POS AM 1 soybs-1_sec4219.htm PRIMARY DOCUMENT Blueprint
 
 As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 26, 2019
 
Registration No. 333-223940
 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 

Post-Effective Amendment No. 2
to
Registration Statement on
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 

Teucrium Commodity Trust
(Registrant)
 
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
6799
(Primary Standard Industrial Classification Code Number)
 
27-6715889
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
c/o Teucrium Trading, LLC
Three Main Street
Suite 215
Burlington, VT 05401
Phone: (802) 540-0019
 
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
 

Sal Gilbertie
Chief Executive Officer
Teucrium Trading, LLC
Three Main Street
Suite 215
Burlington, VT 05401
Phone: (802) 540-0019
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
 
 

Copy to:
W. Thomas Conner, Esq.
VedderPrice P.C.
1401 I Street NW
Suite 1100
Washington, DC 20005
 
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
 
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  ☒
 
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
 
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
 
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer ☒
 
Non-accelerated filer ☐
Smaller reporting company ☐
Emerging growth company ☐
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐  
 
 
 

 
            The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus dated April 26, 2019
 
Teucrium Soybean Fund
10,300,000 Shares
 
Teucrium Soybean Fund (the “Fund” or “Us” or “We”) is a commodity pool that is a series of Teucrium Commodity Trust (“Trust”), a Delaware statutory trust. The Fund issues common units representing fractional undivided beneficial interests in such Fund, called “Shares.” The Fund continuously offers creation baskets consisting of 25,000 Shares (“Creation Baskets”) at their net asset value (“NAV”) to “Authorized Purchasers” (as defined below). Authorized Purchasers, in turn, may offer to the public Shares of any baskets they create. Authorized Purchasers sell such Shares, which are listed on the NYSE Arca exchange (“NYSE Arca”), to the public at per-Share offering prices that are expected to reflect, among other factors, the trading price of the Shares on the NYSE Arca, the NAV of the Fund at the time the Authorized Purchaser purchased the Creation Baskets and the NAV at the time of the offer of the Shares to the public, the supply of and demand for Shares at the time of sale, and the liquidity of the markets for soybean interests in which the Fund invests. A list of the Fund’s Authorized Purchasers as of the date of this Prospectus can be found under “Plan of Distribution – Distributor and Authorized Purchasers,” on page 67. The prices of Shares offered by Authorized Purchasers are expected to fall between the Fund’s NAV and the trading price of the Shares on the NYSE Arca at the time of sale. The Fund’s Shares may trade in the secondary market on the NYSE Arca at prices that are lower or higher than their NAV per Share. Fund Shares are listed on the NYSE Arca under the symbol “SOYB.”
 
The Fund’s sponsor is Teucrium Trading, LLC (the “Sponsor”). The investment objective of the Fund is to have the daily changes in percentage terms of the Fund’s NAV per Share reflect the daily changes in percentage terms of a weighted average of the closing settlement prices for three soybean futures contracts.
 
This is a best efforts offering; the distributor, Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”) is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of Shares but will use its best efforts to sell Shares. An Authorized Purchaser is under no obligation to purchase Shares. This is intended to be a continuous offering that will terminate on April 29, 2021, unless suspended or terminated at any earlier time for certain reasons specified in this prospectus or unless extended as permitted under the rules under the Securities Act of 1933. See “Prospectus Summary – The Shares” and “Creation and Redemption of Shares – Rejection of Purchase Orders” below.
 
Investing in the Fund involves significant risks. See “What Are the Risk Factors Involved with an Investment in the Fund?” beginning on page 21. The Fund is not a mutual fund registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 and is not subject to regulation under such Act.
 
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (“SEC”) NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THE SECURITIES OFFERED IN THIS PROSPECTUS OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
 
THE COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION HAS NOT PASSED UPON THE MERITS OF PARTICIPATING IN THIS POOL NOR HAS THE COMMISSION PASSED ON THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT.
 
This prospectus is in two parts: a disclosure document and a statement of additional information. These parts are bound together, and both contain important information.
 
The date of this prospectus is April 29, 2019
 
 
 
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COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION
 
RISK DISCLOSURE STATEMENT
 
YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY CONSIDER WHETHER YOUR FINANCIAL CONDITION PERMITS YOU TO PARTICIPATE IN A COMMODITY POOL. IN SO DOING, YOU SHOULD BE AWARE THAT COMMODITY INTEREST TRADING CAN QUICKLY LEAD TO LARGE LOSSES AS WELL AS GAINS. SUCH TRADING LOSSES CAN SHARPLY REDUCE THE NET ASSET VALUE OF THE POOL AND CONSEQUENTLY THE VALUE OF YOUR INTEREST IN THE POOL. IN ADDITION, RESTRICTIONS ON REDEMPTIONS MAY AFFECT YOUR ABILITY TO WITHDRAW YOUR PARTICIPATION IN THE POOL.
 
FURTHER, COMMODITY POOLS MAY BE SUBJECT TO SUBSTANTIAL CHARGES FOR MANAGEMENT, AND ADVISORY AND BROKERAGE FEES. IT MAY BE NECESSARY FOR THOSE POOLS THAT ARE SUBJECT TO THESE CHARGES TO MAKE SUBSTANTIAL TRADING PROFITS TO AVOID DEPLETION OR EXHAUSTION OF THEIR ASSETS. THIS DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT CONTAINS A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF EACH EXPENSE TO BE CHARGED THIS POOL AT PAGE 63 AND A STATEMENT OF THE PERCENTAGE RETURN NECESSARY TO BREAK EVEN, THAT IS, TO RECOVER THE AMOUNT OF YOUR INITIAL INVESTMENT, AT PAGE 16.
 
THIS BRIEF STATEMENT CANNOT DISCLOSE ALL THE RISKS AND OTHER FACTORS NECESSARY TO EVALUATE YOUR PARTICIPATION IN THIS COMMODITY POOL. THEREFORE, BEFORE YOU DECIDE TO PARTICIPATE IN THIS COMMODITY POOL, YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY STUDY THIS DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT, INCLUDING A DESCRIPTION OF THE PRINCIPAL RISK FACTORS OF THIS INVESTMENT, AT PAGE 21.
 
YOU SHOULD ALSO BE AWARE THAT THIS COMMODITY POOL MAY TRADE FOREIGN FUTURES OR OPTIONS CONTRACTS. TRANSACTIONS ON MARKETS LOCATED OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES, INCLUDING MARKETS FORMALLY LINKED TO A UNITED STATES MARKET, MAY BE SUBJECT TO REGULATIONS WHICH OFFER DIFFERENT OR DIMINISHED PROTECTION TO THE POOL AND ITS PARTICIPANTS. FURTHER, UNITED STATES REGULATORY AUTHORITIES MAY BE UNABLE TO COMPEL THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE RULES OF REGULATORY AUTHORITIES OR MARKETS IN NON-UNITED STATES JURISDICTIONS WHERE TRANSACTIONS FOR THE POOL MAY BE EFFECTED.
 
SWAPS TRANSACTIONS, LIKE OTHER FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS, INVOLVE A VARIETY OF SIGNIFICANT RISKS. THE SPECIFIC RISKS PRESENTED BY A PARTICULAR SWAP TRANSACTION NECESSARILY DEPEND UPON THE TERMS OF THE TRANSACTION AND YOUR CIRCUMSTANCES. IN GENERAL, HOWEVER, ALL SWAPS TRANSACTIONS INVOLVE SOME COMBINATION OF MARKET RISK, CREDIT RISK, COUNTERPARTY CREDIT RISK, FUNDING RISK, LIQUIDITY RISK, AND OPERATIONAL RISK.
 
HIGHLY CUSTOMIZED SWAPS TRANSACTIONS IN PARTICULAR MAY INCREASE LIQUIDITY RISK, WHICH MAY RESULT IN A SUSPENSION OF REDEMPTIONS. HIGHLY LEVERAGED TRANSACTIONS MAY EXPERIENCE SUBSTANTIAL GAINS OR LOSSES IN VALUE AS A RESULT OF RELATIVELY SMALL CHANGES IN THE VALUE OR LEVEL OF AN UNDERLYING OR RELATED MARKET FACTOR.
 
IN EVALUATING THE RISKS AND CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR SWAP TRANSACTION, IT IS IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER THAT A SWAP TRANSACTION MAY BE MODIFIED OR TERMINATED ONLY BY MUTUAL CONSENT OF THE ORIGINAL PARTIES AND SUBJECT TO AGREEMENT ON INDIVIDUALLY NEGOTIATED TERMS. THEREFORE, IT MAY NOT BE POSSIBLE FOR THE COMMODITY POOL OPERATOR TO MODIFY, TERMINATE, OR OFFSET THE POOL'S OBLIGATIONS OR THE POOL'S EXPOSURE TO THE RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH A TRANSACTION PRIOR TO ITS SCHEDULED TERMINATION DATE.
 
 
 
 
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TEUCRIUM SOYBEAN FUND
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
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9
 
10
 
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19
 
27
 
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31
 
31
 
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35
 
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38
 
40
 
41
 
41
 
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44
 
45
 
48
 
49
 
49
 
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52
 
53
 
54
 
57
 
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58
 
65
 
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70
 
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71
 
71
 
71
 
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81
 
84
 
85
 
86
 
87
 
 
 
4
 
 
 
STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This prospectus includes “forward-looking statements” which generally relate to future events or future performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. All statements (other than statements of historical fact) included in this prospectus that address activities, events or developments that will or may occur in the future, including such matters as movements in the commodities markets and indexes that track such movements, the Fund’s operations, the Sponsor’s plans and references to the Fund’s future success and other similar matters, are forward-looking statements. These statements are only predictions. Actual events or results may differ materially. These statements are based upon certain assumptions and analyses the Sponsor has made based on its perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments, as well as other factors appropriate in the circumstances. Whether or not actual results and developments will conform to the Sponsor’s expectations and predictions, however, is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including the special considerations discussed in this prospectus, general economic, market and business conditions, changes in laws or regulations, including those concerning taxes, made by governmental authorities or regulatory bodies, and other world economic and political developments. See “What Are the Risk Factors Involved with an Investment in the Fund?” Consequently, all the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus are qualified by these cautionary statements, and there can be no assurance that actual results or developments the Sponsor anticipates will be realized or, even if substantially realized, that they will result in the expected consequences to, or have the expected effects on, the Fund’s operations or the value of its Shares.
 
 
 
5
 
 
 
 PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
 
This is only a summary of the prospectus and, while it contains material information about the Fund and its Shares, it does not contain or summarize all of the information about the Fund and the Shares contained in this prospectus that is material and/or which may be important to you. You should read this entire prospectus, including “What Are the Risk Factors Involved with an Investment in the Fund?” beginning on page 21, before making an investment decision about the Shares. In addition, this prospectus includes a statement of additional information that follows and is bound together with the primary disclosure document. Both the primary disclosure document and the statement of additional information contain important information.
 
Principal Offices of the Fund and the Sponsor
 
The principal office of the Trust and the Fund is located at Three Main Street, Suite 215, Burlington, Vermont 05401. The telephone number is (802) 540-0019. The Sponsor’s principal office is also located at, Three Main Street, Suite 215, Burlington, Vermont 05401 and its telephone number is also (802) 540-0019.
 
Breakeven Point
 
The amount of trading income required for the redemption value of a Share at the end of one year to equal the selling price of the Share, assuming a selling price of 16.55 (the NAV per Share as of January 31, 2019), is $0.19 or 1.15% of the selling price. For more information, see “Breakeven Analysis” below.
 
Overview of the Fund
 
Teucrium Soybean Fund (the “Fund” or “Us” or “We”), is a commodity pool that issues Shares that may be purchased and sold on the NYSE Arca. The Fund is a series of the Teucrium Commodity Trust (“Trust”), a Delaware statutory trust organized on September 11, 2009. The Fund is one of five series of the Trust (collectively, the “Teucrium Funds); each series operates as a separate commodity pool. Additional series of the Trust may be created in the future. The Trust and the Fund operate pursuant to the Trust’s Fifth Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement (the “Trust Agreement”), which has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The Fund was formed and is managed and controlled by the Sponsor, Teucrium Trading, LLC. The Sponsor is a limited liability company formed in Delaware on July 28, 2009 that is registered as a commodity pool operator (“CPO”) with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and is a member of the National Futures Association (“NFA”). The Sponsor also registered as a Commodity Trading Advisor (“CTA”) with the CFTC effective September 8, 2017.
 
The investment objective of the Fund is to have the daily changes in percentage terms of the Shares’ NAV reflect the daily changes in percentage terms of a weighted average of the closing settlement prices for three futures contracts for soybeans (“Soybean Futures Contracts”) that are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade (“CBOT”):
 
SOYB Benchmark
 
CBOT Soybean Futures Contract
Weighting
Second to expire (excluding August & September)
35%
Third to expire (excluding August & September)
30%
Expiring in the November following the expiration of the third ­to­ expire contract
35%
 
(The weighted average of the three referenced Soybean Futures Contracts is referred to herein as the “Benchmark,” and the three Soybean Futures Contracts that at any given time make up the Benchmark are referred to herein as the “Benchmark Component Futures Contracts.”)
 
6
 
 
The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing under normal market conditions in Benchmark Component Futures Contracts or, in certain circumstances, in other Soybean Futures Contracts traded on the CBOT, the Intercontinental Exchange (“ICE”) or on foreign exchanges. In addition, and to a limited extent, the Fund also may invest in exchange-traded options on Soybean Futures Contracts in furtherance of the Fund's investment objective. Once position limits in Soybean Futures Contracts are applicable, the Fund's intention is to invest in contracts and instruments such as cash-settled options on Soybean Futures Contracts, forward contracts, and other over-the-counter transactions that are based on the price of soybean and Soybean Futures Contracts (collectively, “Other Soybean Interests,” and together with Soybean Futures Contracts “Soybean Interests”). See “The Offering – Futures Contracts” below. By utilizing certain or all of these investments, the Sponsor will endeavor to cause the Fund's performance to closely track that of the Benchmark. The Sponsor expects to manage the Fund’s investments directly, although it has been authorized by the Trust to retain, establish the terms of retention for, and terminate third-party commodity trading advisors to provide such management. The Sponsor is also authorized to select futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) to execute the Fund’s transactions in Soybean Futures Contracts.
 
Soybean Futures Contracts traded on the CBOT expire on a specified day in seven different months: January, March, May, July, August, September and November.  However, there is generally a less liquid market for the Soybean Futures Contracts expiring in August (the “August Contract”) and September (the “September Contract” and, together with the August Contract, the “Excluded Contracts”), and the Sponsor has determined not to incorporate the Excluded Contracts into the Benchmark calculation.  Accordingly, during the period when the Excluded Contracts are the second-to-expire and third-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract, the fourth-to-expire and fifth-to-expire Soybean Futures Contracts will take the place of the second-to-expire and third-to-expire Soybean Futures Contracts, respectively, as Benchmark Component Futures Contracts.  Similarly, when the August Contract is the third-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract, the fifth-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract will take the place of the August Contract as a Benchmark Component Futures Contract, and when the September Contract is the second-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract, the third-to-expire and fourth-to-expire Soybean Futures Contracts will be Benchmark Component Futures Contracts.
 
The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective primarily by investing in Soybean Interests such that daily changes in the Fund’s NAV are expected to closely track the changes in the Benchmark. The Fund’s positions in Soybean Interests are changed or “rolled” on a regular basis in order to track the changing nature of the Benchmark. For example, five times a year (on the dates on which certain Soybean Futures Contracts expire), a particular Soybean Futures Contract will no longer be a Benchmark Component Futures Contract, and the Fund’s investments will have to be changed accordingly. In order that the Fund’s trading does not signal potential market movements and to make it more difficult for third parties to profit by trading ahead based on such expected market movements, the Fund’s investments may not be rolled entirely on that day, but rather may be rolled over a period of several days.
 
The Fund posts on its website (www.teucriumsoybfund.com) the roll dates and the contracts into which it will roll for the entire upcoming calendar year. This information is updated at the beginning of the calendar year and as needed throughout the year.
 
The Fund incurs certain expenses in connection with its operations and holds most of its assets in income-producing, short-term securities for margin and other liquidity purposes and to meet redemptions that may be necessary on an ongoing basis. These expenses and income cause imperfect correlation between changes in the Fund’s NAV and changes in the Benchmark, because the Benchmark does not reflect expenses or income. Investors should be aware that because the Fund incurs certain expenses on an ongoing basis, they may incur a partial or complete loss of their investment even when the performance of the Benchmark is positive.
 
In seeking to achieve the Fund’s investment objective of tracking the Benchmark, the Sponsor may for certain reasons cause the Fund to enter into or hold Soybean Futures Contracts other than the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts and/or Other Soybean Interests. Other Soybean Interests that do not have standardized terms and are not exchange-traded, referred to as “over-the-counter” Soybean Interests, can generally be structured as the parties to the Soybean Interest contract desire. Therefore, the Fund might enter into multiple over-the-counter Other Soybean Interests intended to replicate the performance of each of the three Benchmark Component Futures Contracts, or a single over-the-counter Other Soybean Interest designed to replicate the performance of the Benchmark as a whole. Assuming that there is no default by a counterparty to an over-the-counter Other Soybean Interest, the performance of the Other Soybean Interest will necessarily correlate exactly with the performance of the Benchmark or the applicable Benchmark Component Futures Contract. The Fund might also enter into or hold Soybean Interests other than Benchmark Component Futures Contracts to facilitate effective trading, consistent with the discussion of the Fund’s “roll” strategy in the preceding paragraph. In addition, the Fund might enter into or hold Soybean Interests that would be expected to alleviate overall deviation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Benchmark that may result from certain market and trading inefficiencies or other reasons. By utilizing certain or all of the investments described above, the Sponsor endeavors to cause the Fund’s performance to closely track that of the Benchmark.
 
The Fund invests in Soybean Interests to the fullest extent possible without being leveraged or unable to satisfy its expected current or potential margin or collateral obligations with respect to its investments in Soybean Interests. After fulfilling such margin and collateral requirements, the Fund invests the remainder of its proceeds from the sale of baskets in obligations of the United States government (“Treasury Securities”), cash equivalents, including money-market funds and investment grade commercial paper, and/or merely hold such assets in cash in interest-bearing accounts. Therefore, the focus of the Sponsor in managing the Fund is investing in Soybean Interests and in short-term Treasury Securities, cash and/or cash equivalents. The Fund earns interest income from the short-term Treasury Securities and/or cash equivalents that it purchases and on the cash it holds at financial institutions.
 
The Sponsor endeavors to place the Fund’s trades in Soybean Interests and otherwise manage the Fund’s investments so that the Fund’s average daily tracking error against the Benchmark will be less than 10 percent over any period of 30 trading days. More specifically, the Sponsor endeavors to manage the Fund so that A will be within plus/minus 10 percent of B, where:
 
 
●      
A is the average daily change in the Fund’s NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days, i.e., any trading day as of which the Fund calculates its NAV, and
 
 
B is the average daily change in the Benchmark over the same period.
 
7
 
 
The Sponsor believes that market arbitrage opportunities will cause the Fund’s Share price on the NYSE Arca to track the Fund’s NAV per Share. The Sponsor believes that the net effect of this expected relationship and the expected relationship described above between the Fund’s NAV and the Benchmark will be that the changes in the price of the Fund’s Shares on the NYSE Arca will track, in percentage terms, changes in the Benchmark. This relationship may be affected by various market factors, including but not limited to, the number of shares of the Fund outstanding and the liquidity of the underlying holdings.
 
The Sponsor employs a “neutral” investment strategy intended to track the changes in the Benchmark regardless of whether the Benchmark goes up or goes down. The Fund’s “neutral” investment strategy is designed to permit investors generally to purchase and sell the Fund’s Shares for the purpose of investing indirectly in the soybean market in a cost-effective manner. Such investors may include participants in the soybean industry and other industries seeking to hedge the risk of losses in their soybean-related transactions, as well as investors seeking exposure to the soybean market. Accordingly, depending on the investment objective of an individual investor, the risks generally associated with investing in the soybean market and/or the risks involved in hedging may exist. In addition, an investment in the Fund involves the risks that the changes in the price of the Fund’s Shares will not accurately track the changes in the Benchmark, and that changes in the Benchmark will not closely correlate with changes in the price of soybean on the spot market. Furthermore, as noted above, the Fund may also elect to invest in short-term Treasury Securities, cash and/or cash equivalents to meet its current or potential margin or collateral requirements with respect to its investments in Soybean Interests and to invest cash not required to be used as margin or collateral. The Fund does not expect there to be any meaningful correlation between the performance of the Fund’s investments in short-term Treasury Securities, cash and/or cash equivalents and the changes in the price of soybean or Soybean Interests. While the level of interest earned on or the market price of these investments may in some respects correlate to changes in the price of soybean, this correlation is not anticipated as part of the Fund’s efforts to meet its objective. This and certain risk factors discussed in this prospectus may cause a lack of correlation between changes in the Fund’s NAV and changes in the price of soybean. The Sponsor does not intend to operate the Fund in a fashion such that its per Share NAV will equal, in dollar terms, the spot price of a bushel or other unit of soybean or the price of any particular Soybean Futures Contract.
 
The Fund creates and redeems Shares only in blocks called Creation Baskets and Redemption Baskets, respectively. Only Authorized Purchasers may purchase or redeem Creation Baskets or Redemption Baskets. An Authorized Purchaser is under no obligation to create or redeem baskets, and an Authorized Purchaser is under no obligation to offer to the public Shares of any baskets it does create. Baskets are generally created when there is a demand for Shares, including, but not limited to, when the market price per share is at (or perceived to be at) a premium to the NAV per Share. Similarly, baskets are generally redeemed when the market price per share is at (or perceived to be at) a discount to the NAV per Share. Retail investors seeking to purchase or sell Shares on any day are expected to effect such transactions in the secondary market, on the NYSE Arca, at the market price per share, rather than in connection with the creation or redemption of baskets. There is a minimum number of baskets and associated shares specified for the Fund. Once the minimum number of baskets is reached, there can be no more basket redemptions until there has been a creation basket. In such case, market makers may be less willing to purchase Shares from investors in the secondary market, which may in turn limit the ability of shareholders of the Fund to sell their Shares in the secondary market. As of January 31, 2019, these minimum levels for the Fund are 50,000 shares representing 2 baskets.
 
All proceeds from the sale of Creation Baskets will be invested as quickly as practicable in the investments described in this prospectus. The Fund’s cash and investments are held through the Fund’s Custodian, in accounts with the Fund’s commodity futures brokers, in demand deposits with highly-rated financial institutions, in short-term Treasury Securities, in investment grade commercial paper, or in collateral accounts with respect to over-the-counter Soybean Interests. There is no stated maximum time period for the Fund’s operations and the Fund will continue until all Shares are redeemed or the Fund is liquidated pursuant to the terms of the Trust Agreement.
 
There is no specified limit on the maximum number of Creation Baskets that can be sold. At some point, however, applicable position limits on Soybean Futures Contracts or Other Soybean Interests may practically limit the number of Creation Baskets that will be sold if the Sponsor determines that the other investment alternatives available to the Fund at that time will not enable it to meet its stated investment objective.
 
Shares may also be purchased and sold by individuals and entities that are not Authorized Purchasers in smaller increments than Creation Baskets on the NYSE Arca. However, these transactions are effected at bid and ask prices established by specialist firm(s). Like any listed security, Shares of the Fund can be purchased and sold at any time a secondary market is open.
 
In managing the Fund’s assets, the Sponsor does not use a technical trading system that automatically issues buy and sell orders. Instead, each time one or more baskets are purchased or redeemed, the Sponsor will purchase or sell Soybean Interests with an aggregate market value that approximates the amount of cash received or paid upon the purchase or redemption of the basket(s).
 
Note to Secondary Market Investors: Shares can be directly purchased from the Fund only in Creation Baskets and only by Authorized Purchasers. Each Creation Basket consists of 25,000 Shares and therefore requires a significant financial commitment to purchase. Accordingly, investors who do not have such resources or who are not Authorized Purchasers should be aware that some of the information contained in this prospectus, including information about purchases and redemptions of Shares directly with the Fund, is only relevant to Authorized Purchasers. Shares are listed and traded on the NYSE Arca under the ticker symbol “SOYB” and may be purchased and sold as individual Shares. Individuals interested in purchasing Shares in the secondary market should contact their broker. Shares purchased or sold through a broker may be subject to commissions.
 
Except when aggregated in Redemption Baskets, Shares are not redeemable securities. There is no guarantee that Shares will trade at prices that are at or near the per-Share NAV. There are a minimum number of baskets and associated shares specified for the Fund. Once the minimum number of baskets is reached, there can be no more redemptions until there has been a creation basket. As of January 31, 2019, these minimum levels for the Fund are 50,000 shares representing 2 baskets.
 
The Shares
 
The Shares are registered as securities under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “1933 Act”) and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) and do not provide dividend rights or conversion rights and there are no sinking funds. The Shares may only be redeemed when aggregated in Redemption Baskets as discussed under “Creation and Redemption of Shares” and holders of Fund Shares (“Shareholders”) generally do not have voting rights as discussed under “The Trust Agreement – Voting Rights” below. Cumulative voting is neither permitted nor required and there are no preemptive rights. The Trust Agreement provides that, upon liquidation of the Fund, its assets will be distributed pro rata to the Shareholders based upon the number of Shares held. Each Shareholder will receive its share of the assets in cash or in kind, and the proportion of such share that is received in cash may vary from Shareholder to Shareholder, as the Sponsor in its sole discretion may decide.
 
8
 
 
The offering of Shares under this prospectus is a continuous offering under Rule 415 of the 1933 Act and will terminate on April 29, 2021. The offering may be extended beyond such date as permitted by applicable rules under the 1933 Act. The offering will terminate before such date or before the end of any extension period if all of the registered Shares have been sold. However, the Sponsor expects to cause the Trust to file one or more additional registration statements as necessary to permit additional Shares to be registered and offered on an uninterrupted basis. This offering may also be suspended or terminated at any time for certain specified reasons, including if and when suitable investments for the Fund are not available or practicable. See “Creation and Redemption of Shares – Rejection of Purchase Orders” below. As discussed above, the minimum purchase requirement for Authorized Purchasers is a Creation Basket, which consists of 25,000 Shares. The Fund does not require a minimum purchase amount for investors who purchase Shares from Authorized Purchasers. There are no arrangements to place funds in an escrow, trust, or similar account.
 
The Fund’s Investments in Soybean Interests
 
A brief description of the principal types of Soybean Interests in which the Fund may invest is set forth below.
 
 
A futures contract is an exchange-traded contract traded with standard terms that calls for the delivery of a specified quantity of a commodity at a specified price, on a specified date and at a specified location. Typically, a futures contract is traded out or rolled on an exchange before delivery or receipt of the underlying commodity is required.
 
 
A swap agreement is a bilateral contract to exchange a periodic stream of payments determined by reference to a notional amount, with payment typically made between the parties on a net basis. For instance, in the case of soybean swap, the Fund may be obligated to pay a fixed price per bushel of soybeans multiplied by a notional number of bushels and be entitled to receive an amount per bushel equal to the current value of an index of soybean prices, the price of a specified Soybean Futures Contract, or the average price of a group of Soybean Futures Contracts such as the Benchmark (times the same notional number of bushels). As is the case with futures, swaps are financial contracts and are typically settled financially between counterparties. Unlike futures, however, swaps may or may not trade on an exchange and, therefore, they may be less liquid, may be more expensive, and may take longer to settle or trade out of.
 
The Fund may also invest to a lesser extent in the following types of Soybean Interests (“Other Soybean Interests”):
 
 
A forward contract (“Forward”) is an over-the-counter bilateral contract for the purchase or sale of a specified quantity of a commodity at a specified price, on a specified date and at a specified location. Forwards are almost always settled by delivery of the underlying commodity. Although not impossible, it is unusual to settle a Forward financially; therefore, Forwards are generally illiquid.
 
 
An option on a futures contract, a swap agreement, forward contract or a commodity on the spot market gives the buyer of the option the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a futures contract, swap agreement, forward contract or commodity, as applicable, at a specified price on or before a specified date. The seller, or writer, of the option is obligated to take a position in the underlying interest at a specified price opposite to the option buyer if the option is exercised. Options on futures contracts, like the future contracts to which they relate, are standardized contracts traded on an exchange and are regulated like futures contracts, while all other options (except for spot options) are considered swaps and are regulated as swaps.
 
Unlike exchange traded contracts, over-the-counter contracts expose the Fund to the credit risk of the other party to the contract. (As discussed below, exchange-traded contracts may expose the Fund to the risk of the clearing broker’s and/or the exchange clearing house(s)’ bankruptcy.) The Sponsor does not currently intend to purchase and sell soybeans in the “spot market” for the Fund. Spot market transactions are cash transactions in which the buyer and seller agree to the immediate purchase and sale of a commodity, usually with a two-day settlement period. In addition, the Sponsor does not currently intend that the Fund will enter into or hold spot month Soybean Futures Contracts, except that spot month contracts that were formerly second-to-expire contracts may be held for a brief period until they can be disposed of in accordance with the Fund’s roll strategy.
 
Although the Fund has the ability to trade over-the-counter contracts and swaps, the Sponsor anticipates that 100% of the Fund’s assets will be used to trade futures.
 
A more detailed description of Soybean Interests and other aspects of the soybean and Soybean Interest markets can be found later in this prospectus.
 
As noted, the Fund invests in Soybean Futures Contracts, including those traded on the CBOT or its affiliates. The Fund expressly disclaims any association with the CBOT or endorsement of the Fund by such exchange and acknowledges that “CBOT” and “Chicago Board of Trade” are registered trademarks of such exchange.
 
9
 
 
Principal Investment Risks of an Investment in the Fund
 
An investment in the Fund involves a degree of risk. Some of the risks you may face are summarized below. A more extensive discussion of these risks appears beginning on page 21.
 
 Unlike mutual funds, commodity pools and other investment pools that manage their investments so as to realize income and gains for distribution to their investors, the Fund generally does not distribute dividends to Shareholders. You should not invest in the Fund if you will need cash distributions from the Fund to pay taxes on your share of income and gains of the Fund, if any, or for other purposes.
 
 Investors may choose to use the Fund as a means of investing indirectly in soybeans, and there are risks involved in such investments. The risks and hazards that are inherent in soybean production may cause the price of soybeans to fluctuate widely. Price movements for soybeans are influenced by, among other things: weather conditions, crop failure, production decisions, governmental policies, changing demand, the soybean harvest cycle, and various economic and monetary events. Soybean production is also subject to U.S. federal, state and local regulations that materially affect operations.
 
 To the extent that investors use the Fund as a means of investing indirectly in soybean, there is the risk that the changes in the price of the Fund’s Shares on the NYSE Arca will not closely track the changes in spot price of soybeans. This could happen if the price of Shares traded on the NYSE Arca does not correlate closely with the Fund’s NAV; the changes in the Fund’s NAV do not correlate closely with changes in the Benchmark; or the changes in the Benchmark do not correlate closely with changes in the cash or spot price of soybeans. This is a risk because if these correlations are not sufficiently close, then investors may not be able to use the Fund as a cost-effective way to invest indirectly in soybeans or as a hedge against the risk of loss in soybean-related transactions.
 
 Only an Authorized Purchaser may engage in creation or redemption transactions with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of institutions that act as Authorized Purchasers. To the extent that these institutions exit the business or are unable or unwilling to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders with respect to the Fund, and no Authorized Purchaser is able or willing to step forward to create or redeem shares of the Fund, Fund Shares may, particularly in times of market stress, trade at a discount to the NAV per Share and possibly face trading halts and/or delisting. In addition, a decision by a market maker or lead market maker to step away from activities for the Fund, particularly in times of market stress, could adversely affect liquidity, the spread between the bid and ask quotes for the Fund’s Shares, and potentially the price of the Shares. The Sponsor can make no guarantees that participation by Authorized Purchasers or market makers will continue.
 
 The price relationship between the near month Soybean Futures Contract to expire and the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts will vary and may impact both the Fund’s total return over time and the degree to which such total return tracks the total return of soybean price indices. In cases in which the near month contract’s price is lower than later-expiring contracts’ prices (a situation known as “contango” in the futures markets), then absent the impact of the overall movement in soybean prices the value of the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts would tend to decline as they approach expiration which could cause the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts, and therefore the Fund’s total return, to track lower. In cases in which the near month contract’s price is higher than later-expiring contracts’ prices (a situation known as “backwardation” in the futures markets), then absent the impact of the overall movement in soybean prices the value of the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts would tend to rise as they approach expiration. In the event of a prolonged period of contango, and absent the impact of rising or falling soybean prices, this could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s NAV and total return, and you could incur a partial or total loss of your investment in the Fund.
 
 Investors, including those who directly participate in the soybean market, may choose to use the Fund as a vehicle to hedge against the risk of loss and there are risks involved in hedging activities. While hedging can provide protection against an adverse movement in market prices, it can also preclude a hedger’s opportunity to benefit from a favorable market movement.
 
 The structure and operation of the Fund may involve conflicts of interest. For example, a conflict may arise because the Sponsor and its principals and affiliates may trade for themselves. In addition, the Sponsor has sole current authority to manage the investments and operations of the Fund, including the authority of the Sponsor to allocate expenses to and between the Teucrium Funds and the interests of the Sponsor may conflict with the Shareholders’ best interests.
 
 You will have no rights to participate in the management of the Fund and will have to rely on the duties and judgment of the Sponsor to manage the Fund.
 
 The Fund pays fees and expenses that are incurred regardless of whether it is profitable.
 
10
 
 
 The Fund seeks to have the changes in its Shares’ NAV in percentage terms track changes in the Benchmark in percentage terms, rather than profit from speculative trading of Soybean Interests. The Sponsor therefore endeavors to manage the Fund so that the Fund’s assets are, unlike those of many other commodity pools, not leveraged (i.e., so that the aggregate value of the Fund’s exposure to losses from its investments in Soybean Interests at any time will not exceed the value of the Fund’s assets). There is no assurance that the Sponsor will successfully implement this investment strategy. If the Sponsor permits the Fund to become leveraged, you could lose all or substantially all of your investment if the Fund’s trading positions suddenly turn unprofitable. These movements in price may be the result of factors outside of the Sponsor’s control and may not be anticipated by the Sponsor.
 
 The Fund may invest in Other Soybean Interests. To the extent that these Other Soybean Interests are contracts individually negotiated between their parties, they may not be as liquid as Soybean Futures Contracts and will expose the Fund to credit risk that its counterparty may not be able to satisfy its obligations to the Fund.
 
 The regulation of futures markets, futures contracts, and futures exchanges has historically been comprehensive. The CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency including, for example, the retroactive implementation of speculative position limits, increased margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading on an exchange or a trading facility.
 
 The regulation of commodity interest transactions in the United States is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to ongoing modification by governmental and judicial action. Considerable regulatory attention has been focused on non-traditional investment pools that are publicly distributed in the United States and that use trading in futures and options as an investment strategy and not for hedging or price discovery purposes, therefore altering traditional participation in futures and swaps markets. There is a possibility of future regulatory changes within the United States altering, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in the Fund, or the ability of the Fund to continue to implement its investment strategy. In addition, various national governments outside of the United States have expressed concern regarding the disruptive effects of speculative trading in the commodities markets and the need to regulate the derivatives markets in general. The effect of any future regulatory change on the Fund is impossible to predict but could be substantial and adverse.
 
 Failures or breaches of the electronic systems of the Fund, the Sponsor, the Custodian, or the Fund’s other service providers, market makers, Authorized Purchasers, NYSE Arca, exchanges on which Soybean Futures Contracts or Other Soybean Interests are traded or cleared, or counterparties to financial transactions with the Fund, have the ability to cause disruptions and negatively impact the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses to the Fund and its shareholders. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and risk management systems seeking to address system breaches or failures, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Furthermore, the Fund cannot control the cyber security plans and systems of the Custodian, Administrator or the Fund’s other service providers, market makers, Authorized Purchasers, NYSE Arca, exchanges on which Soybean Futures Contracts or Other Soybean Interests are traded or cleared, or counterparties.
 
For additional risks, see “What Are the Risk Factors Involved with an Investment in the Fund?”
 
Financial Condition of the Fund
 
The Fund’s NAV is determined as of the earlier of the close of the New York Stock Exchange or 4:00 p.m. New York time on each day that the NYSE Arca is open for trading.
 
Defined Terms
 
For a glossary of defined terms, see Appendix A.
 
Breakeven Analysis
 
11
 
 
The breakeven analysis below indicates the approximate dollar returns and percentage returns required for the redemption value of a hypothetical initial investment in a single Share, assuming a selling price of $16.55 (the NAV per Share as of January 31, 2019), to equal the amount invested twelve months after the investment was made. This breakeven analysis refers to the redemption of baskets by Authorized Purchasers and is not related to any gains an individual investor would have to achieve in order to break even. The breakeven analysis is an approximation only.
 
Assumed selling price per Share
 $16.55 
Sponsor’s Fee (1.00%) (1)
 $0.17 
Creation Basket Fee (2)
 $0.01 
Estimated Brokerage Fees (3)
 $0.01 
Other Fund Fees and Expenses (4)
 $0.43
Interest Income (5)
 $(0.43)
Amount of trading income (loss) required for the redemption value at the end of one year to equal the selling price of the Share
 $0.19 
Percentage of selling price per Share (6)
  1.15%
 
(1) The Fund is obligated to pay the Sponsor a management fee at the annual rate of 1.00% of the Fund’s average daily net assets, payable monthly. The Sponsor can elect to waive the payment of the fee in any amount at its sole discretion, at any time and from time to time, in order to reduce the Fund’s expenses or for any other purpose.
 
(2) Authorized Purchasers are required to pay a Creation Basket fee of $250 for each order they place to create one or more baskets. An order must be at least one basket, which is 25,000 Shares. This breakeven analysis assumes a hypothetical investment in a single Share, so the Creation Basket fee is $.01 ($250/25,000).
 
(3) This amount is based on the actual brokerage fees for the Fund calculated on an annualized basis. The Fund currently pays $4.50 per Soybean Futures Contract purchase or sale (rounded to $0.01 in this table based on fees accrued to the Fund for the year ended December 31, 2018).
 
(4) Other Fund Fees and Expenses are an estimate based on an allocation to the Fund of the total estimated expenses anticipated to be incurred by the Trust on behalf of the Fund, net of any expenses or sponsor fee waived by the Sponsor, and include: Professional fees (primarily legal, auditing and tax-preparation related costs); Custodian and Administrator fees and expenses, Distribution and Marketing fees (primarily fees paid to the Distributor, costs related to regulatory compliance activities and other costs related to the trading activities of the Fund); Business Permits and Licenses; General and Administrative expenses (primarily insurance and printing), and Other Expenses. The expenses presented are based on estimated expenses for the current fiscal year, and do not represent the maximum amounts payable under the contracts with third-party service providers, as discussed below in the section of this disclosure document entitled “Contractual Fees and Compensation Arrangements with the Sponsor and Third-Party Service Providers.” The per-share cost of these fixed or estimated fees has been calculated assuming that the Fund has $25.2 million in assets, which was the approximate amount of assets as of January 31, 2019. The Sponsor can elect to pay (or waive reimbursement for) certain fees or expenses that would generally be paid by the Fund, although it has no contractual obligation to do so. Any election to pay or waive reimbursement for fees and expenses that would generally be paid by the Fund can be changed at the discretion of the Sponsor.
 
(5)  The Fund earns interest on funds it deposits at financial institutions and the Custodian, short-term Treasury Securities and on commercial paper; it estimates that the interest rate will be 2.60% based on the interest rate currently earned on available cash balances as of February 28, 2019. The actual rate may vary and not all assets of the Fund will earn interest.
 
(6) This represents the estimated approximate percentage of selling price per share net of any expenses or Sponsor fees waived by the Sponsor. The estimated approximate percentage of selling price per share before waived expenses or Sponsor fees is 2.54% based on the Fund assets, net asset value per share and shares outstanding as of January 31, 2019. The fees waived by the Sponsor in an estimate, can be applied to any expense related to the Fund, and may be terminated at any time at the sole discretion of the Sponsor.
 
12
 
 
The Offering
 
 
Offering
 
The Fund will offer Creation Baskets consisting of 25,000 Shares through the Distributor to Authorized Purchasers. Authorized Purchasers may purchase Creation Baskets consisting of 25,000 Shares at the Fund’s NAV. The Shares trade on the NYSE Arca.
 
 
 
Use of Proceeds
 
The Sponsor applies substantially all of the Fund’s assets toward investing in Soybean Interests, short-term Treasury Securities, cash and/or cash equivalents. The Sponsor deposits a portion of the Fund’s net assets with the FCM or other custodians to be used to meet its current or potential margin or collateral requirements in connection with its investment in Soybean Interests. The Fund uses only short-term Treasury Securities, cash and/or cash equivalents to satisfy these requirements. The Sponsor expects that all entities that will hold or trade the Fund’s assets will be based in the United States and will be subject to United States regulations. The Sponsor believes that approximately 3-5% of the Fund’s assets will normally be committed as margin for Soybean Futures Contracts and Other Soybean Interests. However, from time to time, the percentage of assets committed as margin/collateral may be substantially more, or less, than such range. The remaining portion of the Fund’s assets is held as cash or cash equivalents, in short-term Treasury Securities, in money market funds or demand deposit accounts. All interest income earned on these investments is retained for the Fund’s benefit.
 
 
 
NYSE Arca Symbol
 
“SOYB”
 
 
 
Creation and Redemption
 
Authorized Purchasers pay a $250 fee per order to create Creation Baskets, and a $250 fee per order for Redemption Baskets. Authorized Purchasers are not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of Shares. The per share price of Shares offered in Creation Baskets is the total NAV of the Fund calculated as of the close of the NYSE Arca on that day divided by the number of issued and outstanding Shares.
 
 
 
Inter-Series Limitation on Liability
 
While the Fund is currently one of five separate series of the Trust, additional series may be created in the future. The Trust has been formed and will be operated with the goal that the Fund and any other series of the Trust will be liable only for obligations of such series, and a series will not be responsible for or affected by any liabilities or losses of or claims against any other series. If any creditor or shareholder in any particular series (such as the Fund) were to successfully assert against a series a claim with respect to its indebtedness or Shares, the creditor or shareholder could recover only from that particular series and its assets. Accordingly, the debts and other obligations incurred, contracted for or otherwise existing solely with respect to a particular series will be enforceable only against the assets of that series, and not against any other series or the Trust generally or any of their respective assets. The assets of the Fund and any other series will include only those funds and other assets that are paid to, held by or distributed to the series on account of and for the benefit of that series, including, without limitation, amounts delivered to the Trust for the purchase of Shares in a series.
 
 
 
Registration Clearance and Settlement
 
Individual certificates will not be issued for the Shares. Instead, Shares will be represented by one or more global certificates, which will be deposited by the transfer agent with the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) and registered in the name of Cede & Co., as nominee for DTC. The global certificates evidence all of the Shares outstanding at any time. Beneficial interests in Shares will be held through DTC’s book-entry system, which means that Shareholders are limited to: (1) participants in DTC such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies (“DTC Participants”), (2) those who maintain, either directly or indirectly, a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant (“Indirect Participants”), and (3) those who hold interests in the Shares through DTC Participants or Indirect Participants, in each case who satisfy the requirements for transfers of Shares. DTC Participants acting on behalf of investors holding Shares through such DTC Participants’ accounts in DTC will follow the delivery practice applicable to securities eligible for DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System. Shares will be credited to DTC Participants’ securities accounts following confirmation of receipt of payment.
 
 
 
Net Asset Value
 
The NAV will be calculated by taking the current market value of the Fund’s total assets and subtracting any liabilities and dividing the balance by the number of Shares. Under the Fund’s current operational procedures, the Fund’s administrator, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Global Fund Services (the “Administrator”) will calculate the NAV of the Fund’s Shares as of the earlier of 4:00 p.m. New York time or the close of the New York Stock Exchange each day. ICE Data Indices, LLC will calculate an approximate net asset value every 15 seconds throughout each day that the Fund’s Shares are traded on the NYSE Arca for as long as the CBOT’s main pricing mechanism is open.
 
Fund Expenses
 
The Fund pays the Sponsor a management fee at an annual rate of 1.00% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. The Fund is also responsible for other ongoing fees, costs and expenses of its operations, including (i) brokerage and other fees and commissions incurred in connection with the trading activities of the Fund; (ii) expenses incurred in connection with registering additional Shares of the Fund or offering Shares of the Fund; (iii) the routine expenses associated with the preparation and, if required, the printing and mailing of monthly, quarterly, annual and other reports required by applicable U.S. federal and state regulatory authorities, Trust meetings and preparing, printing and mailing proxy statements to Shareholders; (iv) the payment of any distributions related to redemption of Shares; (v) payment for routine services of the Trustee, legal counsel and independent accountants; (vi) payment for routine accounting, bookkeeping, custody and transfer agency services, whether performed by an outside service provider or by Affiliates of the Sponsor; (vii) postage and insurance; (viii) costs and expenses associated with investor relations and services; (ix) costs of preparation of all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns and any taxes payable on the income, assets or operations of the Fund; and (x) extraordinary expenses (including, but not limited to, legal claims and liabilities and litigation costs and any indemnification related thereto). The Sponsor bore the costs and expenses related to the initial offer and sale of Shares, including registration fees paid or to be paid to the SEC, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) or any other regulatory body or self-regulatory organization (“SRO”). None of the costs and expenses related to the initial offer and sale of Shares, which totaled approximately $450,000 were or are chargeable to the Fund, and the Sponsor did not and may not recover any of these costs and expenses from the Fund.  Total fees to be paid by the Fund, net of the expenses waived by the Sponsor, are currently estimated to be approximately 1.15% of the daily net assets of the Fund for the twelve-month period ending April 29, 2020, though this amount may change in future years. The Sponsor may, in its discretion, pay or reimburse the Fund for, or waive a portion of its management fee to offset, expenses that would otherwise be borne by the Fund.
 
 
 
 
 
General expenses of the Trust will be allocated among the existing Teucrium Funds and any future series of the Trust as determined by the Sponsor in its discretion. The Trust may be required to indemnify the Sponsor, and the Trust and/or the Sponsor may be required to indemnify the Trustee, Distributor or Administrator, under certain circumstances.
 
 
13
 
 
Termination Events
 
The Trust and the Fund shall continue in existence from the date of their formation in perpetuity, unless the Trust or the Fund, as the case may be, is sooner terminated upon the occurrence of certain events specified in the Trust Agreement, including the following: (1) the filing of a certificate of dissolution or cancellation of the Sponsor or revocation of the Sponsor’s charter or the withdrawal of the Sponsor, unless shareholders holding a majority of the outstanding shares of the Trust, voting together as a single class, elect within ninety (90) days after such event to continue the business of the Trust and appoint a successor Sponsor; (2) the occurrence of any event which would make the existence of the Trust or the Fund unlawful; (3) the suspension, revocation, or termination of the Sponsor’s registration as a CPO with the CFTC or membership with the NFA; (4) the insolvency or bankruptcy of the Trust or the Fund; (5) a vote by the shareholders holding at least seventy-five percent (75%) of the outstanding shares of the Trust, voting together as a single class, to dissolve the Trust, subject to certain conditions; (6) the determination by the Sponsor to dissolve the Trust or the Fund, subject to certain conditions; (7) the Trust is required to be registered as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, and (8) DTC is unable or unwilling to continue to perform its functions and a comparable replacement is unavailable. Upon termination of the Fund, the affairs of the Fund shall be wound up and all of its debts and liabilities discharged or otherwise provided for in the order of priority as provided by law. The fair market value of the remaining assets of the Fund shall then be determined by the Sponsor. Thereupon, the assets of the Fund shall be distributed pro rata to the Shareholders in accordance with their Shares.
 
 
 
Authorized Purchasers
 
A list of Authorized Purchasers is available from the Distributor. Authorized Purchasers must be (1) registered broker-dealers or other securities market participants, such as banks and other financial institutions, that are not required to register as broker-dealers to engage in securities transactions, and (2) DTC Participants. To become an Authorized Purchaser, a person must enter into an Authorized Purchaser Agreement with the Sponsor.
 
 
14
 
 
 
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS INVOLVED WITH AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND?
 
You should consider carefully the risks described below before making an investment decision. You should also refer to the other information included in this prospectus, and the Fund’s and the Trust’s financial statements and the related notes incorporated by reference herein. See “Incorporation by Reference of Certain Information.”
 
Risks Associated with Investing Directly or Indirectly in Soybeans
 
Investing in Soybean Interests subjects the Fund to the risks of the soybean market, and this could result in substantial fluctuations in the price of the Fund’s Shares.
 
The Fund is subject to the risks and hazards of the soybean market because it invests in Soybean Interests. The risks and hazards that are inherent in the soybean market may cause the price of soybeans to fluctuate widely. If the changes in percentage terms of the Fund’s Shares accurately track the percentage changes in the Benchmark or the spot price of soybeans, then the price of its Shares will fluctuate accordingly.
 
 
The price and availability of soybeans is influenced by economic and industry conditions, including but not limited to supply and demand factors such as: crop disease; weed control; water availability; various planting, growing, or harvesting problems; severe weather conditions such as drought, floods, heavy rains, frost, or natural disasters that are difficult to anticipate and which cannot be controlled; uncontrolled fires, including arson; challenges in doing business with foreign companies; legal and regulatory restrictions; transportation costs; interruptions in energy supply; currency exchange rate fluctuations; and political and economic instability. Additionally, demand for soybeans is affected by changes in international, national, regional and local economic conditions, and demographic trends. The increased production of soybean crops in South America and the rising demand for soybeans in emerging nations such as China and India have increased competition in the soybean market.
 
 
The supply of soybeans could be reduced by the spread of soybean rust. Soybean rust is a wind-borne fungal disease that attacks soybeans. Although soybean rust can be killed with chemicals, chemical treatment increases production costs for farmers.
 
 
●      
Soybean production is subject to United States and foreign policies and regulations that materially affect operations. Governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry, such as taxes, tariffs, duties, subsidies, incentives, acreage control, and import and export restrictions on agricultural commodities and commodity products, can influence the planting of certain crops, the location and size of crop production, the volume and types of imports and exports, and industry profitability. Additionally, soybean production is affected by laws and regulations relating to, but not limited to, the sourcing, transporting, storing and processing of agricultural raw materials as well as the transporting, storing and distributing of related agricultural products. Soybean producers also may need to comply with various environmental laws and regulations, such as those regulating the use of certain pesticides. In addition, international trade disputes can adversely affect agricultural commodity trade flows by limiting or disrupting trade between countries or regions.
 
 
●      
Because processing soybean oil can create trans-fats, the demand for soybean oil may decrease due to heightened governmental regulation of trans-fats or trans-fatty acids. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently requires food manufacturers to disclose levels of trans-fats contained in their products, and various local governments have enacted or are considering restrictions on the use of trans-fats in restaurants. Several food processors have either switched or indicated an intention to switch to oil products with lower levels of trans-fats or trans-fatty acids.
 
 
 
●     
In recent years, there has been increased global interest in the production of biofuels as alternatives to traditional fossil fuels and as a means of promoting energy independence. Soybeans can be converted into biofuels such as biodiesel. Accordingly, the soybean market has become increasingly affected by demand for biofuels and related legislation.
 
 
The costs related to soybean production could increase and soybean supply could decrease as a result of restrictions on the use of genetically modified soybeans, including requirements to segregate genetically modified soybeans and the products generated from them from other soybean products.
 
 
15
 
 
 
●     
Seasonal fluctuations in the price of soybeans may cause risk to an investor because of the possibility that Share prices will be depressed because of the soybean harvest cycle. In the futures market, fluctuations are typically reflected in contracts expiring in the harvest season (i.e., contracts expiring during the fall are typically priced lower than contracts expiring in the winter and spring). Thus, seasonal fluctuations could result in an investor incurring losses upon the sale of Fund Shares, particularly if the investor needs to sell Shares when the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts are, in whole or part, Soybean Futures Contracts expiring in the fall.
 
An investment in the Fund is subject to correlation risk. Your return on an investment in the Fund may differ from the return of the Benchmark and depending on certain factors discussed below, you could incur a partial or total loss of your investment.
 
There is a risk that changes in the price of Shares on the NYSE Arca will not correlate with changes in the Fund’s NAV; that changes in the NAV will not correlate with changes in the price of the Benchmark; and/or changes in the price of the Benchmark will not correlate with changes in the spot price of soybeans. Depending on certain factors associated with each of these correlations which are discussed in more detail below, you could incur a partial or total loss of your investment in the Fund.
 
 
The Benchmark is not designed to correlate with the spot price of soybeans, and this could cause the changes in the price of the Shares to substantially vary from the changes in the spot price of soybeans. Therefore, you may not be able to effectively use the Fund to hedge against soybean-related losses or to indirectly invest in soybeans.
 
The Benchmark Component Futures Contracts reflect the price of soybeans for future delivery, not the current spot price of soybeans, so at best the correlation between changes in such Soybean Futures Contracts and the spot price of soybeans will be only approximate. Weak correlation between the Benchmark and the spot price of soybeans may result from the typical seasonal fluctuations in soybean prices discussed above. Imperfect correlation may also result from speculation in Soybean Interests, technical factors in the trading of Soybean Futures Contracts, and expected inflation in the economy as a whole. If there is a weak correlation between the Benchmark and the spot price of soybeans, then the price of Shares may not accurately track the spot price of soybeans and you may not be able to effectively use the Fund as a way to hedge the risk of losses in your soybean-related transactions or as a way to indirectly invest in soybeans.
 
Changes in the Fund’s NAV may not correlate well with changes in the price of the Benchmark. If this were to occur, you may not be able to effectively use the Fund as a way to hedge against soybean-related losses or as a way to indirectly invest in soybeans.
 
The Sponsor endeavors to invest the Fund’s assets as fully as possible in Soybean Interests so that the changes in percentage terms in the NAV closely correlate with the changes in percentage terms in the Benchmark. However, changes in the Fund’s NAV may not correlate with the changes in the Benchmark for various reasons, including those set forth below:
 
 
 
●      
The Fund does not intend to invest only in the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts. While its investments in Soybean Futures Contracts other than the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts and Other Soybean Interests would be for the purpose of causing the Fund’s performance to track that of the Benchmark most effectively and efficiently, the performance of these Soybean Interests may not correlate well with the performance of the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts, resulting in a greater potential for error in tracking price changes in those futures contracts. Additionally, if the trading market for Soybean Futures Contracts is suspended or closed, the Fund may not be able to purchase these investments at the last reported price for such investments.
 
 
The Fund incurs certain expenses in connection with its operations and holds most of its assets in income-producing, short-term securities for margin and other liquidity purposes and to meet redemptions that may be necessary on an ongoing basis. These expenses and income cause imperfect correlation between changes in the Fund’s NAV and changes in the Benchmark.
 
 
The Sponsor may not be able to invest the Fund’s assets in Soybean Interests having an aggregate notional amount exactly equal to the Fund’s NAV. As a standardized contract, a single Soybean Futures Contract or Soybean Swap is for a specified amount of soybean, and the Fund’s NAV and the proceeds from the sale of a Creation Basket is unlikely to be an exact multiple of that amount. In such case, the Fund could not invest the entire proceeds from the purchase of the Creation Basket in such futures contracts. (For example, assuming the Fund receives $562,750 for the sale of a Creation Basket and that the value (i.e., the notional amount) of a Soybean Futures Contract is $62,600, the Fund could only enter into 8 Soybean Futures Contracts with an aggregate value of $500,800). While the Fund may be better able to achieve the exact amount of exposure to the soybean market through the use of over-the-counter Other Soybean Interests, there is no assurance that the Sponsor will be able to continually adjust the Fund’s exposure to such Other Soybean Interests to maintain such exact exposure. Furthermore, as noted above, the use of Other Soybean Interests may itself result in imperfect correlation with the Benchmark. Any amounts not invested in Soybean Interests are held in short-term Treasury Securities, cash and/or cash equivalents.
 
 
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As Fund assets increase, there may be more or less correlation. On the one hand, as the Fund grows it should be able to invest in Soybean Futures Contracts with a notional amount that is closer on a percentage basis to the Fund’s NAV. For example, if the Fund’s NAV is equal to 4.9 times the value of a single futures contract, it can purchase only four futures contracts, which would cause only 81.6% of the Fund’s assets to be exposed to the soybean market. On the other hand, if the Fund’s NAV is equal to 100.9 times the value of a single Soybean Futures Contract, it can purchase 100 such contracts, resulting in 99.1% exposure. However, at certain asset levels the Fund may be limited in its ability to purchase Soybean Futures Contracts due to position limits or accountability levels imposed by the CFTC or the relevant exchanges. In these instances, the Fund would likely invest to a greater extent in Soybean Interests not subject to these position limits or accountability levels. To the extent that the Fund invests in Other Soybean Interests, the correlation between the Fund’s NAV and the Benchmark may be lower. In certain circumstances, position limits or accountability levels could limit the number of Creation Baskets that will be sold.
 
If changes in the Fund’s NAV do not correlate with changes in the Benchmark, then investing in the Fund may not be an effective way to hedge against soybean-related losses or indirectly invest in soybeans.
 
Changes in the price of the Fund’s Shares on the NYSE Arca may not correlate perfectly with changes in the NAV of the Fund’s Shares. If this variation occurs, then you may not be able to effectively use the Fund to hedge against soybean-related losses or to indirectly invest in soybeans.
 
While it is expected that the trading prices of the Shares will fluctuate in accordance with the changes in the Fund’s NAV, the prices of Shares may also be influenced by other factors, including the supply of and demand for the Shares, whether for the short term or the longer term. There is no guarantee that the Shares will not trade at appreciable discounts from, and/or premiums to, the Fund’s NAV. This could cause the changes in the price of the Shares to substantially vary from the changes in the spot price of soybeans, even if the Fund’s NAV was closely tracking movements in the spot price of soybeans. If this occurs, you may not be able to effectively use the Fund to hedge the risk of losses in your soybean-related transactions or to indirectly invest in soybeans.
 
The Fund may experience a loss if it is required to sell short-term Treasury Securities or cash equivalents at a price lower than the price at which they were acquired.
 
If the Fund is required to sell its short-term Treasury Securities or its cash equivalents at a price lower than the price at which they were acquired, the Fund will experience a loss. This loss may adversely impact the price of the Shares and may decrease the correlation between the price of the Shares, the Benchmark, and the spot price of soybeans. The value of short-term Treasury Securities and cash equivalents held by the Fund generally moves inversely with movements in interest rates. The prices of longer maturity securities are subject to greater market fluctuations as a result of changes in interest rates. While the short-term nature of the Fund’s investments in short-term Treasury Securities and cash equivalents should minimize the interest rate risk to which the Fund is subject, it is possible that the cash equivalents held by the Fund will decline in value.
 
Certain of the Fund’s investments could be illiquid, which could cause large losses to investors at any time or from time to time.
 
The Fund may not always be able to liquidate its positions in its investments at the desired price for reasons including, among others, insufficient trading volume, limits imposed by exchanges or other regulatory organizations, or lack of liquidity. As to futures contracts, it may be difficult to execute a trade at a specific price when there is a relatively small volume of buy and sell orders in a market. Limits imposed by futures exchanges or other regulatory organizations, such as accountability levels, position limits and price fluctuation limits, may contribute to a lack of liquidity with respect to some exchange-traded Soybean Interests. In addition, over-the-counter contracts may be illiquid because they are contracts between two parties and generally may not be transferred by one party to a third party without the counterparty’s consent. Conversely, a counterparty may give its consent, but the Fund still may not be able to transfer an over-the-counter Soybean Interest to a third party due to concerns regarding the counterparty’s credit risk.
 
A market disruption, such as a foreign government taking political actions that disrupt the market in its currency, its soybean production or exports, or in another major export, can also make it difficult to liquidate a position. Unexpected market illiquidity may cause major losses to investors at any time or from time to time. In addition, the Fund does not intend at this time to establish a credit facility, which would provide an additional source of liquidity, but instead will rely only on the cash and/or cash equivalents that it holds to meet its liquidity needs. The anticipated large value of the positions in Soybean Interests that the Sponsor will acquire or enter into for the Fund increases the risk of illiquidity. Because Soybean Interests may be illiquid, the Fund’s holdings may be more difficult to liquidate at favorable prices in periods of illiquid markets and losses may be incurred during the period in which positions are being liquidated.
 
 
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If the nature of the participants in the futures market shifts such that soybean purchasers are the predominant hedgers in the market, the Fund might have to reinvest at higher futures prices or choose Other Soybean Interests.
 
The changing nature of the participants in the soybean market will influence whether futures prices are above or below the expected future spot price. Soybean producers will typically seek to hedge against falling soybean prices by selling Soybean Futures Contracts. Therefore, if soybean producers become the predominant hedgers in the futures market, prices of Soybean Futures Contracts will typically be below expected future spot prices. Conversely, if the predominant hedgers in the futures market are the purchasers of soybeans who purchase Soybean Futures Contracts to hedge against a rise in prices, prices of Soybean Futures Contracts will likely be higher than expected future spot prices. This can have significant implications for the Fund when it is time to sell a Soybean Futures Contract that is no longer a Benchmark Component Futures Contract and purchase a new Soybean Futures Contract or to sell a Soybean Futures Contract to meet redemption requests.
 
While the Fund does not intend to take physical delivery of soybeans under its Soybean Interests, the possibility of physical delivery impacts the value of the contracts.
 
While it is not the current intention of the Fund to take physical delivery of soybeans under its Soybean Interests, Soybean Futures Contracts are traditionally physically-deliverable contracts, and, unless a portion was not traded out of or rolled, it is possible to take or make delivery under these and some Other Soybean Interests. Storage costs associated with purchasing soybeans could result in costs and other liabilities that could impact the value of Soybean Futures Contracts or certain Other Soybean Interests. Storage costs include the time value of money invested in soybeans as a physical commodity plus the actual costs of storing the soybeans less any benefits from ownership of soybeans that are not obtained by the holder of a futures contract. In general, Soybean Futures Contracts have a one-month delay for contract delivery and the pricing of back month contracts (the back month is any future delivery month other than the spot month) include storage costs. To the extent that these storage costs change for soybeans while the Fund holds Soybean Interests, the value of the Soybean Interests, and therefore the Fund’s NAV, may change as well.
 
The price relationship between the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts at any point in time and the Soybean Futures Contracts that will become Benchmark Component Futures Contracts on the next roll date will vary and may impact both the Fund’s total return and the degree to which its total return tracks that of soybean price indices.
 
The design of the Fund’s Benchmark is such that the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts will change five times per year, and the Fund’s investments must be rolled periodically to reflect the changing composition of the Benchmark. For example, when the second-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract becomes the first-to-expire contract, such contract will no longer be a Benchmark Component Futures Contract and the Fund’s position in it will no longer be consistent with tracking the Benchmark. In the event of a soybean futures market where near-to-expire contracts trade at a higher price than longer-to-expire contracts, a situation referred to as “backwardation,” then absent the impact of the overall movement in soybean prices the value of the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts would tend to rise as they approach expiration. As a result, the Fund may benefit because it would be selling more expensive contracts and buying less expensive ones on an ongoing basis. Conversely, in the event of a soybean futures market where near-to-expire contracts trade at a lower price than longer-to-expire contracts, a situation referred to as “contango,” then absent the impact of the overall movement in soybean prices the value of the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts would tend to decline as they approach expiration. As a result, the Fund’s total return may be lower than might otherwise be the case because it would be selling less expensive contracts and buying more expensive ones. The impact of backwardation and contango may lead the total return of the Fund to vary significantly from the total return of other price references, such as the spot price of soybean. In the event of a prolonged period of contango, and absent the impact of rising or falling soybean prices, this could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s NAV and total return, and you could incur a partial or total loss of your investment in the Fund.
 
Regulation of the commodity interests and commodity markets is extensive and constantly changing; future regulatory developments are impossible to predict but may significantly and adversely affect the Fund.
 
The regulation of futures markets, futures contracts and futures exchanges has historically been comprehensive. The CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency including, for example, the retroactive implementation of speculative position limits, increased margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading on an exchange or trading facility.
 
The regulation of commodity interest transactions in the United States is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to ongoing modification by governmental and judicial action. Subsequent to the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) in 2010, swap agreements became fully regulated by the CFTC under the amended Commodity Exchange Act and the CFTC’s regulations thereunder. Considerable regulatory attention has been focused on non-traditional investment pools that are publicly distributed in the United States. As the Dodd-Frank Act continues to be implemented by the CFTC and the SEC, there is a possibility of future regulatory changes within the United States altering, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in the Teucrium Funds, or the ability of a Fund to continue to implement its investment strategy. In addition, various national governments outside of the United States have expressed concern regarding the disruptive effects of speculative trading in the commodities markets and the need to regulate the derivatives markets in general. The effect of any future regulatory change on the Fund is impossible to predict but could be substantial and adverse.
 
 
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Further, President Donald J. Trump has promised and issued several executive orders intended to relieve the financial burden created by the Dodd-Frank Act, although these executive orders only set forth several general principles to be followed by the federal agencies and do not mandate the wholesale repeal of the Dodd-Frank Act. The scope of the effect that passage of new financial reform legislation could have on U.S. securities, derivatives and commodities markets is not clear at this time because each federal regulatory agency would have to promulgate new regulations to implement such legislation. These regulatory changes may affect the continued operation of the Teucrium Funds. For additional information regarding recent regulatory developments that may impact the Teucrium Funds or the Trust, refer to the section entitled “Regulation” of the Statement of Additional Information.
 
If you are investing in the Fund for purposes of hedging, you might be subject to several risks, including the possibility of losing the benefit of favorable market movements.
 
Producers and commercial users of soybeans may use the Fund as a vehicle to hedge the risk of losses in their soybean-related transactions. There are several risks in connection with using the Fund as a hedging device. While hedging can provide protection against an adverse movement in market prices, it can also preclude a hedger’s opportunity to benefit from a favorable market movement. For instance, in a hedging transaction the hedger may be a user of a commodity concerned that the hedged commodity will increase in price but must recognize the risk that the price may instead decline. If this happens, the hedger will have lost the benefit of being able to purchase the commodity at the lower price because the hedging transaction will result in a loss that would offset (at least in part) this benefit. Thus, the hedger foregoes the opportunity to profit from favorable price movements. In addition, if the hedge is not a perfect one, the hedger can lose on the hedging transaction and not realize an offsetting gain in the value of the underlying item being hedged.
 
When using Soybean Interests as a hedging technique, at best, the correlation between changes in prices of futures contracts and of the items being hedged can be only approximate. The degree of imperfection of correlation depends upon circumstances such as: variations in speculative markets, demand for futures and for soybean products, technical influences in futures trading, and differences between anticipated costs being hedged and the instruments underlying the standard futures contracts available for trading. Even a well-conceived hedge may be unsuccessful to some degree because of unexpected market behavior as well as the expenses associated with creating the hedge.
 
In addition, using an investment in the Fund as a hedge for changes in food costs generally may not be successful because changes in the price of soybeans may vary substantially from changes in the prices of other food products. In addition, the price of soybeans and the Fund’s NAV would not reflect the refining, transportation, and other costs that are specific to the hedger.
 
An investment in the Fund may provide you little or no diversification benefits. Thus, in a declining market, the Fund may have no gains to offset your losses from other investments, and you may suffer losses on your investment in the Fund at the same time you incur losses with respect to other asset classes.
 
We cannot predict to what extent the performance of Soybean Interests will or will not correlate to the performance of other broader asset classes such as stocks and bonds. If the Fund’s performance were to move more directly with the financial markets, you will obtain little or no diversification benefits from an investment in the Shares. In such a case, the Fund may have no gains to offset your losses from other investments, and you may suffer losses on your investment in the Fund at the same time you incur losses with respect to other investments.
 
Variables such as drought, floods, weather, embargoes, tariffs and other political events may have a larger impact on soybean and Soybean Interest prices than on traditional securities and broader financial markets. These additional variables may create additional investment risks that subject the Fund’s investments to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities.
 
Lower correlation should not be confused with negative correlation, where the performance of two asset classes would be opposite of each other. There is no historic evidence that the spot price of soybeans and prices of other financial assets, such as stocks and bonds, are negatively correlated. In the absence of negative correlation, the Fund cannot be expected to be automatically profitable during unfavorable periods for the stock market, or vice versa.
 
  The Fund’s Operating Risks
 
The Fund is not a registered investment company, so you do not have the protections of the Investment Company Act of 1940.
 
The Fund is not an investment company subject to the Investment Company Act of 1940. Accordingly, you do not have the protections afforded by that statute, which, for example, requires investment companies to have a board of directors with a majority of disinterested directors and regulates the relationship between the investment company and its investment manager.
 
 
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The Sponsor is leanly staffed and relies heavily on key personnel to manage trading activities.
 
In managing and directing the day-to-day activities and affairs of the Fund, the Sponsor relies almost entirely on a small number of individuals, including Mr. Sal Gilbertie, Mr. Steve Kahler and Ms. Cory Mullen-Rusin. If Mr. Gilbertie, Mr. Kahler or Ms. Mullen-Rusin were to leave or be unable to carry out their present responsibilities, it may have an adverse effect on the management of the Fund. To the extent that the Sponsor establishes additional commodity pools, even greater demands will be placed on these individuals.
 
The Sponsor has limited capital and may be unable to continue to manage the Fund if it sustains continued losses.
 
The Sponsor was formed for the purpose of managing the Trust, including the Fund, the other Teucrium Funds, and any other series of the Trust that may be formed in the future, and has been provided with capital primarily by its principals and a small number of outside investors. If the Sponsor operates at a loss for an extended period, its capital will be depleted, and it may be unable to obtain additional financing necessary to continue its operations. If the Sponsor were unable to continue to provide services to the Fund, the Fund would be terminated if a replacement sponsor could not be found. Any expenses related to the operation of the Fund would need to be paid by the Fund at the time of termination.
 
Position limits, accountability levels and daily price fluctuation limits set by the CFTC and the exchanges have the potential to cause tracking error, which could cause the price of Shares to substantially vary from the Benchmark and prevent you from being able to effectively use the Fund as a way to hedge against soybean-related losses or as a way to indirectly invest in soybeans.
 
The CFTC and U.S. designated contract markets, such as the CBOT, may establish position limits on the maximum net long or net short futures contracts in commodity interests that any person or group of persons under common trading control (other than as a hedge, which an investment by the Fund is not) may hold, own or control. For example, the current position limit for investments at any one time in the Soybean Futures Contracts are 600 spot month contracts, 15,000 contracts expiring in any other single month, and 15,000 total for all months. Soybean Swaps are subject to position limits that are similar to, but currently measured separately from, the limits on Soybean Futures Contracts. These position limits are fixed ceilings that the Fund would not be able to exceed without specific CFTC authorization.
 
Accountability levels differ from position limits in that they do not represent a fixed ceiling, but rather a threshold above which a futures exchange may exercise greater scrutiny and control over an investor’s positions. If a Fund were to exceed an applicable accountability level for investments in futures contracts, the exchange will monitor the Fund’s exposure and may ask for further information on its activities, including the total size of all positions, investment and trading strategy, and the extent of liquidity resources of the Fund. If deemed necessary by the exchange, the Fund could be ordered to reduce its aggregate net position back to the accountability level.
 
In addition to position limits and accountability limits, the exchanges set daily price fluctuation limits on futures contracts. The daily price fluctuation limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of futures contracts may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price. Once the daily price fluctuation limit has been reached in a particular futures contract, no trades may be made at a price beyond that limit.
 
On December 16, 2016, as mandated by the Dodd-Frank Act, the CFTC adopted a final rule that aggregate all positions, for purposes of position limits; such positions include futures contracts, futures-equivalent positions, over-the-counter swaps and options (i.e., contracts that are not traded on exchanges). These aggregation requirements became effective on February 14, 2017 and could limit the Fund’s ability to establish positions in commodity over-the-counter instruments if the assets of the Fund were to grow substantially.
 
There are no independent advisers representing Fund investors.
 
The Sponsor has consulted with legal counsel, accountants and other advisers regarding the formation and operation of the Trust and Fund. No counsel has been appointed to represent you in connection with the offering of Shares. Accordingly, you should consult your own legal, tax and financial advisers regarding the desirability of an investment in the Shares.
 
There are technical and fundamental risks inherent in the trading system the Sponsor intends to employ.
 
The Sponsor’s trading system is quantitative in nature and it is possible that the Sponsor may make errors. Any errors or imperfections in the Sponsor’s trading system’s quantitative models, or in the data on which they are based, could adversely affect the Sponsor’s effective use of such trading systems. It is not possible or practicable for the Sponsor’s trading system to factor all relevant, available data into quantitative systems and/or trading decision. There is no guarantee that the Sponsor will use any specific data or type of data in making trading decisions on behalf of the Fund, nor is there any guarantee that the data actually utilized in making trading decisions on behalf of the Fund will be the most accurate data or free from errors. In addition, it is possible that a computer or software program may malfunction and cause an error in computation.
 
 
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The Fund and the Sponsor may have conflicts of interest, which may cause them to favor their own interests to your detriment.
 
The Fund and the Sponsor may have inherent conflicts to the extent the Sponsor attempts to maintain the Fund’s asset size in order to preserve its fee income and this may not always be consistent with the Fund’s objective of having the value of its Shares’ NAV track changes in the Benchmark. The Sponsor’s officers and employees do not devote their time exclusively to the Fund. These persons may be directors, officers or employees of other entities. They could have a conflict between their responsibilities to the Fund and to those other entities.
 
In addition, the Sponsor’s principals, officers or employees may trade securities and futures and related contracts for their own accounts. A conflict of interest may exist if their trades are in the same markets and occur at the same time as the Fund trades using the clearing broker to be used by the Fund. A potential conflict also may occur if the Sponsor’s principals, officers or employees trade their accounts more aggressively or take positions in their accounts that are opposite, or ahead of, the positions taken by the Fund.
 
The Sponsor has sole current authority to manage the investments and operations of the Fund, and this may allow it to act in a way that furthers its own interests and in conflict with your best interests, including the authority of the Sponsor to allocate expenses to and between the Funds. Shareholders have very limited voting rights, which will limit the ability to influence matters such as amendment of the Trust Agreement, changes in the Fund’s basic investment policies, dissolution of the Fund, or the sale or distribution of the Fund’s assets.
 
Shareholders have only very limited voting rights and generally will not have the power to replace the Sponsor. Shareholders will not participate in the management of the Fund and do not control the Sponsor so they will not have influence over basic matters that affect the Fund.
 
Shareholders will have very limited voting rights with respect to the Fund’s affairs. Shareholders may elect a replacement Sponsor only if the current Sponsor resigns voluntarily or loses its corporate charter. Shareholders will not be permitted to participate in the management or control of the Fund or the conduct of its business. Shareholders must therefore rely upon the duties and judgment of the Sponsor to manage the Fund’s affairs.
 
The Sponsor may manage a large amount of assets and this could affect the Fund’s ability to trade profitably.
 
Increases in assets under management may affect trading decisions. While the Fund’s assets are currently at manageable levels, the Sponsor does not intend to limit the amount of Fund assets. The more assets the Sponsor manages, the more difficult it may be for it to trade profitably because of the difficulty of trading larger positions without adversely affecting prices and performance and of managing risk associated with larger positions.
 
The liability of the Sponsor and the Trustee are limited, and the value of the Shares will be adversely affected if the Fund is required to indemnify the Trustee or the Sponsor.
 
Under the Trust Agreement, the Trustee and the Sponsor are not liable, and have the right to be indemnified, for any liability or expense incurred absent gross negligence or willful misconduct on the part of the Trustee or Sponsor, as the case may be. That means the Sponsor may require the assets of the Fund to be sold in order to cover losses or liability suffered by the Sponsor or by the Trustee. Any sale of that kind would reduce the NAV of the Fund and the value of its Shares.
 
Although the Shares of the Fund are limited liability investments, certain circumstances such as bankruptcy could increase a Shareholder’s liability.
 
The Shares of the Fund are limited liability investments; Shareholders may not lose more than the amount that they invest plus any profits recognized on their investment. However, Shareholders could be required, as a matter of bankruptcy law, to return to the estate of the Fund any distribution they received at a time when the Fund was in fact insolvent or in violation of its Trust Agreement.
 
 
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You cannot be assured of the Sponsor’s continued services, and discontinuance may be detrimental to the Fund.
 
You cannot be assured that the Sponsor will be willing or able to continue to service the Fund for any length of time. The Sponsor was formed for the purpose of sponsoring the Fund and other commodity pools and has limited financial resources and no significant source of income apart from its management fees from such commodity pools to support its continued service for the Fund. If the Sponsor discontinues its activities on behalf of the Fund, or another series of the Trust, the Fund may be adversely affected. If the Sponsor’s registrations with the CFTC or memberships in the NFA were revoked or suspended, the Sponsor would no longer be able to provide services to the Fund.
 
The Fund could terminate at any time and cause the liquidation and potential loss of your investment and could upset the overall maturity and timing of your investment portfolio.
 
The Fund may terminate at any time, regardless of whether the Fund has incurred losses, subject to the terms of the Trust Agreement. For example, the dissolution or resignation of the Sponsor would cause the Trust to terminate unless shareholders holding a majority of the outstanding shares of the Trust, voting together as a single class, elect within 90 days of the event to continue the Trust and appoint a successor Sponsor. In addition, the Sponsor may terminate the Fund if it determines that the Fund’s aggregate net assets in relation to its operating expenses make the continued operation of the Fund unreasonable or imprudent. As of the date of this prospectus, the Fund pays the fees, costs, and expenses of its operations. If the Sponsor and the Fund are unable to raise sufficient funds so that the Fund’s expenses are reasonable in relation to its NAV, the Fund may be forced to terminate, and investors may lose all or part of their investment. Any expenses related to the operation of the Fund would need to be paid by the Fund at the time of termination.
 
However, no level of losses will require the Sponsor to terminate the Fund. The Fund’s termination would result in the liquidation of its investments and the distribution of its remaining assets to the Shareholders on a pro rata basis in accordance with their Shares, and the Fund could incur losses in liquidating its investments in connection with a termination. Termination could also negatively affect the overall maturity and timing of your investment portfolio.
 
As a Shareholder, you will not have the rights enjoyed by investors in certain other types of entities.
 
As interests in separate series of a Delaware statutory trust, the Shares do not involve the rights normally associated with the ownership of shares of a corporation. In addition, the Shares have limited voting and distribution rights (for example, Shareholders do not have the right to elect directors, as the Trust does not have a board of directors, and generally will not receive regular distributions of the net income and capital gains earned by the Fund). The Fund is also not subject to certain investor protection provisions of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 and the NYSE Arca governance rules (for example, audit committee requirements).
 
A court could potentially conclude that the assets and liabilities of the Fund are not segregated from those of another series of the Trust, thereby potentially exposing assets in the Fund to the liabilities of another series.
 
The Fund is a series of a Delaware statutory trust and not itself a legal entity separate from the other Teucrium Funds. The Delaware Statutory Trust Act provides that if certain provisions are included in the formation and governing documents of a statutory trust organized in series and if separate and distinct records are maintained for any series and the assets associated with that series are held in separate and distinct records and are accounted for in such separate and distinct records separately from the other assets of the statutory trust, or any series thereof, then the debts, liabilities, obligations and expenses incurred by a particular series are enforceable against the assets of such series only, and not against the assets of the statutory trust generally or any other series thereof. Conversely, none of the debts, liabilities, obligations and expenses incurred with respect to any other series thereof is enforceable against the assets of such series. The Sponsor is not aware of any court case that has interpreted this inter-series limitation on liability or provided any guidance as to what is required for compliance. The Sponsor intends to maintain separate and distinct records for the Fund and account for the Fund separately from any other Trust series, but it is possible a court could conclude that the methods used do not satisfy the Delaware Statutory Trust Act, which would potentially expose assets in the Fund to the liabilities of one or more of the Teucrium Funds and/or any other Trust series created in the future.
 
The Sponsor and the Trustee are not obligated to prosecute any action, suit or other proceeding in respect of any Fund property.
 
Neither the Sponsor nor the Trustee is obligated to, although each may in its respective discretion, prosecute any action, suit or other proceeding in respect of any Fund property. The Trust Agreement does not confer upon Shareholders the right to prosecute any such action, suit or other proceeding.
 
The Fund does not expect to make cash distributions.
 
The Sponsor intends to re-invest any income and realized gains of the Fund in additional Soybean Interests rather than distributing cash to Shareholders. Therefore, unlike mutual funds, commodity pools or other investment pools that generally distribute income and gains to their investors, the Fund generally will not distribute cash to Shareholders. You should not invest in the Fund if you will need cash distributions from the Fund to pay taxes on your share of income and gains of the Fund, if any, or for any other reason. Although the Fund does not intend to make cash distributions, it reserves the right to do so in the Sponsor’s sole discretion, in certain situations, including for example, if the income earned from its investments held directly or posted as margin may reach levels that merit distribution, e.g., at levels where such income is not necessary to support its underlying investments in Soybean Interests and investors adversely react to being taxed on such income without receiving distributions that could be used to pay such tax. Cash distributions may be made in these and similar instances.
 
 
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There is a risk that the Fund will not have sufficient total net assets to compensate for the fees and expenses that it must pay and as such the expense ratio of the Fund may be higher than that filed in this document.
 
The Fund pays management fees at an annual rate of 1.00% of its average net assets, brokerage charges and various other expenses of its ongoing operations (e.g., fees of the Administrator, Trustee and Distributor), resulting in a total estimated expense ratio of approximately 1.15% of net assets, net of the expenses waived by the Sponsor. These fees and expenses must be paid in all events, regardless of the Fund’s total net assets.
 
If this offering of Shares does not raise sufficient funds to make the Fund’s future operations viable, the Fund may be forced to terminate, and investors may lose all or part of their investment.
 
All of the expenses relating to the Fund incurred prior to the commencement of operations (September 19, 2011) were paid by the Sponsor. These payments by the Sponsor were designed to allow the Fund the ability to commence the public offering of its Shares. As of the date of this prospectus, the Fund pays the fees, costs and expenses of its operations. If the Sponsor and the Fund are unable to raise sufficient funds so that the Fund’s expenses are reasonable in relation to its NAV, the Fund may be forced to terminate, and investors may lose all or part of their investment. Any expenses related to the operation of the Fund would need to be paid by the Fund at the time of termination.
 
The Fund may incur higher fees and expenses upon renewing existing or entering into new contractual relationships.
 
The arrangements between clearing brokers and counterparties on the one hand and the Fund on the other generally are terminable by the clearing brokers or counterparty upon notice to the Fund. In addition, the agreements between the Fund and its third-party service providers, such as the Distributor and the Custodian, are generally terminable at specified intervals. Upon termination, the Sponsor may be required to renegotiate or make other arrangements for obtaining similar services if the Fund intends to continue to operate. Comparable services from another party may not be available, or even if available, these services may not be available on the terms as favorable as those of the expired or terminated arrangements.
 
The Fund may experience a higher breakeven if interest rates decline.
 
The Fund earns interest on cash balances available for investment. If actual interest rates earned were to fall and if the Sponsor were not able to waive expenses sufficient to cover the deficit, the breakeven estimated by the Fund in this prospectus could be higher.
 
The Fund may miss certain trading opportunities because it will not receive the benefit of the expertise of independent trading advisors.
 
The Sponsor does not employ trading advisors for the Fund; however, the Sponsor reserves the right to employ them in the future. The only advisor to the Fund is the Sponsor. A lack of independent trading advisors may be disadvantageous to the Fund because it will not receive the benefit of their independent expertise.
 
The Fund is not actively managed.
 
The Fund is not actively managed and is designed to track a benchmark, regardless of whether the price of the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts is flat, declining or rising. As a result, the Fund may sustain losses that may have been avoidable if the Fund was actively managed.
 
The Net Asset Value calculation of the Fund may be overstated or understated due to the valuation method employed when a settlement price is not available on the date of net asset value calculation.
 
The Fund’s NAV includes, in part, any unrealized profits or losses on open swap agreements, futures or forward contracts. Under normal circumstances, the NAV reflects the quoted CBOT settlement price of open futures contracts on the date when the NAV is being calculated. In instances when the quoted settlement price of futures contracts traded on an exchange may not be reflective of fair value based on market condition, generally due to the operation of daily limits or other rules of the exchange or otherwise the NAV may not reflect the fair value of open futures contracts on such date. For purposes of financial statements and reports, the Sponsor will recalculate the NAV where necessary to reflect the “fair value” of a Futures Contract when the Futures Contract closes at its price fluctuation limit for the day.
 
 
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An unanticipated number of redemption requests during a short period of time could have an adverse effect on the NAV of the Fund.
 
If a substantial number of requests for redemption of Redemption Baskets are received by the Fund during a relatively short period of time, the Fund may not be able to satisfy the requests from the Fund’s assets not committed to trading. As a consequence, it could be necessary to liquidate the Fund’s trading positions before the time that its trading strategies would otherwise call for liquidation.
 
Fund assets may be depleted if investment performance does not exceed fees.
 
In addition to certain fees paid to each Fund’s service providers, each Fund pays the Sponsor a fee of 1.00% of asset under management per annum, regardless of Fund performance. Over time, a Fund’s assets could be depleted if investment performance does not exceed such fees.
 
The liquidity of the Shares may be affected by the withdrawal from participation of Authorized Purchasers, market-makers, or other significant secondary-market participants which could adversely affect the market price of the Shares.
 
Only an Authorized Purchaser may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. The Fund has a limited number of institutions that act as Authorized Purchasers. To the extent that these institutions exit the business or are unable to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders with respect to the Fund and no other Authorized Purchaser is able to step forward to create or redeem Creation Units, Fund shares may trade at a discount to NAV and possibly face trading halts and/or delisting. In addition, a decision by a market maker, lead market maker, or other large investor, to cease activities for the Fund or a decision by a secondary market participant to sell a significant number of the Fund’s Shares could adversely affect liquidity, the spread between the bid and ask quotes, and potentially the price of the Shares. The Sponsor can make no guarantees that participation by Authorized Purchasers or market makers will continue.
 
   If a minimum number of Shares is outstanding, market makers may be less willing to purchase Shares in the secondary market which may limit your ability to sell Shares.
 
There is a minimum number of baskets and associated Shares specified for the Fund. If the Fund experienced redemptions that caused the number of Shares outstanding to decrease to the minimum level of Shares required to be outstanding, until the minimum number of Shares is again exceeded through the purchase of a new Creation Basket, there can be no more redemptions by an Authorized Purchaser. In such case, market makers may be less willing to purchase Shares from investors in the secondary market, which may in turn limit the ability of Shareholders of the Fund to sell their Shares in the secondary market. As of January 31, 2019, these minimum levels for the Fund are 50,000 Shares representing two baskets. The minimum level of Shares specified for the Fund is subject to change. As of January 31, 2019, there were 1,525,004 Shares outstanding. (The current number of Shares outstanding is posted daily on our website, www.teucriumsoybfund.com.)
 
You may be adversely affected by redemption orders that are subject to postponement, suspension or rejection under certain circumstances.
 
The Trust may, in its discretion, suspend the right to redeem Shares of the Fund or postpone the redemption settlement date: (1) for any period during which an applicable exchange is closed other than customary weekend or holiday closing, or trading is suspended or restricted; (2) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which delivery, disposal or evaluation of the Fund’s assets is not reasonably practicable; (3) for such other period as the Sponsor determines to be necessary for the protection of Shareholders; (4) if there is a possibility that any or all of the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts of the Fund on the CBOT from which the NAV of the Fund is calculated will be priced at a daily price limit restriction; or (5) if, in the sole discretion of the Sponsor, the execution of such an order would not be in the best interest of the Fund or its Shareholders. In addition, the Trust will reject a redemption order if the order is not in proper form as described in the agreement with the Authorized Purchaser or if the fulfillment of the order, in the opinion of its counsel, might be unlawful. The Sponsor may also reject a redemption order if the number of Shares being redeemed would reduce the remaining outstanding Shares to 50,000 Shares (i.e., two baskets of 25,000 Shares each) or less, unless the Sponsor has reason to believe that the placer of the redemption order does in fact possess all the outstanding Shares of the Fund and can deliver them. Any such postponement, suspension or rejection could adversely affect a redeeming Shareholder. For example, the resulting delay may adversely affect the value of the Shareholder’s redemption proceeds if the NAV of the Fund declines during the period of delay. The Trust Agreement provides that the Sponsor and its designees will not be liable for any loss or damage that may result from any such suspension or postponement.
 
Any postponement, suspension or rejection of a redemption order could adversely affect a redeeming Shareholder. For example, the resulting delay may adversely affect the value of a Shareholder’s redemption proceeds if the NAV of the Fund declines during the period of delay. The Trust Agreement provides that the Sponsor and its designees will not be liable for any loss or damage that may result from any such suspension or postponement.
 
 
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The failure or bankruptcy of a clearing broker could result in substantial losses for the Fund; the clearing broker could be subject to proceedings that impair its ability to execute the Fund’s trades.
 
Under CFTC regulations, a clearing broker with respect to the Fund’s exchange-traded Soybean Interests must maintain customers’ assets in a bulk segregated account. If a clearing broker fails to do so,
or is unable to satisfy a substantial deficit in a customer account, its other customers may be subject to risk of a substantial loss of their funds in the event of that clearing broker’s bankruptcy. In that event, the clearing broker’s customers, such as the Fund, are entitled to recover, even in respect of property specifically traceable to them, only a proportional share of all property available for distribution to all of that clearing broker’s customers. The Fund also may be subject to the risk of the failure of, or delay in performance by, any exchanges and markets and their clearing organizations, if any, on which Soybean Interests are traded.
 
From time to time, the clearing brokers may be subject to legal or regulatory proceedings in the ordinary course of their business. A clearing broker’s involvement in costly or time-consuming legal proceedings may divert financial resources or personnel away from the clearing broker’s trading operations, which could impair the clearing broker’s ability to successfully execute and clear the Fund’s trades.
 
The failure or insolvency of the Fund’s Custodian or other financial institution in which the Fund has deposits could result in a substantial loss of the Fund’s assets.
 
As noted above, the vast majority of the Fund’s assets are held in short-term Treasury Securities, in cash and/or cash equivalents with the Custodian, other financial institutions, or in commercial paper with a maturity date of 90 days or less. The insolvency of the Custodian, any financial institution in which the Fund has demand deposits, a commercial paper issuer, or United States Treasury could result in a complete loss of the Fund’s assets. The Fund currently has cash and or cash equivalents at the Custodian, Rabobank, N.A, in commercial paper, and in short-term United States Treasury Securities held by the FCM.
 
Third parties may infringe upon or otherwise violate intellectual property rights or assert that the Sponsor has infringed or otherwise violated their intellectual property rights, which may result in significant costs, litigation, and diverted attention of Sponsor’s management.
 
Third parties may assert that the Sponsor has infringed or otherwise violated their intellectual property rights. Third parties may independently develop business methods, trademarks or proprietary software and other technology similar to that of the Sponsor and claim that the Sponsor has violated their intellectual property rights, including their copyrights, trademark rights, trade names, trade secrets and patent rights. As a result, the Sponsor may have to litigate in the future to determine the validity and scope of other parties’ proprietary rights or defend itself against claims that it has infringed or otherwise violated other parties’ rights. Any litigation of this type, even if the Sponsor is successful and regardless of the merits, may result in significant costs, divert resources from the Fund, or require the Sponsor to change its proprietary software and other technology or enter into royalty or licensing agreements.
 
The Sponsor has a patent on certain business methods and procedures used with respect to the Fund. The Sponsor utilizes certain proprietary software. Any unauthorized use of such proprietary software business methods and/or procedures could adversely affect the competitive advantage of the Sponsor or the Fund and/or require the Sponsor to take legal action to protect its rights.
 
The success of the Fund depends on the ability of the Sponsor to accurately implement its trading strategies, and any failure to do so could subject the Fund to losses on such transactions.
 
The Sponsor’s trading strategy is quantitative in nature and it is possible that the Sponsor will make errors in its implementation. The execution of the quantitative strategy is subject to human error, such as incorrect inputs into the Sponsor’s computer systems and incorrect information provided to the Fund’s clearing brokers. In addition, it is possible that a computer or software program may malfunction and cause an error in computation. Any failure, inaccuracy or delay in executing the Fund’s transactions could affect its ability to achieve its investment objective. It could also result in decisions to undertake transactions based on inaccurate or incomplete information. This could cause substantial losses on transactions. The Sponsor is not required to reimburse the Fund for any costs associated with an error in the placement or execution of a trade in commodity future interests.
 
 
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The Fund may experience substantial losses on transactions if the computer or communications system fails.
 
The Fund’s trading activities depend on the integrity and performance of the computer and communications systems supporting them. Extraordinary transaction volume, hardware or software failure, power or telecommunications failure, a natural disaster, cyber-attack or other catastrophe could cause the computer systems to operate at an unacceptably slow speed or even fail. Any significant degradation or failure of the systems that the Sponsor uses to gather and analyze information, enter orders, process data, monitor risk levels and otherwise engage in trading activities may result in substantial losses on transactions, liability to other parties, lost profit opportunities, damages to the Sponsor’s and Fund’s reputations, increased operational expenses and diversion of technical resources.
 
If the computer and communications systems are not upgraded when necessary, the Fund’s financial condition could be harmed.
 
The development of complex computer and communications systems and new technologies may render the existing computer and communications systems supporting the Fund’s trading activities obsolete. In addition, these computer and communications systems must be compatible with those of third parties, such as the systems of exchanges, clearing brokers and the executing brokers. As a result, if these third parties upgrade their systems, the Sponsor will need to make corresponding upgrades to effectively continue its trading activities. The Sponsor may have limited financial resources for these upgrades or other technological changes. The Fund’s future success may depend on the Sponsor’s ability to respond to changing technologies on a timely and cost-effective basis.
 
The Fund depends on the reliable performance of the computer and communications systems of third parties, such as brokers and futures exchanges, and may experience substantial losses on transactions if they fail.
 
The Fund depends on the proper and timely function of complex computer and communications systems maintained and operated by the futures exchanges, brokers and other data providers that the Sponsor uses to conduct trading activities. Failure or inadequate performance of any of these systems could adversely affect the Sponsor’s ability to complete transactions, including its ability to close out positions, and result in lost profit opportunities and significant losses on commodity interest transactions. This could have a material adverse effect on revenues and materially reduce the Fund’s available capital. For example, unavailability of price quotations from third parties may make it difficult or impossible for the Sponsor to conduct trading activities so that the Fund will closely track the Benchmark. Unavailability of records from brokerage firms may make it difficult or impossible for the Sponsor to accurately determine which transactions have been executed or the details, including price and time, of any transaction executed. This unavailability of information also may make it difficult or impossible for the Sponsor to reconcile its records of transactions with those of another party or to accomplish settlement of executed transactions.
 
The occurrence of a severe weather event, natural disaster, terrorist attack, or the outbreak, continuation or expansion of war or other hostilities could disrupt the Fund’s trading activity and materially affect the Fund’s profitability.
 
The operations of the Fund, the exchanges, brokers and counterparties with which the Fund does business, and the markets in which the Fund does business could be severely disrupted in the event of a severe weather event, natural disaster, major terrorist attack, cyber-attacks, data breach or the outbreak, continuation or expansion of war or other hostilities. Global terrorist attacks, anti-terrorism initiatives, and political unrest continue to fuel this concern. In addition, a prolonged U.S. government shutdown could weaken the U.S. economy, interfere with the commodities markets that rely upon data published by U.S. federal government agencies, and prevent the Fund from receiving necessary regulatory review or approvals.
 
Failures or breaches of electronic systems could disrupt the Fund’s trading activity and materially affect the Fund’s profitability.
 
Failures or breaches of the electronic systems of the Fund, the Sponsor, the Custodian or mutual funds or other financial institutions in which the Fund invests, or the Fund’s other service providers, market makers, Authorized Purchasers, NYSE Arca, exchanges on which Soybean Futures Contracts or Other commodity interests are traded or cleared, or counterparties have the ability to cause disruptions and negatively impact the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses to the Fund and its shareholders. Such failures or breaches may include intentional cyber-attacks that may result in an unauthorized party gaining access to electronic systems in order to misappropriate the Fund’s assets or sensitive information. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and risk management systems seeking to address system breaches or failures, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Furthermore, the Fund cannot control the cyber security plans and systems of the Custodian or mutual funds or other financial institutions in which the Fund invests, or the Fund’s other service providers, market makers, Authorized Purchasers, NYSE Arca, exchanges on which Soybean Futures Contracts or Other commodity interests are traded or cleared, or counterparties.
 
 
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An investment in a Fund faces numerous risks from its shares being traded in the secondary market, any of which may lead to the Fund’s shares trading at a premium or discount to NAV.
 
Although the Fund’s shares are listed for trading on the NYSE Arca, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in the Fund’s shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the NYSE Arca, make trading in shares inadvisable. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the NYSE Arca necessary to maintain the listing of the Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged or that the shares will trade with any volume, or at all. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s portfolio holdings. The market prices of shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in the Fund’s NAV and supply and demand of shares on the NYSE Arca. It cannot be predicted whether the Fund’s shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Investors buying or selling Fund’s shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of shares.
 
The NYSE Arca may halt trading in the Shares which would adversely impact your ability to sell Shares.
 
Trading in Shares of the Fund may be halted due to market conditions or, in light of NYSE Arca rules and procedures, for reasons that, in view of the NYSE Arca, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to “circuit breaker” rules that require trading to be halted for a specified period based on a specified market decline. There can be no assurance that the requirements necessary to maintain the listing of the Shares will continue to be met or will remain unchanged. The Fund will be terminated if its Shares are delisted.
 
The lack of active trading markets for the Shares of the Fund may result in losses on your investment in the Fund at the time of disposition of your Shares.
 
Although the Shares of the Fund will be listed and traded on the NYSE Arca, there can be no guarantee that an active trading market for the Shares of the Fund will be maintained. If you need to sell your Shares at a time when no active market for them exists, the price you receive for your Shares, assuming that you are able to sell them, likely will be lower than what you would receive if an active market did exist.
 
Risk of Leverage and Volatility
 
If the Sponsor causes or permits the Fund to become leveraged, you could lose all or substantially all of your investment if the Fund’s trading positions suddenly turn unprofitable.
 
Commodity pools’ trading positions in futures contracts or other commodity interests are typically required to be secured by the deposit of margin funds that represent only a small percentage of a futures contract’s (or other commodity interest’s) entire market value. This feature permits commodity pools to “leverage” their assets by purchasing or selling futures contracts (or other commodity interests) with an aggregate notional amount in excess of the commodity pool’s assets. While this leverage can increase a pool’s profits, relatively small adverse movements in the price of the pool’s commodity interests can cause significant losses to the pool. While the Sponsor does not intend to leverage the Fund’s assets, it is not prohibited from doing so under the Trust Agreement. If the Sponsor was to cause or permit the Fund to become leveraged, you could lose all or substantially all of your investment if the Fund’s trading positions suddenly turn unprofitable.
 
The price of soybeans can be volatile which could cause large fluctuations in the price of Shares.
 
As discussed in more detail above, price movements for soybeans are influenced by, among other things, weather conditions, crop disease, transportation and storage difficulties, various planting, growing and harvesting problems, governmental policies, changing demand, and seasonal fluctuations in supply. More generally, commodity prices may be influenced by economic and monetary events such as changes in interest rates, changes in balances of payments and trade, U.S. and international inflation rates, currency valuations and devaluations, U.S. and international economic events, and changes in the philosophies and emotions of market participants. Because the Fund invests primarily in interests in a single commodity, it is not a diversified investment vehicle, and therefore may be subject to greater volatility than a diversified portfolio of stocks or bonds or a more diversified commodity pool.
 
 
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Over-the-Counter Contract Risk
 
Over-the-counter transactions are subject to changing regulation.
 
A portion of the Fund’s assets may be used to trade over-the-counter Soybean Interests, such as forward contracts or swaps. The markets for over-the-counter contracts will continue to rely upon the integrity of market participants in lieu of the additional regulation imposed by the CFTC on participants in the futures markets. To date, the forward markets have been largely unregulated, except for anti-manipulation and anti-fraud provisions, forward contracts have been executed bi-laterally and, in general historically, forward contracts have not been cleared or guaranteed by a third party. While increased regulation of over-the-counter commodity interests is likely to result from changes that are required to be effectuated by the Dodd-Frank Act, there is no guarantee that such increased regulation will be effective to reduce these risks.
 
The Fund will be subject to credit risk with respect to counterparties to over-the-counter contracts entered into by the Fund.
 
The Fund faces the risk of non-performance by the counterparties to the over-the-counter contracts. Unlike in futures contracts, the counterparty to these contracts is generally a single bank or other financial institution, rather than a clearing organization backed by a group of financial institutions. As a result, there will be greater counterparty credit risk in these transactions. A counterparty may not be able to meet its obligations to the Fund, in which case the Fund could suffer significant losses on these contracts.
 
If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations due to financial difficulties, the Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. During any such period, the Fund may have difficulty in determining the value of its contracts with the counterparty, which in turn could result in the overstatement or understatement of the Fund’s NAV. The Fund may eventually obtain only limited recovery or no recovery in such circumstances.
 
The Fund may be subject to liquidity risk with respect to its over-the-counter contracts.
 
Over-the-counter contracts may have terms that make them less marketable than Soybean Futures Contracts. Over-the-counter contracts are less marketable because they are not traded on an exchange, do not have uniform terms and conditions, and are entered into based upon the creditworthiness of the parties and the availability of credit support, such as collateral, and in general, they are not transferable without the consent of the counterparty. These conditions make such contracts less liquid than standardized futures contracts traded on a commodities exchange and diminish the ability to realize the full value of such contracts. In addition, even if collateral is used to reduce counterparty credit risk, sudden changes in the value of over-the-counter transactions may leave a party open to financial risk due to a counterparty default since the collateral held may not cover a party’s exposure on the transaction in such situations.
 
In general, valuing OTC derivatives is less certain than valuing actively traded financial instruments such as exchange traded futures contracts and securities because the price and terms on which such OTC derivatives are entered into or can be terminated are individually negotiated, and those prices and terms may not reflect the best price or terms available from other sources. In addition, while market makers and dealers generally quote indicative prices or terms for entering into or terminating OTC contracts, they typically are not contractually obligated to do so, particularly if they are not a party to the transaction. As a result, it may be difficult to obtain an independent value for an outstanding OTC derivatives transaction.
 
The foregoing liquidity risks could impact adversely affect the Fund’s ability to meet its investment objective.
 
Risk of Trading in International Markets
 
Trading in international markets would expose the Fund to credit and regulatory risk.
 
A significant portion of the Soybean Futures Contracts entered into by the Fund are traded on United States exchanges including the CBOT. However, a portion of the Fund’s trades may take place on markets or exchanges outside the United States. Some non-U.S. markets present risks because they are not subject to the same degree of regulation as their U.S. counterparts. None of the CFTC, NFA, or any domestic exchange regulates activities of any foreign boards of trade or exchanges, including the execution, delivery and clearing of transactions, has the power to compel enforcement of the rules of a foreign board of trade or exchange or of any applicable non-U.S. laws. Similarly, the rights of market participants, such as the Fund, in the event of the insolvency or bankruptcy of a non-U.S. market or broker are also likely to be more limited than in the case of U.S. markets or brokers. As a result, in these markets, the Fund has less legal and regulatory protection than it does when it trades domestically. Currently the Fund does not place trades on any markets or exchanges outside of the United States and does not anticipate doing so in the foreseeable future.
 
 
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In some of these non-U.S. markets, the performance on a futures contract is the responsibility of the counterparty and is not backed by an exchange or clearing corporation and therefore exposes the Fund to credit risk. Additionally, trading on non-U.S. exchanges is subject to the risks presented by exchange controls, expropriation, increased tax burdens and exposure to local economic declines and political instability. An adverse development with respect to any of these variables could reduce the profit or increase the loss earned on trades in the affected international markets.
 
International trading activities subject the Fund to foreign exchange risk.
 
The price of any non-U.S. Soybean Interest and, therefore, the potential profit and loss on such investment, may be affected by any variance in the foreign exchange rate between the time the order is placed and the time it is liquidated, offset or exercised. However, a portion of the trades for the Fund may take place in markets and on exchanges outside of the U.S. Some non-U.S. markets present risks because they are not subject to the same degree of regulation as their U.S. counterparts. As a result, changes in the value of the local currency relative to the U.S. dollar may cause losses to the Fund even if the contract is profitable.
 
The CFTC’s implementation of its regulations under the Dodd-Frank Act may further affect the Fund’s ability to enter into foreign exchange contracts and to hedge its exposure to foreign exchange losses.
 
The Fund’s international trading could expose it to losses resulting from non-U.S. exchanges that are less developed or less reliable than United States exchanges.
 
Some non-U.S. exchanges also may be in a more developmental stage so that prior price histories may not be indicative of current price dynamics. In addition, the Fund may not have the same access to certain positions on foreign trading exchanges as do local traders, and the historical market data on which the Sponsor bases its strategies may not be as reliable or accessible as it is for U.S. exchanges.
 
Tax Risk
 
Please refer to “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” for information regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of Shares.
 
Your tax liability from holding Shares may exceed the amount of distributions, if any, on your Shares.
 
Cash or property will be distributed by the Fund at the sole discretion of the Sponsor, and the Sponsor currently does not intend to make cash or other distributions with respect to Shares. You will be required to pay U.S. federal income tax and, in some cases, state, local, or foreign income tax, on your allocable share of the Fund’s taxable income, without regard to whether you receive distributions or the amount of any distributions. Therefore, the tax liability resulting from your ownership of Shares may exceed the amount of cash or value of property (if any) distributed.
 
Your allocable share of income or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes may differ from your economic income or loss on your Shares.
 
Due to the application of the assumptions and conventions applied by the Fund in making allocations for U.S. federal income tax purposes and other factors, your allocable share of the Fund’s income, gain, deduction or loss may be different than your economic profit or loss from your Shares for a taxable year. This difference could be temporary or permanent and, if permanent, could result in your being taxed on amounts in excess of your economic income.
 
Items of income, gain, deduction, loss and credit with respect to Shares could be reallocated (or for taxable years after December 31, 2017, the Fund itself could be liable for U.S. federal income tax along with any interest or penalties) if the IRS does not accept the assumptions and conventions applied by the Fund in allocating those items, with potential adverse tax consequences for you.
 
 
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The Fund is treated as a partnership for United States federal income tax purposes. The U.S. tax rules pertaining to entities taxed as partnerships are complex and their application to publicly traded partnerships such as the Fund is in many respects uncertain. The Fund applies certain assumptions and conventions in an attempt to comply with the intent of the applicable rules and to report taxable income, gains, deductions, losses and credits in a manner that properly reflects Shareholders’ economic gains and losses. These assumptions and conventions may not fully comply with all aspects of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and applicable Treasury Regulations, however, and it is possible that the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) will successfully challenge our allocation methods and require us to reallocate items of income, gain, deduction, loss or credit in a manner that adversely affects you. If this occurs, you may be required to file an amended tax return and to pay additional taxes plus deficiency interest.
 
In addition, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, the Fund may be liable for U.S. federal income tax on any “imputed understatement” of tax resulting from an adjustment as a result of an IRS audit. The amount of the imputed understatement generally includes increases in allocations of items of income or gains to any investor and decreases in allocations of items of deduction, loss, or credit to any investor without any offset for any corresponding reductions in allocations of items of income or gain to any investor or increases in allocations of items of deduction, loss, or credit to any investor. If the Fund is required to pay any U.S. federal income taxes on any imputed understatement, the resulting tax liability would reduce the net assets of the Fund and would likely have an adverse impact on the value of the Shares. In such a case, the tax liability would in effect be borne by Shareholders that own shares at the time of such assessment, which may be different persons, or persons with different ownership percentages, then persons owning Shares for the tax year under audit. Under certain circumstances, the Fund may be eligible to make an election to cause Shareholders to take into account the amount of any imputed understatement, including any interest and penalties. The ability of a publicly traded partnership such as the Fund to make this election is uncertain. If the election is made, the Fund would be required to provide Shareholders who owned beneficial interests in the Shares in the year to which the adjusted allocations relate with a statement setting forth their proportionate shares of the adjustment (“Adjusted K-1s”). The investors would be required to take the adjustment into account in the taxable year in which the Adjusted K-1s are issued. For an additional discussion please see “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations – Other Tax Matters.”
 
If the Fund is required to withhold tax with respect to any Non-U.S. Shareholders, the cost of such withholding may be borne by all Shareholders.
 
Under certain circumstances, the Fund may be required to pay withholding tax with respect to allocations to Non-U.S. Shareholders. Although the Trust Agreement provides that any such withholding will be treated as being distributed to the Non-U.S. Shareholder, the Fund may not be able to cause the economic cost of such withholding to be borne by the Non-U.S. Shareholder on whose behalf such amounts were withheld since the Fund does not intend to make any distributions. Under such circumstances, the economic cost of the withholding may be borne by all Shareholders, not just the Shareholders on whose behalf such amounts were withheld. This could have a material impact on the value of your Shares.
 
The Fund could be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, which may substantially reduce the value of your Shares.
 
The Trust has received an opinion of counsel that, under current U.S. federal income tax laws, the Fund will be treated as a partnership that is not taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, provided that (i) at least 90 percent of the Fund’s annual gross income consists of “qualifying income” as defined in the Code, (ii) the Fund is organized and operated in accordance with its governing agreements and applicable law, and (iii) the Fund does not elect to be taxed as a corporation for federal income tax purposes. Although the Sponsor anticipates that the Fund has satisfied and will continue to satisfy the “qualifying income” requirement for all of its taxable years, that result cannot be assured. The Fund has not requested and will not request any ruling from the IRS with respect to its classification as a partnership not taxable as a corporation for federal income tax purposes. If the IRS were to successfully assert that the Fund is taxable as a corporation for federal income tax purposes in any taxable year, rather than passing through its income, gains, losses and deductions proportionately to Shareholders, the Fund would be subject to tax on its net income for the year at corporate tax rates. In addition, although the Sponsor does not currently intend to make distributions with respect to Shares, any distributions would be taxable to Shareholders as dividend income. Taxation of the Fund as a corporation could materially reduce the after-tax return on an investment in Shares and could substantially reduce the value of your Shares.
 
Tax legislation that has been or could be enacted may affect you with respect to your investment in the Fund.
 
Legislative, regulatory or administrative changes could be enacted or promulgated at any time, either prospectively or with retroactive effect, and may adversely affect the Fund and its Shareholders. Tax legislation informally known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act”) was signed into law on December 22, 2017, generally effective for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2018. In addition to modifying income tax rates for individuals and corporations, the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act made certain changes to the tax treatment for passthrough entities, such as the Fund. Please consult a tax advisor regarding the implications of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on an investment in Shares of the Fund.
 
PROSPECTIVE INVESTORS ARE STRONGLY URGED TO CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE POSSIBLE TAX CONSEQUENCES TO THEM OF AN INVESTMENT IN SHARES; SUCH TAX CONSEQUENCES MAY DIFFER IN RESPECT OF DIFFERENT INVESTORS.
 
 
 
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  THE OFFERING
 
The Fund in General
 
The Fund is a series of the Trust, a statutory trust organized under the laws of the State of Delaware on September 11, 2009. Currently, the Trust has five series that are separate operating commodity pools: the Teucrium Soybean Fund, the Teucrium Corn Fund, the Teucrium Sugar Fund, the Teucrium Wheat Fund and the Teucrium Agricultural Fund. Additional series of the Trust may be created in the future at the Sponsor’s discretion. The Fund maintains its main business office at Three Main Street, Suite 215, Burlington, VT 05401. The Fund is a commodity pool. It operates pursuant to the terms of the Trust Agreement, which grants full management control to the Sponsor.
 
The Fund is publicly traded and seeks to have the daily changes in percentage terms of the Shares’ NAV reflect the daily changes in percentage terms of the price of soybeans for future delivery, as measured by the Benchmark. The Fund invests in a mixture of listed Soybean Futures Contracts, Other Soybean Interests, cash and cash equivalents.
 
See “Prior Performance of the Fund” on page 47 for more information about prior performance of the Fund.
 
The Sponsor
 
The Sponsor of the Trust is Teucrium Trading, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. The principal office of the Sponsor and the Trust are located at Three Main Street, Suite 215, Burlington, VT 05401. The Sponsor registered as a CPO with the CFTC and became a member of the NFA on November 10, 2009. The Sponsor registered as a Commodity Trading Advisor (“CTA”) with the CFTC effective September 8, 2017.
 
Under the Trust Agreement, the Sponsor is solely responsible for the management and conducts or directs the conduct of the business of the Trust, the Fund, and any series of the Trust that may from time to time be established and designated by the Sponsor. The Sponsor is required to oversee the purchase and sale of Shares by Authorized Purchasers and to manage the Fund’s investments, including to evaluate the credit risk of FCMs and swap counterparties and to review daily positions and margin/collateral requirements. The Sponsor has the power to enter into agreements as may be necessary or appropriate for the offer and sale of the Fund’s Shares and the conduct of the Trust’s activities. Accordingly, the Sponsor is responsible for selecting the Trustee, Administrator, Distributor, the independent registered public accounting firm of the Trust, and any legal counsel employed by the Trust. The Sponsor is also responsible for preparing and filing periodic reports on behalf of the Trust with the SEC and will provide any required certification for such reports. No person other than the Sponsor and its principals was involved in the organization of the Trust or the Fund.
 
The Sponsor may determine to engage marketing agents who will assist the Sponsor in marketing the Shares. See “Plan of Distribution” for more information.
 
The Sponsor maintains a public website on behalf of the Fund, www.teucriumsoybfund.com, which contains information about the Trust, the Fund, and the Shares, and oversees certain services for the benefit of Shareholders.
 
The Sponsor has discretion to appoint one or more of its affiliates as additional Sponsors.
 
The Sponsor receives a fee as compensation for services performed under the Trust Agreement. The Sponsor’s fee accrues daily and is paid monthly at an annual rate of 1.00% of the average daily net assets of the Fund. For the period from January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2018, the Fund recognized $212,287 in management fees to the Sponsor. The Fund is also responsible for other ongoing fees, costs and expenses of its operations, including brokerage fees, and legal, printing, accounting, custodial, administration and transfer agency costs, although the Sponsor bore the costs and expenses related to the registration of the Shares. None of the costs and expenses related to the initial registration, offer and sale of Shares, which totaled approximately $450,000, were or are chargeable to the Fund, and the Sponsor did not and may not recover any of these costs and expenses from the Fund.
 
Shareholders have no right to elect the Sponsor on an annual or any other continuing basis or to remove the Sponsor. If the Sponsor voluntarily withdraws, the holders of a majority of the Trust’s outstanding Shares (excluding for purposes of such determination Shares owned by the withdrawing Sponsor and its affiliates) may elect its successor. Prior to withdrawing, the Sponsor must give ninety days’ written notice to the Shareholders and the Trustee.
 
 
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Ownership or “membership” interests in the Sponsor are owned by persons referred to as “members.” The Sponsor currently has three voting or “Class A” members – Mr. Sal Gilbertie, Mr. Dale Riker and Mr. Carl N. Miller III – and a small number of non-voting or “Class B” members who have provided working capital to the Sponsor. Messrs. Gilbertie and Riker each currently own 45.7% of the Sponsor’s Class A membership interests, while Mr. Miller holds the remainder, which is 8.52%.
 
The Sponsor has an information technology plan (the “IT Plan”) in place which is part of the internal controls of the Trust and the Fund. The IT Plan is tested, and the Sponsor takes reasonable care to look beyond the controls developed and implemented for the Trust and the Fund directly to the platforms and controls in place for the key service providers. Such review of the IT plans of key service providers is part of the Sponsor’s disaster recovery and business continuity planning. The Sponsor provides regular training to all employees of the Sponsor regarding cybersecurity topics, in addition to real-time dissemination of information regarding cybersecurity matters as needed. The IT plan is reviewed and updated as needed, but at a minimum on an annual basis.
 
Management of the Sponsor
 
In general, under the Sponsor’s Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Operating Agreement, as amended from time to time, the Sponsor (and as a result the Trust and each Fund) is managed by the officers of the Sponsor.  The Chief Executive Officer of the Sponsor is responsible for the overall strategic direction of the Sponsor and has general control of its business. The Chief Investment Officer and President of the Sponsor is primarily responsible for new investment product development with respect to the Funds. The Chief Operating Officer has primary responsibility for trade operations, trade execution, and portfolio activities with respect to the Fund. The Chief Financial Officer, Chief Accounting Officer and Chief Compliance Officer acts as the Sponsor’s principal financial and accounting officer. Furthermore, certain fundamental actions regarding the Sponsor, such as the removal of officers, the addition or substitution of members, or the incurrence of liabilities other than those incurred in the ordinary course of business and de minimis liabilities, may not be taken without the affirmative vote of a majority of the Class A members (which is generally defined as the affirmative vote of Mr. Gilbertie and one of the other two Class A members).  The Sponsor has no board of directors, and the Trust has no board of directors or officers. The three Class A members of the Sponsor are Sal Gilbertie, Dale Riker and Carl N. Miller III.
 
The Officers of the Sponsor, one of whom is a Class A member of the Sponsor, are the following:
 
Sal Gilbertie has been the President of the Sponsor since its inception, its Chief Investment Officer since September 2011, and its Chief Executive Officer and Secretary since September 17, 2018, and was approved by the NFA as a principal of the Sponsor on September 23, 2009 and registered as an associated person of the Sponsor on November 10, 2009.  He maintains his main business office at 65 Adams Road, Easton, Connecticut 06612.  Effective July 16, 2012, Mr. Gilbertie was registered with the NFA as the Branch Manager for this location.  Since October 18, 2010, Mr. Gilbertie has been an associated person of the Distributor under the terms of the Securities Activities and Services Agreement (“SASA”) between the Sponsor and the Distributor.  Additional information regarding the SASA can be found in the section of this disclosure document entitled “Plan of Distribution.”  From October 2005 until December 2009, Mr. Gilbertie was employed by Newedge USA, LLC, an FCM and broker-dealer registered with the CFTC and the SEC, where he headed the Renewable Fuels/Energy Derivatives OTC Execution Desk and was an active futures contract and over-the-counter derivatives trader and market maker in multiple classes of commodities.  (Between January 2008 and October 2008, he also held a comparable position with Newedge Financial, Inc., an FCM and an affiliate of Newedge USA, LLC.)  From October 1998 until October 2005, Mr. Gilbertie was principal and co-founder of Cambial Asset Management, LLC, an adviser to two private funds that focused on equity options, and Cambial Financing Dynamics, a private boutique investment bank.  While at Cambial Asset Management, LLC and Cambial Financing Dynamics, Mr. Gilbertie served as principal and managed the day-to-day activities of the business and the portfolio of both companies.  Mr. Gilbertie is 58 years old
 
      Cory Mullen-Rusin, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Accounting Officer and Chief Compliance Officer, began working for the Sponsor on August 16, 2011.  She became the Chief Financial Officer, Chief Accounting Officer and Chief Compliance Officer on September 17, 2018 and has primary responsibility for the financial management, compliance and reporting of the Sponsor and is in charge of its books of account and accounting records, and its accounting procedures.  She maintains her main business office at Three Main Street, Suite 215, Burlington, Vermont 05401. Ms. Mullen-Rusin was approved by the NFA as a Principal of the Sponsor on October 8, 2018. Ms. Mullen-Rusin worked directly with the former CFO at Teucrium for the past seven years. Her responsibilities included aspects of financial planning, financial operations, and financial reporting for the Trust and the Sponsor. Additionally, Ms. Mullen-Rusin assisted in developing, instituting, and monitoring the effectiveness of processes and procedures to comply with all regulatory agency requirements. Ms. Mullen-Rusin graduated from Boston College with a Bachelor of Arts and Science in Communications in 2009, where she was a four-year scholarship player on the NCAA Division I Women’s Basketball team.  In 2017, she earned a Master of Business Administration from Nichols College. Ms. Mullen-Rusin is 31 years old.
 
Steve Kahler, Chief Operating Officer, began working for the Sponsor in November 2011 as Managing Director in the trading division. He became the Chief Operating Officer on May 24, 2012 and served in that capacity through September 6, 2018, at which time he resigned. Mr. Kahler was unemployed from September 7, 2018 until October 10, 2018, when he was reappointed as Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Kahler has primary responsibility for the Trade Operations for the Funds. He maintains his main business office at 13520 Excelsior Blvd., Minnetonka, MN 55345. Mr. Kahler was registered as an Associated Person of the Sponsor on November 25, 2011, approved as a Branch Manager of the Sponsor on March 16, 2012 and approved by the NFA as a Principal of the Sponsor on May 16, 2012. These NFA registrations were withdrawn on September 7, 2018 and then he re-registered as an Associated Person and Branch Office Manager of the Sponsor on October 5, 2018 and as a Principal of the Sponsor on October 16, 2018. Since January 18, 2012, Mr. Kahler has been an associated person of the Distributor under the terms of the SASA between the Sponsor and the Distributor.  Additional information regarding the SASA can be found in the section of this disclosure document entitled “Plan of Distribution.” Prior to his employment with the Sponsor, Mr. Kahler worked for Cargill Inc., an international producer and marketer of food, agricultural, financial and industrial products and services, from April 2006 until November 2011 in the Energy Division as Senior Petroleum Trader. In October 2006 and while employed at Cargill Inc., Mr. Kahler was approved as an Associated Person of Cargill Commodity Services Inc., a commodity trading affiliate of Cargill Inc. from September 13, 2006 to November 9, 2011. Mr. Kahler graduated from the University of Minnesota with a Bachelors of Agricultural Business Administration and is 51 years old. Mr. Kahler is primarily responsible for making trading and investment decisions for the Fund and other Teucrium Funds, and for directing Fund and other Teucrium Fund trades for execution.
 
 
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Messrs. Gilbertie, Riker and Kahler and Ms. Mullen-Rusin are individual “principals,” as that term is defined in CFTC Rule 3.1, of the Sponsor. These individuals are principals due to their positions and/or due to their ownership interests in the Sponsor. Beneficial ownership interests of the principals, if any, are shown under the section entitled “Security Ownership of Principal Shareholders and Management” below and any of the principals may acquire beneficial interests in the Fund in the future. GFI Group LLC is a principal for the Sponsor under CFTC Rules due to its ownership of certain non-voting securities of the Sponsor.
 
Market Price of Shares
 
The Fund’s Shares have traded on the NYSE Arca under the symbol “SOYB” since September 19, 2011. The following table sets forth the range of reported high and low sales prices of the Shares as reported on NYSE Arca for the periods indicated below.
 
Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2018:
High
Low
Quarter Ended
 
 
March 31, 2018
$19.45
$17.65
June 30, 2018
$19.12
$16.24
September 30, 2018
$16.86
$15.30
December 31, 2018
$16.82
$15.59
 
 
Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2017:
High
Low
Quarter Ended
 
 
March 31, 2017
$20.19
$18.12
June 30, 2017
$18.37
$17.34
September 30, 2017
$19.55
$17.57
December 31, 2017
$18.87
$17.76
 
As of December 31, 2018, the Fund had approximately 2,440 Shareholders.
 
 
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  Prior Performance of the Fund
 
PERFORMANCE DATA FOR THE FUND
 
PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT NECESSARILY INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS
 
The Teucrium Soybean Fund commenced trading and investment operations on September 19, 2011. The Fund is listed on NYSE Arca and is neither: (i) a privately offered pool pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended; (ii) a multi-advisor pool as defined in CFTC Regulation 4.10(d)(2); or (iii) a principal-protected pool as defined in CFTC Regulation 4.10(d)(3).
 
 
Units of beneficial interest issued (from inception until January 31, 2019)
4,650,000
Aggregate gross sale price for units issued
$ 90,402,276
NAV per Share as of January 31, 2019
$ 16.55
Pool NAV as of January 31, 2019
$ 25,245,587
Worst monthly percentage draw-down*
(13.03) %
June 2018
Worst peak-to-valley draw-down**
(44.90) %
August 2012 - October 2018
 
* A draw-down is a loss experienced by the fund over a specified period. Draw-downs are measured on the basis of monthly returns only and do not reflect intra-month figures. The worst monthly percentage draw-down reflects the largest single month loss sustained over the most recent five calendar years and the current year-to-date.
 
** The worst peak-to-valley draw-down is the largest percentage decline in the NAV per unit over the most recent five calendar years and the current year-to-date. This need not be a continuous decline but can be a series of positive and negative returns. Worst peak-to-valley draw-down represents the greatest percentage decline from any month-end NAV per unit that occurs without such month-end NAV per unit being equaled or exceeded as of a subsequent month-end. For example, if the NAV per unit declined by $1 in each of January and February, increased by $1 in March and declined again by $2 in April, a “peak-to-valley drawdown” analysis conducted as of the end of April would consider that “drawdown” to be continuing and to be $3 in amount, whereas if the NAV per unit had increased by $2 in March, the drawdown would have ended as of the end of February at the $2 level.
 
 
34
 
 
PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT NECESSARILY INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS
 
 
Rates of Return*
Month
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
 
January
    (1.92)
%
    (6.16)
%
     1.44
%
   1.68
%
     3.31
 %
  2.16
 %
February
     8.62
 %
     6.00
 %
    (2.73)
 %
   0.52
 %
     3.69
 %
(1.75)
 %
March
     0.90
 %
    (5.13)
 %
     5.32
 %
  (7.13)
 %
    (0.42)
 %
(2.89)
 %
April
     5.47
 %
    (0.41)
 %
     8.27
 %
  (0.28)
 %
    (0.63)
 %
 
 %
May
    (1.50)
 %
    (4.96)
 %
     2.92
 %
  (3.05)
 %
    (1.43)
 %
 
 %
June
    (5.77)
 %
   10.93
 %
     6.42
 %
   3.37
 %
  (13.03)
 %
 
 %
July
    (6.58)
 %
    (8.59)
 %
  (10.72)
 %
   4.70
 %
     4.38
 %
 
 %
August
    (5.14)
 %
    (4.83)
 %
    (4.77)
 %
  (3.27)
 %
    (7.03)
 %
 
 %
September
  (10.47)
 %
     0.33
 %
     1.98
 %
  (2.02)
 %
     0.57
 %
 
 %
October
   11.90
 %
    (1.00)
 %
     4.80
 %
   2.73
 %
    (1.01)
 %
 
 %
November
    (3.22)
 %
    (0.22)
 %
     1.91
 %
   0.11
 %
     4.47
 %
 
 %
December
     0.19
 %
    (2.36)
 %
    (3.59)
 %
  (3.36)
 %
    (1.04)
 %
 
 %
Annual Rate of Return
    (9.41)
 %
  (16.59)
 %
   10.03
 %
  (6.45)
 %
    (9.24)
 %
  (2.53)
 %**
 
* The monthly rate of return is calculated by dividing the ending NAV for a given month by the ending NAV for the previous month, subtracting 1 and multiplying this number by 100 to arrive at a percentage increase or decrease.
 
** Not annualized.
 
The Trustee
 
The sole Trustee of the Trust is Wilmington Trust Company, a Delaware banking corporation. The Trustee’s principal offices are located at 1100 North Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19890-0001. The Trustee is unaffiliated with the Sponsor. The Trustee’s duties and liabilities with respect to the offering of Shares and the management of the Trust and the Fund are limited to its express obligations under the Trust Agreement.
 
The Trustee will accept service of legal process on the Trust in the State of Delaware and will make certain filings under the Delaware Statutory Trust Act. The Trustee does not owe any other duties to the Trust, the Sponsor or the Shareholders. The Trustee is permitted to resign upon at least sixty (60) days’ notice to the Sponsor. If no successor trustee has been appointed by the Sponsor within such sixty-day period, the Trustee may, at the expense of the Trust, petition a court to appoint a successor. The Trust Agreement provides that the Trustee is entitled to reasonable compensation for its services from the Sponsor or an affiliate of the Sponsor (including the Trust), and is indemnified by the Sponsor against any expenses it incurs relating to or arising out of the formation, operation or termination of the Trust, or any action or inaction of the Trustee under the Trust Agreement, except to the extent that such expenses result from the gross negligence or willful misconduct of the Trustee. The Sponsor has the discretion to replace the Trustee.
 
The Trustee has not signed the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and is not subject to issuer liability under the federal securities laws for the information contained in this prospectus and under federal securities laws with respect to the issuance and sale of the Shares. Under such laws, neither the Trustee, either in its capacity as Trustee or in its individual capacity, nor any director, officer or controlling person of the Trustee is, or has any liability as, the issuer or a director, officer or controlling person of the issuer of the Shares.
 
Under the Trust Agreement, the Trustee has delegated to the Sponsor the exclusive management and control of all aspects of the business of the Trust and the Fund. The Trustee has no duty or liability to supervise or monitor the performance of the Sponsor, nor does the Trustee have any liability for the acts or omissions of the Sponsor.
 
Because the Trustee has delegated substantially all of its authority over the operation of the Trust to the Sponsor, the Trustee itself is not registered in any capacity with the CFTC.
 
 
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Operation of the Fund
 
The investment objective of the Fund is to have the daily changes in percentage terms of the Shares’ NAV reflect the daily changes in percentage terms of a weighted average of the closing settlement prices for three Soybean Futures Contracts that are traded on the CBOT:
 
SOYB Benchmark
 
CBOT Soybean Futures Contract
Weighting
Second to expire (excluding August & September)
35%
Third to expire (excluding August & September)
30%
Expiring in the November following the expiration of the third ­to ­expire contract
35%
 
Soybean Futures Contracts traded on the CBOT expire on a specified day in seven different months: January, March, May, July, August, September and November. However, there is generally a less liquid market for the Soybean Futures Contracts expiring in August (the “August Contract”) and September (the “September Contract” and, together with the August Contract, the “Excluded Contracts”), and the Sponsor has determined not to incorporate the Excluded Contracts into the Benchmark calculation. Accordingly, during the period when the Excluded Contracts are the second-to-expire and third-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract, the fourth-to-expire and fifth-to-expire Soybean Futures Contracts will take the place of the second-to-expire and third-to-expire Soybean Futures Contracts, respectively, as Benchmark Component Futures Contracts. Similarly, when the August Contract is the third-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract, the fifth-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract will take the place of the August Contract as a Benchmark Component Futures Contract, and when the September Contract is the second-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract, the third-to-expire and fourth-to-expire Soybean Futures Contracts will be Benchmark Component Futures Contracts.
 
The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing under normal market conditions in Benchmark Component Futures Contracts or, in certain circumstances, in other Soybean Futures Contracts traded on the CBOT or on foreign exchanges. In addition, and to a limited extent, the Fund also may invest in exchange-traded options on Soybean Futures Contracts in furtherance of the Fund's investment objective. Once position limits in Soybean Futures Contracts are applicable, the Fund's intention is to invest first in Other Soybean Interests. See “The Offering – Futures Contracts” below. By utilizing certain or all of these investments, the Sponsor endeavors to cause the Fund's performance to closely track that of the Benchmark.
 
The Fund invests in Soybean Interests to the fullest extent possible without being leveraged or unable to satisfy its current or potential margin or collateral obligations with respect to its investments in Soybean Interests. After fulfilling such margin and collateral requirements, the Fund invests the remainder of its proceeds from the sale of baskets in short-term Treasury Securities or cash equivalents, including money-market funds and investment grade commercial paper, and/or merely hold such assets in cash in interest-bearing accounts. Therefore, the focus of the Sponsor in managing the Fund is investing in Soybean Interests and cash and/or cash equivalents. The Fund earns interest income from the cash equivalents that it purchases and on the cash, it holds at financial institutions.
 
The Sponsor expects to manage the Fund’s investments directly, although it has been authorized by the Trust to retain, establish the terms of retention for, and terminate third-party commodity trading advisors to provide such management. The Sponsor has substantial discretion in managing the Fund’s investments consistent with meeting its investment objective of tracking the Benchmark, including the discretion: (1) to choose whether to invest in the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts or other Soybean Futures Contracts or Other Soybean Interests with similar investment characteristics; (2) to choose when to “roll” the Fund’s positions in Soybean Interests as described below, and (3) to manage the Fund’s investments in short-term Treasury Securities or in cash and cash equivalents.
 
The Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective primarily by investing in Soybean Interests such that the changes in its NAV are expected to closely track the changes in the Benchmark. The Fund’s positions in Soybean Interests are changed or “rolled” on a regular basis in order to track the changing nature of the Benchmark. For example, five times a year (on the dates on which certain Soybean Futures Contracts expire), a particular Soybean Futures Contract will no longer be a Benchmark Component Futures Contract, and the Fund’s investments will have to be changed accordingly. In order that the Fund’s trading does not cause unwanted market movements and to make it more difficult for third parties to profit by trading based on such expected market movements, the Fund’s investments may not be rolled entirely on that day, but rather may be rolled over a period of days.
 
 
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The Fund posts on its website (www.teucriumsoybfund.com) the roll dates and the contracts into which it will roll for the entire upcoming calendar year. This information is updated at the beginning of the calendar year and as needed throughout the year.
 
The Sponsor does not intend to operate the Fund in a fashion such that its per Share NAV will equal, in dollar terms, the spot price of a bushel or the price of any particular Soybean Futures Contract.
 
In seeking to achieve the Fund’s investment objective of tracking the Benchmark, the Sponsor may for certain reasons cause the Fund to enter into or hold Soybean Futures Contracts other than the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts and/or Other Soybean Interests. Other Soybean Interests that do not have standardized terms and are not exchange-traded, referred to as “over-the-counter” Soybean Interests, can generally be structured as the parties to the Soybean Interest contract desire. Therefore, the Fund might enter into multiple over-the-counter Soybean Interests intended to exactly replicate the performance of each of the three Benchmark Component Futures Contracts, or a single over-the-counter Soybean Interest designed to replicate the performance of the Benchmark as a whole. Assuming that there is no default by a counterparty to an over-the-counter Soybean Interest, the performance of the Soybean Interest will necessarily correlate exactly with the performance of the Benchmark or the applicable Benchmark Component Futures Contract. The Fund might also enter into or hold Soybean Interests other than the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts to facilitate effective trading, consistent with the discussion of the Fund’s “roll” strategy discussed in the preceding paragraph. In addition, the Fund might enter into or hold Soybean Interests that would be expected to alleviate overall deviation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Benchmark that may result from certain market and trading inefficiencies or other reasons. By utilizing certain or all of the investments described above, the Sponsor endeavors to cause the Fund’s performance to closely track that of the Benchmark.
 
The Sponsor endeavors to place the Fund’s trades in Soybean Interests and otherwise manage the Fund’s investments so that the Fund’s average daily tracking error against the Benchmark is less than 10 percent over any period of 30 trading days. More specifically, the Sponsor endeavors to manage the Fund so that A will be within plus/minus 10 percent of B, where:
 
 
A is the average daily change in the Fund’s NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days; i.e., any trading day as of which the Fund calculates its NAV, and
 
 
B is the average daily change in the price of the Benchmark over the same period.
 
The Sponsor believes that market arbitrage opportunities cause daily changes in the Fund’s Share price on the NYSE Arca to track daily changes in the Fund’s NAV per Share. The Sponsor believes that the net effect of this expected relationship and the expected relationship described above between the Fund’s NAV and the Benchmark will be that daily changes in the price of the Fund’s Shares on the NYSE Arca will track daily changes in the Benchmark. This relationship may be affected by various market factors, including but not limited to, the number of shares of the Fund outstanding and the liquidity of the underlying holdings.
 
An investment in the Shares provides a means for diversifying an investor’s portfolio or hedging exposure to changes in soybean prices. An investment in the Shares allows both retail and institutional investors to easily gain this exposure to the soybean market in a transparent, cost-effective manner.
 
The Sponsor employs a “neutral” investment strategy intended to track the changes in the Benchmark regardless of whether the Benchmark goes up or goes down. The Fund’s “neutral” investment strategy is designed to permit investors generally to purchase and sell the Fund’s Shares for the purpose of investing indirectly in the soybean market in a cost-effective manner. Such investors may include participants in the soybean industry and other industries seeking to hedge the risk of losses in their soybean-related transactions, as well as investors seeking exposure to the soybean market. Accordingly, depending on the investment objective of an individual investor, the risks generally associated with investing in the soybean market and/or the risks involved in hedging may exist. In addition, an investment in the Fund involves the risks that the changes in the price of the Fund’s Shares will not accurately track the changes in the Benchmark, and that changes in the Benchmark will not closely correlate with changes in the price of soybean on the spot market. Furthermore, as noted above, the Fund may also elect to invest in short-term Treasury Securities, cash and/or cash equivalents to meet its current or potential margin or collateral requirements with respect to its investments in Soybean Interests and to invest cash not required to be used as margin or collateral. The Fund does not expect there to be any meaningful correlation between the performance of the Fund’s investments in short-term Treasury Securities, cash and/or cash equivalents and the changes in the price of soybean or Soybean Interests. While the level of interest earned on or the market price of these investments may in some respects correlate to changes in the price of soybeans, this correlation is not anticipated as part of the Fund’s efforts to meet its objective. This and certain risk factors discussed in this prospectus may cause a lack of correlation between changes in the Fund’s NAV and changes in the price of soybeans. The Sponsor does not intend to operate the Fund in a fashion such that its per Share NAV will equal, in dollar terms, the spot price of a bushel or other unit of soybeans or the price of any particular Soybean Futures Contract.
 
The Fund’s total portfolio composition is disclosed each business day that the NYSE Arca is open for trading on the Fund’s website at www.teucriumsoybfund.com. The website disclosure of portfolio holdings is made daily and includes, as applicable, the name and value of each commodity futures contract held and those that are pending, the name and value of each cash equivalent held in the Fund, and the amount of cash held in the Fund’s portfolio. The Fund’s website also includes the NAV, the 4 p.m. Bid/Ask Midpoint as reported by the NYSE Arca, the last trade price as reported by the NYSE Arca, the shares outstanding, the shares available for issuance, and the shares created or redeemed on that day. The prospectus, Monthly Statements of Account, Quarterly Performance of the Midpoint versus the NAV (as required by the CFTC), and the Roll Dates, as well as Forms 10-Q, Forms 10-K, and other SEC filings for the Fund, are also posted on the website. The Fund’s website is publicly accessible at no charge.
 
 
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The Shares issued by the Fund may only be purchased by Authorized Purchasers and only in blocks of 25,000 Shares called Creation Baskets. The amount of the purchase payment for a Creation Basket is equal to the aggregate NAV of Shares in the Creation Basket. Similarly, only Authorized Purchasers may redeem Shares and only in blocks of 25,000 Shares called Redemption Baskets. The amount of the redemption proceeds for a Redemption Basket is equal to the aggregate NAV of Shares in the Redemption Basket. The purchase price for Creation Baskets and the redemption price for Redemption Baskets are the actual NAV calculated at the end of the business day when a request for a purchase or redemption is received by the Fund. The NYSE Arca publishes an approximate NAV intra-day based on the prior day’s NAV and the current price of the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts, but the price of Creation Baskets and Redemption Baskets is determined based on the actual NAV calculated at the end of each trading day.
 
While the Fund issues Shares only in Creation Baskets, Shares may also be purchased and sold in much smaller increments on the NYSE Arca. These transactions, however, are effected at the bid and ask prices established by the specialist firm(s). Like any listed security, Shares can be purchased and sold at any time a secondary market is open.
 
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
 
In managing the Fund’s assets, the Sponsor does not use a technical trading system that automatically issues buy and sell orders. Instead, each time one or more baskets are purchased or redeemed, the Sponsor purchases or sells Soybean Interests with an aggregate market value that approximates the amount of cash received or paid upon the purchase or redemption of the basket(s).
 
As an example, assume that a Creation Basket is sold by the Fund, and that the Fund’s closing NAV per Share is $22.51. In that case, the Fund would receive $562,750 in proceeds from the sale of the Creation Basket ($22.51 NAV per Share multiplied by 25,000 Shares and ignoring the Creation Basket fee of $250). If one were to assume further that the Sponsor wants to invest the entire proceeds from the Creation Basket in the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts and that the market value of each such Benchmark Component Futures Contracts is $62,600 (or otherwise not a round number), the Fund would be unable to buy an exact number of Soybean Futures Contracts with an aggregate market value equal to $562,750. Instead, the Fund would be able to purchase 8 Benchmark Component Futures Contracts with an aggregate market value of $500,800. Assuming a margin requirement equal to 10% of the value of the Soybean Futures Contracts (although the actual percentage is approximately 5%), the Fund would be required to deposit $50,080 in and cash with the FCM through which the Soybean Futures Contracts were purchased. The remainder of the proceeds from the sale of the Creation Basket, $511,950, would remain invested in cash and/or cash equivalents, as determined by the Sponsor from time to time based on factors such as potential calls for margin or anticipated redemptions.
 
The specific Soybean Interests purchased depend on various factors, including a judgment by the Sponsor as to the appropriate diversification of the Fund’s investments. While the Sponsor anticipates that a substantial majority of the Fund’s assets will be invested in CBOT Soybean Futures Contracts, for various reasons, including the ability to enter into the precise amount of exposure to the soybean market and accountability levels on Soybean Futures Contracts, the Fund will also invest in Other Soybean Interests, including swaps, in the over-the-counter market to a potentially significant degree.
 
The Sponsor does not anticipate letting its Soybean Futures Contracts expire and taking delivery of soybeans. Instead, the Sponsor will close out existing positions, e.g., in response to ongoing changes in the Benchmark or if it otherwise determines it would be appropriate to do so and reinvest the proceeds in new Soybean Interests. Positions may also be closed out to meet orders for Redemption Baskets, in which case the proceeds from closing the positions will not be reinvested.
 
Futures Contracts
 
Futures contracts are agreements between two parties that are executed on a designated contract market (“DCM”), i.e., a commodity futures exchange, and that are cleared and margined through a derivatives clearing organization (“DCO”), i.e., a clearing house. One party agrees to buy a commodity such as soybeans from the other party at a later date at a price and quantity agreed upon when the contract is made. In market terminology, a party who purchases a futures contract is long in the market and a party who sells a futures contract is short in the market. The contractual obligations of a buyer or seller may generally be satisfied by taking or making physical delivery of the underlying commodity or by making an offsetting sale or purchase of an identical futures contract on the same or linked exchange before the designated date of delivery. The difference between the price at which the futures contract is purchased or sold and the price paid for the offsetting sale or purchase, after allowance for brokerage commissions, constitutes the profit or loss to the trader.
 
If the price of the commodity increases after the original futures contract is entered into, the buyer of the futures contract will generally be able to sell a futures contract to close out its original long position at a price higher than that at which the original contract was purchased, generally resulting in a profit to the buyer. Conversely, the seller of a futures contract will generally profit if the price of the underlying commodity decreases, as it will generally be able to buy a futures contract to close out its original short position at a price lower than that at which the original contract was sold. Because the Fund seeks to track the Benchmark directly and profit when the price of soybeans increases and, as a likely result of an increase in the price of soybeans, the price of Soybean Futures Contracts increase, the Fund will generally be long in the market for soybeans and will generally sell Soybean Futures Contracts only to close out existing long positions.
 
 
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Futures contracts are typically traded on futures exchanges (i.e. DCMs), such as the CBOT, which provide centralized market facilities in which multiple persons may trade contracts. Members of a particular futures exchange and the trades executed on such exchange are subject to the rules of that exchange. Futures exchanges and their related clearing organizations (i.e., DCOs) are given reasonable latitude in promulgating rules and regulations to control and regulate their members.
 
Trades on a futures exchange are generally cleared by the DCO, which provides services designed to mutualize or transfer the credit risk arising from the trading of contracts on an exchange. The clearing organization effectively becomes the other party to the trade, and each clearing member party to the trade looks only to the clearing organization for performance.
 
Soybean Futures Contracts are traded on the CBOT (which is part of the CME Group) in units of 5,000 bushels. Generally, futures contracts traded on the CBOT are priced by floor brokers and other exchange members through an electronic, screen-based system that electronically determines the price by matching offers to purchase and sell. Futures contracts may also be based on commodity indices, in that they call for a cash payment based on the change in the value of the specified index during a specified period. No futures contracts based on an index of soybean prices are currently available, although the Fund could enter into such contracts should they become available in the future.
 
Certain typical and significant characteristics of Soybean Futures Contracts are discussed below. Additional risks of investing in Soybean Futures Contracts are included in “What are the Risk Factors Involved with an Investment in the Fund?”
 
Impact of Position Limits, Accountability Levels, and Price Fluctuation Limits
 
All of these limits may potentially cause a tracking error between the price of the Shares and the Benchmark. This may in turn prevent you from being able to effectively use the Fund as a way to hedge against soybean-related losses or as a way to indirectly invest in soybeans.
 
The Fund does not intend to limit the size of the offering and will attempt to expose substantially all of its proceeds to the soybean market utilizing Soybean Interests. If the Fund encounters position limits, accountability levels, or price fluctuation limits for Soybean Futures Contracts on the CBOT, it may then, if permitted under applicable regulatory requirements, purchase Other Soybean Interests and/or Soybean Futures Contracts listed on foreign exchanges. However, the Soybean Futures Contracts available on such foreign exchanges may have different underlying sizes, deliveries, and prices. In addition, the Soybean Futures Contracts available on these exchanges may be subject to their own position limits and accountability levels. In any case, notwithstanding the potential availability of these instruments in certain circumstances, position limits could force the Fund to limit the number of Creation Baskets that it sells.
 
Price Volatility
 
Despite daily price limits, the price volatility of futures contracts generally has been historically greater than that for traditional securities such as stocks and bonds. Price volatility often is greater day-to-day as opposed to intra-day. Economic factors that may cause volatility in Soybean Futures Contracts include changes in interest rates; governmental, agricultural, trade, fiscal, monetary and exchange control programs and policies; weather and climate conditions; changing supply and demand relationships; changes in balances of payments and trade; U.S. and international rates of inflation; currency devaluations and revaluations; U.S. and international political and economic events; and changes in philosophies and emotions of market participants. Because the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in futures contracts, the assets of the Fund, and therefore the price of the Fund’s Shares, may be subject to greater volatility than traditional securities.
 
Term Structure of Futures Contracts and the Impact on Total Return
 
Several factors determine the total return from investing in futures contracts. Because the Fund must periodically “roll” futures contract positions, closing out soon-to-expire contracts that are no longer part of the Benchmark and entering into subsequent-to-expire contracts, one such factor is the price relationship between soon-to-expire contracts and later-to-expire contracts. For example, if market conditions are such that the prices of soon-to-expire contracts are higher than later-to-expire contracts (a situation referred to as “backwardation” in the futures market), then absent a change in the market, the price of contracts will rise as they approach expiration. Conversely, if the price of soon-to-expire contracts is lower than later-to-expire contracts (a situation referred to as “contango” in the futures market), then absent a change in the market the price of contracts will decline as they approach expiration.
 
 
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Over time, the price of soybeans fluctuates based on a number of market factors, including demand for soybeans relative to its supply. The value of Soybean Futures Contracts likewise fluctuates in reaction to a number of market factors. If investors seek to maintain their holdings in Soybean Futures Contracts with a roughly constant expiration profile and not take delivery of the soybeans, they must on an ongoing basis sell their current positions as they approach expiration and invest in later-to-expire contracts.
 
If the futures market is in a state of backwardation (i.e., when the price of soybeans in the future is expected to be less than the current price), the Fund will buy later-to-expire contracts for a lower price than the sooner-to-expire contracts that it sells. Hypothetically, and assuming no changes to either prevailing soybean prices or the price relationship between the spot price, soon-to-expire contracts and later-to-expire contracts, the value of a contract will rise as it approaches expiration, increasing the Fund’s total return (ignoring the impact of commission costs and the interest earned on short-term Treasury Securities, cash and/or cash equivalents).
 
If the futures market is in contango, the Fund will buy later-to-expire contracts for a higher price than the sooner-to-expire contracts that it sells. Hypothetically, and assuming no other changes to either prevailing soybean prices or the price relationship between the spot price, soon-to-expire contracts and later-to-expire contracts, the value of a contract will fall as it approaches expiration, decreasing the Fund’s total return (ignoring the impact of commission costs and the interest earned on short-term Treasury Securities, cash and/or cash equivalents).
 
Historically, the soybean futures markets have experienced periods of both contango and backwardation. Frequently, whether contango or backwardation exists is a function, among other factors, of the seasonality of the soybean market and the soybean harvest cycle, as discussed above.
 
Margin Requirements and Marking-to-Market Futures Positions
 
“Initial margin” is an amount of funds that must be deposited by a commodity interest trader with the trader’s broker to initiate an open position in futures contracts. A margin deposit is like a cash performance bond. It helps assure the trader’s performance of the futures contracts that he or she purchases or sells. Futures contracts are customarily bought and sold on initial margin that represents a small percentage of the aggregate purchase or sales price of the contract. The amount of margin required in connection with a particular futures contract is set by the exchange on which the contract is traded. Brokerage firms, such as the Fund’s clearing broker, carrying accounts for traders in commodity interest contracts may require higher amounts of margin as a matter of policy to further protect themselves.
 
Futures contracts are marked to market at the end of each trading day and the margin required with respect to such contracts is adjusted accordingly. This process of marking-to-market is designed to prevent losses from accumulating in any futures account. Therefore, if the Fund’s futures positions have declined in value, the Fund may be required to post “variation margin” to cover this decline. Alternatively, if the Fund’s futures positions have increased in value, this increase will be credited to the Fund’s account.
 
Over-the-Counter Derivatives
 
In addition to futures contracts, options on futures contracts, derivative contracts that are tied to various commodities, including soybeans, are entered into outside of public exchanges. These “over-the-counter” contracts are entered into between two parties in private contracts or on a recently formed swap execution facility (“SEF”) for certain standardized swaps. Unlike Soybean Futures Contracts, which are guaranteed by a clearing organization, each party to an over-the-counter derivative contract bears the credit risk of the other party (unless such over-the-counter swap is cleared through a DCO), i.e., the risk that the other party will not be able to perform its obligations under its contract.
 
Some over-the-counter derivatives contracts contain relatively standardized terms and conditions and are available from a wide range of participants. Others have highly customized terms and conditions and are not as widely available. While the Fund may enter into these more customized contracts, the Fund will only enter into over-the-counter contracts containing certain terms and conditions, as discussed further below, that are designed to minimize the credit risk to which the Fund will be subject and only if the terms and conditions of the contract are consistent with achieving the Fund’s investment objective of tracking the Benchmark. The over-the-counter contracts that the Fund may enter into will take the form of either forward contracts, swaps or options.
 
A forward contract is a contractual obligation to purchase or sell a specified quantity of a commodity at or before a specified date in the future at a specified price and, therefore, is economically similar to a futures contract except that, unlike a futures contract it cannot be financially settled (i.e., one must intend to make or take delivery of a commodity under a forward contract). Unlike futures contracts, however, forward contracts are typically privately negotiated or are traded in the over-the-counter markets. Forward contracts for a given commodity are generally available for various amounts and maturities and are subject to individual negotiation between the parties involved. Moreover, generally there is no direct means of offsetting or closing out a forward contract by taking an offsetting position as one would a futures contract on a U.S. exchange. If a trader desires to close out a forward contract position, he generally will establish an opposite position in the contract but will settle and recognize the profit or loss on both positions simultaneously on the delivery date. Thus, unlike in the futures contract market where a trader who has offset positions will recognize profit or loss immediately, in the forward market a trader with a position that has been offset at a profit will generally not receive such profit until the delivery date, and likewise a trader with a position that has been offset at a loss will generally not have to pay money until the delivery date. However, in some very limited instances such contracts may provide a right of look out that will allow for the receipt of profit and payment for losses prior to the delivery date.
 
 
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An over-the-counter swap agreement is a bilateral contract to exchange a periodic stream of payments determined by reference to a notional amount, with payment typically made between the parties on a net basis. For instance, in the case of a soybean swap, the Fund may be obligated to pay a fixed price per bushel of soybeans and be entitled to receive an amount per bushel equal to the current value of an index of soybean prices, the price of a specified Soybean Futures Contract, or the average price of a group of Soybean Futures Contracts such as the Benchmark. Each party to the swap is subject to the credit risk of the other party. The Fund only enters into over-the-counter swaps on a net basis, where the two payment streams are netted out on a daily basis, with the parties receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Swaps do not generally involve the delivery of underlying assets or principal and are therefore financially settled. Accordingly, the Fund’s risk of loss with respect to an over-the-counter swap generally is limited to the net amount of payments that the counterparty is contractually obligated to make less any collateral deposits the Fund is holding.
 
To reduce the credit risk that arises in connection with over-the-counter contracts, the Fund generally enters into an agreement with each counterparty based on the Master Agreement published by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. that provides for the netting of the Fund’s overall exposure to its counterparty and for daily payments based on the marked-to-market value of the contract.
 
The creditworthiness of each potential counterparty will be assessed by the Sponsor. The Sponsor assesses or reviews, as appropriate, the creditworthiness of each potential or existing counterparty to an over-the-counter contract pursuant to guidelines approved by the Sponsor. The creditworthiness of existing counterparties will be reviewed periodically by the Sponsor. The Sponsor’s President, Chief Investment Officer, and Chief Executive Officer has over 25 years of experience in over the counter derivatives trading, including the counterparty creditworthiness analysis inherent therein. There is no guarantee that the Sponsor’s creditworthiness analysis will be successful and that counterparties selected for Fund transactions will not default on their contractual obligations.
 
The Fund also may require that a counterparty be highly rated and/or provide collateral or other credit support. The Sponsor on behalf of the Fund may enter into over-the-counter contracts with various types of counterparties, including: (a) entities registered as swap dealers (“SD”) or major swap participants (“MSP”), or (b) any other entities that qualify as eligible contract participants (“ECP”).
 
After the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, swaps (and options that are regulated as swaps) are subject to the CFTC’s exclusive jurisdiction and are regulated as rigorously as futures. Generally, however, if a swap is entered into with an SD or MSP, such counterparty will conduct all necessary compliance with respect to swaps and options under the Dodd-Frank Act.
 
Benchmark Performance
 
See the information presented in the “Results of Operations” on page 79 of this prospectus.
 
The Soybean Market
 
Global soybean production is concentrated in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina and China. The United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) has estimated that, for the Crop Year 2018-19, the United States will produce approximately 124 MMT of soybeans or approximately 34% of estimated world production, with Brazil production at 117 MMT. Argentina is projected to produce about 55 MMT. For 2018-19, based on the March 2019 USDA report, global consumption of 348 MMT is estimated slightly lower than global production of 360 MMT. If the global supply of soybeans exceeds global demand, this may have an adverse impact on the price of soybeans. The USDA publishes weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual updates for U.S. domestic and worldwide soybean production and consumption. These reports are available on the USDA’s website, www.usda.gov, at no charge. The January 2019 reports were not published due to a lapse in federal funding. The outlook provided above is from the March 8, 2019 USDA report.
 
The soybean processing industry converts soybeans into soybean meal, soybean hulls, and soybean oil. Soybean meal and soybean hulls are processed into soy flour or soy protein, which are used, along with other commodities, by livestock producers and the fish farming industry as feed. Soybean oil is sold in multiple grades and is used by the food, petroleum and chemical industries. The food industry uses soybean oil in cooking and salad dressings, baking and frying fats, and butter substitutes, among other uses. In addition, the soybean industry continues to introduce soy-based products as substitutes to various petroleum-based products including lubricants, plastics, ink, crayons and candles. Soybean oil is also converted to biodiesel for use as fuel.
 
Standard Soybean Futures Contracts trade on the CBOT in units of 5,000 bushels, although 1,000 bushel “mini-sized” Soybean Futures Contracts also trade. Three grades of soybean are deliverable under CBOT Soybean Futures Contracts: Number 1 yellow, which may be delivered at 6 cents per bushel over the contract price; Number 2 yellow, which may be delivered at the contract price; and Number 3 yellow, which may be delivered at 6 cents per bushel under the contract price. There are seven months each year in which CBOT Soybean Futures Contracts expire: January, March, May, July, August, September and November.
 
If the futures market is in a state of backwardation (i.e., when the price of soybeans in the future is expected to be less than the current price), the Fund will buy later-to-expire contracts for a lower price than the sooner-to-expire contracts that it sells. Hypothetically, and assuming no changes to either prevailing soybean prices or the price relationship between immediate delivery, soon-to-expire contracts and later-to-expire contracts, the value of a contract will rise as it approaches expiration. If the futures market is in contango, the Fund will buy later-to-expire contracts for a higher price than the sooner-to-expire contracts that it sells. Hypothetically, and assuming no other changes to either prevailing soybean prices or the price relationship between the spot price, soon-to-expire contracts and later-to-expire contracts, the value of a contract will fall as it approaches expiration. Historically, the soybeans futures markets have experienced periods of both contango and backwardation. Frequently, whether contango or backwardation exists is a function, among other factors, of the seasonality of the soybean market and the soybean harvest cycle. All other things being equal, a situation involving prolonged periods of contango may adversely impact the returns of the Fund; conversely a situation involving prolonged periods of backwardation may positively impact the returns of the Fund.
 
 
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The price per bushel of soybeans in the United States is primarily a function of both U.S. and global production, as well as U.S. and global demand. The graph below shows the USDA published price per bushel by month for the period January 2007 to January 2019.
 
         
 
 
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On March 8, 2019, the USDA released its monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the Crop Year 2018-19. The exhibit below provides a summary of historical and current information for United States soybean production.
 
 
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The Fund’s Investments in Short-term Treasury Securities, Cash, and Cash Equivalents
 
The Fund seeks to have the aggregate “notional” amount of the Soybean Interests it holds approximate at all times the Fund’s aggregate NAV. At any given time, however, most of the Fund’s investments are in short-term Treasury Securities, cash and cash equivalents that support the Fund’s positions in Soybean Interests. For example, the purchase of a Soybean Futures Contract with a stated or notional amount of $10 million would not require the Fund to pay $10 million upon entering into the contract; rather, only a margin deposit, approximately 5% of the notional amount, would be required. To secure its Soybean Futures Contract obligations, the Fund would deposit the required margin with the FCM and would separately hold its remaining assets through its Custodian in cash and cash equivalents, in demand deposits in highly-rated financial institutions, in short-term Treasury Securities held by the FCM, in money-market funds or in commercial paper. Such remaining assets may be used to meet future margin payments that the Fund is required to make on its Soybean Futures Contracts. Other Soybean Interests typically also involve collateral requirements that represent a small fraction of their notional amounts, so most of the Fund’s assets dedicated to these Soybean Interests are also held in short-term Treasury Securities, cash and cash equivalents.
 
The Fund earns interest income from the cash equivalents that it purchases and on the cash it holds through the Custodian or other financial institutions. The earned interest income increases the Fund’s NAV. The Fund applies the earned interest income to the acquisition of additional investments or uses it to pay its expenses. When the Fund reinvests the earned interest income, it makes investments that are consistent with its investment objectives.
 
Any short-term Treasury Security and cash equivalent invested in by the Fund will have a remaining maturity of less than 3 months at the time of investment or will be subject to a demand feature that enables that Fund to sell the security within that time period at approximately the security’s face value (plus accrued interest). Any cash equivalents invested in by the Fund will be or will be deemed by the Sponsor to be of investment-credit quality.
 
Other Trading Policies of the Fund
 
Exchange for Related Position
 
An “exchange for related position” (“EFRP”) can be used by the Fund as a technique to facilitate the exchanging of a futures hedge position against a creation or redemption order, and thus the Fund may use an EFRP transaction in connection with the creation and redemption of shares. The market specialist/market maker that is the ultimate purchaser or seller of shares in connection with the creation or redemption basket, respectively, agrees to sell or purchase a corresponding offsetting shares or futures position which is then settled on the same business day as a cleared futures transaction by the FCMs. The Fund will become subject to the credit risk of the market specialist/market maker until the EFRP is settled within the business day, which is typically 7 hours or less. The Fund reports all activity related to EFRP transactions under the procedures and guidelines of the CFTC and the exchanges on which the futures are traded.
 
EFRPs are subject to specific rules of the CME and CFTC guidance. It is likely that EFRP mechanisms will significantly change in the future which may make it uneconomical or impossible from a regulatory perspective for the Fund to utilize these mechanisms.
 
Options on Futures Contracts
 
An option on a futures contract gives the buyer of the option the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a futures contract at a specified price on or before a specified date. The option buyer deposits the purchase price or “premium” for the option with his broker, and the money goes to the option seller. Regardless of how much the market swings, the most an option buyer can lose is the option premium and the commissions and fees associated with the transaction. However, the buyer will typically lose the premium if the exercise price of the option is above (in the case of an option to buy or “call” option) or below (in the case of an option to sell or “put” option) the market value at the time of exercise. Option sellers, on the other hand, face risks similar to participants in the futures markets. For example, since the seller of a call option is assigned a short futures position if the option is exercised, his risk is the same as someone who initially sold a futures contract. Because no one can predict exactly how the market will move, the option seller posts margin to demonstrate his ability to meet any potential contractual obligations.
 
In addition to Soybean Futures Contracts, there are also a number of options on Soybean Futures Contracts listed on the CBOT. These contracts offer investors and hedgers another set of financial vehicles to use in managing exposure to the commodities market. The Fund may purchase and sell (write) options on Soybean Futures Contracts in pursuing its investment objective, except that it will not sell call options when it does not own the underlying Soybean Futures Contract. The Fund would make use of options on Soybean Futures Contracts if, in the opinion of the Sponsor, such an approach would cause the Fund to more closely track its Benchmark or if it would lead to an overall lower cost of trading to achieve a given level of economic exposure to movements in Soybean prices.
 
Liquidity
 
The Fund invests only in Soybean Futures Contracts that, in the opinion of the Sponsor, are traded in sufficient volume to permit the ready taking and liquidation of positions in these financial interests and in over-the-counter commodity interests that, in the opinion of the Sponsor, may be readily liquidated with the original counterparty or through a third party assuming the Fund’s position.
 
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Spot Commodities
 
While most futures contracts can be physically settled, the Fund does not intend to take or make physical delivery. However, the Fund may from time to time trade in Other Soybean Interests based on the spot price of soybeans.
 
Leverage
 
The Sponsor endeavors to have the value of the Fund’s short-term Treasury Securities, cash and cash equivalents, whether held by the Fund or posted as margin or collateral, at all times approximate the aggregate market value of its obligations under the Fund’s Soybean Interests. Commodity pools’ trading positions in futures contracts are typically required to be secured by the deposit of margin funds that represent only a small percentage of a futures contract’s (or other commodity interest’s) entire market value. While the Sponsor does not intend to leverage the Fund’s assets, it is not prohibited from doing so under the Trust Agreement.
 
Borrowings
 
The Fund does not intend to nor foresee the need to borrow money or establish credit lines. The Fund maintains short-term Treasury Securities, cash and cash equivalents, either held by the Fund or posted as margin or collateral, with a value that at all times approximates the aggregate market value of its obligations under Soybean Interests.
 
Pyramiding
 
The Fund does not and will not employ the technique, commonly known as pyramiding, in which the speculator uses unrealized profits on existing positions as variation margin for the purchase or sale of additional positions in the same or another commodity interest.
 
The Fund’s Service Providers
 
Contractual Arrangements with the Sponsor and Third-Party Service Providers
 
The Sponsor is responsible for investing the assets of the Fund in accordance with the objectives and policies of the Fund. In addition, the Sponsor arranges for one or more third parties to provide administrative, custodial, accounting, transfer agency and other necessary services to the Fund. For these services, the Fund is contractually obligated to pay a monthly management fee to the Sponsor, based on average daily net assets, at a rate equal to 1.00% per annum. The Sponsor can elect to waive the payment of this fee in any amount at its sole discretion, at any time and from time to time, in order to reduce the Fund’s expenses or for any other purpose.
 
In its capacity as the Fund’s custodian, the Custodian, currently U.S. Bank, N.A., holds the Fund’s securities, cash and/or cash equivalents pursuant to a custodial agreement. U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services (“Fund Services USBFS”), an entity affiliated with U.S. Bank, N.A., is the registrar and transfer agent for the Fund’s Shares. In addition, USBFS also serves as Administrator for the Fund, performing certain administrative and accounting services and preparing certain SEC and CFTC reports on behalf of the Fund. For these services, the Fund pays fees to the Custodian and USBFS set forth in the table entitled “Contractual Fees and Compensation Arrangements with the Sponsor and Third-Party Service Providers.”
 
The Custodian is located at 1555 North RiverCenter Drive, Suite 302, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212. U.S. Bank N.A. is a nationally chartered bank, regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Department of the Treasury, and is subject to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The principal address for USBFS is 615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, WI, 53202.
 
The Fund employs Foreside Fund Services, LLC as the Distributor for the Fund. The Distributor receives, for its services as distributor for the Fund, a fee which is set forth in the table entitled “Contractual Fees and Compensation Arrangements with the Sponsor and Third-Party Service Providers.”
 
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Pursuant to a Consulting Services Agreement, Foreside Consulting Services, LLC, performs certain consulting support services for the Trust’s Sponsor, Teucrium Trading, LLC. Additionally, Foreside Distributors, LLC performs certain distribution consulting services pursuant to a Distribution Consulting Agreement with the Trust’s Sponsor, Teucrium Trading, LLC.
 
The Distribution Services Agreement among the Distributor, the Sponsor and the Trust calls for the Distributor to work with the Custodian in connection with the receipt and processing of orders for Creation Baskets and Redemption Baskets and the review and approval of all Fund sales literature and advertising materials. The Distributor and the Sponsor have also entered into a Securities Activities and Service Agreement (the “SASA”) under which certain employees and officers of the Sponsor are licensed as registered representatives or registered principals of the Distributor, under FINRA rules (“Registered Representatives”). As Registered Representatives of the Distributor, these persons are permitted to engage in certain marketing activities for the Fund that they would otherwise not be permitted to engage in. Under the SASA, the Sponsor is obligated to ensure that such marketing activities comply with applicable law and are permitted by the SASA and the Distributor’s internal procedures.
 
The Distributor’s principal business address is Three Canal Plaza, Suite 100, Portland, Maine 04101. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and a member of FINRA.
 
Currently, ED&F Man Capital Markets, Inc. (“ED&F Man”) serves as the Fund’s clearing broker to execute and clear the Fund’s futures and provide other brokerage-related services. ED&F Man is registered as a futures commission merchant (“FCM”) with the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and is a member of the National Futures Association (“NFA”). ED&F Man is also registered as a broker/dealer with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and is a member of FINRA. ED&F Man is a clearing member of ICE Futures U.S., Inc., Chicago Board of Trade, Chicago Mercantile Exchange, New York Mercantile Exchange, and all other major United States commodity exchanges.
 
There has been no material civil, administrative, or criminal proceedings pending, on appeal, or concluded against ED&F Man or its principals in the past five (5) years. For a list of concluded actions, please go to http://www.nfa.futures.org/basicnet/welcome.aspx. This link will take you to the Welcome Page of the NFA’s Background Affiliation Status Information Center (“BASIC”). At this page, there is a box where you can enter the NFA ID of ED&F Man Capital Markets Inc. (0002613) and then click “Go”. You will be transferred to the NFA’s information specific to ED&F Man Capital Markets Inc. Under the heading “Regulatory Actions”, click “details” and you will be directed to the full list of regulatory actions brought by the CFTC and exchanges.
 
ED&F Man, in its capacity as a registered FCM, will serve as the Fund's clearing broker and, as such, will arrange for the execution and clearing of the Fund's futures and options on futures transactions. ED&F Man acts as clearing broker for many other funds and individuals.
 
The investor should be advised that ED&F Man is not affiliated with and does not act as a supervisor of the Fund or the Fund's Sponsor, investment managers, members, officers, administrators, transfer agents, registrars or organizers. Additionally, ED&F Man is not acting as an underwriter or sponsor of the offering of any shares or interests in the Fund and has not passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus, the merits of participating in this offering or on the accuracy of the information contained herein.
 
Additionally, ED&F Man does not provide any commodity trading advice regarding the Fund's trading activities. Investors should not rely upon ED&F Man in deciding whether to invest in the Fund or retain their interests in the Fund. Investors should also note that the Fund may select additional clearing brokers or replace ED&F Man as the Fund's clearing broker.
 
Currently, the Sponsor does not employ commodity trading advisors. If, in the future, the Sponsor does employ commodity trading advisors, it will choose each advisor based on arm’s-length negotiations and will consider the advisor’s experience, fees, and reputation.
 
Contractual Fees and Compensation Arrangements with the Sponsor and Third-Party Service Providers
 
Service Provider
Compensation Paid by the Fund
Teucrium Trading, LLC, Sponsor
1.00% of average net assets annually
U.S. Bank N.A., Custodian
 
 
 
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, Transfer Agent, Fund Accountant and Fund Administrator
For custody services: 0.0075% of average gross assets up to $1 billion, and .0050% of average gross assets over $1 billion, annually, plus certain per-transaction charges
 
For Transfer Agency, Fund Accounting and Fund Administration services, based on the total assets for all the Teucrium Funds: 0.06% of average gross assets on the first $250 million, 0.05% on the next $250 million, 0.04% on the next $500 million and 0.03% on the balance over $1 billion annually
 
A combined minimum annual fee of $64,500 for custody, transfer agency, accounting and administrative services is assessed per Fund.
 
Foreside Fund Services, LLC, Distributor
The Distributor receives a fee of 0.01% of the Fund’s average daily net assets and an aggregate annual fee of $100,000 for all Teucrium Funds, along with certain expense reimbursements. Expense reimbursements consist of issuer costs for sales and advertising review fees and will not exceed $6,000 for the two-year period of April 29, 2019 to April 29, 2021 (the “two year offering period”). The fees which will be paid to the Distributor by the Fund for distribution services will not exceed $85,000 for the two-year offering period.
 
Under the Securities Activities and Service Agreement (the “SASA”), the Distributor receives compensation from the fund for its activities on behalf of all the Teucrium Funds. The fees paid to the Distributor pursuant to the SASA for this offering will not exceed $10,000 for the two-year offering period. In addition, the Distributor receives certain expense reimbursements relating to the registration, continuing education and other administrative expenses of the Registered Representatives in relation to the Teucrium Funds. The expense reimbursements for this offering will not exceed $10,000 for the two-year offering period.
 
In sum, the total fees the Distributor will receive over the two-year offering period for all of its services will not exceed $100,000. The total expenses that will be reimbursed to the Distributor over the two-year offering period for all of its services will not exceed $10,000, $6,000 of which are issuer costs for sales and advertising materials.
 
 
 
 
46
 
 
ED&F Man Capital Markets, Inc., Futures Commission Merchant and Clearing Broker
 
$4.50 per Soybean Futures Contract half-turn
Wilmington Trust Company, Trustee
 
Employees of the Sponsor Registered with the Distributor (the “Registered Representatives”)
$3,300 annually for the Trust
 
For non-marketing services to the Fund, $146,000 and, for marketing and wholesaling purposes, $66,000. These amounts include expenses that will be reimbursed to the Registered Representatives for travel and other expenses related to their activities for the Fund. Of the total amount, approximately $35,000 will be paid by the Sponsor, the rest by the Fund. Registered Representatives will also receive continuing education valued at a maximum of $1,000 for the two-year offering period.
 
Other Non-Contractual Payments by the Fund
 
The Fund pays for all brokerage fees, taxes and other expenses, including licensing fees for the use of intellectual property, registration or other fees paid to the SEC, FINRA, formerly the National Association of Securities Dealers, or any other regulatory agency in connection with the offer and sale of subsequent Shares after its initial registration and all legal, accounting, printing and other expenses associated therewith. The Fund also pays its portion of the fees and expenses for services directly attributable to the Fund such as accounting, financial reporting, regulatory compliance and trading activities, which the Sponsor elected not to outsource. Certain aggregate expenses common to all Teucrium Funds are allocated by the Sponsor to the respective funds based on activity drivers deemed most appropriate by the Sponsor for such expenses, including but not limited to relative assets under management and creation order activity. These aggregate common expenses include, but are not limited to, legal, auditing, accounting and financial reporting, tax-preparation, regulatory compliance, trading activities, and insurance costs, as well as fees paid to the Distributor. A portion of these aggregate common expenses are related to the Sponsor or related parties of principals of the Sponsor; these are necessary services to the Teucrium Funds, which are primarily the cost of performing certain accounting and financial reporting, regulatory compliance, and trading activities that are directly attributable to the Fund and are included, primarily, in distribution and marketing fees.
 

 
Year Ended
December 31, 2018
 
 
Year Ended
December 31, 2017
 
 
 Year Ended
December 31, 2016
 
Recognized Related Party Transactions
 $444,365 
 $183,076 
 $169,614 
Waived Related Party Transactions
 $192,822 
 $45,597 
 $10,720 
 
The Sponsor can elect to pay (or waive reimbursement for) certain fees or expenses that would generally be paid for by the Fund, although it has no contractual obligation to do so. Any election to pay or waive reimbursement for fees that would generally be paid by the Fund, can be changed at the discretion of the Sponsor. All asset-based fees and expenses are calculated on the prior day's net assets.
 
 
47
 
 
The contractual and non-contractual fees and expenses paid by the Fund as described above (exclusive of the Sponsor’s management fee and estimated brokerage fees) are as follows, net of any expenses waived by the Sponsor. These are also the “Other Fund Fees and Expenses” included in the section entitled “Breakeven Analysis” in this prospectus on page 16.
 
Professional Fees1
 $0.15 
Distribution and Marketing Fees2
  0.18 
Custodian Fees and Expenses3
  0.05 
General and Administrative Fees4
  0.03 
Business Permits and Licenses
  0.01 
Other Expenses
  0.01 
Total Other Fund Fees and Expenses
 $0.43 
 
(1) Professional fees consist of primarily, but not entirely, legal, auditing and tax-preparation related costs.
(2) Distribution and marketing fees consist of primarily, but not entirely, fees paid to the Distributor (Foreside Fund Services, LLC), costs related to regulatory compliance activities and other costs related to the trading activities of the Fund.
(3) Custodian and Administrator fees consist of fees to the Administrator and the Custodian for accounting, transfer agent and custodian activities.
(4) General and Administrative fees consist of primarily, but not entirely, insurance and printing costs.
 
Asset-based fees are calculated on a daily basis (accrued at 1/365 of the applicable percentage of NAV on that day) and paid on a monthly basis. NAV is calculated by taking the current market value of the Fund’s total assets and subtracting any liabilities.
 
Form of Shares
 
Registered Form
 
Shares are issued in registered form in accordance with the Trust Agreement. USBFS has been appointed registrar and transfer agent for the purpose of transferring Shares in certificated form. USBFS keeps a record of all Shareholders and holders of the Shares in certificated form in the registry (“Register”). The Sponsor recognizes transfers of Shares in certificated form only if done in accordance with the Trust Agreement. The beneficial interests in such Shares are held in book-entry form through participants and/or accountholders in DTC.
 
Book Entry
 
Individual certificates are not issued for the Shares. Instead, Shares are represented by one or more global certificates, which are deposited by the Administrator with DTC and registered in the name of Cede & Co., as nominee for DTC. The global certificates evidence all of the Shares outstanding at any time. Shareholders are limited to (1) participants in DTC such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies (“DTC Participants”), (2) those who maintain, either directly or indirectly, a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant (“Indirect Participants”), and (3) those who hold interests in the Shares through DTC Participants or Indirect Participants, in each case who satisfy the requirements for transfers of Shares. DTC Participants acting on behalf of investors holding Shares through such participants’ accounts in DTC will follow the delivery practice applicable to securities eligible for DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System. Shares are credited to DTC Participants’ securities accounts following confirmation of receipt of payment.
 
 
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DTC
 
DTC has advised us as follows: It is a limited purpose trust company organized under the laws of the State of New York and is a member of the Federal Reserve System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code and a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act. DTC holds securities for DTC Participants and facilitates the clearance and settlement of transactions between DTC Participants through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of DTC Participants.
 
Transfer of Shares
 
The Shares are only transferable through the book-entry system of DTC. Shareholders who are not DTC Participants may transfer their Shares through DTC by instructing the DTC Participant holding their Shares (or by instructing the Indirect Participant or other entity through which their Shares are held) to transfer the Shares. Transfers are made in accordance with standard securities industry practice.
 
Transfers of interests in Shares with DTC are made in accordance with the usual rules and operating procedures of DTC and the nature of the transfer. DTC has established procedures to facilitate transfers among the participants and/or accountholders of DTC. Because DTC can only act on behalf of DTC Participants, who in turn act on behalf of Indirect Participants, the ability of a person or entity having an interest in a global certificate to pledge such interest to persons or entities that do not participate in DTC, or otherwise take actions in respect of such interest, may be affected by the lack of a certificate or other definitive document representing such interest.
 
DTC has advised us that it will take any action permitted to be taken by a Shareholder (including, without limitation, the presentation of a global certificate for exchange) only at the direction of one or more DTC Participants in whose account with DTC interests in global certificates are credited and only in respect of such portion of the aggregate principal amount of the global certificate as to which such DTC Participant or Participants has or have given such direction.
 
Inter-Series Limitation on Liability
 
Because the Trust was established as a Delaware statutory trust, each Teucrium Fund and each other series that may be established under the Trust in the future will be operated so that it will be liable only for obligations attributable to such series and will not be liable for obligations of any other series or affected by losses of any other series. If any creditor or shareholder of any particular series (such as the Fund) asserts against the series a valid claim with respect to its indebtedness or shares, the creditor or shareholder will only be able to obtain recovery from the assets of that series and not from the assets of any other series or the Trust generally. The assets of the Fund and any other series will include only those funds and other assets that are paid to, held by or distributed to the series on account of and for the benefit of that series, including, without limitation, amounts delivered to the Trust for the purchase of shares in a series. This limitation on liability is referred to as the Inter-Series Limitation on Liability. The Inter-Series Limitation on Liability is expressly provided for under the Delaware Statutory Trust Act, which provides that if certain conditions (as set forth in Section 3804(a)) are met, then the debts of any particular series will be enforceable only against the assets of such series and not against the assets of any other series or the Trust generally. In furtherance of the Inter-Series Limitation on Liability, every party providing services to the Trust, the Fund or the Sponsor on behalf of the Trust or the Fund, will acknowledge and consent in writing to the Inter-Series Limitation on Liability with respect to such party’s claims.
 
The existence of a Trustee should not be taken as an indication of any additional level of management or supervision over the Fund. Consistent with Delaware law, the Trustee acts in an entirely passive role, delegating all authority for the management and operation of the Fund and the Trust to the Sponsor. The Trustee does not provide custodial services with respect to the assets of the Fund.
 
Plan of Distribution
 
Buying and Selling Shares
 
Most investors buy and sell Shares of the Fund in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares trade on the NYSE Arca under the ticker symbol “SOYB.” Shares are bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities. When buying or selling Shares through a broker, most investors incur customary brokerage commissions and charges. Investors are encouraged to review the terms of their brokerage account for details on applicable charges and, as discussed below under “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations,” any provisions authorizing the broker to borrow Shares held on your behalf.
 
 
49
 
 
Distributor and Authorized Purchasers
 
The offering of the Fund’s Shares is a best efforts offering. The Fund continuously offers Creation Baskets consisting of 25,000 Shares at their NAV through the Distributor to Authorized Purchasers. Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc. was the initial Authorized Purchaser. The initial Authorized Purchaser purchased two Creation Baskets of 50,000 Shares each at a per Shares price of $25.00 on June 8, 2010. All Authorized Purchasers pay a $250 fee for each Creation Basket order.
 
The Sponsor and the Trust are parties to an Amended and Restated Distribution Services Agreement dated as of November 17, 2010 (the “Distribution Agreement”), which amended and restated in its entirety a Distribution Services Agreement between the Sponsor, the Trust, and Foreside Fund Services, LLC (the “Distributor”) dated as of October 15, 2010. Pursuant to the Distribution Agreement the Distributor, together with USBFS, is required to provide services in connection with the receipt and processing of orders for Creation Baskets and Redemption baskets of units of the Teucrium Funds, including the Fund.
 
The Distribution Agreement, as amended, remains in full force and effect between the parties. The Distribution Agreement was most recently amended on December 10, 2014 and was previously amended on May 25, 2011, October 1, 2011, and April 22, 2014. The first amendment to the Distribution Agreement, dated May 25, 2011, provided for the application of the agreement to additional series of the Trust and revised the fee schedule, including the specific fees and expenses allocable to the Fund and each of the Teucrium Funds.
 
The second amendment and third amendments revised the fee schedule between the parties, including the specific fees and expenses allocable to the Fund and each Teucrium Fund. The fourth amendment eliminated the two series of the Trust which ceased operations on December 21, 2014.
 
The Distributor receives a fee at an annual rate of 0.01% of each Teucrium Fund’s average daily net assets calculated and billed monthly, and an annual aggregate fee of $100,000 for all Teucrium Funds for which the Distributor serves as such. The fee to be paid to the Distributor will not exceed $100,000 for the two-year offering period. The Distributor also receives certain expense reimbursements for its filing of sales and advertising material on behalf of the Fund. These expense reimbursements are issuer costs and will not exceed $6,000 for the two-year offering period.
 
The Sponsor and the Distributor are also parties to a Securities Activities and Services Agreement, as amended from time to time (the “SASA”), pursuant to which certain employees and officers of the Sponsor are licensed as Registered Representatives or registered principals of the Distributor under FINRA rules. As Registered Representatives of the Distributor, these persons are permitted to engage in certain marketing activities for the Fund that they would otherwise not be permitted to engage in. Under the SASA, the Distributor receives compensation for its activities on behalf of the Teucrium Funds which will not exceed $10,000 for the two-year offering period, as well as certain expense reimbursements relating to the registration, continuing education and other administrative expenses of the Registered Representatives in relation to the Teucrium Funds, which will not exceed $4,000 for the two year offering period. The Registered Representatives will also be paid non-transaction based compensation for certain non-marketing related services provided to the Fund. This amount will not exceed $146,000 over the two-year offering period. Registered Representatives will also be paid for marketing and wholesaling services to the Fund. This amount will not exceed $66,000 over the two-year offering period. Of these amounts, the Sponsor will pay $35,000. The remainder will be paid by the Fund. Registered Representatives will also receive continuing education valued at a maximum of $1,000 for the two-year offering period.
 
In no event may the aggregate compensation from any source payable to underwriters, broker-dealers, or affiliates thereof for distribution-related services in connection with this offering exceed ten percent (10%) of the gross proceeds of this offering.
 
The offering of baskets is being made in compliance with Conduct Rule 2310 of FINRA. Accordingly, Authorized Purchasers will not make any sales to any account over which they have discretionary authority without the prior written approval of a purchaser of Shares.
 
The per share price of Shares offered in Creation Baskets on any day is the total NAV of the Fund calculated shortly after the close of the NYSE Arca on that day divided by the number of issued and outstanding Shares. An Authorized Purchaser is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of Shares.
 
By executing an Authorized Purchaser Agreement, an Authorized Purchaser becomes part of the group of parties eligible to purchase baskets from, and put baskets for redemption to, the Fund. An Authorized Purchaser is under no obligation to create or redeem baskets or to offer to the public Shares of any baskets it does create. If an Authorized Purchaser sells Shares that it has created to the public, it will be expected to sell them at per-Share offering prices that are expected to reflect, among other factors, the trading price of the Shares on the NYSE Arca, the NAV of the Fund at the time the Authorized Purchaser purchased the Creation Baskets and the NAV at the time of the offer of the Shares to the public, the supply of and demand for Shares at the time of sale, and the liquidity of the Soybean Interest markets. The prices of Shares offered by Authorized Purchasers are expected to fall between the Fund’s NAV and the trading price of the Shares on the NYSE Arca at the time of sale.
 
 
50
 
 
The following entities have entered into Authorized Purchaser Agreements with respect to the Fund: Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., Goldman Sachs & Co., Citadel Securities, LLC, and Virtu Financial BD LLC.
 
Because new Shares can be created and issued on an ongoing basis, at any point during the life of the Fund, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the 1933 Act, will be occurring. Authorized Purchasers, other broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some of their activities may result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner that would render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus-delivery and liability provisions of the 1933 Act. For example, an Authorized Purchaser, other broker-dealer firm or its client will be deemed a statutory underwriter if it purchases a basket from the Fund, breaks the basket down into the constituent Shares and sells the Shares to its customers; or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for the Shares. In contrast, Authorized Purchasers may engage in secondary market or other transactions in Shares that would not be deemed “underwriting.” For example, an Authorized Purchaser may act in the capacity of a broker or dealer with respect to Shares that were previously distributed by other Authorized Purchasers. A determination of whether a particular market participant is an underwriter must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that would lead to designation as an underwriter and subject them to the prospectus-delivery and liability provisions of the 1933 Act.
 
Dealers who are neither Authorized Purchasers nor “underwriters” but are nonetheless participating in a distribution (as contrasted to ordinary secondary trading transactions), and thus dealing with Shares that are part of an “unsold allotment” within the meaning of Section 4(a)(3)(C) of the 1933 Act, would be unable to take advantage of the prospectus-delivery exemption provided by Section 4(a)(3) of the 1933 Act.
 
The Sponsor expects that any broker-dealers selling Shares will be members of FINRA. Investors intending to create or redeem baskets through Authorized Purchasers in transactions not involving a broker-dealer registered in such investor’s state of domicile or residence should consult their legal advisor regarding applicable broker-dealer regulatory requirements under the state securities laws prior to such creation or redemption.
 
While the Authorized Purchasers may be indemnified by the Sponsor, they will not be entitled to receive a discount or commission from the Trust or the Sponsor for their purchases of Creation Baskets.
 
 
51
 
 
The Flow of Shares
 
 
 
52
 
 
Calculating NAV
 
The Fund’s NAV per Share is calculated by:
 
 
taking the current market value of its total assets, and
 
 
subtracting any liabilities and dividing the balance by the number of Shares.
 
USBFS, in its capacity as the Administrator, calculates the NAV of the Fund once each trading day. It calculates NAV as of the earlier of the close of the New York Stock Exchange or 4:00 p.m. New York time. The NAV for a particular trading day is released after 4:15 p.m. New York time.
 
In determining the value of Soybean Futures Contracts, the Administrator uses the CBOT closing price, except that the “fair value” of a Soybean Futures Contract (as described in more detail below) may be used when Soybean Futures Contracts close at their price fluctuation limit for the day. The Administrator determines the value of all other Fund investments as of the earlier of the close of the New York Stock Exchange or 4:00 p.m. New York time, in accordance with the current Services Agreement between the Administrator and the Trust. The value of over-the-counter Soybean Interests is determined based on the value of the commodity or Futures Contract underlying such Soybean Interest, except that a fair value may be determined if the Sponsor believes that the Fund is subject to significant credit risk relating to the counterparty to such Soybean Interest. Cash equivalents held by the Fund are valued by the Administrator using values received from recognized third-party vendors (such as Reuters) and dealer quotes. NAV includes any unrealized profit or loss on open Soybean Interests and any other credit or debit accruing to the Fund but unpaid or not received by the Fund.
 
The fair value of a Soybean Interest shall be determined by the Sponsor in good faith and in a manner that assesses the Soybean Interest’s value based on a consideration of all available facts and all available information on the valuation date. When a Soybean Futures Contract has closed at its price fluctuation limit, the fair value determination attempts to estimate the price at which such Soybean Futures Contract would be trading in the absence of the price fluctuation limit (either above such limit when an upward limit has been reached or below such limit when a downward limit has been reached). Typically, this estimate will be made primarily by reference to the price of comparable Soybean Interests trading in the over-the-counter market. The fair value of a Soybean Interest may not reflect such security’s market value or the amount that the Fund might reasonably expect to receive for the Soybean Interest upon its current sale.
 
In addition, in order to provide updated information relating to the Fund for use by investors and market professionals, NYSE Arca calculates and disseminates throughout the trading day an updated “indicative fund value.” The indicative fund value is calculated by using the prior day’s closing NAV per Share of the Fund as a base and updating that value throughout the trading day to reflect changes in the value of the Fund’s Soybean Interests during the trading day. Changes in the value of cash equivalents are not included in the calculation of indicative value. For this and other reasons, the indicative fund value disseminated during NYSE Arca trading hours should not be viewed as an actual real time update of the NAV. NAV is calculated only once at the end of each trading day.
 
The indicative fund value is disseminated on a per Share basis every 15 seconds during regular NYSE Arca trading hours of 9:30 a.m. New York time to 4:00 p.m. New York time.  The normal trading hours for Soybean Futures Contracts on the CBOT are generally shorter than those of the NYSE Arca. This means that there is a gap in time at the beginning and the end of each day during which the Fund’s Shares are traded on the NYSE Arca, but real-time CBOT trading prices for Soybean Futures Contracts traded on such exchange are not available. As a result, during those gaps there is no update to the indicative fund value. The trading hours for the CBOT can be found at http://www.cmegroup.com/trading_hours/commodities-hours.html.
 
The NYSE Arca disseminates the indicative fund value through the facilities of CTA/CQ High Speed Lines. In addition, the indicative fund value is published on the NYSE Arca’s website and is available through on-line information services such as Bloomberg and Reuters.
 
Dissemination of the indicative fund value provides additional information that is not otherwise available to the public and is useful to investors and market professionals in connection with the trading of Fund Shares on the NYSE Arca. Investors and market professionals are able throughout the trading day to compare the market price of the Fund and the indicative fund value. If the market price of Fund Shares diverges significantly from the indicative fund value, market professionals may have an incentive to execute arbitrage trades. For example, if the Fund appears to be trading at a discount compared to the indicative fund value, a market professional could buy Fund Shares on the NYSE Arca, aggregate them into Redemption Baskets, and receive the NAV of such Shares by redeeming them to the Trust, provided that there is not a minimum number of shares outstanding for the Fund. Such arbitrage trades can tighten the tracking between the market price of the Fund and the indicative fund value.
 
 
53
 
 
Creation and Redemption of Shares
 
The Fund creates and redeems Shares from time to time, but only in one or more Creation Baskets or Redemption Baskets. The creation and redemption of baskets are only made in exchange for delivery to the Fund or the distribution by the Fund of the amount of cash, cash equivalents and/or commodity futures equal to the combined NAV of the number of Shares included in the baskets being created or redeemed determined as of 4:00 p.m. New York time on the day the order to create or redeem baskets is properly received.
 
Authorized Purchasers are the only persons that may place orders to create and redeem baskets. Authorized Purchasers must be (1) either registered broker-dealers or other securities market participants, such as banks and other financial institutions, that are not required to register as broker-dealers to engage in securities transactions as described below, and (2) DTC Participants. To become an Authorized Purchaser, a person must enter into an Authorized Purchaser Agreement with the Sponsor. The Authorized Purchaser Agreement provides the procedures for the creation and redemption of baskets and for the delivery of the cash, cash equivalents and/or commodity futures required for such creations and redemptions. The Authorized Purchaser Agreement and the related procedures attached thereto may be amended by the Sponsor, without the consent of any Shareholder, and the related procedures may generally be amended by the Sponsor without the consent of the Authorized Purchaser. Authorized Purchasers pay a transaction fee of $250 to the Sponsor for each creation order they place to and a fee of $250 per order for redemptions. Authorized Purchasers who make deposits with the Fund in exchange for baskets receive no fees, commissions or other form of compensation or inducement of any kind from either the Trust or the Sponsor, and no such person will have any obligation or responsibility to the Trust or the Sponsor to effect any sale or resale of Shares.
 
Certain Authorized Purchasers are expected to be capable of participating directly in physical soybeans and the Soybean Interest markets. Some Authorized Purchasers or their affiliates may from time to time buy or sell soybeans or Soybean Interests and may profit in these instances.
 
Each Authorized Purchaser will be required to be registered as a broker-dealer under the Exchange Act and a member in good standing with FINRA, or be exempt from being or otherwise not required to be registered as a broker-dealer or a member of FINRA, and will be qualified to act as a broker or dealer in the states or other jurisdictions where the nature of its business so requires. Certain Authorized Purchasers may also be regulated under federal and state banking laws and regulations. Each Authorized Purchaser has its own set of rules and procedures, internal controls and information barriers it deems appropriate in light of its own regulatory regime.
 
Under the Authorized Purchaser Agreement, the Sponsor has agreed to indemnify the Authorized Purchasers against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the 1933 Act, and to contribute to the payments the Authorized Purchasers may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.
 
The following description of the procedures for the creation and redemption of baskets is only a summary and an investor should refer to the relevant provisions of the Trust Agreement and the form of Authorized Purchaser Agreement for more detail, each of which has been incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” for information about where you can obtain the registration statement.
 
Creation Procedures
 
On any business day, an Authorized Purchaser may place an order with USBFS in their capacity as the transfer agent to create one or more baskets. For purposes of processing purchase and redemption orders, a “business day” means any day other than a day when any of the NYSE Arca, CBOT, or the New York Stock Exchange is closed for regular trading. Purchase orders must be placed by 1:15 p.m. New York time or the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange, whichever is earlier. The day on which the Distributor receives a valid purchase order is referred to as the purchase order date.
 
By placing a purchase order, an Authorized Purchaser agrees to deposit cash, cash equivalents, commodity futures and/or a combination thereof with the Fund, as described below. Prior to the delivery of baskets for a purchase order, the Authorized Purchaser must also have wired to the Sponsor the non-refundable transaction fee due for the purchase order. Authorized Purchasers may not withdraw a purchase order without the prior consent of the Sponsor in its discretion.
 
 
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Determination of Required Deposits
 
The total deposit required to create each basket (“Creation Basket Deposit”) is the amount of cash, cash equivalents and/or commodity futures that is in the same proportion to the total assets of the Fund (net of estimated accrued but unpaid fees, expenses and other liabilities) on the purchase order date as the number of Shares to be created under the purchase order is in proportion to the total number of Shares outstanding on the purchase order date. The Sponsor determines, directly in its sole discretion or in consultation with the Custodian and the Administrator, the requirements for cash, cash equivalents and/or commodity futures, including the remaining maturities of the cash equivalents, that may be included in deposits to create baskets. If cash equivalents are to be included in a Creation Basket Deposit for orders placed on a given business day, the Administrator will publish an estimate of the Creation Basket Deposit requirements at the beginning of such day.
 
Delivery of Required Deposits
 
An Authorized Purchaser who places a purchase order is responsible for transferring to the Fund’s account with the Custodian the required amount of cash, cash equivalents and/or commodity futures by the end of the next business day following the purchase order date or by the end of such later business day, not to exceed three business days after the purchase order date, as agreed to between the Authorized Purchaser and the Custodian when the purchase order is placed (the “Purchase Settlement Date”). Upon receipt of the deposit amount, the Custodian directs DTC to credit the number of baskets ordered to the Authorized Purchaser’s DTC account on the Purchase Settlement Date.
 
Because orders to purchase baskets must be placed by 1:15 p.m., New York time, but the total payment required to create a basket during the continuous offering period will not be determined until 4:00 p.m., New York time, on the date the purchase order is received, Authorized Purchasers will not know the total amount of the payment required to create a basket at the time they submit an irrevocable purchase order for the basket. The Fund’s NAV and the total amount of the payment required to create a basket could rise or fall substantially between the time an irrevocable purchase order is submitted and the time the amount of the purchase price in respect thereof is determined.
 
Rejection of Purchase Orders
 
The Sponsor acting by itself or through the Distributor or Custodian may reject a purchase order or a Creation Basket Deposit if:
 
 
●     
it determines that, due to position limits or otherwise, investment alternatives that will enable the Fund to meet its investment objective are not available or practicable at that time;
   

it determines that the purchase order or the Creation Basket Deposit is not in proper form;
 
 
●   
it believes that acceptance of the purchase order or the Creation Basket Deposit would have adverse tax consequences to the Fund or its Shareholders;
 
 
the acceptance or receipt of the Creation Basket Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel to the Sponsor, be unlawful;
 
 
circumstances outside the control of the Sponsor, Distributor or transfer agent make it, for all practical purposes, not feasible to process creations of baskets;
 
 
there is a possibility that any or all of the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts of the Fund on the CBOT from which the NAV of the Fund is calculated will be priced at a daily price limit restriction; or
 
 
if, in the sole discretion of the Sponsor, the execution of such an order would not be in the best interest of the Fund or its Shareholders.
 
 
55
 
 
None of the Sponsor, Distributor or transfer agent will be liable for the rejection of any purchase order or Creation Basket Deposit.
 
Redemption Procedures
 
The procedures by which an Authorized Purchaser can redeem one or more baskets mirror the procedures for the creation of baskets. On any business day, an Authorized Purchaser may place an order with the transfer agent to redeem one or more baskets. Redemption orders must be placed by 1:15 p.m. New York time or the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange, whichever is earlier. A redemption order so received will be effective on the date it is received in satisfactory form by the Distributor. The redemption procedures allow Authorized Purchasers to redeem baskets and do not entitle an individual Shareholder to redeem any Shares in an amount less than a Redemption Basket, or to redeem baskets other than through an Authorized Purchaser. By placing a redemption order, an Authorized Purchaser agrees to deliver the baskets to be redeemed through DTC’s book-entry system to the Fund by the end of the next business day following the effective date of the redemption order or by the end of such later business day, not to exceed three business days after the effective date of the redemption order, as agreed to between the Authorized Purchaser and the transfer agent, when the redemption order is placed (the “Redemption Settlement Date”). Prior to the delivery of the redemption distribution for a redemption order, the Authorized Purchaser must also have wired to the Sponsor’s account at the Custodian the non-refundable transaction fee due for the redemption order. An Authorized Purchaser may not withdraw a redemption order without the prior consent of the Sponsor in its discretion.
 
Determination of Redemption Distribution
 
The redemption distribution from the Fund consists of a transfer to the redeeming Authorized Purchaser of an amount of cash, cash equivalents and/or commodity futures that is in the same proportion to the total assets of the Fund (net of estimated accrued but unpaid fees, expenses and other liabilities) on the date the order to redeem is properly received as the number of Shares to be redeemed under the redemption order is in proportion to the total number of Shares outstanding on the date the order is received. The Sponsor, directly or in consultation with the Custodian and the Administrator, determines the requirements for cash, cash equivalents and/or commodity futures, including the remaining maturities of the cash equivalents and cash, that may be included in distributions to redeem baskets. If cash equivalents are to be included in a redemption distribution for orders placed on a given business day, the Custodian and Administrator will publish an estimate of the redemption distribution composition as of the beginning of such day.
 
Delivery of Redemption Distribution
 
The redemption distribution due from the Fund will be delivered to the Authorized Purchaser on the Redemption Settlement Date if the Fund’s DTC account has been credited with the baskets to be redeemed. If the Fund’s DTC account has not been credited with all of the baskets to be redeemed by the end of such date, the redemption distribution will be delivered to the extent of whole baskets received. Any remainder of the redemption distribution will be delivered on the next business day after the Redemption Settlement Date to the extent of remaining whole baskets received if the Sponsor receives the fee applicable to the extension of the Redemption Settlement Date which the Sponsor may, from time to time, determine and the remaining baskets to be redeemed are credited to the Fund’s DTC account on such next business day. Any further outstanding amount of the redemption order shall be cancelled. Pursuant to information from the Sponsor, the Custodian will also be authorized to deliver the redemption distribution notwithstanding that the baskets to be redeemed are not credited to the Fund’s DTC account by 1:15 p.m. New York time on the Redemption Settlement Date if the Authorized Purchaser has collateralized its obligation to deliver the baskets through DTC’s book entry-system on such terms as the Sponsor may from time to time determine.
 
Suspension or Rejection of Redemption Orders
 
The Sponsor may, in its discretion, suspend the right of redemption, or postpone the redemption settlement date, (1) for any period during which the NYSE Arca or CBOT is closed other than customary weekend or holiday closings, or trading on the NYSE Arca or CBOT, is suspended or restricted, (2) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which delivery, disposal or evaluation of cash equivalents is not reasonably practicable, (3) for such other period as the Sponsor determines to be necessary for the protection of the Shareholders, (4) if there is a possibility that any or all of the Benchmark Component Futures Contracts of the Fund on the CBOT from which the NAV of the Fund is calculated will be priced at a daily price limit restriction, or (5) if, in the sole discretion of the Sponsor, the execution of such an order would not be in the best interest of the Fund or its Shareholders. For example, the Sponsor may determine that it is necessary to suspend redemptions to allow for the orderly liquidation of the Fund’s assets at an appropriate value to fund a redemption. If the Sponsor has difficulty liquidating the Fund’s positions, e.g., because of a market disruption event in the futures markets or an unanticipated delay in the liquidation of a position in an over the counter contract, it may be appropriate to suspend redemptions until such time as such circumstances are rectified. None of the Sponsor, the Distributor, or the transfer agent will be liable to any person or in any way for any loss or damages that may result from any such suspension or postponement.
 
Redemption orders must be made in whole baskets. The Sponsor will reject a redemption order if the order is not in proper form as described in the Authorized Purchaser Agreement or if the fulfillment of the order, in the opinion of its counsel, might be unlawful. The Sponsor may also reject a redemption order if the number of Shares being redeemed would reduce the remaining outstanding Shares to 50,000 Shares (i.e., two baskets of 25,000 Shares each) or less, unless the Sponsor has reason to believe that the placer of the redemption order does in fact possess all the outstanding Shares and can deliver them.
 
 
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   Creation and Redemption Transaction Fees
 
To compensate the Sponsor for its expenses in connection with the creation and redemption of baskets, an Authorized Purchaser is required to pay a transaction fee to the Sponsor of $250 per order The transaction fees may be reduced, increased or otherwise changed by the Sponsor.
 
   Tax Responsibility
 
Authorized Purchasers are responsible for any transfer tax, sales or use tax, stamp tax, recording tax, value added tax or similar tax or governmental charge applicable to the creation or redemption of baskets, regardless of whether or not such tax or charge is imposed directly on the Authorized Purchaser, and agree to indemnify the Sponsor and the Fund if they are required by law to pay any such tax, together with any applicable penalties, additions to tax and interest thereon.
 
Secondary Market Transactions
 
As noted, the Fund will create and redeem Shares from time to time, but only in one or more Creation Baskets or Redemption Baskets. The creation and redemption of baskets are only made in exchange for delivery to the Fund or the distribution by the Fund of the amount of cash, cash equivalents and/or commodity futures equal to the aggregate NAV of the number of Shares included in the baskets being created or redeemed determined on the day the order to create or redeem baskets is properly received.
 
As discussed above, Authorized Purchasers are the only persons that may place orders to create and redeem baskets. Authorized Purchasers must be registered broker-dealers or other securities market participants, such as banks and other financial institutions that are not required to register as broker-dealers to engage in securities transactions. An Authorized Purchaser is under no obligation to create or redeem baskets, and an Authorized Purchaser is under no obligation to offer to the public Shares of any baskets it does create. Authorized Purchasers that do offer to the public Shares from the baskets they create will do so at per-Share offering prices that are expected to reflect, among other factors, the trading price of the Shares on the NYSE Arca, the NAV of the Shares at the time the Authorized Purchaser purchased the Creation Baskets, the NAV of the Shares at the time of the offer of the Shares to the public, the supply of and demand for Shares at the time of sale, and the liquidity of the Soybean Interest markets. The prices of Shares offered by Authorized Purchasers are expected to fall between the Fund’s NAV and the trading price of the Shares on the NYSE Arca at the time of sale. Shares initially comprising the same basket but offered by Authorized Purchasers to the public at different times may have different offering prices. An order for one or more baskets may be placed by an Authorized Purchaser on behalf of multiple clients. Shares are expected to trade in the secondary market on the NYSE Arca. Shares may trade in the secondary market at prices that are lower or higher relative to their NAV per Share. The amount of the discount or premium in the trading price relative to the NAV per Share may be influenced by various factors, including the number of investors who seek to purchase or sell Shares in the secondary market and the liquidity of the Soybean Interest markets. While the Shares trade on the NYSE Arca until 4:00 p.m. New York time, liquidity in the markets for Soybean Interests may be reduced after the close of regular CBOT trading for Soybean Futures Contracts. As a result, during this time, trading spreads, and the resulting premium or discount, on the Shares may widen.
 
Payments to Financial Intermediaries
 
Use of Proceeds
 
The Sponsor causes the Fund to transfer the proceeds of the sale of Creation Baskets to the Custodian or another custodian for use in trading activities. The Sponsor invests the Fund’s assets in Soybean Futures Contracts and Other Soybean Interests, short-term Treasury Securities, cash and cash equivalents. When the Fund purchases Soybean Futures Contracts and certain Other Soybean Interests that are exchange-traded, the Fund is required to deposit with the FCM on behalf of the exchange a portion of the value of the contract or other interest as security to ensure payment for the obligation under the Soybean Interests at maturity. This deposit is known as initial margin. Counterparties in transactions in over-the-counter Soybean Interests will generally impose similar collateral requirements on the Fund. The Sponsor invests the Fund’s assets that remain after margin and collateral is posted in cash and/or cash equivalents. Subject to these margin and collateral requirements, the Sponsor has sole authority to determine the percentage of assets that will be:
 
held as margin or collateral with the FCM or other custodians;
 
used for other investments; and
 
 
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held in bank accounts to pay current obligations and as reserves.
 
In general, the Fund expects that it will be required to post approximately 5% of the notional amount of a Soybean Interest as initial margin when entering into such Soybean Interest. Ongoing margin and collateral payments will generally be required for both exchange-traded and over-the-counter Soybean Interests based on changes in the value of the Soybean Interests. Furthermore, ongoing collateral requirements with respect to over-the-counter Soybean Interests are negotiated by the parties, and may be affected by overall market volatility, volatility of the underlying commodity or index, the ability of the counterparty to hedge its exposure under the Soybean Interest, and each party’s creditworthiness. In light of the differing requirements for initial payments under exchange-traded and over-the-counter Soybean Interests and the fluctuating nature of ongoing margin and collateral payments, it is not possible to estimate what portion of the Fund’s assets will be posted as margin or collateral at any given time. The short-term Treasury Securities, cash, and cash equivalents held by the Fund constitute reserves that are available to meet ongoing margin and collateral requirements. All interest income is used for the Fund’s benefit.
 
An FCM, counterparty, government agency or commodity exchange could increase margin or collateral requirements applicable to the Fund to hold trading positions at any time. Moreover, margin is merely a security deposit and has no bearing on the profit or loss potential for any positions held. Further, under recently adopted CFTC rules, the Fund may be obligated to post both initial and variation margin with respect to swaps (and options that qualify as swaps) and traded over-the -counter, and, where applicable, on SEFs.
 
The approximate 3% of the Fund’s assets held by the FCM are held in segregation pursuant to the CEA and CFTC regulations.
 
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
Critical Accounting Policies
 
Preparation of the financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires the application of appropriate accounting rules and guidance, as well as the use of estimates, and requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenue, and expense and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities during the reporting period of the combined financial statements and accompanying notes. The Trust’s application of these policies involves judgments, and actual results may differ from the estimates used.
 
The Sponsor has determined that the valuation of commodity interests that are not traded on a U.S. or internationally recognized futures exchange (such as swaps and other over-the-counter contracts) involves a critical accounting policy. The values which are used by the Teucrium Funds for futures contracts will be provided by the commodity broker who will use market prices when available, while over-the-counter contracts will be valued based on the present value of estimated future cash flows that would be received from or paid to a third party in settlement of these derivative contracts prior to their delivery date.  Values will be determined on a daily basis.
 
Commodity futures contracts held by the Fund are recorded on the trade date. All such transactions are recorded on the identified cost basis and marked to market daily. Unrealized appreciation or depreciation on commodity futures contracts are reflected in the statement of operations as the difference between the original contract amount and the fair market value as of the last business day of the year or as of the last date of the financial statements. Changes in the appreciation or depreciation between periods are reflected in the statement of operations. Interest on cash equivalents and deposits are recognized on the accrual basis. The Fund earns interest on funds held at the Custodian and at other financial institutions at prevailing market rates for such investments.
 
Cash and cash equivalents are cash held at financial institutions in demand-deposit accounts or highly-liquid investments with original maturity dates of three months or less at inception. The Fund reports cash equivalents in the statements of assets and liabilities at market value, or at carrying amounts that approximate fair value, because of their highly-liquid nature and short-term maturities. The Fund has a substantial portion of its assets on deposit with banks. Assets deposited with financial institutions may, at times, exceed federally insured limits.
 
The use of fair value to measure financial instruments, with related unrealized gains or losses recognized in earnings in each period is fundamental to the Trust’s financial statements. In accordance with GAAP, fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (i.e., the “exit price”) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
 
 
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In determining fair value, the Trust uses various valuation approaches. In accordance with GAAP, a fair value hierarchy for inputs is used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are those that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Trust. Unobservable inputs reflect the Trust’s assumptions about the inputs market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy is categorized into three levels: a) Level 1 - Valuations based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Trust has the ability to access. Valuation adjustments and block discounts are not applied to Level 1 securities and financial instruments. Since valuations are based on quoted prices that are readily and regularly available in an active market, valuation of these securities and financial instruments does not entail a significant degree of judgment, b) Level 2 - Valuations based on quoted prices in markets that are not active or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly, and c) Level 3 - Valuations based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement. See the notes within the financial statements for further information.
 
The Fund and the Trust record their derivative activities at fair value. Gains and losses from derivative contracts are included in the statement of operations. Derivative contracts include futures contracts related to commodity prices. Futures, which are listed on a national securities exchange, such as the CBOT or the New York Mercantile Exchange (“NYMEX”), or reported on another national market, are generally categorized in Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy. OTC derivatives contracts (such as forward and swap contracts) which may be valued using models, depending on whether significant inputs are observable or unobservable, are categorized in Levels 2 or 3 of the fair value hierarchy.
 
Brokerage commissions on all open commodity futures contracts are accrued on a full-turn basis.
 
Margin is the minimum amount of funds that must be deposited by a commodity interest trader with the trader’s broker to initiate and maintain an open position in futures contracts. A margin deposit acts to assure the trader’s performance of the futures contracts purchased or sold. Futures contracts are customarily bought and sold on initial margin that represents a very small percentage of the aggregate purchase or sales price of the contract. Because of such low margin requirements, price fluctuations occurring in the futures markets may create profits and losses that, in relation to the amount invested, are greater than are customary in other forms of investment or speculation. As discussed below, adverse price changes in the futures contract may result in margin requirements that greatly exceed the initial margin. In addition, the amount of margin required in connection with a particular futures contract is set from time to time by the exchange on which the contract is traded and may be modified from time to time by the exchange during the term of the contract. Brokerage firms, such as the Teucrium Funds’ clearing brokers, carrying accounts for traders in commodity interest contracts generally require higher amounts of margin as a matter of policy to further protect themselves. Over-the-counter trading generally involves the extension of credit between counterparties, so the counterparties may agree to require the posting of collateral by one or both parties to address credit exposure.
 
When a trader purchases an option, there is no margin requirement; however, the option premium must be paid in full. When a trader sells an option, on the other hand, he or she is required to deposit margin in an amount determined by the margin requirements established for the underlying interest and, in addition, an amount substantially equal to the current premium for the option. The margin requirements imposed on the selling of options, although adjusted to reflect the probability that out-of-the-money options will not be exercised, can in fact be higher than those imposed in dealing in the futures markets directly. Complicated margin requirements apply to spreads and conversions, which are complex trading strategies in which a trader acquires a mixture of options positions and positions in the underlying interest.
 
Ongoing or “maintenance” margin requirements are computed each day by a trader’s clearing broker. When the market value of a particular open futures contract changes to a point where the margin on deposit does not satisfy maintenance margin requirements, a margin call is made by the broker. If the margin call is not met within a reasonable time, the broker may close out the trader’s position. With respect to the Teucrium Funds’ trading, the Teucrium Funds (and not its shareholders personally) are subject to margin calls.
 
The Sponsor is responsible for investing the assets of the Fund in accordance with the objectives and policies of the Fund. The Fund pays for all brokerage fees, taxes and other expenses, including licensing fees for the use of intellectual property, registration or other fees paid to the SEC, FINRA, or any other regulatory agency in connection with the offer and sale of subsequent Shares after its initial registration and all legal, accounting, printing and other expenses associated therewith. The Fund also pays its portion of the fees and expenses for services directly attributable to the Fund such as accounting, financial reporting, regulatory compliance and trading activities, which the Sponsor elected not to outsource. Certain aggregate expenses common to all Teucrium Funds within the Trust are allocated by the Sponsor to the respective Funds based on activity drivers deemed most appropriate by the Sponsor for such expenses, including but not limited to relative assets under management and creation order activity. These aggregate common expenses include, but are not limited to, legal, auditing, accounting and financial reporting, tax-preparation, regulatory compliance, trading activities, and insurance costs, as well as fees paid to the Distributor. A portion of these aggregate common expenses are related to the Sponsor or related parties of principals of the Sponsor; these are necessary services to the Teucrium Funds, which are primarily the cost of performing certain accounting and financial reporting, regulatory compliance, and trading activities that are directly attributable to the Fund and are included, primarily, in distribution and marketing fees. In addition, the Funds, except for TAGS which has no such fee, are contractually obligated to pay a monthly management fee to the Sponsor, based on average daily net assets, at a rate equal to 1.00% per annum.
 
Finally, many major U.S. exchanges have passed certain cross margining arrangements involving procedures pursuant to which the futures and options positions held in an account would, in the case of some accounts, be aggregated, and margin requirements would be assessed on a portfolio basis, measuring the total risk of the combined positions.
 
 
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For tax purposes, the Fund will be treated as a partnership. Therefore, the Fund does not record a provision for income taxes because the partners report their share of a Fund’s income or loss on their income tax returns. The financial statements reflect the Fund’s transactions without adjustment, if any, required for income tax purposes.
 
For commercial paper, the Teucrium Funds use the effective interest method for calculating the actual interest rate in a period based on the amount of a financial instrument's book value at the beginning of the accounting period. Accretion on these investments are recognized on the effective interest method in U.S. dollars and recognized in cash equivalents. All discounts on purchase prices of debt securities are accreted over the life of the respective security.
 
Results of Operations
 
The Teucrium Soybean Fund commenced investment operations on September 19, 2011. The investment objective of the Fund is to have the daily changes in percentage terms of the Shares’ Net Asset Value (“NAV”) reflect the daily changes in percentage terms of a weighted average of the closing settlement prices for three futures contracts for soybeans (“Soybean Futures Contracts”) that are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade (“CBOT”). Except as described in the following paragraph, the three Soybean Futures Contracts will be: (1) second-to-expire CBOT Soybean Futures Contract, weighted 35%, (2) the third-to-expire CBOT Soybean Futures Contract, weighted 30%, and (3) the CBOT Soybean Futures Contract expiring in the November following the expiration month of the third-to-expire contract, weighted 35%, except the CBOT soybean futures contracts expiring in August and September will not be part of the Teucrium Soybean Fund’s Benchmark because of the less liquid market for these Futures Contracts. On December 31, 2018, the Fund held a total of 612 CBOT soybean futures contracts with a notional value of $27,925,551. Of these, 218 contracts had an asset fair value of $228,400, while 394 contracts had a liability fair value of $39,250. The weighting of the notional value of the contracts was weighted as follows: (1) 35% to MAR19 CBOT contracts, (2) 30% to MAY19 CBOT contracts, and (3) 35% to NOV19 CBOT contracts.
 
  The benchmark for the Fund is the Teucrium Soybean Index (TSOYB) which is defined as: A weighted average of daily changes in the closing settlement prices of (1) second-to-expire CBOT Soybean Futures Contract, weighted 35%, (2) the third-to-expire CBOT Soybean Futures Contract, weighted 30%, and (3) the CBOT Soybean Futures Contract expiring in the November following the expiration month of the third-to-expire contract, weighted 35%, except the CBOT soybean futures contracts expiring in August and September will not be part of the Teucrium Soybean Fund’s Benchmark because of the less liquid market for these Futures Contracts. During the period when the Excluded Contracts are the second-to-expire and third-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract, the fourth-to-expire and fifth-to-expire Soybean Futures Contracts will take the place of the second-to-expire and third-to-expire Soybean Futures Contracts, respectively, as Benchmark Component Futures Contracts. Similarly, when the August Contract is the third-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract, the fifth-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract will take the place of the August Contract as a Benchmark Component Futures Contract, and when the September Contract is the second-to-expire Soybean Futures Contract, the third-to-expire and fourth-to-expire Soybean Futures Contracts will be Benchmark Component Futures Contracts. To convert to an index, 100 is set to $25, the opening day price of SOYB.
 
  The chart below shows the percent change in the NAV per share for the Fund, the market price of the Fund shares, represented by the closing price of the Fund on the NYSE Arca or the mid-point of the 4 pm bid and ask if no closing price is available, and TSOYB for two periods. One period is December 31, 2017 compared to December 31, 2018. The second period is from the commencement of operations to December 31, 2018. The Benchmark does not reflect any impact of expenses, which would generally reduce the Fund’s NAV, or interest income, which would generally increase the NAV. The actual results for the NAV do include the impacts of both expenses and interest income.
   
Period
Change in NAV per share
Change in Market Price
Change in the Benchmark (TSOYB)
December 31, 2017 to December 31, 2018
-9.26%
-9.51%
-7.71%
September 19, 2011 to December 31, 2018
-34.32%
-35.49%
-9.75%
 
  For the Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared to the Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016
 
  On December 31, 2018, the Fund had 1,725,004 shares outstanding and net assets of $27,942,017. This is in comparison to 575,004 shares outstanding and net assets of $10,264,025 on December 31, 2017 and 675,004 shares outstanding with net assets of $12,882,100 on December 31, 2016. Shares outstanding increased by 1,150,000 or 200% for the period of 2018 when compared to 2017. This increase was, in the opinion of management, due to the continued growth in China's soybean imports during the period reported. In total, the Fund issued 1,575,000 shares and purchased 425,000 shares as part of creation and redemption baskets in 2018. For the period 2018 compared to 2016, there was an increase in shares outstanding of 1,050,000 or 156%. In total, the Fund issued 1,100,000 shares and purchased 1,200,000 shares as part of creation and redemption baskets, in 2017.
 
 
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Total net assets for the Fund were $27,942,017 on December 31, 2018, compared to $10,264,025 on December 31, 2017 and $12,882,100 on December 31, 2016. The Net Asset Values (“NAV”) per share related to these balances were $16.20, $17.85, and $19.08 respectively. When comparing December 31, 2018 with 2017, there was an increase in total net assets of 172%, which was driven by a combination of an increase in total shares outstanding of 200% and a decrease in the NAV per share of ($1.65) or 9%. When comparing December 31, 2018 with 2016, there was an increase in total net assets of 117%, which was driven by a combination of an increase in the number of shares outstanding of 156% and a decrease in the NAV per share of ($2.88) or 15%. The closing prices per share for 2018, 2017, and 2016, as reported by the NYSE Arca, were $16.18, $17.88, and $19.10, respectively. The change from December 31, 2018 over prior years was a 10% decrease from 2017 and a 15% decrease from 2016.
 
  The graph below shows the actual shares outstanding, total net assets (or AUM) and net asset value per share (NAV per share) for the Fund from inception to December 31, 2018 and serves to illustrate the relative changes of these components.
 
 
 
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Total loss for the year ended December 31, 2018 was ($988,055) resulting from the net change in realized loss on commodity futures contracts totaling ($2,085,438) and a change in unrealized appreciation on commodity futures contracts of $637,213. Total (loss) income was ($632,168) in 2017 and $1,572,207 in 2016. Realized gain or loss on trading of commodity futures contracts is a function of: 1) the change in the price of the particular contracts sold as part of a “roll” in contracts as the nearest to expire contracts are exchanged for the appropriate contact given the investment objective of the fund, 2) the change in the price of particular contracts sold in relation to redemption of shares, 3) the gain or loss associated with rebalancing trades which are made to ensure conformance to the benchmark and 4) the number of contracts held and then sold for either circumstance aforementioned. Unrealized gain or loss on trading of commodity futures contracts is a function of the change in the price of contracts held on the final date of the period versus the purchase price for each contract and the number of contracts held in each contract month. The Sponsor has a static benchmark as described above and trades futures contracts to adhere to that benchmark and to adjust for the creation or redemption of shares.
 
  Interest income for the year ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively, was $460,170, $152,945, and $65,157. This increase year-over-year was the result of the Sponsor investing, at times, a portion of the available cash for the Fund in alternative demand deposit savings accounts with more attractive overnight deposit rates. Effective October 3, 2017, the Fund invested in investment grade commercial paper with maturities of ninety days or less. These investments provide a higher rate than money market products offered in the past. Interest rates paid on cash balances of the Fund have increased beginning March 2017 and have continued to increase through December 2018. These higher levels of interest rates are projected to remain at the current level in 2019 or slightly increase, absent any decreases in the Federal Funds rate.
 
  Total expenses gross of expenses waived by the Sponsor (“Total expenses”) for 2018 were $1,171,393; total expenses for 2017 were $610,101 and $546,593 in 2016. This represents a $561,292 or 92% increase for 2018 over 2017 and a $624,800 or 114% increase for 2018 over 2016. The increase for 2018 over 2017 was driven by increase in all expense categories, specifically: 1) a $79,229 or 60% increase in management fee paid to the Sponsor due to higher average net assets; 2) a $92,531 or 52% increase in professional fees related to auditing, legal and tax preparation fees; 3) a $306,422 or 146% increase in distribution and marketing expenses; 4) a $32,770 or 117% increase in custodian fees and expenses; 5) a $12,674 or 72% increase in business permits and licenses; 6) a $18,333 or 76% increase in general and administrative expenses; 7) a $7,318 or 86% increase in brokerage commissions due to an increase in contracts purchased and rolled; and 8) a $12,015 or 124% increase in other expenses. The increases year over year were generally due to higher average net assets year over year.
 
The increase for 2018 over 2016 was driven by increase in all expense categories, specifically: 1) a $93,848 or 79% increase in management fee paid to the Sponsor due to higher average net assets; 2) a $158,225 or 140% increase in professional fees related to auditing, legal and tax preparation fees; 3) a $298,251 or 137% increase in distribution and marketing expenses; 4) a $26,364 or 76% increase in custodian fees and expenses; 5) a $11,891 or 65% increase in business permits and licenses; 6) a $10,355 or 32% increase in general and administrative expenses; 7) a $14,273 or 947% increase in brokerage commissions due to an increase in contracts purchased and rolled; and 8) a $11,593 or 115% increase in other expenses. The increases year over year were generally due to higher average net assets relative to other funds. The total expense ratio gross of expenses waived by the Sponsor for these years was 5.52% in 2018, 4.59% in 2017, and 4.61% in 2016. The management fee is calculated at an annual rate of 1% of the Fund’s daily average net assets.
 
The Sponsor has the ability to elect to pay certain expenses on behalf of the Fund or waive the management fee. This election is subject to change by the Sponsor, at its discretion. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Sponsor waived fees of $394,591; the Sponsor has determined that no reimbursement will be sought in future periods for those expenses which have been waived for the year. The Sponsor permanently waived $126,489 of expenses in 2017 and $68,914 in 2016.
 
            Total expenses net of expenses waived by the Sponsor (“Total expenses, net”) for 2018, 2017, and 2016 were $776,802, $483,612, and $477,679 respectively. The total expense ratio net of expenses waived by the Sponsor was 3.66% in 2018, 3.63% in 2017, and 4.03% in 2016. Net investment loss, which includes the impact of expenses and interest income, was 1.49% in 2018, 2.48% in 2017, and 3.48% in 2016.
 
  Other than the management fee to the Sponsor and the brokerage commissions, most of the expenses incurred by the Fund are associated with the day-to-day operation of the Fund and the necessary functions related to regulatory compliance. These are generally based on contracts, which extend for some period of time and up to one year, or commitments regardless of the level of assets under management. The structure of the Fund and the nature of the expenses are such that as total net assets grow, there is a scalability of expenses that may allow the total expense ratio to be reduced. However, if total net assets for the Fund fall, the total expense ratio of the Fund will increase unless additional reductions are made by the Sponsor to the daily expense accrual. The Sponsor can elect to adjust the daily expense accruals at its discretion based on market conditions and other Fund considerations.
 
Net cash used in the Fund’s operating activities during 2018 was ($2,610,095). Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities by the Fund was ($933,519) in 2017 and $1,012,539 in 2016. In 2018, proceeds from the sale of shares were $26,403,162 representing 1,575,000 shares while payments for the redemption of shares were $6,960,313 representing 425,000 shares. In 2017, $20,374,923 representing 1,100,000 shares while payments for the redemption of shares were $21,877,218 representing 1,200,000 shares. In 2016, proceeds from the sale of shares were $9,190,140 representing 500,000 shares while payments for the redemption of shares were $3,905,120 representing 200,000 shares.
 
 
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The seasonality patterns for soybean futures prices are impacted by a variety of factors. These include, but are not limited to, the harvest in the fall, the planting conditions in the spring, and the weather throughout the critical germination and growing periods. Prices for soybean futures are affected by the availability and demand for substitute agricultural commodities, including corn and wheat. The price of soybean futures contracts is also influenced by global economic conditions, including the demand for exports to other countries. Such factors will impact the performance of the Fund and the results of operations on an ongoing basis. The Sponsor cannot predict the impact of such factors.
 
Benchmark Performance
 
As noted above, the Sponsor endeavors to place the Fund’s trades in Soybean Interests and otherwise manage the Fund’s investments so that the Fund’s average daily tracking error against the Benchmark will be less than 10 percent over any period of 30 trading days. More specifically, the Sponsor will endeavor to manage the Fund so that A will be within plus/minus 10 percent of B, where:
 
   A is the average daily change in the Fund’s NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days, i.e., any trading day as of which the Fund calculates its NAV, and
 
   B is the average daily change in the Benchmark over the same period.
 
During the period from January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2018, the average daily change in the Fund’s NAV was within plus/minus 10 percent of the average daily change in the Fund’s Benchmark.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
The Fund does not make use of borrowing or other lines of credit to meet its obligations. The Fund meets its liquidity needs in the normal course of business from the proceeds of the sale of its investments or from the cash and/or cash equivalents that it intends to hold at all times. The Fund’s liquidity needs include: redemption of Shares, providing margin deposits for existing futures contracts or the purchase of additional futures contracts, posting collateral for over-the-counter Soybean Interests, and payment of expenses.
 
All of the Fund’s source of capital is derived from the offering of Shares to Authorized Purchasers. Authorized Purchasers may then subsequently redeem such Shares. The Fund in turn allocates its net assets to commodities trading. A significant portion of the NAV is held in short-term Treasury Securities, cash and cash equivalents, which is used as margin for the Fund’s trading in commodities. The percentage that cash equivalents bear to the total net assets will vary from period to period as the market values of the Fund’s Soybean Interests change. The balance of the net assets is held in the Fund’s commodity trading account. Interest earned on interest-bearing assets of the Fund is paid to the Fund.
 
The investments of the Fund in Soybean Interests may be subject to periods of illiquidity because of market conditions, regulatory considerations and other reasons. For example, the CBOT limits the fluctuations in Soybean Futures Contract prices during a single day by regulations referred to as “daily limits.” During a single day, no trades may be executed at prices beyond the daily limit. Once the price of a Soybean Futures Contract has increased or decreased by an amount equal to the daily limit, positions in the contracts can neither be taken nor liquidated unless the traders are willing to effect trades at or within the limit. Such market conditions could prevent the Fund from promptly liquidating a position in Soybean Futures Contracts.
 
Beginning in the quarter-ended June 30, 2015, the Sponsor invested a portion of the available cash for the Teucrium Funds in alternative demand-deposit savings accounts; as of January 31, 2018, the Sponsor has cash deposits at Rabobank, N.A., a U.S. chartered bank headquartered in Roseville, CA. These accounts have higher overnight deposit rates than were available in the money market products at the Custodians that had been utilized solely in the past. In addition, the Fund has established an account at Morgan Stanley so that the Fund may invest in commercial paper rated at the date of purchase “Prime-1” or “Prime-2” by Moody’s and/or “A-1” or “A-2” by S&P, or if unrated, of comparable quality as determined by the Sponsor. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies. The duration until maturity of such commercial paper held by the Fund will not exceed ninety days.
 
Market Risk
 
Trading in Soybean Interests such as Soybean Futures Contracts involves the Fund entering into contractual commitments to purchase or sell specific amounts of soybeans at a specified date in the future. The gross or face amount of the contracts significantly exceeds the future cash requirements of the Fund since the Fund typically closes out any open positions prior to the contractual expiration date. As a result, the Fund’s market risk is the risk of loss arising from the decline in value of the contracts, not from the need to make delivery under the contracts. The Fund considers the “fair value” of derivative instruments to be the unrealized gain or loss on the contracts. The market risk associated with the commitment by the Fund to purchase a specific commodity is limited to the aggregate face amount of the contracts held.
 
 
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The exposure of the Fund to market risk depends on a number of factors including the markets for soybeans, the volatility of interest rates and foreign exchange rates, the liquidity of the Soybean Interest markets and the relationships among the contracts held by the Fund. The limited experience of the Sponsor in trading Soybean Interests in a manner that tracks changes in the Benchmark, as well as drastic market events, could ultimately lead to substantial losses for shareholders.
 
Credit Risk
 
When the Fund enters into Soybean Interests, it is exposed to the credit risk that the counterparty will not be able to meet its obligations. For purposes of credit risk, the counterparty for the Soybean Futures Contracts traded on the CBOT is the clearinghouse associated with the CBOT. In general, clearinghouses are backed by their members who may be required to share in the financial burden resulting from the nonperformance of one of their members, which should significantly reduce credit risk. Some foreign exchanges are not backed by their clearinghouse members but may be backed by a consortium of banks or other financial institutions. Unlike in the case of exchange-traded futures contracts, the counterparty to an over-the-counter Soybean Interest contract is generally a single bank or other financial institution such as an SD. As a result, there is greater counterparty credit risk in over-the-counter transactions. There can be no assurance that any counterparty, clearing house, or their financial backers will satisfy their obligations to the Fund.
 
The Fund may engage in off exchange transactions broadly called an “exchange for related position” (“EFRP”) transaction. For purposes of the Dodd-Frank Act and related CFTC rules, an EFRP transaction is treated as a “swap.” An “exchange for related position” (“EFRP”) can be used by the Fund as a technique to facilitate the exchanging of a futures hedge position against a creation or redemption order, and thus the Fund or an Underlying Fund may use an EFRP transaction in connection with the creation and redemption of shares. The market specialist/market maker that is the ultimate purchaser or seller of shares in connection with the creation or redemption basket, respectively, agrees to sell or purchase a corresponding offsetting shares or futures position which is then settled on the same business day as a cleared futures transaction by the FCMs. The Fund will become subject to the credit risk of the market specialist/market maker until the EFRP is settled within the business day, which is typically 7 hours or less. The Fund reports all activity related to EFRP transactions under the procedures and guidelines of the CFTC and the exchanges on which the futures are traded.
 
The Sponsor attempts to manage the credit risk of the Fund by following certain trading limitations and policies. In particular, the Fund intends to post margin and collateral and/or hold liquid assets that will be equal to approximately the face amount of the Soybean Interests it holds. The Sponsor has implemented procedures that include, but are not limited to, executing and clearing trades and entering into over-the-counter transactions only with parties it deems creditworthy and/or requiring the posting of collateral by such parties for the benefit of the Fund to limit its credit exposure.
 
The Fund will generally retain cash positions of approximately 97% of total net assets; this balance represents the total net assets less the initial margin requirements held by the FCM. These cash assets are either: 1) deposited by the Sponsor in demand deposit accounts of financial institutions which are rated in the highest short-term rating category by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization or deemed by the Sponsor to be of comparable quality; 2) invested in short-term Treasury Securities through the FCM or and commercial paper; or 3) held in a money-market fund which is deemed to be a cash equivalent under the most recent SEC definition.
 
Off Balance Sheet Financing
 
As of the date of this prospectus, neither the Trust nor the Fund has any loan guarantees, credit support or other off-balance sheet arrangements of any kind other than agreements entered into in the normal course of business, which may include indemnification provisions relating to certain risks service providers undertake in performing services which are in the best interests of the Fund. While the Fund’s exposure under these indemnification provisions cannot be estimated, they are not expected to have a material impact on the Fund’s financial positions.
 
Redemption Basket Obligation
 
Other than as necessary to meet the investment objective of the Fund and pay its contractual obligations described below, the Fund requires liquidity to redeem Redemption Baskets. The Fund intends to satisfy this obligation through the transfer of cash of the Fund (generated, if necessary, through the sale of cash equivalents) in an amount proportionate to the number of Shares being redeemed, as described above under “Redemption Procedures.”
 
Contractual Obligations
 
The Fund’s primary contractual obligations are with the Sponsor and certain other service providers. The Sponsor, in return for its services, is entitled to a management fee calculated as a fixed percentage of the Fund’s NAV, currently 1.00% of its average net assets. The Fund also is responsible for all ongoing fees, costs and expenses of its operation, including (i) brokerage and other fees and commissions incurred in connection with the trading activities of the Fund; (ii) expenses incurred in connection with registering additional Shares of the Fund or offering Shares of the Fund after the time any Shares have begun trading on NYSE Arca; (iii) the routine expenses associated with the preparation and, if required, the printing and mailing of monthly, quarterly, annual and other reports required by applicable U.S. federal and state regulatory authorities, Trust meetings and preparing, printing and mailing proxy statements to Shareholders; (iv) the payment of any distributions related to redemption of Shares; (v) payment for routine services of the Trustee, legal counsel and independent accountants; (vi) payment for routine accounting, bookkeeping, custody and transfer agency services, whether performed by an outside service provider or by Affiliates of the Sponsor; (vii) postage and insurance; (viii) costs and expenses associated with client relations and services; (ix) costs of preparation of all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns and any taxes payable on the income, assets or operations of the Fund; and (x) extraordinary expenses (including, but not limited to, legal claims and liabilities and litigation costs and any indemnification related thereto).
 
 
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While the Sponsor has agreed to pay registration fees to the SEC, FINRA and any other regulatory agency in connection with the offer and sale of the Shares offered through this prospectus, the legal, printing, accounting and other expenses associated with such registrations, and the initial fee of $5,000 for listing the Shares on the NYSE Arca, the Fund will be responsible for any registration fees and related expenses incurred in connection with any future offer and sale of Shares of the Fund in excess of those offered through this prospectus.
 
The Fund pays its own brokerage and other transaction costs. The Fund pays fees to FCMs in connection with its transactions in futures contracts. FCM fees are estimated to be minimal annually for the Fund. In general, transaction costs on over-the-counter Soybean Interests and on short-term securities are embedded in the purchase or sale price of the instrument being purchased or sold, and may not readily be estimated. Other expenses to be paid by the Fund, including but not limited to the fees paid to the Custodian, Administrator, and Distributor with respect to the Fund are estimated to be 2.60% for the twelve-month period ending April 29, 2020 though this amount may change in future years. The Sponsor may, in its discretion, pay or reimburse the Fund for, or waive a portion of its management fee to offset, expenses that would otherwise be borne by the Fund.
 
Any general expenses of the Trust will be allocated among the Teucrium Funds and each other series that may be established under the Trust in the future as determined by the Sponsor in its sole and absolute discretion. The Trust is also responsible for extraordinary expenses, including, but not limited to, legal claims and liabilities and litigation costs and any indemnification related thereto. The Trust and/or the Sponsor may be required to indemnify the Trustee, Distributor or Custodian/Administrator under certain circumstances.
 
The parties cannot anticipate the amount of payments that will be required under these arrangements for future periods as the Fund’s NAV and trading levels to meet their investment objectives will not be known until a future date. These agreements are effective for a specific term agreed upon by the parties with an option to renew, or, in some cases, are in effect for the duration of the Fund’s existence. The parties may terminate these agreements earlier for certain reasons listed in the agreements.
 
The Trust Agreement
 
The following paragraphs are a summary of certain provisions of the Trust Agreement. The following discussion is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Trust Agreement.
 
Authority of the Sponsor
 
The Sponsor is generally authorized to perform all acts deemed necessary to carry out the purposes of the Trust and to conduct the business of the Trust. The Trust and the Fund will continue to exist until terminated in accordance with the Trust Agreement. The Sponsor’s authority includes, without limitation, the right to take the following actions:
 
 
To enter into, execute, deliver and maintain contracts, agreements and any other documents as may be in furtherance of the Trust’s purpose or necessary or appropriate for the offer and sale of the Shares and the conduct of Trust activities;
 
 
●      
To establish, maintain, deposit into, sign checks and otherwise draw upon accounts on behalf of the Trust with appropriate banking and savings institutions, and execute and accept any instrument or agreement incidental to the Trust’s business and in furtherance of its purposes;
 
 
●      
To supervise the preparation and filing of any registration statement (and supplements and amendments thereto) for the Fund;
 
 
To adopt, implement or amend, from time to time, such disclosure and financial reporting information gathering and control policies and procedures as are necessary or desirable to ensure compliance with applicable disclosure and financial reporting obligations under any applicable securities laws;
 
 
To make any necessary determination or decision in connection with the preparation of the Trust’s financial statements and amendments thereto;
 
 
To prepare, file and distribute, if applicable, any periodic reports or updates that may be required under the Exchange Act, the CEA or rules and regulations promulgated thereunder;
 
 
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To pay or authorize the payment of distributions to the Shareholders and expenses of the Fund;
 
 
To make any elections on behalf of the Trust under the Code, or any other applicable U.S. federal or state tax law as the Sponsor shall determine to be in the best interests of the Trust; and
 
 
In its sole discretion, to determine to admit an affiliate or affiliates of the Sponsor as additional Sponsors.
 
The Sponsor’s Obligations
 
In addition to the duties imposed by the Delaware Trust Statute, under the Trust Agreement the Sponsor has the following obligations as a sponsor of the Trust:
 
 
Devote to the business and affairs of the Trust such of its time as it determines in its discretion (exercised in good faith) to be necessary for the benefit of the Trust and the Shareholders;
 
 
Execute, file, record and/or publish all certificates, statements and other documents and do any and all other things as may be appropriate for the formation, qualification and operation of the Trust and for the conduct of its business in all appropriate jurisdictions;
 
 
Appoint and remove independent public accountants to audit the accounts of the Trust and employ attorneys to represent the Trust;
 
 
Use its best efforts to maintain the status of the Trust as a statutory trust for state law purposes and as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
 
 
Invest, reinvest, hold uninvested, sell, exchange, write options on, lease, lend and subject to certain limitations set forth in the Trust Agreement, pledge, mortgage, and hypothecate the estate of the Fund in accordance with the purposes of the Trust and any registration statement filed on behalf of the Fund;
 
 
Have fiduciary responsibility for the safekeeping and use of the Trust’s assets, whether or not in the Sponsor’s immediate possession or control;
 
 
Enter into and perform agreements with each Authorized Purchaser, receive from Authorized Purchasers and process properly submitted purchase orders, receive Creation Basket Deposits, deliver or cause the delivery of Creation Baskets to the Depository for the account of the Authorized Purchaser submitting a purchase order;
 
 
●      
Receive from Authorized Purchasers and process, or cause the Distributor or other Fund service provider to process, properly submitted redemption orders, receive from the redeeming Authorized Purchasers through the Depository, and thereupon cancel or cause to be cancelled, Shares corresponding to the Redemption Baskets to be redeemed;
 
 
Interact with the Deposity; and
 
 
Delegate duties to one or more administrators, as the Sponsor determines.
 
To the extent that, at law (common or statutory) or in equity, the Sponsor has duties (including fiduciary duties) and liabilities relating thereto to the Trust, the Fund, the Shareholders or to any other person, the Sponsor will not be liable to the Trust, the Fund, the Shareholders or to any other person for its good faith reliance on the provisions of the Trust Agreement or this prospectus unless such reliance constitutes gross negligence or willful misconduct on the part of the Sponsor.
 
 
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Liability and Indemnification
 
Under the Trust Agreement, the Sponsor, the Trustee and their respective Affiliates (collectively, “Covered Persons”) shall have no liability to the Trust, the Fund, or to any Shareholder for any loss suffered by the Trust or the Fund which arises out of any action or inaction of such Covered Person if such Covered Person, in good faith, determined that such course of conduct was in the best interest of the Trust or the Fund and such course of conduct did not constitute gross negligence or willful misconduct of such Covered Person. Subject to the foregoing, neither the Sponsor nor any other Covered Person shall be personally liable for the return or repayment of all or any portion of the capital or profits of any Shareholder or assignee thereof, it being expressly agreed that any such return of capital or profits made pursuant to the Trust Agreement shall be made solely from the assets of the applicable Teucrium Fund without any rights of contribution from the Sponsor or any other Covered Person. A Covered Person shall not be liable for the conduct or willful misconduct of any administrator or other delegatee selected by the Sponsor with reasonable care, provided, however, that the Trustee and its Affiliates shall not, under any circumstances be liable for the conduct or willful misconduct of any administrator or other delegatee or any other person selected by the Sponsor to provide services to the Trust.
 
To the extent that, at law (common or statutory) or in equity, the Sponsor has duties (including fiduciary duties) and liabilities relating to the Trust, the Teucrium Funds, the shareholders of the Teucrium Funds, or to any other person, the Sponsor, acting under the Trust Agreement, shall not be liable to the Trust, the Teucrium Funds, the shareholders of the Teucrium Funds or to any other person for its good faith reliance on the provisions of the Trust Agreement. The provisions of the Trust Agreement, to the extent they restrict or eliminate the duties and liabilities of the Sponsor otherwise existing at law or in equity, replace such other duties and liabilities of the Sponsor.
 
The Trust Agreement provides that the Sponsor and the Trust shall indemnify the Trustee and its successors, assigns, legal representatives, officers, directors, shareholders, employees, agents and servants (the “Trustee Indemnified Parties”) against any liabilities, obligations, losses, damages, penalties, taxes (excluding any taxes on the compensation received for services as Trustee or on indemnity payments received), claims, actions, suits, costs, expenses or disbursements which may be imposed on a Trustee Indemnified Party relating to or arising out of the formation, operation or termination of the Trust, the execution, delivery and performance of any other agreements to which the Trust is a party, or the action or inaction of the Trustee under the Trust Agreement or any other agreement, except for expenses resulting from the gross negligence or willful misconduct of a Trustee Indemnified Party. Further, certain officers of the Sponsor are insured against liability for certain errors or omissions which an officer may incur or that may arise out of his or her capacity as such.
 
Notwithstanding the above, the Sponsor shall not be indemnified for any losses, liabilities or expenses arising from or out of an alleged violation of U.S. federal or state securities laws unless (i) there has been a successful adjudication on the merits of each count involving alleged securities law violations as to the particular indemnitee and the court approves the indemnification of such expenses (including, without limitation, litigation costs), (ii) such claims have been dismissed with prejudice on the merits by a court of competent jurisdiction as to the particular indemnitee and the court approves the indemnification of such expenses (including, without limitation, litigation costs), or (iii) a court of competent jurisdiction approves a settlement of the claims against a particular indemnitee and finds that indemnification of the settlement and related costs should be made.
 
The payment of any indemnification shall be allocated, as appropriate, among the Trust’s series. The Trust and its series shall not incur the cost of that portion of any insurance which insures any party against any liability, the indemnification of which is prohibited under the Trust Agreement.
 
Expenses incurred in defending a threatened or pending action, suit or proceeding against the Sponsor shall be paid by the Trust in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding, if (i) the legal action relates to the performance of duties or services by the Sponsor on behalf of the Trust; (ii) the legal action is initiated by a party other than the Trust; and (iii) the Sponsor undertakes to repay the advanced funds with interest to the Trust in cases in which it is not entitled to indemnification.
 
The Trust Agreement provides that the Sponsor and the Trust shall indemnify the Trustee and its successors, assigns, legal representatives, officers, directors, shareholders, employees, agents and servants (the “Trustee Indemnified Parties”) against any liabilities, obligations, losses, damages, penalties, taxes, claims, actions, suits, costs, expenses or disbursements which may be imposed on a Trustee Indemnified Party relating to or arising out of the formation, operation or termination of the Trust, the execution, delivery and performance of any other agreements to which the Trust is a party, or the action or inaction of the Trustee under the Trust Agreement or any other agreement, except for expenses resulting from the gross negligence or willful misconduct of a Trustee Indemnified Party. Further, certain officers of the Sponsor are insured against liability for certain errors or omissions which an officer may incur or that may arise out of his or her capacity as such.
 
In the event the Trust is made a party to any claim, dispute, demand or litigation or otherwise incurs any liability or expense as a result of or in connection with any Shareholder’s (or assignee’s) obligations or liabilities unrelated to the Trust business, such Shareholder (or assignees cumulatively) is required under the Trust Agreement to indemnify the Trust for all such liability and expense incurred, including attorneys’ and accountants’ fees.
 
 
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Withdrawal of the Sponsor
 
The Sponsor may withdraw voluntarily as the Sponsor of the Trust only upon ninety (90) days’ prior written notice to the holders of the Trust’s outstanding shares and the Trustee. If the withdrawing Sponsor is the last remaining Sponsor, shareholders holding a majority (over 50%) of the outstanding shares of the Teucrium Funds, voting together as a single class (not including shares acquired by the Sponsor through its initial capital contribution) may vote to elect a successor Sponsor. The successor Sponsor will continue the business of the Trust. Shareholders have no right to remove the Sponsor.
 
In the event of withdrawal, the Sponsor is entitled to a redemption of the shares it acquired through its initial capital contribution to any of the series of the Trust at their NAV per Share. If the Sponsor withdraws and a successor Sponsor is named, the withdrawing Sponsor shall pay all expenses as a result of its withdrawal.
 
Meetings
 
Meetings of the Trust’s shareholders may be called by the Sponsor and will be called by it upon the written request of Shareholders holding at least 25% of the outstanding Shares of the Trust or the Fund, as applicable (not including Shares acquired by the Sponsor through its initial capital contribution). The Sponsor shall deposit in the United States mail or electronically transmit written notice to all Shareholders of the Fund of the meeting and the purpose of the meeting, which shall be held on a date not less than 30 nor more than 60 days after the date of mailing of such notice, at a reasonable time and place. Where the meeting is called upon the written request of the shareholders of the Funds, or any other Teucrium Fund, as applicable, such written notice shall be mailed or transmitted not more than 45 days after such written request for a meeting was received by the Sponsor. Any notice of meeting shall be accompanied by a description of the action to be taken at the meeting and, if applicable, an opinion of independent counsel as to the effect of such proposed action on the liability of shareholders of the Fund, or any other Teucrium Fund, as applicable, for the debts of the applicable Teucrium Fund. Shareholders may vote in person or by proxy at any such meeting. The Sponsor shall be entitled to establish voting and quorum requirements and other reasonable procedures for shareholder voting. Any action required or permitted to be taken by Shareholders by vote may be taken without a meeting by written consent setting forth the actions so taken. Such written consents shall be treated for all purposes as votes at a meeting. If the vote or consent of any Shareholder to any action of the Trust, the Fund or any Shareholder, as contemplated by the Trust Agreement, is solicited by the Sponsor, the solicitation shall be effected by notice to each Shareholder given in the manner provided in accordance with the Trust Agreement.
 
Voting Rights
 
Shareholders have very limited voting rights. Specifically, the Trust Agreement provides that shareholders of the Teucrium Funds holding shares representing at least a majority (over 50%) of the outstanding shares of the Teucrium Funds voting together as a single class (excluding shares acquired by the Sponsor in connection with its initial capital contribution to any Trust series) may vote to (i) continue the Trust by electing a successor Sponsor as described above, and (ii) approve amendments to the Trust Agreement that impair the right to surrender Redemption Baskets for redemption. (Trustee consent to any amendment to the Trust Agreement is required if the Trustee reasonably believes that such amendment adversely affects any of its rights, duties or liabilities.) In addition, shareholders of the Teucrium Funds holding shares representing seventy-five percent (75%) of the outstanding shares of the Teucrium Funds, voting together as a single class (excluding shares acquired by the Sponsor in connection with its initial capital contribution to any Trust series) may vote to dissolve the Trust upon not less than ninety (90) days’ notice to the Sponsor. Shareholders have no voting rights with respect to the Trust or the Fund except as expressly provided in the Trust Agreement.
 
Limited Liability of Shareholders
 
Shareholders shall be entitled to the same limitation of personal liability extended to stockholders of private corporations for profit organized under the general corporation law of Delaware, and no Shareholder shall be liable for claims against, or debts of the Trust or the Fund in excess of his share of the Fund’s assets. The Trust or the Fund shall not make a claim against a Shareholder with respect to amounts distributed to such Shareholder or amounts received by such Shareholder upon redemption unless, under Delaware law, such Shareholder is liable to repay such amount.
 
The Trust or the Fund shall indemnify to the full extent permitted by law and the Trust Agreement each Shareholder (excluding the Sponsor to the extent of its ownership of any Shares acquired through its initial capital contribution) against any claims of liability asserted against such Shareholder solely because of its ownership of Shares (other than for taxes on income from Shares for which such Shareholder is liable).
 
Every written note, bond, contract, instrument, certificate or undertaking made or issued by the Sponsor on behalf of the Trust or the Fund shall give notice to the effect that the same was executed or made by or on behalf of the Trust or the Fund and that the obligations of such instrument are not binding upon the Shareholders individually but are binding only upon the assets and property of the Fund and no recourse may be had with respect to the personal property of a Shareholder for satisfaction of any obligation or claim.
 
 
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Amendments to the Trust Agreement
 
Effective April 16, 2018, the Sponsor, pursuant to its authority under the Trust Agreement, has amended the Trust Agreement to reflect certain provisions of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 and the tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, each of which became effective on January 1, 2018. The changes to the Trust Agreement reflect changes to partnership audit rules under the Code and reflect certain changes to partnership rules under the Code (see “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations" for additional information about the changes to the Code.)
 
                Effective April 26, 2019, the Sponsor, pursuant to its authority under the Trust Agreement, has amended the Trust Agreement to remove a requirement that any shareholder of the Fund that wishes to maintain a derivative action on behalf of the Trust be joined by at least ten percent (10%) of the outstanding Shares of the Fund in the bringing of such action.
 
The Sponsor Has Conflicts of Interest
 
There are present and potential future conflicts of interest in the Trust’s structure and operation you should consider before you purchase Shares. The Sponsor may use this notice of conflicts as a defense against any claim or other proceeding made.
 
The Sponsor’s principals, officers and employees, do not devote their time exclusively to the Funds. Under the organizational documents of the Sponsor, Mr. Sal Gilbertie in his respective capacities as President, Chief Investment Officer of the Sponsor and Chief Executive Officer and Secretary of the Sponsor, is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to manage the Sponsor, devote such amount of time to the Sponsor as would be consistent with his role in similarly placed commodity pool operators, and remain active in managing the Sponsor until he is no longer managing members of the Sponsor or the Sponsor dissolves. In addition, the Sponsor expects that operating the Teucrium Funds will generally constitute the principal and full-time business activity of its principals, officers and employees. Notwithstanding these obligations and expectations, the Sponsor’s principals may be directors, officers or employees of other entities, and may manage assets of other entities, including the other Teucrium Funds, through the Sponsor or otherwise. In particular, the principals could have a conflict between his responsibilities to the Fund on the one hand and to those other entities on the other. The Sponsor believes that it currently has sufficient personnel, time, and working capital to discharge its responsibilities to the Fund in a fair manner and that these persons’ conflicts should not impair his ability to provide services to the Fund. However, it is not possible to quantify the proportion of his time that the Sponsor’s personnel will devote to the Fund and its management
 
The Sponsor and its principals, officers and employees may trade securities, futures and related contracts for their own accounts, creating the potential for preferential treatment of their own accounts. Shareholders will not be permitted to inspect the trading records of such persons or any written policies of the Sponsor related to such trading. A conflict of interest may exist if their trades are in the same markets and at approximately the same times as the trades for the Fund. A potential conflict also may occur when the Sponsor’s principals trade their accounts more aggressively or take positions in their accounts which are opposite, or ahead of, the positions taken by the Fund.
 
The Sponsor has sole current authority to manage the investments and operations of the Fund, and this may allow it to act in a way that furthers its own interests which may create a conflict with your best interests, including the authority of the Sponsor to allocate expenses to and between the Teucrium Funds. Shareholders have very limited voting rights with respect to the Fund, which will limit the ability to influence matters such as amendment of the Trust Agreement, change in the Fund’s basic investment policies, or dissolution of the Fund or the Trust.
 
The Sponsor serves as the Sponsor to the Teucrium Funds and may in the future serve as the Sponsor or investment adviser to commodity pools other than the Teucrium Funds. The Sponsor may have a conflict to the extent that its trading decisions for the Fund may be influenced by the effect they would have on the other pools it manages. In addition, the Sponsor may be required to indemnify the officers and directors of the other pools, if the need for indemnification arises. This potential indemnification will cause the Sponsor’s assets to decrease. If the Sponsor’s other sources of income are not sufficient to compensate for the indemnification, it could cease operations, which could in turn result in Fund losses and/or termination of the Fund.
 
If the Sponsor acquires knowledge of a potential transaction or arrangement that may be an opportunity for the Fund, it shall have no duty to offer such opportunity to the Fund. The Sponsor will not be liable to the Fund or the Shareholders for breach of any fiduciary or other duty if Sponsor pursues such opportunity or directs it to another person or does not communicate such opportunity to the
Fund. Neither the Fund nor any Shareholder has any rights or obligations by virtue of the Trust Agreement, the trust relationship created thereby, or this prospectus in such business ventures or the income or profits derived from such business ventures. The pursuit of such business ventures, even if competitive with the activities of the Fund, will not be deemed wrongful or improper.
 
Resolution of Conflicts Procedures
 
The Trust Agreement provides that whenever a conflict of interest exists between the Sponsor or any of its Affiliates, on the one hand, and the Trust, any shareholder of a Trust series, or any other person, on the other hand, the Sponsor shall resolve such conflict of interest, take such action or provide such terms, considering in each case the relative interest of each party (including its own interest) to such conflict, agreement, transaction or situation and the benefits and burdens relating to such interests, any customary or accepted industry practices, and any applicable generally accepted accounting practices or principles.
 
 
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In the absence of bad faith by the Sponsor, the resolution, action or terms so made, taken or provided by the Sponsor shall not constitute a breach of the Trust Agreement or any other agreement contemplated therein or of any duty or obligation of the Sponsor at law or in equity or otherwise.
 
The Sponsor or any affiliate thereof may engage in or possess an interest in other profit-seeking or business ventures of any nature or description, independently or with others, whether or not such ventures are competitive with the Trust and the doctrine of corporate opportunity, or any analogous doctrine, shall not apply to the Sponsor. If the Sponsor acquires knowledge of a potential transaction, agreement, arrangement or other matter that may be an opportunity for the Trust, it shall have no duty to communicate or offer such opportunity to the Trust, and the Sponsor shall not be liable to the Trust or to the Shareholders for breach of any fiduciary or other duty by reason of the fact that the Sponsor pursues or acquires for, or directs such opportunity to, another person or does not communicate such opportunity or information to the Trust. Neither the Trust nor any Shareholder shall have any rights or obligations by virtue of the Trust Agreement or the trust relationship created thereby in or to such independent ventures or the income or profits or losses derived therefrom, and the pursuit of such ventures, even if competitive with the activities of the Trust, shall not be deemed wrongful or improper. Except to the extent expressly provided in the Trust Agreement, the Sponsor may engage or be interested in any financial or other transaction with the Trust, the Shareholders or any affiliate of the Trust or the Shareholders.
 
No expert hired by the Fund to give advice on the preparation of this offering document has been hired on a contingent fee basis, nor do any of them have any present or future expectation of interest in the Sponsor, Distributor, Authorized Purchasers, Custodian/Administrator or other service providers to the Fund.
 
Provisions of Federal and State Securities Laws
 
This offering is made pursuant to federal and state securities laws. The SEC and state securities agencies take the position that indemnification of the Sponsor that arises out of an alleged violation of such laws is prohibited unless certain conditions are met. Those conditions require that no indemnification of the Sponsor or any underwriter for the Fund may be made in respect of any losses, liabilities or expenses arising from or out of an alleged violation of federal or state securities laws unless: (i) there has been a successful adjudication on the merits of each count involving alleged securities law violations as to the party seeking indemnification and the court approves the indemnification; (ii) such claim has been dismissed with prejudice on the merits by a court of competent jurisdiction as to the party seeking indemnification; or (iii) a court of competent jurisdiction approves a settlement of the claims against the party seeking indemnification and finds that indemnification of the settlement and related costs should be made, provided that, before seeking such approval, the Sponsor or other indemnitee must apprise the court of the position held by regulatory agencies against such indemnification.
 
Books and Records
 
The Trust keeps its books of record and account at its office located at Three Main Street, Suite 215, Burlington, VT 05401, or at the offices of the Administrator, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, located at 615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, or such office, including of an administrative agent, as it may subsequently designate upon notice. The books of account of the Fund are open to inspection by any Shareholder (or any duly constituted designee of a Shareholder) at all times during the usual business hours of the Fund upon reasonable advance notice to the extent such access is required under CFTC rules and regulations. In addition, the Trust keeps a copy of the Trust Agreement on file in its office which will be available for inspection by any Shareholder at all times during its usual business hours upon reasonable advance notice.
 
Analysis of Critical Accounting Policies
 
The Fund’s critical accounting policies are set forth in the financial statements that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, which require the use of certain accounting policies that affect the amounts reported in these financial statements, including the following: (i) Fund trades are accounted for on a trade-date basis and marked to market on a daily basis; (ii) the difference between the cost and market value of Soybean Interests is recorded as “change in unrealized profit/loss” for open (unrealized) contracts, and recorded as “realized profit/loss” when open positions are closed out; and (iii) earned interest income, as well as the fees and expenses of the Fund, are recorded on an accrual basis. The Sponsor believes that all relevant accounting assumptions and policies have been considered.
 
 
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Statements, Filings, and Reports to Shareholders
 
The Trust will furnish to DTC Participants for distribution to Shareholders annual reports (as of the end of each fiscal year) for the Fund as are required to be provided to Shareholders by the CFTC and the NFA. These annual reports will contain financial statements prepared by the Sponsor and audited by an independent registered public accounting firm designated by the Sponsor. The Trust will also post monthly reports to the Fund’s website (www.teucriumsoybfund.com). These monthly reports will contain certain unaudited financial information regarding the Fund, including the Fund’s NAV. The Sponsor will furnish to the Shareholders other reports or information which the Sponsor, in its discretion, determines to be necessary or appropriate. In addition, under SEC rules the Trust will be required to file quarterly and annual reports for the Fund with the SEC, which need not be sent to Shareholders but will be publicly available through the SEC. The Trust will post the same information that would otherwise be provided in the Trust’s CFTC, NFA and SEC reports on the Fund’s website www.teucriumsoybfund.com.
 
The Sponsor is responsible for the registration and qualification of the Shares under the federal securities laws, federal commodities laws, and laws of any other jurisdiction as the Sponsor may select. The Sponsor is responsible for preparing all required reports, but has entered into an agreement with the Administrator to prepare these reports on the Trust’s behalf.
 
The accountants’ report on its audit of the Fund’s financial statements will be furnished by the Trust to Shareholders upon request. The Trust will make such elections, file such tax returns, and prepare, disseminate and file such tax reports for the Fund as it is advised by its counsel or accountants are from time to time required by any applicable statute, rule or regulation.
 
PricewaterhouseCoopers (“PwC”), 2001 Ross Avenue, Suite 1800, Dallas, Texas 75201-2997, will provide tax information in accordance with applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations. Persons treated as middlemen for purposes of these regulations may obtain tax information regarding the Fund from PwC or from the Fund’s website, www.teucriumsoybfund.com.
 
Fiscal Year
 
The fiscal year of the Fund is the calendar year.
 
Governing Law
 
The rights of the Sponsor, the Trust, the Fund, DTC (as registered owner of the Fund’s global certificate for Shares) and the Shareholders are governed by the laws of the State of Delaware, except with respect to causes of action for violations of U.S. federal or state securities laws. The Trust Agreement and the effect of every provision thereof shall control over any contrary or limiting statutory or common law of the State of Delaware, other than the Delaware Trust Statute.
 
Security Ownership of Principal Shareholders and Management
 
The following table sets forth information with respect to each person known to own beneficially more than 5% of the outstanding shares of any series in the Trust as of December 31, 2018, based on information known to the Sponsor.
 
(2)
Name and Address of
Beneficial Owner
(3)
Amount and Nature of
Beneficial Ownership
(4)
Percent of Class
Korea Securities Depository4 Gil 23 Yoinaruro,
Youngdeungpo Gu,
Seoul KS
115,952 common units
6.72%
Flow Traders US LLC.
Avenue of the Americas 4th Floor
New York, NY 10036
119,230 common units
6.91%
 
 
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(1) These individuals and entities have not filed any public reports with the SEC.
 
The following table sets forth information regarding the beneficial ownership of shares by the executive officers of the Sponsor as of December 31, 2018. Except as listed, no other executive officer of the Sponsor is a beneficial owner of shares of the Fund.
 
(1)
Title of Class
(2)
Name of Beneficial Owner
(3)
Amount and nature of Beneficial Ownership
(4)
Percent of Class
SOYB
Sal Gilbertie
100 common units
*
______________________
* Less than 1%.
 
Legal Matters
 
Litigation and Claims
 
Within the past 10 years of the date of this prospectus, there have been no material administrative, civil or criminal actions against the Sponsor, the Trust or the Fund, or any principal or affiliate of any of them. This includes any actions pending, on appeal, concluded, threatened, or otherwise known to them.
 
Legal Opinion
 
Vedder Price P.C. has been retained to advise the Trust and the Sponsor with respect to the Shares being offered hereby and has passed upon the validity of the Shares being issued hereunder. Vedder Price P.C. has also provided the Sponsor with its opinion with respect to federal income tax matters addressed herein under the heading "U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.""
 
Experts
 
The financial statements of the Trust and the Fund and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting of the Trust and the Fund incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
Privacy Policy
 
This Privacy Policy explains the policies of the Sponsor, a commodity pool operator registered with the CFTC, and (i) the Trust, and (ii) each commodity pool for which the Sponsor serves as Sponsor currently or in the future including Teucrium Corn Fund, Teucrium Wheat Fund, Teucrium Sugar Fund, and Teucrium Soybean Fund, and Teucrium Agricultural Fund (each of which is a series of the Trust), relating to the collection, maintenance, and use of nonpublic personal information about the Teucrium Funds’ investors, as required under federal law. Federal law gives investors the right to limit some but not all sharing of their nonpublic personal information. Federal law also requires the Sponsor to tell investors how it collects, shares, and protects such nonpublic personal information. Please read this policy carefully to understand what the Sponsor does. This Privacy Policy applies to the nonpublic personal information of investors who are individuals and who obtain financial products or services from the Sponsor, the Trust, and the Teucrium Funds primarily for personal, family, or household purposes. This Privacy Policy applies to both current and former Fund investors; the Sponsor will only disclose nonpublic personal information about former investors to the same extent as for current investors, as described below.
 
Collection of Nonpublic Personal Information
 
 
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The Sponsor may collect or have access to nonpublic personal information about current and former Fund investors for certain purposes relating to the operation of the Funds. This information may include information received from investors, such as their name, social security number, telephone number, and address, and information about investors’ holdings and transactions in shares of the Funds.
 
Use and Disclosure of Nonpublic Personal Information
 
The Sponsor recognizes and respects the privacy expectation of each of the Teucrium Funds’ investors. The Sponsor believes that the confidentiality and protection of investors’ nonpublic personal information is one of its fundamental responsibilities. This means, most importantly, that the Sponsor does not sell nonpublic personal information to any third parties. The Sponsor primarily uses investors’ nonpublic personal information to complete financial transactions that may be requested. Below are the circumstances in which the Sponsor may disclose investors’ nonpublic personal information to third parties; investors may not opt out of these disclosures:
 
The Sponsor may provide an investor’s nonpublic personal information to non-affiliated service providers involved in servicing and administering products and services for, or on behalf of the Sponsor (e.g., accountants, compliance consultants, legal advisors, broker-dealers, introducing brokers, futures commissions merchants, investment companies, investment advisers, commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators, administrators, and custodians). In all such cases, the Sponsor will provide the third party with only the nonpublic personal information necessary to carry out its assigned responsibilities and only for that purpose.
 
The Sponsor will release nonpublic personal information if directed by an investor to do so. The Sponsor may also release nonpublic personal information to persons acting in a fiduciary or representative capacity on behalf of an investor.
 
The Sponsor may release an investor’s nonpublic personal information to courts and other parties related to a subpoena or other court, government, or SRO order or process, as authorized by law.
 
The Sponsor may release an investor’s nonpublic personal information to regulators (including SROs) or governmental entities that have made a reasonable request for such information, as authorized by law.
 
The Sponsor may release an investor’s nonpublic personal information to certain governmental entities and others to prevent money laundering or in connection with tax filings, as authorized by law.
 
Investors’ nonpublic personal information, particularly information about investors’ holdings and transactions in shares of the Teucrium Funds, may be shared between and amongst the Sponsor and the Teucrium Funds. An investor cannot opt-out of the sharing of nonpublic personal information between and amongst the Sponsor and the Teucrium Funds. However, the Sponsor and the Teucrium Funds will not use this information for any cross-marketing purposes. In other words, all investors will be treated as having “opted out” of receiving marketing solicitations from Teucrium Funds other than the Teucrium Fund(s) in which it invests.
 
Protection of Nonpublic Personal Information
 
The Sponsor restricts access to investors’ nonpublic personal information only to those employees, agents, and representatives who require that information to provide financial products and services.
 
The Sponsor requires all employees, financial professionals, and companies providing services on its behalf to keep investors’ nonpublic personal information confidential.
 
Third parties with whom the Sponsor shares investor nonpublic personal information must agree to follow appropriate standards of security and confidentiality, which includes safeguarding such information physically, electronically, and procedurally.
 
The Sponsor maintains physical, technical, administrative, and procedural safeguards that comply with federal standards to protect the confidentiality and security of investors’ nonpublic personal information including, where applicable, its disposal.
 
Employees, agents, and representatives who have access to shareholder reports or other correspondence containing investors’ nonpublic personal information are required to utilize passwords on all electronic devices used to carry out their professional responsibilities.
 
 
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U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
 
The following discussion summarizes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of Shares of the Fund and the U.S. federal income tax treatment of the Fund. Except where noted otherwise, it deals only with the tax consequences relating to Shares held as capital assets by U.S. Shareholders (as defined below) who are not subject to special tax treatment. For example, in general it does not address the tax consequences, such as, but not limited to dealers in securities or currencies or commodities, traders in securities or dealers or traders in commodities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting, financial institutions, tax-exempt entities (except as discussed below), insurance companies, persons holding Shares as a part of a position in a “straddle” or as part of a “hedging,” “conversion” or other integrated transaction for federal income tax purposes, persons with “applicable financial statements within the meaning of Section 451 (b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), or holders of Shares whose “functional currency” is not the U.S. dollar. Furthermore, the discussion below is based upon the provisions of the Code, and regulations (“Treasury Regulations”), rulings and judicial decisions thereunder as of the date hereof, and such authorities may be repealed, revoked or modified (possibly with retroactive effect) so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those discussed below.
 
The Sponsor has received the opinion of Vedder Price P.C. (“Vedder Price”), counsel to the Trust, that the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to the Fund and to U.S. Shareholders and Non-U.S. Shareholders (as defined below) will be as described in the following paragraphs. In rendering its opinion, Vedder Price has relied on the facts and assumptions described in this prospectus as well as certain factual representations made by the Trust and the Sponsor. This opinion is not binding on the Internal Revenue Service (the "IRS"). No ruling has been requested from the IRS with respect to any matter affecting the Fund or prospective investors, and the IRS may disagree with the tax positions taken by the Trust. If the IRS were to challenge the Trust’s tax positions in litigation, they might not be sustained by the courts.
 
As used herein, the term “U.S. Shareholder” means a Shareholder that is, for United States federal income tax purposes, (i) a citizen or resident of the United States, (ii) a corporation created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or any political subdivision thereof, (iii) an estate the income of which is subject to United States federal income taxation regardless of its source or (iv) a trust that (X) is subject to the supervision of a court within the United States and the control of one or more United States persons as described in section 7701(a)(30) of the Code, or (Y) has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a United States person. A “Non-U.S. Shareholder” is a holder that is not a U.S. Shareholder. If a partnership or other entity or arrangement treated as a partnership holds our Shares, the tax treatment of a partner will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership holding our Shares, the discussion below may not be applicable to you and you should consult your own tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of Shares.
 
EACH PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR IS ADVISED TO CONSULT ITS OWN TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES OF AN INVESTMENT IN SHARES, AS WELL AS ANY APPLICABLE STATE, LOCAL OR FOREIGN TAX CONSEQUENCES, IN LIGHT OF ITS PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES.
 
Tax Classification of the Trust and the Fund
 
The Trust is organized and will be operated as a statutory trust in accordance with the provisions of the Trust Agreement and applicable Delaware law. Notwithstanding the Trust’s status as a statutory trust and the Fund’s status as a series of the Trust, due to the nature of its activities the Fund will be treated as a partnership rather than a trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, the trading of Shares on the NYSE Arca will cause the Fund to be classified as a “publicly traded partnership” for federal income tax purposes. Under the Code, a publicly traded partnership is generally taxable as a corporation. In the case of an entity (such as the Fund) not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 as amended, however, an exception to this general rule applies if at least 90% of the entity’s gross income is “qualifying income” for each taxable year of its existence (the “qualifying income exception”). For this purpose, qualifying income is defined as including, in pertinent part, interest (other than from a financial business), dividends, and gains from the sale or disposition of capital assets held for the production of interest or dividends. In the case of a partnership of which a principal activity is the buying and selling of commodities other than as inventory or of futures, forwards and options with respect to commodities, “qualifying income” also includes income and gains from commodities and from futures, forwards, options, and, provided the partnership is a trader or investor with respect to such assets, swaps and other notional principal contracts with respect to commodities. The Trust and the Sponsor have represented the following to Vedder Price:
 
 
at least 90% of the Fund’s gross income for each taxable year will constitute “qualifying income” within the meaning of Code section 7704 (as described above);
 
 
the Fund is organized and will be operated in accordance with its governing documents and applicable law; and
 
 
the Fund has not elected, and will not elect, to be classified as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
 
 
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Based in part on these representations, Vedder Price is of the opinion that the Fund will be treated as a partnership that it is not taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The Fund’s taxation as a partnership rather than a corporation will require the Sponsor to conduct the Fund’s business activities in such a manner that it satisfies the requirements of the qualifying income exception on a continuing basis. No assurances can be given that the Fund’s operations for any given year will produce income that satisfies these requirements. Vedder Price will not review the Fund’s ongoing compliance with these requirements and will have no obligation to advise the Trust, the Fund or the Fund’s Shareholders in the event of any subsequent change in the facts, representations or applicable law relied upon in reaching its opinion.
 
If the Fund failed to satisfy the qualifying income exception in any year, other than a failure that is determined by the IRS to be inadvertent and that is cured within a reasonable time after discovery (in which case, as a condition of relief, the Fund could be required to pay the government amounts determined by the IRS), the Fund would be taxable as a corporation for federal income tax purposes and would pay federal income tax on its income at regular corporate rates. In that event, Shareholders would not report their share of the Fund’s income or loss on their tax returns. Distributions by the Fund (if any) would be treated as dividend income to the Shareholders to the extent of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. Accordingly, if the Fund were to be taxable as a corporation, it would likely have a material adverse effect on the economic return from an investment in the Fund and on the value of the Shares.
 
The remainder of this summary assumes that the Fund is classified for federal income tax purposes as a partnership that it is not taxable as a corporation.
 
  U.S. Shareholders
 
Tax Consequences of Ownership of Shares
 
Taxation of the Fund’s Income. No U.S. federal income tax is paid by the Fund on its income. Instead, the Fund files annual partnership returns, and each U.S. Shareholder is required to report on its U.S. federal income tax return its allocable share of the income, gain, loss, deductions and credits reflected on such returns. If the Fund recognizes income in the form of interest on short-term Treasury Securities or cash equivalents and net capital gains from cash settlement of Soybean Interests for a taxable year, Shareholders must report their share of these items even though the Fund makes no distributions of cash or property during the taxable year. Consequently, a Shareholder may be taxable on income or gain recognized by the Fund but receive no cash distribution with which to pay the resulting tax liability or may receive a distribution that is insufficient to pay such liability. Because the Sponsor currently does not intend to make distributions, it is likely that a U.S. Shareholder that realizes net income or gain with respect to Shares for a taxable year will be required to pay any resulting tax from sources other than Fund distributions. Additionally, individuals with modified adjusted gross income in excess of $200,000 ($250,000 in the case of married individuals filing jointly) and certain estates and trusts are subject to an additional 3.8% tax on their “net investment income,” which generally includes net income from interest, dividends, annuities, royalties, and rents, and net capital gains (other than certain amounts earned from trades or businesses). Also included as income subject to the additional 3.8% tax is income from businesses involved in the trading of financial instruments or commodities.
 
Monthly Conventions for Allocations of the Fund’s Profit and Loss and Capital Account Restatements. Under Code section 704, the determination of a partner’s distributive share of any item of income, gain, loss, deduction or credit is governed by the applicable organizational document unless the allocation provided by such document lacks “substantial economic effect.” An allocation that lacks substantial economic effect nonetheless will be respected if it is in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership, determined by taking into account all facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangements among the partners. Subject to the possible exception for certain conventions to be used by the Fund as discussed below, allocations pursuant to the Trust Agreement should be considered as having substantial economic effect or being in accordance with Shareholders’ interests in the Fund.
 
In situations where a partner’s interest in a partnership is redeemed or sold during a taxable year, the Code generally requires that partnership tax items for the year be allocated to the partner using either an interim closing of the books or a daily proration method. The Fund intends to allocate tax items using an interim closing of the books method under which income, gains, losses and deductions will be determined on a monthly basis, taking into account the Fund’s accrued income and deductions and gains and losses (both realized and unrealized) for the month. The tax items for each month during a taxable year will then be allocated among the holders of Shares in proportion to the number of Shares owned by them as of the close of trading on the last trading day of the preceding month (the “monthly allocation convention”).
 
Under the monthly allocation convention, an investor who disposes of a Share during the current month will be treated as disposing of the Share as of the end of the last day of the calendar month. For example, an investor who buys a Share on April 10 of a year and sells it on May 20 of the same year will be allocated all of the tax items attributable to May (because it is deemed to hold the Share through the last day of May) but none of those attributable to April. The tax items attributable to that Share for April will be allocated to the person who is the actual or deemed holder of the Share as of the close of trading on the last trading day of March. Under the monthly allocation convention, an investor who purchases and sells a Share during the same month, and therefore does not hold (and is not deemed to hold) the Share at the close of the last trading day of either that month or the previous month, will receive no allocations with respect to that Share for any period. Accordingly, investors may receive no allocations with respect to Shares that they actually held or may receive allocations with respect to Shares attributable to periods that they did not actually hold the Shares.
 
By investing in Shares, a U.S. Shareholder agrees that, in the absence of new legislation, regulatory or administrative guidance, or judicial rulings to the contrary, it will file its U.S. income tax returns in a manner that is consistent with the monthly allocation convention as described above and with the IRS Schedule K-1 or any successor form provided to Shareholders by the Fund or the Trust.
 
 
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For any month in which a Creation Basket is issued or a Redemption Basket is redeemed, the Fund will credit or debit the “book” capital accounts of existing Shareholders with the amount of any unrealized gain or loss, respectively, on Fund assets. For this purpose, unrealized gain or loss will be computed based on the lowest NAV of the Fund’s assets during the month in which Shares are issued or redeemed, which may be different than the value of the assets on the date of an issuance or redemption. The capital accounts as adjusted in this manner will be used in making tax allocations intended to account for differences between the tax basis and fair market value of property owned by the Fund at the time new Shares are issued or outstanding Shares are redeemed (so-called “reverse Code section 704(c) allocations”). The intended effect of these adjustments is to equitably allocate among Shareholders any unrealized appreciation or depreciation in the Fund’s assets existing at the time of a contribution or redemption for book and tax purposes.
 
The conventions used by the Fund, as noted above, in making tax allocations may cause a Shareholder to be allocated more or less income or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes than its proportionate share of the economic income or loss realized by the Fund during the period it held its Shares. This mismatch between taxable and economic income or loss in some cases may be temporary, reversing itself in a later year when the Shares are sold, but could be permanent. For example, a Shareholder could be allocated income accruing after it sold its Shares, resulting in an increase in the basis of the Shares (see “Tax Basis of Shares”, below). In connection with the disposition of the Shares, the additional basis might produce a capital loss the deduction of which may be limited (see “Limitations on Deductibility of Losses and Certain Expenses”, below).
 
Section 754 election. The Fund intends to make the election permitted by section 754 of the Code, which election is irrevocable without the consent of the IRS. The effect of this election is that when a secondary market sale of Shares occurs, the Fund adjusts the purchaser’s proportionate share of the tax basis of the Fund’s assets to fair market value, as reflected in the price paid for the Shares, as if the purchaser had directly acquired an interest in the Fund’s assets. The section 754 election is intended to eliminate disparities between a partner’s basis in its partnership interest and its share of the tax basis of the partnership’s assets, so that the partner’s allocable share of taxable gain or loss on a disposition of an asset will correspond to its share of the appreciation or depreciation in the value of the asset since it acquired its interest. Depending on the price paid for Shares and the tax basis of the Fund’s assets at the time of the purchase, the effect of the section 754 election on a purchaser of Shares may be favorable or unfavorable. In order to make the appropriate basis adjustments in a cost-effective manner, the Fund will use certain simplifying conventions and assumptions. In particular, the Fund will obtain information regarding secondary market transactions in its Shares and use this information to make adjustments to the Shareholders’ indirect basis in Fund assets. It is possible the IRS could successfully assert that the conventions and assumptions applied are improper and require different basis adjustments to be made, which could adversely affect some Shareholders.
 
Section 1256 Contracts. Under the Code, special rules apply to instruments constituting “section 1256 contracts.” A section 1256 contract is defined as including, in relevant part: (1) a futures contract that is traded on or subject to the rules of a national securities exchange which is registered with the SEC, a domestic board of trade designated as a contract market by the CFTC, or any other board of trade or exchange designated by the Secretary of the Treasury, and with respect to which the amount required to be deposited and the amount that may be withdrawn depends on a system of “marking to market”; and (2) a non-equity option traded on or subject to the rules of a qualified board or exchange. Section 1256 contracts held at the end of each taxable year are treated as if they were sold for their fair market value on the last business day of the taxable year (i.e., are “marked to market”). In addition, any gain or loss realized from a disposition, termination or marking-to-market of a section 1256 contract is treated as long-term capital gain or loss to the extent of 60% thereof, and as short-term capital gain or loss to the extent of 40% thereof, without regard to the actual holding period (“60-40 treatment”).
 
  
 
Foreign exchange gains and losses realized by the Fund in connection with certain transactions involving foreign currency-denominated debt securities, certain futures contracts, forward contracts, options and similar investments denominated in a foreign currency, and payables or receivables denominated in a foreign currency are subject to section 988 of the Code, which generally causes such gain and loss to be treated as ordinary income or loss. To the extent the Fund hold foreign investments, it may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries. Tax treaties between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes. Because the amount of the Fund’s investments in various countries will change from time to time, it is not possible to determine the effective rate of such taxes in advance.

Limitations on Deductibility of Losses and Certain Expenses. A number of different provisions of the Code may defer or disallow the deduction of losses or expenses allocated to Shareholders by the Fund, including but not limited to those described below.
 
A Shareholder’s deduction of its allocable share of any loss of the Fund is limited to the lesser of (1) the tax basis in its Shares or (2) in the case of a Shareholder that is an individual or a closely held corporation, the amount which the Shareholder is considered to have “at risk” with respect to the Fund’s activities. In general, the amount at risk initially will be a Shareholder’s invested capital. Losses in excess of the amount at risk must be deferred until years in which the Fund generates additional taxable income against which to offset such carryover losses or until additional capital is placed at risk.
 
Individuals and other non-corporate taxpayers are permitted to deduct capital losses only to the extent of their capital gains for the taxable year plus $3,000 of other income. Unused capital losses can be carried forward and used in future years, subject to these same limitations. In addition, an individual taxpayer may elect to carry back net losses on section 1256 contracts to each of the three preceding years and use them to offset section 1256 contract gains in those years, subject to certain limitations. Corporate taxpayers generally may deduct capital losses only to the extent of capital gains, subject to special carryback and carryforward rules.
 
 
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The deduction for expenses incurred by non-corporate taxpayers constituting “miscellaneous itemized deductions,” generally including investment-related expenses (other than interest and certain other specified expenses), is suspended for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. During these taxable years, non-corporate taxpayers will not be able to deduct miscellaneous itemized deductions. Provided the suspension is not extended, for taxable years ending on or after January 1, 2026, miscellaneous itemized deductions are deductible only to the extent they exceed 2% of the taxpayer’s adjusted gross income for the year. Although the matter is not free from doubt, we believe management fees the Fund pays to the Sponsor and other expenses of the Fund constitute investment-related expenses subject to this miscellaneous itemized deduction limitation, rather than expenses incurred in connection with a trade or business and will report these expenses consistent with that interpretation. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2026, the Code imposes additional limitations on the amount of certain itemized deductions allowable to individuals with adjusted gross income in excess of certain amounts by reducing the otherwise allowable portion of such deductions by an amount equal to the lesser of:
 
● 3% of the individual’s adjusted gross income in excess of certain threshold amounts; or
 
● 80% of the amount of certain itemized deductions otherwise allowable for the taxable year.
 
Non-corporate Shareholders generally may deduct “investment interest expense” only to the extent of their “net investment income.” Investment interest expense of a Shareholder will generally include any interest expense accrued by the Fund and any interest paid or accrued on direct borrowings by a Shareholder to purchase or carry its Shares, such as interest with respect to a margin account. Net investment income generally includes gross income from property held for investment (including “portfolio income” under the passive loss rules but not, absent an election, long-term capital gains or certain qualifying dividend income) less deductible expenses other than interest directly connected with the production of investment income.
 
If the Fund incurs indebtedness, the Fund’s ability to deduct interest on its indebtedness allocable to its trade or business is limited to an amount equal to the sum of (1) the Fund’s business interest income during the year and (2) 30% of the Fund’s adjusted taxable income for such taxable year. If the Fund is not entitled to fully deduct its business interest in any taxable year, such excess business interest expense will be allocated to each Shareholder as excess business interest and can be carried forward by the Shareholder to successive taxable years and used to offset any excess taxable income allocated by the Fund to such Shareholder. Any excess business interest expense allocated to a Shareholder will reduce such Shareholder’s basis in its Shares in the year of the allocation even if the expense does not give rise to a deduction to the Shareholder in that year. Immediately prior to a Shareholder’s disposition of its Shares, the Shareholder’s basis will be increased by the amount by which such basis reduction exceeds the excess interest expense that has been deducted by such Shareholder.
 
To the extent that the Fund allocates losses or expenses to you that must be deferred or are disallowed as a result of these or other limitations in the Code, you may be taxed on income in excess of your economic income or distributions (if any) on your Shares. As one example, you could be allocated and required to pay tax on your share of interest income accrued by the Fund for a particular taxable year, and in the same year be allocated a share of a capital loss that you cannot deduct currently because you have insufficient capital gains against which to offset the loss. As another example, you could be allocated and required to pay tax on your share of interest income and capital gain for a year but be unable to deduct some or all of your share of management fees and/or margin account interest incurred by you with respect to your Shares. Shareholders are urged to consult their own professional tax advisor regarding the effect of limitations under the Code on their ability to deduct their allocable share of the Fund’s losses and expenses.
 
Tax Basis of Shares
 
A Shareholder’s tax basis in its Shares is important in determining (1) the amount of taxable gain or loss it will realize on the sale or other disposition of its Shares, (2) the amount of non-taxable distributions that it may receive from the Fund, and (3) its ability to utilize its distributive share of any losses of the Fund on its tax return. A Shareholder’s initial tax basis of its Shares will equal its cost for the Shares plus its share of the Fund’s liabilities (if any) at the time of purchase. In general, a Shareholder’s “share” of those liabilities will equal the sum of (i) the entire amount of any otherwise nonrecourse liability of the Fund as to which the Shareholder or an affiliate of the Shareholder is the creditor (a “partner nonrecourse liability”) and (ii) a pro rata share of any nonrecourse liabilities of the Fund that are not partner nonrecourse liabilities as to any Shareholder.
 
A Shareholder’s tax basis in its Shares generally will be (1) increased by (a) its allocable share of the Fund’s taxable income and gain and (b) any additional contributions by the Shareholder to the Fund and (2) decreased (but not below zero) by (a) its allocable share of the Fund’s tax deductions and losses and (b) any distributions by the Fund to the Shareholder. For this purpose, an increase in a Shareholder’s share of the Fund’s liabilities will be treated as a contribution of cash by the Shareholder to the Fund and a decrease in that share will be treated as a distribution of cash by the Fund to the Shareholder. Pursuant to certain IRS rulings, a Shareholder will be required to maintain a single, “unified” basis in all Shares that it owns. As a result, when a Shareholder that acquired its Shares at different prices sells less than all of its Shares, such Shareholder will not be entitled to specify particular Shares (e.g., those with a higher basis) as having been sold. Rather, it must determine its gain or loss on the sale by using an “equitable apportionment” method to allocate a portion of its unified basis in its Shares to the Shares sold.
 
 Treatment of Fund Distributions. If the Fund makes non-liquidating distributions to Shareholders, such distributions generally will not be taxable to the Shareholders for federal income tax purposes except to the extent that the amount of cash distributed exceeds the Shareholder’s adjusted basis of its interest in the Fund immediately before the distribution. Any cash distributed that is in excess of a Shareholder’s tax basis generally will be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of Shares. For purposes of determining the gain recognized on a distribution from a partnership, a marketable security distributed to a partner is generally treated as cash. This treatment, however, does not apply to distributions to “eligible partners” of an “investment partnership,” as those terms are defined in the Code.
 
 
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Tax Consequences of Disposition of Shares
 
If a Shareholder sells its Shares, it will recognize gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and its adjusted tax basis for the Shares sold. A Shareholder’s amount realized will be the sum of the cash or the fair market value of other property received plus its share of the Fund's liabilities.
 
Gain or loss recognized by a Shareholder on the sale or exchange of Shares held for more than one year will generally be taxable as long-term capital gain or loss; otherwise, such gain or loss will generally be taxable as short-term capital gain or loss. A special election is available under the Treasury Regulations that allows Shareholders to identify and use the actual holding periods for the Shares sold for purposes of determining whether the gain or loss recognized on a sale of Shares will give rise to long-term or short-term capital gain or loss. It is expected that most Shareholders will be eligible to elect, and generally will elect, to identify and use the actual holding period for Shares sold. If a Shareholder who has differing holding period for its Shares fails to make the election or is not able to identify the holding periods of the Shares sold, the Shareholder will have a split holding period in the Shares sold. Under such circumstances, a Shareholder will be required to determine its holding period in the Shares sold by first determining the portion of its entire interest in the Fund that would give rise to long-term capital gain or loss if its entire interest were sold and the portion that would give rise to short-term capital gain or loss if the entire interest were sold. The Shareholder would then treat each Share sold as giving rise to long-term capital gain or loss and short-term capital gain or loss in the same proportions as if it had sold its entire interest in the Fund.
 
Under Section 751 of the Code, a portion of a Shareholder’s gain or loss from the sale of Shares (regardless of the holding period for such Shares), will be separately computed and taxed as ordinary income or loss to the extent attributable to “unrealized receivables” or “inventory” owned by the Fund. The term “unrealized receivables” includes, among other things, market discount bonds and short-term debt instruments to the extent such items would give rise to ordinary income if sold by the Fund. However, the short-term capital gain on section 1256 contracts resulting from 60-40 treatment, described above, should not be subject to this rule.
 
If some or all of a Shareholder’s Shares are lent by its broker or other agent to a third party — for example, for use by the third party in covering a short sale — the Shareholder may be considered as having made a taxable disposition of the loaned Shares, in which case —
 
 
●     
the Shareholder may recognize taxable gain or loss to the same extent as if it had sold the Shares for cash;
 
 
●      
any of the income, gain, loss or deduction allocable to those Shares during the period of the loan is not reportable by the Shareholder for tax purposes; and
 
 
any distributions the Shareholder receives with respect to the Shares under the loan agreement will be fully taxable to the Shareholder, most likely as ordinary income.
 
Shareholders desiring to avoid these and other possible consequences of a deemed disposition of their Shares should consider modifying any applicable brokerage account agreements to prohibit the lending of their Shares.
 
Other Tax Matters
 
Information Reporting. The Fund provides tax information to the Shareholders and to the IRS, as needed. Shareholders of the Fund are treated as partners for federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, the Fund will furnish Shareholders each year, with tax information on IRS Schedule K-1 (Form 1065), which will be used by the Shareholders in completing their tax returns. The IRS has ruled that assignees of partnership interests who have not been admitted to a partnership as partners but who have the capacity to exercise substantial dominion and control over the assigned partnership interests will be considered partners for federal income tax purposes. On the basis of this ruling, except as otherwise provided herein, we will treat as a Shareholder any person whose shares are held on their behalf by a broker or other nominee if that person has the right to direct the nominee in the exercise of all substantive rights attendant to the ownership of the Shares.
 
Persons who hold an interest in the Fund as a nominee for another person are required to furnish to us the following information: (1) the name, address and taxpayer identification number of the beneficial owner and the nominee; (2) whether the beneficial owner is (a) a person that is not a U.S. person, (b) a foreign government, an international organization or any wholly-owned agency or instrumentality of either of the foregoing, or (c) a tax-exempt entity; (3) the number and a description of Shares acquired or transferred for the beneficial owner; and (4) certain information including the dates of acquisitions and transfers, means of acquisitions and transfers, and acquisition cost for purchases, as well as the amount of net proceeds from sales. Brokers and financial institutions are required to furnish additional information, including whether they are U.S. persons and certain information on Shares they acquire, hold or transfer for their own account. A penalty of $250 per failure (as adjusted for inflation), up to a maximum of $3,000,000 per calendar year (as adjusted for inflation), is imposed by the Code for failure to report such information correctly to the Fund. If the failure to furnish such information correctly is determined to be willful, the per failure penalty increases to $500 (as adjusted for inflation) or, if greater, 10% of the aggregate amount of items required to be reported, and the $3,000,000 maximum does not apply. The nominee is required to supply the beneficial owner of the Shares with the information furnished to the Fund.
 
 
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Partnership Audit Procedures. The IRS may audit the federal income tax returns filed by the Fund. Adjustments resulting from any such audit may require a Shareholder to adjust a prior year’s tax liability and could result in an audit of the Shareholder’s own return. Any audit of a Shareholder’s return could result in adjustments of non-partnership items as well as Fund items. Partnerships are generally treated as separate entities for purposes of federal tax audits, judicial review of administrative adjustments by the IRS, and tax settlement proceedings. The tax treatment of partnership items of income, gain, loss and deduction are determined at the partnership level in a unified partnership proceeding rather than in separate proceedings with the partners. The Code provides for one partner to be designated as the “tax matters partner” and to represent the partnership for purposes of these proceedings. The Trust Agreement appoints the Sponsor as the tax matters partner of the Fund.
 
The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 adopted a new partnership-level audit and assessment procedure for all entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. These new rules generally apply to partnership taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. Under these rules, tax deficiencies (including interest and penalties) that arise from an adjustment to partnership items generally would be assessed and collected from the partnership (rather than from the partners), and generally would be calculated using maximum applicable tax rates (although such partnership level tax may be reduced or eliminated under limited circumstances). A narrow category of partnerships (generally, partnerships having no more than 100 partners that consist exclusively of individuals, C corporations, S corporations and estates) are permitted to elect out of the new partnership-level audit rules. As an alternative to partnership-level tax liability, a partnership may elect to furnish adjusted Schedule K-1s to the IRS and to each person who was a partner in the audit year, stating such partner’s share of any partnership adjustments, and each such partner would then take the adjustments into account on its tax returns in the year in which it receives its adjusted Schedule K-1 (rather than by amending their tax returns for the audited year). If the Fund were subject to a partnership level tax as a result of these new rules, the economic return of all Shareholders (including Shareholders that did not own Shares in the Fund during the taxable year to which the audit relates) may be affected.
 
To address these new rules, the Sponsor amended the Trust Agreement so that if the Fund becomes subject to any tax as a result of any adjustment to taxable income, gain, loss, deduction or credit for any taxable year of the Fund (pursuant to a tax audit or otherwise), such Shareholder (and each former Shareholder) is obligated to indemnify the Fund and the Sponsor against any such taxes (including any interest and penalties) to the extent such tax (or portion thereof) is properly attributable to such Shareholder (or former Shareholder). In addition, the Sponsor, on behalf of the Fund, will be authorized to take any action permitted under applicable law to avoid the assessment of any such taxes against the Fund (including an election to issue adjusted Schedule K-1s to the Shareholders (and/or former Shareholders) which takes such adjustments to taxable income, gain, loss, deduction or credit into account.
 
Reportable Transaction Rules. In certain circumstances the Code and Treasury Regulations require that the IRS be notified of transactions through a disclosure statement attached to a taxpayer’s United States federal income tax return. These disclosure rules may apply to transactions irrespective of whether they are structured to achieve particular tax benefits. They could require disclosure by the Trust or Shareholders if a Shareholder incurs a loss in excess of a specified threshold from a sale or redemption of its Shares and possibly in other circumstances. While these rules generally do not require disclosure of a loss recognized on the disposition of an asset in which the taxpayer has a “qualifying basis” (generally a basis equal to the amount of cash paid by the taxpayer for such asset), they apply to a loss recognized with respect to interests in a pass-through entity, such as the Shares, even if the taxpayer’s basis in such interests is equal to the amount of cash it paid. In addition, significant monetary penalties may be imposed in connection with a failure to comply with these reporting requirements. Investors should consult their own tax advisor concerning the application of these reporting requirements to their specific situation.
 
Tax-Exempt Organizations. Subject to numerous exceptions, qualified retirement plans and individual retirement accounts, charitable organizations and certain other organizations that otherwise are exempt from U.S. federal income tax (collectively, “exempt organizations”) nonetheless are subject to the tax on unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”). Generally, UBTI means the gross income derived by an exempt organization from a trade or business that it regularly carries on, the conduct of which is not substantially related to the exercise or performance of its exempt purpose or function, less allowable deductions directly connected with that trade or business. If the Fund were to regularly carry on (directly or indirectly) a trade or business that is unrelated with respect to an exempt organization Shareholder, then in computing its UBTI, the Shareholder must include its share of (1) the Fund’s gross income from the unrelated trade or business, whether or not distributed, and (2) the Fund’s allowable deductions directly connected with that gross income. An exempt organization that has more than one unrelated trade or business must compute its UBTI seperately for each such trade or business.
 
UBTI generally does not include dividends, interest, or payments with respect to securities loans and gains from the sale of property (other than property held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business). Nonetheless, income on, and gain from the disposition of, “debt-financed property” is UBTI. Debt-financed property generally is income-producing property (including securities), the use of which is not substantially related to the exempt organization’s tax-exempt purposes, and with respect to which there is “acquisition indebtedness” at any time during the taxable year (or, if the property was disposed of during the taxable year, the 12-month period ending with the disposition). Acquisition indebtedness includes debt incurred to acquire property, debt incurred before the acquisition of property if the debt would not have been incurred but for the acquisition, and debt incurred subsequent to the acquisition of property if the debt would not have been incurred but for the acquisition and at the time of acquisition the incurrence of debt was foreseeable. The portion of the income from debt-financed property attributable to acquisition indebtedness is equal to the ratio of the average outstanding principal amount of acquisition indebtedness over the average adjusted basis of the property for the year. The Fund currently does not anticipate that it will borrow money to acquire investments; however, the Fund cannot be certain that it will not borrow for such purpose in the future. In addition, an exempt organization Shareholder that incurs acquisition indebtedness to purchase its Shares in the Fund may have UBTI.
 
 
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The federal tax rate applicable to an exempt organization Shareholder on its UBTI generally will be either the corporate or trust tax rate, depending upon the Shareholder’s form of organization. The Fund may report to each such Shareholder information as to the portion, if any, of the Shareholder’s income and gains from the Fund for any year that will be treated as UBTI; the calculation of that amount is complex, and there can be no assurance that the Fund’s calculation of UBTI will be accepted by the IRS. An exempt organization Shareholder will be required to make payments of estimated federal income tax with respect to its UBTI.
 
Regulated Investment Companies. Interests in and income from “qualified publicly traded partnerships” satisfying certain gross income tests are treated as qualifying assets and income, respectively, for purposes of determining eligibility for regulated investment company (“RIC”) status. A RIC may invest up to 25% of its assets in interests in qualified publicly traded partnerships. The determination of whether a publicly traded partnership such as the Fund is a qualified publicly traded partnership is made on an annual basis. The Fund expects to be a qualified publicly traded partnership in each of its taxable years. However, such qualification is not assured.
 
Non-U.S. Shareholders
 
Generally, non-U.S. persons who derive U.S. source income or gain from investing or engaging in a U.S. business are taxable on two categories of income. The first category consists of amounts that are fixed or determinable, annual or periodic income, such as interest, dividends and rent that are not connected with the operation of a U.S. trade or business (“FDAP”). The second category is income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business (“ECI”). FDAP income (other than interest that is considered “portfolio interest;” as discussed below) is generally subject to a 30% withholding tax, which may be reduced for certain categories of income by a treaty between the U.S. and the recipient’s country of residence. In contrast, ECI is generally subject to U.S. tax on a net basis at graduated rates upon the filing of a U.S. tax return. Where a non-U.S. person has ECI as a result of an investment in a partnership, the ECI is currently subject to a withholding tax at a rate of 37% for individual Shareholders and a rate of 21% for corporate Shareholders. The tax withholding on ECI, which is the highest tax rate under Code section 1 for non-corporate Non-U.S. Shareholders and Code section 11(b) for corporate Non-U.S. Shareholders, may increase in future tax years if tax rates increase from their current levels.
 
Withholding on Allocations and Distributions. The Code provides that a non-U.S. person who is a partner in a partnership that is engaged in a U.S. trade or business during a taxable year will also be considered to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business during that year. Classifying an activity by a partnership as an investment or an operating business is a factual determination. Under certain safe harbors in the Code, an investment fund whose activities consist of trading in stocks, securities, or commodities for its own account generally will not be considered to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business unless it is a dealer is such stocks, securities, or commodities. This safe harbor applies to investments in commodities only if the commodities are of a kind customarily dealt in on an organized commodity exchange and if the transaction is of a kind customarily consummated at such place. Although the matter is not free from doubt, the Fund believes that the activities directly conducted by the Fund do not result in the Fund being engaged in a trade or business within in the United States. However, there can be no assurance that the IRS would not successfully assert that the Fund’s activities constitute a U.S. trade or business.
 
In the event that the Fund’s activities were considered to constitute a U.S. trade or business, the Fund would be required to withhold at the highest rate specified in Code section 1 (currently 37%) on allocations of our income to non-corporate Non-U.S. Shareholders and the highest rate specified in Code section 11(b) (currently 21%) on allocations of our income to corporate Non-U.S. Shareholders, when such income is distributed. Non-U.S. Shareholders would also be subject to a 10% withholding tax on the consideration payable upon a sale or exchange of such Non-U.S. Shareholder’s Shares, although the IRS has temporarily suspended this withholding for interests in publicly traded partnerships until regulations implementing such withholding are issued. A Non-U.S. Shareholder with ECI will generally be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return, and the return will provide the Non-U.S. Shareholder with the mechanism to seek a refund of any withholding in excess of such Shareholder’s actual U.S. federal income tax liability. Any amount withheld by the Fund will be treated as a distribution to the Non-U.S. Shareholder to the extent possible. In some cases, the Fund may not be able to match the economic cost of satisfying its withholding obligations to a particular Non-U.S. Shareholder, which may result in said cost being borne by the Fund, generally, and accordingly, by all Shareholders.
 
If the Fund is not treated as engaged in a U.S. trade or business, a Non-U.S. Shareholder may nevertheless be treated as having FDAP income, which would be subject to a 30% withholding tax (possibly subject to reduction by treaty), with respect to some or all of its distributions from the Fund or its allocable share of Fund income. Amounts withheld on behalf of a Non-U.S. Shareholder will be treated as being distributed to such Shareholder.
 
To the extent any interest income allocated to a Non-U.S. Shareholder that otherwise constitutes FDAP is considered “portfolio interest,” neither the allocation of such interest income to the non-U.S. Shareholder nor a subsequent distribution of such interest income to the non-U.S. Shareholder will be subject to withholding, provided that the Non-U.S. Shareholder is not otherwise engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. and provides the Fund with a timely and properly completed and executed IRS Form W-8BEN or other applicable form. In general, portfolio interest is interest paid on debt obligations issued in registered form, unless the recipient owns 10% or more of the voting power of the issuer. A Non-U.S. Shareholder’s allocable share of interest on U.S. bank deposits, certificates of deposit and discount obligations with maturities from original issue of 183 days or less should also not be subject to withholding. Generally, other interest from U.S. sources paid to the Fund and allocable to Non-U.S. Shareholders will be subject to withholding.
 
 
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In order for the Fund to avoid withholding on any interest income allocable to Non-U.S. Shareholders that would qualify as portfolio interest, it will be necessary for all Non-U.S. Shareholders to provide the Fund with a timely and properly completed and executed Form W-8BEN (or other applicable form).
 
Gain from Sale of Shares. Gain from the sale or exchange of Shares may be taxable to a Non-U.S. Shareholder if the Non-U.S. Shareholder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year. In such case, the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% withholding tax on the amount of such individual’s gain.
 
Branch Profits Tax on Corporate Non-U.S. Shareholders. In addition to the taxes noted above, any Non-U.S. Shareholders that are corporations may also be subject to an additional tax, the branch profits tax, at a rate of 30%. The branch profits tax is imposed on a non-U.S. corporation’s dividend equivalent amount, which generally consists of the corporation’s after-tax earnings and profits that are effectively connected with the corporation’s U.S. trade or business but are not reinvested in a U.S. business. This tax may be reduced or eliminated by an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the Non-U.S. Shareholder is a “qualified resident.”
 
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act. Legislation commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act or "FACTA", generally imposes a 30% U.S. withholding tax on payments of certain types of income to foreign financial institutions that fail to enter into an agreement with the United States Treasury to report certain required information with respect to accounts held by U.S. persons (or held by foreign entities that have U.S. persons as substantial owners). The types of income subject to the withholding tax include U.S.-source interest and dividends and the gross proceeds from the sale of any property that could produce U.S.-source interest or dividends. The information required to be reported includes the identity and taxpayer identification number of each account holder that is a U.S. person and transaction activity within the holder’s account. In addition, subject to certain exceptions, this legislation also imposes a 30% U.S. withholding tax on payments to foreign entities that are not financial institutions unless the foreign entity certifies that it does not have a greater than 10% U.S. owner or provides the withholding agent with identifying information on each greater than 10% U.S. owner. Depending on the status of a Non-U.S. Shareholder and the status of the intermediaries through which it holds Shares, a Non-U.S. Shareholder could be subject to this 30% U.S. withholding tax with respect to distributions on its Shares and proceeds from the sale of its Shares. Under certain circumstances, a Non-U.S. Shareholder may be eligible for a refund or credit of such taxes.
 
Prospective Non-U.S. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisor regarding these and other tax issues unique to Non-U.S. Shareholders.
 
Backup Withholding
 
The Fund may be required to withhold U.S. federal income tax (“backup withholding”) from payments to: (1) any Shareholder who fails to furnish the Fund with his, her or its correct taxpayer identification number or a certificate that the Shareholder is exempt from backup withholding, and (2) any Shareholder with respect to whom the IRS notifies the Fund that the Shareholder is subject to backup withholding. Backup withholding is not an additional tax and may be returned or credited against a taxpayer’s regular federal income tax liability if appropriate information is provided to the IRS. The backup withholding rate is the fourth lowest rate applicable to individuals under Code section 1(c) (currently 24%) and may increase in future tax years.
 
Other Tax Considerations
 
In addition to federal income taxes, Shareholders may be subject to other taxes, such as state and local income taxes, unincorporated business taxes, business franchise taxes, and estate, inheritance or intangible taxes that may be imposed by the various jurisdictions in which the Fund does business or owns property or where the Shareholders reside. Although an analysis of those various taxes is not presented here, each prospective Shareholder should consider their potential impact on its investment in the Fund. It is each Shareholder’s responsibility to file the appropriate U.S. federal, state, local, and foreign tax returns. Vedder Price has not provided an opinion concerning any aspects of state, local or foreign tax or U.S. federal tax other than those U.S. federal income tax issues discussed herein.