10-K 1 mobl-20151231x10k.htm 10-K mobl_Current Folio_10K

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 

Washington, D.C. 20549


 

FORM 10-K


 

(Mark One)

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

 

Or

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from             to             

 

Commission File Number 001-36471

 

MobileIron, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

 

26-0866846

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

415 East Middlefield Road

Mountain View, CA 94043

(650) 919-8100


 

 Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

The NASDAQ Global Select Market

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”).

Yes No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

Yes No

 

Indicate by a check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

 

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No  

 

As of June 30, 2015, the aggregate market value of shares of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $233 million based on the number of shares held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2015 and based on the closing sale price of the registrant's common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Stock Market on June 30, 2015 of $5.91 per share. Shares of common stock held by officers, directors and holders of more than 5% of the outstanding common stock have been excluded from this calculation because such person may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

 

The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock was 82,398,716 as of February 19, 2016.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the information called for by Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, to the extent not set forth herein, are hereby incorporated by reference from registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2015.

 

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

    

Page
No.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. 

 

Business

 

4

Item 1A. 

 

Risk Factors

 

12

Item 1B.  

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

36

Item 2. 

 

Properties

 

36

Item 3. 

 

Legal Proceedings

 

36

Item 4. 

 

Mine and Safety Disclosures

 

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5. 

 

Market For Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

37

Item 6. 

 

Selected Financial Data

 

40

Item 7. 

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

43

Item 7A. 

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

67

Item 8. 

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

69

Item 9. 

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

98

Item 9A. 

 

Controls and Procedures

 

98

Item 9B. 

 

Other Information

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10. 

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

101

Item 11.  

 

Executive Compensation

 

101

Item 12. 

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

101

Item 13. 

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

101

Item 14. 

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

101

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15. 

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

102

 

 

Signatures

 

103

 

 

Exhibit Index

 

105

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“MobileIron,” the MobileIron logos and other trademark or service marks of MobileIron, Inc. appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are the property of MobileIron, Inc. Trade names, trademarks and service marks of other companies appearing in this report are the property of their respective holders.

 

 

 

 

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In some cases you can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “believe,” “may,” “will,” “might,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “project,” “potentially,” “predict,” “plan,” “outlook,” “target,” “expect,” or similar expressions, or the negative or plural of these words or expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

·

beliefs and objectives for future operations;

·

our business plan and our ability to effectively manage our growth and associated investments;

·

our ability to timely and effectively scale and adapt our existing technology;

·

our ability to innovate new products and bring them to market in a timely manner;

·

our ability to expand internationally;

·

our ability to attract new customers and further penetrate our existing customer base; 

·

our expectations concerning renewal rates for subscriptions and services by existing customers;

·

cost of revenue, including changes in costs associated with hardware, royalties, customer support, and data center operations; 

·

operating expenses, including changes in research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses;

·

our expectations concerning relationships with third parties, including channel partners and logistics providers;

·

economic and industry trends or trend analysis; and

·

the sufficiency of our existing cash and investments to meet our cash needs for at least the next 12 months.

These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties, which could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. These risks are not exhaustive. These statements are within the meaning of the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements appear throughout this Form 10-K and are statements regarding our intent, belief, or current expectations, primarily with respect to our business and related industry developments. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which apply only as of the date of this Form 10-K. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements for many reasons, including the risks faced by us and described in Part I, Item 1A, entitled “Risk Factors,” and in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements for any reason to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.

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Item 1. Business

Overview

We invented a purpose-built mobile IT platform for enterprises to secure and manage mobile applications, or apps, content and devices while providing their employees with device choice, privacy and a native user experience. Customers use our platform as the technology foundation in their journey to become “Mobile First” organizations, embracing mobility as a primary computing platform for their employees. Mobile First organizations transform their businesses by giving their employees secure access to critical business applications and content on devices employees want with a native user experience they love. Our platform is extensible and fosters a growing ecosystem of application developers and technology partners who augment the functionality and add value to our platform, creating positive network effects for our customers, our ecosystem and our company.

The adoption of mobile technology is a disruption of historic proportions and has outpaced earlier transitions such as mainframe to PCs and client/server to the Internet. IT departments are often challenged to provide users with the benefits of mobility, while simultaneously satisfying enterprise security and compliance requirements. In modern end-user computing, operating systems such as Android, iOS, and Windows have a sandboxed architecture to isolate data at the app level and protect both the file system and the operating system from unauthorized access. New laptop and desktop operating systems are being built based on this architecture. As a result, the security and management model for these operating systems is very different from what was needed in the legacy PC model and companies need new security technology while maintaining device choice and privacy. This new security model is called Enterprise Mobility Management (EMM).  We believe that only with an EMM platform can an enterprise deal with the new threat landscape while maintaining user privacy and native experience.

IT organizations are increasingly consolidating their PC and mobile device support groups and treating their devices as "endpoints." Meanwhile, the PC and mobile architectures continue to fuse together, blurring the boundaries between the EMM and client management tool capabilities. (Source: Gartner “Magic Quadrant for Enterprise Mobility Management Suites” by Terrence Cosgrove, Rob Smith, Chris Silva, John Girard, Bryan Taylor, June 8, 2015.)

Our platform is the security and apps backbone for modern end-user computing and enables all phases of customers’ journeys to become Mobile First organizations. Employees get the apps and content that they need to get their jobs done on the mobile device of their choice while preserving the native device experience. Enterprise IT departments get a security and management platform that easily integrates into their existing IT or cloud infrastructure and allows them to protect and manage corporate data and apps, independent of the mobile device, for both corporate-owned, bring your own device, or BYOD, and mixed device ownership environments. 

Our business model is based on winning new customers, expanding sales within existing customers, upselling new products and renewing subscriptions and software support agreements. We win customers using a sales force that works closely with our channel partners, including resellers, service providers and system integrators. We have experienced rapid growth in our customer base, having sold our platform to over 10,500 customers since 2009. Our strategy is to enhance the value of our platform by introducing additional products and upselling these additional products to our customers. Our global customer support team is focused on enabling successful customers, which is designed to lead to additional sales and renewals of subscription and software support agreements. In 2015, we generated over half of our gross billings from recurring sources. Our renewal rates, which are determined on a device basis for software support and subscription agreements, exceeded 90% in 2015.

We offer our customers the flexibility to use our software as a cloud service or to deploy it on premise. They can also choose from various pricing options including subscription and perpetual licensing. We primarily target large customers across a broad range of industries including financial services, government, healthcare, legal, manufacturing, professional services, retail, technology and telecommunications. Customers choose MobileIron because we deliver the scalability and security for apps and data that they need to become Mobile First.  As of December 31, 2015, our customers included over 500 companies on the Forbes Global 2000 Leading Companies list for 2015. No single end user accounted for more than 5% of our total revenue in 2015, one reseller accounted for 16% of our revenue in 2015.

The MobileIron Platform and Services

Our platform is composed of three integrated and distributed software components: a mobile IT policy server, or Core, that allows IT departments to define security and device management policies across popular mobile operating systems; software on the device, or Client, to enforce those policies at the mobile end-point; and an in-line intelligent

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gateway, or Sentry, that secures data as it moves between the device and back-end enterprise systems. The three components of the MobileIron platform work together to ensure end-to-end security for enterprise data by enforcing IT policies defined in Core on the data-at-rest via Client and data-in-motion with Sentry.  Our platform utilizes FIPS 140-2 cryptographic modules, which are required by government agencies and are desirable for highly regulated and security conscious customers.

Our platform enables four main areas of functionality:

·

Mobile Device Management (MDM). Our MDM capabilities enable IT to securely manage mobile devices across mobile operating systems and provide secure corporate email, automatic device configuration and certificate-based security.  For end-users the MobileIron client creates a clear separation between personal and business information. This allows IT to selectively wipe only the corporate data on the device should the user leave the company or should the device fall out of compliance, or be lost.

·

Mobile Application Management (MAM). Our MAM functionality helps IT manage the entire apps lifecycle, from making apps available in the enterprise app storefront, securing applications on the device, enforcing user authentication, isolating them from personal apps and retiring them as necessary.  On the device, the Client works with Core to install the enterprise app storefront so that users can browse and install the mobile applications made available to them by their company. Enterprise app data is secure and can only be exchanged between applications that are part of the MobileIron container.

·

Mobile Content Management (MCM). Our MCM functionality enables IT to provide secure mobile access to enterprise documents residing in SharePoint, file shares and other enterprise and cloud content repositories.  It also secures email attachments so that they are encrypted and can only be viewed with the secure MobileIron Viewer or any other enterprise application managed by MobileIron. Our secure web browser enables users to securely access corporate intranet and HTML apps without requiring a virtual private network, or VPN, client on the device.

·

Advanced Security Services.  Our advanced mobile security services include enhanced VPN functions, which allows mobile apps to access enterprise resources through a secure application communication channel, eliminating the need for device-wide VPN; Single Sign-On, which gives access to multiple enterprise apps with a single authentication; and Help@Work, which mirrors the user’s screen onto the IT management console so that IT support personnel can better help the user resolve an issue; and integrations with leading third-party analytics, compliance, and service-provisioning platforms.

LOGO

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Platform Extensibility and Ecosystem

We have invested, and intend to continue to invest, in expanding the breadth and depth of our mobile IT ecosystem. Our platform is extensible on both the client side and server side.  Customers, application vendors and technology vendors can leverage our technology to add value to our platform, and in turn, mobilize and secure their products, apps and content. As of December 31, 2015, over 180 technology integrations were released by our ecosystem partners. These integrations cover both user apps and back-end IT infrastructure.

On the client side, MobileIron AppConnect allows application vendors and customers to build apps that can be secured and managed by MobileIron. Once integrated, these applications become part of the secure container on the device managed by the Client, which configures the apps, secures their data while on the device, ensures that corporate data can only be shared between secure applications, authenticates the user with a single pin or password, and if need be, removes the applications from the device. AppConnect-enabled applications can also leverage secure Sentry tunnels to exchange information with enterprise back-end systems.

On the server side, we work with leading technology companies through our ServiceConnect program. These partners use the MobileIron platform APIs to enrich the features and functionality of their products with mobile IT capabilities. When combined, the common solutions provide increased security, better user experience, and business visibility through analytics. For example, network security vendors can use our security status information in order to make real time decisions about whether a mobile device should be granted access to secure corporate service.  Application Reputation vendors can use our system in order to detect the presence of new apps and identify potentially harmful apps, so that IT departments can remediate as necessary. Leading data analytics providers can use the data we collect on devices in order to help IT department make better choices. 

Our Competitive Strengths

We pioneered many of the innovations in the mobile IT landscape. We differentiate ourselves from our competitors through the following strengths:

·

Comprehensive Solution for the Transition to a Mobile First Organization. We believe that most organizations are at some stage along a phased adoption of mobile technology and will require a mobile IT platform to successfully leverage the benefits of mobility. Our platform can be adopted in stages to support the Mobile First journey of an organization, from device security and secure email delivery to managed content and applications. 

·

Platform Architected for Mobile IT. Our mobile IT platform was purpose-built to address the rapidly-evolving and complex mobile requirements of users, IT and the mobile IT ecosystem, unlike others who have repurposed their products to retrofit them with mobile capabilities. We believe the pace of change in our market is unprecedented, driven by the rapid evolution of mobile operating systems such as iOS, Android, and Windows. We believe by being independent and focused on this market, we provide a higher level of service, faster innovation, and differentiated products to our customers. 

·

Enterprise Class Security. We continue to invest in providing enterprise class security for our customers.  Our platform secures enterprise data on the device and data traveling between the device and back-end enterprise systems.  It utilizes FIPS 140-2 cryptographic modules, which are required by government agencies and are desirable for highly regulated and security conscious customers. We have successfully deployed to customers in some of the most security conscience enterprise environments in industry verticals such as government, financial services, and health-care.

·

Network Effects of our Platform. Our platform benefits from positive network effects that are the result of the strength of our ecosystem. Our ecosystem includes applications developed by customers and third-parties that incorporate our technology and integrated infrastructure solutions. Platform effects include our ecosystem partners accelerating enterprise adoption of their products, and customers choosing our platform because of our ecosystem of partners.

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·

Application Management. Our end-to-end solution to secure and manage mobile apps enables our customers to move beyond secure email and mobilize other core business processes, therefore getting the next level of return on their mobile investments.

·

World Class Global Customer Success Organization. We believe that our customers’ success with their mobility initiatives will drive rapid expansion of their mobile IT infrastructure and in turn grow our business. Our global Customer Success organization provides global technology support, implementation and best practices toolkits, education and online training, as well as strategic account management to build trusted customer relationships. We seek to build mobile industry expertise throughout the IT community by offering MobileIron certification programs to our customers and partners to help educate, train and certify individuals who work with our products and services.

·

Our Channel-Focused Sales Model with Global Reach. We have a strong global network of channel partners that drive customer and sales growth across all customer segments. We work with diverse channel partners to maximize global sales reach and provide efficient customer service.

·

Flexible Deployment and Pricing Model. We offer our customers the choice of using our platform either as a cloud service or deployed on premise. We offer pricing flexibility with subscription or perpetual licensing options, which allows a customer to pay for our platform through either its capital or operating budget.

Customers

Our customers include leading enterprises in a broad range of industries, including financial services, government, healthcare, legal, manufacturing, professional services, retail, technology and telecommunications. No single industry verticals accounted for more than 20% of our gross billings in the three year period ended 2015. Medium to large enterprises accounted for a majority of our gross billings. We have sold our products to over 10,500 customers globally, including more than 500 companies on the Forbes Global 2000 Leading Companies list, as of December 31, 2015. Our channel partners include resellers, service providers and system integrators. AT&T, Inc., as a reseller, accounted for approximately 16%, 20% and 20% of our total revenue in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. No end user of our products accounted for more than 5% of our total revenue in 2015, 2014, or 2013.

Backlog

As is typical in the software industry, we expect a significant portion of our software license orders to be received in the last month of each quarter. We do not believe that our backlog at any particular time is meaningful because it has historically been immaterial relative to our total revenue and is not necessarily indicative of future revenue in any given period.  

Sales and Marketing

We sell the vast majority of our products through indirect sales channels and maintain a sales force that works closely with our channel partners to develop sales opportunities. We have an outside sales force focused on large organizations, inside sales teams focused on mid-sized enterprises, and teams that work with service providers that focus on small to medium sized businesses.

Our sales organization is supported by sales engineers with deep technical expertise and responsibility for pre-sales technical support and technical training of our channel partners. The sales organization has strong alignment with our Customer Success teams and acts as a liaison between the IT customers and the marketing and product development organizations, especially during the pre-sales phase. We believe this approach allows us to leverage the benefits our sales channel and maintain communication with our customers. Our sales cycle ranges from a few weeks for smaller organizations to many months for large enterprises.

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Channel Program

We work with mobile-focused channel partners who sell our platform to customers. We focus on building in-depth relationships with a number of solutions-oriented partners that have strong industry expertise. These channel partners include both traditional IT resellers as well as service providers. We operate a formal accreditation program for the sales and technical professionals of our channel partners.

Marketing

Our marketing efforts are focused on building our brand reputation and market awareness of our platform, driving customer demand and operating our channel program. The marketing team consists primarily of product marketing, programs marketing, field marketing, channel marketing and public relations functions. Marketing activities include demand generation, advertising, managing the corporate website and partner portal, trade shows and user conferences, industry and channel events, product education and leadership content, press and analyst relations and customer awareness. In addition, we sponsor the publication of major market research and provide industry analysis. These activities and tools are available to our channel partners.

We also host our annual Mobile First user conference, and webinars where customers and partners both participate in and present a variety of programs designed to help accelerate the adoption and advanced use of our services and platform. We are investing in marketing, sales, and channel automation tools to achieve efficiencies in our marketing efforts.

Research and Development

We have invested significant time and financial resources in the development of our platform and believe that continued research and development is critical to our ongoing success. Research and development investments drive innovation, enterprise class mobile IT platform features and keep pace with the rapidly evolving mobile operating system and device ecosystem.

We believe that innovation and timely development of new features and products are essential to meeting the needs of our customers and channel partners and improving our competitive position. The distributed nature of our platform enables enterprise-class scalability and high performance to allow customers to integrate it seamlessly regardless of the complexity of their existing infrastructure.

Research and development expense totaled $61.9 million, $46.3 million and $36.4 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. We plan to continue to significantly invest in resources to conduct our research and development efforts. 

Competition

We operate in a highly competitive industry that is characterized by constant change and innovation. Changes in the devices, operating systems, applications and technology landscape result in evolving customer requirements.

Our competitors fall into three primary categories:

·

diversified technology companies such as Microsoft and IBM;

·

providers of EMM solutions such as BlackBerry, Citrix and VMware; and

·

small and large companies that offer point solutions that compete with some of the features present in our mobile IT platform.

The principal competitive factors in our market include:

·

product features, reliability, performance and effectiveness;

·

price and total cost of ownership;

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·

depth of customer relationships;

·

product extensibility and ability to integrate with other technology infrastructures;

·

customer choice of flexibility between cloud service or on premise deployment;

·

mobile IT expertise and focus;  

·

channel depth and breadth;

·

strength of sales and marketing efforts;

·

brand awareness and reputation; and

·

focus on customer service and success.

We believe we generally compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of these factors as a result of our commitment to the native OS experience, our OS neutrality, our focus on EMM, our ecosystem of partners, the architecture, features, and performance of our platform, the ease of integration of our platform with other technology infrastructures, our mobile IT expertise and our commitment to customer success. Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and other resources, greater name recognition, larger sales and marketing budgets, broader distribution and more entrenched relationships with enterprise customers and prospects. For more information about the competitive risks we face, refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Intellectual Property

We protect our core technology and intellectual property by relying on federal, state, common law and international intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets, copyrights and trademarks. We also rely on confidentiality and contractual restrictions, including confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and contractors and confidentiality agreements with third parties.

We pursue registration of our patents, trademarks and domain names in the United States and certain locations outside the United States. We actively seek patent protection covering inventions originating from the Company and acquire patents we believe may be useful or relevant to our business. As of December 31, 2015, we owned 26 patents worldwide covering various innovations of our modern EMM technology. 

Circumstances outside our control could pose a threat to our intellectual property rights. For example, effective intellectual property protection may not be available outside the United States. Also, the efforts we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be sufficient or effective.

Companies in the mobile and other technology industries or non-practicing entities may own large numbers of patents, copyrights and trademarks and may frequently request license agreements, threaten litigation or file suit against us based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. We have faced, and expect to face in the future, suits or allegations that we have infringed the trademarks, copyrights, patents and other intellectual property rights of third parties, including those of our competitors and non-practicing entities. As we face increasing competition and as our business grows, we will likely face more claims of infringement. 

Employees

As of December 31, 2015, we had 843 full-time employees, 326 of whom were primarily engaged in research and development, 288 of whom were primarily engaged in sales and marketing, 137 of whom were primarily engaged in customer success and 92 of whom were primarily engaged in administration and finance. 304 of these employees were located outside of the United States. In addition, as of December 31, 2015, we had 46 contractors. None of our United States employees are represented by a labor organization or are party to any collective bargaining arrangement. 

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Employees in certain European countries have the benefits of collective bargaining arrangements at the national level. We have never had a work stoppage, and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

Segment and Geographic information

We conduct business globally. Our chief operating decision maker (Chief Executive Officer) reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis accompanied by information about revenue by geographic region for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. We have one business activity, and there are no segment managers who are held accountable for operations, operating results or plans for levels, components or types of products or services below the consolidated company level. Accordingly, we are considered to be a single reportable segment and operating unit structure.

Revenue by geographic region based on the billing address was as follows: 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

(in thousands)

   

2015

   

2014

   

2013

 

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States

 

$

74,235

 

$

72,124

 

$

58,656

 

International

 

 

75,063

 

 

60,171

 

 

46,918

 

Total

 

$

149,298

 

$

132,295

 

$

105,574

 

 

We have no significant amount of long-lived assets in countries outside the United States.

Facilities

Our principal executive offices are located in Mountain View, California and include five buildings totaling approximately 123,000 square feet under leases expiring from March 2016 to April 2023. We have additional office locations throughout the United States and in various international locations, including offices in the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Germany, Japan and India.  

We intend to add new facilities and expand our existing facilities as we add employees and grow our business, and we believe that suitable additional or substitute space will be available on commercially reasonable terms to meet our future needs.

Legal Proceedings 

On November 14, 2012, Good Technology filed a lawsuit against us in federal court in the Northern District of California alleging false and misleading representations concerning their products and infringement of four patents held by them. In the complaint, Good Technology sought unspecified damages, attorney’s fees and a permanent injunction.  On March 1, 2013, we counterclaimed against Good Technology for patent infringement of one of our patents, seeking similar relief. On October 13, 2014, the court issued a claims construction order. Good Technology responded by filing additional patent infringement suits against us in Delaware, the UK and Germany, as well as inter partes review proceedings. In each of these proceedings, Good Technology sought to invalidate our patents and/or receive injunctive relief, as well as attorney’s fees. We counterclaimed against Good Technology in the Delaware case on two of our next generation patents and sought relief similar to what Good Technology was seeking in that case. The Delaware case was transferred to the Northern District of California on March 27, 2015. On June 30, 2015, the court in the original Northern District of California case issued a summary judgment order invalidating the asserted claims of one of Good Technology’s patents and holding that we did not infringe that patent as a matter of law. On August 4, 2015, a jury in the original Northern District of California case found that two of the three remaining Good Technology patents that were asserted in the case were invalid and that we did not infringe any of the three patents. The jury also found that while Good Technology did not infringe our asserted patent, our patent was not invalid. As a result, neither we nor Good Technology was awarded damages in the case.

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On November 2, 2015, Blackberry announced that it had acquired Good Technology. On December 1, 2015, we and Good Technology announced a settlement of the global litigation between us, which included a narrow, non-material license agreement between us and Good Technology and a mutual dismissal of claims.

On May 1, 2015, a purported stockholder class action lawsuit was filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California against the Company and certain of its officers, captioned Panjwani v. MobileIron, Inc., et al. The action is purportedly brought on behalf of a putative class of all persons who purchased or otherwise acquired the Company’s securities between February 13, 2015 and April 22, 2015. It asserts claims for violation of Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.The complaint seeks, among other things, compensatory damages and attorney’s fees and costs on behalf of the putative class. An amended complaint was filed on September 28, 2015. MobileIron filed a motion to dismiss the amended complaint on November 13, 2015, which was granted on February 22, 2016, with leave to amend.

On August 5, 2015, August 21, 2015 and August 24, 2015, purported stockholder class action lawsuits were filed in the Superior Court of California, Santa Clara County against the Company, certain of its officers, directors, underwriters and investors, captioned Schneider v. MobileIron, Inc., et al., Kerley v. MobileIron, Inc., et al. and Steinberg v. MobileIron, Inc., et al. The actions are purportedly brought on behalf of a putative class of all persons who purchased the Company’s securities issued pursuant or traceable to the Company’s registration statement and the June 12, 2014 initial public offering. The lawsuits assert claims for violations of Sections 11, 12(a)(2) and 15 of the Securities Act of 1933. The complaints seek among other things, compensatory damages and attorney’s fees and costs on behalf of the putative class. On January 4, 2016, the three class action lawsuits were consolidated under the caption, In re MobileIron, Inc. Shareholder Litigation. The Company intends to defend these lawsuits vigorously.

We continually evaluate uncertainties associated with litigation and record a charge equal to at least the minimum estimated liability for a loss contingency when both of the following conditions are met: (i) information available prior to issuance of the financial statements indicates that it is probable that a liability has been incurred at the date of the financial statements and (ii) the loss or range of loss can be reasonably estimated. If we determine that a loss is possible and a range of the loss can be reasonably estimated, we disclose the range of the possible loss in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. We evaluate, on a quarterly basis, developments in our legal matters that could affect the amount of liability that has been previously accrued, if any, and the matters and related ranges of possible losses disclosed, and make adjustments and changes to our disclosures as appropriate. Significant judgment is required to determine both likelihood of there being and the estimated amount of a loss related to such matters. Until the final resolution of such matters, there may be an exposure to loss, and such amounts could be material. An estimate of a reasonably possible loss (or a range of loss) cannot be made in our lawsuits at this time.

Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 415 East Middlefield Road, Mountain View, CA 94043, and our telephone number is (650) 919-8100. Our website is www.mobileiron.com. The information posted on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge on our investor relations website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

You may also access all of our public filings through the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. Further, a copy of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is located at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties including those described below. If any of the following risks or others not specified below materialize, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to evaluate our prospects and future financial results and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.

As a result of our limited operating history, our ability to forecast our future operating results is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. We have encountered and expect to continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by companies in rapidly changing markets. If our assumptions regarding these uncertainties are incorrect or change in reaction to changes in our markets, or if we do not manage or address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations, and our business could suffer. Any success that we may experience in the future will depend, in large part, on our ability to, among other things:

             

retain and expand our customer base on a cost-effective basis;

 

increase revenues from existing customers as they add users or devices;

 

increase revenues from existing customers as they purchase additional solutions;

 

successfully compete in our markets;

 

continue to add features and functionality to our solutions to meet customer demand;

 

gain market traction with our MobileIron cloud platform and our mobile apps and content management solutions;

 

continue to invest in research and development;

 

scale our engineering and internal business operations in an efficient and cost-effective manner;

 

scale our global Customer Success organization to make our customers successful in their mobile IT deployments;

 

continue to expand our solutions across mobile operating systems and device platforms;

 

hire, integrate and retain professional and technical talent.

 

make our service provider partners successful in their deployments of our solutions and technology;

 

successfully expand our business domestically and internationally; and

 

successfully protect our intellectual property and defend against intellectual property infringement claims.

 

We have had net losses each year since our inception and may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

We have incurred net losses each year since our inception, including net losses of $84.5 million, $61.9 million and $32.5 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. As of December 31, 2015, our accumulated deficit was $275.2 million. Our revenue growth has slowed over recent periods, and we may not be able to sustain or increase our growth or achieve or sustain profitability in the future. Revenue growth has slowed, and may additionally slow or revenue may decline, for a number of reasons, including, but not limited to our customers’ and/or prospective customers’ failure to

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widely deploy mobile apps within their businesses, increasing and entrenched competition, changes in pricing model, a decrease in size or growth of the mobile IT market, or any failure to capitalize on market opportunities. In addition over the past year, we have significantly increased our expenditures to support the development and expansion of our business, which has resulted in increased losses. We plan to continue to invest for future growth, in part by making additional investments in research and development, and as a result, we do not expect to be profitable for the foreseeable future. In addition, we will need to increase operating efficiency, which may be challenging given our operational complexity, the expenses outlined above, and expenses associated with being a public company. As a result of these increased expenditures, we will have to generate and sustain increased revenues to achieve future profitability. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including without limitation the other risks and uncertainties described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. If these losses exceed our expectations or our revenue growth expectations are not met in future periods, our financial performance will be harmed.

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or our guidance.

Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and may fluctuate significantly in the future. The timing and size of sales of our solutions makes our revenues highly variable and difficult to predict and can result in significant fluctuations in our revenue from period to period. Historically, a substantial portion of our revenue has been generated from sales of software solutions sold as perpetual licenses to large enterprise companies, which tend to close near the end of a given quarter. Further, other customers’ buying patterns and sales cycles can vary significantly from quarter to quarter and are not subject to an established pattern over the course of a quarter. Accordingly, at the beginning of a quarter, we have limited visibility into the level of sales that will be made in that quarter. If expected revenue at the end of any quarter is reduced or delayed for any reason, we may not be able to reduce our costs sufficiently to compensate for an unexpected shortfall in revenue, and even a small shortfall in revenue could disproportionately and adversely affect our operating margin, operating results or other key metrics for a given quarter.

Our operating results may fluctuate due to a variety of other factors, many of which are outside of our control, and any of which may cause our stock price to fluctuate. In addition to other risks listed in this “Risk Factors” section, factors that may affect our operating results include, but are not limited to:

             

the inherent complexity, length and associated unpredictability of our sales cycles for our solutions;

 

 

 

 

the extent to which our customers and prospective customers delay or defer purchase decisions in a quarter, particularly in the last few weeks of the quarter, which is when we typically complete a large portion of our sales for a quarter;

 

 

 

 

our ability to develop and release in a timely manner new solutions, features and functionality that meet customer requirements;

 

 

 

 

changes in pricing due to competitive pricing pressure or other factors;

 

 

 

 

reductions and reprioritizations in customers’ IT budgets and delays in the purchasing cycles of our customers and prospective customers;

 

 

 

 

variation in sales channels or in mix of solutions sold, including the mix of solutions sold on a perpetual license versus a subscription or monthly recurring contract, or MRC, basis;

 

 

 

 

the timing of recognizing revenue in any given quarter as a result of revenue recognition accounting rules, including the extent to which revenue from sales transactions in a given period may not be recognized until a future period or, conversely, the satisfaction of revenue recognition rules in a given period resulting in the recognition of revenue from transactions initiated in prior periods;

 

 

 

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changes in our mix of revenue as a result of our different deployment options and licensing models and the ensuing revenue recognition effects;

 

 

 

 

the effect of litigation;

 

 

 

 

changes in foreign currency exchange rates; and

 

 

 

 

general economic conditions in our domestic and international markets.

 

The cumulative effects of these factors could result in large fluctuations and unpredictability in our quarterly operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. You should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance.

If our customers do not place significant follow-on orders to deploy our solutions widely throughout their companies, or if they do not renew with us or if they do not purchase additional solutions, our future revenue and operating results will be harmed.

In order to increase our revenues we must continually grow our customer base and increase the depth and breadth of the deployments of our solutions with our existing customers. While customers may initially purchase a relatively modest number of licenses, it is important to our revenue growth that they later expand the use of our software on substantially more devices or for more users throughout their business. However, we have experienced a slowdown in perpetual license orders in the last year. We also need to upsell—to sell additional solutions—to the same customers. Our strategy also depends on our existing customers renewing their software support or subscription agreements with us. Because of the number of participants, consolidation in the mobile IT market and competing priorities within  customers’ IT budgets, customers may delay making initial purchase orders or expanding orders as they take into account the evolving mobile IT landscape. Also, if we do not develop new solutions, features and functionality that meet our customers’ needs, they may not place upsell orders or expand orders. The rate at which our customers purchase additional solutions depends on a number of factors, including the relative prioritization of the IT budget allocated to mobile projects versus other IT projects, perceived need for additional solutions, features or functionality, the reliability of our solutions and other competitive factors, such as pricing and competitors’ offerings. If our efforts to sell additional licenses to our customers and to upsell additional solutions to our customers are not successful, our business may suffer.

Further, existing customers that purchase our solutions have no contractual obligation to purchase additional solutions after the initial subscription or contract period, and given our limited operating history, we are unable to accurately predict our customer expansion or renewal rates. Our customers’ expansion and renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including the level of their satisfaction with our solutions or our customer support, customer budgets and the pricing and breadth of our solutions compared with the solutions offered by our competitors, any of which may cause our revenue to grow more slowly than expected, if at all.

For smaller or simpler deployments, the switching costs and time are relatively minor compared to traditional enterprise software deployments and a customer may decide not to renew with us and switch to a competitor’s offerings. Accordingly, we must invest significant time and resources in providing ongoing value to our customers. If these efforts fail, or if our customers do not renew for other reasons, or if they renew on terms less favorable to us, our revenue may decline and our business will suffer.

We compete in rapidly evolving markets and must develop new solutions and enhancements to our existing solutions. If we fail to predict and respond rapidly to emerging technological trends and our customers’ changing needs, we may not be able to remain competitive. In addition, we may not generate positive returns on our research and development investments, which may harm our operating results.

Our markets are characterized by rapidly changing technology, changing customer needs, evolving operating system standards and frequent introductions of new offerings. To succeed, we must effectively anticipate, and adapt in a timely manner to, customer and multiple operating system requirements and continue to develop or acquire new solutions and features that meet market demands and technology trends. Likewise, if our competitors introduce new offerings that compete with ours or incorporate features that are not available in our solutions, we may be required to

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reposition our solutions or introduce new solutions in response to such competitive pressure. We may not have access to or have adequate notice of new operating system developments, and we may experience unanticipated delays in developing new solutions and cloud services or fail to meet customer expectations for such solutions. If we fail to timely develop and introduce new solutions or enhancements that respond adequately to new challenges in the mobile IT market, our business could be adversely affected, especially if our competitors are able to more timely introduce solutions with such increased functionality.

We have invested significant time and financial resources in the development of our platforms and infrastructure and believe that we must continue to dedicate substantial resources to our research and development efforts to maintain our competitive position.  Developing our products is expensive, and the investment in product development may not generate additional revenue in the near-term or at all. The research and development of new technologically advanced products is also a complex and uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation and investment, as well as the accurate forecasts of technology, market trends and consumer needs. Our failure to successfully develop new and improved products, services and technologies, may reduce our future growth and profitability and may adversely affect our business, results and financial condition.

We have a primary back-end technology platform that can be used as a cloud service or deployed on premise and a second back-end platform that is purpose-built as a cloud-only large scale, multi-tenant platform. We must continually invest in both platforms, and the existence of two back-end technology platforms makes engineering more complex and expensive and may introduce compatibility challenges. We have made significant investments in the cloud-only platform and have not yet gained substantial market traction with the cloud-only platform. Should our MobileIron cloud-only platform fail to achieve substantial market traction, we would lose the value of our investment and our business and operating results may be harmed.

Further, we may be required to commit significant resources to developing new solutions before knowing whether our investments will result in solutions that the market will accept. We are in the process of phasing out our older cloud-based product in favor of MobileIron Cloud, our newer and more scalable cloud-only platform. The failure to successfully market MobileIron Cloud as a replacement and improvement to our older cloud-based product or the failure of our customers and prospective customers to adopt MobileIron Cloud for any reason could result in a decline in our revenue.

These risks are greater in the mobile IT market because our software is deployed on phones and tablets that run on different operating systems such as iOS, Android and Windows, and these multiple operating systems change frequently in response to consumer demand. As a result, we may need to release new software updates at a much greater pace than a traditional enterprise software company that supports only PCs. We may experience technical design, engineering, marketing and other difficulties that could delay or prevent the development, introduction or marketing of new solutions and enhancements on both of our technology platforms. As a result, we may not be successful in modifying our current solutions or introducing new ones in a timely or appropriately responsive manner, or at all. If we fail to address these changes successfully, our business and operating results could be materially harmed.

Finally, all of our additional solutions require customers to use our MobileIron platform, whether deployed on-premise or through our cloud service. As such, virtually all of our revenue depends on the continued adoption and use of our MobileIron platform. If customers and prospective customers decided to stop using or purchasing the MobileIron platform, our product strategy would fail and our business would be harmed.

An increasing portion of our sales has been generated from subscription, including MRC, licenses, which involves certain risks.

An increasing portion of our sales has been generated from subscription, including MRC, licenses. This mix shift towards MRC and other subscription licensing, presents a number of risks to us. For example, arrangements entered into on a subscription basis generally delay the timing of revenue recognition and often require the incurrence of up-front costs, which can be significant. Subscription revenues are recognized over the subscription period, which is typically 12 months. MRC revenue is recognized monthly on the basis of active users or devices and thus will fluctuate from month to month. We receive no revenue or billings on MRC at the time the deal is booked. As a result, even if customer demand increases, our revenues will not increase at the same rate as in prior periods, or may decline.

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Customers in a subscription arrangement may elect not to renew their contractual arrangement with us upon expiration, or they may attempt to renegotiate pricing or other contractual terms on terms that are less favorable to us. We recognize a substantial portion of our subscription revenues over the term of the subscription agreement; however, we incur upfront costs, such as sales commissions, related to acquiring such customers. Therefore, as we add customers in a particular year, our immediate costs to acquire customers may increase significantly relative to revenues recognized in that same year, which could result in increased losses or decreased profits in that period. Service providers that operate on an MRC billing model typically report to us in arrears on a monthly basis the number of actual users or devices deployed, and then we generate invoices based on those reports. Therefore, invoicing and collection logistics often result in a longer collection cycle, which negatively affects our cash flow. In addition, under an MRC billing model, the service provider typically has the contractual and business relationship with the customer, and thus we typically depend more heavily on the service provider partner for both customer acquisition and support under this billing model. To the extent that service providers bundle our solution with their offerings and price aggressively, it could increase this shift to MRC billings.

We are in a highly competitive market, and competitive pressures from existing and new companies may harm our business, revenues, growth rates and market share. In addition, there has been consolidation in our market, and a number of our current or potential competitors have longer operating histories, greater brand recognition, larger customer bases and significantly greater resources than we do.

Our market is intensely competitive, and we expect competition to increase in the future from established competitors, consolidations and new market entrants. Our major competitors include Blackberry, Citrix, IBM, Microsoft and VMware. A number of our historical competitors have been purchased by large corporations. For example, AirWatch was acquired by VMware and Good Technology was acquired by Blackberry. These large corporations have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, larger and better established customer bases, more channel partners, and significantly greater financial, technical, sales, marketing and other resources than we have. Consolidation is expected to continue in our industry. As a result of consolidation, our competitors may be able to adapt more quickly to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements, devote greater resources to the promotion and sale of their solutions and services, initiate or withstand substantial price competition, take advantage of acquisitions or other opportunities more readily, and develop and expand their solution and service offerings and features more quickly than we can. In addition, certain of our competitors may be able to leverage their relationships with customers based on an installed base of solutions or to incorporate functionality into existing solutions to gain business in a manner that discourages customers from including us in competitive bidding processes, evaluating and/or purchasing our solutions, including through selling at zero or negative margins, through solution bundling or through enterprise license deals. Some potential customers, especially Forbes Global 2000 Leading Companies, have already made investments in, or may make investments in, substantial personnel and financial resources and established deep relationships with these much larger enterprise IT vendors, which may make them reluctant to evaluate our solutions or work with us regardless of solution performance or features. Potential customers may prefer to purchase a broad suite of solutions from a single provider, or may prefer to purchase mobile IT solutions from an existing supplier rather than a new supplier, regardless of performance or features.

We expect competition to intensify in the future as new and existing competitors introduce new solutions into our market. In addition, some of our competitors have entered into partnerships or other strategic relationships to offer a more comprehensive solution than they individually had offered. We expect this trend to continue as companies attempt to strengthen or maintain their market positions in an evolving industry. This competition has resulted in the past and could in the future result in increased pricing pressure, reduced operating margins, increased sales and marketing expenses, and failure to increase, or the loss of, market share, any of which could harm our business, operating results or financial condition. Competitors’ offerings may in the future have better performance, better features, lower prices and broader acceptance than our solutions, or embody new technologies, which could render our existing solutions obsolete or less attractive to customers, or be bundled with legacy enterprise security and management products as a “one-stop-shop” offering, which certain customers with large installed bases of those legacy products may prefer. If we fail to keep up with technological changes or to convince our customers and potential customers of the value of our solutions, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

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Changes in features and functionality by operating system providers and mobile device manufacturers could cause us to make short-term changes in engineering focus or product development or otherwise impair our product development efforts or strategy, increase our costs, and harm our business.

Our platform depends on interoperability with operating systems, such as those provided by Apple, Google and Microsoft, as well as device manufacturers. Because mobile operating systems are released more frequently than legacy PC operating systems, and we typically have limited advance notice of changes in features and functionality of operating systems and mobile devices, we may be forced to divert resources from our preexisting product roadmap in order to accommodate these changes. As a result of this limited advance notice, we also have a short time to implement and test changes to our product to accommodate these new features, which increases the risk of product defects. In addition, if we fail to enable IT departments to support operating system upgrades upon release, our business and reputation could suffer. This could disrupt our product roadmap and cause us to delay introduction of planned solutions, features and functionality, which could harm our business.

Operating system providers have included, and may continue to include, features and functionality in their operating systems that are comparable to certain of our solutions, features and/or functionality, thereby making our platform less valuable. The inclusion of, or the announcement of an intent to include, functionality perceived to be similar to that offered by our mobile IT solutions in mobile operating systems may have an adverse effect on our ability to market and sell our solutions. Even if the functionality offered by mobile operating system providers is more limited than our solutions, a significant number of potential customers may elect to accept such limited functionality in lieu of purchasing our solutions. Furthermore, some of the features and functionality in our solutions require interoperability with operating system APIs, and if operating system providers decide to restrict our access to their APIs, that functionality would be lost and our business could be impaired. Finally, we have entered into contractual arrangements with operating systems providers and/or mobile device manufactures, under which we are obligated to certain development priorities, which can further limit our engineering flexibility.

A failure of our product strategy with regard to mobile application and content management could harm our business.

Our product and business strategy is highly dependent on our existing and potential customers’ continued adoption of our solutions, features and functionality for both mobile application and mobile content management. Slow adoption of customer-built mobile business applications for iOS, Android and Windows would slow the need for and adoption of our platform for mobile application management and security because if customers are not deploying business apps other than email they may be content to continue using more basic MDM offerings and not see the value in our more advanced mobile application management and data security capabilities. Customers’ preference for mobile applications could also shift to browser-based applications that can run on any mobile device through a web browser, which would reduce the value of our mobile application containerization solution. In addition, operating system providers could act in ways that could harm our mobile content and apps product strategy. For example, Microsoft released Office 365 and is bundling certain mobile device management capabilities with Office 365 in an attempt to dissuade customers from using EMM solutions other than Microsoft. If this strategy succeeds, the value of our own mobile content management solution and the value of our ecosystem of collaboration and storage partners may diminish. If our product strategy around mobile apps and content management fails or is not as successful as we hope for these or other reasons, the value of our investment would be lost and our results of operations would be harmed.

We have experienced turnover, and the loss of key personnel or an inability to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel may impair our ability to expand our business.

Our success is substantially dependent upon the continued service and performance of our senior management team and key technical, marketing, sales and operations personnel, including our senior management. In 2015, we experienced turnover in our executive team, and we hired a new CFO, and in early 2016, we hired a new CEO, a new SVP of Engineering and are currently seeking to hire a new SVP of Sales. The replacement of any members of our senior management team or other key personnel likely would involve significant time and costs and may harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

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Our future success also depends, in part, on our ability to continue to attract, integrate and retain highly skilled personnel, in particular engineers and sales people. Competition for highly skilled personnel is frequently intense, especially in the San Francisco Bay Area, where we have a substantial presence and need for highly skilled personnel, including, in particular, engineers. We must offer competitive compensation and opportunities for professional growth in order to attract and retain these highly skilled employees. Failure to successfully attract, integrate or retain qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs may negatively impact our growth.

If we are not able to scale our business and manage our expenses, our operating results may suffer.

We have significantly expanded our operations during the past few years. In particular, we have invested in additional engineering and customer success resources to support and expand both our MobileIron cloud services and on-premise software infrastructure and our associated customer success infrastructure. While we have added personnel to our engineering and customer success teams, our need to scale our business has placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on our administrative and operational business processes, infrastructure, facilities and other resources. Our ability to manage our operations will require significant expenditures and allocation of valuable management resources to improve internal business processes and systems, including investments in automation. Further international expansion may also be required for our continued business growth, and managing any international expansion will require additional resources and controls. If our operations infrastructure and business processes fail to keep pace with our business and customer requirements, customers may experience disruptions in service or support or we may not scale the business efficiently, which could adversely affect our reputation and adversely affect our revenues. There is no guarantee that we will be able to continue to develop and expand our infrastructure and business processes at the pace necessary to scale the business, and our failure to do so may have an adverse effect on our business. If we fail to efficiently expand our engineering, operations, cloud infrastructure, IT and financial organizations and systems, or if we fail to implement or maintain effective internal business processes, controls and procedures, our costs and expenses may increase more than we planned or we may fail to execute on our product roadmap or our business plan, any of which would likely seriously harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

A security breach of our cloud service infrastructure or a disruption of our cloud service availability for any reason could result in liabilities, lost business and reputational harm.

In connection with providing our cloud service to customers, we obtain access to certain sensitive data, such as employees’ names, registration credentials, mobile device ID, geolocation of last device check-in, business email addresses, mobile phone number, business contact information and the list of applications installed on the mobile devices. Any security breach of the systems used to provide the cloud service, whether through third-party action or employee error or malfeasance, could result in damage, loss, misuse or theft of such data. A breach could also give rise to litigation or require us to incur financial and operational expenses in connection with fulfillment of our indemnity obligations to our cloud service customers and setting or defending claims made against us.  Techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access information processing systems change frequently. In addition, they, generally, are not recognized until launched against a target. As a result, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures or mitigation measures in a timely manner. Because our software is designed to enable IT administrators to secure and manage sensitive data transmitted to or stored on employees’ mobile devices, the publicity associated with an actual or perceived breach of our cloud service infrastructure would likely result in r particular reputational damage, as well as loss of potential sales and existing customers. In addition, unexpected increases in demand at one customer may affect the overall service in unanticipated ways and may cause a disruption in service for other customers of this platform. We have experienced, and may in the future experience, disruptions, outages and other performance problems with our cloud service. These problems may be caused by a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, malicious code, denial or service or other security attacks, fraud, spikes in customer usage and interruption or loss of critical third party hosting, power or Internet connectivity services. If we sustain frequent or prolonged disruptions of our cloud services for any reason, our reputation, business and results of operations would be seriously harmed.

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Defects in our solutions could harm our business, including as a result of customer dissatisfaction, data breaches or other disruption, and subject us to substantial liability.

Because the mobile IT market involves multiple operating platforms, we provide frequent incremental releases of solution updates and functional enhancements. Such new versions frequently contain undetected errors when first introduced or released. We have often found defects in new releases of our solutions, and new errors in our existing solutions may be detected in the future. Defects in our solutions may also result in vulnerability to security attacks, which could result in claims by customers and users for losses that they sustain.

Because our customers use our solutions for important aspects of their business, any errors, defects, disruptions in service or other performance problems with our solutions could hurt our reputation and may damage our customers’ businesses. In certain instances, our customers have stopped using, or failed to expand use of, our solutions as a result of defects, and this may happen in the future.  In addition, customers may delay or withhold payment to us, elect not to renew and make warranty claims or other claims against us. In addition, we rely on positive customer experience in order to sell additional products to other customers or sell to new customers. Defects or disruptions in our solution could result in reputational harm and loss of future sales. In addition, regardless of the party at fault, errors of these kinds divert the attention of our engineering personnel from our development efforts, damage our reputation and the reputation of our solutions, cause significant customer relations problems and can result in product liability claims.

Security breaches and other disruptions of our information systems could significantly impair our operations, compromise our ability to conduct our business and deliver our products and services, and result in significant data losses, theft of our intellectual property, significant liability, damage to our reputation and loss of current and future business.

We rely on our IT systems for almost all of our business operations, including internal operations, product development, sales and marketing, and communications with customers and other business partners. The secure processing, maintenance and transmission of both our own sensitive information and our customers’ data is critical to our operations and business strategy. Despite our security measures, our information technology systems and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any cyber security attack could result in the damage, loss, theft or misappropriation of our proprietary information or our customers’ data and/or cause interruptions of our internal business operations or the delivery of our solutions to customers. Because the techniques used by unauthorized persons to access or sabotage networks change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or readily detect or take remedial action against an attack. Further, if unauthorized access or sabotage remains undetected for an extended period of time, the effects of such breach could be exacerbated. We also depend on our employees to handle confidential data appropriately and deploy our information resources in a secure fashion that does not expose our network systems to security breaches and the loss of data. Any breach as a result of cyber criminals, or employee malfeasance or error could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our losses from any future breaches of our systems. We have also outsourced a number of our business functions to third parties, and thus our business operations also depend, in part, on their cybersecurity measures. Any unauthorized access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, regulatory penalties, and could disrupt our operations and the solutions we provide to customers, and damage our reputation, which could adversely affect our business.

Disruptions of the third-party data centers that host our cloud service could result in delays or outages of our cloud service and harm our business.

We currently host our cloud service from third-party data center facilities operated by several different providers located around the world, such as Equinix and Amazon Web Services. Any damage to, or failure of, our cloud service that is hosted by these third parties, whether as a result of our actions, actions by the third-party data centers, actions by other third parties, or acts of God, could result in interruptions in our cloud service and/or the loss of data. While the third-party hosting centers host the server infrastructure, we manage the cloud services through our site reliability engineering team and need to support version control, changes in cloud software parameters and the evolution of our solutions, all in a multi-OS environment. As we continue to add data centers and capacity in our existing data centers, we

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may move or transfer our data and our customers’ data. Despite precautions taken during this process, any unsuccessful data transfers may impair the delivery of our service. In some cases, we have entered into contractual service level commitments to maintain uptime of at least 99.9% for our cloud services platform and if we or our third-party data center facilities fail to meet these service level commitments, we may have to issue service credits to these customers. Impairment of, or interruptions in, our cloud services may reduce our subscription revenues, subject us to claims and litigation, cause our customers to terminate their subscriptions and adversely affect our subscription renewal rates and our ability to attract new customers. Our business will also be harmed if our customers and potential customers believe our services are unreliable.

We do not control, or in some cases have limited control over, the operation of the data center facilities we use, and they are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures and similar events. They may also be subject to break-ins, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism and similar misconduct, and to adverse events caused by operator error. We cannot rapidly switch to new data centers or move customers from one data center to another in the event of any adverse event. Despite precautions taken at these facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster, an act of terrorism or other act of malfeasance, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our service and the loss of customer data and business.

The prices of our solutions may decrease or we may change our licensing or subscription renewal programs or bundling arrangements, which may reduce our revenue and adversely impact our financial results.

The prices for our solutions may decline for a variety of reasons, including competitive pricing pressures, discounts, a change in our mix of solutions toward subscription, enterprise-wide licensing arrangements, bundling of solutions, features and functionality by us or our competitors, potential changes in our pricing, anticipation of the introduction of new solutions, or promotional programs for customers or channel partners. Competition and consolidation continue to increase in the markets in which we participate, and we expect competition to further increase in the future, leading to increased pricing pressures. Larger competitors with more diverse product lines may reduce the price of solutions or services that compete with ours or may bundle their solutions with other solutions and services. Furthermore, we anticipate that the sales prices and gross profits for our solutions will decrease over product life cycles. If we are unable to increase sales to offset any decline in our prices, our business and results of operations would be harmed.

We continually re-evaluate our licensing programs and subscription renewal programs, including specific license models and terms and conditions. We have in the past implemented, and could in the future implement, new licensing programs and subscription renewal programs or bundling arrangements, including promotional programs or specified enhancements to our current and future solutions. Such changes could result in deferring revenue recognition regardless of the date of the initial shipment or licensing of our solutions. Changes to our licensing programs and subscription renewal programs, including the timing of the release of enhancements, upgrades, maintenance releases, the term of the contract, discounts, promotions and other factors, could impact the timing of the recognition of revenue for our solutions, related enhancements and services and could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Our ability to sell our solutions is highly dependent on the quality of our support, which is made complex by the requirements of mobile IT. Our failure to deliver high quality support would have a material adverse effect on our sales and results of operations.

Once our solutions are deployed, our customers depend on our support organization or that of our channel partners to resolve any issues relating to our solutions. Our failure to provide effective support has in the past, and would in the future, adversely affect our ability to sell our solutions or increase the number of licenses sold to existing customers. Our customer support is especially critical because the mobile IT market requires relatively frequent software releases. Mobile IT requires a complex set of features, functionality and controls, which makes support critical and difficult. In addition, we target companies on the Forbes Global 2000 Leading Companies list, many of whom have complex networks and require higher levels of support than smaller customers. As customers deploy more licenses and purchase a broader array of our solutions, the complexity and difficulty of our support obligations increase. If we fail to meet the requirements of the larger customers, it may be more difficult to increase our deployments either within our existing Forbes Global 2000 Leading Companies list or other customers or with new Forbes Global 2000 Leading

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Companies list customers. We face additional challenges in supporting our non-U.S. customers, including the need to rely on channel partners to provide support.

We rely substantially on channel partners for the sale and distribution of our solutions and, in some instances, for the support of our solutions. A loss of certain channel partners, a decrease in revenues from certain of these channel partners or any failure in our channel strategy could adversely affect our business 

A substantial portion of our sales are through channel partners – either telecommunications carriers, which we call service providers, or other resellers -- and thus we depend on our channel partners and on our channel partner strategy for the vast majority of our revenue. Our international resellers often enter into agreements directly with our mutual customers to host the software and provide other value-added services, such as IT administration.

Our service provider partners often provide support to our customers and enter into similar agreements directly with our mutual customers to host the software and/or provide other value-added services. Our agreements and operating relationships with our service provider partners are complex and require a significant commitment of internal time and resources. In addition, our service provider partners are large corporations with multiple strategic businesses and relationships, and thus our business may not be significant to them in the overall context of their much larger enterprise. Even if the service provider partner considers us to be an important strategic relationship, internal processes at these large partners are sometimes difficult and time-consuming to navigate. Thus, any loss of a major channel partner or failure of our channel strategy could adversely affect our business. AT&T, as a reseller, is our largest service provider partner and was responsible for 16% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2015.

Our agreements with AT&T and our other channel partners are non-exclusive and most of our channel partners have entered, and may continue to enter, into strategic relationships with our competitors. Our channel partners may terminate their respective relationships with us with limited or no notice and with limited or no penalty, pursue other partnerships or relationships, or attempt to develop or acquire solutions or services that compete with our solutions. If our channel partners do not effectively market and sell our solutions, if they choose to place greater emphasis on solutions of their own or those offered by our competitors, or if they fail to provide adequate support or otherwise meet the needs of our customers, our ability to grow our business and sell our solutions may be adversely affected. The loss of our channel partners, in particular AT&T, the failure to recruit additional channel partners, or any reduction or delay in sales of our solutions by our channel partners could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. 

We are in the process of changing our North American channel strategy such that most of our North American resellers will be required to purchase our solutions through a single distributor. This change in strategy carries risks, including an increased dependence on one distributor and the possible loss of our existing resellers. In addition, we have sold and may in the future sell directly to end-user customers, which may adversely affect our relationship with our channel partners.

Our sales cycles for large enterprises are often long, unpredictable and expensive. As a result, our sales and revenue are difficult to predict and may vary substantially from period to period, which may cause our operating results to fluctuate significantly.

Our sales efforts involve educating our customers about the use and benefits of our solutions, including the technical capabilities of our solutions and the business value of our solutions. Many of our large customers have very complex IT systems, mobile environments and data privacy and security requirements. Accordingly, many of these customers undertake a significant evaluation process, which frequently involves not only our solutions, but also those of our competitors, and has resulted in lengthy sales cycle. We spend substantial time, money and effort on our sales activities without any assurance that our efforts will produce any sales. In addition, purchases of our solutions are frequently subject to budget constraints, multiple approvals, lengthy contract negotiations and unplanned administrative, processing and other delays. Moreover, the evolving nature of the mobile IT market may lead prospective customers to postpone their purchasing decisions pending adoption of technology by others or pending potential consolidation in the market. As a result of our lengthy sales cycle, it is difficult to predict whether and when a sale will be completed, and our operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter. Even if sales are completed, the revenues we receive from these customers may not be sufficient to offset our upfront investments.

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We seek to sell our solutions to large enterprises. Sales to and support of these types of enterprises involve risks that could harm our business, financial position and results of operations.

Our growth strategy is dependent, in part, upon increasing sales of our solutions to large enterprises. Sales to large customers involve risks that may not be present (or that are present to a lesser extent) with sales to smaller entities. These risks include:

             

more complicated network requirements, which result in more difficult and time-consuming implementation processes;

 

 

 

 

more intense and time-consuming customer support practices;

 

 

 

 

increased purchasing power and leverage held by large customers in negotiating contractual arrangements with us;

 

 

 

 

more customer-favorable contractual terms, including penalties;

 

 

 

 

longer sales cycles and the associated risk that substantial time and resources may be spent on a potential customer that ultimately elects not to purchase our solution or purchases fewer licenses than we had anticipated;

 

 

 

 

closer relationships with, and dependence upon, large technology companies that offer competitive solutions;

 

 

 

 

an RFP process that may favor incumbent or larger technology companies;

 

 

 

 

increased reputational risk as a result of data breaches or other problems involving high profile customers; and

 

 

 

 

more pressure for discounts.

 

If we are unable to increase sales of our solutions to large enterprises while mitigating the risks associated with serving such customers, our business, financial position and results of operations may suffer.

Our failure to comply with privacy laws and standards could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Personal privacy has become a significant issue in the United States and in many other countries where we offer our solutions. Many federal, state and foreign government bodies and agencies have adopted or are considering adopting laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, disclosure and retention of personal information. In the United States, these include, for example, rules and regulations promulgated under the authority of the Federal Trade Commission, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and state breach notification laws.

Internationally, different jurisdictions have a variety of data security and privacy laws, with which we or our customers must comply, including the Data Protection Directive established in the European Union and the Federal Data Protection Act in Germany. The regulatory framework for privacy issues worldwide is currently evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. For example, in October 2015, the European Court of Justice declared invalid the European Commission’s decision creating the so-called Safe Harbor Framework, which we have relied on to transfer personal information from the European Union to the United States. The court’s decision, has created legal uncertainty about transfers of data and what steps the European Commission, EU member state authorities, and US authorities will take. The European Commission and the United States have agreed in principle to a new transatlantic data transfer framework to replace the Safe Harbor. The proposed framework must be reviewed and approved by European data protection authorities and other stakeholders before it is finalized.

If any of our European customers or prospective customers decide not to purchase our software as a result of this regulatory uncertainty, our revenues could decline and our business could suffer. In addition to laws and regulations,

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privacy advocacy and industry groups or other private parties may propose new and different privacy standards. Because the interpretation and application of privacy and data protection laws and privacy standards are still uncertain, it is possible that these laws or privacy standards may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or the features of our solutions. Any inability to adequately address privacy concerns, even if unfounded, or to comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws, regulations and privacy standards, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales of our solutions and harm our business.

Our failure to adequately protect personal information and to maintain the security of enterprise data could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Employee adoption of mobile initiatives depends on the credible and clear separation of enterprise applications and data and personal information on the device, as well as the privacy of such data. For our customers, it is also essential to maintain the security of enterprise data properly while retaining the native experience users expect. While we contractually obligate our customers to make the required disclosures and gain the required consents from their employees in order to comply with applicable law regarding the processing of personally identifiable information that the employer may access, we do not control whether they in fact do so, and in some jurisdictions such employee consent may not be enforceable. Any claim by an employee that his or her employer had not complied with applicable privacy laws in connection with the deployment and use of our software on the employee’s mobile device could harm our reputation and business and subject us to liability, whether or not warranted. If our solutions fail to adequately separate personal information and to maintain the security of enterprise applications and data, the market perception of the effectiveness of our solutions could be harmed, employee adoption of mobile initiatives could be slowed, we could lose potential sales and existing customers, and we could incur significant liabilities. Privacy concerns, whether valid or not, may inhibit market adoption of our solutions, particularly in certain industries and foreign countries. Furthermore, the attention garnered by the National Security Agency’s bulk intelligence collection programs may result in further concerns surrounding privacy and technology products.

We may acquire other businesses which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our operating results.

As part of our business strategy, we may make investments in complementary companies, solutions or technologies. We may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates, and we may not be able to complete such acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. If we do complete acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals. In addition, if we are unsuccessful at integrating such acquisitions or developing the acquired technologies, the revenue and operating results of the combined company could be adversely affected. We have in the past and could in the future record impairment losses in connection with acquisitions. Further, the integration of an acquired company typically requires significant time and resources, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology or personnel or accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. We may have to pay cash, incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition, each of which could adversely affect our financial condition or the value of our common stock. The sale of equity or issuance of debt to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed obligations and could also include covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations.

We have indemnity obligations under our contracts with our customers and channel partners, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The mobile industry has been characterized by substantial patent infringement lawsuits. In our agreements with customers and channel partners, we typically agree to indemnify them for losses related to, among other things, claims by third parties of intellectual property infringement and sometimes data breaches resulting in the compromise of personal data. If any such indemnification obligations are triggered, we could face substantial liabilities or be forced to make changes to our solutions or terminate our customer agreements and refund monies. In addition, provisions regarding limitation of liability in our agreements with customers or channel partners may not be enforceable in some circumstances or jurisdictions or may not protect us from claims and related liabilities and costs. We maintain insurance

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to protect against certain types of claims associated with the use of our solutions, but our insurance may not adequately cover any such claims. In addition, even claims that ultimately are unsuccessful could result in expenditures of and divert management’s time and other resources. Furthermore, any legal claims from customers and channel partners could result in reputational harm and the delay or loss of market acceptance of our solutions.

A portion of our revenues are generated by sales to heavily regulated organizations and governmental entities, which are subject to a number of challenges and risks.

Some of our customers are either in highly regulated industries or are governmental entities and may be required to comply with more stringent regulations in connection with the implementation and use of our solutions. Selling to these entities can be highly competitive, expensive and time consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that we will successfully complete a sale or that the organization will deploy our solution at scale. Highly regulated and governmental entities often require contract terms that differ from our standard arrangements and impose compliance requirements that are complicated, require preferential pricing or “most favored nation” terms and conditions, or are otherwise time-consuming and expensive to satisfy. Government demand and payment for our solutions and services may be impacted by public sector budgetary cycles and funding authorizations, particularly in light of U.S. budgetary challenges, with funding reductions or delays adversely affecting public sector demand for our solutions. The additional costs associated with providing our solutions to governmental entities and highly regulated customers could harm our margins. Moreover, changes in the underlying regulatory conditions that affect these types of customers could harm our ability to efficiently provide our solutions to them and to grow or maintain our customer base.

If our solutions do not interoperate with our customers’ IT infrastructure, sales of our solutions could be negatively affected.

Our solutions need to interoperate with our customers’ existing IT infrastructures, which have varied and complex specifications. As a result, we must attempt to ensure that our solutions interoperate effectively with these different, complex and varied back-end environments. To meet these requirements, we have and must continue to undertake development and testing efforts that require significant capital and employee resources. We may not accomplish these development efforts quickly or cost-effectively, or at all. If our solutions do not interoperate effectively, orders for our solutions could be delayed or cancelled, which would harm our revenues, gross margins and reputation, potentially resulting in the loss of existing and potential customers. The failure of our solutions to interoperate effectively within the enterprise environment may divert the attention of our engineering personnel from our development efforts and cause significant customer relations problems. In addition, if our customers are unable to implement our solutions successfully, they may not renew or expand their deployments of our solutions, customer perceptions of our solutions may be impaired and our reputation and brand may suffer.

Although technical problems experienced by users may not be caused by our solutions, our business and reputation may be harmed if users perceive our solutions as the cause of a device failure.

The ability of our solutions to operate effectively can be negatively impacted by many different elements unrelated to our solutions. For example, a user’s experience may suffer from an incorrect setting in his or her mobile device, an issue relating to his or her employer’s corporate network or an issue relating to the underlying mobile operating system, none of which we control. Even though technical problems experienced by users may not be caused by our solutions, users often perceive the underlying cause to be a result of poor performance of our solution. This perception, even if incorrect, could harm our business and reputation.

Our customers may exceed their licensed device or user count, and it is sometimes difficult to collect payments as a result of channel logistics, which could harm our business, financial position and results of operations.

Our customers license our solutions on either a per-device or per-user basis. Because we sell the vast majority of our solutions through channel partners, and in some cases multiple tiers of channel partners, the logistics of collecting payments for excess usage can sometimes be time-consuming. We may also encounter difficulty collecting accounts receivable and could be exposed to risks associated with uncollectible accounts receivable. Economic conditions may impact some of our customers’ ability to pay their accounts payable. If we are unable to collect from our customers for

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their excess usage or otherwise or if we have to write down our accounts receivable, our revenues and operating results would suffer.

If the market for our solutions shrinks or does not continue to develop as we expect, our growth prospects may be harmed 

The success of our business depends on the continued growth and proliferation of mobile IT infrastructure as an increasingly important computing platform for businesses. Our business plan assumes that the demand for mobile IT solutions and the deployment of business apps on mobile devices will increase. However, the mobile IT market may not develop as quickly as we expect, or at all, and businesses may not continue to elect to utilize mobile IT solutions as an advanced business platform. This market for our solutions may not develop for a variety of reasons, including that larger, more established companies will enter the market or that mobile operating system companies will offer substantially similar functionality or that companies may not deploy business apps at scale and thus may be satisfied with less advanced technologies. Accordingly, demand for our solutions may not continue to develop as we anticipate, or at all, and the growth of our business and results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, because we derive substantially all of our revenue from the adoption and use of our platform, a decline or slowing growth in the mobile IT market would harm the results of our business operations more seriously than if we derived significant revenue from a variety of other products and services.

Our estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the markets in which we compete achieve the forecasted growth, we cannot assure you our business will grow at similar rates, if at all.

Growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates, which may not prove to be accurate. Forecasts relating to our market opportunity and the expected growth in the mobile IT market and other markets may prove to be inaccurate. Even if these markets experience the forecasted growth, we may not grow our business at similar rates, or at all. Our growth will be affected by many factors, including our success in implementing our business strategy, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties.

Seasonality may cause fluctuations in our revenue.

We believe there are significant seasonal factors that may cause us to record higher revenue in some quarters compared with others. We believe this variability is largely due to our customers’ budgetary and spending patterns, as many customers spend the unused portions of their discretionary budgets prior to the end of their fiscal years. For example, we have historically recorded our highest level of total revenue in our fourth quarter, which we believe corresponds to the fourth quarter of a majority of our customers. In addition, the type of budget (operating versus capital) available to a customer may affect its decision to purchase a perpetual license or a subscription license. In addition, our rapid growth rate in 2012 through 2014 may have made seasonal fluctuations more difficult to detect. As our rate of growth has slowed, seasonal or cyclical variations in our operations may become more pronounced, and our business, results of operations and financial position may be adversely affected.

Prolonged economic uncertainties or downturns could materially adversely affect our business.

Current or future economic downturns or uncertainty could adversely affect our business operations or financial results. Negative conditions in the general economy both in the United States and abroad, including conditions resulting from financial and credit market fluctuations and terrorist attacks on the United States, Europe, Asia Pacific or elsewhere, could cause a decrease in corporate spending on enterprise software in general and negatively affect the rate of growth of our business. General worldwide economic conditions have experienced a significant downturn and continue to remain unstable. These conditions make it extremely difficult for our customers and us to forecast and plan future business activities accurately, and they could cause our customers to reevaluate their decision to purchase our products, which could delay and lengthen our sales cycles, or to deprioritize the portion of their IT budget focused on mobility. We cannot predict the timing, strength or duration of any economic slowdown, instability or recovery, generally or within any particular industry or geography. If the economic conditions of the general economy or industries in which we operate worsen from present levels, our business operations and financial results could be adversely affected.

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Our business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, floods and other natural catastrophic events, and to interruption by manmade problems such as network security breaches, computer viruses or terrorism.

Our corporate headquarters are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity. A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire or flood, occurring near our headquarters could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition. Despite the implementation of network security measures, our networks also may be vulnerable to computer viruses, break-ins and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering. In addition, natural disasters, acts of terrorism or war could cause disruptions in our or our customers’ businesses or the economy as a whole. We also rely on information technology systems to communicate among our workforce and with third parties. Any disruption to our communications or systems, whether caused by a natural disaster or by manmade problems, such as power disruptions, could adversely affect our business.

If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting in the future, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock may be negatively affected.

As a public company, we are required to maintain internal controls over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal controls. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the Sarbanes-Oxley Act) requires that we furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Management’s assessment needs to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified in our internal controls over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting until our first annual report required to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, following the date we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. We currently continue to qualify as an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting for the year ending December 31, 2015. Implementation of internal controls over financial reporting can be time-consuming, costly and complicated. If we have a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, if we are unable to assert that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

If our estimates relating to our critical accounting policies are based on assumptions or judgments that change or prove to be incorrect, our operating results could fall below expectations of financial analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in our stock price.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our operating results may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our operating results to fall below the expectations of financial analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in our stock price. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, stock-based compensation and income taxes.

Impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets would result in a decrease in earnings.

Current accounting rules require that goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite useful lives no longer be amortized, but instead be tested for impairment at least annually. These rules also require that intangible assets with definite useful lives be amortized over their respective estimated useful lives to their estimated residual values, and

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reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Events and circumstances considered in determining whether the carrying value of amortizable intangible assets and goodwill may not be recoverable include, but are not limited to, significant changes in performance relative to expected operating results, significant changes in the use of the assets, significant negative industry or economic trends, or a significant decline in our stock price and/or market capitalization for a sustained period of time. To the extent such evaluation indicates that the useful lives of intangible assets are different than originally estimated, the amortization period is reduced or extended and the quarterly amortization expense is increased or decreased. Any impairment charges or changes to the estimated amortization periods could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

We have been sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights and may be sued in the future.

There is considerable patent and other intellectual property development activity in our industry. Our success depends in part on not infringing the intellectual property rights of others. From time to time, our competitors or other third parties have claimed, and we expect they will continue in the future to claim, that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing such rights.

On November 14, 2012, Good Technology filed a lawsuit against us in federal court in the Northern District of California alleging false and misleading representations concerning their products and infringement of four patents held by them. In the complaint, Good Technology sought unspecified damages, attorney’s fees and a permanent injunction.  On March 1, 2013, we counterclaimed against Good Technology for patent infringement of one of our patents, seeking similar relief. On October 13, 2014, the court issued a claims construction order. Good Technology responded by filing additional patent infringement suits against us in Delaware, the UK and Germany, as well as inter partes review proceedings. In each of these proceedings, Good Technology sought to invalidate our patents and/or receive injunctive relief, as well as attorney’s fees. We counterclaimed against Good Technology in the Delaware case on two of our next generation patents and sought relief similar to what Good Technology was seeking in that case. The Delaware case was transferred to the Northern District of California on March 27, 2015. On June 30, 2015, the court in the original Northern District of California case issued a summary judgment order invalidating the asserted claims of one of Good Technology’s patents and holding that we did not infringe that patent as a matter of law. On August 4, 2015, a jury in the original Northern District of California case found that two of the three remaining Good Technology patents that were asserted in the case were invalid and that we did not infringe any of the three patents. The jury also found that while Good Technology did not infringe our asserted patent, our patent was not invalid. As a result, neither we nor Good Technology was awarded damages in the case.

On November 2, 2015, Blackberry announced that it had acquired Good Technology. On December 1, 2015, we and Good Technology announced a settlement of the global litigation between us, which included a narrow, non-material license agreement between us and Good Technology and a mutual dismissal of claims.

In the future, we may receive additional claims that our solutions infringe or violate the claimant’s intellectual property rights. However, we may be unaware of the intellectual property rights of others that may cover some or all of our solutions. Any claims or litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses and, if successfully asserted against us, could require that we pay substantial damages or ongoing royalty payments, prevent us from offering our solutions, or require that we comply with other unfavorable terms. If any of our customers are sued, we would in general be required to defend and/or settle the litigation on their behalf. In addition, if we are unable to obtain licenses or modify our solutions to make them non-infringing, we might have to refund a portion of perpetual license fees paid to us and terminate those agreements, which could further exhaust our resources. In addition, we may pay substantial settlement amounts or royalties on future solution sales to resolve claims or litigation, whether or not legitimately or successfully asserted against us. Even if we were to prevail in the actual or potential claims or litigation against us, any claim or litigation regarding our intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations. Such disputes, with or without merit, could also cause potential customers to refrain from purchasing our solutions or otherwise cause us reputational harm.

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We have been sued by non-practicing entities, or NPEs, for patent infringement in the past and may be sued by NPEs in the future. While we have settled such litigation in the past, these lawsuits, with or without merit, require management attention and can be expensive.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position could be harmed or we could be required to incur significant expenses to enforce our rights.

Our ability to compete effectively is dependent in part upon our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We protect our proprietary information and technology through licensing agreements, third-party nondisclosure agreements and other contractual provisions, as well as through patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws in the United States and similar laws in other countries. There can be no assurance that these protections will be available in all cases or will be adequate to prevent our competitors from copying, reverse engineering or otherwise obtaining and using our technology, proprietary rights or solutions. The laws of some foreign countries, including countries in which our solutions are sold, may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be inadequate. In addition, third parties may seek to challenge, invalidate or circumvent our patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets, or applications for any of the foregoing. There can be no assurance that our competitors will not independently develop technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our technology or design around our proprietary rights. In each case, our ability to compete could be significantly impaired.

To prevent substantial unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights, it may be necessary to prosecute actions for infringement and/or misappropriation of our proprietary rights against third parties. Any such action could result in significant costs and diversion of our resources and management’s attention, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in such action.

Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property.

Our use of open source software could impose limitations on our ability to commercialize our solutions.

Our solutions contain software modules licensed for use from third-party authors under open source licenses, including the GNU Public License, the GNU Lesser Public License, the Apache License and others. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use. If we combine our proprietary solutions with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain of the open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary solutions to the public or offer our solutions to users at no cost. This could allow our competitors to create similar solutions with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of sales for us.

The terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our solutions. In such event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our solutions, to re-engineer our solutions or to discontinue the sale of our solutions in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

Risks Related to Our International Operations

Our international operations expose us to additional business risks, and failure to manage these risks may adversely affect our international revenue.

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from customers outside the United States. For the year ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 50%, 45%, and 44% of our revenue, respectively, was attributable to our

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international customers, primarily those located in EMEA. As of December 31, 2015, approximately 36% of our employees were located abroad.

We expect that our international activities will be dynamic over the foreseeable future as we continue to pursue opportunities in international markets, which will require significant management attention and financial resources. Therefore, we are subject to risks associated with having worldwide operations.

We have a limited history of marketing, selling and supporting our solutions internationally. As a result, we must hire and train experienced personnel to staff and manage our foreign operations. To the extent that we experience difficulties in recruiting, training, managing and retaining an international staff, and specifically staff related to sales and engineering, we may experience difficulties in foreign markets. In addition, business practices in the international markets that we serve may differ from those in the United States and may require us to include non-standard terms in customer contracts, such as extended warranty terms. To the extent that we may enter into customer contracts in the future that include non-standard terms related to payment, warranties or performance obligations, our operating results may be adversely affected. International operations are subject to other inherent risks, and our future results could be adversely affected by a number of factors, including:

 

difficulties in executing an international channel partners strategy;

 

 

 

 

heightened concerns and legal requirements relating to data and privacy, as evidenced by the European Court of Justice’s invalidation of the EU Safe Harbor framework in October 2015;

 

 

 

 

burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws;

 

 

 

 

unfavorable contractual terms or difficulties in negotiating contracts with foreign customers or channel partners as a result of varying and complex laws and contractual norms;

 

 

 

 

difficulties in providing support and training to channel partners and customers in foreign countries and languages;

 

 

 

 

heightened risks of unfair or corrupt business practices in certain geographies and of improper or fraudulent sales arrangements that may impact financial results or result in fines and penalties;

 

 

 

 

difficulties and costs of attracting and retaining employees and managing foreign operations

 

 

 

 

import restrictions and the need to comply with export laws;

 

 

 

 

difficulties in protecting intellectual property;

 

 

 

 

difficulties in enforcing contracts and longer accounts receivable payment cycles;

 

 

 

 

the effect of foreign exchange fluctuations on the competitiveness of our prices;

 

 

 

 

potentially adverse tax consequences;

 

 

 

 

the increased cost of terminating employees in some countries; and

 

 

 

 

variability of foreign economic, political and labor conditions.

 

 

 

 

As we continue to expand our business globally, our success will depend, in large part, on our ability to anticipate and manage effectively these and other risks associated with our international operations. Our failure to manage any of these risks successfully could harm our international operations and reduce our international sales, adversely affecting our business, operating results and financial condition.

29


 

We rely on channel partners to sell our solutions in international markets, the loss of which could materially reduce our revenue.

We sell our solutions in international markets almost entirely through channel partners. We believe that establishing and maintaining successful relationships with these channel partners is, and will continue to be, critical to our financial success. Recruiting and retaining qualified channel partners and training them to be knowledgeable about our solutions requires significant time and resources. In some countries, we rely on a sole or very few channel partners and thus the loss of the channel partner could have a significant impact on our sales and support in those countries. To develop and expand our distribution channel, we must continue to scale and improve our processes and procedures that support our channel, including investment in systems and training. In particular, foreign-based service provider partners are large and complex businesses, and we may have difficulty negotiating and building successful business relationships with them.

In addition, existing and future channel partners will only partner with us if we are able to provide them with competitive offerings on terms that are commercially reasonable to them. If we fail to maintain the quality of our solutions or to update and enhance them or to offer them at competitive discounts, existing and future channel partners may elect to partner with one or more of our competitors. In addition, the terms of our arrangements with our channel partners must be commercially reasonable for both parties. If we are unable to reach agreements that are beneficial to both parties, then our channel partner relationships will not succeed. In addition, international channel partners often rely on business models that favor our on premises product over our cloud product because in the former, the channel partner may host and manage the software for, and provide additional administrative, support, training and other services to, the mutual customer for additional fees. This situation could impede sales of our cloud product in certain international markets.

If we fail to maintain relationships with our channel partners, fail to develop new relationships with other channel partners in new markets, fail to manage, train or incentivize existing channel partners effectively, or fail to provide channel partners with competitive solutions on terms acceptable to them, or if these partners are not successful in their sales efforts, our revenue may decrease and our operating results could suffer.

We have no long-term contracts or minimum purchase commitments with any of our channel partners, and our contracts with channel partners do not prohibit them from offering solutions that compete with ours, including solutions they currently offer or may develop in the future and incorporate into their own systems. Some of our competitors may have stronger relationships with our channel partners than we do, and we have limited control, if any, as to whether those partners sell our solutions, rather than our competitors’ solutions, or whether they devote resources to market and support our competitors’ solutions, rather than our solutions. Our failure to establish and maintain successful relationships with channel partners could materially adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar laws associated with our activities outside the United States could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

A significant portion of our revenues is and will continue to be from jurisdictions outside of the United States. As a result, we are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, which generally prohibits U.S. companies and their intermediaries from making payments to corrupt foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment, and requires companies to maintain adequate record-keeping and internal accounting practices to accurately reflect the transactions of the company. The FCPA applies to companies, individual directors, officers, employees and agents. Under the FCPA, we may be held liable for actions taken by strategic or local partners or representatives. In addition, the government may seek to hold us liable for successor liability FCPA violations committed by companies that we acquire.

In many foreign countries, particularly in countries with developing economies, including many countries in which we operate, it may be a local custom that businesses operating in such countries engage in business practices that are prohibited by the FCPA or other similar laws and regulations. Although we have contractual provisions in our agreements with channel partners that require them to comply with the FCPA and similar laws, we have not engaged in formal FCPA training of our channel partners. Our channel partners could take actions in violation of our policies, for

30


 

which we may be ultimately held responsible. Our development of infrastructure designed to identify FCPA matters and monitor compliance is at an early stage. If we or our intermediaries fail to comply with the requirements of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws, governmental authorities in the U.S. or elsewhere could seek to impose civil and/or criminal penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial conditions and cash flows.

We are subject to export controls, and our customers and channel partners are subject to import controls.

Certain of our solutions are subject to U.S. export controls and may be exported to certain countries outside the U.S. only by first obtaining an export license from the U.S. government, or by utilizing an existing export license exception, or after clearing U.S. government agency review. Obtaining the necessary export license or accomplishing a U.S. government review for a particular export may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions prohibit the shipment of certain solutions to U.S. embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments and persons. If we were to fail to comply with U.S. export law requirements, U.S. customs regulations, U.S. economic sanctions or other applicable U.S. laws, we could be subject to substantial civil and criminal penalties, including fines, incarceration for responsible employees and managers and the possible loss of export or import privileges. U.S. export controls, sanctions and regulations apply to our channel partners as well as to us. Any failure by our channel partners to comply with such laws, regulations or sanctions could have negative consequences, including reputational harm, government investigations and penalties.

In addition, various countries regulate the import of certain encryption and other technology by requiring an import permit, authorization, pre-classification, import certification and/or an import license. Some countries have enacted laws that could limit our customers’ ability to implement our solutions in those countries.

Changes in our solutions or changes in export and import regulations may create delays in the introduction of our solutions into international markets, prevent our customers with international operations from deploying our solutions globally or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our solutions to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. In addition, any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our solutions by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our solutions to, existing or potential customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our solutions or limitation on our ability to export or sell our solutions would likely adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. 

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

In general, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change net operating losses, or NOLs, to offset future taxable income. Our existing NOLs may be subject to limitations arising from previous ownership changes. Future changes in our stock ownership, some of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change. Furthermore, our ability to utilize NOLs of companies that we may acquire in the future may be subject to limitations. There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of NOLs, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. For these reasons, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of the NOLs reflected on our balance sheet, even if we attain profitability.

The price of our common stock has been and may continue to be weak, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The trading price of our common stock has declined since our Initial Public Offering, and the shares are thinly traded. The trading price of our common stock depends on a number of factors, including those described in this “Risk Factors” section, many of which are beyond our control and may not be related to our operating performance.

31


 

Since shares of our common stock were sold at our initial public offering, our stock price has ranged from as low as $2.83 to as high as $12.05 through December 31, 2015. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our common stock, because you might be unable to sell your shares at or above the price you paid. Factors that could cause fluctuations in the trading price of our common stock include the following:

             

failure to meet quarterly guidance with regard to revenue, cash flow breakeven or other key metrics;

 

 

 

 

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;

 

 

 

 

volatility in the market prices and trading volumes of high technology stocks;

 

 

 

 

changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of other technology companies generally, or those in our industry in particular;

 

 

 

 

sales of shares of our common stock by us or our stockholders;

 

 

 

 

failure of financial analysts to maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;

 

 

 

 

announcements by us or our competitors of new products or new or terminated significant contracts, commercial relationships or capital commitments;

 

 

 

 

the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC;

 

 

 

 

rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;

 

 

 

 

actual or anticipated changes in our results of operations or fluctuations in our operating results;

 

 

 

 

actual or anticipated developments in our business or our competitors’ businesses or the competitive landscape generally;

 

 

 

 

litigation involving us, our industry or both, or investigations by regulators into our operations or those of our competitors;

 

 

 

 

developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;

 

 

 

 

announced or completed acquisitions of businesses or technologies by us or our competitors;

 

 

 

 

new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;

 

 

 

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations or principles;

 

 

 

 

any major change in our management;

 

 

 

 

general economic conditions and slow or negative growth of our markets; and

 

 

 

 

other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism or responses to these events.

 

In addition, the stock market in general, and the market for technology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market prices of particular companies’ securities, securities class action litigation has often

32


 

been instituted against these companies. Litigation of this type has been instituted against us, and could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.

For example, on May 1, 2015, a class action lawsuit was filed in federal court against the Company and certain of its officers on behalf of a putative class of all persons who acquired the Company’s securities between February 13, 2015 and April 22, 2015. It asserts claims for violation of Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act.  Additionally, in August 2015, three class action lawsuits were filed in state court against the Company, certain of its officers, directors, underwriters and investors on behalf of putative classes of all persons who purchased the Company’s securities traceable to the Company’s IPO. The lawsuits assert claims for violations of Sections 11, 12(a)(2) and 15 of the Securities Act. The Company intends to defend these lawsuits vigorously.

If financial or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding our stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts or the content and opinions included in their reports. If any of the analysts who cover us issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding our stock price, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

Insiders continue to have substantial control over our company, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.

Our directors, executive officers and each of our stockholders who own greater than 5% of our outstanding common stock and their affiliates, in the aggregate, own approximately 54% of the outstanding shares of our common stock as of December 31, 2015. As a result, these stockholders, if acting together, will be able to influence or control matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of directors and the approval of mergers, acquisitions or other extraordinary transactions. They may also have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change of control of our company, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately affect the market price of our common stock.

We have in the past failed, and may in the future fail, to meet our publicly announced guidance or other expectations about our business and future operating results, which has in the past caused, and would in the future cause, our stock price to decline.

We have provided and may continue to provide guidance about our business and future operating results as part of our press releases, conference calls or otherwise. In developing this guidance, our management must make certain assumptions and judgments about our future performance. Our business results may vary significantly from such guidance due to a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, and which could adversely affect our operations and operating results. Furthermore, if our publicly announced guidance of future operating results fails to meet expectations of securities analysts, investors or other interested parties, the price of our common stock would decline.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.

As a public company, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, the listing requirements of the NASDAQ Global Stock Market and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations may further increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly and increase demand on our systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and operating results.

33


 

Being a public company has made it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These and other factors, including the decline in our stock price and the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified executive officers and qualified members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee and compensation committee.

We are an “Emerging Growth Company,” and any decision on our part to comply only with certain reduced disclosure requirements applicable to Emerging Growth Companies could make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act enacted in April 2012, and, for as long as we continue to be an “emerging growth company,” we may choose to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies, but not to “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest to occur of (i) the last day of the year in which we have more than $1.0 billion in annual revenue; (ii) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (iii) the date on which we have issued, in any three-year period, more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and (iv) the last day of the year ending after the fifth anniversary of the completion of our initial public offering. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive if we choose to rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result of any choices to reduce future disclosure, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile. For the year ending December 31, 2015, we continue to qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act.

Our future capital needs are uncertain, and we may need to raise additional funds in the future. If we require additional funds in the future, those funds may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all.

We may need to raise substantial additional capital in the future to:

             

fund our operations;

 

 

 

 

continue our research and development;

 

 

 

 

develop and commercialize new solutions; or

 

 

 

 

acquire companies, in-licensed solutions or intellectual property.

 

Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:

             

market acceptance of our solutions;

 

 

 

 

the cost of our research and development activities;

 

 

 

 

the cost and timing of establishing additional sales, marketing and distribution capabilities;

 

 

 

 

the cost and timing of establishing additional technical support capabilities;

 

 

 

 

the effect of competing technological and market developments; and

 

 

 

 

the market for different types of funding and overall economic conditions.

 

 

 

 

34


 

We may require additional funds in the future, and we may not be able to obtain those funds on acceptable terms, or at all. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience dilution. Debt financing, if available, may involve covenants restricting our operations or our ability to incur additional debt. Any debt or additional equity financing that we raise may contain terms that are not favorable to us or our stockholders.

If we do not have, or are not able to obtain, sufficient funds, we may have to delay development or commercialization of our solutions. If we are unable to raise adequate funds, we may have to liquidate some or all of our assets, or delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate some or all of our development programs. We also may have to reduce marketing, customer support or other resources devoted to our solutions or cease operations. Any of these actions could harm our operating results.

Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that these sales might occur, could reduce the price that our common stock might otherwise attain and may dilute your voting power and your ownership interest in us.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and may make it more difficult for you to sell your common stock at a time and price that you deem appropriate. Based on the total number of outstanding shares of our common stock as of December 31, 2015, we have 81,326,237 shares of common stock outstanding, notwithstanding any potential exercises of our outstanding stock options.

In the future, we may issue additional shares of common stock, or securities with convertible features into our common stock, from time to time in connection with our employee equity plans, financings, acquisitions and investments or otherwise.

For example, in the fourth quarter of 2014 we began issuing restricted stock units, or RSUs, to employees, the majority of which vest quarterly over four years. In the first quarter of 2015 we established the 2015 Executive Bonus Plan and the 2015 Non-Executive Bonus Plan, or “Bonus Plans,” to be settled in our common stock. On February 22, 2016 our Compensation Committee approved issuance of 1,655,537 shares of common stock under 2015 Non-Executive Bonus Plan. No shares will be issued under the 2015 Executive Bonus Plan. These and any other issuances could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.

Certain provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our board of directors or current management and limit the market price of our common stock.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. These provisions include the following:

             

our board of directors has the right to elect directors to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

 

 

 

 

our stockholders may not act by written consent or call special stockholders’ meetings; as a result, a holder, or holders, controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to take certain actions other than at annual stockholders’ meetings or special stockholders’ meetings called by the board of directors, the chairman of the board, the chief executive officer or the president;

 

 

 

 

our certificate of incorporation prohibits cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;

 

 

 

 

stockholders must provide advance notice and additional disclosures in order to nominate individuals for election to the board of directors or to propose matters that can be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company; and

 

 

 

35


 

 

our board of directors may issue, without stockholder approval, shares of undesignated preferred stock; the ability to issue undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to acquire us.

 

As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to certain Delaware anti-takeover provisions. Under Delaware law, a corporation may not engage in a business combination with any holder of 15% or more of its capital stock unless the holder has held the stock for three years or, among other things, the board of directors has approved the transaction. Our board of directors could rely on Delaware law to prevent or delay an acquisition of our company.

Our executive officers are entitled to accelerated vesting of their stock options pursuant to the terms of their employment arrangements under certain conditions following a change of control of the Company. In addition to the arrangements currently in place with some of our executive officers, we may enter into similar arrangements in the future with other officers. Such arrangements could delay or discourage a potential acquisition of the Company.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

Our principal executive offices are located in Mountain View, California and include five buildings totaling approximately 123,000 square feet under leases expiring from March 2016 to April 2023. We have additional office locations throughout the United States and in various international locations, including offices in the United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Japan and India.

We intend to add new facilities and expand our existing facilities as we add employees and grow our business, and we believe that suitable additional or substitute space will be available on commercially reasonable terms to meet our future needs.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

The information set forth under “Litigation” in Note 13 contained in the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

36


 

Part II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Reverse Stock Split

On May 27, 2014, we amended and restated our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to effect a seven-for-five reverse stock split of our common stock and convertible preferred stock. On the effective date of the reverse stock split, (i) each seven shares of outstanding convertible preferred stock and common stock was reduced to five shares of convertible preferred stock and common stock, respectively; (ii) the number of shares of common stock issuable under each outstanding option to purchase common stock was proportionately reduced on a seven-for-five basis; (iii) the exercise price of each outstanding option to purchase common stock was proportionately increased on a seven-for-five basis; and (iv) corresponding adjustments in the per share conversion prices, dividend rates and liquidation preferences of the convertible preferred stock were made. All of the share and per share information referenced throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been retroactively adjusted to reflect this reverse stock split.

Issuance of Common Stock and Use of Proceeds

In June 2014, we closed our initial public offering, or IPO, in which we sold 12,777,777 shares of common stock at a price to the public of $9.00 per share including 1,666,666 shares of common stock sold pursuant to the full exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option. The aggregate offering price for shares sold in the offering was approximately $115 million. The offer and sale of all of the shares in the IPO were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statements on Form S-1 (File Nos. 333-195089), which were declared or became effective on June 12, 2014. The offering commenced as of June 12, 2014 and did not terminate before all of the securities registered in the registration statement were sold. Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Goldman, Sachs & Co., Deutsche Bank Securities, Barclays, Raymond James, Stifel, Nomura and Blackstone Capital Markets acted as the underwriters. We raised approximately $102.9 million in net proceeds after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of approximately $8.0 million and other offering expenses of approximately $4.1 million. Upon the closing of the initial public offering, all shares of our outstanding convertible preferred stock automatically were converted into 49,646,975 shares of common stock.

There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our IPO as described in our final prospectus filed with the SEC on June 12, 2014 pursuant to Rule 424(b). We invested a portion of the funds received in registered money market funds and fixed income investments.

Market Information

Our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “MOBL” and began public trading on June 12, 2014.

37


 

Price Range for our Common Stock

The following table sets forth the reported high and low sales prices of our common stock for the periods indicated, as regularly quoted on The NASDAQ Global Select Market:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

High

    

Low

 

 

Fiscal 2015 Quarters:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourth Fiscal Quarter

 

$

4.66

 

$

2.97

 

 

Third Fiscal Quarter

 

$

6.03

 

$

2.81

 

 

Second Fiscal Quarter

 

$

9.68

 

$

5.69

 

 

First Fiscal Quarter

 

$

10.15

 

$

8.17

 

 

Fiscal 2014 Quarter:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourth Fiscal Quarter

 

$

11.31

 

$

8.33

 

 

Third Fiscal Quarter

 

$

12.96

 

$

7.64

 

 

Second Fiscal Quarter (from June 12, 2014)

 

$

11.74

 

$

8.89

 

 

First Fiscal Quarter

 

$

N/A  

 

$

N/A

 

 

 

Holders of Record and Dividends

As of February 19, 2016,  there were 71 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of our shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders. We have never declared or paid, and do not anticipate declaring or paying in the foreseeable future, any cash dividends on our capital stock. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on then existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects, and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.

Stock Performance Graph and Cumulative Total Return

The following graph compares the cumulative total return attained by stockholders on our common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the NASDAQ Composite Index (^IXIC) and NASDAQ Computer Index (^IXCO). The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in our common stock and in each of the indices (with the

38


 

reinvestment of all dividends) from June 12, 2014 to December 31, 2015. The stock price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

MobileIron, Inc. Comparison of Total Return Performance

Picture 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

Base Period

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

Company/Index

 

6/12/2014

 

6/30/2014

 

9/30/2014

 

12/31/2014

 

3/30/2015

 

6/30/2015

 

9/30/2015

 

12/31/2015

MobileIron, Inc.

 

$

100.00

 

$

95.20

 

$

111.40

 

$

99.60

 

$

92.60

 

$

59.10

 

$

31.00

 

$

36.10

Nasdaq Computer Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

102.93

 

 

108.07

 

 

111.55

 

 

112.96

 

 

113.19

 

 

107.50

 

 

118.49

Nasdaq Composite Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

102.58

 

 

104.56

 

 

109.55

 

 

113.37

 

 

115.36

 

 

106.87

 

 

115.83

 

39


 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

In the year ended December 31, 2015, we repurchased an aggregate of 32,667 shares of our common stock from our employees or departing employees in the aggregate amount of $27,676. These securities were repurchased as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

Total number of

 

    

Average price paid

 

Period

 

shares repurchased

 

 

per share

 

January 1, 2015 through January 31, 2015

 

5,357

 

$

1.75

 

February 1, 2015 through February 28, 2015

 

3,200

 

 

1.55

 

March 1, 2015 through March 31, 2015

 

268

 

 

0.55

 

April 1, 2015 through April 30, 2015

 

14,565

 

 

0.74

 

May 1, 2015 through May 31, 2015

 

 —

 

 

 

June 1, 2015 through June 30, 2015

 

 —

 

 

 

July 1, 2015 through July 31, 2015

 

1,340

 

 

1.75

 

August 1, 2015 through August 31, 2015

 

7,937

 

 

0.00

 

September 1, 2015through September 30, 2015

 

 —

 

 

 

October 1, 2015 through October 31, 2015

 

 —

 

 

 

November 1, 2015 through November 30, 2015

 

 —

 

 

 

December 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015

 

 —

 

 

 

Total shares  repurchased

 

32,667

 

$

0.85

 

 

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

See Item 12 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K regarding information about securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plan.

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The following selected historical financial data should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” our financial statements, and the related notes appearing in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to fully understand factors that may affect the comparability of the information presented below.

The statement of operations data for 2015, 2014, 2013 and 2012 and the balance sheet data as of December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 are derived from our audited financial statements appearing in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The balance sheet data as of December 31, 2013 is derived

40


 

from audited financial statements not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

2015

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

Revenue

    

  

 

    

  

 

    

  

 

 

  

 

Perpetual license

 

$

53,512

 

$

66,816

 

$

69,810

 

$

26,251

Subscription

 

 

48,080

 

 

30,227

 

 

15,085

 

 

5,617

Software support and services

 

 

47,706

 

 

35,252

 

 

20,679

 

 

9,022

Total revenue

 

 

149,298

 

 

132,295

 

 

105,574

 

 

40,890

Cost of revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Perpetual license

 

 

2,881

 

 

4,448

 

 

3,327

 

 

1,930

Subscription

 

 

7,181

 

 

5,719

 

 

3,684

 

 

2,998

Software support and services

 

 

18,115

 

 

13,868

 

 

9,489

 

 

6,742

Total cost of revenue(1)

 

 

28,177

 

 

24,035

 

 

16,500

 

 

11,670

Gross profit

 

 

121,121

 

 

108,260

 

 

89,074

 

 

29,220

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development(1)

 

 

61,871

 

 

46,278

 

 

36,400

 

 

23,773

Sales and marketing(1)

 

 

105,520

 

 

99,870

 

 

68,309

 

 

45,979

General and administrative(1)

 

 

36,037

 

 

22,400

 

 

12,081

 

 

7,223

Restructuring charge

 

 

1,049

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Amortization of intangible assets

 

 

 —

 

 

782

 

 

208

 

 

52

Impairment of in-process research and development

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

3,925

 

 

 —

Total operating expenses

 

 

204,477

 

 

169,330

 

 

120,923

 

 

77,027

Operating loss

 

 

(83,356)

 

 

(61,070)

 

 

(31,849)

 

 

(47,807)

Other expense - net

 

 

274

 

 

302

 

 

396

 

 

137

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(83,630)

 

 

(61,372)

 

 

(32,245)

 

 

(47,944)

Income tax expense

 

 

852

 

 

517

 

 

252

 

 

(1,433)

Net loss

 

$

(84,482)

 

$

(61,889)

 

$

(32,497)

 

$

(46,511)

Net loss per share, basic and diluted

 

$

(1.07)

 

$

(1.30)

 

$

(3.27)

 

$

(6.04)

Weighted-average shares used to compute net loss per share, basic and diluted

 

 

78,755

 

 

47,517

 

 

9,953

 

 

7,696

(1) Amounts include stock-based compensation expense as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

(in thousands)

    

2015

      

2014

    

2013

    

2012

Stock-Based Compensation Expense:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue

 

$

2,774

 

$

1,353

 

$

327

 

$

173

Research and development

 

 

10,607

 

 

5,980

 

 

5,238

 

 

2,565

Sales and marketing

 

 

9,508

 

 

5,930

 

 

1,893

 

 

1,063

General and administrative

 

 

5,902

 

 

3,363

 

 

931

 

 

483

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

$

28,791

 

$

16,626

 

$

8,389

 

$

4,284

 

 

 

 

41


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As of December 31,

(in thousands)

 

2015

    

2014

    

2013

 

2012

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

    

$

47,234

 

$

104,287

    

$

73,573

 

$

38,692

Short-term and long-term investments

 

$

51,670

 

$

36,089

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

Working capital

 

$

66,568

 

$

90,448

 

$

49,054

 

$

13,132

Total assets

 

$

161,114

 

$

191,842

 

$

111,259

 

$

71,454

Total deferred revenue

 

$

69,875

 

$

54,174

 

$

40,751

 

$

45,500

Short-term borrowings

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

4,300

 

$

 —

Convertible preferred stock

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

160,259

 

$

102,552

Accumulated deficit

 

$

(275,205)

 

$

(190,723)

 

$

(128,834)

 

$

(96,337)

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)

 

$

68,139

 

$

115,094

 

$

(109,825)

 

$

(87,421)

 

 

42


 

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition to historical financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those under “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A or in other parts of this report.

Overview

We invented a purpose-built mobile IT platform for enterprises to secure and manage mobile applications, or apps, content and devices while providing their employees with device choice, privacy and a native user experience. Customers use our platform as the technology foundation in their journey to become “Mobile First” organizations, embracing mobility as a primary computing platform for their employees. Mobile First organizations transform their businesses by giving their employees secure access to critical business applications and content on devices employees want with a native user experience they love. Our platform is extensible and fosters a growing ecosystem of application developers and technology partners who augment the functionality and add value to our platform, creating positive network effects for our customers, our ecosystem and our company.

Our mobile IT platform addresses the requirements across all phases of customers’ journeys to become Mobile First organizations. It provides value to both end-users and IT departments. End-users get apps and content that they need to get their job done on the mobile device of their choice with the native device experience. Enterprise IT departments get a security and management platform that easily integrates into their existing IT or cloud infrastructure and allows them to protect and manage corporate data and apps, independent of the mobile device, for both corporate-owned, bring your own device, or BYOD, and mixed device ownership environments. 

Our business model is based on winning new customers, expanding sales within existing customers, upselling new products and renewing subscriptions and software support agreements. We win customers using a sales force that works closely with our channel partners, including resellers, service providers and system integrators. We have experienced rapid growth in our customer base, having sold our platform to over 10,500 customers since 2009. No single end customer accounted for more than 5% of our total revenue in 2015, one reseller accounted for 16% of our revenue in 2015.

We derive revenue from sales of our software solutions to customers, which are sold either (i) on a perpetual license basis with annual software support when deployed on premise or (ii) on a subscription basis as a cloud service or when deployed on premise.

Subscription revenue is an increasing portion of our revenue. When we sell our solutions on a subscription basis, we offer 12 months or longer terms and bill in advance, or certain service providers often operate under a monthly recurring charge, or MRC, model. In the MRC model, revenue and billings are based on active devices or users of the service provider’s customer and are reported to us by the service provider on a monthly basis over time and billed by us one month in arrears. Thus, under the MRC model, we receive no billings or revenue for MRC at the time the deal is booked, but instead the MRC is billed and revenue is recognized each month based on usage reports one month in arrears. Unlike one-year term subscriptions, MRC is not reflected in deferred revenue. This important difference between MRC billings and perpetual and term subscription billings can lead to significant variability of billings in a given quarter depending on the type of billing model that the customer chooses and the overall mix of billing types for all customers within a quarter. We have experienced growth of MRC revenue each quarter since the first quarter of 2012.

Our total revenue was $149.3 million, $132.3 million and $105.6 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively, representing a growth rate of 13% from 2014 to 2015 and 25% from 2013 to 2014. Growth slowed relative to the prior year, primarily due to a continuing shift in favor of subscription revenue, including MRC revenue, and a slowdown in perpetual license orders. 

43


 

Because we had not established vendor specific objective evidence, or VSOE, of fair value of software support and services prior to January 1, 2013, we recognized perpetual license revenue ratably over the term of the related software support agreement. Upon establishing vendor specific objective evidence, or VSOE, on January 1, 2013, we began to recognize perpetual license revenue upon delivery assuming all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. As a result, our total revenue includes amounts related to licenses delivered in previous years. In 2015, 2014 and 2013, $1.8 million, $5.2 million and $21.1 million, respectively, was recognized as revenue from perpetual licenses that were delivered prior to 2013. Excluding revenue from perpetual licenses delivered prior to 2013, our total revenue was $147.5 million, $127.1 million and $84.5 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013 respectively, representing growth of 16% from 2014 to 2015 and 50% from 2013 to 2014.

Revenue from subscription and perpetual licenses represented approximately 32% and 36%, respectively, of total revenue in 2015. The balance, constituting 32% of total revenue in 2015, was software support and services revenue, including revenue from agreements to provide software upgrades and updates, as well as technical support, to customers with perpetual software licenses. When we sell our solutions on a term subscription basis, we generally offer a one-year term and bill customers in advance.  We recognized 23% of our total revenue from subscriptions, 50% from perpetual licenses and 27% from software support and services in 2014 and 14% of our total revenue from subscriptions, 66% from perpetual licenses and 20% from software support and services in 2013. This represents a continuing mix shift in favor of subscription, and in particular MRC revenue, and software support and services revenue. Like the portion of subscription revenue that is generally billed annually in advance, our MRC revenue has continued to grow as a percentage of total revenue, comprising approximately 14%, 9% and 6% in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.

Our perpetual license revenue was $53.5 million, $66.8 million and $69.8 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively, representing a decrease of 20% from 2014 to 2015 and 4% from 2013 to 2014. The 2015 decline in perpetual license revenue was primarily due to a continuing mix shift in favor of software licenses priced as subscriptions, including MRC, rather than perpetual licenses, and a slowdown in expansion orders. The decline in perpetual license revenue was also attributable to decreases of $3.4 million from 2014 to 2015 in revenue recognized from licenses that were delivered prior to 2013, for which the revenue is being recognized ratably over the contractual terms of the related software support agreements due to lack of VSOE for software support and services prior to January 1, 2013.

Our subscription revenue was $48.1 million, $30.2 million and $15.1 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013 respectively, representing growth of 59% from 2014 to 2015 and 100% from 2013 to 2014. While we expect subscription revenue to generally increase as new and existing customers continue to purchase subscription software licenses, we also expect potential quarterly volatility in both billings and revenue as a result of mix changes between perpetual, term subscription and MRC deals.

Our software support and services revenue was $47.7 million, $35.3 million and $20.7 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013 respectively, representing growth of 35% from 2014 to 2015 and 70% from 2013 to 2014.  Because the perpetual license revenue growth rate slowed, the software support and services revenue growth rate slowed as well.

Our gross billings were $165.0 million, $145.7 million and $100.8 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively, representing growth rates of 13% from 2014 to 2015 and 45% from 2013 to 2014. The slowing of gross billings growth in 2015 was due to the same reasons as noted above for revenue.

We sell a significant portion of our products through our channel partners, including resellers, service providers and system integrators. Our sales force develops sales opportunities and works closely with our channel partners to sell our solutions. We have a high touch sales force focused on the large organizations, inside sales teams focused on mid-sized enterprises and sales teams that work with service providers that focus on smaller businesses. We prioritize our internal sales and marketing efforts on large organizations because we believe that they represent the largest potential opportunity.

We believe that our market opportunity is large, and sales to customers outside of the United States will remain a significant opportunity for future growth. In 2015, 2014 and 2013, 50%, 45% and 44% of our total revenue, respectively, was generated from customers located outside of the United States, primarily those located in Europe. International market trends that may affect sales of our products and services include heightened concerns and legal requirements

44


 

relating to data security and privacy, the importance of execution on our international channel partners strategy, the importance of recruiting and retaining sufficient international personnel and the effect of exchange rates.

Over the past year, we have significantly increased our expenditures to support the development and expansion of our business, which has resulted in continuing losses. We incurred net losses of $84.5 million, $61.9 million and $32.5 million in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. As a result of this, we do not expect to be profitable for the foreseeable future under our current operating plan. Future profitability is dependent on revenue growth, which may be challenging for a number of reasons including a continued mix shift towards MRC and other subscription licensing, increasing and entrenched competition, changes in our pricing model, or any failure to capitalize on market opportunities. In addition, we will need to increase operating efficiency, which may be challenging given the rate of technology change, our operational complexity, and the expenses associated with being a public company.

In 2015, we incurred $10.5 million in litigation expense, almost all of which related to our patent litigation with Good Technology, which we settled in November 2015.  The settlement included a mutual dismissal of all claims and an immaterial license agreement.

In June 2014, we completed our initial public offering, or our IPO in which we issued and sold 12,777,777 shares of common stock, including 1,666,666 million shares of common stock sold pursuant to the full exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option, at a price of $9.00 per share. We received aggregate proceeds of $107.0 million from the sale of shares of common stock, net of underwriters’ discounts and commissions, but before deducting offering expenses of approximately $4.1 million.

Key Metrics and Non-GAAP Financial Information

To supplement our financial results presented on a GAAP basis, we provide investors with certain non-GAAP financial measures, including gross billings, recurring billings, non-GAAP revenue, recurring revenue, non-GAAP gross profit, non-GAAP gross margin, non-GAAP operating loss, non-GAAP operating margin, non-GAAP net loss, and non-GAAP net loss per share. These non-GAAP financial measures exclude stock-based compensation, the amortization of intangible assets, impairment of in-process research and development, restructuring charges and perpetual license revenue recognized from licenses delivered prior to 2013.

Perpetual license revenue recognized from licenses delivered prior to 2013 

In our non-GAAP financial measures, we have excluded the effect of perpetual license revenue recognized from licenses delivered prior to 2013 from revenue, gross profit, gross margin, operating loss, operating margin, net loss, and net loss per share. Because we had not established vendor specific objective evidence, or VSOE, of the fair value of software support and services prior to January 1, 2013, we recognized perpetual license revenue ratably over the term of the related software support agreement. Upon establishing VSOE on January 1, 2013, we began to recognize perpetual license revenue upon delivery assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met. As a result, our perpetual license GAAP revenue includes amounts related to licenses delivered prior to 2013. Revenue amortizing from these perpetual licenses delivered prior to 2013 has declined over each quarter since the quarter ended March 31, 2013 and will continue to decline sequentially until it is fully amortized. As of December 31, 2015, the amount of unrecognized deferred revenue associated with perpetual licenses delivered prior to January 1, 2013 was approximately $300,000, the significant majority of which is expected to be recognized in 2016. 

Stock-based compensation expenses

In our non-GAAP financial measures, we have excluded the effect of stock-based compensation expenses. Stock-based compensation expenses will recur in future periods.

Restructuring charges

In our non-GAAP financial measures, we have excluded the effect of the severance and other expenses related to our reduction in workforce. Restructuring charges may recur in the future; however, the timing and amounts are difficult to predict.

45


 

Amortization of intangible assets

In our non-GAAP financial measures, we have excluded the effect of amortization of intangible assets. Amortization of intangible assets is significantly affected by the timing and size of our acquisitions. Amortization of intangible assets will recur in future periods.

Impairment of in-process research and development

In 2013, we recorded an impairment loss of $3.9 million against the entire recorded in-process research and development, or IPR&D balance associated with our acquisition of Push Computing, Inc. We have excluded the effect of the impairment charge from our non-GAAP financial measures. This expense is not expected to recur.

Non-GAAP revenue, non-GAAP gross profit, non-GAAP gross margin, non-GAAP operating loss, non-GAAP operating margin, non-GAAP net loss, and non-GAAP net loss per share

We believe that the exclusion of perpetual license revenue recognized from licenses delivered prior to 2013, stock-based compensation expense, restructuring charges and amortization of intangible assets from revenue, gross profit, gross margin, operating loss, operating margin, net loss, and net loss per share provides useful measures for management and investors because 1) revenue recognized from licenses delivered prior to 2013 has and will continue to significantly decline over time until it is fully amortized and 2) stock-based compensation, amortization of intangible assets and restructuring charges have been and can continue to be inconsistent in amount from period to period. We believe the inclusion of these items makes it difficult to compare periods and understand the growth and performance of our business. In addition, we evaluate our business performance and compensate management based in part on these non-GAAP measures. There are limitations in using non-GAAP financial measures because the non-GAAP financial measures are not prepared in accordance with GAAP, may be different from non-GAAP financial measures used by our competitors and exclude expenses that may have a material impact on our reported financial results. Further, stock-based compensation expense has been and will continue to be for the foreseeable future a significant recurring expense in our business and an important part of the compensation provided to our employees. Similarly, amortization of intangible assets has been and will continue to be a recurring expense.

Gross and recurring billings, recurring revenue and free cash flow

Our non-GAAP financial measures also include: gross billings, which we define as total revenue plus the change in deferred revenue in a period; recurring billings, which we define as total revenue less perpetual license, hardware, and professional services revenue plus the change in deferred revenue for subscription and software support arrangements in a period, adjusted for nonrecurring perpetual license billings; recurring revenue, which we define as total revenue less perpetual license, hardware, professional services and perpetual amounts recorded as subscription or software support revenue in multiple elements arrangements; and free cash flow, which we define as cash used in operating activities less the amount of property and equipment purchased. We consider gross billings to be a useful metric for management and investors because subscription billings, excluding MRC, and software support and services billings drive deferred revenue, which is an important indicator of future revenue. Similarly, we consider recurring billings and recurring revenue to be useful metrics because they are important indicators of the portion of our business that we would expect to recur each year. There are a number of limitations related to the use of gross, recurring billings and recurring revenue. First, gross and recurring billings include amounts that have not yet been recognized as revenue. Second, our calculation of gross and recurring billings may be different from other companies that report similar financial measures. Third, recurring revenue excludes perpetual license amounts recognized from multiple elements arrangements that we record as subscription or software support revenue in our GAAP statements of operations and that perpetual license amount is based on invoice value, not fair value, although we believe invoice value approximates the fair value of the element. Fourth, in the MRC model, revenue and billings are based on active devices or users of the service provider’s customer and are billed to us by the service provider on a monthly basis over time and one month in arrears. Thus, under the MRC model, we receive no billings or revenue for MRC at the time the deal is booked, but instead the MRC is billed and revenue is recognized each month based on active usage. Unlike term subscriptions, MRC is not reflected in deferred revenue. This important difference between MRC billings and perpetual and term subscription billings can lead to significant variability of billings in a given quarter depending on the type of billing model that the customer chooses and the overall mix of billing types for all customers within a quarter. We compensate for these limitations by providing specific information regarding GAAP revenue and evaluating gross and recurring billings and recurring revenue together

46


 

with revenue calculated in accordance with GAAP. Management believes that information regarding free cash flow provides investors with an important perspective on the cash available to invest in our business and fund ongoing operations. However, our calculation of free cash flow may not be comparable to similar measures used by other companies.

We believe these non-GAAP financial measures are helpful in understanding our past financial performance and our future results. Our non-GAAP financial measures are not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for comparable GAAP measures and should be read only in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. Our management regularly uses our supplemental non-GAAP financial measures internally to understand, manage and evaluate our business, and make operating decisions. These non-GAAP measures are among the primary factors management uses in planning for and forecasting future periods. Compensation of our executives is based in part on the performance of our business based on certain of these non-GAAP measures.

We monitor the following non-GAAP financial measures:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the year ended December 31,

 

(in thousands, except percentages and per share data)

    

2015

    

2014

    

2013

 

Non-GAAP total revenue

 

$

147,456

 

$

127,081

 

$

84,525

 

Year-over-year percentage increase

 

 

16

%

 

50

%

 

107

%

Gross billings

 

$

164,999

 

$

145,718

 

$

100,825

 

Year-over-year percentage increase

 

 

13

%

 

45

%

 

48

%

Recurring billings

 

$

107,485

 

$

78,601

 

$

45,395

 

Percentage of gross billings

 

 

65

%

 

54

%

 

45

%

Year-over-year percentage increase

 

 

37

%

 

73

%

 

99

%

Recurring revenue

 

 

90,563

 

 

60,777

 

 

33,505

 

Percentage of Non-GAAP total revenue

 

 

61

%

 

48

%

 

40

%

Year-over-year percentage increase

 

 

49

%

 

81

%

 

n/a

 

Non-GAAP gross profit

 

$

122,923

 

$

105,047

 

$

68,628

 

Non-GAAP gross margin

 

 

83.4

%

 

82.7

%

 

81.2

%

Non-GAAP  operating loss

 

$

(54,488)

 

$

(48,228)

 

$

(40,099)

 

Non-GAAP operating margin

 

 

(37.0)

%

 

(38.0)

%

 

(47.4)

%

Non-GAAP net loss

 

$

(55,614)

 

$

(49,047)

 

$

(40,747)

 

Non-GAAP net loss per share

 

$

(0.70)

 

$

(1.03)

 

$

(4.09)

 

Free cash flow

 

$

(52,265)

 

$

(39,688)

 

$

(27,794)

 

 

47


 

Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

The following tables reconcile the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure to each of the non-GAAP financial measures discussed above.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the year ended December 31,

 

 

    

2015

    

2014

    

2013

 

(in thousands, except percentages and per share data)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-GAAP total revenue reconciliation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GAAP total revenue

 

$

149,298

 

$

132,295

 

$

105,574

 

Subtract: Perpetual license revenue recognized from licenses delivered prior to 2013

 

 

(1,842)

 

 

(5,214)

 

 

(21,049)

 

Non-GAAP total revenue:

 

$

147,456

 

$

127,081

 

$

84,525

 

Gross billings reconciliation:

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total revenue

 

$

149,298

 

$

132,295

 

$

105,574

 

Total deferred revenue, end of period(1)

 

 

69,875

 

 

54,174

 

 

40,751

 

Less: Total deferred revenue, beginning of period

 

 

(54,174)

 

 

(40,751)

 

 

(45,500)

 

Change in total deferred revenue

 

 

15,701

 

 

13,423

 

 

(4,749)

 

Gross billings

 

$

164,999

 

$

145,718

 

$

100,825

 

 

48


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the year ended December 31,

 

 

    

2015

    

2014

    

2013

 

(in thousands, except percentages and per share data)

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

Recurring billings reconciliation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total revenue

 

$

149,298

 

$

132,295

 

$

105,574

 

Less: Perpetual license revenue

 

 

(53,512)

 

 

(66,816)

 

 

(69,810)

 

Less: Professional services revenue

 

 

(3,165)

 

 

(2,404)

 

 

(1,483)

 

Subscription and software support deferred revenue, end of period(1)

 

 

67,267

 

 

49,194

 

 

30,468

 

Less: Subscription and software support deferred revenue, beginning of period

 

 

(49,194)

 

 

(30,468)

 

 

(14,712)

 

Change in total subscription and software support deferred revenue

 

 

18,073

 

 

18,726

 

 

15,756

 

Less: Adjustments(2)

 

 

(3,209)

 

 

(3,200)

 

 

(4,642)

 

Recurring billings

 

$

107,485

 

$

78,601

 

$

45,395

 

Recurring revenue reconciliation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total revenue

 

 

149,298

 

 

132,295

 

 

105,574

 

Less: Perpetual license revenue

 

 

(53,512)

 

 

(66,816)

 

 

(69,810)

 

Less: Professional services revenue

 

 

(3,165)

 

 

(2,404)

 

 

(1,483)

 

Less: Perpetual license recorded over the term of subscription or software support (4)

 

 

(2,058)

 

 

(2,298)

 

 

(776)

 

Recurring revenue:

 

$

90,563

 

$