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Table of Contents



Washington, D.C. 20549


FORM 10-K 


(Mark One)




For the fiscal year ended

December 31, 2022





For the transition period from





Commission file number



Eagle Bancorp Montana, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)





State or other jurisdiction of (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization Identification No.)


1400 Prospect Avenue, Helena, MT


(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)


Registrant’s telephone number, including area code



Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:


Title of each class

Trading symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock par value $0.01 per share


Nasdaq Global Market


Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

☐ Yes ☒ No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

☐ Yes ☒ No




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

        ☒ Yes ☐ No


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes ☐ No


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.


Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☒ Smaller reporting company
  Emerging growth company


If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 


If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐


Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10d-1(b). ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). 

Yes ☒ No


The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of Eagle, computed by reference to the closing price at which the stock was sold as of June 30, 2022 was $145,646,000. The outstanding number of shares of common stock of Eagle as of February 28, 2023 was 8,006,033.




Portions of the Company’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 2023 annual meeting of stockholders (“2023 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. The 2023 Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the Company’s fiscal year end to which this report relates.






  PART I  







This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning and protections of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be forward-looking statements. You can identify these forward-looking statements through our use of words such as “may,” “will,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “should,” “indicate,” “would,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “expect,” “estimate,” “continue,” “plan,” “project,” “could,” “intend,” “target” and other similar words and expressions of the future. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:



statements of our goals, intentions and expectations;


statements regarding our business plans, prospects, growth and operating strategies;


statements regarding the current global COVID-19 pandemic;


statements regarding the asset quality of our loan and investment portfolios; and


estimates of our risks and future costs and benefits.


These forward-looking statements are based on current beliefs and expectations of the management of Eagle Bancorp Montana, Inc. (“Eagle” or the “Company”) and Opportunity Bank of Montana (“OBMT” or the “Bank”), Eagle’s wholly-owned subsidiary, and are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. In addition, these forward-looking statements are subject to assumptions with respect to future business strategies and decisions that are subject to change. 


The following factors, among others, could cause the Company’s actual results to differ materially from the anticipated results or other expectations expressed in the forward-looking statements:



changes in laws or government regulations or policies affecting financial institutions, including changes in regulatory fees and capital requirements;


the potential adverse effects of the ongoing novel coronavirus, or COVID-19, pandemic, or other unusual and infrequently occurring events and any governmental or societal responses thereto; 


local, regional, national and international economic and market conditions and events and the impact they may have on us, our customers and our assets and liabilities;


competition among depository and other traditional and non-traditional financial services businesses;


risks related to the concentration of our business in Montana, including risks associated with changes in the prices, values and sales volume of residential and commercial real estate in Montana;


inflation and changes in the interest rate environment that reduce our margins or reduce the fair value of financial instruments;


our ability to attract deposits and other sources of funding or liquidity;


changes or volatility in the securities markets;

  the payment of dividends on our common stock is subject to regulatory supervision as well as the discretion of our Board of Directors, our performance and other factors;

our ability to implement our growth strategy, including identifying and consummating suitable acquisitions, raising additional capital to finance such transactions, entering new markets, possible failures in realizing the anticipated benefits from such acquisitions and an inability of our personnel, systems and infrastructure to keep pace with such growth;


the effect of acquisitions we may make, if any, including, without limitation, the failure to achieve expected revenue growth and/or expense savings from such acquisitions;


risks related to the integration of any businesses we have acquired or expect to acquire, including exposure to potential asset quality and credit quality risks and unknown or contingent liabilities, the time and costs associated with integrating systems, technology platforms, procedures and personnel;


potential impairment on the goodwill we have recorded or may record in connection with business acquisitions;


ownership dilution risk associated with potential mergers and acquisitions in which our stock may be issued as consideration for an acquired company;
  political developments, uncertainties or instability;

our ability to enter new markets successfully and capitalize on growth opportunities;


the need to retain capital for strategic or regulatory reasons; 


changes in consumer spending, borrowing and savings habits;


our ability to continue to increase and manage our commercial and residential real estate, multi-family and commercial business loans;


possible impairments of securities held by us, including those issued by government entities and government sponsored enterprises;


the level of future deposit insurance premium assessments;


our ability to develop and maintain secure and reliable information technology systems, effectively defend ourselves against cyberattacks, or recover from breaches to our cybersecurity infrastructure and our dependence on the technology of outside service providers;


the failure of assumptions underlying the establishment of allowance for possible loan losses and other estimates;


changes in the financial performance and/or condition of our borrowers and their ability to repay their loans when due; and


the effect of changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the regulatory agencies, as well as the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the Financial Accounting Standards Board and other accounting and auditing standard setters;

  our ability to appropriately address any environmental, social, governmental and sustainability concerns that may arise from our business activities.


Because of these and other uncertainties, our actual future results may be materially different from the results indicated by these forward-looking statements. For a further list and description of various risks, relevant factors and uncertainties that could cause future results or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements, see the Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” sections contained elsewhere in this report, as well as any subsequent Reports on Form 10-Q and Form 8-K, and other filings with the SEC. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or correct any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that subsequently occur, or of which we hereafter become aware. We caution that the foregoing list of risk factors is not exclusive and not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. 













Eagle Bancorp Montana, Inc. (“Eagle” or the “Company”), a Delaware corporation, is a bank holding company registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 that holds 100% of the capital stock of Opportunity Bank of Montana (the “Bank”), formerly American Federal Savings Bank (“AFSB”). The Bank was founded in 1922 as a Montana-chartered building and loan association and has conducted operations and maintained its administrative office in Helena, Montana since that time. In 1975, the Bank adopted a federal thrift charter and in October 2014 converted to a Montana chartered commercial bank and became a member bank in the Federal Reserve System. The Bank currently has 31 full-service branches and 44 automated teller machines located in our market areas and we participate in the Money Pass® ATM network. The Bank also operated certain branches under the brand names Dutton State Bank, Farmers State Bank of Denton and The State Bank of Townsend. Effective January 3, 2022, these branches were rebranded and are now only operating as Opportunity Bank of Montana.


We provide loan and deposit services to customers who are predominantly small businesses and individuals throughout Montana. We are a diversified lender with a focus on residential mortgage loans, commercial real estate mortgage loans, commercial business loans, agricultural loans and second mortgage/home equity loan products.


The Bank is headquartered at 1400 Prospect Avenue, Helena, Montana, 59601. Investor information for the Company may be found at www.opportunitybank.com. The contents on or accessible through our website are not incorporated into this report.


Recent Events




As a continuing part of its growth strategy, the Company intends to enhance its market share in Montana through organic growth and opportunistic acquisitions. Potential acquisitions are periodically evaluated by the Company's Merger and Acquisition Committee.


In April 2022, the Company acquired First Community Bancorp, Inc. ("FCB"), a Montana corporation, and FCB's wholly-owned subsidiary, First Community Bank, a Montana chartered commercial bank.  In the transaction, Eagle acquired nine retail bank branches and two loan production offices in Montana. The total consideration paid was $38.58 million and included cash consideration of $10.23 million and common stock issued of $28.35 million.


In January 2020, the Company acquired Western Holding Company of Wolf Point, a Montana corporation (“WHC”), and WHC’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Western Bank of Wolf Point, a Montana chartered commercial bank (“WB”) merged into the Bank. In the transaction, Eagle acquired one retail branch in Wolf Point, Montana. The total consideration paid was $14.97 million and included cash consideration of $6.50 million and common stock issued of $8.47 million. 




In January 2019, the Company acquired Big Muddy Bancorp, Inc. (“BMB”).This acquisition included four branches in Townsend, Dutton, Denton and Choteau, Montana. The total consideration paid was $16.44 million of Eagle common stock issued. 


In January 2018, the Company acquired TwinCo, Inc. (“TwinCo”). This acquisition included two branches in Madison County, Montana. The total consideration paid was $18.93 million and included cash consideration of $9.90 million and common stock issued of $9.03 million.


Business Strategy


Our principal strategy is to continue our profitability through building a diversified loan portfolio and operating the Bank as a full-service community bank that offers both retail and commercial loan and deposit products in all of its markets. We offer mortgage loans, the majority of which are sold on the secondary market with loan servicing retained. We believe that this focus will enable us to continue to grow our franchise, while maintaining our commitment to customer service, high asset quality and sustained net earnings.


The following are the key elements of our business strategy:



Continue to diversify our portfolio by emphasizing our growth in commercial real estate and commercial business loans, including agricultural loans, as a complement to our single family residential real estate lending while maintaining disciplined credit underwriting standards. As of December 31, 2022, commercial real estate and commercial business loans constituted approximately 78.04% of total loans;



Continue to emphasize the attraction and retention of lower cost core deposits;



Seek opportunities where presented to acquire other institutions or expand our branch network through opening new branches and/or loan production offices;



Maintain our strong asset quality; and



Operate as a community-oriented independent financial institution that offers a broad array of financial services with high levels of customer service.


Our results of operations may be significantly affected by our ability to effectively implement our business strategy including our plans for expansion through strategic acquisitions. If we are unable to effectively integrate and manage acquired or merged businesses or attract significant new business through our branching efforts, our financial performance may be negatively affected.


Market Areas


We conduct business through our headquarters in Helena, Montana, in addition to 30 other full-service branches located in Ashland, Big Timber, Billings, Bozeman, Butte, Choteau, Culbertson, Denton, Dutton, Froid, Glasgow, Great Falls, Hamilton, Helena, Hinsdale, Livingston, Missoula, Sheridan, Three Forks, Townsend, Twin Bridges, Winifred and Wolf Point, Montana.


Montana is one of the largest states in terms of land mass but ranks as one of the least populated states. According to U.S. Census Bureau data for 2020, it had a population of 1.08 million. Helena is Montana’s state capital and is the county seat of Lewis and Clark County. It is located within 120 miles of four of Montana's other five largest cities: Missoula, Great Falls, Bozeman and Butte, and is approximately midway between Yellowstone and Glacier National Parks. Significant contributors to Montana's economy are agriculture, construction, energy production, forestry, healthcare, manufacturing, mining and the service industry. Tourism is also a large part of Montana's economy and is highly influenced by national parks, ski resorts, lakes and rural scenic areas.


The following table reflects our deposit market share and ranking by county:




Total Market Share Percentage (1)


Deposit Market Share Rank (1)


Broadwater, MT

    100.00 %     1  

Cascade, MT

    0.91       9  

Fergus, MT

    6.35       5  

Gallatin, MT

    4.84       7  

Lewis and Clark, MT

    13.34       4  

Madison, MT

    36.27       2  

Missoula, MT

    1.81       9  

Park, MT

    8.83       5  

Ravalli, MT

    3.29       7  

Roosevelt, MT

    60.44       1  
Rosebud, MT     8.29       3  

Silver Bow, MT

    11.00       4  

Sweet Grass, MT

    36.45       2  

Teton, MT

    18.15       2  
Valley, MT     53.71       1  

Yellowstone, MT

    0.79       9  


(1) Source: FDIC.gov-data as of June 30, 2022.







We face strong competition in our primary market areas for retail deposits and the origination of loans from both banks and non-bank competitors. Historically, Montana was a unit banking state. This means that the ability of Montana state banks to create branches was either prohibited or significantly restricted. As a result of unit banking, Montana has a significant number of independent financial institutions serving a single community in a single location. While the state’s population is approximately 1.12 millionpeople, there are 45 credit unions in Montana as well as one state-chartered thrift institution and 37 commercial banks as of December 31, 2022. Our most direct competition for depositors has historically come from national banks, super-regional banks, locally owned banks, nontraditional internet based banks, thrift institutions and credit unions operating in our primary market areas. Competition in our primary market areas has increased in recent years. Our competition for loans also comes from banks, thrifts, credit unions and government sponsored entities in addition to mortgage bankers and brokers. Through successive acquisitions, the Company has entered several markets in Montana that are predominantly reliant on agriculture. Accordingly, our lending activities in these markets focus on farm and ranch real estate, annual operating lines of credit, and agriculture related term debt. Competition for agricultural loans comes from both traditional Montana banks and an increasing number of nonbank lenders. These nonbank lenders range from government sponsored entities to large national insurance companies.  


Technological advances have made it possible for our competitors, including nonbank competitors, to offer products and services that traditionally were banking products, and for financial institutions and other companies to provide electronic and internet-based financial solutions, including online deposit accounts, electronic payment processing and marketplace lending, without having a physical presence where their customers are located. In addition, many of our non-bank competitors are not subject to the same extensive federal regulations that govern bank holding companies and federally insured banks. In many cases, our competitors have substantially greater resources and lending limits and offer certain services that we do not currently provide. Our principal market areas can be characterized as markets with moderately increasing incomes, relatively low unemployment, increasing wealth (particularly in the growing resort areas such as Bozeman) and moderate population growth.


Lending Activities 




The Bank originates residential 1-4 family loans held for investment and originated for sale in the secondary market. The banks also originates commercial real estate, home equity, consumer and commercial loans. Residential 1-4 family loans include residential mortgages and construction of residential properties. Commercial real estate loans include loans on multi-family dwellings, nonresidential property, commercial construction and development and farmland loans. Home equity loans include loans secured by the borrower’s primary residence. Typically, the property securing such loans is subject to a prior lien. Consumer loans consist of loans secured by collateral other than real estate, such as automobiles, recreational vehicles and boats. Personal loans and lines of credit are made on deposits held by the Bank and on an unsecured basis. Commercial business loans consist of business loans and lines of credit on a secured and unsecured basis and include agriculture production loans.


Fee Income


The Bank receives lending related fee income from a variety of sources. Its principal source of this income is from the origination and servicing of sold mortgage loans. Fees generated from mortgage loan servicing generally consist of collecting mortgage payments, maintaining escrow accounts, disbursing payments to investors and foreclosure processing for loans held by others. Mortgage loan servicing fees were $4.84 million and $4.10 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Other loan related fee income for late charges and other ancillary fees were $1.01 million and $839,000 for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.


Residential 1-4 Family Loans


The Bank originates residential 1-4 family mortgage loans secured by property located in the Bank’s market areas. At December 31, 2022, the Bank's balance of 1-4 family mortgage loans was $135.95 million or 10.03% of total loans. The Bank generally originates residential 1-4 family mortgage loans in amounts of up to 80.0% of the lesser of the appraised value or the selling price of the mortgaged property without requiring private mortgage insurance. A mortgage loan originated by the Bank, whether fixed rate or adjustable rate, can have a term of up to 30 years. The Bank holds substantially all of its adjustable rate and its 8, 10 and 12-year fixed rate loans in portfolio. Adjustable rate loans limit the periodic interest rate adjustment and the minimum and maximum rates that may be charged over the term of the loan. The Bank’s fixed rate 15-year and 20-year loans are held in portfolio or sold in the secondary market depending on market conditions. Generally, all 30-year fixed rate loans are sold in the secondary market. The volume of loan sales is dependent on the volume, type and term of loan originations, as well as market conditions.


The Bank derives a significant portion of its noninterest income from servicing of loans that it has sold. The Bank offers many of the fixed rate loans it originates for sale in the secondary market on a servicing retained basis. This means that we process the borrower’s payments and send them to the purchaser of the loan. This retention of servicing enables the Bank to increase fee income and maintain a relationship with the borrower. At December 31, 2022, the Bank had $2.02 billion in residential 1-4 family mortgage loans and $125.08 million in other loan categories sold with servicing retained. The Bank does not ordinarily purchase home mortgage loans from other financial institutions.


Property appraisals on real estate securing the Bank’s single-family residential loans are made by state certified and licensed independent appraisers who are approved annually by the Board. Appraisals are performed in accordance with applicable regulations and policies. The Bank generally obtains title insurance policies on all first mortgage real estate loans originated. On occasion, refinancing of mortgage loans are approved using title reports instead of title insurance. Title reports are also allowed on home equity loans. Borrowers generally remit funds with each monthly payment of principal and interest, to a loan escrow account from which the Bank makes disbursements for such items as real estate taxes and hazard and mortgage insurance premiums as they become due.


The Bank also lends funds for the residential 1-4 family construction. Residential 1-4 family construction loans are made both to individual homeowners for the construction of their primary residence and, to a lesser extent, to local builders for the construction of pre-sold houses or houses that are being built for sale in the future. Residential 1-4 family construction loans accounted for $59.76 million or 4.41% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio at December 31, 2022.





Commercial Real Estate Loans


The Bank originates commercial real estate loans including loans on multi-family dwellings. Commercial real estate loans made up 39.76% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio, or $539.07 million at December 31, 2022. The Bank’s commercial real estate loans are primarily permanent loans secured by improved property such as office buildings, retail stores, commercial warehouses and apartment buildings. The terms and conditions of each loan are tailored to the needs of the borrower and based on the financial strength of the project and any guarantors. Generally, commercial real estate loans originated by the Bank will not exceed 80.0% of the appraised value or the selling price of the property, whichever is less. Commercial real estate loans are typically made with fixed rates of interest and 5 to 15-year maturities. Upon maturity, the loan is repaid or the terms and conditions are renegotiated. Generally, all commercial real estate loans that we originate are secured by property located in the state of Montana and within the market areas of the Bank. The Bank's largest single commercial real estate loan at December 31, 2022 had an outstanding balance of $12.74 million and is collateralized by commercial real estate located in Helena, Montana. At December 31, 2022, this loan is performing in accordance with its repayment terms. 


The Bank also lends funds for commercial construction and development. Commercial construction and development loans accounted for $151.15 million or 11.15% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio at December 31, 2022. In addition, the bank originates loans secured by farm and ranch real estate. Farmland loans accounted for $136.33 million or 10.06% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio at December 31, 2022.


Home Equity Loans


The Bank also originates home equity loans. These loans are secured by the borrowers’ primary residence, but are typically subject to a prior lien, which may or may not be held by the Bank. At December 31, 2022, $74.27 million or 5.48% of our total loans were home equity loans. Borrowers may use the proceeds from the Bank’s home equity loans for many purposes, including home improvement, debt consolidation or other purchasing needs. The Bank offers fixed rate, fixed payment home equity loans as well as variable and fixed rate home equity lines of credit. Fixed rate home equity loans typically have terms of no longer than 15 years.


Home equity loans are secured by real estate but they have historically carried a greater risk than first lien residential mortgages because of the existence of a prior lien on the property securing the loan, as well as the flexibility the borrower has with respect to the loan proceeds. The Bank attempts to minimize this risk by maintaining conservative underwriting policies on such loans. We generally make home equity loans for not more than 85.0% of appraised value of the underlying real estate collateral, less the amount of any existing prior liens on the property securing the loan.


Consumer Loans


As part of its strategy to invest in higher yielding shorter term loans, the Bank emphasized growth of its consumer lending portfolio in recent years. This portfolio includes personal loans secured by collateral other than real estate, unsecured personal loans and lines of credit and loans secured by deposits held by the Bank. As of December 31, 2022, consumer loans totaled $27.61 million or 2.04% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio. These loans consist primarily of auto loans, RV loans, boat loans, personal loans and credit lines and deposit account loans. Consumer loans are originated in the Bank’s market areas and generally have maturities of up to 7 years. For loans secured by savings accounts, the Bank will lend up to 90.0% of the account balance on single payment loans and up to 100.0% for monthly payment loans.


Consumer loans have a shorter term and generally provide higher interest rates than residential loans. Consumer loans can be helpful in improving the spread between average loan yield and cost of funds and at the same time improve the matching of the maturities of rate sensitive assets and liabilities.


The underwriting standards employed by the Bank for consumer loans include a determination of the applicant’s credit history and an assessment of the applicant’s ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan. The stability of the applicant’s monthly income may be determined by verification of gross monthly income from primary employment, and additionally from any verifiable secondary income. Creditworthiness of the applicant is of primary consideration; however, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the collateral in relation to the proposed loan amount.




Commercial Loans


Commercial business loans amounted to $127.26 million, or 9.39% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio at December 31, 2022.  Agricultural production loans amounted to $104.04 million, or 7.68% of the Bank’s total loan portfolio at December 31, 2022. The Bank’s commercial business loans are traditional business loans and are not secured by real estate. Such loans may be structured as unsecured lines of credit or may be secured by inventory, accounts receivable or other business assets. Agricultural operating loans are generally secured with equipment, cattle, crops or other non-real property and at times the underlying real property.


Commercial business loans of this nature usually involve greater credit risk than residential 1-4 family loans. The collateral we receive is typically related directly to the performance of the borrower’s business which means that repayment of commercial business loans is dependent on the successful operations and income stream of the borrower’s business. Such risks can be significantly affected by economic conditions. In addition, commercial lending generally requires substantially greater oversight efforts compared to residential real estate lending.


Loans to One Borrower


Under Montana law, commercial banks such as the Bank, are subject to certain exemptions and are allowed to select the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”) formula used to determine limits on credit concentrations to single borrowers to an amount equal to 15.0% of the institution’s total capital. As of December 31, 2022, the Bank’s limit to a single borrower was $30.44 million. Our largest aggregation of loans to one borrower was approximately $28.00 million at December 31, 2022. The total amount subject to the lending limit at December 31, 2022 was $63.82 million. This consisted of seven loans: six commercial real estate loans each secured by a single property and one construction loan secured by a single property. The first commercial real estate loan had a principal balance of $1.53 million at December 31, 2022.  As of December 31, 2022, the principal balance on the second commercial real estate loan was $209,000. The third commercial real estate loan had a principal balance of $272,000 as of December 31, 2022. However, another bank is 50.0% participating in this loan for $272,000. The fourth commercial real estate loan had a principal balance of $12.74 million as of December 31, 2022. The fifth commercial real estate loan had a principal balance of $3.95 million as of December 31, 2022.The sixth commercial real estate loan had a principal balance of $9.26 million as of December 31, 2022. The seventh construction loan had a principal balance of $123,000 as of December 31, 2022. However, another bank is 50.0% participating in this loan for $123,000. At December 31, 2022, these loans were performing in accordance with their terms. The Bank maintains the servicing for these loans.


Loan Solicitation and Processing


Our customary sources of mortgage loan applications include repeat customers, walk-ins and referrals from home builders and real estate brokers. We also advertise in local newspapers and on local radio and television. We currently have the ability to accept online mortgage loan applications through our website. Our branch managers and loan officers located at our headquarters and in branches, have authority to approve certain types of loans when presented with a completed application. Other loans must be approved at our main offices as disclosed below. Loan consultants or loan brokers are generally not utilized for either residential or commercial lending activities.


After receiving a loan application from a prospective borrower, a credit report and verifications are obtained to confirm specific information relating to the loan applicant’s employment, income and credit standing. When required by our policies, an appraisal of the real estate intended to secure the proposed loan is undertaken by an independent fee appraiser. In connection with the loan approval process, our staff analyzes the loan applications and the property involved. Officers and branch managers are granted lending authority based on the nature of the loan and the managers’ level of experience. We have established a series of loan committees to approve any loans which may exceed the lending authority of particular officers or branch managers. Three Directors of the Board are required for approval of any loan, or aggregation of loans to a single borrower, that currently exceeds $7.50 million.


Loan applicants are promptly notified of the decision by a letter setting forth the terms and conditions of the decision. If approved, these terms and conditions include the amount of the loan, interest rate basis, amortization term, a brief description of real estate to be mortgaged, tax escrow and the notice of requirement of insurance coverage to be maintained. We generally require title insurance on first mortgage loans and fire and casualty insurance on all properties securing loans, which insurance must be maintained during the entire term of the loan.




Loan Commitments


We generally provide commitments to fund fixed and adjustable-rate single-family mortgage loans for periods up to 60 days at a specified term and interest rate, and other loan categories for shorter time periods. The total amount of loans in process of origination for sale into the secondary market with interest rate lock commitments was $18.60 million as of December 31, 2022.


Investment Activities




State-chartered commercial banks such as the Bank have the authority to invest in various types of investment securities, including United States Treasury obligations, securities of various Federal agencies (including securities collateralized by mortgages), certificates of deposits of insured banks and savings institutions, municipal securities, corporate debt securities and loans to other banking institutions.


Eagle maintains liquid assets that may be invested in specified short-term securities and other investments. Liquidity levels may be increased or decreased depending on the yields on investment alternatives. They may also be increased based on management’s judgment as to the attractiveness of yields available in relation to other opportunities. Liquidity levels can also change based on management’s expectation of future yield levels, as well as management’s projections as to the short-term demand for funds to be used in the Bank’s loan origination and other activities.


Investment Policies


The investment policy of Eagle, which is established by the Board, is designed to foster earnings and liquidity within prudent interest rate risk guidelines, while complementing the Bank’s lending activities. The policy provides for available-for-sale (including those accounted for under ASC Topic 825), held-to-maturity and trading classifications. However, Eagle currently does not hold any securities for purposes of trading or held-to-maturity. The policy permits investments in high credit quality instruments with diversified cash flows while permitting us to maximize total return within the guidelines set forth in our interest rate risk and liquidity management policies. Permitted investments include but are not limited to U.S. government obligations, government agency or government-sponsored agency obligations, state, county and municipal obligations, asset-backed securities and mortgage-backed securities (“MBSs”). Collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”), investment grade corporate debt securities and commercial paper are also included.


Our investment policy also includes several specific guidelines and restrictions to ensure adherence with safe and sound activities. The policy prohibits investments in high-risk mortgage derivative products (as defined within the policy) without prior approval from the Board. To secure such approval, management must demonstrate the business advantage of such investments.


We do not participate in the use of off-balance sheet derivative financial instruments, except interest rate caps and floors. Further, Eagle does not invest in securities which are not rated investment grade at time of purchase.


The Board, through its asset/liability committee, has charged the President and CEO with implementation of the investment policy. All transactions are reported to the Board monthly, as well as the current composition of the portfolio, including market values and unrealized gains and losses.


Sources of Funds




Deposits are the major source of our funds for lending and other investment purposes. Borrowings are also used to compensate for reductions in the availability of funds from other sources. In addition to deposits and borrowings, we derive funds from loans and investment securities principal payments. Funds are also derived from proceeds for the maturity, call and sale of investment securities and from the sale of loans. Loan and investment securities principal payments are a relatively stable source of funds, while loan prepayments and deposit inflows are significantly influenced by general interest rates and financial market conditions.






We offer a variety of deposit accounts. Deposit account terms vary, primarily as to the required minimum balance amount, the amount of time that the funds must remain on deposit and the applicable interest rate.


Our current deposit products include certificates of deposit accounts ranging in terms from 90 days to five years, as well as, checking, savings and money market accounts. Individual retirement account (“IRA”) certificates are included in certificates of deposit. The Bank may also enter into fixed rate brokered certificates when rates are competitive with other funding sources.


Deposits are obtained primarily from residents of Montana. We believe we are able to attract deposit accounts by offering outstanding service, competitive interest rates, convenient locations and service hours. We use traditional methods of advertising to attract new customers and deposits, including radio, television, print media advertising, and sales training. Management believes that nonresidents of Montana hold an insignificant number and amount of deposit accounts.


We pay interest rates on deposits which are competitive in our market. Interest rates on deposits are set by senior management, based on a number of factors, including: projected cash flow; a current survey of a selected group of competitors’ rates for similar products; external data which may influence interest rates; investment opportunities and loan demand; and scheduled certificate maturities and loan and investment repayments.




Deposits are the primary source of funds for our lending and investment activities and for general business purposes. However, as the need arises, or in order to take advantage of funding opportunities, we also borrow funds in the form of advances from FHLB of Des Moines ("FHLB") to supplement our supply of lendable funds and to meet deposit withdrawal requirements. We have Federal funds lines of credit with Pacific Coast Bankers Bank (“PCBB”), PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. (“PNC”), United Bankers’ Bank (“UBB”) and Texas Independent Bank ("TIB"). Our Federal funds line of credit with Zions Bank was terminated during 2021. In addition, Eagle has a line of credit with Bell Bank.


In January 2022, the Company completed the issuance of $40.00 million in aggregate principal amount of subordinated notes due in 2032 in a private placement transaction to certain institutional accredited investors and qualified buyers. The notes bear interest at an annual fixed rate of 3.50% payable semi-annually. Starting February 1, 2027, interest will accrue at a floating rate per annum equal to a benchmark rate, which is expected to be three-month term Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") plus a spread of 218.0 basis points, payable quarterly. The notes are subject to redemption at the option of the Company on or after February 1, 2027. A portion of the net proceeds were used to redeem $10.00 million of senior notes due in February 2022. In June 2020, the Company completed the issuance of $15.00 million in aggregate principal amount of subordinated notes due in 2030 in a private placement transaction to certain qualified institutional accredited investors. The notes bear interest at an annual fixed rate of 5.50%. Starting July 1, 2025, interest will accrue at a floating rate per annum equal to a benchmark rate, which is expected to be the three-month term SOFR plus a spread of 509.0 basis points. In February 2017, the Company completed the issuance, through a private placement, of $10.00 million aggregate principal amount of 5.75% fixed senior unsecured notes due in 2022. These notes were redeemed in February 2022 with proceeds from the subordinated notes issued in January 2022. In September 2005, our predecessor entity formed a special purpose subsidiary, Eagle Bancorp Statutory Trust I (the “Trust”), for the purpose of issuing trust preferred securities in the amount of $5.16 million. Our predecessor entity issued subordinated debentures to the Trust, and the coupon on the debentures matches the dividend payment on the trust preferred securities. Upon the closing of the second-step conversion and reorganization, we assumed the obligations of our predecessor in connection with the subordinated debentures and trust preferred securities.


Subsidiary Activity


We are permitted to invest in the capital stock of, or originate secured or unsecured loans to, subsidiary corporations. The following are subsidiaries of the Company: Opportunity Bank of Montana, Eagle Bancorp Statutory Trust I, Western Financial Services, Inc. and Opportunity Housing Fund, LLC, which is a subsidiary of the Bank. 


Employees and Human Capital Resources


As of December 31, 2022, we had 399 full-time employees and 29 part-time employees. The employees are not represented by a collective bargaining unit. We believe our relationship with our employees to be good. The Board of Directors oversees the strategic management of our human capital resources. The Human Resources Department's day-to-day responsibility is managing our human capital resources. 


Opportunity Bank of Montana is committed to providing equal employment opportunity and maintaining an environment that encourages appropriate conduct among all persons and fosters respect for and inclusion of individuals with diverse perspectives, work experiences, lifestyles, and cultures. Embracing equal employment opportunity and the diversity and inclusion of our workforce helps the Bank achieve its mission and each of us to live our core values.


Retention and Benefits


Employee retention helps us operate efficiently and achieve one of our business objectives, which is being a high-level service provider. We believe our commitment to living out our core values, actively prioritizing concern for our employees’ well-being, supporting our employees’ career goals, offering competitive wages and providing valuable benefits aids in retention of our top-performing employees. We promote the health and wellness of our employees and strive to keep the employee portion of health care premiums to a minimum. In addition, nearly all of our employees are shareholders of the Company through participation in our ESOP, which aligns employee and shareholder interests by providing stock ownership on a tax-deferred basis at no investment cost to our employees.


Growth and Development


We believe that the success of our business is largely due to the quality of our employees, the development of each employee's full potential, and our ability to provide timely and satisfying recognition and rewards. Amid a competitive labor market, we continue to develop and deliver job specific training programs, leadership and coaching opportunities, career development opportunities including tuition reimbursement, and the retention of top talent through succession planning. Whenever possible, we strive to fill vacancies from within. In addition, our internship programs, in partnership with state colleges and technical schools, help ensure a steady pipeline of accomplished talent.




Health and Safety


The safety, health and wellness of our employees is a top priority. Robust wellness initiatives supporting a healthy lifestyle are encouraged through an established employee wellness program. All employees and their dependents have access to an employee assistance program which provides expert referrals and consultation in support of mental well-being.


The COVID-19 pandemic presented a unique challenge with regard to maintaining employee safety while continuing successful operations. Through teamwork and the adaptability of our management and staff, we were able to transition during the peak of the pandemic, over a short period of time, to rotational work schedules allowing employees to effectively work from remote locations and ensure a safely-distanced working environment for employees performing customer facing activities at branches. All employees are encouraged to stay at home or work from home if they are experiencing signs or symptoms of a possible illness.


Community Involvement


Employees are encouraged to become involved in their communities and are offered paid time off for participating in bank-sponsored events. Employees may also take 12 hours of paid time off per calendar year during normal working hours for individual volunteer efforts. 




Set forth below is a brief description of certain laws and regulations applicable to Eagle and the Bank. These descriptions of laws and regulations as well as those contained elsewhere do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to applicable laws and regulations. Legislative or regulatory changes in the future could adversely affect our operations or financial condition.




As a state-chartered commercial bank, the Bank is subject to extensive regulation, examination and supervision by the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis ("FRB") and Montana Division of Banking and Financial Institutions. The Bank is a member of the FRB System and its deposit accounts are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund, which is administered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). There are periodic examinations to evaluate the Bank’s safety and soundness and compliance with various regulatory requirements. Under certain circumstances, the FDIC may also examine the Bank. This regulatory structure is intended primarily for the protection of the insurance fund and depositors. The regulatory structure also gives the regulatory authorities extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities and examination policies, including policies with respect to the classification of assets and the establishment of adequate allowance for loan losses for regulatory purposes. Eagle, as a bank holding company, is required to file certain reports with, and is subject to examination by, and must otherwise comply with the rules and regulations of the FRB. Eagle is also subject to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the federal securities laws. See Holding Company Regulation section below.




Federal Regulation of Commercial Banks




Deposits in the Bank, a Montana state-chartered commercial bank, are insured by the FDIC. The bank has no branches in any other state. The Bank is subject to regulation and supervision by the Montana Department of Administration’s Banking and Financial Institutions Division and the FRB. The federal laws that apply to the Bank regulate, among other things, the scope of its business, its investments, its reserves against deposits, the timing of the availability of deposited funds, and the nature, amount of, and collateral for loans. Federal laws also regulate community reinvestment and insider credit transactions and impose safety and soundness standards.


The Bank’s general permissible lending limit for loans-to-one-borrower is 15.0% of unimpaired capital and surplus. An additional amount may be lent, equal to 10.0% of total capital, if the loan is fully secured by certain readily marketable collateral, which is defined to include certain financial instruments and bullion, but generally does not include real estate.


The federal banking agencies, have adopted guidelines establishing safety and soundness standards on such matters as loan underwriting and documentation, asset quality, earnings standards, internal controls and audit systems, interest rate risk exposure and compensation and other employee benefits. If the appropriate federal banking agency determines that an institution fails to meet any standard prescribed by the guidelines, the agency may require the institution to submit to the agency an acceptable plan to achieve compliance with the standard. If an institution fails to submit or implement an acceptable plan, the appropriate federal banking agency may issue an enforceable order requiring correction of the deficiencies.


Federal Home Loan Bank System


The Bank is a member of the FHLB of Des Moines. FHLB of Des Moines is one of 11 regional FHLBs that administer the home financing credit function of banks, credit unions and savings institutions. Each FHLB serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region. It is funded primarily from proceeds derived from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB System. It makes loans or advances to members in accordance with policies and procedures, established by the Board of Directors of the FHLB, which are subject to the oversight of the Federal Housing Finance Board. All advances from the FHLB are required to be fully secured by sufficient collateral as determined by the FHLB. In addition, all long-term advances are required to provide funds for residential home financing. As a member, the Bank is required to purchase and maintain a specified amount of shares of capital stock in the FHLB of Des Moines.


The FHLBs continue to contribute to low- and moderately-priced housing programs through direct loans or interest subsidies on advances targeted for community investment and low- and moderate-income housing projects. These contributions have affected adversely the level of FHLB dividends paid and could continue to do so in the future. These contributions could also have an adverse effect on the value of FHLB stock in the future. A reduction in value of the Bank’s FHLB stock may result in a corresponding reduction in the Bank’s capital.


Federal Reserve System


The Federal Reserve System requires all depository institutions to maintain noninterest-bearing reserves at specified levels against their checking and non-personal time deposits. The balances maintained to meet the reserve requirements imposed by the Federal Reserve System may be used to satisfy liquidity requirements.


As a member of the Federal Reserve System, the Bank is required to maintain a minimum level of investment in FRB stock based on a specific percentage of its capital and surplus. A reduction in value of the Bank’s FRB stock may result in a corresponding reduction in the Bank’s capital.


Insurance of Deposit Accounts 


Deposit accounts at the Bank are insured by the FDIC, generally up to a maximum of $250,000 per separately insured depositor and up to a maximum of $250,000 for self-directed retirement accounts. The Bank’s deposits, therefore, are subject to FDIC deposit insurance assessments. Assessments paid to the FDIC by the Bank and other banking institutions are used to fund the FDIC’s Federal Deposit Insurance Fund.




Insurance of Accounts and Regulation by the FDIC


As insurer of deposits in banks, the FDIC imposes deposit insurance premiums and is authorized to conduct examinations of and to require reporting by FDIC-insured institutions. It also may prohibit any FDIC-insured institution from engaging in any activity the FDIC determines by regulation or order to pose a serious risk to the fund. The FDIC also has the authority to initiate enforcement actions against savings institutions, after giving FRB an opportunity to take such action. Insurance of deposits may be terminated by the FDIC upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC or written agreement with the FDIC. We are not aware of any practice, condition or violation that might lead to the termination of the Bank’s deposit insurance.


The FDIC assesses deposit insurance premiums on each insured institution quarterly based on annualized rates for one of four risk categories. The assessment base for calculating deposit insurance assessments is an institution's average total assets minus its average tangible equity (defined as Tier 1 capital). Under the FDIC’s risk-based assessment system, insured institutions are assigned to one of four risk categories based on supervisory evaluations, regulatory capital levels and certain other risk factors. Rates are based on each institution’s risk category and certain specified risk adjustments. Stronger institutions pay lower rates while riskier institutions pay higher rates. The assessment rate schedule establishes assessments ranging from 2.5 to 45 basis points. The FDIC may increase or decrease its rates for each quarter by 2 basis points without further rulemaking. In an emergency, the FDIC may also impose a special assessment.


A significant increase in insurance premiums would likely have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations of the Bank. There can be no prediction as to what insurance assessment rates will be in the future. In addition to the assessment for deposit insurance, through 2019, institutions were required to make payments on bonds issued in the late 1980s by the Financing Corporation to recapitalize a predecessor deposit insurance fund.


Capital Requirements 


Federal regulations require Federal Reserve member banks, such as Opportunity Bank of Montana and all other FDIC insured depository institutions to meet several minimum capital standards: a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-based assets ratio of 4.5%, a Tier 1 capital to risk-based assets ratio of 6.0%, a total capital to risk-based assets of 8.0%, and a 4.0% Tier 1 capital to total average assets leverage ratio. 


Common equity Tier 1 capital is generally defined as common stockholders’ equity and retained earnings. Tier 1 capital is generally defined as common equity Tier 1 and additional Tier 1 capital. Additional Tier 1 capital includes certain noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus and minority interests in equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries. Total capital includes Tier 1 capital (common equity Tier 1 capital plus additional Tier 1 capital) and Tier 2 capital. Tier 2 capital is comprised of capital instruments and related surplus meeting specified requirements, and may include cumulative preferred stock and long-term perpetual preferred stock, mandatory convertible securities, intermediate preferred stock and subordinated debt. Also included in Tier 2 capital is the allowance for loan losses limited to a maximum of 1.25% of risk-weighted assets and, for institutions that have exercised an opt-out election regarding the treatment of accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”), up to 45% of net unrealized gains on available-for-sale equity securities with readily determinable fair market values. Institutions that have not exercised the AOCI opt-out have AOCI incorporated into common equity Tier 1 capital (including unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale-securities). The Bank exercised its AOCI opt-out election. Calculation of all types of regulatory capital is subject to deductions and adjustments specified in the regulations.




In determining the amount of risk-weighted assets for purposes of calculating risk-based capital ratios, all assets, including certain off-balance sheet assets (e.g., recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes, residual interests) are multiplied by a risk weight factor assigned by the regulations based on the risks believed inherent in the type of asset. Higher levels of capital are required for asset categories believed to present greater risk. For example, a risk weight of 0% is assigned to cash and U.S. government securities, a risk weight of 50% is generally assigned to prudently underwritten first lien 1-4 family residential mortgage loans, a risk weight of 100% is assigned to commercial and consumer loans, a risk weight of 150% is assigned to certain past due loans and a risk weight of between 0% to 600% is assigned to permissible equity interests, depending on certain specified factors.


In addition to establishing the minimum regulatory capital requirements, the regulations limit capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments to management if the institution does not hold a “capital conservation buffer” consisting of 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets above the amount necessary to meet each of its minimum risk-based capital requirements. The capital conservation buffer requirement was phased in beginning January 1, 2016 until fully implemented at 2.5% on January 1, 2019. The Bank’s actual capital ratios are set out in Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”


Prompt Corrective Action 


Federal law establishes a prompt corrective action framework to resolve the problems of undercapitalized depository institutions. The Federal Reserve  has adopted regulations to implement the prompt corrective action legislation. Those regulations were amended effective January 1, 2015 to incorporate the previously mentioned increased regulatory capital standards that were effective on the same date. An institution is deemed to be “well capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a leverage ratio of 5.0% or greater and a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 6.5% or greater. An institution is “adequately capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or greater, a leverage ratio of 4.0% or greater and a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 4.5% or greater. An institution is “undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a leverage ratio of less than 4.0% or a common equity Tier 1 ratio of less than 4.5%. An institution is deemed to be “significantly undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.0%, a leverage ratio of less than 3.0% or a common equity Tier 1 ratio of less than 3.0%. An institution is considered to be “critically undercapitalized” if it has a ratio of tangible equity (as defined in the regulations) to total assets that is equal to or less than 2.0%.


Generally, a receiver or conservator must be appointed for an institution that is “critically undercapitalized” within specific time frames. The regulations also provide that a capital restoration plan must be filed with the FDIC within 45 days of the date a commercial bank receives notice that it is “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” or “critically undercapitalized.” Various restrictions, such as restrictions on capital distributions and growth, also apply to “undercapitalized” institutions. The Federal Reserve may also take any one of a number of discretionary supervisory actions against undercapitalized institutions, including the issuance of a capital directive and the replacement of senior executive officers and directors.


The Bank was classified as “well-capitalized” under the prompt corrective action framework as of December 31, 2022.


Limitations on Capital Distributions


A principal source of the parent holding company’s cash is from dividends received from the Bank, which are subject to government regulation and limitation. Regulatory authorities may prohibit banks and bank holding companies from paying dividends in a manner that would constitute an unsafe or unsound banking practice. In addition, a bank may not pay cash dividends if that payment could reduce the amount of its capital below that necessary to meet minimum applicable regulatory capital requirements. The Bank is subject to Montana state law and, in certain circumstances, Montana law places limits or restrictions on a bank’s ability to declare and pay dividends. Additionally, current guidance from the FRB provides, among other things, that dividends per share on the Company’s common stock generally should not exceed earnings per common share, measured over the previous four fiscal quarters. Federal regulations also limit banks’ ability to issue dividends by imposing a capital conservation buffer requirement.




Transactions with Affiliates


The Bank’s authority to engage in transactions with “affiliates” is limited by regulations and by Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act as implemented by the FRB’s Regulation W. The term “affiliates” for these purposes generally means any company that controls or is under common control with an institution. Eagle and the Bank are separate and distinct legal entities. Eagle is an affiliate of the Bank. In general, transactions with affiliates must be on terms that are as favorable to the institution as comparable transactions with non-affiliates. In addition, certain types of transactions, i.e. “covered transactions,” are restricted to an aggregate percentage of the institution’s capital. Collateral in specified amounts must be provided by affiliates in order to receive loans from an institution. In addition, banks are prohibited from lending to any affiliate that is engaged in activities that are not permissible for bank holding companies and no bank may purchase the securities of any affiliate other than a subsidiary.


Our authority to extend credit to executive officers, directors and 10.0% or greater shareholders (“insiders”), as well as entities controlled by these persons, is governed by Sections 22(g) and 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act and its implementing regulation, FRB Regulation O. Among other things, loans to insiders must be made on terms substantially the same as those offered to unaffiliated individuals and not involve more than the normal risk of repayment. There is an exception for bank-wide lending programs that do not discriminate in favor of insiders. Regulation O also places individual and aggregate limits on the amount of loans that may be made to insiders based, in part, on the institution’s capital position, and requires that certain prior board approval procedures be followed. Extensions of credit to executive officers are subject to additional restrictions on the types and amounts of loans that may be made. At December 31, 2022, we were in compliance with these regulations.


Holding Company Regulation




Eagle is a bank holding company subject to regulatory oversight of the FRB. Eagle is required to register and file reports with the FRB and is subject to regulation and examination by the FRB. In addition, the FRB has enforcement authority over Eagle and its nonbank institution subsidiaries which also permits the FRB to restrict or prohibit activities that are determined to present a serious risk to the Bank.


Mergers and Acquisitions


Eagle must obtain approval from the FRB before acquiring more than 5.0% of the voting stock of another bank or bank holding company or acquiring such an institution or holding company by merger, consolidation or purchase of its assets. In evaluating an application for Eagle to acquire control of a bank, the FRB would consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of Eagle and the target institution, the effect of the acquisition on the risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund, the convenience and the needs of the community and competitive factors.


Eagle obtained the necessary approvals from the FRB and the Montana Division of Banking and Financial Institutions before acquiring each of its previous acquisitions.


Acquisition of Eagle


Under the Bank Holding Company Act and the Change in Bank Control Act, a notice or application must be submitted to the FRB if any person (including a company), or a group acting in concert, seeks to acquire 10.0% or more of Eagle’s outstanding voting stock, unless the FRB has found that the acquisition will not result in a change in control of Eagle. In acting on such a notice or application, the FRB must take into consideration certain factors, including the financial and managerial resources of the acquirer and the anti-trust effect of the acquisition. Any company that acquires control will be subject to regulation as a bank holding company.


Federal Securities Laws


Eagle’s common stock is registered with the SEC under the Exchange Act. We are subject to the information, proxy solicitation, insider trading restrictions and other requirements under the Exchange Act. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports, and proxy statements filed with or furnished to the SEC, are available free of charge through our Internet website, www.opportunitybank.com, as soon as reasonably practical after we have electronically filed such material with, or furnished it to, the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. The contents on or accessible through, these websites are not incorporated into this filing. Further, our references to the URLs for these websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.


Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002


The Sarbanes-Oxley Act addresses, among other issues, corporate governance, auditing and accounting, executive compensation and enhanced and timely disclosure of corporate information. As directed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer are required to certify that our quarterly and annual reports do not contain any untrue statement of a material fact. The rules adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act have several requirements, including having these officers certify that: they are responsible for establishing, maintaining and regularly evaluating the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting; they have made certain disclosures to our auditors and the audit committee of the board of directors about our internal control over financial reporting; and they have included information in our quarterly and annual reports about their evaluation and whether there have been changes in our internal control over financial reporting or in other factors that could materially affect internal control over financial reporting.







Risks Related to Economic and Market Conditions 


Our business may be adversely affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally and in our market areas in particular.


Our financial performance generally, and in particular the ability of our borrowers to pay interest on and repay principal of outstanding loans and the value of collateral securing those loans, as well as demand for loans and other products and services we offer and whose success we rely on to drive our future growth, is highly dependent upon the business environment in the markets in which we operate, principally in Montana, and in the United States as a whole. Unlike larger banks that are more geographically diversified, we provide banking and financial services to customers primarily in Montana. The economic conditions in our local markets may be different from, and in some instances worse than, the economic conditions in the United States as a whole. Some elements of the business environment that affect our financial performance include short-term and long-term interest rates, the prevailing yield curve, inflation and price levels, monetary policy, unemployment and strength of the domestic economy and local economy in the markets in which we operate. Unfavorable market conditions can result in deterioration in the credit quality of our borrowers and the demand for our products and services, an increase in the number of loan delinquencies, defaults and charge-offs, additional provisions for loan losses, adverse asset values and an overall material adverse effect on the quality of our loan portfolio. Unfavorable or uncertain economic and market conditions can be caused by declines in economic growth, business activity or investor or business confidence; limitations on the availability or increases in the cost of credit and capital; increases in inflation or interest rates; high unemployment; natural disasters; state or local government insolvency; or a combination of these or other factors.


In recent years, economic growth and business activity across a wide range of industries and regions in the U.S. has been slow and uneven. There are continuing concerns related to the level of U.S. government debt and fiscal actions that may be taken to address that debt, further declining oil prices and ongoing federal budget negotiations that may have a destabilizing effect on financial markets. There can be no assurance that economic conditions will continue to improve, and these conditions could worsen. Economic pressure on consumers and uncertainty regarding continuing economic improvement may result in changes in consumer and business spending, borrowing and saving habits. Such conditions could have a material adverse effect on the credit quality of our loans or our business, financial condition or results of operations.


Additionally, financial markets may be adversely affected by the current or anticipated impact of military conflict, including escalating military tension between Russia and Ukraine, terrorism and other geopolitical events.


Our success depends, to a certain extent, upon global, domestic and local economic and political conditions, as well as governmental monetary policies. Conditions such as changes in interest rates, money supply, levels of employment and other factors beyond our control may have a negative impact on economic activity. Any contraction of economic activity, including an economic recession, may adversely affect our asset quality, deposit levels and loan demand and, therefore, our earnings. In particular, interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including global, domestic and local economic conditions and the policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, specifically, the Federal Reserve. Throughout 2022 the Federal Open Market Committee (“FOMC”) raised the target range for the federal funds rate on seven separate occasions and-citing factors including the hardships caused by the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict, continued global supply chain disruptions and imbalances, and increased inflationary pressure-the FOMC has indicated that ongoing increases may be appropriate.


The tightening of the Federal Reserve’s monetary policies, including repeated and aggressive increases in target range for the federal funds rate as well as the conclusion of the Federal Reserve’s tapering of asset purchases, together with ongoing economic and geopolitical instability, increases the risk of an economic recession. Although forecasts have varied, many economists are projecting that U.S. economic growth will slow and inflation will remain elevated in the coming quarters, potentially resulting in a contraction of U.S. gross domestic output in 2023. Any such downturn, especially domestically and in the regions in which we operate, may adversely affect our asset quality, deposit levels, loan demand and results of operations.


As a result of the economic and geopolitical factors discussed above, financial institutions also face heightened credit risk, among other forms of risk. Of note, because we have a significant amount of real estate loans, decreases in real estate values could adversely affect the value of property used as collateral, which, in turn, can adversely affect the value of our loan and investment portfolios. Adverse economic developments, specifically including inflation-related impacts, may have a negative effect on the ability of our borrowers to make timely repayments of their loans or to finance future home purchases. Moreover, while commercial real estate values have stabilized as demand has returned to pre-pandemic levels in several markets, the outlook for commercial real estate remains dependent on the broader economic environment and, specifically, how major subsectors respond to a rising interest rate environment and higher prices for commodities, goods and services. In each case, credit performance over the medium- and long-term is susceptible to economic and market forces and therefore forecasts remain uncertain. Instability and uncertainty in the commercial and residential real estate markets, as well as in the broader commercial and retail credit markets, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


Declines in home values could decrease our loan originations and increase delinquencies and defaults.


Declines in home values in our markets could adversely impact results from operations. Like all financial institutions, we are subject to the effects of any economic downturn, and in particular, a significant decline in home values would likely lead to a decrease in new home equity loan originations and increased delinquencies and defaults in both the consumer home equity loan and residential real estate loan portfolios and result in increased losses in these portfolios. Declines in the average sale prices of homes in our primary markets could lead to higher loan losses.


Changes in interest rates could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.


Our results of operations and financial condition are significantly affected by changes in interest rates. Our results of operations depend substantially on our net interest income, which is the difference between the interest income we earn on our interest-earning assets, such as loans and securities, and the interest expense we pay on our interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits, borrowings and trust preferred securities.


Changes in interest rates may also affect the average life of loans and mortgage-related securities. Decreases in interest rates can result in increased prepayments of loans and mortgage-related securities, as borrowers refinance to reduce their borrowing costs. Under these circumstances, we are subject to reinvestment risk to the extent that we are unable to reinvest the cash received from such prepayments at rates that are comparable to the rates on existing loans and securities. Additionally, increases in interest rates may decrease loan demand and make it more difficult for borrowers to repay adjustable rate loans. Also, increases in interest rates may extend the life of fixed rate assets, which would restrict our ability to reinvest in higher yielding alternatives, and may result in customers withdrawing certificates of deposit early so long as the early withdrawal penalty is less than the interest they could receive as a result of the higher interest rates.


Changes in interest rates also affect the current fair value of our interest-earning securities portfolio. Generally, the value of securities moves inversely with changes in interest rates.




We may be impacted by the retirement of London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) as a reference rate.


Many of our lending products, securities, derivatives, and other financial transactions utilize a benchmark rate, such as LIBOR, to determine the applicable interest rate or payment amount. The U.K. Financial Conduct Authority and the ICE Benchmark Administration have announced that the publication of the most commonly used U.S. Dollar LIBOR tenors will cease to be provided or cease to be representative after June 30, 2023. The publication of all other LIBOR settings ceased to be provided or ceased to be representative as of December 31, 2021. The Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act (LIBOR Act), enacted in March 2022, provides a statutory framework to replace U. S. Dollar LIBOR with a benchmark rate based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) for contracts governed by U.S. law that have no fallbacks or fallbacks that would require the use of a poll or LIBOR-based rate, and in December 2022, the FRB adopted rules which identify different SOFR-based replacement rates for derivative contracts, for cash instruments such as floating-rate notes and preferred stock, for consumer loans, for certain government-sponsored enterprise contracts and for certain asset-backed securities. We continue to monitor market developments and regulatory updates related to the cessation of LIBOR. As the transition from LIBOR is ongoing, there continues to be uncertainty as to the ultimate effect of the transition on the financial markets for LIBOR-linked financial instruments.


The discontinuation of a benchmark rate, changes in a benchmark rate, or changes in market perceptions of the acceptability of a benchmark rate, including LIBOR, could, among other things, adversely affect the value of and return on certain of our financial instruments or products, result in changes to our risk exposures, or require renegotiation of previous transactions. In addition, any such discontinuation or changes, whether actual or anticipated, could result in market volatility, increased compliance, legal and operational costs, and risks associated with customer disclosures and contract negotiations. Although the LIBOR Act includes safe harbors if the FRB-identified SOFR-based replacement rate is selected, these safe harbors are untested. As a result, and despite the enactment of the LIBOR Act, for the most commonly used U.S. Dollar LIBOR settings, the use or selection of a successor rate could also expose us to risks associated with disputes with customers and other market participants in connection with implementing LIBOR fallback provisions.


Strong competition may limit growth and profitability.


Competition in the banking and financial services industry is intense. We compete with commercial banks, savings institutions, mortgage brokerage firms, credit unions, finance companies, mutual funds, insurance companies, and brokerage and investment banking firms operating locally and elsewhere. Many of these competitors (whether regional or national institutions) have substantially greater resources and lending limits than we have and may offer certain services that we do not or cannot provide. Our profitability depends upon our ability to successfully compete in our market areas.


We are subject to physical and financial risks associated with climate change and other weather and natural disaster impacts.


The current and anticipated effects of climate change are creating an increasing level of concern for the state of the global environment.  As a result, political and social attention to the issue of climate change has increased. In recent years, governments across the world have entered into international agreements to attempt to reduce global temperatures, in part by limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Although the U.S. rejoined the Paris Agreement, effective as of February 19, 2021, and the U.S. Congress, state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies have continued to propose and advance numerous legislative and regulatory initiatives seeking to mitigate the effects of climate change, each of which may result in the imposition of taxes and fees, the required purchase of emission credits, and the implementation of significant operational changes, which may require us to expend significant capital and incur compliance, operating, maintenance and remediation costs. Given the lack of empirical data on the credit and other financial risks posed by climate change, it is impossible to predict how climate change may impact our financial condition and operations; however, as a banking organization, the physical effects of climate change on the Bank may present certain unique risks. 


The physical risks of climate change include discrete events, such as flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, and wildfires, and longer-term shifts in climate patterns, such as extreme heat, sea level rise, and more frequent and prolonged drought. Physical risks may alter the Company’s strategic direction in order to mitigate certain financial risks. Our operations are located in Montana and are susceptible to severe weather events including severe droughts, wildfires, floods, severe winter storms and tornadoes. Any of these, or any other severe weather event, could cause disruption to our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our overall business, results of operations or financial condition. We have taken certain preemptive measures that we believe will mitigate these adverse effects; however, such measures cannot prevent the disruption that a catastrophic drought, wildfire, tornado or other severe weather event could cause to the markets that we serve and any resulting adverse impact on our customers, such as hindering our borrowers’ ability to timely repay their loans, diminishing the value of any collateral held by us, interrupting supply chains, causing significant property damage, causing us to incur additional expense or resulting in a loss of revenue, and affecting the stability of our deposit base. The severity and impact of future droughts, wildfires, floods, tornadoes and other weather-related events are difficult to predict and may be exacerbated by global climate change. Such events may also cause reductions in regional and local economic activity that may have an adverse effect on our customers, which could limit our ability to raise and invest capital in these areas and communities, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. 


Climate change may worsen the frequency and severity of future droughts, wildfires, floods, tornadoes and other extreme weather-related events that could cause disruption to our business and operations.  Chronic results of climate change such as shifting weather patterns could also cause disruption to our business and operations.  Climate change may also result in new and/or more stringent regulatory requirements for the Company, which could materially affect the Company’s results of operations by requiring the Company to take costly measures to comply with any new laws or regulations related to climate change that may be forthcoming.  New regulations, shift in customer behaviors, supply chain collapse or breakthrough technologies that accelerate the transition to a lower carbon economy may negatively affect certain sectors and borrowers in our loan portfolio, impacting their ability to timely repay their loans or decreasing the value of any collateral held by us.


The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and measures intended to prevent its spread could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, and such effects will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and are difficult to predict.


While COVID-19 conditions have improved, past and potential future government actions taken to reduce the spread of the virus have been weighing on the macroeconomic environment, and lingering economic uncertainty and reduced economic activity remains.


New strains of the virus could adversely impact our workforce and operations and the operations of our borrowers, customers and business partners. As a result, we may experience financial losses due to a number of operational factors impacting us or our borrowers, customers or business partners. These factors may be prevalent for a significant period of time and may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition even after the COVID-19 outbreak has subsided.


Renewed spread of COVID-19 could cause us to modify our business practices (including restricting employee travel, and developing work from home and social distancing plans for our employees), and we may take further actions if required by government authorities or as we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers and business partners. There is no certainty that such measures would be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the virus or will otherwise be satisfactory to government authorities.




The extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak impacts our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and are difficult to predict, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the outbreak and its variants, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, the effectiveness of vaccination programs for the virus, vaccination rates, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume. Even after the COVID-19 outbreak has subsided, we may continue to experience materially adverse impacts to our business as a result of the virus’s global economic impact, including the availability of credit, adverse impacts on our liquidity and any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future.


There are no comparable recent events that provide guidance as to the effect the spread of COVID-19 as a global pandemic may have, and, as a result, the ultimate impact of the outbreak is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of the impacts on our business, our operations or the global economy as a whole. However, the effects could have a material impact on our results of operations and heighten many of our known risks described herein.


Risks Related to Our Business


We hold certain intangible assets that could be classified as impaired in the future. If these assets are considered to be either partially or fully impaired in the future, our earnings and the book values of these assets would decrease.


As a result of our branch and whole bank acquisitions we record goodwill. Our consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2022 included goodwill of $34.74 million. We are required to test our goodwill for impairment on a periodic basis. The impairment testing process considers a variety of factors, including the current market price of our common shares, the estimated net present value of our assets and liabilities and information concerning the terminal valuation of similarly situated insured depository institutions. It is possible that future impairment testing could result in a partial or full impairment of the value of our goodwill. If an impairment determination is made in a future reporting period, our earnings and the book value of goodwill will be reduced by the amount of the impairment.


Risks associated with system failures, interruptions, or breaches of security could negatively affect our earnings.


Information technology systems are critical to our business. We use various technology systems to manage our customer relationships, general ledger, securities, deposits, and loans. We have established policies and procedures to prevent or limit the impact of system failures, interruptions, and security breaches, but such events may still occur or may not be adequately addressed if they do occur. In addition, any compromise of our systems could deter customers from using our products and services. Although we rely on security systems to provide security and authentication necessary to effect the secure transmission of data, these precautions may not protect our systems from compromises or breaches of security.


In addition, we outsource a majority of our data processing to certain third-party providers. If these third-party providers encounter difficulties, or if we have difficulty communicating with them, our ability to adequately process and account for transactions could be affected, and our business operations could be adversely affected. Threats to information security also exist in the processing of customer information through various other vendors and their personnel.


The occurrence of any system failures, interruption, or breach of security could damage our reputation and result in a loss of customers and business thereby subjecting us to additional regulatory scrutiny, or could expose us to litigation and possible financial liability. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


If the allowance for loan losses is not sufficient to cover actual loan losses, our earnings could decrease.


Our customers may not repay their loans according to the original terms, and the collateral, if any, securing the payment of these loans may be insufficient to pay any remaining loan balance. We may experience significant loan losses, which may have a material adverse effect on operating results. We make various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of the loan portfolio, including the creditworthiness of borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of loans. If the assumptions prove to be incorrect, the allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to cover losses inherent in our loan portfolio, resulting in additions to the allowance. Material additions to the allowance would materially decrease net income.


Our emphasis on the origination of consumer, commercial real estate and commercial business loans is one of the more significant factors in evaluating the allowance for loan losses. As we continue to increase the amount of such loans, additional or increased provisions for loan losses may be necessary and would decrease earnings.


Bank regulators periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require an increase to the provision for loan losses or further loan charge-offs. Any increase in our allowance for loan losses or loan charge-offs as required by these regulatory authorities may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.


We could record future losses on our securities portfolio.


A number of factors or combinations of factors could require us to conclude in one or more future reporting periods that an unrealized loss exists with respect to our investment securities portfolio that constitutes an impairment that is other than temporary, which could result in material losses to us. These factors include, but are not limited to, continued failure by the issuer to make scheduled interest payments, an increase in the severity of the unrealized loss on a particular security, an increase in the continuous duration of the unrealized loss without an improvement in value or changes in market conditions and/or industry or issuer specific factors that would render us unable to forecast a full recovery in value. In addition, the fair values of securities could decline if the overall economy and the financial condition of some of the issuers deteriorates and there is limited liquidity for these securities.




Changes in our accounting policies or in accounting standards could materially affect how we report our financial condition and results of operations.


Our accounting policies are essential to understanding our financial results and condition. Some of these policies require the use of estimates and assumptions that may affect the value of our assets or liabilities and financial results. Some of our accounting policies are critical because they require management to make difficult, subjective, and complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain and because it is likely that materially different amounts would be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions. If such estimates or assumptions underlying our financial statements are incorrect, we may experience material losses.


From time to time, the Financial Accounting Standards Board and the Securities and Exchange Commission change the financial accounting and reporting standards or the interpretation of those standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes are beyond our control, can be hard to predict and could materially impact how we report our results of operations and financial condition. We could also be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in our restating prior period financial statements in material amounts.


Because we have increased our commercial real estate and commercial business loan originations, our credit risk has increased and continued downturns in the local real estate market or economy could adversely affect our earnings.


We intend to continue our recent emphasis on originating commercial real estate and commercial business loans. Commercial real estate and commercial business loans generally have more risk than the residential real estate (1-4 family) loans we originate. Because the repayment of commercial real estate and commercial business loans depends on the successful management and operation of the borrower’s properties or related businesses, repayment of such loans can be affected by adverse conditions in the local real estate market or economy. Commercial real estate and commercial business loans may also involve relatively large loan balances to individual borrowers or groups of related borrowers. A downturn in the real estate market or the local economy could adversely affect the value of properties securing the loan or the revenues from the borrower’s business, thereby increasing the risk of nonperforming loans. As our commercial real estate and commercial business loan portfolios increase, the corresponding risks and potential for losses from these loans may also increase.


Many of our commercial real estate and commercial business loans are made to small-to-mid-sized businesses. These small-to-mid-sized businesses frequently have smaller market share than their competition, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, often need substantial additional capital to expand or compete and may experience significant volatility in operating results. Any one or more of these factors may impair the borrower’s ability to repay a loan. In addition, the success of a small-to-mid-sized business often depends on the management talents and efforts of one or two persons or a small group of persons and the death, disability or resignation of one or more of these persons could have a material adverse impact on the business and its ability to repay a loan. Economic downturns and other events that negatively impact our market areas could cause us to incur substantial credit losses that could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


We continually encounter technological change.


The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new, technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements than we do. We may not be able to effectively implement new, technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. In addition, the implementation of technological changes and upgrades to maintain current systems and integrate new ones may also cause service interruptions, transaction processing errors and system conversion delays and may cause us to fail to comply with applicable laws or be vulnerable to cyberattacks. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry and avoid interruptions, errors and delays could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.


We expect that new technologies and business processes applicable to the consumer credit industry will continue to emerge, and these new technologies and business processes may be better than those we currently use. Because the pace of technological change is high and our industry is intensely competitive, we may not be able to sustain our investment in new technology as critical systems and applications become obsolete or as better ones become available. A failure to maintain current technology and business processes could cause disruptions in our operations or cause our products and services to be less competitive, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.


We depend on the services of our executive officers and other key employees.


Our success depends upon the continued employment of certain members of our senior management team. We also depend upon the continued employment of the individuals that manage several of our key functional areas. The departure of any member of our senior management team may adversely affect our operations.


We earn a significant portion of our noninterest income through sales of residential mortgages in the secondary market. We rely on the mortgage secondary market for some of our liquidity.


Our mortgage banking activities provide a significant portion of our noninterest income. We originate and sell mortgage loans, including $551.02 million of mortgage loans sold during 2022. We rely on Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”) and other purchasers to purchase loans in order to reduce our credit risk and provide funding for additional loans we desire to originate. We cannot provide assurance that these purchasers will not materially limit their purchases from us due to capital constraints or other factors, including, with respect to FNMA and FHLMC, a change in the criteria for conforming loans. In addition, various proposals have been made to reform the U.S. residential mortgage finance market, including the role of FNMA and FHLMC. The exact effects of any such reforms are not yet known, but may limit our ability to sell conforming loans to FNMA and FHLMC. In addition, mortgage lending is highly regulated, and our inability to comply with all federal and state regulations and investor guidelines regarding the origination, underwriting documentation and servicing of mortgage loans may also impact our ability to continue selling mortgage loans. If we are unable to continue to sell loans in the secondary market or we experience a period of low mortgage activity, our noninterest income as well as our ability to fund, and thus originate, additional mortgage loans may be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.




There can be no assurance we will be able to continue paying dividends on our common stock at recent levels.


We may not be able to continue paying quarterly dividends commensurate with recent levels given that the ability to pay dividends on our common stock depends on a variety of factors. The payment of dividends is subject to government regulation in that the regulatory authorities may prohibit banks and bank holding companies from paying dividends that would constitute an unsafe or unsound banking practice. Our ability to pay dividends is subject to certain regulatory requirements. The Federal Reserve generally prohibits a bank holding company from declaring or paying a cash dividend which would impose undue pressure on the capital of a subsidiary bank or would be funded only through borrowing or other arrangements that might adversely affect a bank holding company’s financial position. The Federal Reserve Board policy is that a bank holding company should not continue its existing rate of cash dividends on its common stock unless its net income is sufficient to fully fund each dividend and its prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with its capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. The power of the board of directors of an insured depository institution to declare a cash dividend or other distribution with respect to capital is subject to statutory and regulatory restrictions which limit the amount available for such distribution depending upon the earnings, financial condition and cash needs of the institution, as well as general business conditions.


As a result, future dividends will generally depend on the level of earnings at the Bank. The Bank is subject to Montana law and, in certain circumstances, Montana law places limits or restrictions on a bank’s ability to declare and pay dividends. Also, in the event there shall occur an event of default on any of our debt instruments, we would be unable to pay any dividends on our common stock.


Our business strategy includes significant growth plans, and our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively affected if we fail to grow or fail to manage our growth effectively.


We intend to pursue an organic growth strategy for our business; however, we regularly evaluate potential acquisitions and expansion opportunities. If appropriate opportunities present themselves, we expect to engage in selected acquisitions of financial institutions, branch acquisitions and other business growth initiatives or undertakings. There can be no assurance that we will successfully identify appropriate opportunities, that we will be able to negotiate or finance such activities or that such activities, if undertaken, will be successful. There are risks associated with our growth strategy. To the extent that we grow through acquisitions, we cannot ensure that we will be able to adequately or profitably manage this growth.


Acquiring other banks, branches or other assets, as well as other expansion activities, involves various risks including the risks of incorrectly assessing the credit quality of acquired assets, encountering greater than expected costs of integrating acquired banks or branches, the risk of loss of customers and/or employees of the acquired institution or branch, executing cost savings measures, not achieving revenue enhancements and otherwise not realizing the transaction’s anticipated benefits. Our ability to address these matters successfully cannot be assured. In addition, our strategic efforts may divert resources or management’s attention from ongoing business operations, may require investment in integration and in development and enhancement of additional operational and reporting processes and controls and may subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny.


Our growth initiatives may also require us to recruit and retain experienced personnel to assist in such initiatives. Accordingly, the failure to identify and retain such personnel would place significant limitations on our ability to successfully execute our growth strategy. In addition, to the extent we expand our lending beyond our current market areas, we could incur additional risks related to those new market areas. We may not be able to expand our market presence in our existing market areas or successfully enter new markets.


If we do not successfully execute our acquisition growth plan, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and growth prospects. In addition, if we were to conclude that the value of an acquired business had decreased and that the related goodwill had been impaired, that conclusion would result in an impairment of goodwill charge, which would adversely affect our results of operations. While we believe we will have the executive management resources and internal systems in place to successfully manage our future growth, there can be no assurance growth opportunities will be available or that we will successfully manage our growth.


We may be unsuccessful in integrating the operations of the business we have acquired or expect to acquire in the future.


From time to time, we evaluate and acquire businesses that we believe complement our existing business. The acquisition component of our growth strategy depends on the successful integration of these acquisitions. We face numerous risks and challenges to the successful integration of acquired businesses, including the following:



the potential for unexpected costs, delays and challenges that may arise in integrating acquisitions into our existing business;


limitations on our ability to realize the expected cost savings and synergies from an acquisition;


challenges related to integrating acquired operations, including our ability to retain key employees and maintain relationships with significant customers and depositors;


challenges related to the integration of businesses that operate in new geographic areas, including difficulties in identifying and gaining access to customers in new markets; and


the discovery of previously unknown liabilities following an acquisition associated with the acquired business.


If we are unable to successfully integrate the businesses we acquire, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.


Failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures could adversely affect our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations accurately and on a timely basis.


A failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures could adversely affect our ability to report our financial results accurately and on a timely basis, which could result in a loss of investor confidence in our financial reporting or adversely affect our access to sources of liquidity. Furthermore, because of the inherent limitations of any system of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls and fraud, even effective internal controls may not prevent or detect all misstatements. 




Changes in interest rates may change the value of our mortgage servicing rights portfolio, which may increase the volatility of our earnings.


As a result of our mortgage servicing business, which we may expand in the future, we have a portfolio of mortgage servicing rights (“MSR”) assets. An MSR is the right to service a mortgage loan - collect principal, interest and escrow amounts - for a fee. We measure and carry all of our residential MSR assets using the fair value measurement method. Fair value is determined as the present value of estimated future net servicing income, calculated based on a number of variables, including assumptions about the likelihood of prepayment by borrowers.


Current trends of rising interest rates have resulted in an increased valuation of the MSR asset, however one of the principal risks associated with MSR assets is that in a declining interest rate environment, they will likely lose a substantial portion of their value as a result of higher than anticipated prepayments. Moreover, if prepayments are greater than expected, the cash we receive over the life of the mortgage loans would be reduced. 


An increased size of our MSR portfolio could result in us carrying significant asset balances. This could result in a reduction in our liquidity and cause a reduction in our capital ratios. The combination of these impacts along with other impacts, could cause us to not have sufficient liquidity or capital.


At December 31, 2022, our MSR asset had a fair value of $15.41 million. All income related to retained servicing, including changes in the value of the MSR asset, is included in noninterest income. Depending on the interest rate environment and market trends related to MSR sales, it is possible that the fair value of our MSR asset may be reduced in the future. If such changes in fair value significantly reduce the carrying value of our MSR asset, our financial condition and results of operations would be negatively affected.


Farmland and agriculture production lending presents unique credit risk. 


As of December 31, 2022, approximately 17.73% of our total gross loan portfolio was comprised of farmland and agricultural production loans. As of December 31, 2022, we had $240.37 million in farmland and agricultural production loans, including $136.33 million in farmland loans, and $104.04 million in agricultural production loans. Repayment of farmland and agricultural production loans depends primarily on the successful raising and feeding of livestock or planting and harvest of crops and marketing the harvested commodity. Collateral securing these loans may be a illiquid. In addition, the limited purpose of some agricultural-related collateral affects credit risk because such collateral may have limited or no other uses to support values when loan repayment problems emerge. Our farmland and agricultural production lending staff have specific technical expertise that we depend on to mitigate our lending risks for these loans and we may have difficulty retaining or replacing such individuals. Many external factors can impact our agricultural borrowers' ability to repay their loans, including adverse weather conditions, water issues, commodity price volatility, diseases, land values, production costs, changing government regulations and subsidy programs, changing tax treatment, technological changes, labor market shortages/increased wages, and changes in consumers' preferences, over which our borrowers may have no control. These factors, as well as recent volatility in certain commodity prices could adversely impact the ability of those to whom we have made farmland and agricultural production loans to perform under the terms of their borrowing arrangements with us, which in turn could result in credit losses and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. 


Consumers may decide not to use banks to complete their financial transactions.


Technology and other changes are allowing parties to complete financial transactions through alternative methods that historically have involved banks. For example, consumers can now maintain funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits in brokerage accounts, mutual funds or general purpose reloadable prepaid cards. Consumers can also complete transactions such as paying bills and/or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The loss of these revenue streams and the lower cost of deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


Rights Related to the Legal and Regulatory Environment


We face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations.


The Bank Secrecy Act, the Patriot Act and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. The federal Financial Crimes Enforcement Network is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal banking regulators, as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and IRS. We are also subject to increased scrutiny of compliance with the rules enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions, which may include restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, including any future acquisition plans. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us. Any of these results could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


We operate in a highly regulated environment and may be adversely affected by changes in laws and regulations.


We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Board and the Montana Division of Banking and Financial Institutions. The federal banking laws and regulations govern the activities in which we may engage and are primarily for the protection of depositors and the Deposit Insurance Fund at the FDIC. These regulatory authorities have extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities, including the ability to impose restrictions on a bank’s operations, reclassify assets, determine the adequacy of a bank’s allowance for loan losses and determine the level of deposit insurance premiums assessed. Any change in such regulation and oversight, whether in the form of regulatory policy, new regulations or legislation or additional deposit insurance premiums could have a material impact on our operations. Because our business is highly regulated, the laws and applicable regulations are subject to frequent change. Any new laws, rules and regulations could make compliance more difficult or expensive or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition or prospects.


Future legislation, regulatory reform or policy changes under the current U.S. administration could have a material effect on our business and results of operations. 


New legislation, regulatory reform or policy changes under the current U.S. administration, including financial services regulatory reform, tax reform, and GSE reform, could impact our business. At this time, we cannot predict the scope or nature of these changes or assess what the overall effect of such potential changes could be on our results of operations or cash flows.




If our investment in the Federal Home Loan Bank of Des Moines becomes impaired, our earnings and shareholders’ equity could decrease.


We are required to own common stock of FHLB to qualify for membership in the FHLB System and to be eligible to borrow funds under the FHLB’s advance program. The aggregate cost of our FHLB common stock as of December 31, 2022 was $5.09 million. FHLB common stock is not a marketable security and can only be redeemed by the FHLB.


FHLB’s may be subject to accounting rules and asset quality risks that could materially lower their regulatory capital. In an extreme situation, it is possible that the capitalization of a FHLB, including the FHLB of Des Moines, could be substantially diminished or reduced to zero. Consequently, we believe that there is a risk that our investment in FHLB of Des Moines common stock could be deemed impaired at some time in the future, and if this occurs, it would cause our earnings and shareholders’ equity to decrease by the amount of the impairment charge.










The Company's executive office is located at 1400 Prospect Avenue in Helena, Montana. As of December 31, 2022, the Bank conducted its business through 34 locations; including 31 full-service branches and three other buildings located in Helena and Missoula, Montana. The following table includes the locations by city, as well as whether they are owned or leased. 



Occupancy Type





Total Locations

Ashland, Montana 1 - 1

Big Timber, Montana




Billings, Montana




Bozeman, Montana




Butte, Montana




Choteau, Montana




Culbertson, Montana 1 - 1

Denton, Montana




Dutton, Montana




Froid, Montana 1 - 1
Glasgow, Montana 1 - 1

Great Falls, Montana




Hamilton, Montana




Helena, Montana




Hinsdale, Montana 1 - 1

Livingston, Montana




Missoula, Montana




Sheridan, Montana




Three Forks, Montana 1 - 1

Townsend, Montana




Twin Bridges, Montana




Winifred, Montana - 1 1

Wolf Point, Montana









Management believes all locations are in good condition and meet the operating needs of the Company.  For additional information regarding the Company's premises and equipment and lease obligations, see Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data". 





The Bank, from time to time, is a party to routine litigation, which arises in the normal course of business, such as claims to enforce liens, condemnation proceedings on properties in which the Bank holds security interests, claims involving the making and servicing of real property loans, and other issues incident to the business of the Bank. In the opinion of management, the resolution of these legal actions is not expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations. 





Not applicable.










Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “EBMT.” At the close of business on December 31, 2022, there were 8,006,033 shares of common stock outstanding, held by approximately 997 shareholders of record. The closing price of the common stock on December 31, 2022, was $16.16 per share.


Payment of dividends on our shares of common stock is subject to determination and declaration by the Board of Directors (the “Board’’) and will depend upon a number of factors, including capital requirements, regulatory limitations on the payment of dividends, our results of operations and financial condition, tax considerations and general economic conditions. No assurance can be given that dividends will be declared or, if declared, what the amount of dividends will be, or whether such dividends, once declared, will continue.


Because we are a bank holding company and do not engage directly in business activities of a material nature, our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders depends, in large part, upon our receipt of dividends from our bank subsidiary, which is also subject to numerous limitations on the payment of dividends under federal and state banking laws, regulations and policies. The present and future dividend policy of our bank subsidiary is subject to the discretion of its Board. Our subsidiary bank is not obligated to pay dividends.


On April 21, 2022, Eagle's Board of Directors (the "Board") authorized the repurchase of up to 400,000 shares of its common stock. Under the plan, shares may be purchased by the Company on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The extent to which the company repurchases its shares and the timing of such repurchase will depend upon market conditions and other corporate considerations. During the second quarter of 2022, 5,000 shares were purchased under this plan at an average price of $19.75. During the third quarter of 2022, 99,517 shares were purchased under this plan at an average price of $19.45. The following table summarizes the Company's purchase of its common stock for the three months ended December 31, 2022 under this plan. The plan expires on April 21, 2023. 



Total Number




of Shares


Number of




Shares that




as Part of


May Yet Be


Number of










Price Paid


Announced Plans


Under the Plans




Per Share


or Programs


or Programs


October 1, 2022 through October 31, 2022




$ 18.80






November 1, 2022 through November 30, 2022










December 1, 2022 through December 31, 2022














$ 18.80





On July 22, 2021, the Board authorized the repurchase of up to 100,000 shares of its common stock. Under the plan, shares could be purchased by the Company on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The extent to which the company repurchased its shares and the timing of such repurchase depended upon market conditions and other corporate considerations. No shares were purchased during the year ended December 31, 2021. However, during the first quarter of 2022, the Company purchased the total authorized amount of 100,000 shares at an average price of $22.71 per share. The plan expired on July 22, 2022.


On July 23, 2020, the Board authorized the repurchase of up to 100,000 shares of its common stock. Under the plan, shares could be purchased by the Company on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The extent to which the company repurchased its shares and the timing of such repurchase depended upon market conditions and other corporate considerations. During the third quarter of 2020, 41,337 shares were purchased under this plan at an average price of $15.75 per share. However, no shares were purchased during the fourth quarter of 2020 or during 2021. The plan expired on July 23, 2021.











The following discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of operations of Eagle is intended to help investors understand our company and our operations. The financial review is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the related Notes included elsewhere in this report.




The following Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") describes Eagle and its subsidiaries' results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, and also analyzes our financial condition as of December 31, 2022 as compared to December 31, 2021. Like most banking institutions, our principal business consists of attracting deposits from the general public and the business community and making loans secured by various types of collateral, including real estate and other consumer assets. We are significantly affected by prevailing economic conditions, particularly interest rates, as well as government policies concerning, among other things, monetary and fiscal affairs, housing and financial institutions and regulations regarding lending and other operations, privacy and consumer disclosure. Attracting and maintaining deposits is influenced by a number of factors, including interest rates paid on competing investments offered by other financial and nonfinancial institutions, account maturities, fee structures and levels of personal income and savings. Lending activities are affected by the demand for funds and thus are influenced by interest rates, the number and quality of lenders and regional economic conditions. Sources of funds for lending activities include deposits, borrowings, repayments on loans, cash flows from maturities of investment securities and income provided from operations.


Our earnings depend primarily on our level of net interest income, which is the difference between interest earned on our interest-earning assets, consisting primarily of loans and investment securities, and the interest paid on interest-bearing liabilities, consisting primarily of deposits, borrowed funds, and trust-preferred securities. Net interest income is a function of our interest rate spread, which is the difference between the average yield earned on our interest-earning assets and the average rate paid on our interest-bearing liabilities, as well as a function of the average balance of interest-earning assets compared to interest-bearing liabilities. Also contributing to our earnings is noninterest income, which consists primarily of service charges and fees on loan and deposit products and services, net gains and losses on sale of assets, and mortgage loan service fees. Net interest income and noninterest income are offset by provisions for loan losses, general administrative and other expenses, including salaries and employee benefits and occupancy and equipment costs, as well as by state and federal income tax expense.


The Bank has a strong mortgage lending focus, with a large portion of its loan originations represented by single-family residential mortgages, which has enabled it to successfully market home equity loans, as well as a wide range of shorter term consumer loans for various personal needs (automobiles, recreational vehicles, etc.). The Bank has also focused on adding commercial loans to our portfolio, both real estate and non-real estate. We have made significant progress in this initiative. As of December 31, 2022, commercial real estate and commercial business loans represented 60.97% and 17.07% of the total loan portfolio, respectively. The purpose of this diversification is to mitigate our dependence on the residential mortgage market, as well as to improve our ability to manage our interest rate spread. Recent acquisitions have added to our agricultural loans, which generally have shorter maturities and nominally higher interest rates. This has provided additional interest income and improved interest rate sensitivity. The Bank’s management recognizes that fee income will also enable it to be less dependent on specialized lending and it maintains a significant loan serviced portfolio, which provides a steady source of fee income. As of December 31, 2022, we had mortgage servicing rights, net of $15.41 million compared to $13.69 million as of December 31, 2021. Gain on sale of loans also provides significant noninterest income in periods of high mortgage loan origination volumes. Such income will be adversely affected in periods of lower mortgage activity.





Fee income is also supplemented with fees generated from deposit accounts. The Bank has a high percentage of non-maturity deposits, such as checking accounts and savings accounts, which allows management flexibility in managing its spread. Non-maturity deposits and certificates of deposit do not automatically reprice as interest rates rise.


Management continues to focus on improving the Bank's earnings. Management believes the Bank needs to continue to concentrate on increasing net interest margin, other areas of fee income and control operating expenses to achieve earnings growth going forward. Management’s strategy of growing the loan portfolio and deposit base is expected to help achieve these goals as follows: loans typically earn higher rates of return than investments; a larger deposit base should yield higher fee income; increasing the asset base will reduce the relative impact of fixed operating costs. The biggest challenge to the strategy is funding the growth of the statement of financial condition in an efficient manner. Though deposit growth has been steady, it may become more difficult to maintain due to significant competition and possible reduced customer demand for deposits as customers may shift into other asset classes.


Other than short term residential construction loans, we do not offer “interest only” mortgage loans on residential 1-4 family properties (where the borrower pays interest but no principal for an initial period, after which the loan converts to a fully amortizing loan). We also do not offer loans that provide for negative amortization of principal, such as “Option ARM” loans, where the borrower can pay less than the interest owed on their loan, resulting in an increased principal balance during the life of the loan. We do not offer “subprime loans” (loans that generally target borrowers with weakened credit histories typically characterized by payment delinquencies, previous charge-offs, judgments, bankruptcies, or borrowers with questionable repayment capacity as evidenced by low credit scores or high debt-burden ratios) or Alt-A loans (traditionally defined as loans having less than full documentation).


The level and movement of interest rates impacts the Bank’s earnings as well. The Federal Open Market Committee held the federal funds target rate at 0.25% during the year ended December 31, 2021. The rate increased to 4.50% during the year ended December 31, 2022. 




The Bank has used growth through mergers or acquisition, in addition to its strategy of organic growth.


In April 2022, Eagle acquired First Community Bancorp, Inc. ("FCB"), a Montana corporation, and FCB's wholly-owned subsidiary, First Community Bank, a Montana chartered commercial bank. In the transaction, Eagle acquired nine retail bank branches and two loan production offices in Montana. 


In January 2020, Eagle acquired Western Holding Company of Wolf Point (“WHC”), a Montana corporation, and WHC’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Western Bank of Wolf Point (“WB”), a Montana chartered commercial bank. In the transaction, Eagle acquired one retail bank branch in Wolf Point, Montana.




Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates 


Certain accounting policies are important to the understanding of our financial condition, since they require management to make difficult, complex or subjective judgments, some of which may relate to matters that are inherently uncertain. Estimates associated with these policies are susceptible to material changes as a result of changes in facts and circumstances, including, but without limitation, changes in interest rates, performance of the economy, financial condition of borrowers and laws and regulations. The following are the accounting policies we believe are critical.


Allowance for Loan Losses  


The allowance for loan losses is the estimated amount considered necessary to absorb losses inherent in the loan portfolio at the balance sheet date. The allowance is established through the provision for loan losses, which is charged against income. The provision for loan losses reflects the amount required to maintain the allowance for loan losses at an appropriate level based upon management’s evaluation of the adequacy of loss reserves. The methodology for determining the allowance for loan losses is considered a critical accounting policy by management due to the high degree of judgment involved, the subjectivity of the assumptions utilized and the potential for changes in the economic environment that could result in changes to the amount of the recorded allowance for loan losses.


We recognize that losses will be experienced on loans and that the risk of loss will vary with, among other things, the type of loan, the creditworthiness of the borrower, general economic conditions and the quality of the collateral for the loan. The analysis of the allowance for loan losses has two components: specific and general allocations. Specific allocations are made for loans that are determined to be impaired, and have been individually evaluated. Impairment is measured by determining the present value of expected future cash flows or, for collateral-dependent loans, the fair value of the collateral adjusted for market conditions and selling expenses. The general allocation is determined by segregating the remaining loans by type of loan, risk weighting (if applicable), and payment history. Using a three-year lookback period, historical loss experience, delinquency trends and general economic conditions are analyzed. Separately evaluated but also taken into consideration are call report, geographic, and industry concentrations. This analysis establishes factors that are applied to the loan groups to determine the amount of the general allocations.


In addition, as an integral part of their examination process, banking regulators will periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require us to make additional provisions for estimated losses based upon judgments different from those of management. Although management believes that it uses the best information available to establish the allowance for loan losses, future adjustments to the allowance for loan losses may be necessary and results of operations could be adversely affected if circumstances differ substantially from the assumptions used in making the determinations. Because future events affecting borrowers and collateral cannot be predicted with certainty, there can be no assurance that the existing allowance for loan losses is adequate or that increases will not be necessary should the quality of loans deteriorate as a result of the factors discussed previously. Any material increase in the allowance for loan losses may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. The allowance is based on information known at the time of the review. Changes in factors underlying the assessment could have a material impact on the amount of the allowance that is necessary and the amount of provision to be charged against earnings. Such changes could impact future results.


For the year ended December 31, 2022, we followed the incurred loss methodology for determining our allowance for loan losses. We will adopt the current expected credit losses ("CECL") standard for determining the amount of our allowance for credit losses beginning January 1, 2023. 


Business Combinations


The Company accounts for business combinations under the acquisition method of accounting. The Company records assets acquired, including identifiable intangible assets and liabilities assumed at their fair values as of the acquisition date. Transaction costs related to the acquisition are expensed in the period incurred. Results of operations of the acquired entity are included in the consolidated statements of income from the date of acquisition. Any measurement-period adjustments are recorded in the period the adjustment is identified.


The excess of consideration paid over fair value of net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Determining the fair value of assets acquired, including identifiable intangible assets and liabilities assumed often requires significant use of estimates and assumptions. This may involve estimates based on third-party valuations, such as appraisals, or internal valuations based on discounted cash flow analyses or other valuation techniques such as estimates of attrition, inflation, asset growth rates, discount rates, multiples of earnings or other relevant factors. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested at least annually for impairment. Other intangible assets are assigned useful lives and amortized. The determination of useful lives is subjective. See Note 2 and 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further information.


The Company's accounting policies and discussion of recent accounting pronouncements is included in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data".







Financial Condition


December 31, 2022 compared to December 31, 2021


Total assets were $1.95 billion at December 31, 2022, an increase of $512.45 million, or 35.7% from $1.44 billion at December 31, 2021. The increase was largely due to the FCB acquisition in April 2022, primarily reflected in loans receivable. Loans receivable, net increased by $419.04 million or 45.5%, to $1.34 billion at December 31, 2022 from $920.64 million at December 31, 2021. In addition, securities available-for-sale increased by $78.24 million from $271.26 million at December 31, 2021. Total liabilities were $1.79 billion at December 31, 2022, an increase of $510.77 million, or 39.9%, from $1.28 billion at December 31, 2021. The increase in liabilities was mainly due to an increase in deposits. Total deposits increased by $412.72 million from December 31, 2021, $321.11 million of which were brought on from the FCB acquisition. FHLB advances and other borrowings also increased $64.39 million from December 31, 2021. Total shareholders’ equity increased by $1.69 million from December 31, 2021.


Financial Condition Details


Investment Activities


We maintain a portfolio of investment securities, classified as either available-for-sale or held-to-maturity to enhance total return on investments. Our investment securities generally include U.S. government and agency obligations, U.S. treasury obligations, Small Business Administration pools, municipal securities, corporate obligations, mortgage-backed securities (“MBSs”), collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and asset-backed securities (“ABSs”), all with varying characteristics as to rate, maturity and call provisions. There were no held-to-maturity investment securities included in the investment portfolio at December 31, 2022 or 2021. All investment securities included in the investment portfolio are available-for-sale. Eagle also has interest-bearing deposits in other banks and federal funds sold, as well as stock in FHLB and FRB. FHLB stock was $5.09 million and $1.70 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. FRB stock was $4.13 million and $2.97 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.




The following table summarizes investment activities:



December 31,








Fair Value


Percentage of Total


Fair Value


Percentage of Total


Fair Value


Percentage of Total


(Dollars in Thousands)


Securities available-for-sale:


U.S. government and agency obligations

  $ 2,390       0.68 %   $ 1,633       0.60 %   $ 2,245       1.38 %

U.S. treasury obligations

    51,951       14.86 %     53,183       19.61       5,657       3.47  

Municipal obligations

    172,849       49.47 %     123,667       45.58       99,088       60.81  

Corporate obligations

    6,990       2.00 %     9,336       3.44       10,663       6.54  

Mortgage-backed securities

    29,653       8.48 %     14,636       5.40       7,669       4.71  

Collateralized mortgage obligations

    82,131       23.50 %     63,067       23.25       31,189       19.14  

Asset-backed securities

    3,531       1.01 %     5,740       2.12       6,435       3.95  

Total securities available-for-sale

  $ 349,495       100.00 %   $ 271,262       100.00 %   $ 162,946       100.00 %


Securities available-for-sale were $349.50 million at December 31, 2022, aincreaseof $78.24 million, or 28.8%, from $271.26 million at December 31, 2021. The FCB acquisition included acquired securities of $126.12 million. However, immediately following the acquisition, a restructure of FCB's portfolio was incurred to better align the acquired portfolio with Eagle's investment strategy. Excluding securities acquired, securities decreased by $47.89 million. The decrease was primarily due to unrealized losses at December 31, 2022 resulting from increased interest rates. In addition, the decrease was impacted by sales, maturity, principal payments and call activity, which were largely offset by purchases. 


The following table sets forth information regarding fair values, weighted average yields and maturities of investments. The yields have been computed on a tax equivalent basis. Maturities are based on the final contractual payment dates and do not reflect the impact of prepayments or early redemptions that may occur.



December 31, 2022


One Year or Less


One to Five Years


Five to Ten Years


After Ten Years


Total Investment Securities


Fair Value


Weighted Average Yield


Fair Value


Weighted Average Yield


Fair Value


Weighted Average Yield


Fair Value


Weighted Average Yield


Fair Value


Approximate Market Value


Weighted Average Yield


(Dollars in Thousands)


Securities available-for-sale:


U.S. government and agency obligations

  $ -       0.00 %   $ -       0.00 %   $ 2,390       3.94 %   $ -       0.00 %   $ 2,390     $ 2,390       2.94 %

U.S. treasury obligations

    6,270       1.20       4,699       2.78       40,982       1.46       -       0.00       51,951       51,951       1.55  

Municipal obligations

    4,932       2.97       12,890       2.99       34,905       2.86       120,122       3.58       172,849       172,849       3.37  

Corporate obligations

    2,995       5.59       956       3.00       3,039       4.99       -       0.00       6,990       6,990       3.97  

Mortgage-backed securities

    1,250       2.39       4,318       3.52       4,046       3.40       20,039       3.79       29,653       29,653       3.14  

Collateralized mortgage obligations

    -       0.00       8,859       3.51       1,168       3.55       72,104       3.33       82,131       82,131       3.36  

Asset-backed securities

    -       0.00       -       0.00       -       0.00       3,531       5.47       3,531       3,531       5.47  

Total securities available-for-sale

  $ 15,447       2.71 %   $ 31,722       3.18 %   $ 86,530       2.34 %   $ 215,796       3.55 %   $ 349,495     $ 349,495       3.11 %




Lending Activities 


The following table includes the composition of the Bank’s loan portfolio by loan category:



December 31,














Percent of Total




Percent of Total




Percent of Total




Percent of Total




Percent of Total


(Dollars in thousands)


Real estate loans:


Residential 1-4 family (1)

  $ 135,947       10.03 %   $ 101,180       10.82 %   $ 110,802       13.14 %   $ 119,296       15.28 %   $ 116,939       18.92 %

Residential 1-4 family construction

    59,756       4.41       45,635       4.88       46,290       5.49       38,602       4.95       27,168       4.40  

Total residential 1-4 family

    195,703       14.44       146,815       15.70       157,092       18.63       157,898       20.23       144,107       23.32  

Commercial real estate

    539,070       39.76       410,568       43.92       316,668       37.56       331,062       42.41       256,784       41.54  

Commercial construction and development

    151,145       11.15       92,403       9.88       65,281       7.74       52,670       6.75       41,739       6.75  


    136,334       10.06       67,005       7.17       65,918       7.82       50,293       6.44       29,915       4.84  

Total commercial real estate

    826,549       60.97       569,976       60.97       447,867       53.12       434,025       55.60       328,438       53.13  

Total real estate loans

    1,022,252       75.41       716,791       76.67       604,959       71.75       591,923       75.83       472,545       76.45  

Other loans:


Home equity

    74,271       5.48       51,748       5.54       56,563       6.71       56,414       7.23       52,159       8.44  


    27,609       2.04       18,455       1.97       20,168       2.39       18,882       2.42       16,565       2.68  


    127,255       9.39       101,535       10.86       109,209       12.95       72,797       9.33       59,053       9.56  


    104,036       7.68       46,335       4.96       52,242       6.20       40,522       5.19       17,709       2.87  

Total commercial loans

    231,291       17.07       147,870       15.82       161,451       19.15       113,319       14.52       76,762       12.43  

Total other loans

    333,171       24.59       218,073       23.33       238,182       28.25       188,615       24.17       145,486       23.55  

Total loans

    1,355,423       100.00 %     934,864       100.00 %     843,141       100.00 %     780,538       100.00 %     618,031       100.00 %

Deferred loan fees

    (1,745 )             (1,725 )             (2,038 )             (1,303 )             (1,098 )        

Allowance for loan losses

    (14,000 )             (12,500 )             (11,600 )             (8,600 )