously with cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities or letters of credit in an amount at least equal to the market value of the securities loaned. Cash collateral may be invested by a Fund in short-term investments, including registered and unregistered investment pools managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates and from which the Investment Adviser or its affiliates may receive fees. To the extent that cash collateral is so invested, such collateral will be subject to market depreciation or appreciation, and a Fund will be responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the borrowers’ collateral. If the Investment Adviser determines to make securities loans, the value of the securities loaned may not exceed 331/3% of the value of the total assets of a Fund (including the loan collateral). Loan collateral (including any investment of that collateral) is not subject to the percentage limitations regarding a Fund’s investments described elsewhere in this Prospectus. A Fund may lend its securities to increase its income. A Fund may, however, experience delay in the recovery of its securities or incur a loss if the institution with which it has engaged in a portfolio loan transaction breaches its agreement with the Fund or its agent, or becomes insolvent.

Repurchase Agreements.  Repurchase agreements involve the purchase of securities subject to the seller’s agreement to repurchase them at a mutually agreed upon date and price. Each Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with counterparties that furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of their repurchase obligations. The collateral may consist of any type of security in which a Fund is eligible to invest directly. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. government securities may be subject to additional risks.

If the other party or “seller” defaults, a Fund might suffer a loss to the extent that the proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities and other collateral held by the Fund are less than the repurchase price and the Fund’s costs associated with delay and enforcement of the repurchase agreement. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy of the seller, a Fund could suffer additional losses if a court determines that the Fund’s interest in the collateral is not enforceable.

Certain Funds, together with other registered investment companies having advisory agreements with the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.

Borrowings and Reverse Repurchase Agreements.  Each Fund can borrow money from banks and other financial institutions and may enter into reverse repurchase agreements in amounts not exceeding one-third of the Fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed). A Fund generally may not make additional investments if borrowings exceed 5% of its net assets.

Reverse repurchase agreements involve the sale of securities held by a Fund subject to the Fund’s agreement to repurchase them at a mutually agreed upon date and price (including interest). These transactions may be entered into as a temporary measure for emergency purposes or to meet redemption requests. Reverse repurchase agreements may also be entered into when the Investment Adviser expects that the interest income to be earned from the investment of the transaction proceeds will be greater than the related interest expense.

Borrowings and reverse repurchase agreements involve leveraging. If the securities held by a Fund decline in value while these transactions are outstanding, the NAV of the Fund’s outstanding Shares will decline in value by proportionately more than the decline in value of the securities. In addition, reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the investment return earned by a Fund (from the investment of the proceeds) will be less than the interest expense of the transaction, that the market value of the

 

55


securities sold by the Fund will decline below the price the Fund is obligated to pay to repurchase the securities, and that the securities may not be returned to the Fund. The Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to its transactions in reverse repurchase agreements.

Asset Segregation.  As an investment company registered with the SEC, the Funds must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC or SEC-staff approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that do not cash settle, for example, the Funds must identify on their books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument while the positions are open, to the extent there is not a permissible offsetting position or a contractual “netting” agreement with respect to swaps (other than credit default swaps where the Fund is the protection seller). However, with respect to certain swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that are required to cash settle, a Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the instrument, if any, rather than its full notional amount. Forwards and futures contracts that do not cash settle may be treated as cash settled for asset segregation purposes when the Fund has entered into a contractual arrangement with a third party FCM or other counterparty to off-set the Fund’s exposure under the contact and, failing that, to assign its delivery obligation under the contract to the counterparty. The Funds reserve the right to modify their asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion, consistent with the Investment Company Act and SEC or SEC-staff guidance. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under certain instruments, the Funds will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Funds were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument.

Unseasoned Companies.  Each Fund may invest in companies which (together with their predecessors) have operated less than three years. The securities of such companies may have limited liquidity, which can result in their being priced higher or lower than might otherwise be the case. In addition, investments in unseasoned companies are more speculative and entail greater risk than do investments in companies with an established operating record.

 

56


 

Appendix B

Financial Highlights

 

Because the Funds had not commenced investment operations as of the end of the Funds’ fiscal year, financial highlights are not available.

 

57


 

 

Goldman Sachs Motif ETFs Prospectus

 

  FOR MORE INFORMATION     

Annual/Semi-Annual Report

Additional information about the Funds’ investments will be available in the Funds’ annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the Funds’ annual report (when available), you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Funds’ performance during the last fiscal year.

Statement of Additional Information

Additional information about the Funds and their policies is also available in the Funds’ SAI. The SAI is incorporated by reference into the Prospectus (i.e., is legally considered part of the Prospectus).

The Funds’ annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and the SAI are available free upon request by calling Goldman Sachs Funds at 1-800-621-2550. You can also access and download the annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and the SAI at the Funds’ website: http://www.gsamfunds.com/ETFfunds.

From time to time, certain announcements and other information regarding the Funds may be found at

http://www.gsamfunds.com/announcements-ind for individual investors or

http://www.gsamfunds.com/announcements for advisers.

To obtain other information and for shareholder inquiries:

 

   Shareholders/Authorized Participants
   Financial Advisors

  By telephone:

   1-800-621-2550    1-800-292-4726

  By mail:

  

Goldman Sachs Funds

P.O. Box 06050

Chicago, IL 60606-6306

  

  On the Internet:

   SEC EDGAR database – http://www.sec.gov

You may review and obtain copies of Trust documents (including the SAI) by visiting the SEC’s public reference room in Washington, D.C. You may also obtain copies of Trust documents, after paying a duplicating fee, by writing to the SEC’s Public Reference Section, Washington, D.C. 20549-1520 or by electronic request to: publicinfo@sec.gov. Information on the operation of the public reference room may be obtained by calling the SEC at (202) 551-8090.

 

[MOTIFPRO]   

The Trust’s investment company registration number is 811-23013

GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

  LOGO


The information in this Statement of Additional Information is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATED AUGUST 3, 2018

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATED [ ], 2018

 

FUND

 

PRINCIPAL U.S. LISTING EXCHANGE

 

TICKER SYMBOL

GOLDMAN SACHS MOTIF DATA-DRIVEN WORLD ETF   [    ]   [    ]
GOLDMAN SACHS MOTIF FINANCE REIMAGINED ETF   [    ]   [    ]
GOLDMAN SACHS MOTIF HUMAN EVOLUTION ETF   [    ]   [    ]
GOLDMAN SACHS MOTIF MANUFACTURING REVOLUTION ETF   [    ]  

[    ]

GOLDMAN SACHS MOTIF NEW AGE CONSUMER ETF   [    ]   [    ]

(Portfolios of Goldman Sachs ETF Trust)

Goldman Sachs ETF Trust

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

This Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”) is not a Prospectus. This SAI should be read in conjunction with the prospectus for the Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF, Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF, Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF, Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF and Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF (the “Funds”), dated [ ], 2018, as it may be further amended and/or supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectus”). The Prospectus may be obtained without charge from Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC by calling 1-800-621-2550 or writing to Goldman Sachs Funds, P.O. Box 06050, Chicago, Illinois 60606.

The Funds’ Annual Report (when available) may be obtained upon request and without charge by calling Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC toll free at 1-800-621-2550.

GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC.

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

     B-1  

EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING

     B-1  

INDEX CONSTRUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

     B-2  

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

     B-3  

DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

     B-4  

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

     B-34  

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

     B-35  

MANAGEMENT SERVICES

     B-46  

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

     B-51  

CREATIONS AND REDEMPTIONS

     B-65  

BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM

     B-78  

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN

     B-79  

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

     B-79  

DETERMINATION OF NET ASSET VALUE

     B-81  

SHARES OF THE TRUST

     B-82  

TAXATION

     B-84  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     B-90  

PROXY VOTING

     B-90  

PAYMENTS TO INTERMEDIARIES

     B-91  

OTHER INFORMATION

     B-92  

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

     B-93  

APPENDIX A - DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES RATINGS

     1-A  

APPENDIX B - GSAM PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES SUMMARY

     1-B  

The date of this SAI is [    ], 2018.

 

 

-i-


GOLDMAN SACHS ASSET MANAGEMENT, L.P.    ALPS DISTRIBUTORS, INC.
Investment Adviser    Distributor
200 West Street    1290 Broadway, Suite 1100
New York, New York 10282    Denver, Colorado 80203

THE BANK OF NEW YORK MELLON

Transfer Agent

225 Liberty Street

New York, New York 10286

Toll-free (in U.S.) 1-800-621-2550 (for Shareholders/Authorized Participants) or 1-800-292-4726 (for Financial Advisors).

 

 

i


INTRODUCTION

Goldman Sachs ETF Trust (the “Trust”) is an open-end management investment company. The Trust is organized as a Delaware statutory trust and was established by an Agreement and Declaration of Trust dated December 16, 2009. The following series of the Trust are described in this SAI: Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF, Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF, Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF, Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF and Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF. Each Fund is passively-managed and seeks to track a specified index: Motif Data-Driven World Index, Motif Finance Reimagined Index, Motif Human Evolution Index, Motif Manufacturing Revolution Index and Motif New Age Consumer Index, respectively (each, an “Index” and collectively, the “Indexes”).

The Trustees of the Trust have authority under the Declaration of Trust to create and classify Shares of the Trust into separate series. Pursuant thereto, the Trustees have created the Funds and other series. Additional series may be added in the future from time to time. See “SHARES OF THE TRUST.”

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM” or the “Investment Adviser”), an affiliate of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman Sachs”), serves as the Investment Adviser to the Funds. In addition, ALPS Distributors, Inc. (“ALPS”) serves as the Funds’ distributor (the “Distributor”), and The Bank of New York Mellon (“BNYM” or the “Transfer Agent”) serves as the Funds’ transfer agent. The Funds’ custodian is BNYM, which also provides administrative services to the Funds.

The following information relates to and supplements the description of each Fund’s investment policies contained in the Prospectus. See the Prospectus for a more complete description of the Funds’ investment objectives and policies. Investing in a Fund entails certain risks, and there is no assurance that a Fund will achieve its investment objective. Capitalized terms used but not defined herein have the same meaning as in the Prospectus.

EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING

A discussion of exchange listing and trading matters associated with an investment in the Funds is contained in the “Shareholder Guide” section of the Prospectus. The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, such sections of the Prospectus.

The Shares of the Funds are anticipated to be approved for listing and trading on the [    ] (the “Exchange”), subject to notice of issuance. The Shares trade on the Exchange at prices that may differ from their net asset value (“NAV”). There can be no assurance that the Fund will continue to meet the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of Shares.

The Exchange may, but is not required to, remove the Shares of a Fund from listing if: (1) following the initial twelve-month period beginning upon the commencement of trading of the Funds, there are fewer than 50 beneficial holders of the Shares for 30 or more consecutive trading days; (2) the value of its underlying index or portfolio of securities on which the Fund is based is no longer calculated or available; (3) the “intra-day indicative value” (“IIV”) of the Funds is no longer calculated or available; or (4) such other event shall occur or condition exists that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. In addition, the Exchange will remove the Shares of a Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Trust or the Fund.

As in the case of other publicly-traded securities, when you buy or sell shares through a broker, you will incur a brokerage commission determined by that broker.

In order to provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares of each Fund, the Exchange or a market data vendor disseminates every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, or through other widely disseminated means, an IIV for each Fund as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Trust, GSAM, and their affiliates, are not responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIVs and make no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIVs.

Each Fund’s IIV is based on a securities component and a cash component which comprises that day’s Fund Deposit (as defined below), as disseminated prior to that Business Day’s (as defined below) commencement of trading. The IIV does not necessarily reflect the precise composition of the current portfolio of securities held by a Fund at a particular point in time or the best possible valuation of the current portfolio. Therefore, the IIV should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of a Fund’s NAV, which is computed only once a day. The IIV is generally determined by using both current market quotations and/or price quotations obtained from broker-dealers that may trade in the portfolio securities held by a Fund. The quotations of certain Fund holdings may not be updated during U.S. trading hours if such holdings do not trade in the United States.

 

B-1


The cash component included in an IIV consists of estimated accrued interest, dividends and other income, less expenses. If applicable, each IIV also reflects changes in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the applicable currency.

The Trust reserves the right to adjust the Share prices of a Fund in the future to maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of the Fund or an investor’s equity interest in the Fund.

The base and trading currencies of the Funds are the U.S. dollar. The base currency is the currency in which a Fund’s NAV per Share is calculated and the trading currency is the currency in which Shares of the Fund are listed and traded on the Exchange.

INDEX CONSTRUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

Motif Capital Management, Inc. (the “Index Provider”) determines the components of each Index based on their exposure to the applicable Theme and Sub-Themes, and their weights in the Index in accordance with a rules-based methodology that involves five steps. The eligible universe of stocks is comprised of common equity securities, including depositary receipts, of companies domiciled across developed and emerging markets worldwide, listed on exchanges in certain developed markets. Shares of companies traded on major exchanges in the following countries are eligible for inclusion (the “Eligible Trading Venues”): France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. In addition, company and stock screens are applied to set minimum liquidity and investability requirements for stocks in the eligible universe. Each Index only includes long positions (i.e., short positions are impermissible).

Step 1:

In the first step, a quantitative measurement is made of the exposure of companies in the eligible universe to each Sub-Theme (a “Sub-Theme Thematic Beta”).

With respect to the Digitization of Finance Sub-Theme and the Asset Management Makeover Sub-Theme within the Motif Finance Reimagined Index, and all Sub-Themes within the Motif New Age Consumer Index:

The Index Provider applies automated semantic search algorithms to multiple regulatory filings filed in the Eligible Trading Venues to score the relevance of a Sub-Theme to a company. Each regulatory filing is scored for the relevance of the Sub-Theme by applying an automated semantic search algorithm. This algorithm assigns a score to the regulatory filing based on the topic, document length, and number of mentions of the topic, among other factors. Documents with a non-zero score are then mapped, if possible, to a company. For each company that has a total market capitalization of at least $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars, a stock with an average daily trading volume of at least $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period and at least 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period, the company’s reported revenue streams are examined to determine whether each revenue stream is relevant to the Sub-Theme. The company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Beta is equal to the sum of all revenue streams of such company that are theme-relevant divided by the company’s total revenue.

With respect to all other Sub-Themes within each Index:

To calculate a Sub-Theme Thematic Beta, a quantitative measurement is made of the exposure of companies in the eligible universe to each Sub-Theme (a “Sub-Theme Thematic Beta”). To calculate a Sub-Theme Thematic Beta, the Index Provider applies automated semantic search algorithms to multiple datasets and documents to score the relevance of a Sub-Theme to a company. The datasets and documents used include one or more of (1) regulatory filings filed in the Eligible Trading Venues, (2) academic journals, and (3) patent filings (the “Search Corpus”). The Search Corpus for the Motif Human Evolution Index also includes clinical trial data.

 

B-2


Each dataset and document in the Search Corpus is scored for the relevance of the Sub-Theme by applying an automated semantic search algorithm. This algorithm assigns a score to the dataset or document based on the topic, document length, and number of mentions of the topic, among other factors. Datasets and documents with a non-zero score are then mapped, if possible, to a company. Multiple entries within a type of Search Corpus for each company are then combined to make a single score. This results in up to three (or four, in the case of the Motif Human Evolution Index) quantitative measurements of the relevance of the Sub-Theme to a company: the “Filing Search Beta,” sourced from the regulatory filings; the “Academic Beta,” sourced from academic journals; and the “Patent Beta,” sourced from patent filings. The three (or four) quantitative measurements are then combined to give a company an overall Sub-Theme Thematic Beta. For the Motif Human Evolution Index, the “Clinical Trial Beta,” sourced from clinical trial data, is also combined to calculate a company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Beta.

Step 2:

In the second step, a company’s Sub-Theme Thematic Betas for all Sub-Themes are combined to give the company a single applicable Thematic Beta. The Index Universe consists of all companies with a non-zero applicable Thematic Beta (the “Index Universe”).

Step 3:

In the third step, each company in the Index Universe is mapped, if possible, to one or more common equity securities listed on the Eligible Trading Venues. If no relevant security is found, the company is removed from the Index Universe.

Step 4:

In the fourth step, liquidity, investability and theme relevance screens are applied to the Index Universe. Stocks of companies with any of the following characteristics are removed from the Index Universe:

 

   

An average daily trading volume of less than $1,000,000 in U.S. dollars over the most recent 30-day period;

 

   

A total market capitalization of less than $500,000,000 in U.S. dollars;

 

   

Less than 60 days of historical returns data over the most recent 90-day period; or

 

   

Exposure below a fixed threshold to the applicable Theme

All remaining stocks are included in the Index. In addition, if the size of the remaining Index Universe is greater than [120] stocks, the final Index Universe is reduced to [120] stocks based on a function of the applicable Thematic Beta, market variables and the weight of the stock from the previous rebalancing, if any.

Step 5:

In the fifth step, stocks are weighted according to a function of a company’s market capitalization and applicable Thematic Beta. Maximum and minimum weights are applied to reduce concentration in individual securities and increase diversification of the Index.

Rebalancing:

Each Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually on the third Friday of each January and July.

The Index Provider may make changes to the methodology for the Indexes from time to time.

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

Each Fund has a distinct investment objective and policies. The investment objective of each Fund is to provide investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the Fund’s underlying index. The Funds issue and redeem shares in exchange for in-kind securities or instruments. There can be no assurance that a Fund’s investment objective will be achieved. Each Fund is a diversified series of an open-end management company as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act” or the “Act”). The investment objective and policies of each Fund, and the associated risks of the Funds, are discussed in the Prospectus, which should be read carefully before an investment is made. All investment objectives and investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental may be changed without shareholder approval. However, shareholders will be provided with sixty (60) days’ notice in the manner prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) before any change in a Fund’s policy to invest at least 80% of its assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) in securities included in its underlying index.

 

B-3


Each Fund offers and issues Shares at its NAV per Share only in aggregations of a specified number of shares (“Creation Units”), generally in exchange for a basket of securities and/or instruments (the “Deposit Securities”) together with a deposit of a specified cash payment (the “Cash Component”), if any. Shares are redeemable by the applicable Fund only in Creation Units and, generally in exchange for securities and instruments. Shares trade in the secondary market and elsewhere at market prices that may be at, above or below NAV. Creation Units typically are a specified number of Shares.

A Fund may charge creation/redemption transaction fees for each creation and redemption. In all cases, transaction fees will be limited in accordance with the requirements of the SEC applicable to management investment companies offering redeemable securities. See the “CREATIONS AND REDEMPTIONS” section below.

[The Trust, on behalf of each Fund, has filed a notice of eligibility claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) and therefore is not subject to registration or regulation as a CPO under the CEA.]

DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

Asset-Backed Securities

Each Fund may invest in asset-backed securities. Asset-backed securities represent participations in, or are secured by and payable from, assets such as motor vehicle installment sales, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, receivables from revolving credit (credit card) agreements and other categories of receivables. Such assets are securitized through the use of trusts and special purpose corporations. Payments or distributions of principal and interest may be guaranteed up to certain amounts and for a certain time period by a letter of credit or a pool insurance policy issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the trust or corporation, or other credit enhancements may be present.

Such securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. During periods of declining interest rates, prepayment of loans underlying asset-backed securities can be expected to accelerate. Accordingly, a Fund’s ability to maintain positions in such securities will be affected by reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments, and its ability to reinvest the returns of principal at comparable yields is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. To the extent that a Fund invests in asset-backed securities, the values of the Fund’s portfolio securities will vary with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of asset-backed securities.

Asset-backed securities present certain additional risks because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral that is comparable to mortgage assets. Credit card receivables are generally unsecured and the debtors on such receivables are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set-off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. Automobile receivables generally are secured, but by automobiles rather than residential real property. Most issuers of automobile receivables permit the loan servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If the servicer were to sell these obligations to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the asset-backed securities. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have a proper security interest in the underlying automobiles. Therefore, if the issuer of an asset-backed security defaults on its payment obligations, there is the possibility that, in some cases, a Fund will be unable to possess and sell the underlying collateral and that the Fund’s recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on these securities.

Asset Segregation

As investment companies registered with the SEC, the Funds must identify on their books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC or SEC-staff approved or other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that do not cash settle, for example, a Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument while the positions are open, to the extent there is not a permissible offsetting position or a contractual

 

B-4


“netting” agreement with respect to swaps (other than credit default swaps where a Fund is the protection seller). However, with respect to certain swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that are required to cash settle, a Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the instrument, if any, rather than its full notional amount. Forwards and futures contracts that do not cash settle may be treated as cash settled for asset segregation purposes when the Funds have entered into contractual arrangements with a third party futures commission merchant or other counterparty to off-set the Funds’ exposure under the contract, and, failing that, to assign its delivery obligations under the contract to the counterparty. The Funds reserve the right to modify their asset segregation policies in the future in their discretion, consistent with the Investment Company Act and SEC or SEC-staff guidance. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under certain instruments, a Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument.

Bank Obligations

The Funds may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. or foreign banks. Bank obligations, including without limitation time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be obligations only of the issuing branch pursuant to the terms of the specific obligations or government regulation. Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. Foreign banks are subject to different regulations and are generally permitted to engage in a wider variety of activities than U.S. banks. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operations of this industry.

Certificates of deposit are certificates evidencing the obligation of a bank to repay funds deposited with it for a specified period of time at a specified rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable instruments and are similar to saving deposits but have a definite maturity and are evidenced by a certificate instead of a passbook entry. Banks are required to keep reserves against all certificates of deposit. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on the demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. The Funds may invest in deposits in U.S. and European banks.

Combined Transactions

Each of the Funds may enter into multiple transactions, including multiple options transactions, multiple futures transactions, multiple currency transactions (as applicable) (including forward currency contracts) and multiple interest rate and other swap transactions and any combination of futures, options, currency and swap transactions (“component” transactions) as part of a single or combined strategy when, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, it is in the best interests of the Fund to do so. A combined transaction will usually contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions. Although combined transactions are normally entered into based on the Investment Adviser’s judgment that the combined strategies will reduce risk or otherwise more effectively achieve the desired portfolio management goal, it is possible that the combination will instead increase such risks or hinder achievement of the portfolio management objective.

Commercial Paper and Other Short-Term Corporate Obligations

The Funds may invest in commercial paper and other short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, non-U.S. corporations or other entities. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies.

Convertible Securities

The Funds may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted into or exchanged for a specified amount of common stock (or other securities) of the same or different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest that is generally paid or accrued on debt or a dividend that is paid or accrued on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Convertible securities have unique investment characteristics, in that they generally (i) have higher yields than common stocks, but lower yields than comparable non-convertible securities, (ii) are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying common stock due to their fixed-income characteristics and (iii) provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

 

B-5


The value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” (determined by its yield in comparison with the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege) and its “conversion value” (the security’s worth, at market value, if converted into the underlying common stock). The investment value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value normally declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors may also have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. The conversion value of a convertible security is determined by the market price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value is low relative to the investment value, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. To the extent the market price of the underlying common stock approaches or exceeds the conversion price, the price of the convertible security will be increasingly influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security generally will sell at a premium over its conversion value by the extent to which investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding a fixed income security.

A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument. If a convertible security held by a Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to permit the issuer to redeem the security, convert it into the underlying common stock or sell it to a third party or permit the issuer to redeem the security. Any of these actions could have an adverse effect on a Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective, which, in turn, could result in losses to the Fund. To the extent that a Fund holds a convertible security, or a security that is otherwise converted or exchanged for common stock (e.g., as a result of a restructuring), the Fund may, consistent with its investment objective, hold such common stock in its portfolio.

Corporate Debt Obligations

Each Fund may invest in corporate debt obligations, including obligations of industrial, utility and financial issuers. Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. Corporate debt obligations are subject to the risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payments on the obligations and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as market interest rates, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity.

Corporate debt obligations rated BBB or Baa are considered medium grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken their issuers’ capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Medium to lower rated and comparable non-rated securities tend to offer higher yields than higher rated securities with the same maturities because the historical financial condition of the issuers of such securities may not have been as strong as that of other issuers. The price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to fluctuations in supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to interest rate levels. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in a Fund’s NAV. Because medium to lower rated securities generally involve greater risks of loss of income and principal than higher rated securities, investors should consider carefully the relative risks associated with investment in securities which carry medium to lower ratings and in comparable unrated securities. In addition to the risk of default, there are the related costs of recovery on defaulted issues.

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

Each Fund may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates, which may be underwritten by securities dealers or banks, representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. Government Securities (as defined below), which are obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises (“U.S. Government Securities”), municipal securities or other types of securities in which a Fund may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates are underwritten by securities dealers or banks and may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. Government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, a Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Funds may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

 

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Although under the terms of a custodial receipt or trust certificate a Fund would typically be authorized to assert its rights directly against the issuer of the underlying obligation, the Fund could be required to assert through the custodian bank or trustee those rights as may exist against the underlying issuers. Thus, in the event an underlying issuer fails to pay principal and/or interest when due, a Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the issuer. In addition, in the event that the trust or custodial account in which the underlying securities have been deposited is determined to be an association taxable as a corporation, instead of a non-taxable entity, the yield on the underlying securities would be reduced in recognition of any taxes paid.

Certain custodial receipts and trust certificates may be synthetic or derivative instruments that have interest rates that reset inversely to changing short-term rates and/or have embedded interest rate floors and caps that require the issuer to pay an adjusted interest rate if market rates fall below or rise above a specified rate. Because some of these instruments represent relatively recent innovations, and the trading market for these instruments is less developed than the markets for traditional types of instruments, it is uncertain how these instruments will perform under different economic and interest-rate scenarios. Also, because these instruments may be leveraged, their market values may be more volatile than other types of fixed income instruments and may present greater potential for capital gain or loss. The possibility of default by an issuer or the issuer’s credit provider may be greater for these derivative instruments than for other types of instruments. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the fair value of a derivative instrument because of a lack of reliable objective information and an established secondary market for some instruments may not exist. In many cases, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) has not ruled on the tax treatment of the interest or payments received on the derivative instruments and, accordingly, purchases of such instruments are based on the opinion of counsel to the sponsors of the instruments.

Equity Investments

The Funds may purchase equity investments. In addition, after its purchase, a portfolio investment (such as a convertible debt obligation) may convert to an equity security. Each Fund may also acquire equity securities in connection with a restructuring event related to one or more of its investments. If this occurs, the Fund may continue to hold the investment if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Equity-Linked Structured Notes

The Funds may invest in equity-linked structured notes. Equity-linked structured notes are derivatives that are specifically designed to combine the characteristics of one or more underlying securities and their equity derivatives in a single note form. The return and/or yield or income component may be based on the performance of the underlying equity securities, an equity index, and/or option positions. Equity-linked structured notes are typically offered in limited transactions by financial institutions in either registered or non-registered form. An investment in equity-linked notes creates exposure to the credit risk of the issuing financial institution, as well as to the market risk of the underlying securities. There is no guaranteed return of principal with these securities and the appreciation potential of these securities may be limited by a maximum payment or call right. In certain cases, equity-linked notes may be more volatile and less liquid than less complex securities or other types of fixed-income securities. Such securities may exhibit price behavior that does not correlate with other fixed-income securities.

Events Relating to the Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Markets and the Overall Economy

The unprecedented disruption in the market for mortgage loans, mortgage pass-through securities and other securities representing an interest in or collateralized by adjustable and fixed rate mortgage loans (“Mortgage-Backed Securities”) (and in particular, the “subprime” residential mortgage market), the broader Mortgage-Backed Securities market and the asset-backed securities market in 2008 and 2009 resulted in downward price pressures and increasing foreclosures and defaults in residential and commercial real estate. Concerns over inflation, energy costs, geopolitical issues, the availability and cost of credit, the mortgage market and a depressed real estate market contributed to increased volatility and diminished expectations for the economy and markets going forward, and contributed to dramatic declines in the housing market, with falling home prices and increasing foreclosures and unemployment, and significant asset write-downs by financial institutions. These conditions prompted a number of financial institutions to seek additional capital, to merge with other institutions and, in some cases, to fail or seek bankruptcy protection. Between 2008 and 2009, the market for Mortgage-Backed Securities (as well as other asset-backed securities) was particularly adversely impacted by, among other factors, the failure and subsequent sale of Bear, Stearns & Co. Inc. to J.P. Morgan Chase, the merger of Bank of America Corporation and Merrill Lynch & Co., the insolvency of Washington Mutual Inc., the failure and subsequent bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc., the extension of approximately $152 billion in emergency credit by the U.S. Treasury to American International Group Inc., and, as described above, the conservatorship and the control by the U.S. Government of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The global markets also saw an increase in volatility due to uncertainty surrounding the

 

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level and sustainability of sovereign debt of certain countries that are part of the European Union (“EU”), including Greece, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Italy, as well as the sustainability of the EU itself. Concerns over the level and sustainability of the sovereign debt of the United States have aggravated this volatility. No assurance can be made that this uncertainty will not lead to further disruption of the credit markets in the United States or around the globe. These events, coupled with the general global economic downturn, have resulted in a substantial level of uncertainty in the financial markets, particularly with respect to mortgage-related investments.

These events may lead to further declines in income from, or the value of, real estate, including the real estate which secures the Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be held by a Fund. Additionally, a lack of credit liquidity, adjustments of mortgages to higher rates and decreases in the value of real property have occurred and may reoccur, and potentially prevent borrowers from refinancing their mortgages, which may increase the likelihood of default on their mortgage loans. These economic conditions, coupled with high levels of real estate inventory and elevated incidence of underwater mortgages, may also adversely affect the amount of proceeds the holder of a mortgage loan or Mortgage-Backed Securities (including the Mortgaged-Backed Securities in which certain Funds may invest) would realize in the event of a foreclosure or other exercise of remedies. Moreover, even if such Mortgage-Backed Securities are performing as anticipated, the value of such securities in the secondary market may nevertheless fall or continue to fall as a result of deterioration in general market conditions for such Mortgage-Backed Securities or other asset-backed or structured products. Trading activity associated with market indices may also drive spreads on those indices wider than spreads on Mortgage-Backed Securities, thereby resulting in a decrease in value of such Mortgage-Backed Securities, including the Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be owned by a Fund.

The U.S. Government, the Federal Reserve, the Treasury, the SEC, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and other governmental and regulatory bodies have taken or are considering taking actions to address the financial crisis. These actions include, but are not limited to, the enactment by the United States Congress of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd Frank Act”), which was signed into law on July 21, 2010 and imposes a new regulatory framework over the U.S. financial services industry and the consumer credit markets in general, and the promulgation of additional regulations in this area which could affect these securities. Given the broad scope, sweeping nature, and relatively recent enactment of some of these regulatory measures, the potential impact they could have on any of the asset-backed or Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be held by the Funds is unknown. There can be no assurance that these measures will not have an adverse effect on the value or marketability of any asset-backed or Mortgage-Backed Securities which may be held by the Funds. Furthermore, no assurance can be made that the U.S. Government or any U.S. regulatory body (or other authority or regulatory body) will not continue to take further legislative or regulatory action in response to the economic crisis or otherwise, and the effect of such actions, if taken, cannot be known.

Among its other provisions, the Dodd-Frank Act creates a liquidation framework under which the FDIC, may be appointed as receiver following a “systemic risk determination” by the Secretary of Treasury (in consultation with the President) for the resolution of certain nonbank financial companies and other entities, defined as “covered financial companies”, and commonly referred to as “systemically important entities”, in the event such a company is in default or in danger of default and the resolution of such a company under other applicable law would have serious adverse effects on financial stability in the United States, and also for the resolution of certain of their subsidiaries. No assurances can be given that this new liquidation framework would not apply to the originators of asset-backed securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities, or their respective subsidiaries, including the issuers and depositors of such securities, although the expectation embedded in the Dodd-Frank Act is that the framework will be invoked only very rarely. Guidance from the FDIC indicates that such new framework will largely be exercised in a manner consistent with the existing bankruptcy laws, which is the insolvency regime that would otherwise apply to the sponsors, depositors and issuing entities with respect to asset-backed securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities. The application of such liquidation framework to such entities could result in decreases or delays in amounts paid on, and hence the market value of, the Mortgage-Backed or asset-backed securities that may be owned by a Fund.

Delinquencies, defaults and losses on residential mortgage loans may increase substantially over certain periods, which may affect the performance of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which certain Funds may invest. Mortgage loans backing non-agency Mortgage-Backed Securities are more sensitive to economic factors that could affect the ability of borrowers to pay their obligations under the mortgage loans backing these securities. In addition, housing prices and appraisal values in many states and localities over certain periods have declined or stopped appreciating. A continued decline or an extended flattening of those values may result in additional increases in delinquencies and losses on Mortgage-Backed Securities generally (including the Mortgaged-Backed Securities that the Funds may invest in as described above).

 

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The foregoing adverse changes in market conditions and regulatory climate may reduce the cash flow which a Fund, to the extent it invests in Mortgage-Backed Securities or other asset-backed securities, receives from such securities and increase the incidence and severity of credit events and losses in respect of such securities. In addition, interest rate spreads for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities are subject to widening and increased volatility due to these adverse changes in market conditions. In the event that interest rate spreads for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities widen following the purchase of such assets by a Fund, the market value of such securities is likely to decline and, in the case of a substantial spread widening, could decline by a substantial amount. Furthermore, adverse changes in market conditions may result in reduced liquidity in the market for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities (including the Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities in which certain Funds may invest) and increased unwillingness by banks, financial institutions and investors to extend credit to servicers, originators and other participants in the market for Mortgage-Backed and other asset-backed securities. As a result, the liquidity and/or the market value of any Mortgage-Backed or asset-backed securities that are owned by a Fund may experience further declines after they are purchased by a Fund.

Foreign Investments

The Funds may invest in securities of foreign issuers, including securities quoted or denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars. Investments in foreign securities may offer potential benefits not available from investments solely in U.S. dollar-denominated or quoted securities of domestic issuers. Such benefits may include the opportunity to invest in foreign issuers that appear, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, to offer the potential for better long term growth of capital and income than investments in U.S. securities, the opportunity to invest in foreign countries with economic policies or business cycles different from those of the United States and the opportunity to reduce fluctuations in portfolio value by taking advantage of foreign securities markets that do not necessarily move in a manner parallel to U.S. markets. Investing in the securities of foreign issuers also involves, however, certain special risks, including those discussed in the Funds’ Prospectus and those set forth below, which are not typically associated with investing in U.S. dollar-denominated securities or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Many of these risks are more pronounced for investments in emerging economies.

With respect to investments in certain foreign countries, there exist certain economic, political and social risks, including the risk of adverse political developments, nationalization, military unrest, social instability, war and terrorism, confiscation without fair compensation, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, limitations on the movement of funds and other assets between different countries, or diplomatic developments, any of which could adversely affect a Fund’s investments in those countries. Governments in certain foreign countries continue to participate to a significant degree, through ownership interest or regulation, in their respective economies. Action by these governments could have a significant effect on market prices of securities and dividend payments.

As described more fully below, the Funds may invest in countries with emerging economies or securities markets. Political and economic structures in many of such countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and such countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. Certain of such countries have in the past failed to recognize private property rights and have at times nationalized or expropriated the assets of, or ignored internationally accepted standards of due process against, private companies. In addition, a country may take these and other retaliatory actions against a specific private company, including a Fund or the Investment Adviser. There may not be legal recourse against these actions, which could arise in connection with the commercial activities of Goldman Sachs or its affiliates or otherwise, and the Funds could be subject to substantial losses. As a result, the risks described above, including the risks of nationalization or expropriation of assets, may be heightened. See “Investing in Emerging Countries,” below.

Many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens or its markets decline. Additionally, many foreign country economies are heavily dependent on international trade and are adversely affected by protective trade barriers and economic conditions of their trading partners. Protectionist trade legislation enacted by those trading partners could have a significant adverse effect on the securities markets of those countries. Individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position.

From time to time, certain of the companies in which the Funds may invest may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargos imposed by the U.S. Government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. A company may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which operates in, or has dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. As an investor in such companies, the Funds will be indirectly subject to those risks. Iran is subject to several United Nations sanctions and is an embargoed country by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) of the U.S. Department of Treasury (the “Treasury” or “U.S. Treasury”).

 

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In addition, from time to time, certain of the companies in which the Funds may invest may engage in, or have dealings with countries or companies that engage in, activities that may not be considered socially and/or environmentally responsible.    Such activities may relate to human rights issues (such as patterns of human rights abuses or violations, persecution or discrimination), impacts to local communities in which companies operate and environmental sustainability. For a description of the Investment Adviser’s approach to responsible and sustainable investing, please see GSAM’s Statement on Responsible and Sustainable Investing at https://assetmanagement.gs.com/content/gsam/us/en/advisors/our-firm/citizenship.html.

As a result, a company may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which engages in, or has dealings with countries or companies that engage in, the above referenced activities. As an investor in such companies, the Funds would be indirectly subject to those risks.

The Investment Adviser is committed to complying fully with sanctions in effect as of the date of this Statement of Additional Information and any other applicable sanctions that may be enacted in the future with respect to Sudan or any other country.

Investments in foreign securities often involve currencies of foreign countries. Accordingly, the Funds may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency rates and in exchange control regulations and may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. A Fund may be subject to currency exposure independent of its securities positions. To the extent that a Fund is fully invested in foreign securities while also maintaining net currency positions, it may be exposed to greater combined risk.

Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. They generally are determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investments in different countries, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and other complex factors, as seen from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that a portion of a Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries. The Fund’s net currency positions may expose it to risks independent of its securities positions.

Because foreign issuers generally are not subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a U.S. company. Volume and liquidity in most foreign securities markets are less than in the United States and securities of many foreign companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. The securities of foreign issuers may be listed on foreign securities exchanges or traded in foreign over-the-counter markets. Fixed commissions on foreign securities exchanges are generally higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. exchanges, although the Funds endeavor to achieve the most favorable net results on its portfolio transactions. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of foreign securities exchanges, brokers, dealers and listed and unlisted companies than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. For example, there may be no comparable provisions under certain foreign laws to insider trading and similar investor protections that apply with respect to securities transactions consummated in the United States. Mail service between the United States and foreign countries may be slower or less reliable than within the United States, thus increasing the risk of delayed settlement of portfolio transactions or loss of certificates for portfolio securities.

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when some of a Fund’s assets are uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of a Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities, or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, in possible liability to the purchaser.

Each Fund may invest in foreign securities which take the form of sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) or other similar instruments representing securities of foreign issuers) (together, “Depositary Receipts”). ADRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a domestic bank or a correspondent bank. ADRs are traded on domestic exchanges or in the U.S. over-the-counter market and, generally, are in registered form. EDRs and GDRs are receipts evidencing an arrangement with a non-U.S. bank similar to that for ADRs and are designed for use in the non-U.S. securities markets. EDRs and GDRs are not necessarily quoted in the same currency as the underlying security.

 

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To the extent a Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there is an increased possibility that the Fund will not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted. However, by investing in Depositary Receipts, such as ADRs, which are quoted in U.S. dollars, a Fund may avoid currency risks during the settlement period for purchases and sales.

Foreign Government Obligations. Foreign government obligations include securities, instruments and obligations issued or guaranteed by a foreign government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. Investment in foreign government obligations can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of foreign government obligations may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A governmental entity’s willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity’s policy towards the International Monetary Fund and the political constraints to which a governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity’s implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties’ commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Consequently, governmental entities may default on their debt. Holders of foreign government obligations (including the Fund) may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental agencies.

Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts

The Funds may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts for investment and speculative purposes, as well as for hedging purposes, to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates and to seek to increase total return. A forward foreign currency exchange contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are traded in the interbank market between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are generally charged at any stage for trades.

At the maturity of a forward contract a Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract or, at or prior to maturity, enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to forward contracts are often, but not always, effected with the currency trader who is a party to the original forward contract.

A Fund may, from time to time, engage in non-deliverable forward transactions to manage currency risk or to gain exposure to a currency without purchasing securities denominated in that currency. A non-deliverable forward is a transaction that represents an agreement between a Fund and a counterparty (usually a commercial bank) to pay the other party the amount that it would have cost based on current market rates as of the termination date to buy or sell a specified (notional) amount of a particular currency at an agreed upon foreign exchange rate on an agreed upon future date. If the counterparty defaults, a Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreement related to the transaction, but the Fund may be delayed or prevented from obtaining payments owed to it pursuant to non-deliverable forward transactions. Such non-deliverable forward transactions will be settled in cash.

A Fund may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts in several circumstances. First, when a Fund enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated or quoted in a foreign currency, or when a Fund anticipates the receipt in a foreign currency of dividend or interest payments on such a security which it holds, the Fund may desire to “lock in” the U.S. dollar price of the security or the U.S. dollar equivalent of such dividend or interest payment, as the case may be. By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of dollars, of the amount of foreign currency involved in the underlying transactions, the Fund will attempt to protect itself against an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and the subject foreign currency during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold, or on which the dividend or interest payment is declared, and the date on which such payments are made or received.

 

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Additionally, when the Investment Adviser believes that the currency of a particular foreign country may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, it may enter into a forward contract to sell, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, the amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of such Fund’s portfolio securities quoted or denominated in such foreign currency. The precise matching of the forward contract amounts and the value of the securities involved will not generally be possible because the future value of such securities in foreign currencies will change as a consequence of market movements in the value of those securities between the date on which the contract is entered into and the date it matures. Using forward contracts to protect the value of a Fund’s portfolio securities against a decline in the value of a currency does not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities. It simply establishes a rate of exchange, which a Fund can achieve at some future point in time. The precise projection of short-term currency market movements is not possible, and short-term hedging provides a means of fixing the U.S. dollar value of only a portion of a Fund’s foreign assets.

The Funds may engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in one currency to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency. In addition, certain Funds may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between a Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of a Fund’s performance benchmark.

While a Fund may enter into forward contracts to reduce currency exchange rate risks, transactions in such contracts involve certain other risks. Thus, while a Fund may benefit from such transactions, unanticipated changes in currency prices may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not engaged in any such transactions. Moreover, there may be imperfect correlation between a Fund’s portfolio holdings of securities quoted or denominated in a particular currency and forward contracts entered into by such Fund. Such imperfect correlation may cause a Fund to sustain losses which will prevent the Fund from achieving a complete hedge or expose the Fund to risk of foreign exchange loss.

Certain forward foreign currency exchange contracts and other currency transactions are not exchange traded or cleared. Markets for trading such foreign forward currency contracts offer less protection against defaults than is available when trading in currency instruments on an exchange. Such forward contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the contract will default on its obligations. Because those contracts are not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on a contract would deprive a Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price. In addition, the institutions that deal in forward currency contracts are not required to continue to make markets in the currencies they trade and these markets can experience periods of illiquidity. To the extent that a portion of a Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts

The Funds may purchase and sell futures contracts and may also purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts. Each Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts based on various securities, securities indices, foreign currencies and other financial instruments and indices. Financial futures contracts used by a Fund include interest rate futures contracts including, among others, Eurodollar futures contracts. Eurodollar futures contracts are U.S. dollar-denominated futures contracts that are based on the implied forward London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) of a three-month deposit. A Fund will engage in futures and related options transactions in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or, to the extent the Fund invests in foreign securities, currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selection and duration in accordance with its investment objective and policies. Each Fund may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.

Futures contracts utilized by funds have historically been traded on U.S. exchanges or boards of trade that are licensed and regulated by the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) or with respect to certain funds on foreign exchanges. More recently, certain futures may also be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as derivatives transaction execution facilities, exempt boards of trade or electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by the CFTC. Also, certain single stock futures and narrow based security index futures may be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as contract markets, derivatives transaction execution facilities and electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by both the CFTC and the SEC or on foreign exchanges.

 

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Neither the CFTC, National Futures Association (“NFA”), SEC nor any domestic exchange regulates activities of any foreign exchange or boards of trade, including the execution, delivery and clearing of transactions, or has the power to compel enforcement of the rules of a foreign exchange or board of trade or any applicable foreign law. This is true even if the exchange is formally linked to a domestic market so that a position taken on the market may be liquidated by a transaction on another market. Moreover, such laws or regulations will vary depending on the foreign country in which the foreign futures or foreign options transaction occurs. For these reasons, a Fund’s investments in foreign futures or foreign options transactions may not be provided the same protections in respect of transactions on United States exchanges. In particular, persons who trade foreign futures or foreign options contracts may not be afforded certain of the protective measures provided by the CEA, the CFTC’s regulations and the rules of the NFA and any domestic exchange, including the right to use reparations proceedings before the CFTC and arbitration proceedings provided by the NFA or any domestic futures exchange. Similarly, those persons may not have the protection of the United States securities laws.

Futures Contracts. A futures contract may generally be described as an agreement between two parties to buy and sell particular financial instruments or currencies for an agreed price during a designated month (or to deliver the final cash settlement price, in the case of a contract relating to an index or otherwise not calling for physical delivery at the end of trading in the contract).

When interest rates are rising or securities prices are falling, a Fund can seek through the sale of futures contracts to offset a decline in the value of its current portfolio securities. When interest rates are falling or securities prices are rising, the Fund, through the purchase of futures contracts, can attempt to secure better rates or prices than might later be available in the market when it effects anticipated purchases. Similarly, each Fund can purchase and sell futures contracts on a specified currency in order to seek to increase total return or to protect against changes in currency exchange rates. For example, each Fund may seek to offset anticipated changes in the value of a currency in which its portfolio securities, or securities that it intends to purchase, are quoted or denominated by purchasing and selling futures contracts on such currencies. As another example, a Fund may enter into futures transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Fund’s performance benchmark.

Positions taken in the futures market are not normally held to maturity, but are instead liquidated through offsetting transactions which may result in a profit or a loss. While a Fund will usually liquidate futures contracts on securities or currency in this manner, the Fund may instead make or take delivery of the underlying securities or currency whenever it appears economically advantageous for the Fund to do so. A clearing corporation associated with the exchange on which futures on securities or currency are traded guarantees that, if still open, the sale or purchase will be performed on the settlement date.

Hedging Strategies Using Futures Contracts. Hedging, by use of futures contracts, seeks to establish with more certainty than would otherwise be possible the effective price, rate of return or currency exchange rate on portfolio securities or securities that a Fund owns or proposes to acquire. A Fund may, for example, take a “short” position in the futures market by selling futures contracts to seek to hedge against an anticipated rise in interest rates or a decline in market prices or foreign currency rates that would adversely affect the dollar value of the Fund’s portfolio securities. Similarly, a Fund may sell futures contracts on a currency in which its portfolio securities are quoted or denominated, or sell futures contracts on one currency to seek to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency if there is an established historical pattern of correlation between the two currencies. If, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, there is a sufficient degree of correlation between price trends for a Fund’s portfolio securities and futures contracts based on other financial instruments, securities indices or other indices, the Fund may also enter into such futures contracts as part of a hedging strategy. Although under some circumstances prices of securities in a Fund’s portfolio may be more or less volatile than prices of such futures contracts, the Investment Adviser may attempt to estimate the extent of this volatility difference based on historical patterns and compensate for any such differential by having the Fund enter into a greater or lesser number of futures contracts or by attempting to achieve only a partial hedge against price changes affecting the Fund’s portfolio securities. When hedging of this character is successful, any depreciation in the value of portfolio securities will be substantially offset by appreciation in the value of the futures position. On the other hand, any unanticipated appreciation in the value of a Fund’s portfolio securities would be substantially offset by a decline in the value of the futures position.

On other occasions, a Fund may take a “long” position by purchasing such futures contracts. This may be done, for example, when a Fund anticipates the subsequent purchase of particular securities when it has the necessary cash, but expects the prices or currency exchange rates then available in the applicable market to be less favorable than prices or rates that are currently available.

Options on Futures Contracts. The acquisition of put and call options on futures contracts will give a Fund the right (but not the obligation), for a specified price, to sell or to purchase, respectively, the underlying futures contract at any time during the option period. As the purchaser of an option on a futures contract, a Fund obtains the benefit of the futures position if prices move in a favorable direction but limits its risk of loss in the event of an unfavorable price movement to the loss of the premium and transaction costs.

The writing of a call option on a futures contract generates a premium which may partially offset a decline in the value of the Funds’ assets. By writing a call option, a Fund becomes obligated, in exchange for the premium, to sell a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value higher than the exercise price. The writing of a put option on a futures contract generates a

 

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premium, which may partially offset an increase in the price of securities that a Fund intends to purchase. However, a Fund becomes obligated (upon the exercise of the option) to purchase a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value lower than the exercise price. Thus, the loss incurred by a Fund in writing options on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received. A Fund will incur transaction costs in connection with the writing of options on futures.

The holder or writer of an option on a futures contract may terminate its position by selling or purchasing an offsetting option on the same financial instrument. There is no guarantee that such closing transactions can be effected. A Fund’s ability to establish and close out positions on such options will be subject to the development and maintenance of a liquid market.

Other Considerations. The Funds will engage in transactions in futures contracts and related options transactions only to the extent such transactions are consistent with the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) for maintaining its qualification as a regulated investment company for federal income tax purposes. Transactions in futures contracts and options on futures involve brokerage costs, require margin deposits and, in certain cases, require the Funds to identify on its books cash or liquid assets. A Fund may cover its transactions in futures contracts and related options by identifying on its books cash or liquid assets or by other means, in any manner permitted by applicable law. For more information about these practices, see “Description of Investment Securities and Practices – Asset Segregation.”

While transactions in futures contracts and options on futures may reduce certain risks, such transactions themselves entail certain other risks. Thus, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates may result in a poorer overall performance for a Fund than if it had not entered into any futures contracts or options transactions. When futures contracts and options are used for hedging purposes, perfect correlation between a Fund’s futures positions and portfolio positions may be impossible to achieve, particularly where futures contracts based on individual equity or corporate fixed income securities are currently not available. In the event of imperfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position which is intended to be protected, the desired protection may not be obtained and a Fund may be exposed to risk of loss. In addition, it is not possible for a Fund to hedge fully or perfectly against currency fluctuations affecting the value of securities quoted or denominated in foreign currencies because the value of such securities is likely to fluctuate as a result of independent factors unrelated to currency fluctuations. The profitability of a Fund’s trading in futures depends upon the ability of the Investment Adviser to analyze correctly the futures markets.

Index Swaps, Interest Rate Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Currency Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Equity Swaps, Volatility and Variance Swaps, Inflation and Inflation Asset Swaps, Correlation Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars

The Funds may enter into interest rate, credit, total return, equity, mortgage and currency swaps. The Funds may also enter into interest rate caps, floors and collars. The Funds may also purchase and write (sell) options contracts on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions. The Funds may enter into index swaps, volatility and variance swaps, inflation and inflation asset swaps and correlation swaps.

The Funds may enter into swap transactions for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return. As examples, a Fund may enter into swap transactions for the purpose of attempting to obtain or preserve a particular return or spread at a lower cost than obtaining a return or spread through purchases and/or sales of instruments in other markets, to protect against currency fluctuations, as a duration management technique, to protect against any increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date, or to gain exposure to certain markets in an economical way.

In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns, differentials in rates of return or some other amount earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency or security, or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. Cleared swaps are transacted through futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as a central counterparty similar to transactions in futures contracts. Each Fund posts initial and variation margin by making payments to their clearing member FCMs.

Index swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of payments based on a notional principal amount of a specified index or indices. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive payments for floating rate payments based on interest rates at specified intervals in the future. Two types of interest rate swaps include “fixed-for-floating rate swaps” and “basis swaps.” Fixed-for-floating rate swaps involve the exchange of payments based on a

 

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fixed interest rate for payments based on a floating interest rate index. By contrast, basis swaps involve the exchange of payments based on two different floating interest rate indices. Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages.

Credit default swaps involve the exchange of a floating or fixed rate payment in return for assuming potential credit losses of an underlying security or pool of securities. Loan credit default swaps are similar to credit default swaps on bonds, except that the underlying protection is sold on secured loans of a reference entity rather than a broader category of bonds or loans. Loan credit default swaps may be on single names or on baskets of loans, both tranched and untranched. Currency swaps involve the exchange of the parties’ respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Total return swaps are contracts that obligate a party to pay or receive interest in exchange for payment by the other party of the total return generated by a security, a basket of securities, an index, or an index component. Equity swap contracts may be structured in different ways. For example, as a total return swap where a counterparty may agree to pay a Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap contract would have increased in value had it been invested in the particular stocks (or a group of stocks), plus the dividends that would have been received on those stocks. In other cases, the counterparty and a Fund may each agree to pay the difference between the relative investment performances that would have been achieved if the notional amount of the equity swap contract had been invested in different stocks (or a group of stocks).

A volatility swap is an agreement between two parties to make payments based on changes in the volatility of a reference instrument over a stated period of time. Volatility swaps can be used to adjust the volatility profile of the Funds. For example, a Fund may buy a volatility swap to take the position that the reference instrument’s volatility will increase over a stated period of time. If this occurs, the Fund will receive a payment based upon the amount by which the realized volatility level of the reference instrument exceeds an agreed upon volatility level. If volatility is less than the agreed upon volatility level, then a Fund will make a payment to the counterparty calculated in the same manner. A variance swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange cash payments based on changes in the variance of a reference instrument over a stated period of time. Volatility is the mathematical square root of variance, and variance swaps are used for similar purposes as volatility swaps.

An inflation swap is an agreement between two parties in which one party agrees to pay the cumulative percentage increase in a reference inflation index (e.g., the Consumer Price Index) and the other party agrees to pay a compounded fixed rate over a stated period of time. In an inflation asset swap, the reference instrument is a bond with a value that is tied to inflation (e.g., Treasury Inflation-Protected Security) and one party pays the cash flows from the reference instrument in exchange for a payment based on a fixed rate from the other party. Each Fund may enter into inflation swaps and inflation asset swaps to protect the Fund against changes in the rate of inflation.

A correlation swap is an agreement in which two parties agree to exchange cash payments based on the correlation between specified reference instruments over a set period of time. Two assets would be considered closely correlated if, for example, their daily returns vary in similar proportions or along similar trajectories. For example, a Fund may enter into correlation swaps to change its exposure to increases or decreases in the correlation between prices or returns of different Fund holdings.

A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into or modify an underlying swap or to modify the terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than incurred in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates.

A great deal of flexibility may be possible in the way swap transactions are structured. However, generally a Fund will enter into interest rate, total return, equity, credit and mortgage swaps on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Interest rate, total return, equity, credit and mortgage swaps do not normally involve the delivery of securities, other underlying assets or principal. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to interest rate, total return, equity, credit and mortgage swaps is normally limited to the net amount of payments that a Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to an interest rate, total return, equity, credit or mortgage swap defaults, a Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of interest payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any.

 

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In contrast, currency swaps usually involve the delivery of a gross payment stream in one designated currency in exchange for a gross payment stream in another designated currency. Therefore, the entire payment stream under a currency swap is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations. A credit swap may have as reference obligations one or more securities that may, or may not, be currently held by a Fund. The protection “buyer” in a credit swap is generally obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the swap provided that no credit event, such as a default, on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the “par value” (full notional value) of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled. Each Fund may be either the protection buyer or seller in the transaction. If a Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. However, if a credit event occurs, the buyer generally may elect to receive the full notional value of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity whose value may have significantly decreased. As a seller, a Fund generally receives an upfront payment or a rate of income throughout the term of the swap provided that there is no credit event. As the seller, a Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. If a credit event occurs, the value of any deliverable obligation received by a Fund as seller, coupled with the upfront or periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Fund.

As a result of recent regulatory developments, certain standardized swaps are currently subject to mandatory central clearing and some of these cleared swaps must be traded on an exchange or swap execution facility (“SEF”). A SEF is a trading platform in which multiple market participants can execute swap transactions by accepting bids and offers made by multiple other participants on the platform. Transactions executed on a SEF may increase market transparency and liquidity but my cause a Fund to incur increased expenses to execute swaps. Central clearing should decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilateral swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap. However, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely. In addition, depending on the size of a Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral swap. However, the CFTC and other applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps, which may result in the Fund and its counterparties posting higher margin amounts for uncleared swaps. Requiring margin on uncleared swaps may reduce, but not eliminate, counterparty credit risk.

To the extent that a Fund’s exposure in a transaction involving a swap, swaption or an interest rate floor, cap or collar is covered by identifying cash or liquid assets on the Fund’s books or is covered by other means in accordance with SEC or SEC-staff approved guidance or other appropriate measures, the Fund and the Investment Adviser believe that the transactions do not constitute senior securities under the Act and, accordingly, will not treat them as being subject to the Fund’s borrowing restrictions. For more information about these practices, see “Description of Investment Securities and Practices – Asset Segregation.”

The use of swaps and swaptions, as well as interest rate caps, floors and collars, is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions.

In addition, these transactions can involve greater risks than if a Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly because, in addition to general market risks, swaps are subject to illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Regulators also may impose limits on an entity’s or group of entities’ positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if a Fund invests in cleared swaps. Because bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, swap transactions may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty. Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Swaps and other derivatives may also be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when the price of a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be economically feasible to imitate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

Certain rules also require centralized reporting of detailed information about many types of cleared and uncleared swaps. This information is available to regulators and, to a more limited extent and on an anonymous basis, to the public. Reporting of swap data may result in greater market transparency, which may be beneficial to funds that use swaps to implement trading strategies. However, these rules place potential additional administrative obligations on these funds, and the safeguards established to protect anonymity may not function as expected.

 

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The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments which are traded in the interbank market. The Investment Adviser, under the supervision of the Board of Trustees, is responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of a Fund’s transactions in swaps, swaptions, caps, floors and collars.

Investing in Asia

Although many countries in Asia have experienced a relatively stable political environment over the last decade, there is no guarantee that such stability will be maintained in the future. As an emerging region, many factors may affect such stability on a country-by-country as well as on a regional basis – increasing gaps between the rich and poor, agrarian unrest and stability of existing coalitions in politically-fractionated countries – and may result in adverse consequences to a Fund. The political history of some Asian countries has been characterized by political uncertainty, intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres, and political corruption. Such developments, if they continue to occur, could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization, and removal of trade barriers, and could result in significant disruption to securities markets.

The legal infrastructure in each of the countries in Asia is unique and often undeveloped. In most cases, securities laws are evolving and far from adequate for the protection of the public from serious fraud. Investment in Asian securities involves considerations and possible risks not typically involved with investment in other issuers, including changes in governmental administration or economic or monetary policy or changed circumstances in dealings between nations. The application of tax laws (e.g., the imposition of withholding taxes on dividend or interest payments) or confiscatory taxation may also affect investment in Asian securities. Higher expenses may result from investments in Asian securities than would from investments in other securities because of the costs that must be incurred in connection with conversions between various currencies and brokerage commissions that may be higher than more established markets. Asian securities markets also may be less liquid, more volatile and less subject to governmental supervision than elsewhere. Investments in countries in the region could be affected by other factors not present elsewhere, including lack of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, inadequate settlement procedures and potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations.

Certain countries in Asia are especially prone to natural disasters, such as flooding, drought and earthquakes. Combined with the possibility of man-made disasters, the occurrence of such disasters may adversely affect companies in which a Fund is invested and, as a result, may result in adverse consequences to the Fund.

Many of the countries in Asia periodically have experienced significant inflation. Should the governments and central banks of the countries in Asia fail to control inflation, this may have an adverse effect on the performance of a Fund’s investments in Asian securities.

Several of the countries in Asia remain dependent on the U.S. economy as their largest export customer, and future barriers to entry into the U.S. market or other important markets could adversely affect a Fund’s performance. Intraregional trade is becoming an increasingly significant percentage of total trade for the countries in Asia. Consequently, the intertwined economies are becoming increasingly dependent on each other, and any barriers to entry to markets in Asia in the future may adversely affect a Fund’s performance.

Certain Asian countries may have managed currencies which are maintained at artificial levels to the U.S. dollar rather than at levels determined by the market. This type of system can lead to sudden and large adjustments in the currency which, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. Certain Asian countries also may restrict the free conversion of their currency into foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar. There is no significant foreign exchange market for certain currencies, and it would, as a result, be difficult to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of a Fund’s interests in securities denominated in such currencies.

Although a Fund will generally attempt to invest in those markets which provide the greatest freedom of movement of foreign capital, there is no assurance that this will be possible or that certain countries in Asia will not restrict the movement of foreign capital in the future. Changes in securities laws and foreign ownership laws may have an adverse effect on a Fund.

 

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Investing in Australia

The Australian economy is heavily dependent on the economies of Asia, Europe and the U.S. as key trading partners, and in particular, on the price and demand for agricultural products and natural resources. By total market capitalization, the Australian stock market is small relative to the U.S. stock market and issues may trade with lesser liquidity, although Australia’s stock market is the largest and most liquid in the Asia-Pacific region (ex-Japan). Australian reporting, accounting and auditing standards differ substantially from U.S. standards. In general, Australian corporations do not provide all of the disclosure required by U.S. law and accounting practice, and such disclosure may be less timely and less frequent than that required of U.S. companies.

Investing in Central and South American Countries

The Funds may invest in issuers located in Central and South American countries. Securities markets in Central and South American countries may experience greater volatility than in other emerging countries. In addition, a number of Central and South American countries are among the largest emerging country debtors. There have been moratoria on, and reschedulings of, repayment with respect to these debts. Such events can restrict the flexibility of these debtor nations in the international markets and result in the imposition of onerous conditions on their economies.

Many of the currencies of Central and South American countries have experienced steady devaluation relative to the U.S. dollar, and major devaluations have historically occurred in certain countries. Any devaluations in the currencies in which the Fund’s portfolio securities are denominated may have a detrimental impact on the Funds. There is also a risk that certain Central and South American countries may restrict the free conversion of their currencies into other currencies. Some Central and South American countries may have managed currencies which are not free floating against the U.S. dollar. This type of system can lead to sudden and large adjustments in the currency that, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. Certain Central and South American currencies may not be internationally traded and it would be difficult for a Fund to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of the Fund’s interests in securities denominated in such currencies.

The emergence of the Central and South American economies and securities markets will require continued economic and fiscal discipline that has been lacking at times in the past, as well as stable political and social conditions. Governments of many Central and South American countries have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. The political history of certain Central and South American countries has been characterized by political uncertainty, intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres and political corruption. Such developments, if they were to recur, could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization and removal of trade barriers.

International economic conditions, particularly those in the United States, as well as world prices for oil and other commodities may also influence the recovery of the Central and South American economies. Because commodities such as oil, gas, minerals and metals represent a significant percentage of the region’s exports, the economies of Central and South American countries are particularly sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices. As a result, the economies in many of these countries can experience significant volatility.

Certain Central and South American countries have entered into regional trade agreements that would, among other things, reduce barriers among countries, increase competition among companies and reduce government subsidies in certain industries. No assurance can be given that these changes will result in the economic stability intended. There is a possibility that these trade arrangements will not be implemented, will be implemented but not completed or will be completed but then partially or completely unwound. It is also possible that a significant participant could choose to abandon a trade agreement, which could diminish its credibility and influence. Any of these occurrences could have adverse effects on the markets of both participating and non-participating countries, including share appreciation or depreciation of participant’s national currencies and a significant increase in exchange rate volatility, a resurgence in economic protectionism, an undermining of confidence in the Central and South American markets, an undermining of Central and South American economic stability, the collapse or slowdown of the drive toward Central and South American economic unity, and/or reversion of the attempts to lower government debt and inflation rates that were introduced in anticipation of such trade agreements. Such developments could have an adverse impact on the Fund’s investments in Central and South America generally or in specific countries participating in such trade agreements.

Investing in Eastern Europe

The Funds may invest in issuers located in Eastern Europe. Most Eastern European countries had a centrally planned, socialist economy for a substantial period of time. The governments of many Eastern European countries have more recently been implementing reforms directed at political and economic liberalization, including efforts to decentralize the economic decision-making process and move towards a market economy. However, business entities in many Eastern European countries do not have an extended history of operating in a market-oriented economy, and the ultimate impact of Eastern European countries’ attempts to move toward more market-oriented economies is currently unclear. In addition, any change in the leadership or policies of Eastern European countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities.

 

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Where a Fund invests in securities issued by companies incorporated in or whose principal operations are located in Eastern Europe, other risks may also be encountered. Legal, political, economic and fiscal uncertainties in Eastern European markets may affect the value of the Funds investment in such securities. The currencies in which these investments may be denominated may be unstable, may be subject to significant depreciation and may not be freely convertible. Existing laws and regulations may not be consistently applied. The markets of the countries of Eastern Europe are still in the early stages of their development, have less volume, are less highly regulated, are less liquid and experience greater volatility than more established markets. Settlement of transactions may be subject to delay and administrative uncertainties. Custodians are not able to offer the level of service and safekeeping, settlement and administration services that is customary in more developed markets, and there is a risk that the Funds will not be recognized as the owner of securities held on their behalf by a sub-custodian.

Investing in Emerging Countries

Emerging Markets Equity Securities. The securities markets of emerging countries are less liquid and subject to greater price volatility, and have a smaller market capitalization, than the U.S. securities markets. In certain countries, there may be fewer publicly traded securities and the market may be dominated by a few issuers or sectors. Issuers and securities markets in such countries are not subject to as extensive and frequent accounting, financial and other reporting requirements or as comprehensive government regulations as are issuers and securities markets in the U.S. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of emerging country issuers may not reflect their financial position or results of operations in the same manner as financial statements for U.S. issuers. Substantially less information may be publicly available about emerging country issuers than is available about issuers in the United States.

Emerging country securities markets are typically marked by a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of ownership of such securities by a limited number of investors. The markets for securities in certain emerging countries are in the earliest stages of their development. Even the markets for relatively widely traded securities in emerging countries may not be able to absorb, without price disruptions, a significant increase in trading volume or trades of a size customarily undertaken by institutional investors in the securities markets of developed countries. The limited size of many of these securities markets can cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the soundness and competitiveness of the securities issuers. For example, prices may be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions in these markets. Additionally, market making and arbitrage activities are generally less extensive in such markets, which may contribute to increased volatility and reduced liquidity of such markets. The limited liquidity of emerging country securities may also affect a Fund’s ability to accurately value its portfolio securities or to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so or in order to meet redemption requests.

The Funds’ purchase and sale of portfolio securities in certain emerging countries may be constrained by limitations as to daily changes in the prices of listed securities, periodic trading or settlement volume and/or limitations on aggregate holdings of foreign investors. Such limitations may be computed based on the aggregate trading volume by or holdings of the Funds, the Investment Adviser, its affiliates and their respective clients and other service providers. A Fund may not be able to sell securities in circumstances where price, trading or settlement volume limitations have been reached.

Market Characteristics. Securities markets of emerging countries may also have less efficient clearance and settlement procedures than U.S. markets, making it difficult to conduct and complete transactions. Delays in the settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of a Fund’s assets is uninvested and no return is earned thereon. Inability to make intended security purchases could cause a Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities could result either in losses to a Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio security or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the security, could result in possible liability of the Fund to the purchaser.

Transaction costs, including brokerage commissions and dealer mark-ups, in emerging countries may be higher than in the U.S. and other developed securities markets. As legal systems in emerging countries develop, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations. In circumstances where adequate laws exist, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of the law.

 

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Custodial and/or settlement systems in emerging markets countries may not be fully developed. To the extent a Fund invests in emerging markets, Fund assets that are traded in such markets and will have been entrusted to such sub-custodians in those markets may be exposed to risks for which the sub-custodian will have no liability.

With respect to investments in certain emerging countries, antiquated legal systems may have an adverse impact on the Funds. For example, while the potential liability of a shareholder of a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation is generally limited to the amount of the shareholder’s investment, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain emerging market countries. Similarly, the rights of investors in emerging market companies may be more limited than those of investors of U.S. corporations.

Economic, Political and Social Factors. Emerging countries may be subject to a greater degree of economic, political and social instability than the United States, Japan and most Western European countries, and unanticipated political and social developments may affect the value of the Funds’ investments in emerging countries and the availability to a Fund of additional investments in such countries. Moreover, political and economic structures in many emerging countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development. Instability may result from, among other things: (i) authoritarian governments or military involvement in political and economic decision-making, including changes or attempted changes in government through extra-constitutional means; (ii) popular unrest associated with demands for improved economic, political and social conditions; (iii) internal insurgencies; (iv) hostile relations with neighboring countries; (v) ethnic, religious and racial disaffection and conflict; and (vi) the absence of developed legal structures governing foreign private property. Many emerging countries have experienced in the past, and continue to experience, high rates of inflation. In certain countries, inflation has at times accelerated rapidly to hyperinflationary levels, creating a negative interest rate environment and sharply eroding the value of outstanding financial assets in those countries. The economies of many emerging countries are heavily dependent upon international trade and are accordingly affected by protective trade barriers and the economic conditions of their trading partners. In addition, the economies of some emerging countries may differ unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources, self-sufficiency and balance of payments position.

The Funds may invest in issuers located in former “Eastern bloc” countries. Most of these countries had a centrally planned, socialist economy for a substantial period of time. The governments of many of these countries have more recently been implementing reforms directed at political and economic liberalization, including efforts to decentralize the economic decision-making process and move towards a market economy. However, business entities in many of these countries do not have an extended history of operating in a market-oriented economy, and the ultimate impact of these countries’ attempts to move toward more market-oriented economies is currently unclear. In addition, any change in the leadership or policies of these countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities.

Restrictions on Investment and Repatriation. Certain emerging countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investments by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals. The repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from emerging countries may be subject to restrictions which require governmental consents or prohibit repatriation entirely for a period of time, which may make it difficult for a Fund to invest in such emerging countries. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect the operation of the Funds.

Emerging Country Government Obligations. Emerging country governmental entities are among the largest debtors to commercial banks, foreign governments, international financial organizations and other financial institutions. Certain emerging country governmental entities have not been able to make payments of interest on or principal of debt obligations as those payments have come due. Obligations arising from past restructuring agreements may affect the economic performance and political and social stability of those entities.

The ability of emerging country governmental entities to make timely payments on their obligations is likely to be influenced strongly by the entity’s balance of payments, including export performance, and its access to international credits and investments. An emerging country whose exports are concentrated in a few commodities could be vulnerable to a decline in the international prices of one or more of those commodities. Increased protectionism on the part of an emerging country’s trading partners could also adversely affect the country’s exports and tarnish its trade account surplus, if any. To the extent that emerging countries receive payment for their exports in currencies other than dollars or non-emerging country currencies, the emerging country governmental entity’s ability to make debt payments denominated in dollars or non-emerging market currencies could be affected.

 

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To the extent that an emerging country cannot generate a trade surplus, it must depend on continuing loans from foreign governments, multilateral organizations or private commercial banks, aid payments from foreign governments and on inflows of foreign investment. The access of emerging countries to these forms of external funding may not be certain, and a withdrawal of external funding could adversely affect the capacity of emerging country governmental entities to make payments on their obligations. In addition, the cost of servicing emerging country debt obligations can be affected by a change in international interest rates because the majority of these obligations carry interest rates that are adjusted periodically based upon international rates.

Another factor bearing on the ability of emerging countries to repay debt obligations is the level of international reserves of a country. Fluctuations in the level of these reserves affect the amount of foreign exchange readily available for external debt payments and thus could have a bearing on the capacity of emerging countries to make payments on these debt obligations.

As a result of the foregoing or other factors, a governmental obligor, especially in an emerging country, may default on its obligations. If such an event occurs, the Funds may have limited legal recourse against the issuer and/or guarantor. Remedies must, in some cases, be pursued in the courts of the defaulting party itself, and the ability of the holder of foreign government obligations to obtain recourse may be subject to the political climate in the relevant country. In addition, no assurance can be given that the holders of commercial bank debt will not contest payments to the holders of other foreign government obligations in the event of default under the commercial bank loan agreements.

Investing in Europe

The Funds may operate in euros and/or may hold euros and/or euro-denominated bonds and other obligations. The euro requires participation of multiple sovereign states forming the Euro zone and is therefore sensitive to the credit, general economic and political position of each such state, including each state’s actual and intended ongoing engagement with and/or support for the other sovereign states then forming the EU, in particular those within the Euro zone. Changes in these factors might materially adversely impact the value of securities that a Fund has invested in.

European countries can be significantly affected by the tight fiscal and monetary controls that the European Economic and Monetary Union (“EMU”) imposes for membership. Europe’s economies are diverse, its governments are decentralized, and its cultures vary widely. Several EU countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal, have faced budget issues, some of which may have negative long-term effects for the economies of those countries and other EU countries. There is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member countries. Member countries are required to maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficit to qualify for membership in the EMU. These requirements can severely limit the ability of EMU member countries to implement monetary policy to address regional economic conditions.

In a June 2016 referendum, citizens of the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU. In March 2017, the United Kingdom formally notified the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the EU (commonly known as “Brexit”). During this period and beyond, the impact on the United Kingdom and European economies and the broader global economy could be significant and could, among other outcomes, result in increased volatility and illiquidity, potentially lower economic growth and decreased asset valuations. Brexit may have a negative impact on the economy and currency of the United Kingdom as a result of anticipated or actual changes to the United Kingdom’s economic and political relations with the EU. Brexit may also have a destabilizing impact on the EU to the extent other member states similarly seek to withdraw from the union. Any further exits from the EU, or the possibility of such exits, would likely cause additional market disruption globally and introduce new legal and regulatory uncertainties. Any or all of these challenges may affect the value of a Fund’s investments economically tied to the United Kingdom or the EU.

Economic challenges facing the region include high levels of public debt, significant rates of unemployment, aging populations, and heavy regulation in certain economic sectors. European policy makers have taken unprecedented steps to respond to the economic crisis and to boost growth in the region, which has increased the risk that regulatory uncertainty could negatively affect the value of a Fund’s investments.

Certain countries have applied to become new member countries of the EU, and these candidate countries’ accessions may become more controversial to the existing EU members. Some member states may repudiate certain candidate countries joining the EU upon concerns about the possible economic, immigration and cultural implications. Also, Russia may be opposed to the expansion of the EU to members of the former Soviet bloc and may, at times, take actions that could negatively impact EU economic activity.

 

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Investing in Greater China

Investing in Greater China (the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan) involves a high degree of risk and special considerations not typically associated with investing in other more established economies or securities markets. Such risks may include: (a) social, economic and political uncertainty (including the risk of armed conflict); (b) the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; (c) dependency on exports and the corresponding importance of international trade; (d) increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies; (e) greater price volatility and significantly smaller market capitalization of securities markets; (f) substantially less liquidity, particularly of certain share classes of Chinese securities; (g) currency exchange rate fluctuations and the lack of available currency hedging instruments; (h) higher rates of inflation; (i) controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on the Fund’s ability to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; (j) greater governmental involvement in and control over the economy; (k) uncertainty regarding the People’s Republic of China’s commitment to economic reforms; (l) the fact that Chinese companies may be smaller, less seasoned and newly-organized companies; (m) the differences in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers; (n) the fact that statistical information regarding the economy of Greater China may be inaccurate or not comparable to statistical information regarding the U.S. or other economies; (o) less extensive, and still developing, legal systems and regulatory frameworks regarding the securities markets, business entities and commercial transactions; (p) the fact that the settlement period of securities transactions in foreign markets may be longer; (q) the fact that it may be more difficult, or impossible, to obtain and/or enforce a judgment than in other countries; and (r) the rapid and erratic nature of growth, particularly in the People’s Republic of China, resulting in inefficiencies and dislocations.

The People’s Republic of China is dominated by the one-party rule of the Communist Party. Investments in China involve the risk of greater control over the economy, political and legal uncertainties and currency fluctuations or blockage. The government of the People’s Republic of China exercises significant control over economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. For over three decades, the government of the People’s Republic of China has been reforming economic and market practices and providing a larger sphere for private ownership of property. While currently contributing to growth and prosperity, the government may decide not to continue to support these economic reform programs and could possibly return to the completely centrally planned economy that existed prior to 1978.

The willingness and ability of the government of the People’s Republic of China to support Greater China markets is uncertain. Taiwan and Hong Kong do not exercise the same level of control over their economies as does the People’s Republic of China, but changes to their political and economic relationships with the People’s Republic of China could adversely impact the Fund’s investments in Taiwan and Hong Kong. The relationship between the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan is a highly problematic issue and is unlikely to be settled in the near future. This situation, and the continuing hostility between the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan, poses a threat to Taiwan’s economy and may have an adverse impact on the value of the Fund’s investments in Greater China.

Greater China has historically been prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes, droughts, floods and tsunamis and is economically sensitive to environmental events. Any such event could cause a significant impact on the economy of, or investments in, Greater China.

Investing in Japan

Japan’s economy is heavily dependent upon international trade and is especially sensitive to any adverse effects arising from trade tariffs and other protectionist measures, as well as the economic condition of its trading partners. Japan’s high volume of exports has caused trade tensions with Japan’s primary trading partners, particularly with the United States. The relaxing of official and de facto barriers to imports, or hardships created by the actions of trading partners, could adversely affect Japan’s economy. Because the Japanese economy is so dependent on exports, any fall-off in exports may be seen as a sign of economic weakness, which may adversely affect Japanese markets.

In addition, Japan’s export industry, its most important economic sector, depends heavily on imported raw materials and fuels, including iron ore, copper, oil and many forest products. Japan has historically depended on oil for most of its energy requirements. Almost all of its oil is imported, the majority from the Middle East. In the past, oil prices have had a major impact on the domestic economy, but more recently Japan has worked to reduce its dependence on oil by encouraging energy conservation and use of alternative fuels. However, Japan remains sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices, and a substantial rise in world oil or commodity prices could have a negative effect on its economy.

 

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The Japanese yen has fluctuated widely during recent periods and may be affected by currency volatility elsewhere in Asia, especially Southeast Asia. In addition, the yen has had a history of unpredictable and volatile movements against the U.S. dollar. A weak yen is disadvantageous to U.S. shareholders investing in yen-denominated securities. A strong yen, however, could be an impediment to strong continued exports and economic recovery, because it makes Japanese goods sold in other countries more expensive and reduces the value of foreign earnings repatriated to Japan.

The performance of the global economy could have a major impact upon equity returns in Japan. As a result of the strong correlation with the economy of the United States, Japan’s economy and its stock market are vulnerable to any unfavorable economic conditions in the United States and poor performance of U.S. stock markets. The growing economic relationship between Japan and its other neighboring countries in the Southeast Asia region, especially China, also exposes Japan’s economy to changes to the economic climates in those countries.

Like many developed countries, Japan faces challenges to its competitiveness. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s and Japan’s economy fell into a long recession. After a few years of mild recovery in the mid-2000s, the Japanese economy fell into another recession in part due to the recent global economic crisis. This economic recession was likely compounded by an unstable financial sector, low domestic consumption, and certain corporate structural weaknesses, which remain some of the major issues facing the Japanese economy. Japan is reforming its political process and deregulating its economy to address this situation. However, there is no guarantee that these efforts will succeed in making the performance of the Japanese economy more competitive.

Japan has experienced natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tidal waves, of varying degrees of severity. The risks of such phenomena, and the resulting damage, continue to exist and could have a severe and negative impact on a Fund’s holdings in Japanese securities. Japan also has one of the world’s highest population densities. A significant percentage of the total population of Japan is concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya. Therefore, a natural disaster centered in or very near to one of these cities could have a particularly devastating effect on Japan’s financial markets. Japan’s recovery from the recession has been affected by economic distress resulting from the earthquake and resulting tsunami that struck northeastern Japan in March 2011 causing major damage along the coast, including damage to nuclear power plants in the region. Since the earthquake, Japan’s financial markets have fluctuated dramatically. The disaster caused large personal losses, reduced energy supplies, disrupted manufacturing, resulted in significant declines in stock market prices and resulted in an appreciable decline in Japan’s economic output. Although production levels are recovering in some industries as work is shifted to factories in areas not directly affected by the disaster, the timing of a full economic recovery is uncertain, and foreign business whose supply chains are dependent on production or manufacturing in Japan may decrease their reliance on Japanese industries in the future.

Investing in Russia

Investing in Russian securities is highly speculative and involves significant risks and special considerations not typically associated with investing in the securities markets of the U.S. and most other developed countries. Over the past century, Russia has experienced political, social and economic turbulence and has endured decades of communist rule under which tens of millions of its citizens were collectivized into state agricultural and industrial enterprises. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia’s government has been faced with the daunting task of stabilizing its domestic economy, while transforming it into a modern and efficient structure able to compete in international markets and respond to the needs of its citizens. However, to date, many of the country’s economic reform initiatives have floundered as the proceeds of International Monetary Fund and other economic assistance have been squandered or stolen. In this environment, there is always the risk that the nation’s government will abandon the current program of economic reform and replace it with radically different political and economic policies that would be detrimental to the interests of foreign investors. This could entail a return to a centrally planned economy and nationalization of private enterprises similar to what existed under the old Soviet Union.

Many of Russia’s businesses have failed to mobilize the available factors of production because the country’s privatization program virtually ensured the predominance of the old management teams that are largely non-market-oriented in their management approach. Poor accounting standards, inept management, pervasive corruption, insider trading and crime, and inadequate regulatory protection for the rights of investors all pose a significant risk, particularly to foreign investors. In addition, there is the risk that the Russian tax system will not be reformed to prevent inconsistent, retroactive, and/or exorbitant taxation, or, in the alternative, the risk that a reformed tax system may result in the inconsistent and unpredictable enforcement of the new tax laws.

Compared to most national stock markets, the Russian securities market suffers from a variety of problems not encountered in more developed markets. There is little long-term historical data on the Russian securities market because it is relatively new and a substantial proportion of securities transactions in Russia are privately negotiated outside of stock exchanges. The inexperience of the Russian securities market and the limited volume of trading in securities in the market may make obtaining accurate prices on portfolio securities from independent sources more difficult than in more developed markets. Additionally, because of less stringent auditing and financial reporting standards that apply to U.S. companies, there is little solid corporate information available to investors. As a result, it may be difficult to assess the value or prospects of an investment in Russian companies. Stocks of Russian companies also may experience greater price volatility than stocks of U.S. companies.

 

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Because of the recent formation of the Russian securities market as well as the underdeveloped state of the banking and telecommunications systems, settlement, clearing and registration of securities transactions are subject to significant risks. Ownership of shares (except where shares are held through depositories that meet the requirements of the Investment Company Act) is defined according to entries in the company’s share register and normally evidenced by extracts from the register or by formal share certificates. However, there is no central registration system for shareholders and these services are carried out by the companies themselves or by registrars located throughout Russia. These registrars are not necessarily subject to effective state supervision nor are they licensed with any governmental entity, and it is possible for the Funds to lose its registration through fraud, negligence, or even mere oversight. While the Funds will endeavor to ensure that its interest continues to be appropriately recorded either itself or through a custodian or other agent inspecting the share register and by obtaining extracts of share registers through regular confirmations, these extracts have no legal enforceability and it is possible that subsequent illegal amendment or other fraudulent act may deprive a Fund of its ownership rights or improperly dilute its interests. In addition, while applicable Russian regulations impose liability on registrars for losses resulting from their errors, it may be difficult for a Fund to enforce any rights it may have against the registrar or issuer of the securities in the event of loss of share registration. Furthermore, significant delays or problems may occur in registering the transfer of securities, which could cause a Fund to incur losses due to a counterparty’s failure to pay for securities the Fund has delivered or the Fund’s inability to complete its contractual obligations because of theft or other reasons. The Funds also may experience difficulty in obtaining and/or enforcing judgments in Russia.

The Russian economy is heavily dependent upon the export of a range of commodities including most industrial metals, forestry products, oil, and gas. Accordingly, it is strongly affected by international commodity prices and is particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products.

Foreign investors also face a high degree of currency risk when investing in Russian securities and a lack of available currency hedging instruments. In a surprise move in August 1998, Russia devalued the ruble, defaulted on short-term domestic bonds, and imposed a moratorium on the repayment of its international debt and the restructuring of the repayment terms. These actions have negatively affected Russian borrowers’ ability to access international capital markets and have had a damaging impact on the Russian economy. In light of these and other government actions, foreign investors face the possibility of further devaluations. In addition, there is the risk that the government may impose capital controls on foreign portfolio investments in the event of extreme financial or political crisis. Such capital controls would prevent the sale of a portfolio of foreign assets and the repatriation of investment income and capital.

Investment in Unseasoned Companies

Each Fund may invest in companies (including predecessors) which have operated less than three years. The securities of such companies may have limited liquidity, which can result in their being priced higher or lower than might otherwise be the case. In addition, investments in unseasoned companies are more speculative and entail greater risk than do investments in companies with an established operating record.

Lending of Portfolio Securities

Each Fund may lend its portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and other institutions, including Goldman Sachs. By lending its securities, a Fund attempts to increase its net investment income.

Securities loans are required to be secured continuously by collateral in cash, cash equivalents, letters of credit or U.S. Government Securities equal to at least 100% of the value of the loaned securities. This collateral must be valued, or “marked to market,” daily. Borrowers are required to furnish additional collateral to the Fund as necessary to fully cover their obligations.

With respect to loans that are collateralized by cash, the Fund may reinvest that cash in short-term investments and pay the borrower a pre-negotiated fee or “rebate” from any return earned on the investment. Investing the collateral subjects it to market depreciation or appreciation, and a Fund is responsible for any loss that may result from its investment of the borrowed collateral. Cash collateral may be invested in, among other things, other registered or unregistered funds, including private investing funds or money market funds that are managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, and which pay the Investment Adviser or its affiliates for their services. If a Fund would receive non-cash collateral, the Fund receives a fee from the borrower equal to a negotiated percentage of the market value of the loaned securities.

 

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For the duration of any securities loan, a Fund will continue to receive the equivalent of the interest, dividends or other distributions paid by the issuer on the loaned securities. A Fund will not have the right to vote its loaned securities during the period of the loan, but the Fund may attempt to recall a loaned security in anticipation of a material vote if it desires to do so. A Fund will have the right to terminate a loan at any time and recall the loaned securities within the normal and customary settlement time for securities transactions.

Securities lending involves certain risks. A Fund may lose money on its investment of cash collateral, resulting in a loss of principal, or may fail to earn sufficient income on its investment to cover the fee or rebate it has agreed to pay the borrower. A Fund may incur losses in connection with its securities lending activities that exceed the value of the interest income and fees received in connection with such transactions. Securities lending subjects a Fund to the risk of loss resulting from problems in the settlement and accounting process, and to additional credit, counterparty and market risk. These risks could be greater with respect to non-U.S. securities. Engaging in securities lending could have a leveraging effect, which may intensify the other risks associated with investments in a Fund. In addition, a Fund bears the risk that the price of the securities on loan will increase while they are on loan, or that the price of the collateral will decline in value during the period of the loan, and that the counterparty will not provide, or will delay in providing, additional collateral. A Fund also bears the risk that a borrower may fail to return securities in a timely manner or at all, either because the borrower fails financially or for other reasons. If a borrower of securities fails financially, a Fund may also lose its rights in the collateral. A Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering loaned securities or in gaining access to and liquidating the collateral, which could result in actual financial loss and which could interfere with portfolio management decisions or the exercise of ownership rights in the loaned securities. If a Fund is not able to recover the securities lent, the Fund may sell the collateral and purchase replacement securities in the market. However, a Fund will incur transaction costs on the purchase of replacement securities. These events could trigger adverse tax consequences for the Fund. In determining whether to lend securities to a particular borrower, and throughout the period of the loan, the creditworthiness of the borrower will be considered and monitored. Loans will only be made to firms deemed to be of good standing, and where the consideration that can be earned currently from securities loans of this type is deemed to justify the attendant risk. It is intended that the value of securities loaned by a Fund will not exceed one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the loan collateral).

The Funds will consider the loaned securities as assets of the Fund, but will not consider any collateral as a Fund asset except when determining total assets for the purpose of the above one-third limitation. Loan collateral (including any investment of the collateral) is not subject to the percentage limitations stated elsewhere in this SAI or in the Prospectus regarding investing in fixed income securities and cash equivalents.

Each Fund’s Board of Trustees has approved participation in a securities lending program and has adopted policies and procedures relating thereto. For its services, the securities lending agent may receive a fee from a Fund, including a fee based on the returns earned on the Fund’s investment of cash received as collateral for the loaned securities. In addition, a Fund may make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions. A Fund’s Board of Trustees periodically reviews securities loan transactions for which a Goldman Sachs affiliate has acted as lending agent for compliance with the Fund’s securities lending procedures. Goldman Sachs may also be approved as a borrower under a Fund’s securities lending program, subject to certain conditions.

Options on Securities and Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies

Writing and Purchasing Call and Put Options on Securities and Securities Indices. Each Fund may write (sell) call and put options on any securities in which it may invest or any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. A Fund may write such options on securities that are listed on national domestic securities exchanges or foreign securities exchanges or traded in the over-the-counter market. A call option written by a Fund obligates that Fund to sell specified securities to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. Depending upon the type of call option, the purchaser of a call option either (i) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over a fixed price (the “exercise price”) on a certain date in the future (the “expiration date”) or (ii) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over the exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. If the purchaser exercises the option, a Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the security and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market value of the security determine the gain or loss realized by a Fund as the seller of the call option. A Fund can also repurchase the call option prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund. All call options written by a Fund are covered, which means that such Fund will own the securities subject to the option so long as the option is outstanding or such Fund will use the other methods described below. A Fund’s purpose in writing call options is to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, a Fund may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market price of the underlying security.

 

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A put option written by a Fund obligates the Fund to purchase specified securities from the option holder at a specified price if the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. All put options written by a Fund would be covered, which means that such Fund will identify on its books cash or liquid assets with a value at least equal to the exercise price of the put option (less any margin on deposit) or will use the other methods described below. For more information about these practices, see “Description of Investment Securities and Practices – Asset Segregation.”

The purpose of writing such options is to generate additional income for the Fund. However, in return for the option premium, each Fund accepts the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying securities at a price in excess of the securities’ market value at the time of purchase.

In the case of a call option, the option may be “covered” if a Fund owns the instrument underlying the call or has an absolute and immediate right to acquire that instrument without additional cash consideration (or, if additional cash consideration is required, liquid assets in such amount are identified on the Fund’s books) upon conversion or exchange of other instruments held by it. A call option may also be covered if a Fund holds a call on the same instrument as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or less than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) greater than the exercise price of the option written provided the Fund identifies liquid assets in the amount of the difference. A put option may also be covered if a Fund holds a put on the same security as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or higher than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) less than the exercise price of the option written provided the Fund identifies on its books liquid assets in the amount of the difference. A Fund may also cover options on securities by identifying cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit that is equal to the market value of the securities in the case of a call option. Identified cash or liquid assets may be quoted or denominated in any currency. Identified cash or liquid assets may be quoted or denominated in any currency.

A Fund may terminate its obligations under an exchange-traded call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Obligations under over-the-counter options may be terminated only by entering into an offsetting transaction with the counterparty to such option. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.”

Each Fund may also write (sell) call and put options on any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash settlement payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. In addition, securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security.

A Fund may cover call options on a securities index by owning securities whose price changes are expected to be similar to those of the underlying index or by having an absolute and immediate right to acquire such securities without additional cash consideration (or if additional cash consideration is required, liquid assets in such amount are identified on the Fund’s books) upon conversion or exchange of other securities held by it. The Funds may also cover call and put options by identifying cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit, that is equal to the market value of the underlying securities in the case of a call option or the exercise price in the case of a put option or by owning offsetting options as described above.

The writing of options is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of options to seek to increase total return involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of fluctuations in securities prices or interest rates. The successful use of options for hedging purposes also depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to predict future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in securities prices or determination of the correlation between the securities indices on which options are written and purchased and the securities in a Fund’s investment portfolio, the investment performance of the Fund will be less favorable than it would have been in the absence of such options transactions. The writing of options could increase a Fund’s portfolio turnover rate and, therefore, associated brokerage commissions or spreads.

Each Fund may also purchase put and call options on any securities in which it may invest or any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. In addition, a Fund may enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options it had purchased.

A Fund may purchase call options in anticipation of an increase, or put options in anticipation of a decrease (“protective puts”), in the market value of securities or other instruments of the type in which it may invest. The purchase of a call option would entitle a Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain on the purchase of a call option if, during the option period, the value of such securities

 

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exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option. The purchase of a put option would entitle a Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the market value of a Fund’s securities or other instruments. Put options may also be purchased by a Fund for the purpose of affirmatively benefiting from a decline in the price of securities or other instruments which it does not own. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying securities or other instruments decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of put options may be offset by countervailing changes in the value of the underlying portfolio securities or other instruments.

A Fund may purchase put and call options on securities indices for the same purposes as it may purchase options on securities. Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. In addition, securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security.

Special Risks Associated with Options on Currency. An exchange-traded option position may be closed out only on an options exchange that provides a secondary market for an option of the same series. Although the Funds will generally purchase or write only those options for which there appears to be an active secondary market, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange will exist for any particular option or at any particular time. For some options no secondary market on an exchange may exist. In such event, it might not be possible to effect closing transactions in particular options, with the result that a Fund would have to exercise its options in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the sale of underlying securities pursuant to the exercise of its options. If a Fund as a call option writer is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction in a secondary market, it will not be able to sell the underlying currency (or security quoted or denominated in that currency), or dispose of the identified assets, until the option expires or it delivers the underlying currency upon exercise.

There is no assurance that higher-than-anticipated trading activity or other unforeseen events might not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation inadequate, and thereby result in the institution by an exchange of special procedures which may interfere with the timely execution of customers’ orders.

Each applicable Fund may purchase and write over-the-counter options to the extent consistent with its limitation on investments in illiquid securities. Trading in over-the-counter options is subject to the risk that the other party will be unable or unwilling to close out options purchased or written by a Fund.

The amount of the premiums that a Fund may pay or receive, may be adversely affected as new or existing institutions, including other investment companies, engage in or increase their option purchasing and writing activities.

Writing and Purchasing Call and Put Options on Currency. The Funds may write put and call options and purchase put and call options on foreign currencies in an attempt to protect against declines in the U.S. dollar value of foreign portfolio securities and against increases in the U.S. dollar cost of foreign securities to be acquired. A Fund may also use options on currency to cross-hedge, which involves writing or purchasing options on one currency to seek to hedge against changes in exchange rates for a different currency with a pattern of correlation. As with other kinds of option transactions, however, the writing of an option on foreign currency will constitute only a partial hedge, up to the amount of the premium received. If an option that a Fund has written is exercised, the Fund could be required to purchase or sell foreign currencies at disadvantageous exchange rates, thereby incurring losses. The purchase of an option on foreign currency may constitute an effective hedge against exchange rate fluctuations; however, in the event of exchange rate movements adverse to a Fund’s position, the Fund may forfeit the entire amount of the premium plus related transaction costs. Options on foreign currencies may be traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges or over-the-counter. In addition, a Fund may purchase call options on currency to seek to increase total return.

A currency call option written by a Fund obligates the Fund to sell specified currency to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised at any time before the expiration date. A currency put option written by a Fund obligates the Fund to purchase specified currency from the option holder at a specified price if the option is exercised at any time before the expiration date. The writing of currency options involves a risk that a Fund will, upon exercise of the option, be required to sell currency subject to a call at a price that is less than the currency’s market value or be required to purchase currency subject to a put at a price that exceeds the currency’s market value. Written put and call options on foreign currencies may be covered in a manner similar to written put and call options on securities and securities indices described under “Options on Securities and Securities Indices—Writing Covered Options” above.

 

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A Fund may terminate its obligations under a written call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one written. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.” A Fund may enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on purchased options.

A Fund may purchase call options on foreign currency in anticipation of an increase in the U.S. dollar value of currency in which securities to be acquired by the Fund are denominated or quoted. The purchase of a call option would entitle a Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified currency at a specified price during the option period. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of such currency exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise, the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.

A Fund may purchase put options in anticipation of a decline in the U.S. dollar value of currency in which securities in its portfolio are denominated or quoted (“protective puts”). The purchase of a put option would entitle the Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified currency at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is usually designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the U.S. dollar value of a Fund’s portfolio securities due to currency exchange rate fluctuations. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying currency decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to more than cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise, the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of protective put options would tend to be offset by countervailing changes in the value of the underlying currency.

In addition to using options for the hedging purposes described above, the Funds may use options on currency to seek to increase total return. The Funds may write (sell) put and call options on any currency in an attempt to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, in writing call options for additional income, the Funds may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of the underlying currency. Also, when writing put options, the Funds accept, in return for the option premium, the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying currency at a price in excess of the currency’s market value at the time of purchase.

The Funds may purchase call options to seek to increase total return in anticipation of an increase in the market value of a currency. The Funds would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of such currency exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs. Otherwise the Funds would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option. Put options may be purchased by the Funds for the purpose of benefiting from a decline in the value of currencies which they do not own. The Funds would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying currency decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to more than cover the premium and transaction costs. Otherwise, the Funds would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option.

Yield Curve Options. Each Fund may enter into options on the yield “spread” or differential between two securities. Such transactions are referred to as “yield curve” options. In contrast to other types of options, a yield curve option is based on the difference between the yields of designated securities, rather than the prices of the individual securities, and is settled through cash payments. Accordingly, a yield curve option is profitable to the holder if this differential widens (in the case of a call) or narrows (in the case of a put), regardless of whether the yields of the underlying securities increase or decrease.

A Fund may purchase or write yield curve options for the same purposes as other options on securities. For example, a Fund may purchase a call option on the yield spread between two securities if the Fund owns one of the securities and anticipates purchasing the other security and wants to hedge against an adverse change in the yield spread between the two securities. A Fund may also purchase or write yield curve options in an effort to increase current income if, in the judgment of the Investment Adviser, the Fund will be able to profit from movements in the spread between the yields of the underlying securities. The trading of yield curve options is subject to all of the risks associated with the trading of other types of options. In addition, however, such options present a risk of loss even if the yield of one of the underlying securities remains constant, or if the spread moves in a direction or to an extent which was not anticipated.

Yield curve options written by a Fund will be “covered.” A call (or put) option is covered if the Fund holds another call (or put) option on the spread between the same two securities and identifies on its books cash or liquid assets sufficient to cover the Fund’s net liability under the two options. Therefore, a Fund’s liability for such a covered option is generally limited to the difference between the amount of the Fund’s liability under the option written by the Fund less the value of the option held by the Fund. Yield curve options may also be covered in such other manner as may be in accordance with the requirements of the counterparty with which the option is traded and applicable laws and regulations. Yield curve options are traded over-the-counter, and established trading markets for these options may not exist.

 

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Risks Associated with Options Transactions. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on a domestic or foreign options exchange will exist for any particular exchange-traded option or at any particular time. If a Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction with respect to covered options it has written, the Fund will not be able to sell the underlying securities or dispose of the assets identified on its books to cover the position until the options expire or are exercised. Similarly, if a Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options it has purchased, it will have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit and will incur transaction costs upon the purchase or sale of underlying securities.

Reasons for the absence of a liquid secondary market on an exchange include, but are not limited to, the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist although outstanding options on that exchange that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

There can be no assurance that higher trading activity, order flow or other unforeseen events will not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation or various exchanges inadequate. Such events have, in the past, resulted in the institution by an exchange of special procedures, such as trading rotations, restrictions on certain types of order or trading halts or suspensions with respect to one or more options. These special procedures may limit liquidity.

A Fund may purchase and sell both options that are traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges and options traded over-the-counter with broker-dealers and other types of institutions that make markets in these options. The ability to terminate over-the-counter options is more limited than with exchange-traded options and may involve the risk that the broker-dealers or financial institutions participating in such transactions will not fulfill their obligations.

Transactions by a Fund in options will be subject to limitations established by each of the exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities on which such options are traded governing the maximum number of options in each class which may be written or purchased by a single investor or group of investors acting in concert regardless of whether the options are written or purchased on the same or different exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities or are held in one or more accounts or through one or more brokers. Thus, the number of options which a Fund may write or purchase may be affected by options written or purchased by other investment advisory clients of the Investment Adviser. An exchange, board of trade or other trading facility may order the liquidation of positions found to be in excess of these limits, and it may impose certain other sanctions.

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of options to seek to increase total return involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of fluctuations in securities prices or interest rates. The successful use of options for hedging purposes also depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to manage future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities (or currency) markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in securities prices or determination of the correlation between the securities or securities indices on which options are written and purchased and the securities in a Fund’s investment portfolio, the Fund may incur losses that it would not otherwise incur. The writing of options could increase a Fund’s portfolio turnover rate and, therefore, associated brokerage commissions or spreads.

Pooled Investment Vehicles

Each Fund may invest in securities of pooled investment vehicles, including ETFs. A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by pooled investment vehicles in which it invests, in addition to the management fees (and other expenses) paid by the Fund. A Fund’s investments in pooled investment vehicles are subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Act, including in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in the securities of all investment companies. Many ETFs, however, have obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to permit unaffiliated funds (such as the Funds) to invest in their shares beyond these statutory limits, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to contractual arrangements between the ETFs and the investing funds. The Funds may rely on these exemptive orders in investing in ETFs. Moreover, subject to applicable law and/or pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, the Funds may invest in investment companies, including

 

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ETFs and money market funds, for which the Investment Adviser, or any of its affiliates, serves as investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor. With respect to a Fund’s investments in money market funds, to the extent that a Fund invests in a money market fund for which the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates acts as investment adviser, the management fees payable by the Fund to the Investment Adviser will, to the extent required by the SEC, be reduced by an amount equal to the Fund’s proportionate share of the management fees paid by such money market fund to its investment adviser. Although the Funds do not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, each Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment objective, policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund.

The Funds may purchase shares of investment companies investing primarily in foreign securities, including “country funds.” Country funds have portfolios consisting primarily of securities of issuers located in specified foreign countries or regions.

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights

The Funds may invest in preferred stock, warrants or stock purchase rights (in addition to those acquired in units or attached to other securities) (“rights”). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer’s earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividends and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default (such as a covenant default or filing of a bankruptcy petition) or other non-compliance by the issuer with the terms of the preferred stock. Often, however, on the occurrence of any such event of default or non-compliance by the issuer, preferred stockholders will be entitled to gain representation on the issuer’s board of directors or increase their existing board representation. In addition, preferred stockholders may be granted voting rights with respect to certain issues on the occurrence of any event of default.

Warrants and other rights are options to buy a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price at any time during the life of the warrant. The holders of warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

Repurchase Agreements

Each Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with counterparties that furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of their repurchase obligation. The Funds may also enter into repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government Securities, which may be subject to additional risks. A repurchase agreement is an arrangement under which a Fund purchases securities and the seller agrees to repurchase the securities within a particular time and at a specified price. Custody of the securities is maintained by the Funds’ custodian (or subcustodian). The repurchase price may be higher than the purchase price, the difference being income to the Funds, or the purchase and repurchase prices may be the same, with interest at a stated rate due to a Fund together with the repurchase price on repurchase. In either case, the income to the Fund is unrelated to the interest rate on the security subject to the repurchase agreement.

For purposes of the Act, and generally for tax purposes, a repurchase agreement is deemed to be a loan from a Fund to the seller of the security. For other purposes, it is not always clear whether a court would consider the security purchased by a Fund subject to a repurchase agreement as being owned by a Fund or as being collateral for a loan by a Fund to the seller. In the event of commencement of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings with respect to the seller of the security before repurchase of the security under a repurchase agreement, a Fund may encounter delay and incur costs before being able to sell the security. Such a delay may involve loss of interest or a decline in value of the security. If the court characterizes the transaction as a loan and a Fund has not perfected a security interest in the security, the Fund may be required to return the security to the seller’s estate and be treated as an unsecured creditor of the seller. As an unsecured creditor, a Fund would be at risk of losing some or all of the principal and interest involved in the transaction.

Apart from the risk of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, there is also the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the security. However, if the market value of the security subject to the repurchase agreement becomes less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest), each Fund will direct the seller of the security to deliver additional securities so that the market value of all securities subject to the repurchase agreement equals or exceeds the repurchase price. Certain repurchase agreements which provide for settlement in more than seven days can be liquidated before the nominal fixed term on seven days or less notice. Such repurchase agreements will be regarded as liquid instruments.

 

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The Funds, together with other registered investment companies having management agreements with the Investment Adviser or their affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.

Restricted and Illiquid Securities

Each Fund may purchase securities and other financial instruments that are not registered or that are offered in an exempt non-public offering (“Restricted Securities”) under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “1933 Act”), including securities eligible for resale to “qualified institutional buyers” pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act. However, a Fund will not invest more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments, which include repurchase agreements with a notice or demand period of more than seven days, certain stripped mortgage-backed securities, certain municipal leases, certain over-the-counter options, securities and other financial instruments that are not readily marketable, bank obligations, non-investment grade securities and other credit instruments and Restricted Securities unless, based upon a review of the trading markets for specific investments, those investments are determined to be liquid. Those investment practices could have the effect of increasing the level of illiquidity in a Fund to the extent that market demand for securities held by the Fund decreases such that previously liquid securities become illiquid. The Trustees have adopted guidelines and delegated to the Investment Adviser the function of determining and monitoring the liquidity of the Funds’ portfolio securities.

The purchase price and subsequent valuation of Restricted Securities may reflect a discount from the price at which such securities trade when they are not restricted, because the restriction makes them less liquid. The amount of the discount from the prevailing market price is expected to vary depending upon the type of security, the character of the issuer, the party who will bear the expenses of registering the Restricted Securities and prevailing supply and demand conditions.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

Each Fund may borrow money by entering into transactions called reverse repurchase agreements. Under these arrangements, the Fund may sell portfolio securities to dealers in U.S. Government Securities or members of the Federal Reserve System, with an agreement to repurchase the security on an agreed date, price and interest payment. These reverse repurchase agreements may involve foreign government securities. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the possible risk that the value of portfolio securities the Fund relinquishes may decline below the price the Fund must pay when the transaction closes. Borrowings may magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested resulting in an increase in the speculative character of a Fund’s outstanding shares.

When a Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it identifies on its books cash or liquid assets that have a value equal to or greater than the repurchase price. The amount of cash or liquid assets so identified is then monitored continuously by the Investment Adviser to make sure that an appropriate value is maintained. Reverse repurchase agreements are considered to be borrowings under the Investment Company Act.

Special Note Regarding Regulatory Changes and Market Events

Federal, state, and foreign governments, regulatory agencies, and self-regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the Funds or the instruments in which the Funds invest, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Future legislation or regulation or other governmental actions could limit or preclude the Funds’ ability to achieve their investment objectives or otherwise adversely impact an investment in the Funds.

In the aftermath of the 2007-2008 financial crisis, the financial sector experienced reduced liquidity in credit and other fixed income markets, and an unusually high degree of volatility, both domestically and internationally. While entire markets were impacted, issuers that had exposure to the real estate, mortgage and credit markets were particularly affected. The instability in the financial markets led the U.S. government to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and certain segments of the financial markets. For example, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which was enacted in 2010, provides for broad regulation of financial institutions, consumer financial products and services, broker-dealers, over-the-counter derivatives, investment advisers, credit rating agencies and mortgage lending.

Governments or their agencies may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such ownership or disposition may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of the Funds’ portfolio holdings.

 

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Special Note Regarding Operational, Cyber Security and Litigation Risks

An investment in a Fund may be negatively impacted because of the operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. The use of certain investment strategies that involve manual or additional processing, such as over-the-counter derivatives, increases these risks. Although the Funds attempt to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect a Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures. A Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

Each Fund is also susceptible to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. In general, cyber-attacks result from deliberate attacks, but other events may have effects similar to those caused by cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among others, stealing or corrupting confidential information and other data that is maintained online or digitally for financial gain, denial-of-service attacks on websites causing operational disruption, and the unauthorized release of confidential information and other data. Cyber-attacks affecting a Fund or its investment adviser, sub-adviser, custodian, transfer agent, intermediary or other third-party service provider may adversely impact the Fund and its shareholders. These cyber-attacks have the ability to cause significant disruptions and impact business operations; to result in financial losses; to prevent shareholders from transacting business; to interfere with the Funds’ calculation of NAV and to lead to violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs and/or additional compliance costs. Similar to operational risk in general, the Funds and their service providers, including GSAM, have instituted risk management systems designed to minimize the risks associated with cyber security. However, there is a risk that these systems will not succeed (or that any remediation efforts will not be successful), especially because the Funds do not directly control the risk management systems of the service providers to the Funds, their trading counterparties or the issuers in which a Fund may invest. Moreover, there is a risk that cyber-attacks will not be detected.

The Funds may be subject to third-party litigation, which could give rise to legal liability. These matters involving the Funds may arise from their activities and investments and could have a materially adverse effect on the Funds, including the expense of defending against claims and paying any amounts pursuant to settlements or judgments. There can be no guarantee that these matters will not arise in the normal course of business. If the Funds were to be found liable in any suit or proceeding, any associated damages and/or penalties could have a materially adverse effect on the Funds’ finances, in addition to being materially damaging to their reputation.

U.S. Government Securities

Each Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities. Some U.S. Government Securities (such as Treasury bills, notes and bonds, which differ only in their interest rates, maturities and times of issuance) are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. Others, such as obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, are supported either by (i) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, (ii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the issuer or (iii) the credit of the issuer. The U.S. Government is under no legal obligation, in general, to purchase the obligations of its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises in the future, and the U.S. Government may be unable to pay debts when due.

U.S. Government Securities include (to the extent consistent with the Act) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. Government, or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may also include (to the extent consistent with the Act) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The secondary market for certain of these participations is extremely limited. In the absence of a suitable secondary market, such participations are regarded as illiquid.

Each Fund may also purchase U.S. Government Securities in private placements and may also invest in separately traded principal and interest components of securities guaranteed or issued by the U.S. Treasury that are traded independently under the separate trading of registered interest and principal of securities program (“STRIPS”). Each Fund may also invest in zero coupon U.S. Treasury securities and in zero coupon securities issued by financial institutions which represent a proportionate interest in underlying U.S. Treasury securities.

 

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Inflation-Protected Securities. Certain Funds may invest in inflation protected securities (“IPS”) of varying maturities issued by the U.S. Treasury (“TIPS”) and other U.S. and non-U.S. Government agencies and corporations (“CIPS”), which are securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. The interest rate on IPS is fixed at issuance, but over the life of the bond this interest may be paid on an increasing or decreasing principal value that has been adjusted for inflation. Although repayment of the greater of the adjusted or original bond principal upon maturity is guaranteed, the market value of IPS is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate.

The values of IPS generally fluctuate in response to changes in real interest rates, which are in turn tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates will decline, leading to an increase in the value of IPS. In contrast, if nominal interest rates were to increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates will rise, leading to a decrease in the value of IPS. If inflation is lower than expected during the period a Fund holds IPS, the Fund may earn less on the IPS than on a conventional bond. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in the currency exchange rates), investors in IPS may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bonds’ inflation measure. There can be no assurance that the inflation index for IPS will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services.

Any increase in principal value of IPS caused by an increase in the consumer price index is taxable in the year the increase occurs, even though a Fund holding IPS will not receive cash representing the increase at that time. As a result, a Fund could be required at times to liquidate other investments, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to satisfy its distribution requirements as a regulated investment company.

If a Fund invests in IPS, it will be required to treat as original issue discount any increase in the principal amount of the securities that occurs during the course of its taxable year. If a Fund purchases such IPS that are issued in stripped form either as stripped bonds or coupons, it will be treated as if it had purchased a newly issued debt instrument having original issue discount.

Because a Fund is required to distribute substantially all of its net investment income (including accrued original issue discount), a Fund’s investment in either zero coupon bonds or IPS may require the Fund to distribute to shareholders an amount greater than the total cash income it actually receives. Accordingly, in order to make the required distributions, a Fund may be required to borrow or liquidate securities.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

Each Fund may purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis beyond the customary settlement time. These transactions involve a commitment by a Fund to purchase or sell securities at a future date. The price of the underlying securities (usually expressed in terms of yield) and the date when the securities will be delivered and paid for (the settlement date) are fixed at the time the transaction is negotiated. In addition, recently finalized rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) include mandatory margin requirements that require the Fund to post collateral in connection with its TBA transactions. There is no similar requirement applicable to the Fund’s TBA counterparties. The required collateralization of TBA trades could increase the cost of TBA transactions to the Fund and impose added operational complexity. When-issued purchases and forward commitment transactions are negotiated directly with the other party, and such commitments are not traded on exchanges. The Funds will generally purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis only with the intention of completing the transaction and actually purchasing or selling the securities. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, the Funds may dispose of or negotiate a commitment after entering into it. A Fund may also sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. The Funds may realize capital gains or losses in connection with these transactions. For purposes of determining a Fund’s duration, the maturity of when-issued or forward commitment securities for fixed-rate obligations will be calculated from the commitment date. Each Fund is generally required to identify on its books cash and liquid assets in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price unless the Fund’s obligations are otherwise covered. Alternatively, each Fund may enter into offsetting contracts for the forward sale of other securities that it owns. Securities purchased or sold on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date or if the value of the security to be sold increases prior to the settlement date.

 

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Zero Coupon, Deferred Interest, Pay-In-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bonds

Each Fund may invest in zero coupon, deferred interest, pay-in-kind (“PIK”) and capital appreciation bonds. Zero coupon, deferred interest and capital appreciation bonds are debt securities issued or sold at a discount from their face value and which do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity or a specified date. The original issue discount varies depending on the time remaining until maturity or cash payment date, prevailing interest rates, the liquidity of the security and the perceived credit quality of the issuer. These securities also may take the form of debt securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons, the coupons themselves or receipts or certificates representing interests in such stripped debt obligations or coupons.

PIK securities may be debt obligations or preferred shares that provide the issuer with the option of paying interest or dividends on such obligations in cash or in the form of additional securities rather than cash. Similar to zero coupon bonds and deferred interest bonds, PIK securities are designed to give an issuer flexibility in managing cash flow. PIK securities that are debt securities can be either senior or subordinated debt and generally trade flat (i.e., without accrued interest). The trading price of PIK debt securities generally reflects the market value of the underlying debt plus an amount representing accrued interest since the last interest payment.

The market prices of zero coupon, deferred interest, capital appreciation bonds and PIK securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of interest bearing securities and are likely to respond to a greater degree to changes in interest rates than interest bearing securities having similar maturities and credit quality. Moreover, zero coupon, deferred interest, capital appreciation and PIK securities involve the additional risk that, unlike securities that periodically pay interest to maturity, a Fund will realize no cash until a specified future payment date unless a portion of such securities is sold and, if the issuer of such securities defaults, a Fund may obtain no return at all on its investment. The valuation of such investments requires judgment regarding the collection of future payments. In addition, even though such securities do not provide for the payment of current interest in cash, the Funds are nonetheless required to accrue income on such investments for each taxable year and generally are required to distribute such accrued amounts (net of deductible expenses, if any) to avoid being subject to tax. Because no cash is generally received at the time of the accrual, a Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy federal tax distribution requirements applicable to the Fund. A portion of the discount with respect to stripped tax exempt securities or their coupons may be taxable. See “TAXATION.”

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

The investment restrictions set forth below have been adopted by the Trust as fundamental policies that cannot be changed with respect to a Fund without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the Act) of the Fund. The investment objective of each Fund and all other investment policies or practices of the Fund are considered by the Trust not to be fundamental and accordingly may be changed without shareholder approval. For purposes of the Act, a “majority” of the outstanding voting securities means the lesser of (i) 67% or more of the shares of the Trust or the applicable Fund present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust or the applicable Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust or the applicable Fund.

For purposes of the following limitations (except for the asset coverage requirement with respect to borrowings, which is subject to different requirements under the Act), any limitation which involves a maximum percentage shall not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition or encumbrance of securities or assets of, or borrowings by, the Funds. In applying fundamental investment restriction number (1) below to derivative transactions or instruments, including, but not limited to, futures, swaps, forwards, options and structured notes, the Funds will look to the industry of the reference asset(s) and not to the counterparty or issuer. With respect to the Funds’ fundamental investment restriction number (2) below, in the event that asset coverage (as defined in the Act) at any time falls below 300%, the applicable Fund, within three days thereafter (not including Sundays and holidays) or such longer period as the SEC may prescribe by rules and regulations, will reduce the amount of its borrowings to the extent required so that the asset coverage of such borrowings will be at least 300%.

Fundamental Investment Restrictions

As a matter of fundamental policy, each Fund may not:

 

  (1)

Invest more than 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry except that the Fund may invest more than 25% of the value of its total assets in securities of issuers in the same industry if the index that the Fund replicates concentrates in an industry (for the purposes of this restriction, the U.S. Government, state and municipal governments and their agencies, authorities and instrumentalities are not deemed to be industries);

 

B-34


  (2)

Borrow money, except as permitted by the Act, or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction;

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances;

 

  (3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations, loan interests and other interests or obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies; (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions; (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law or pursuant to an exemptive order granted under the Act; and (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law;

 

  (4)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting;

 

  (5)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein or that reflect the return of an index of real estate values, securities of issuers which invest or deal in real estate, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate it has acquired as a result of the ownership of securities;

 

  (6)

Invest in physical commodities, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts in accordance with its investment objective and policies, including, without limitation, structured notes, futures contracts, swaps, options on commodities, currencies, swaps and futures, ETFs, investment pools and other instruments, regardless of whether such instrument is considered to be a commodity; and

 

  (7)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

Each Fund may, notwithstanding any other fundamental investment restriction or policy, invest some or all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof with substantially the same fundamental investment restrictions and policies as the Fund.

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

The Trust’s Leadership Structure

The business and affairs of the Funds are managed under the direction of the Board of Trustees (the “Board”), subject to the laws of the State of Delaware and the Trust’s Declaration of Trust. The Trustees are responsible for deciding matters of overall policy and reviewing the actions of the Trust’s service providers. The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise the Fund’s daily business operations. Trustees who are not deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust as defined in the Act are referred to as “Independent Trustees.” Trustees who are deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust are referred to as “Interested Trustees.” The Board is currently composed of four Independent Trustees and one Interested Trustee. The Board has selected an Independent Trustee to act as Chairman, whose duties include presiding at meetings of the Board and acting as a focal point to address significant issues that may arise between regularly scheduled Board and Committee meetings. In the performance of the Chairman’s duties, the Chairman will consult with the other Independent Trustees and the Fund’s officers and legal counsel, as appropriate. The Chairman may perform other functions as requested by the Board from time to time.

The Board meets as often as necessary to discharge its responsibilities. Currently, the Board conducts regular, in-person meetings at least four times a year, and holds special in-person or telephonic meetings as necessary to address specific issues that require attention prior to the next regularly scheduled meeting. In addition, the Independent Trustees meet at least annually to review, among other things, investment management agreements, distribution and/or service plans and related agreements, transfer agency agreements and certain other agreements providing for the compensation of Goldman Sachs and/or its affiliates by the Fund, and to consider such other matters as they deem appropriate.

 

B-35


The Board has established four standing committees – Audit, Governance and Nominating, Compliance and Contract Review Committees. The Board may establish other committees, or nominate one or more Trustees to examine particular issues related to the Board’s oversight responsibilities, from time to time. Each Committee meets periodically to perform its delegated oversight functions and reports its findings and recommendations to the Board. For more information on the Committees, see the section “STANDING BOARD COMMITTEES,” below.

The Trustees have determined that the Trust’s leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Trustees to effectively perform their oversight responsibilities.

 

B-36


Trustees of the Trust

Information pertaining to the Trustees of the Trust as of [    ], 2018 is set forth below.

Independent Trustees

 

Name,

Address and

Age1

  

Position(s)

Held with

the Trust

  

Term of

Office and

Length of

Time Served2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

   Number of
Portfolios
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Trustee3
  

Other
Directorships
Held by Trustee4

Lawrence W.

Stranghoener

Age: [64]

   Chairman of the Board of Trustees    Trustee since 2015, Chairman since 2017   

Mr. Stranghoener is retired. He is Director, Kennametal, Inc. (a global manufacturer and distributor of tooling and industrial materials) (2003-Present); Director, Aleris Corporation and Aleris International, Inc. (a producer of aluminum rolled products) (2011-Present); and was formerly Interim Chief Executive Officer (2014); and Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2004–2014), Mosaic Company (a fertilizer manufacturing company).

 

Chairman of the Board of Trustees—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

   [27]    Kennametal, Inc. (a global manufacturer and distributor of tooling and industrial materials)
Caroline Dorsa
Age: [59]
   Trustee    Since 2016   

Ms. Dorsa is retired. She is Director, Biogen Inc. (a biotechnology company) (2010–Present); Director, Intellia Therapeutics Inc. (a gene-editing company) (2015–Present); and Director, Illumina, Inc. (a life sciences company) (2017–Present). She was formerly Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Public Service Enterprise Group, Inc. (a generation and energy services company) (2009–2015); Senior Vice President, Merck & Co, Inc. (a pharmaceutical company) (2008-2009 and 1987–2007); Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Gilead Sciences, Inc. (a pharmaceutical company) (2007-2008); and Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Avaya, Inc. (a technology company) (2007).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

   [27]    Biogen Inc. (a biotechnology company); Intellia Therapeutics Inc. (a gene-editing company); Illumina, Inc. (a life sciences company)

 

B-37


Name,

Address and

Age1

  

Position(s)

Held with

the Trust

  

Term of

Office and

Length of

Time Served2

  

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

   Number of
Portfolios
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Trustee3
  

Other
Directorships
Held by Trustee4

Linda A. Lang

Age: [60]

   Trustee    Since 2016   

Ms. Lang is retired. She is Chair of the Board of Directors (2016 – Present); and Member of the Board of Directors, WD-40 Company (2004–Present); and was formerly Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (2005–2014); and Director, President and Chief Operating Officer, Jack in the Box, Inc. (a restaurant company) (2003–2005). Previously, Ms. Lang served as an Advisory Board Member of Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund and Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund (February 2016 – March 2016).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

   [27]    WD-40 Company (a global consumer products company)

Michael Latham

Age: [53]

   Trustee    Since 2015   

Mr. Latham is retired. Formerly, he held senior management positions with the iShares exchange-traded fund business, including Chairman (2011–2014); Global Head (2010–2011); U.S. Head (2007–2010); and Chief Operating Officer (2003–2007).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

   [27]    None

Interested Trustee

 

James A. McNamara*
Age: [56]
   President and Trustee    Since 2014   

Advisory Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018–Present); Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2000–December 2017); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998–December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993–April 1998).

 

President and Trustee—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

   [149]    None

 

B-38


*

Mr. McNamara is considered to be an “Interested Trustee” because he holds a position with Goldman Sachs and owns securities issued by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Mr. McNamara holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.

1

Each Trustee may be contacted by writing to the Trustee, c/o Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York, 10282, Attn: Caroline Kraus.

 

2

Subject to such policies as may be adopted by the Board from time-to-time, each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term, until the earliest of: (a) the election of his or her successor; (b) the date the Trustee resigns or is removed by the Board or shareholders, in accordance with the Trust’s Declaration of Trust; or (c) the termination of the Trust. The Board has adopted policies which provide that (a) no Trustee shall hold office for more than 15 years and (b) a Trustee shall retire as of December 31st of the calendar year in which he or she reaches his or her 74th birthday, unless a waiver of such requirement shall have been adopted by a majority of the other Trustees. These policies may be changed by the Trustees without shareholder vote.

 

3

The Goldman Sachs Fund Complex includes certain other companies listed above for each respective Trustee. As of [    ], 2018, Goldman Sachs ETF Trust consisted of [    ] portfolios ([    ] of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs Trust consisted of [    ] portfolios ([    ] of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust consisted of [    ] portfolios; Goldman Sachs Trust II consisted of [    ] portfolios ([    ] of which offered shares to the public); and Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund, Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund, Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC, Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC each consisted of one portfolio.

 

4

This column includes only directorships of companies required to report to the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (i.e., “public companies”) or other investment companies registered under the Act.

The significance or relevance of a Trustee’s particular experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills is considered by the Board on an individual basis. Experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills common to all Trustees include the ability to critically review, evaluate and discuss information provided to them and to interact effectively with the other Trustees and with representatives of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, other service providers, legal counsel and the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm, the capacity to address financial and legal issues and exercise reasonable business judgment, and a commitment to the representation of the interests of the Funds and their shareholders. The Governance and Nominating Committee’s charter contains certain other factors that are considered by the Governance and Nominating Committee in identifying and evaluating potential nominees to serve as Independent Trustees. Based on each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills, considered individually and with respect to the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of other Trustees, the Board has concluded that each Trustee should serve as a Trustee. Below is a brief discussion of the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of each individual Trustee as of [     ], 2018 that led the Board to conclude that such individual should serve as a Trustee.

Lawrence W. Stranghoener. Mr. Stranghoener has served as a Trustee of the Trust since 2015 and Chairman of the Board of Trustees since 2017. Mr. Stranghoener is retired. Mr. Stranghoener is a member of the Board of Directors of Kennametal, Inc., a global manufacturer and distributor of tooling and industrial materials. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of Aleris Corporation and Aleris International, Inc., which provides aluminum rolled products and extrusions, aluminum recycling, and specification alloy production, where he chairs the Audit Committee and also serves on the Compensation Committee. Previously, Mr. Stranghoener held several senior management positions at Mosaic Company, a fertilizer manufacturing company, where he worked for 10 years, most recently as Interim Chief Executive Officer, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. As Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at Mosaic Company, Mr. Stranghoener implemented public company processes, policies and performance standards to transition the company from private to public ownership and oversaw the company’s controller, treasury, tax, investor relations, strategy and business development, and internal audit functions. He also led the integration of Mosaic Company with IMC Global, Inc. during their merger. Previously, Mr. Stranghoener served for three years as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer for Thrivent Financial, a non-profit, financial services organization and Techies.com, an internet-based professional services company. Mr. Stranghoener also held several senior management positions at Honeywell International, Inc. where he worked for 17 years, most recently as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. In addition, he serves as Chairman of the Board of Regents of St. Olaf College. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Stranghoener is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Caroline Dorsa. Ms. Dorsa has served as a Trustee of the Trust since 2016. Ms. Dorsa is retired. Ms. Dorsa has been designated as the Board’s “audit committee financial expert” given her extensive accounting and finance experience. Ms. Dorsa is a member of the Board of Directors of Biogen Inc., a biotechnology company, where she chairs the Audit Committee and also serves on the Risk Committee. In addition, Ms. Dorsa also serves as a member of the Board of Directors of Intellia Therapeutics Inc., a gene-editing company, where she chairs the Audit Committee and serves on the Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. Furthermore, Ms. Dorsa serves as a member of the Board of Directors of Illumina, Inc., a life sciences company, where she serves on the Audit Committee. Previously, she served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Public Service Enterprise Group, Inc. (“PSEG”), a generation and energy services company. As Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Ms. Dorsa was responsible for finance, accounting and internal audit, risk management and investor relations.

 

B-39


Prior to becoming Chief Financial Officer, she was a member of PSEG’s Board of Directors and a member of its Audit, Corporate Governance and Finance committees for six years. Prior to joining PSEG, Ms. Dorsa held various management positions at Merck &Co, Inc., where she worked for over 20 years, most recently in the position of Senior Vice President of Global Human Health Strategy and Integration. As Vice President and Treasurer of Merck from 1994 through 2006, her responsibilities also included the global tax function, transfer pricing, global entity management and financial planning for both the research and manufacturing divisions. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Dorsa is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Linda A. Lang. Ms. Lang has served as a Trustee of the Trust since 2016. Ms. Lang is retired. Ms. Lang is the Chair of the Board of Directors of WD-40 Company, a global consumer products company, where she serves on the Compensation and Finance Committees. Previously, Ms. Lang held several senior management positions at Jack in the Box, Inc., a restaurant company listed on The NASDAQ Stock Market, where she worked for 30 years, most recently as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Over that time, she was involved in the areas of strategic planning, capital structure and deployment, and enterprise risk management. Ms. Lang previously served on the Board of Directors of the San Diego Regional Economic Development Corporation and as a Trustee of the California State University System. In addition, she also serves as a member of the Board of Directors of San Diego State University’s College of Business Administration and is a member of the Corporate Directors Forum. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Lang is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Michael Latham. Mr. Latham has served as a Trustee of the Trust since 2015. Mr. Latham is retired. Mr. Latham is a member of the Board of Directors of the San Francisco 49ers Foundation where he serves on the Audit Committee. Previously, he held several senior management positions for 15 years with the iShares exchange-traded fund business owned by BlackRock, Inc. and previously owned by Barclays Global Investors, most recently as Chairman and Global Head of the business. In that capacity he was one of the lead executives responsible for the growth of the business. He was also involved in governance of the iShares funds, serving initially as Principal Financial Officer and later as President and Principal Executive Officer and a member of the Board of Directors. Mr. Latham is a certified public accountant, and before joining Barclays Global Investors, he worked at Ernst and Young for over five years. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Latham is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

James A. McNamara. Mr. McNamara has served as a Trustee and President of the Trust since 2014. Mr. McNamara is an Advisory Director to Goldman Sachs. Prior to retiring as Managing Director at Goldman Sachs in 2017, Mr. McNamara was head of Global Third Party Distribution at GSAM and was previously head of U.S. Third Party Distribution. Prior to that role, Mr. McNamara served as Director of Institutional Fund Sales. Prior to joining Goldman Sachs, Mr. McNamara was Vice President and Manager at Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation. Based on the foregoing, Mr. McNamara is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Officers of the Trust

Information pertaining to the Officers of the Trust as of [    ], 2018 is set forth below.

 

Name

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust(s)

  

Term of Office and

Length of Time

Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

James A. McNamara

200 West Street

New York, NY

10282

Age: [56]

  

Trustee and

President

   Since 2014   

Advisory Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018 – Present); Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2000 – December 2017); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998 – December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993 – April 1998).

 

President and Trustee—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.    

 

B-40


Name

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust(s)

  

Term of Office and

Length of Time

Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

Scott M. McHugh

200 West Street

New York, NY

10282

Age: [47]

   Treasurer, Senior Vice President and Principal Financial Officer    Since 2014   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2016 – Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (February 2007 – December 2015); Assistant Treasurer of certain mutual funds administered by DWS Scudder (2005 – 2007); and Director (2005 – 2007), Vice President (2000 – 2005), and Assistant Vice President (1998 – 2000), Deutsche Asset Management or its predecessor (1998 – 2007).

 

Treasurer, Senior Vice President and Principal Financial Officer—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

Julien Yoo

200 West Street

New York, NY

10282

Age: [47]

   Chief Compliance Officer    Since 2014   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (December 2014 – Present); Contingent Worker, Goldman Sachs (September 2013 – May 2014); and Vice President, Morgan Stanley Investment Management (2005 – 2010).

 

Chief Compliance Officer—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

Philip V. Giuca, Jr.
30 Hudson Street Jersey City, NJ

07302

Age: [56]

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2014   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2014 – Present); and Vice President, Goldman Sachs (May 1992 – December 2013).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

Peter W. Fortner
30 Hudson Street Jersey City, NJ

07302

Age: [60]

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2014   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (July 2000 – Present); and Principal Financial Officer, Commerce Bank Mutual Fund Complex (2008 – Present).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.    

 

B-41


Name

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust(s)

  

Term of Office and

Length of Time

Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

Kenneth G. Curran

30 Hudson Street Jersey City, NJ

07302

Age: [54]

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2014   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (November 1998 – Present); and Senior Tax Manager, KPMG Peat Marwick (accountants) (August 1995 – October 1998).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

Allison Fracchiolla

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ

07302

Age: [35]

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2014   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2013 – Present).

 

Assistant Treasurer—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

Joseph F. DiMaria

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ

07302

Age: [50]

   Assistant Treasurer and Principal Accounting Officer    Since 2017   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (November 2015 – Present) and Vice President – Mutual Fund Administration, Columbia Management Investment Advisers, LLC (May 2010 – October 2015).

 

Assistant Treasurer and Principal Accounting Officer—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

Michael Crinieri

200 West Street

New York, NY

10282

Age: [53]

   Vice President    Since 2014   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2002 – Present); and Vice President, Goldman Sachs (April 2000 – January 2002).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust.

Thomas J. Davis

200 West Street

New York, NY

10282

Age: [55]

   Vice President    Since 2015   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2008 – Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (1995 – 2008); and Associate, Goldman Sachs (1990-1995).

 

Vice President—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; and Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund.    

 

B-42


Name

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust(s)

  

Term of Office and

Length of Time

Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

Caroline L. Kraus

200 West Street

New York, NY

10282

Age: [41]

   Secretary    Since 2014   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2016 – Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (August 2006 – December 2015); Associate General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (2012 – Present); Assistant General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (August 2006 – December 2011); and Associate, Weil, Gotshal & Manges, LLP (2002 – 2006).

 

Secretary—Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust (previously Assistant Secretary (2012)); Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (previously Assistant Secretary (2012)); Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP Income Opportunities Fund; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (A) LLC; and Goldman Sachs Private Markets Fund 2018 (B) LLC.

 

1 

Officers hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Trustees or until their successors are duly elected and qualified. Each officer holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.

Standing Board Committees

The Board of Trustees has established four standing committees in connection with their governance of the Funds — Audit, Governance and Nominating, Compliance and Contract Review.

The Audit Committee oversees the audit process and provides assistance to the Board with respect to fund accounting, tax compliance and financial statement matters. In performing its responsibilities, the Audit Committee selects and recommends annually to the Board an independent registered public accounting firm to audit the books and records of the Trust for the ensuing year, and reviews with the firm the scope and results of each audit. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee met [    ] time[s] during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2018.

The Governance and Nominating Committee has been established to: (i) assist the Board in matters involving fund governance, which includes making recommendations to the Board with respect to the effectiveness of the Board in carrying out its responsibilities in governing the Funds and overseeing its management; (ii) select and nominate candidates for appointment or election to serve as Independent Trustees; and (iii) advise the Board on ways to improve its effectiveness. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Governance and Nominating Committee. As stated above, each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term until the occurrence of certain events. In filling Board vacancies, the Governance and Nominating Committee will consider nominees recommended by shareholders. Nominee recommendations should be submitted to the Trust at its mailing address stated in the Funds’ Prospectus and should be directed to the attention of the Goldman Sachs Trust Governance and Nominating Committee. The Governance and Nominating Committee met [    ] time[s] during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2018.

The Compliance Committee has been established for the purpose of overseeing the compliance processes: (i) of the Funds; and (ii) insofar as they relate to services provided to the Funds, of the Funds’ Investment Adviser, Distributor, administrator (if any), and Transfer Agent, except that compliance processes relating to the accounting and financial reporting processes, and certain related matters, are overseen by the Audit Committee. In addition, the Compliance Committee provides assistance to the full Board with respect to compliance matters. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Compliance Committee. The Compliance Committee met [    ] time[s] during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2018.

The Contract Review Committee has been established for the purpose of overseeing the processes of the Board for reviewing and monitoring performance under the Funds’ investment management, distribution, transfer agency, and certain other agreements with the Funds’ Investment Adviser and its affiliates. The Contract Review Committee is also responsible for overseeing the Board’s processes for considering and reviewing performance under the operation of the Funds’ distribution, service, shareholder

 

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administration and other plans, and any agreements related to the plans. The Contract Review Committee also provides appropriate assistance to the Board in connection with the Board’s approval, oversight and review of the Funds’ other service providers including, without limitation, the Funds’ custodian/accounting agent, sub-transfer agents, professional (legal and accounting) firms and printing firms. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Contract Review Committee. The Contract Review Committee met [    ] time[s] during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2018.

Risk Oversight

The Board is responsible for the oversight of the activities of the Funds, including oversight of risk management. Day-to-day risk management with respect to the Funds is the responsibility of GSAM or other service providers (depending on the nature of the risk), subject to supervision by GSAM. The risks of the Funds include, but are not limited to, investment risk, compliance risk, operational risk, reputational risk, credit risk and counterparty risk. Each of GSAM and the other service providers have their own independent interest in risk management and their policies and methods of risk management may differ from the Funds and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result, the Board recognizes that it is not possible to identify all of the risks that may affect the Funds or to develop processes and controls to eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects, and that some risks are simply beyond the control of the Funds or GSAM, their respective affiliates or other service providers.

The Board effectuates its oversight role primarily through regular and special meetings of the Board and Board committees. In certain cases, risk management issues are specifically addressed in presentations and discussions. In addition, investment risk is discussed in the context of regular presentations to the Board on Fund strategy. Other types of risk are addressed as part of presentations on related topics (e.g. compliance policies) or in the context of presentations focused specifically on one or more risks. The Board also receives reports from GSAM management on operational risks, reputational risks and counterparty risks relating to the Funds.

Board oversight of risk management is also performed by various Board committees. For example, the Audit Committee meets with both the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm and GSAM’s internal audit group to review risk controls in place that support the Funds as well as test results, and the Compliance Committee meets with the CCO and representatives of GSAM’s compliance group to review testing results of the Fund’s compliance policies and procedures and other compliance issues. Board oversight of risk is also performed as needed between meetings through communications between the GSAM and the Board. The Board may, at any time and in its discretion, change the manner in which it conducts risk oversight. The Board’s oversight role does not make the Board a guarantor of the Fund’s investments or activities.

Trustee Ownership of Fund Shares

The following table shows the dollar range of shares beneficially owned by each Trustee in the Funds and other portfolios of the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex as of December 31, 2017.

 

Name of Trustee

   Dollar Range of
Equity Securities in the Funds1
     Aggregate Dollar Range of
Equity Securities in All
Portfolios in Fund Complex
Overseen By Trustee
 

Lawrence W. Stranghoener

            [    

Caroline Dorsa

            [    

Linda A. Lang

            [    

Michael Latham

            [    

James A. McNamara

            [    

 

1 

Includes the value of shares beneficially owned by each Trustee in the Funds described in this SAI.

As of [    ], 2018, the Funds had not commenced operations, and therefore the Trustees and Officers of the Trust did not own any of the outstanding shares of beneficial interest of the Funds.

Board Compensation

Each Independent Trustee is compensated with a unitary annual fee for his or her services as a Trustee of the Trust and as a member of the Governance and Nominating Committee, Compliance Committee, Contract Review Committee, and Audit Committee. The Chairman and “audit committee financial expert” receive additional compensation for their services. The Independent Trustees are also reimbursed for reasonable travel expenses incurred in connection with attending such meetings. The Trust may also pay the reasonable incidental costs of a Trustee to attend training or other types of conferences relating to the investment company industry.

 

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The following table sets forth certain information with respect to the compensation of each Trustee of the Trust for the fiscal year ended August 31, 2018:

Trustee Compensation

 

Name of Trustee

   Goldman Sachs
Motif Data-Driven
World ETF
     Goldman Sachs
Motif Finance
Reimagined ETF
     Goldman Sachs Motif
Human Evolution ETF
 

Lawrence W. Stranghoener(1)

     —          —          —    

Caroline Dorsa(2)

     —          —          —    

Linda A. Lang

     —          —          —    

Michael Latham

     —          —          —    

James A. McNamara(3)

     —          —          —    

 

Name of Trustee

   Goldman Sachs
Motif Manufacturing

Revolution ETF
     Goldman Sachs
Motif New Age
Consumer ETF
 

Lawrence W. Stranghoener(1)

     —          —    

Caroline Dorsa(2)

     —          —    

Linda A. Lang

     —          —    

Michael Latham

     —          —    

James A. McNamara(3)

     —          —    

 

Name of Trustee

   Pension or
Retirement
Benefits Accrued as
Part
Of the Trust’s
Expenses
     Total Compensation
From the Fund Complex
(including the Funds)4
 

Lawrence W. Stranghoener(1)

   $ 0      $ [    

Caroline Dorsa(2)

   $ 0      $ [    

Linda A. Lang

   $ 0      $ [    

Michael Latham

   $ 0      $ [    

James A. McNamara(3)

     —          —    

 

*

The Funds had not commenced operations as of [    ], 2018. Under current compensation arrangements, it is estimated that the Trustees will receive the following compensation from the Funds for the current fiscal year: Mr. Stranghoener $[    ]; Ms. Dorsa $[    ]; Ms. Lang $[    ]; Mr. Latham $[    ]; and Mr. McNamara $0.

1 

Includes compensation as Board Chair.

2

Includes compensation as “audit committee financial expert,” as defined in Item 3 of Form N-CSR.

3

Mr. McNamara is an Interested Trustee, and as such, receives no compensation from the Funds or the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

4 

Represents fees paid to each Trustee during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2018 from the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

Miscellaneous

The Trust, its Investment Adviser and the Distributor have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 of the Act that permit personnel subject to their particular codes of ethics to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by the Funds.

 

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MANAGEMENT SERVICES

As stated in the Funds’ Prospectus, GSAM, 200 West Street, New York, New York 10282, serves as Investment Adviser to the Funds. GSAM is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs. See “Service Providers” in the Funds’ Prospectus for a description of the Investment Adviser’s duties to the Funds.

Founded in 1869, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a publicly-held financial holding company and a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm. Goldman Sachs is a leader in developing portfolio strategies and in many fields of investing and financing, participating in financial markets worldwide and serving individuals, institutions, corporations and governments. Goldman Sachs is also among the principal market sources for current and thorough information on companies, industrial sectors, markets, economies and currencies, and trades and makes markets in a wide range of equity and debt securities 24 hours a day. The firm is headquartered in New York with offices in countries throughout the world. It has trading professionals throughout the United States, as well as in London, Frankfurt, Tokyo, Seoul, Sao Paulo and other major financial centers around the world. The active participation of Goldman Sachs in the world’s financial markets enhances its ability to identify attractive investments. Goldman Sachs has agreed to permit the Funds to use the name “Goldman Sachs” or a derivative thereof as part of each Fund’s name for as long as the Funds’ management agreement (each, a “Management Agreement”) is in effect.

Each Management Agreement provides that GSAM, in its capacity as Investment Adviser, may render similar services to others so long as the services under the Management Agreement are not impaired thereby. The Funds’ Management Agreements were most recently approved by the Trustees of the Trust, including a majority of the Trustees of the Trust who are not parties to such agreement or “interested persons” (as such term is defined in the Act) of any party thereto (the “non-interested Trustees”), on [    ], 2018. A discussion regarding the Board of Trustees’ basis for approving the Management Agreement with respect to each Fund will be available in the Fund’s first annual or semi-annual report following its launch.

The Management Agreements will remain in effect for an initial two-year period and will continue in effect with respect to each Fund from year to year thereafter provided such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by (i) the vote of a majority of the Funds’ outstanding voting securities or a majority of the Trustees of the Trust, and (ii) the vote of a majority of the non-interested Trustees of the Trust, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.

Each Management Agreement will terminate automatically if assigned (as defined in the Act). A Management Agreement is also terminable at any time without penalty by the Trustees of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of a Fund on 60 days’ written notice to the Investment Adviser or by the Investment Adviser on 60 days’ written notice to the Trust.

Pursuant to each Management Agreement, the Investment Adviser is entitled to receive the fees set forth below, payable monthly based on each Fund’s average daily net assets. Under the Management Agreement for each Fund, the Investment Adviser is responsible for substantially all the expenses of the Fund, excluding payments under the Fund’s 12b-1 plan (if any), interest expenses, taxes, acquired fund fees and expenses, brokerage fees, costs of holding shareholder meetings and litigation, indemnification and extraordinary expenses.

 

Fund

  

Contractual Rate

 

Goldman Sachs Motif Data-Driven World ETF

     [     ]% 

Goldman Sachs Motif Finance Reimagined ETF

     [     ]% 

Goldman Sachs Motif Human Evolution ETF

     [     ]% 

Goldman Sachs Motif Manufacturing Revolution ETF

     [     ]% 

Goldman Sachs Motif New Age Consumer ETF

     [     ]% 

Since the Funds are newly-organized, they did not pay management fees during the last three fiscal years.

The imposition of the Investment Adviser’s fees will have the effect of reducing the total return to investors. From time to time, the Investment Adviser may waive receipt of its fees, which would have the effect of lowering the Fund’s overall expense ratio and increasing total return to investors at the time such amounts are waived.

 

B-46


In addition to providing advisory services, under its Management Agreement, the Investment Adviser also, to the extent such services are not required to be performed by others pursuant to the fund administration and accounting agreement, the custodian agreement, the transfer agency agreement, distribution agreement or such other agreements with service providers to the Funds that the Board has approved: (i) supervises all non-advisory operations of each Fund that it advises; (ii) provides personnel to perform such executive, administrative and clerical services as are reasonably necessary to provide effective administration of each Fund; (iii) arranges for, at the Funds’ expense: (a) the preparation of all required tax returns, (b) the preparation and submission of reports to existing shareholders, (c) the periodic updating of prospectuses and statements of additional information and (d) the preparation of reports to be filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities; (iv) maintains each Fund’s records; and (v) provides office space and all necessary office equipment and services

 

B-47


Portfolio Managers – Other Accounts Managed by the Portfolio Managers

The following table discloses accounts within each type of category listed below for which the portfolio managers are jointly and primarily responsible for day to day portfolio management as of [ ], 2018, unless otherwise indicated.

For each portfolio manager listed below, the total number of accounts managed is a reflection of accounts within the strategy they oversee or manage, as well as accounts which participate in the sector in which they manage. There are multiple portfolio managers involved with each account.

 

     Number of Other Accounts Managed and Total Assets by Account
Type
    Number of Accounts and Total Assets for Which Advisory Fee is
Performance Based
 
Name of Portfolio
Manager
  

Registered

Investment

Companies

   

Other Pooled

Investment Vehicles

   

Other

Accounts

   

Registered

Investment

Companies

   

Other Pooled

Investment Vehicles

   

Other

Accounts

 
     Number
of
Accounts
    Assets
Managed
    Number
of
Accounts
    Assets
Managed
    Number
of
Accounts
    Assets
Managed
    Number
of
Accounts
    Assets
Managed
    Number
of
Accounts
    Assets
Managed
    Number
of
Accounts
    Assets
Managed
 

Portfolio Management Team

 

   

Raj Garigipati

     [         [         [         [         [         [         [         [         [         [         [         [    

Jamie McGregor

     [         [         [         [         [         [         [         [         [         [         [         [    

 

Footnotes:

  1.

Asset information is in USD [millions] unless otherwise specified.

  2.

“Other Pooled Investment Vehicles” includes private investment funds and SICAVs (a type of open-end investment company organized outside the U.S.).

  3.

“Other Accounts” includes a separately managed account platform, advisory mutual fund platform, advisory relationships and others. For purposes of the above, a platform is included as a single account.

 

B-48


Conflicts of Interest. The Investment Adviser’s portfolio managers are often responsible for managing the Funds as well as other registered funds, accounts, including proprietary accounts, separate accounts and other pooled investment vehicles, such as unregistered private funds. A portfolio manager may manage a separate account or other pooled investment vehicle which may have materially higher fee arrangements than the Funds and may also have a performance-based fee. The side-by-side management of these funds may raise potential conflicts of interest relating to cross trading, the allocation of investment opportunities and the aggregation and allocation of trades.

The Investment Adviser has a fiduciary responsibility to manage all client accounts in a fair and equitable manner. To this end, the Investment Adviser has developed policies and procedures designed to mitigate and manage the potential conflicts of interest that may arise from side-by-side management. In addition, the Investment Adviser and the Funds have adopted policies limiting the circumstances under which cross-trades may be effected between the Funds and another client account. The Investment Adviser conducts periodic reviews of trades for consistency with these policies. For more information about conflicts of interests that may arise in connection with the portfolio manager’s management of the Funds’ investments and the investments of other accounts, see “POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST.”

Portfolio Managers – Compensation

Compensation for portfolio managers of the Investment Adviser is comprised of a base salary and discretionary variable compensation. The base salary is fixed from year to year. Year-end discretionary variable compensation is primarily a function of each portfolio manager’s individual performance and his or her contribution to overall team performance; the performance of the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs; the team’s net revenues for the past year which is primarily derived from advisory fee; and anticipated compensation levels among competitor firms.

The discretionary variable compensation for portfolio managers is also significantly influenced by: (1) effective participation in team discussions and process; and (2) management of risk in alignment with the targeted risk parameter and investment objective of the applicable Fund. Other factors may also be considered including: (1) general client/shareholder orientation and (2) teamwork and leadership. Portfolio managers may receive equity-based awards as part of their discretionary variable compensation.

Other Compensation—In addition to base salary and discretionary variable compensation, the Investment Adviser has a number of additional benefits in place including (1) a 401(k) program that enables employees to direct a percentage of their salary and bonus income into a tax-qualified retirement plan; and (2) investment opportunity programs in which certain professionals may participate subject to certain eligibility requirements.

Portfolio Managers — Portfolio Managers’ Ownership of Securities in the Fund

The Funds were not in operation as of [    ], 2018. Consequently, the portfolio manager owned no securities issued by the Fund as of that date.

Distributor and Transfer Agent

Distributor: ALPS Distributors, Inc., 1290 Broadway, Suite 1100, Denver, Colorado 80203, serves as the exclusive distributor of Creation Units of shares of the Funds pursuant to a “best efforts” arrangement as provided by a distribution agreement with the Trust on behalf of the Funds. Shares of the Funds are offered and sold on a continuous basis by ALPS, acting as agent. The Distributor does not maintain a secondary market in the Funds’ Shares.

Transfer Agent: The Bank of New York Mellon (“BNYM”), 225 Liberty Street, New York, New York 10286, serves as the Trust’s transfer and dividend disbursing agent. Under its transfer agency agreement with the Trust, BNYM has undertaken with the Trust to provide the following services with respect to each Fund: (i) perform and facilitate the performance of purchases and redemptions of Creation Units, (ii) prepare and transmit by means of Depository Trust Company’s (“DTC”) book-entry system payments for dividends and distributions on or with respect to the Shares declared by the Trust on behalf of the applicable Fund, (iii) prepare and deliver reports, information and documents as specified in the transfer agency agreement, (iv) perform the customary services of a transfer agent and dividend disbursing agent, and (v) render certain other miscellaneous services as specified in the transfer agency agreement or as otherwise agreed upon.

The Trust’s distribution and transfer agency agreements each provide that BNYM may render similar services to others so long as the services BNYM provides thereunder are not impaired thereby. Such agreements also provide that the Trust will indemnify BNYM against certain liabilities.

 

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Expenses

The Board of Trustees of the Trust has approved a unitary management fee structure for each Fund. Under the unitary fee structure, the Investment Adviser is responsible for paying substantially all the expenses of each Fund, excluding payments under the Fund’s 12b-1 plan (if any), interest expenses, taxes, acquired fund fees and expenses, brokerage fees, costs of holding shareholder meetings and litigation, indemnification and extraordinary expenses.

The imposition of the Investment Adviser’s fees, as well as any other operating expenses not borne by the Investment Adviser as described above, will have the effect of reducing the total return to investors. From time to time, the Investment Adviser may waive receipt of its fees and/or voluntarily assume certain expenses of the Funds, which would have the effect of lowering the Funds’ overall expense ratio and increasing total return to investors at the time such amounts are waived or assumed, as the case may be.

Custodian, Sub-Custodians and Provider of Administrative Services

BNYM is the custodian of the Trust’s portfolio securities and cash. The custodian of the Trust may change from time to time. BNYM also maintains the Trust’s accounting records. BNYM may appoint domestic and foreign sub-custodians and use depositories from time to time to hold securities and other instruments purchased by the Trust in foreign countries and to hold cash and currencies for the Trust.

BNYM provides administrative services pursuant to a fund administration agreement with the Trust (the “Fund Administration and Accounting Agreement”) pursuant to which BNYM provides certain services, including, among others, (i) preparation of certain shareholder reports and communications; (ii) preparation of certain reports and filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission; (iii) certain net asset value computation services; and (iv) such other services for the Trust as may be mutually agreed upon between the Trust and BNYM. For its services under the Fund Administration and Accounting Agreement, BNYM receives such fees based on a stated percentage of net assets as are agreed upon from time to time between the parties. In addition, BNYM is reimbursed by the Funds for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with the Fund Administration and Accounting Agreement. In addition, an affiliate of BNYM will also provide certain other services for the Trust, including, (i) providing foreign exchange transaction services and (ii) executing trades in connection with certain creation and redemption transactions effected partially in cash. For these services, the BNYM affiliate will receive compensation based on levels that are negotiated with the Trust and/or the Investment Adviser. BNYM also provides certain middle office services to GSAM pursuant to a service agreement.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

[    ], is the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm. The Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm may change from time to time. In addition to audit services, [    ] prepares the Funds’ federal and state tax returns and provides assistance on certain non-audit matters.

Securities Lending

[Pursuant to an agreement between the Funds and the [    ], the Funds may lend their securities through [    ] as securities lending agent to certain qualified borrowers, including Goldman Sachs and its affiliates (the “Securities Agency Lending Agreement”). As securities lending agent of the Funds, [    ] administers the Funds’ securities lending program. These services include arranging the securities loans with approved borrowers and collecting fees and rebates due to the Funds from each borrower. [    ] also collects and maintains collateral intended to secure the obligations of each borrower and marks to market daily the value of loaned securities. If a borrower defaults on a loan, [    ] is authorized to exercise contractual remedies as securities lending agent to the Fund and, pursuant to the terms of the Securities Lending Agency Agreement, has agreed to indemnify the Fund for losses due to a borrower’s failure to return a lent security, which exclude losses associated with collateral reinvestment. [    ] may also, in its capacity as securities lending agent, invest cash received as collateral in pre-approved investments in accordance with the Securities Lending Agency Agreement. [    ] maintains records of loans made and income derived therefrom and makes available such records that the Funds deem necessary to monitor the securities lending program.]

[For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2018, the Funds did not engage in securities lending activities, and as a result, did not earn any income or incur any costs and expenses from securities lending activities.]

 

B-50


POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

General Categories of Conflicts Associated with the Funds

Goldman Sachs (which, for purposes of this “POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST” section, shall mean, collectively, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., the Investment Adviser and their affiliates, directors, partners, trustees, managers, members, officers and employees) is a worldwide, full-service investment banking, broker-dealer, asset management and financial services organization and a major participant in global financial markets. As such, it provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high net-worth individuals. Goldman Sachs acts as an investment banker, research provider, investment adviser, financier, adviser, market maker, prime broker, derivatives dealer, lender, counterparty, agent, principal and investor. In those and other capacities, Goldman Sachs advises clients in all markets and transactions and purchases, sells, holds and recommends a broad array of investments, including securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps, indices, baskets and other financial instruments and products, for its own account and for the accounts of clients and of its personnel, through client accounts and the relationships and products it sponsors, manages and advises. Goldman Sachs has direct and indirect interests in the global fixed income, currency, commodity, equities, bank loan and other markets, and the securities and issuers, in which the Funds may directly and indirectly invest. As a result, Goldman Sachs’ activities and dealings may affect the Funds in ways that may disadvantage or restrict the Funds and/or benefit Goldman Sachs or other Accounts. For purposes of this “POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST” section, “Funds” shall mean, collectively, the Fund and any of the other Goldman Sachs Funds, and “Accounts” shall mean Goldman Sachs’ own accounts, accounts in which personnel of Goldman Sachs have an interest, accounts of Goldman Sachs’ clients, including separately managed accounts (or separate accounts), and investment vehicles that Goldman Sachs sponsors, manages or advises, including the Fund.

The following are descriptions of certain conflicts of interest and potential conflicts of interest that may be associated with the financial or other interests that the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs may have in transactions effected by, with, or on behalf of the Funds. In addition, the Investment Adviser’s activities on behalf of certain other entities that are not investment advisory clients of the Investment Adviser may create conflicts of interest between such entities, on the one hand, and Accounts (including the Funds), on the other hand, that are the same as or similar to the conflicts that arise between the Funds and other Accounts, as described herein. The conflicts herein do not purport to be a complete list or explanation of the conflicts associated with the financial or other interests the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs may have now or in the future. Additional information about potential conflicts of interest regarding the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs is set forth in the Investment Adviser’s Form ADV. A copy of Part 1 and Part 2A of the Investment Adviser’s Form ADV is available on the SEC’s website (www.adviserinfo.sec.gov).

The Sale of Fund Shares and the Allocation of Investment Opportunities

Sales Incentives and Related Conflicts Arising from Goldman Sachs’ Financial and Other Relationships with Intermediaries

Goldman Sachs and its personnel, including employees of the Investment Adviser, may receive benefits and earn fees and compensation for services provided to Accounts (including the Funds) and in connection with the distribution of the Funds. Any such fees and compensation may be paid directly or indirectly out of the fees payable to the Investment Adviser in connection with the management of such Accounts (including the Funds). Moreover, Goldman Sachs and its personnel, including employees of the Investment Adviser, may have relationships (both involving and not involving the Funds, and including without limitation placement, brokerage, advisory and board relationships) with distributors, consultants and others who recommend, or engage in transactions with or for, the Funds. Such distributors, consultants and other parties may receive compensation from Goldman Sachs or the Funds in connection with such relationships. As a result of these relationships, distributors, consultants and other parties may have conflicts that create incentives for them to promote the Funds.

To the extent permitted by applicable law, Goldman Sachs and the Funds may make payments to authorized dealers and other financial intermediaries and to salespersons to promote the Funds. These payments may be made out of Goldman Sachs’ assets or amounts payable to Goldman Sachs. These payments may create an incentive for such persons to highlight, feature or recommend the Funds.

Allocation of Investment Opportunities Among the Funds and Other Accounts

The Investment Adviser may manage or advise multiple Accounts (including Accounts in which Goldman Sachs and its personnel have an interest) that have investment objectives that are the same or similar to the Funds and that may seek to make or sell investments in the same securities or other instruments, sectors or strategies as the Funds. This creates potential

 

B-51


conflicts, particularly in circumstances where the availability or liquidity of such investment opportunities is limited (e.g., in local and emerging markets, high yield securities, fixed income securities, regulated industries, small capitalization, direct or indirect investments in private investment funds, investments in master limited partnerships in the oil and gas industry and initial public offerings/new issues).

The Investment Adviser does not receive performance-based compensation in respect of its investment management activities on behalf of the Funds, but may simultaneously manage Accounts for which the Investment Adviser receives greater fees or other compensation (including performance-based fees or allocations) than it receives in respect of the Funds. The simultaneous management of Accounts that pay greater fees or other compensation and the Funds creates a conflict of interest as the Investment Adviser has an incentive to favor Accounts with the potential to receive greater fees when allocating resources, services, functions or investment opportunities among Accounts. For instance, the Investment Adviser may be faced with a conflict of interest when allocating scarce investment opportunities given the possibly greater fees from Accounts that pay performance-based fees. To address these types of conflicts, the Investment Adviser has adopted policies and procedures under which it will allocate investment opportunities in a manner that it believes is consistent with its obligations and fiduciary duties as an investment adviser. However, the availability, amount, timing, structuring or terms of an investment by the Funds may differ from, and performance may be lower than, the investments and performance of other Accounts.

To address these potential conflicts, the Investment Adviser has developed allocation policies and procedures that provide that the Investment Adviser’s personnel making portfolio decisions for Accounts will make investment decisions for, and allocate investment opportunities among, such Accounts consistent with the Investment Adviser’s fiduciary obligations. These policies and procedures may result in the pro rata allocation (on a basis determined by the Investment Adviser) of limited opportunities across eligible Accounts managed by a particular portfolio management team, but in other cases such allocation may not be pro rata.

Allocation-related decisions for the Funds and other Accounts may be made by reference to one or more factors. Factors may include: the Account’s portfolio and its investment horizons, objectives, guidelines and restrictions (including legal and regulatory restrictions affecting certain Accounts or affecting holdings across Accounts); client instructions; strategic fit and other portfolio management considerations, including different desired levels of exposure to certain strategies; the expected future capacity of the Funds and the applicable Accounts; limits on the Investment Adviser’s brokerage discretion; cash and liquidity needs and other considerations; the availability of other appropriate or substantially similar investment opportunities; and differences in benchmark factors and hedging strategies among Accounts. Suitability considerations, reputational matters and other considerations may also be considered.

In a case in which one or more Accounts are intended to be the Investment Adviser’s primary investment vehicles focused on, or to receive priority with respect to, a particular trading strategy, other Accounts (including the Funds) may not have access to such strategy or may have more limited access than would otherwise be the case. To the extent that such Accounts are managed by areas of Goldman Sachs other than the Investment Adviser, such Accounts will not be subject to the Investment Adviser’s allocation policies. Investments by such Accounts may reduce or eliminate the availability of investment opportunities to, or otherwise adversely affect, the Fund. Furthermore, in cases in which one or more Accounts are intended to be the Investment Adviser’s primary investment vehicles focused on, or receive priority with respect to, a particular trading strategy or type of investment, such Accounts may have specific policies or guidelines with respect to Accounts or other persons receiving the opportunity to invest alongside such Accounts with respect to one or more investments (“Co-Investment Opportunities”). As a result, certain Accounts or other persons will receive allocations to, or rights to invest in, Co-Investment Opportunities that are not available generally to the Funds.

In addition, in some cases the Investment Adviser may make investment recommendations to Accounts that make investment decisions independently of the Investment Adviser. In circumstances in which there is limited availability of an investment opportunity, if such Accounts invest in the investment opportunity at the same time as, or prior to, a Fund, the availability of the investment opportunity for the Fund will be reduced irrespective of the Investment Adviser’s policies regarding allocations of investments. In certain cases, persons or entities who do not have an Account with the Investment Adviser may receive allocations of opportunities from the Investment Adviser, and be included in the Investment Adviser’s allocation procedures as if they had an Account with the Investment Adviser, even though there is no investment advisory relationship between the Investment Adviser and such persons or entities.

The Investment Adviser may, from time to time, develop and implement new trading strategies or seek to participate in new trading strategies and investment opportunities. These strategies and opportunities may not be employed in all Accounts or employed pro rata among Accounts where they are used, even if the strategy or opportunity is consistent with the objectives of such Accounts. Further, a trading strategy employed for a Fund that is similar to, or the same as, that of another Account

 

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may be implemented differently, sometimes to a material extent. For example, a Fund may invest in different securities or other assets, or invest in the same securities and other assets but in different proportions, than another Account with the same or similar trading strategy. The implementation of the Fund’s trading strategy will depend on a variety of factors, including the portfolio managers involved in managing the trading strategy for the Account, the time difference associated with the location of different portfolio management teams, and the factors described above and in Item 6 (“PERFORMANCE-BASED FEES AND SIDE-BY-SIDE MANAGEMENT—Side-by-Side Management of Advisory Accounts; Allocation of Opportunities”) of the Investment Adviser’s Form ADV.

During periods of unusual market conditions, the Investment Adviser may deviate from its normal trade allocation practices. For example, this may occur with respect to the management of unlevered and/or long-only Accounts that are typically managed on a side-by-side basis with levered and/or long-short Accounts.

The Investment Adviser and the Funds may receive notice of, or offers to participate in, investment opportunities from third parties for various reasons. The Investment Adviser in its sole discretion will determine whether a Fund will participate in any such investment opportunities and investors should not expect that the Fund will participate in any such investment opportunities unless the opportunities are received pursuant to contractual requirements, such as preemptive rights or rights offerings, under the terms of the Fund’s investments. Moreover, Goldman Sachs businesses outside of the Investment Adviser are under no obligation or other duty to provide investment opportunities to the Funds, and generally are not expected to do so. Further, opportunities sourced within particular portfolio management teams within the Investment Adviser may not be allocated to Accounts (including the Funds) managed by such teams or by other teams. Opportunities not allocated (or not fully allocated) to the Funds or other Accounts managed by the Investment Adviser may be undertaken by Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), including for Goldman Sachs Accounts, or made available to other Accounts or third parties, and the Funds will not receive any compensation related to such opportunities. Additional information about the Investment Adviser’s allocation policies is set forth in Item 6 (“PERFORMANCE-BASED FEES AND SIDE-BY-SIDE MANAGEMENT—Side-by-Side Management of Advisory Accounts; Allocation of Opportunities”) of the Investment Adviser’s Form ADV.

As a result of the various considerations above, there will be cases in which certain Accounts (including Accounts in which Goldman Sachs and personnel of Goldman Sachs have an interest) receive an allocation of an investment opportunity at times that the Funds do not, or when the Funds receive an allocation of such opportunities but on different terms than other Accounts (which may be less favorable). The application of these considerations may cause differences in the performance of different Accounts that employ strategies the same or similar to those of the Funds.

Multiple Accounts (including the Funds) may participate in a particular investment or incur expenses applicable in connection with the operation or management of the Accounts, or otherwise may be subject to costs or expenses that are allocable to more than one Account (which may include, without limitation, research expenses, technology expenses, expenses relating to participation in bondholder groups, restructurings, class actions and other litigation, and insurance premiums). The Investment Adviser may allocate investment-related and other expenses on a pro rata or different basis.

Goldman Sachs’ Financial and Other Interests May Incentivize Goldman Sachs to Promote the Sale of Fund Shares

Goldman Sachs and its personnel have interests in promoting sales of Fund shares, and the compensation from such sales may be greater than the compensation relating to sales of interests in other Accounts. Therefore, Goldman Sachs and its personnel may have a financial interest in promoting Fund shares over interests in other Accounts.

 

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Management of the Funds by the Investment Adviser

Considerations Relating to Information Held by Goldman Sachs

Goldman Sachs has established certain information barriers and other policies to address the sharing of information between different businesses within Goldman Sachs. As a result of information barriers, the Investment Adviser generally will not have access, or will have limited access, to information and personnel in other areas of Goldman Sachs, and generally will not manage the Funds with the benefit of information held by such other areas. Goldman Sachs, due to its access to and knowledge of funds, markets and securities based on its prime brokerage and other businesses, may make decisions based on information or take (or refrain from taking) actions with respect to interests in investments of the kind held (directly or indirectly) by the Funds in a manner that may be adverse to the Funds, and will not have any obligation or other duty to share information with the Investment Adviser.

Information barriers also exist between certain businesses within the Investment Adviser, and the conflicts described herein with respect to information barriers and otherwise with respect to Goldman Sachs and the Investment Adviser will also apply to the businesses within the Investment Adviser. There may also be circumstances in which, as a result of information held by certain portfolio management teams in the Investment Adviser, the Investment Adviser limits an activity or transaction for a Fund, including if the Fund is managed by a portfolio management team other than the team holding such information.

In addition, regardless of the existence of information barriers, Goldman Sachs will not have any obligation or other duty to make available for the benefit of the Funds any information regarding Goldman Sachs’ trading activities, strategies or views, or the activities, strategies or views used for other Accounts. Furthermore, to the extent that the Investment Adviser has access to fundamental analysis and proprietary technical models or other information developed by Goldman Sachs and its personnel, or other parts of the Investment Adviser, the Investment Adviser will not be under any obligation or other duty to effect transactions on behalf of Accounts (including the Funds) in accordance with such analysis and models. In the event Goldman Sachs elects not to share certain information with the Investment Adviser or personnel involved in decision-making for Accounts (including the Funds), the Funds may make investment decisions that differ from those they would have made if Goldman Sachs had provided such information, which may be disadvantageous to the Funds.

Different areas of the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs may take views, and make decisions or recommendations, that are different than other areas of the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs. Different portfolio management teams within the Investment Adviser may make decisions based on information or take (or refrain from taking) actions with respect to Accounts they advise in a manner that may be different than or adverse to the Funds. Such teams may not share information with the Funds’ portfolio management teams, including as a result of certain information barriers and other policies, and will not have any obligation or other duty to do so.

Goldman Sachs operates a business known as Goldman Sachs Securities Services (“GSS”), which provides prime brokerage, administrative and other services to clients which may involve investment funds (including pooled investment vehicles and private funds) in which one or more Accounts invest (“Underlying Funds”) or markets and securities in which Accounts invest. GSS and other parts of Goldman Sachs have broad access to information regarding the current status of certain markets, investments and funds and detailed information about fund operators that is not available to the Investment Adviser. In addition, Goldman Sachs may act as a prime broker to one or more Underlying Funds, in which case Goldman Sachs will have information concerning the investments and transactions of such Underlying Funds that is not available to the Investment Adviser. As a result of these and other activities, parts of Goldman Sachs may be in possession of information in respect of markets, investments, investment advisers that are affiliated or unaffiliated with Goldman Sachs and Underlying Funds, which, if known to the Investment Adviser, might cause the Investment Adviser to seek to dispose of, retain or increase interests in investments held by Accounts or acquire certain positions on behalf of Accounts, or take other actions. Goldman Sachs will be under no obligation or other duty to make any such information available to the Investment Adviser or personnel involved in decision-making for Accounts (including the Funds).

Valuation of the Funds’ Investments

The Investment Adviser, while not the primary valuation agent of the Funds, performs certain valuation services related to securities and assets held in the Funds. The Investment Adviser performs such valuation services in accordance with its valuation policies. The Investment Adviser may value an identical asset differently than another division or unit within Goldman Sachs values the asset, including because such other division or unit has information or uses valuation techniques and models that it does not share with, or that are different than those of, the Investment Adviser. This is particularly the case in respect of difficult-to-value assets. The Investment Adviser may also value an identical asset differently in different Accounts, including because different Accounts are subject to different valuation guidelines pursuant to their respective governing agreements (e.g., in connection with certain regulatory restrictions applicable to different Accounts), different third -party vendors are hired to perform valuation functions for the Accounts, the Accounts are managed or advised by different portfolio

 

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management teams within the Investment Adviser that employ different valuation policies or procedures, or otherwise. The Investment Adviser will face a conflict with respect to valuations generally because of their effect on the Investment Adviser’s fees and other compensation. Furthermore, the application of particular valuation policies with respect to the Funds may result in improved performance of the Funds or enable the Investment Adviser to more easily track the performance of an Index than might have been the case had the Investment Adviser applied different valuation policies.

Goldman Sachs’ and the Investment Adviser’s Activities on Behalf of Other Accounts

Goldman Sachs engages in a variety of activities in the global financial markets. The extent of Goldman Sachs’ activities in the global financial markets, including without limitation in its capacity as an investment banker, research provider, investment adviser, financier, adviser, market maker, prime broker, derivatives dealer, lender, counterparty, agent, principal and investor, as well as in other capacities, may have potential adverse effects on the Funds.

The Investment Adviser provides advisory services to the Funds. The Investment Adviser’s decisions and actions on behalf of the Funds may differ from those on behalf of other Accounts. Advice given to, or investment or voting decisions made for, one or more Accounts may compete with, affect, differ from, conflict with, or involve timing different from, advice given to or investment decisions made for the Funds. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), the clients it advises, and its personnel have interests in and advise Accounts that have investment objectives or portfolios similar to, related to or opposed to those of the Funds. Goldman Sachs may receive greater fees or other compensation (including performance-based fees) from such Accounts than it does from the Funds. In addition, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), the clients it advises, and its personnel may engage (or consider engaging) in commercial arrangements or transactions with Accounts, and/or may compete for commercial arrangements or transactions in the same types of companies, assets securities and other instruments, as the Funds. Decisions and actions of the Investment Adviser on behalf of the Funds may differ from those by Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) on behalf of other Accounts, including Accounts sponsored, managed or advised by the Investment Adviser. Advice given to, or investment or voting decisions made for, the Funds may compete with, affect, differ from, conflict with, or involve timing different from, advice given to, or investment or voting decisions made for, other Accounts, including Accounts sponsored, managed or advised by the Investment Adviser.

Transactions by, advice to and activities of Accounts (including with respect to investment decisions, voting and the enforcement of rights) may involve the same or related companies, securities or other assets or instruments as those in which the Funds invest, and such Accounts may engage in a strategy while a Fund is undertaking the same or a differing strategy, any of which could directly or indirectly disadvantage the Fund (including its ability to engage in a transaction or other activities) or the prices or terms at which the Fund’s transactions or other activities may be effected.

For example, Goldman Sachs may be engaged to provide advice to an Account that is considering entering into a transaction with a Fund, and Goldman Sachs may advise the Account not to pursue the transaction with the Fund, or otherwise in connection with a potential transaction provide advice to the Account that would be adverse to the Fund. Additionally, a Fund may buy a security and an Account may establish a short position in that same security or in similar securities. This short position may result in the impairment of the price of the security that the Fund holds or may be designed to profit from a decline in the price of the security. A Fund could similarly be adversely impacted if it establishes a short position, following which an Account takes a long position in the same security or in similar securities. In addition, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) may make filings in connection with a shareholder class action lawsuit or similar matter involving a particular security on behalf of an Account (including a Fund), but not on behalf of a different Account (including a Fund) that holds or held the same security, or that is invested in or has extended credit to different parts of the capital structure of the same issuer.

To the extent a Fund engages in transactions in the same or similar types of securities or other investments as other Accounts, the Fund and other Accounts may compete for such transactions or investments, and transactions or investments by such other Accounts may negatively affect the transactions of the Fund (including the ability of the Fund to engage in such a transaction or investment or other activities), or the price or terms at which the Fund’s transactions or investments or other activities may be effected. In some cases, such adverse impacts may result from differences in the timing of transactions by Accounts relative to when a Fund executes transactions in the same securities. Moreover, a Fund, on the one hand, and Goldman Sachs or other Accounts, on the other hand, may vote differently on or take or refrain from taking different actions with respect to the same security, which may be disadvantageous to the Fund. Accounts may also have different rights in respect of an investment with the same issuer, or invest in different classes of the same issuer that have different rights, including, without limitation, with respect to liquidity. The determination to exercise such rights by the Investment Adviser on behalf of such other Accounts may have an adverse effect on the Funds.

 

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Goldman Sachs (including, as applicable, the Investment Adviser) and its personnel, when acting as an investment banker, research provider, investment adviser, financier, adviser, market maker, prime broker, derivatives dealer, lender, counterparty or investor, or in other capacities, may advise on transactions, make investment decisions or recommendations, provide differing investment views or have views with respect to research or valuations that are inconsistent with, or adverse to, the interests and activities of the Funds. Shareholders may be offered access to advisory services through several different Goldman Sachs advisory businesses (including Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and the Investment Adviser). Different advisory businesses within Goldman Sachs manage Accounts according to different strategies and may also apply different criteria to the same or similar strategies and may have differing investment views in respect of an issuer or a security or other investment. Similarly, within the Investment Adviser, certain investment teams or portfolio managers may have differing or opposite investment views in respect of an issuer or a security, and the positions a Fund’s investment team or portfolio managers take in respect of the Fund may be inconsistent with, or adversely affected by, the interests and activities of the Accounts advised by other investment teams or portfolio managers of the Investment Adviser. Research, analyses or viewpoints may be available to clients or potential clients at different times. Goldman Sachs will not have any obligation or other duty to make available to the Funds any research or analysis prior to its public dissemination. The Investment Adviser is responsible for making investment decisions on behalf of the Funds, and such investment decisions can differ from investment decisions or recommendations by Goldman Sachs on behalf of other Accounts. Goldman Sachs, on behalf of one or more Accounts, may implement an investment decision or strategy ahead of, or contemporaneously with, or behind similar investment decisions or strategies made for the Funds (whether or not the investment decisions emanate from the same research analysis or other information). The relative timing for the implementation of investment decisions or strategies for Accounts (including Accounts sponsored, managed or advised by the Investment Adviser), on the one hand, and the Funds, on the other hand, may disadvantage the Funds. Certain factors, for example, market impact, liquidity constraints, or other circumstances, could result in the Funds receiving less favorable trading results or incurring increased costs associated with implementing such investment decisions or strategies, or being otherwise disadvantaged.

Subject to applicable law, the Investment Adviser may cause the Funds to invest in securities, bank loans or other obligations of companies affiliated with or advised by Goldman Sachs or in which Goldman Sachs or Accounts have an equity, debt or other interest, or to engage in investment transactions that may result in other Accounts being relieved of obligations or otherwise divested of investments, which may enhance the profitability of Goldman Sachs’ or other Accounts’ investment in and activities with respect to such companies. Goldman Sachs may, in its discretion, recommend that the Funds have ongoing business dealings, arrangements or agreements with persons who are former employees of Goldman Sachs or are otherwise associated with an investor in an Account or a portfolio company or service provider of Goldman Sachs or an Account. The Funds may bear, directly or indirectly, the costs of such dealings, arrangements or agreements. These recommendations, and recommendations relating to continuing any such dealings, arrangements or agreements, may pose conflicts of interest due to Goldman Sachs’ relationships with such former employees or persons otherwise associated with an investor in an Account or a portfolio company or service provider of Goldman Sachs or an Account.

When the Investment Adviser wishes to place an order for different types of Accounts (including the Funds) for which aggregation is not practicable, the Investment Adviser may use a trade sequencing and rotation policy to determine which type of Account is to be traded first. Under this policy, each portfolio management team may determine the length of its trade rotation period and the sequencing schedule for different categories of clients within this period provided that the trading periods and these sequencin