10-K 1 a10k12312016.htm 10-K Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)
of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended:
December 31, 2016
 
Commission file number: 001-34516
Cowen Group, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
27-0423711
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
599 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York 10022
(212) 845-7900
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant's principal executive office)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
The Nasdaq Global Market
8.25% Senior Notes due 2021
 
The Nasdaq Global Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o    No Q
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No Q
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes Q    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes  Q  No o 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of the Annual Report on Form 10-K or any amendment to the Annual Report on Form 10-K. Q
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer o
 
Accelerated filer Q
 
Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller
reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o    No Q
The aggregate market value of Class A common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2016, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based upon the closing sale price of the Class A common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market on that date was $298,141,545.
As of February 24, 2017, after taking into account the Company’s December 5, 2016 one-for-four reverse stock split, there were 26,750,754 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding.
Documents incorporated by reference:
Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K incorporates by reference information (to the extent specific sections are referred to herein) from the Registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
 



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Item No.
 
 
 
Page No.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
We have included or incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K (the "Annual Report"), and from time to time may make in our public filings, press releases or other public documents, certain statements, including (without limitation) those under Item 1—"Business," Item 1A—"Risk Factors," Item 3—"Legal Proceedings," Item 7—"Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Item 7A—"Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk" that may constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking terms such as "may," "might," "will," "would," "could," "should," "expect," "plan," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "predict," "project," "possible," "potential," "intend," "seek" or "continue," the negative of these terms and other comparable terminology or similar expressions. In addition, our management may make forward-looking statements to analysts, representatives of the media and others. These forward-looking statements represent only the Company's beliefs regarding future events (many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control) and are predictions only, based on our current expectations and projections about future events. There are important factors that could cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In particular, you should consider the risks outlined under Item 1A—"Risk Factors" in this Annual Report.
Although we believe the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, level of activity, performance or achievements. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of any of these forward-looking statements. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We undertake no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this filing to conform our prior statements to actual results or revised expectations.




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PART I
When we use the terms "we," "us," "Cowen Group" and the "Company," we mean Cowen Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation, its consolidated subsidiaries and entities in which it has a controlling financial interest, taken as a whole, as well as any predecessor entities, unless the context otherwise indicates.
Item 1.    Business
Overview
Cowen Group, Inc. (the "Company"), a Delaware corporation formed in 2009, is a diversified financial services firm and, together with its consolidated subsidiaries (collectively, "Cowen", "Cowen Group" or the "Company"), provides alternative investment management, investment banking, research, sales and trading and prime brokerage services through its two business segments: alternative investment and broker-dealer. The alternative investment segment includes private investment funds, managed accounts, commodity pools, real estate funds, private equity structures, registered investment companies and listed vehicles and also manages a significant portion of the Company’s proprietary capital. The broker-dealer segment offers industry focused investment banking for growth-oriented companies including advisory and global capital markets origination and domain knowledge-driven research and a sales and trading platform for institutional investors.
The Company's alternative investment platform, which operates primarily under the Ramius name, offers innovative investment products and solutions across the liquidity spectrum to institutional and private clients. The predecessor to this business was founded in 1994 and, through one of its subsidiaries, has been a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the "Advisors Act") since 1997. Ramius offers investors access to strategies to meet their specific needs including long/short equity, merger arbitrage, activist equity, event driven credit, fundamental global macro, managed futures, health care royalties and real estate direct lending and equity. Ramius focuses on attracting and retaining talented in-house and affiliated investment teams and providing seed capital and working capital, an institutional infrastructure, robust sales and marketing and industry knowledge. A significant portion of the Company’s capital is invested alongside Ramius’s alternative investment clients. The Company has also invested some of its capital in its recently formed aviation and reinsurance businesses. Our alternative investment business had approximately $10.5 billion of assets under management as of January 1, 2017. See the section titled "Assets Under Management and Fund Performance" for further analysis.
Our broker-dealer businesses include research, sales and trading, prime brokerage and investment banking services to companies and primarily institutional investor clients. Our primary target sectors ("Target Sectors") are healthcare, technology, media and telecommunications, information and technology services, consumer, aerospace and defense, industrials, energy and transportation. We provide research and brokerage services to over 1,000 domestic and international clients seeking to trade securities and other financial instruments, principally in our target sectors. The broker-dealer segment also offers a full-service suite of introduced prime brokerage services targeting emerging hedge fund managers. Historically, we have focused our investment banking efforts on small to mid-capitalization public companies as well as private companies. From time to time, the Company invests in private capital raising transactions of its investment banking clients.
On December 5, 2016, the Company effected a one-for-four reverse stock split of our common stock. Except where the context indicates otherwise, all share and per share information has been retroactively adjusted to reflect the reverse stock split.
Principal Business Lines
Alternative Investment Products and Services
Alternative Investment Strategies
The Company's alternative investment strategies are focused on addressing the needs of institutional investors and high net worth individuals to preserve and grow allocated capital. The Company and its affiliated investment advisors manage a number of single strategy vehicles, including merger arbitrage, long/short equity, consumer based long/short equity, activism and fundamental global macro. The Company and one of its affiliated investment advisors also manage certain multi-strategy hedge funds that are currently in wind-down. The majority of assets remaining in these funds include private investments in public companies, investments in private companies, real estate investments and special situations.
Ramius Trading Strategies     
Our managed futures fund business serves as investment adviser and commodity pool operator to the State Street/Ramius Managed Futures Strategy Fund, a mutual fund advised by Ramius Trading Strategies LLC and sub-advised by SSgA Funds Management Inc. (an affiliate of State Street Global Advisors), that offers U.S. investors access to a multi-manager strategy that seeks to capture returns tied to a combination of global macroeconomic trends in the commodity futures and financial futures markets and interest income and capital appreciation. The State Street/Ramius Managed Futures Strategy Fund seeks to offer

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investors access to returns with low correlation to the public equity and debt markets by allocating capital to various third party commodity trading advisors that pursue a managed futures strategy in a managed account format.
Real Estate
Our real estate business focuses on generating attractive, risk adjusted returns by using an owner/manager approach to underwriting, structuring, financing and redevelopment of all real estate property types since 1999. This approach emphasizes a focus on real estate fundamentals and potential market inefficiencies. The RCG Longview platform provides senior bridge loans, subordinated mortgages, mezzanine loans, and preferred equity through its debt fund series, and makes equity investments through its equity funds. As of December 31, 2016, the members of the general partners of the RCG Longview platform and its affiliates, independent of the RCG Longview funds, collectively owned interests in and/or manage over 21,000 apartments and approximately 21 million square feet of commercial space for their own accounts. The Company's ownership interests in the various general partners of the RCG Longview funds range from 20% to 55%.
HealthCare Royalty Partners ("HRP")
The Company’s healthcare royalties business primarily purchases royalties and uses debt-like structures to invest in commercial or near-commercial stage life science assets (through the funds managed by HRP (the "HRP Funds")).  We share the net management fees from the HRP Funds equally with the founders of the HRP Funds. In addition, we have interests in the general partners of the HRP Funds ranging from 20% to 40.2%.
Broker-Dealer Business
Investment Banking
Our investment banking professionals are focused on providing strategic advisory and capital raising services to U.S. and international public and private companies in our Target Sectors. By focusing on our Target Sectors over a long period of time, we have developed a significant understanding of the unique challenges and demands with respect to public and private capital raising and strategic advice in these sectors. Our advisory and capital raising capabilities begin at the early stages of a private company's accelerated growth phase and continue through its evolution as a public company. Our advisory business focuses on mergers and acquisitions, including providing fairness opinions and providing advice on other strategic transactions. Our capital markets capabilities include equity, including private investments in public equity and registered direct offerings, credit and fixed income, including public and private debt placements, exchange offers, consent solicitations and tender offers, as well as origination and distribution capabilities for convertible securities. We have a unified capital markets group which we believe allows us to be effective in providing cohesive solutions for our clients. Historically, a significant majority of our investment banking revenue has been earned from high-growth small and mid-capitalization companies. The Company, from time to time, may invest in private capital raising transactions of its clients.
Brokerage
Our team of brokerage professionals serves institutional investor clients in the United States and internationally. We trade common stocks, listed options, equity-linked securities and other financial instruments on behalf of our clients and offer a full-service suite of introduced prime brokerage services targeting emerging hedge fund managers. We provide our clients with an electronic execution suite. We provide global, multi-asset class algorithmic execution trading models to both buy side and sell side clients and also offer execution capabilities relating to these trading models through ATM Execution LLC ("ATM Execution"). We also provide our clients with commentary on political, economic and market conditions. We have relationships with over 1,000 institutional investor clients. Our brokerage team is comprised of experienced professionals dedicated to our Target Sectors, which allows us to develop a level of knowledge and focus that we believe differentiates our brokerage capabilities from those of many of our competitors. We tailor our account coverage to the unique needs of our clients. We believe that our sector traders are able to provide superior execution because of their knowledge of the interests of our institutional investor clients in specific companies in our Target Sectors.
Our sales professionals also provide our institutional investor clients with access to the management of our investment banking clients outside the context of financing transactions. These meetings are commonly referred to as non-deal road shows. Non-deal road shows allow our investment banking clients to increase their visibility within the institutional investor community while providing our institutional investor clients with the opportunity to further educate themselves on companies and industries through meetings with management. We believe our deep relationships with company management teams and our sector-focused approach provide us with broad access to management for the benefit of our institutional investor and investment banking clients.
Research
As of December 31, 2016, we had a research team of 54 senior analysts covering approximately 895 companies. Within our coverage universe, approximately 28% are healthcare companies, 24% are TMT (technology, media and telecom)

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companies, 16% are energy companies, 13% are capital goods and industrial companies, 5% are basic materials companies and 14% are consumer companies. Our differentiated approach to research focuses our analysts' efforts toward delivering specific investment ideas and de-emphasizes maintenance research.  We place significant emphasis on analyst collaboration, both within and between sectors. We sponsor a number of conferences every year that are focused on our Target Sectors and sub-sectors. During these conferences we highlight our investment research and provide significant investor access to corporate management teams.
Information About Geographic Areas
We are principally engaged in providing alternative investment services to global institutional investors and investment banking sales and trading and research services to corporations and institutional investor clients primarily in the United States. We provide investment banking services to companies and institutional investor clients in Europe through our U.K. broker-dealer, Cowen International Limited ("CIL").
Employees
As of February 24, 2017, the Company had 843 employees.
Competition
We compete with many other firms in all aspects of our business, including raising funds, seeking investment opportunities and hiring and retaining professionals, and we expect our business will continue to be highly competitive. The alternative investment and broker-dealer industries are currently undergoing contraction and consolidation, reducing the number of industry participants and generally resulting in the larger firms being better positioned to retain and gain market share. We compete in the United States and globally for investment opportunities, investor capital, client relationships, reputation and talent. We face competitors that are larger than we are and have greater financial, technical and marketing resources. Certain of these competitors continue to raise additional amounts of capital to pursue investment strategies that may be similar to ours. Some of these competitors may also have access to liquidity sources that are not available to us, which may pose challenges for us with respect to investment opportunities. In addition, some of these competitors may have higher risk tolerances or make different risk assessments than we do, allowing them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish broader networks of business relationships. Our competitive position depends on our reputation, our investment performance and processes, the breadth of our business platform and our ability to continue to attract and retain qualified employees while managing compensation and other costs. For additional information regarding the competitive risks that we face, see "Item 1A Risk Factors-Risks Related to the Company's Alternative Investment Business" and "Risk Factors-Risks Related to the Company's Broker-Dealer Business."
Regulation
Our businesses, as well as the financial services industry generally, are subject to extensive regulation, including periodic examinations by governmental and self-regulatory organizations, in the United States and the jurisdictions in which we operate around the world. As a publicly traded company in the United States, we are subject to the U.S. federal securities laws and regulation by the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC").
Virtually all aspects of our business are subject to various laws and regulations both inside and outside the United States, some of which are summarized below. Regulatory bodies in the United States and the rest of the world are charged with safeguarding the integrity of the securities and other financial markets and with protecting the interests of customers participating in those markets. Governmental authorities in the United States and in the other countries in which we operate have proposed or adopted additional disclosure requirements and regulation of alternative investment funds and alternative asset managers. The rules governing the regulation of the various aspects of our business are very detailed and technical. Accordingly, the discussion below is general in nature, does not purport to be complete and is current only as of the date of this report.
Alternative Investment Business
The investment advisers responsible for the Company's alternative investment business are all registered as investment advisers with the SEC or rely upon the registration of an affiliated adviser. In addition, several of our investment advisers are also registered as commodity pool operators (“CPOs”) and therefore are also subject to regulation by the National Futures Association (the "NFA") and the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the "CFTC").
Registered investment advisers are subject to the requirements of the Advisers Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder. Such requirements relate to, among other things, fiduciary duties to clients, maintaining an effective compliance program, operational and marketing requirements, disclosure obligations and prohibitions on fraudulent activities. The NFA and CFTC each also administer a comparable regulatory system covering futures contracts and various other financial instruments, including swaps in which certain alternative investment funds may invest.

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The investment activities of our alternative investment business are also subject to regulation under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), and various other statutes as well as the rules of various United States and non-United States securities exchanges and self-regulatory organizations, including laws governing trading on inside information, market manipulation and a broad number of technical requirements (e.g., short sale limits, volume limitations, reporting obligations) and market regulation policies in the United States and globally. Congress, regulators, tax authorities and others continue to explore and implement, on their own and in response to demands from the investment community and the public, increased regulation including changes with respect to investor eligibility, certain limitations on trading activities, record-keeping and reporting, the scope of anti-fraud protections, safekeeping of client assets and a variety of other matters. Most of our registered investment advisers are required to report certain information about a number of their alternative investment funds to the SEC and certain information about a number of their commodity pools to the CFTC, pursuant to systemic risk reporting requirements adopted by both agencies.
In addition, certain of our investment advisers act as a “fiduciaries” under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) with respect to benefit plan clients.  As such, the advisers, and certain of the alternative investment funds they advise, may be subject to ERISA and to regulations promulgated thereunder. ERISA and applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code impose duties on persons who are fiduciaries under ERISA, prohibit specified transactions involving ERISA plan clients and provide monetary penalties for violations of these prohibitions. 
In the aftermath of the financial crisis of the late 2000's, significant regulatory reforms have been enacted. On July 21, 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") was signed into law in the United States. The Dodd-Frank Act is expansive in scope and has led to the adoption of extensive regulations by the SEC and other governmental agencies and additional regulations are anticipated in the future. As of July 2016 approximately 70% of the total rulemaking requirements under the Dodd-Frank Act have been met with finalized rules. As such, we are continuing to review what impact the Dodd-Frank Act legislation and related rule making that remains will have on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Dodd-Frank Act establishes the Financial Services Oversight Council (the "FSOC") to identify threats to the financial stability of the United States, promote market discipline, and respond to emerging risks to the stability of the United States financial system. The FSOC is empowered to determine whether the material financial distress or failure of a non-bank financial company would threaten the stability of the United States financial system, and such a determination can subject a non-banking finance company to supervision by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve and the imposition of standards and supervision including stress tests, liquidity requirements and enhanced public disclosures including the authority to require the supervision and regulation of systemically significant non-bank financial companies. We do not believe we are at risk of being considered a systematically significant non-bank financial company.
The regulation of swaps and derivatives under the Dodd-Frank Act may impact the manner by which our alternative investment business utilize trade swaps and other derivatives, and may significantly increase the costs of derivatives trading conducted on behalf of our clients. Moreover, applicability of CFTC rules and regulations to our investment advisory products and requirements to centrally clear certain swap transactions and to execute certain swap transactions only on or through CFTC-registered trading venues may impact our alternative investment business. The European Union ("EU") (and some other countries) are implementing similar requirements that will affect derivatives transactions with a counterparty organized in that country or otherwise subject to that country’s derivatives regulation.  The mandatory minimum margin requirements for bilateral derivatives adopted by the U.S. government and the EU affect our alternative investment management business as these requirements can increase the amount of margin required to be provided in connection with a derivatives transactions and, therefore, makes derivatives transactions more expensive.  While certain of the rules are effective, other rules are not yet final and/or effective, so their ultimate impact on our alternative investment management business remains unclear. 
Given our investment activities are carried out around the globe, we are subject to a variety of regulatory regimes that vary country by country. Certain of our investment advisers are subject to the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier in Luxembourg. Also, our captive insurance and reinsurance companies are regulated by the New York State Department of Finance and the Luxembourg Commissariat aux Assurances, respectively. EU financial reforms included a number of initiatives to be reflected in new or updated directives, regulations and recommendations of the pan-European regulatory regime established by the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (“MiFID”), which regulates the provision of investment services and activities throughout the European Economic Area (the “EEA”). In addition, the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (“AIFMD”), which became effective on July 21, 2011 and was required to be implemented by EU member states by July 22, 2013, regulates managers of, and service providers to, a broad range of alternative investment funds domiciled within and (depending on the precise circumstances) outside the EU as well as regulate the marketing of all alternative investment funds inside the EEA. The AIFMD is being implemented in stages through 2018. Compliance with the AIFMD impacts our alternative investment fund marketing efforts in the EEA and requires additional compliance and disclosure obligations on any alternative investment funds we actively market in the EEA and for funds domiciled in the EU, may also necessitate, among other requirements, the use of EU domiciled depositories and custodians. Additionally, certain individual EU Member States,

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such as France and Italy, have enacted national financial transaction taxes (“FTTs”), and a group of Member States also could adopt a FTT under an EU Enhanced Cooperation procedure that would apply in those Member States. Although not a member of the EU, Switzerland also imposes similar regulatory requirements for foreign investment advisors marketing alternative investment funds in Switzerland including the use of a Swiss domiciled depository and marketing agent.
Our businesses have operated for many years within a legal framework that requires us to be able to monitor and comply with a broad range of legal and regulatory developments that affect our activities both in the United States and abroad. As noted above, certain of our businesses are subject to compliance with laws and regulations of United States federal and state governments, foreign governments, their respective agencies and/or various self-regulatory organizations or exchanges relating to the privacy of client information, and any failure to comply with these regulations could expose us to liability and/or reputational damage. Additional legislation, changes in rules promulgated by the SEC, the CFTC, our other regulators and self-regulatory organizations or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, either in the United States or elsewhere, may directly affect the mode of our operation and profitability. The United States and non-United States government agencies and self-regulatory organizations, as well as state securities commissions in the United States, are empowered to conduct administrative proceedings that can result in censure, fine, the issuance of cease-and-desist orders or the suspension or expulsion or deregulation of a broker-dealer, an investment advisor or its directors, officers or employees.
Broker-Dealer Business
Cowen and Company, LLC ("Cowen and Company") is a registered broker-dealer with the SEC and in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Self-regulatory organizations, including the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority ("FINRA"), adopt and enforce rules governing the conduct and activities of its member firms, including Cowen and Company, ATM Execution, and Cowen Prime Services LLC ("Cowen Prime"). In addition, state securities regulators have regulatory or oversight authority over our broker-dealer entities. Accordingly, Cowen and Company, ATM Execution, and Cowen Prime are subject to regulation and oversight by the SEC and FINRA and Cowen Prime is also registered with and subject to oversight by the NFA. Cowen and Company is also a member of, and subject to regulation by the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE"), the NASDAQ PHLX LLC, the NYSE MKT LLC, the International Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq Stock Market as well as other exchanges. ATM Execution is a member of, and subject to regulation by, the NYSE and the Nasdaq Stock Market. Additionally, CIL is primarily regulated by the FCA in the United Kingdom.
Broker-dealers are subject to regulations that cover all aspects of the securities business, including sales methods, trade practices among broker-dealers, use and safekeeping of customers' funds, conflicts of interest, securities and information, capital structure, research/banking interaction, record-keeping, the financing of customers' purchases and the conduct and qualifications of directors, officers and employees. In particular, as registered broker-dealers and members of various self-regulatory organizations, Cowen and Company, ATM Execution, and Cowen Prime are subject to the SEC's uniform net capital rule. Rule 15c3-1 specifies the minimum level of net capital a broker-dealer must maintain and also requires that a significant part of a broker-dealer's assets be kept in relatively liquid form. The SEC and various self-regulatory organizations impose rules that require notification when net capital falls below certain predefined criteria, limit the ratio of subordinated debt to equity in the regulatory capital composition of a broker-dealer and constrain the ability of a broker-dealer to expand its business under certain circumstances. Additionally, the SEC's uniform net capital rule requires us to give prior notice to the SEC for certain withdrawals of capital. As a result, our ability to withdraw capital from our broker-dealer subsidiaries may be limited.
The effort to combat money laundering and terrorist financing is a priority in governmental policy with respect to financial institutions. The Bank Secrecy Act ("BSA"), as amended by Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and its implementing regulations ("Patriot Act"), requires broker-dealers and other financial services companies to maintain an anti-money laundering compliance program that includes written policies and procedures, designated compliance officer(s), appropriate training, independent review of the program, standards for verifying client identity at account opening and obligations to report suspicious activities and certain other financial transactions. Through these and other provisions, the BSA and Patriot Act seek to promote the identification of parties that may be involved in financing terrorism or money laundering. We must also comply with sanctions programs administered by the U.S. Department of Treasury's Office of Foreign Asset Control, which may include prohibitions on transactions with designated individuals and entities and with individuals and entities from certain countries.
Anti-money laundering laws outside the United States contain certain similar provisions. The obligation of financial institutions, including us, to identify their customers, watch for and report suspicious transactions, respond to requests for information by regulatory authorities and law enforcement agencies, and share information with other financial institutions, has required the implementation and maintenance of internal practices, procedures and controls that have increased, and may continue to increase, our costs. Any failure with respect to our programs in this area could subject us to serious regulatory consequences, including substantial fines, and potentially other liabilities.
Rigorous legal and compliance analysis of our businesses and investments is important to our culture and risk management. In addition, disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting are documented,

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tested and assessed for design and operating effectiveness in compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. We strive to maintain a culture of compliance through the use of policies and procedures such as oversight compliance, codes of conduct, compliance systems, communication of compliance guidance and employee education and training. Our corporate risk management function further analyzes our business, investment and other key risks, reinforcing their importance in our environment. We have a compliance group that monitors our compliance with all of the regulatory requirements to which we are subject and manages our compliance policies and procedures. Our General Counsel supervises our compliance group, which is responsible for addressing all regulatory and compliance matters that affect our activities. Our compliance policies and procedures address a variety of regulatory and compliance risks such as the handling of material non-public information, position reporting, personal securities trading, valuation of investments on a fund-specific basis, document retention, potential conflicts of interest and the allocation of investment opportunities. Our compliance group also monitors the information barriers that we maintain between each of our different businesses. We believe that our various businesses' access to the intellectual capital, contacts and relationships that reside throughout our firm benefits all of our businesses. However, in order to maximize that access without compromising our legal and contractual obligations, our compliance group oversees and monitors the communications between or among our firm's different businesses. Occasionally, we have been subject to investigations and proceedings, and sanctions have been imposed for infractions of various regulations relating to our activities.
Available Information
We routinely file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information required by the Exchange Act with the SEC. You may read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC's public reference room located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549, U.S.A. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference room. Our SEC filings also are available to the public from the SEC's internet site at http://www.sec.gov.
We maintain a public internet site at http://www.cowen.com and make available free of charge through this site our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, Proxy Statements and Forms 3, 4 and 5 filed on behalf of directors and executive officers, as well as any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. We also post on our website the charters for our Board of Directors' Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, as well as our Corporate Governance Guidelines, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics governing our directors, officers and employees and other related materials. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report.
Item 1A.    Risk Factors
Risks Related to the Company's Businesses and Industry
        For purposes of the following risk factors, references made to the Company's funds include hedge funds and other alternative investment products, services and solutions offered by the Company, investment vehicles through which the Company invests its own capital, and real estate funds. References to the Company's broker-dealer business include Cowen and Company, ATM Execution, and Cowen Prime.
The Company
The Company's alternative investment and broker-dealer businesses have incurred losses in recent periods and may incur losses in the future.
While the Company's alternative investment business was profitable for the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company's broker-dealer business and alternative investment business have incurred losses in recent periods. For example, the Company's broker-dealer business incurred losses in each of the years ended December 31, 2016, 2013 and 2012. In addition, the Company's alternative investment business incurred losses in each of the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008. The Company may incur losses in any of its future periods. Future losses may have a significant effect on the Company's liquidity as well as our ability to operate.
In addition, we may incur significant expenses in connection with any expansion, strategic acquisition or investment with respect to our businesses. Specifically, we have invested, and will continue to invest, in our broker-dealer business, including hiring a number of senior professionals to expand our research, investment banking and sales and trading product offerings. Accordingly, the Company will need to increase its revenues at a rate greater than its expenses to achieve and maintain profitability. If the Company's revenues do not increase sufficiently, or even if its revenues increase but it is unable to manage its expenses, the Company will not achieve and maintain profitability in future periods. As an alternative to increasing its revenues, the Company may seek additional capital through the sale of additional common stock or other forms of debt or equity financing. The Company cannot be certain that it would have access to such financing on acceptable terms.

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The Company depends on its key senior personnel and the loss of their services would have a material adverse effect on the Company's businesses and results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
The Company depends on the efforts, skill, reputations and business contacts of its principals and other key senior personnel, the information and investment activity these individuals generate during the normal course of their activities and the synergies among the diverse fields of expertise and knowledge held by the Company's senior professionals. Accordingly, the Company's continued success will depend on the continued service of these individuals. Key senior personnel may leave the Company in the future, and we cannot predict the impact that the departure of any key senior personnel will have on our ability to achieve our investment and business objectives. The loss of the services of any of them could have a material adverse effect on the Company's revenues, net income and cash flows and could harm our ability to maintain or grow assets under management in existing funds or raise additional funds in the future. Our senior and other key personnel possess substantial experience and expertise and have strong business relationships with investors in its funds, clients and other members of the business community. As a result, the loss of such personnel could have a material adverse effect on the Company's businesses and results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
The Company's ability to retain its senior professionals is critical to the success of its businesses, and its failure to do so may materially affect the Company's reputation, business and results of operations.
Our people are our most valuable resource. Our success depends upon the reputation, judgment, business generation capabilities and project execution skills of our senior professionals. Our employees' reputations and relationships with our clients are critical elements in obtaining and executing client engagements. The Company may encounter intense competition for qualified employees from other companies inside and outside of their industries. From time to time, the Company has experienced departures of professionals. Losses of key personnel have occurred and may occur in the future. In addition, if any of our client-facing employees or executive officers were to join an existing competitor or form a competing company, some of our clients could choose to use the services of that competitor instead of the services of the Company.
The success of our businesses is based largely on the quality of our employees and we must continually monitor the market for their services and seek to offer competitive compensation. In challenging market conditions, such as have occurred in recent years, it may be difficult to pay competitive compensation without the ratio of our compensation and benefits expense to revenues becoming higher. In addition, a portion of the compensation of many of our employees takes the form of restricted stock or deferred cash that vest over a period of years, which is not as attractive to existing and potential employees as compensation consisting solely of cash or a lesser percentage of stock or other deferred compensation that may be offered by our competitors.
Difficult market conditions, market disruptions and volatility have adversely affected, and may in the future adversely affect, the Company's businesses, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company's businesses, by their nature, do not produce predictable earnings, and all of the Company's businesses may be materially affected by conditions in the global financial markets and by global economic conditions, such as interest rates, the availability of credit, inflation rates, economic uncertainty, changes in laws, commodity prices, asset prices (including real estate), currency exchange rates and controls and national and international political circumstances (including wars, terrorist acts, protests or security operations). Challenging market conditions could affect the level and volatility of securities prices and the liquidity and the value of investments in the Company's funds or other investments in which the Company has investments of its own capital, and the Company may not be able to effectively manage its alternative investment business's exposure to challenging market conditions. Challenging market conditions can also adversely affect the Company's broker-dealer business as increased volatility and lower stock prices can make companies less likely to conduct transactions.
Volatility in the value of the Company's investments and securities portfolios or other assets and liabilities or negative returns from the investments made by the Company could adversely affect the Company's results of operations and statement of financial condition.
The Company invests a significant portion of its capital base to help drive results and facilitate growth of its alternative investment and broker-dealer businesses. As of December 31, 2016, the Company's invested capital amounted to a net value $656.8 million (supporting a long market value of $1,030 million), representing approximately 85% of Cowen Group's stockholders' equity presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("US GAAP"). In accordance with US GAAP, we define fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. US GAAP also establishes a framework for measuring fair value and a valuation hierarchy based upon the transparency of inputs used in the valuation of an asset or liability. Changes in fair value are reflected in the statement of operations at each measurement period. Therefore, continued volatility in the value of the Company's investments and securities portfolios or other assets and liabilities, including funds, will result in volatility of the Company's results. In addition, the investments made by the Company may not generate

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positive returns. As a result, changes in value or negative returns from investments made by the Company may have an adverse effect on the Company's financial condition or operations in the future.
If the Company were deemed an investment company under the U.S. Investment Company Act, applicable restrictions could make it impractical for the Company to continue its respective businesses as contemplated and could have a material adverse effect on the Company's businesses and prospects.
We do not believe that we are an "investment company" as defined in the U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, because the nature of our assets and the sources of our income exclude us from the definition of an investment company under the Investment Company Act and we are primarily engaged in a non-investment company business.
 The Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder contain detailed requirements for the organization and operation of investment companies. Among other things, the Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder limit transactions with affiliates, impose limitations on the issuance of debt and equity securities, generally prohibit the issuance of options and impose certain governance requirements. The Company intends to conduct its operations so that the Company will not be deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act. If anything were to happen which would cause the Company to be deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act, requirements imposed by the Investment Company Act, including limitations on its capital structure, ability to transact business with affiliates (including subsidiaries) and ability to compensate key employees, could make it impractical for the Company to continue its business as currently conducted, impair the agreements and arrangements between and among it, its subsidiaries and its senior personnel, or any combination thereof, and materially adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations. Accordingly, the Company may be required to limit the amount of investments that it makes as a principal or otherwise conduct its business in a manner that does not subject the Company to the registration and other requirements of the Investment Company Act.
Limitations on access to capital by the Company and its subsidiaries could impair its liquidity and its ability to conduct its businesses.
Liquidity, or ready access to funds, is essential to the operations of financial services firms. Failures of financial institutions have often been attributable in large part to insufficient liquidity. Liquidity is of particular importance to Cowen and Company's trading business and perceived liquidity issues may affect the willingness of the Company's broker-dealer clients and counterparties to engage in brokerage transactions with Cowen and Company. Cowen and Company's liquidity could be impaired due to circumstances that the Company may be unable to control, such as a general market disruption or an operational problem that affects Cowen and Company, its trading clients or third parties. Furthermore, the Company's ability to sell assets may be impaired if other market participants are seeking to sell similar assets at the same time.
The Company primarily depends on its subsidiaries to fund its operations. Cowen and Company, ATM Execution, and Cowen Prime are subject to the net capital requirements of the SEC and various self-regulatory organizations of which they are members. These requirements typically specify the minimum level of net capital a broker-dealer must maintain and also mandate that a significant part of its assets be kept in relatively liquid form. CIL, the Company's U.K. registered broker-dealer subsidiary, is subject to the capital requirements of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the "FCA"). Any failure to comply with these capital requirements could impair the Company's ability to conduct its broker-dealer business.
The Company's alternative investment business and/or Cowen and Company and the Company's other broker-dealer subsidiaries may become subject to additional regulations which could increase the costs and burdens of compliance or impose additional restrictions which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's businesses and the performance of the Company's investment advisory products.
Firms in the financial services industry have been subject to an increasingly regulated environment. The industry has experienced increased scrutiny from a variety of regulators, including the SEC, CFTC, FINRA, NFA, U.S. Treasury, the NYSE and state attorneys general. Penalties and fines sought by regulatory authorities have increased substantially over the last several years. In light of current conditions in the global financial markets and the global economy, regulators have increased their focus on the regulation of the financial services industry. The Company may be adversely affected by changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules by these governmental authorities and self-regulatory organizations. The Company also may be adversely affected as a result of new or revised legislation or regulations imposed by the SEC, other United States or foreign governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations that supervise the financial markets. The Company could be fined, prohibited from engaging in some of its business activities or subjected to limitations or conditions on its business activities. In addition, the Company could incur significant expense associated with compliance with any such legislation or regulations or the regulatory and enforcement environment generally. Substantial legal liability or significant regulatory action against the Company could have a material adverse effect on the financial condition and results of operations of the Company or cause significant reputational harm to the Company, which could seriously affect its business prospects.

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The Company may need to modify the strategies or operations of its alternative investment business, face increased constraints or incur additional costs in order to satisfy new regulatory requirements or to compete in a changed business environment. The Company's alternative investment business is subject to regulation by various regulatory authorities both within and outside the United States that are charged with protecting the interests of investors. The activities of certain of the Company's subsidiaries and affiliates are regulated primarily within the United States by the SEC, FINRA, the NFA and the CFTC, as well as various state agencies, and are also subject to regulation by other agencies in the various jurisdictions in which they operate and are offered, including the FCA, the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier in Luxembourg and the European Securities and Markets Authority. The activities of our investment advisor entities are all regulated by the SEC due to their registrations as U.S. investment advisers and certain of these entities are also registered as CPOs with the NFA and subject to CFTC and NFA regulations.  The Company’s alternative investment management business is also subject to applicable anti-money laundering regulations in the jurisdictions in which it operates and certain alternative investment funds that are being marketed to investors domiciled in Switzerland and the EU are subject to disclosure and reporting requirements set forth under Swiss law and AIFMD, respectively.
In addition, the Company's alternative investment business is subject to regulation in the jurisdictions in which it organizes and offers its various investment products. These and other regulators in these jurisdictions have broad regulatory powers dealing with all aspects of financial services including, among other things, the authority to make inquiries of companies regarding compliance with applicable regulations, to grant permits and to regulate marketing and sales practices and the maintenance of adequate financial resources as well as significant reporting obligations to regulatory authorities. Additionally, the regulatory environment in which the Company operates frequently changes and has seen significant increased regulation in recent years and it is possible that this trend may continue.
The regulatory environment continues to be turbulent. There is an extraordinary volume of regulatory discussion papers, draft directives and proposals being issued around the world and these initiatives are not always coordinated. The predecessor to the FCA has issued a discussion paper entitled "A Regulatory Response to the Global Banking Crisis" as well as undertaken an exercise to collect data to assess the systemic risk that hedge funds may or may not pose. The Bank of England is also collecting data on the systemic risk of hedge funds. Recent rulemaking by the SEC and other regulatory authorities outside the United States have imposed trading restrictions and reporting requirements on short selling, which have impacted certain of the investment strategies implemented on behalf of the Company's investment advisory products, and continued restrictions on or further regulations of short sales could also negatively impact their performance.
In addition, financial services firms are subject to numerous perceived or actual conflicts of interest, which have drawn and which we expect will continue to draw scrutiny from the SEC and other federal and state regulators. For example, the research areas of investment banks have been and remain the subject of heightened regulatory scrutiny, which has led to increased restrictions on the interaction between equity research analysts and investment banking personnel at securities firms. Regulations have also been focusing on potential conflicts of interest or issues relating to impermissible disclosure of material nonpublic information. Appropriately dealing with conflicts of interest is complex and difficult, and our reputation could be damaged if it fails to do so. Such policies and procedures to address or limit actual or perceived conflicts may also result in increased costs, additional operational personnel and increased regulatory risk. Failure to adhere to these policies and procedures may result in regulatory sanctions or client litigation.
The Company is subject to third party litigation risk and regulatory risk which could result in significant liabilities and reputational harm which, in turn, could materially adversely affect its business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company depends to a large extent on its reputation for integrity and high-caliber professional services to attract and retain clients. As a result, if a client is not satisfied with the Company's services, it may be more damaging in its business than in other businesses. Moreover, the Company's role as advisor to clients on underwriting or merger and acquisition transactions involves complex analysis and the exercise of professional judgment, including rendering "fairness opinions" in connection with mergers and other transactions. Such activities may subject the Company to the risk of significant legal liabilities, not covered by insurance, to clients and aggrieved third parties, including stockholders of clients who could commence litigation against the Company. Although the Company's investment banking engagements typically include broad indemnities from its clients and provisions to limit exposure to legal claims relating to such services, these provisions may not protect the Company, may not be enforceable, or may be with foreign companies requiring enforcement in foreign jurisdictions which may raise the costs and decrease the likelihood of enforcement. As a result, the Company may incur significant legal and other expenses in defending against litigation and may be required to pay substantial damages for settlements and/or adverse judgments. In addition, in some instances Cowen Prime serves as a registered investment advisor providing advice to retail investors and retaining discretion over some retail investment accounts. The Company could be exposed to potential litigation and liability if any of these clients are not satisfied with the investment advisory services being provided. Substantial legal liability or significant regulatory action against the Company could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or cause significant reputational harm, which could seriously harm our business and prospects.

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In general, the Company is exposed to risk of litigation by investors in its alternative investment management business if the management of any of its investment advisory products is alleged to have been grossly negligent or fraudulent. Investors or beneficial owners of the Company’s investment advisory products could sue to recover amounts lost due to any alleged misconduct, up to the entire amount of the loss. In addition, the Company faces the risk of litigation from investors and beneficial owners of any of its investment advisory products if applicable restrictions are violated. In addition, the Company is exposed to risks of litigation or investigation relating to transactions that presented conflicts of interest that were not properly addressed. In the majority of such actions the Company would be obligated to bear legal, settlement and other costs, which may be in excess of any available insurance coverage. In addition, although the Company is contractually entitled to indemnification from its investment advisory products, our rights to indemnification may be challenged. If the Company is required to incur all or a portion of the costs arising out of litigation or investigations as a result of inadequate insurance proceeds, if any, or is not wholly indemnified, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. In its alternative investment management business, the Company is exposed to the risk of litigation if a fund suffers catastrophic losses due to the failure of a particular investment strategy or due to the trading activity of an employee who has violated market rules or regulations. Any litigation arising in such circumstances is likely to be protracted, expensive and surrounded by circumstances which are materially damaging to the Company's reputation and businesses.
The potential for conflicts of interest within the Company, and a failure to appropriately identify and deal with conflicts of interest could adversely affect our businesses.
Due to the combination of our alternative investment and broker-dealer businesses, we face an increased potential for conflicts of interest, including situations where our services to a particular client or investor or our own interests in our investments conflict with the interests of another client. Such conflicts may also arise if our broker-dealer business has access to material non-public information that may not be shared with our alternative investment business or vice versa. Additionally, our regulators have the ability to scrutinize our activities for potential conflicts of interest, including through detailed examinations of specific transactions.
Appropriately identifying and dealing with conflicts of interest is complex and difficult, and the willingness of clients to enter into transactions or engagements in which such a conflict might arise may be affected if we fail to identify and appropriately address potential conflicts of interest. In addition, potential or perceived conflicts could give rise to litigation or enforcement actions.
Employee misconduct could harm the Company by, among other things, impairing the Company's ability to attract and retain investors and subjecting the Company to significant legal liability, reputational harm and the loss of revenue from its own invested capital.
It is not always possible to detect and deter employee misconduct. The precautions that the Company takes to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases, and we may suffer significant reputational harm and financial loss for any misconduct by our employees. The potential harm to the Company's reputation and to our business caused by such misconduct is impossible to quantify.
There is a risk that the Company's employees or partners could engage in misconduct that materially adversely affects the Company's business, including a decrease in returns on its own invested capital. The Company is subject to a number of obligations and standards arising from its businesses. The violation of these obligations and standards by any of the Company's employees could materially adversely affect the Company and its investors. For instance, the Company's businesses require that the Company properly deal with confidential information. If the Company's employees were improperly to use or disclose confidential information, we could suffer serious harm to our reputation, financial position and current and future business relationships. If one of the Company's employees were to engage in misconduct or were to be accused of such misconduct, the business and reputation of the Company could be materially adversely affected.
The Company may be unable to successfully identify, manage and execute future acquisitions, investments and strategic alliances, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
We intend to continually evaluate potential acquisitions, investments and strategic alliances to expand our alternative investment and broker-dealer businesses. In the future, we may seek additional acquisitions, investments, strategic alliances or similar arrangements, which may expose us to risks such as:
the difficulty of identifying appropriate acquisitions, investments, strategic allies or opportunities on terms acceptable to us;
the possibility that senior management may be required to spend considerable time negotiating agreements and monitoring these arrangements;
potential regulatory issues applicable to the financial services business;
the loss or reduction in value of the capital investment;
our inability to capitalize on the opportunities presented by these arrangements; and

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the possibility of insolvency of a strategic ally.

Furthermore, any future acquisitions of businesses could entail a number of risks, including:
problems with the effective integration of operations;
inability to maintain key pre-acquisition business relationships;
increased operating costs;
exposure to unanticipated liabilities; and
difficulties in realizing projected efficiencies, synergies and cost savings.
 There can be no assurance that we would successfully overcome these risks or any other problems encountered with these acquisitions, investments, strategic alliances or similar arrangements.
The Company's future results will suffer if the Company does not effectively manage its expanded operations.
The Company may continue to expand its operations through new product and service offerings and through additional strategic investments, acquisitions or joint ventures, some of which may involve complex technical and operational challenges. The Company's future success depends, in part, upon its ability to manage its expansion opportunities, which pose numerous risks and uncertainties, including the need to integrate new operations into its existing business in an efficient and timely manner, to combine accounting and data processing systems and management controls and to integrate relationships with customers and business partners. In addition, future acquisitions or joint ventures may involve the issuance of additional shares of common stock of the Company, which may dilute the ownership of the Company's stockholders.
The Company's failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition, results of operations and business and the price of our Class A common stock.
The Sarbanes‑Oxley Act and the related rules require our management to conduct an annual assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and require a report by our independent registered public accounting firm addressing our internal control over financial reporting. To comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes‑Oxley Act, we are required to document formal policies, processes and practices related to financial reporting that are necessary to comply with Section 404. Such policies, processes and practices are important to ensure the identification of key financial reporting risks, assessment of their potential impact and linkage of those risks to specific areas and activities within our organization.
If we fail for any reason to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, our independent registered public accounting firm may, at that time, issue an adverse report regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Matters impacting our internal controls may cause us to be unable to report our financial information on a timely basis and thereby subject us to adverse regulatory consequences, including sanctions by the SEC or violations of applicable stock exchange listing rules. There could also be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of investor confidence in us and the reliability of our financial statements. Any such event could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and business, and result in a decline in the price of our Class A common stock.
Certain provisions of the Company's amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law may have the effect of delaying or preventing an acquisition by a third party.
The Company's amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain several provisions that may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of the Company, even if such acquisition would be financially beneficial to the Company's stockholders. These provisions also may delay, prevent or deter a merger, acquisition, tender offer, proxy contest or other transaction that might otherwise result in the Company's stockholders receiving a premium over the then-current trading price of our common stock. For example, the Company's amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes its board of directors to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of "blank check" preferred stock. Without stockholder approval, the board of directors has the authority to attach special rights, including voting and dividend rights, to this preferred stock. With these rights, preferred stockholders could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire the Company. In addition, the Company's amended and restated bylaws provide for an advance notice procedure with regard to the nomination of candidates for election as directors and with regard to business to be brought before a meeting of stockholders. The Company is also subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Under these provisions, if anyone becomes an "interested stockholder," the Company may not enter into a "business combination" with that person for three years without special approval, which could discourage a third party from making a takeover offer and could delay or prevent a change of control. For the purposes of Section 203, "interested stockholder" means, generally, someone owning 15% or more of the Company's outstanding voting stock or an affiliate of the Company that owned 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock during the past three years, subject to certain exceptions as described in Section 203.

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The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 may adversely impact the Company's business.
The Dodd-Frank Act, signed into law on July 21, 2010, represents a comprehensive overhaul of the financial services industry within the United States and is being implemented through extensive rulemaking by the SEC and other governmental agencies. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act established the federal Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (the "BCFP") and the FSOC and will require the BCFP and FSOC, among other federal agencies, to implement new rules and regulations. Many of these new rules have already been adopted, including new rules which require certain investment advisers to file information under Form PF and rules that require certain registered investment advisers which are also registered CPOs to file Form CPO-PQR with the CFTC. These filings require extensive information and we incur significant costs to satisfy these new filing requirements. As of July 2016, rule-making under Dodd-Frank was 70% complete and therefore a full assessment of the impact that the Dodd-Frank Act or the resulting rules and regulations will have on the Company's business or the financial services industry within the United States is still not practical at this time.
Heightened cyber-security risks may disrupt our businesses, result in losses or limit our growth.
We may be subject to cyber-attacks on our critical data and we may not be able to anticipate or prevent all such attacks. We may incur increasing costs in an effort to minimize these risks and could be held liable for any security breach or loss. While we have policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the effect of the possible failure, interruption or security breach of our information and communication systems, there can be no assurance that any such failure, interruption or security breach will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. The occurrence of any failure, interruption or security breach of our information or communication systems could damage our reputation, result in a loss of business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability.
Risks relating to the Company's financing transactions.
Our indebtedness has increased significantly as a result of the Cash Convertible Note financing ("Cash Convertible Notes") issued in March 2014 and Senior Notes financing ("2021 Notes") issued in October 2014 (together referred to as "Notes") and servicing this indebtedness requires a significant amount of cash. We may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to service our indebtedness.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.
We operate with a significant amount of indebtedness, which is subject to variable interest rates and contains restrictive covenants. In addition, our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock contains certain restrictions on our operations.
The 2021 Notes were issued pursuant to an Indenture, dated as of October 10, 2014 (the “Senior Indenture”), by and among the Company and The Bank of New York Mellon, as trustee. The Senior Indenture contains covenants that, among other things, limit (subject to certain exceptions) the Company’s ability and the ability of the Company’s Restricted Subsidiaries (as defined in the Senior Indenture) to: (1) incur debt (including certain preferred stock), if the incurrence of such indebtedness would cause the Company’s consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio, as defined in the Senior Indenture, to fall below 2.0 to 1.0, (2) pay dividends or make distributions on its capital stock, or purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire its capital stock, and (3) grant liens securing indebtedness of the Company without securing the 2021 Notes equally and ratably. If certain conditions are met, certain of these covenants may be suspended. In the fourth quarter of 2016 the Company’s consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio was 1.3 to 1.0 compared to the minimum of 2.0 to 1.0 required by the Senior Indenture. As a result, the Company may not currently incur new debt or make restricted payments, other than in limited permitted amounts set out in the Senior Indenture. We cannot assure you when or if the Company’s consolidated fixed charge ratio will be above the minimum 2.0 to 1.0 required by the Senior Indenture.
The certificate of designations governing our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock contains certain restrictions on our and our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things, pay dividends on, redeem or repurchase our Class A common stock and, under certain circumstances, our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, and to issue additional preferred stock. Additionally, if dividends on our Series A Convertible Preferred Stock are in arrears and unpaid for at least six or more quarterly periods, the holders (voting as a single class) of our outstanding Series A Convertible Preferred Stock will be entitled to elect two additional directors to our Board of Directors until paid in full.

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The conditional conversion feature of the Cash Convertible Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
In the event the conditional conversion feature of the Cash Convertible Notes is triggered, holders of notes will be entitled to convert the notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their notes, we would be required to pay cash to settle any such conversion, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
The accounting for the Cash Convertible Notes will result in our having to recognize interest expense significantly greater than the stated interest rate of the notes and may result in volatility to our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
We will settle conversions of the Cash Convertible Notes entirely in cash. Accordingly, the conversion option that is part of the Cash Convertible Notes is accounted for as a derivative pursuant to accounting standards relating to derivative instruments and hedging activities. In general, this results in an initial valuation of the conversion option, which is bifurcated from the debt component of the Cash Convertible Notes, resulting in an original issue discount. The original issue discount will be accreted to interest expense over the term of the Cash Convertible Notes, which will result in an effective interest rate reported in our financial statements significantly in excess of the stated coupon rate of the Cash Convertible Notes. This accounting treatment will reduce our US GAAP earnings and could adversely affect the price at which our Class A common stock trades, but it will not affect the amount of cash interest paid to holders of the Cash Convertible Notes or our cash flows.
For each financial statement period after issuance of the Cash Convertible Notes, a gain (or loss) will be reported in our Consolidated Statements of Operations to the extent the valuation of the conversion option changes from the previous period. The Cash Convertible Notes economic hedge transaction we entered into in connection with the issuance of the Cash Convertible Notes will also be accounted for as a derivative instrument, offsetting the gain (or loss) associated with changes to the valuation of the conversion option. Although we do not expect there to be a material net impact to our financial statements as a result of our issuing the Cash Convertible Notes and entering into the Cash Convertible Notes economic hedge transaction, we cannot assure you that these transactions will be completely offset, which may result in volatility to our financial statements.
Risks Related to the Company's Alternative Investment Business.
The Company's profitability may be adversely affected by decreases in revenue relating to changes in market and economic conditions.
Market conditions have been and remain inherently unpredictable and outside of the Company's control, and may result in reductions in the Company's revenue and results of operations. Such reductions may be caused by a decline in assets under management, resulting in lower management fees and incentive income, an increase in the cost of financial instruments, lower investment returns or reduced demand for assets held by investment advisory products managed by the Company's alternative investment business, which would negatively affect its ability to realize value from such assets or continued investor redemptions, resulting in lower fees and increased difficulty in raising new capital.
These factors may reduce the Company's revenue, revenue growth and income and may slow the growth of the alternative investment business or may cause the contraction of the alternative investment business. In particular, negative performance reduces assets under management, which decreases the management fees and incentive income that the Company ultimately earns. Negative performance of the Company's investment advisory products or its own proprietary investments also decreases revenue derived from the Company's returns on investment of its own capital.
The Company's ability to increase revenues and improve profitability will depend on increasing assets under management in existing alternative investment strategies and developing and marketing new investment products and strategies, including identifying and hiring or affiliating with new investment teams.
The Company’s alternative investment business generates management and incentive fee income based on its assets under management. If the Company is unable to increase its assets under management in its existing products it may be difficult to increase its revenues. The Company has recently developed and launched several new products, including a UCITS listed company offering a merger arbitrage strategy, and a long/short equity strategy. The Company may also launch new alternative investment products and hire or affiliate with new investment teams focusing on new investment strategies. If these products or strategies are not successful, or if the Company is unable to hire or affiliate with new investment teams, or successfully manage its relationships with its affiliated investment teams, the Company's profitability could be adversely affected.
The Company's revenues and, in particular, its ability to earn incentive income, would be adversely affected if its investment advisory products fall beneath their "high-water marks" as a result of negative performance.

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Incentive income, which has historically comprised a substantial portion of the Company’s alternative investment advisory business annual revenues, is, in most cases, subject to "high-water marks" whereby incentive income is earned by the Company only to the extent that the net asset value of an investment advisory product at the end of a measurement period exceeds the highest net asset value as of the end of a preceding measurement period for which the Company earned incentive income. The Company's incentive allocations are also subject, in some cases, to performance hurdles or benchmarks. To the extent the Company's investment advisory products experience negative investment performance, the investors in or beneficial owners of these investment advisory products would need to recover cumulative losses before the Company can earn incentive income with respect to the investments of those who previously suffered losses.
It may be difficult for the Company's alternative investment business to retain investment professionals during periods where market conditions make it more difficult to generate positive investment returns.
Certain of the Company's investment advisory products face particular retention issues with respect to investment professionals whose compensation is tied, often in large part, to such performance thresholds. This retention risk is heightened during periods where market conditions make it more difficult to generate positive investment returns. For example, several investment professionals receive performance-based compensation at the end of each year based upon their annual investment performance, and this performance-based compensation represents substantially all of the compensation the professional is entitled to receive during the year. If the investment professional's annual performance is negative, the professional may not be entitled to receive any performance-based compensation for the year. If investment professionals or funds, as the case may be, produce investment results that are negative (or below the applicable hurdle or benchmark), the affected investment professionals may be incentivized to join a competitor because doing so would allow them to earn performance-based compensation without the requirement that they first satisfy the high-water mark.
Investors and beneficial owners in the Company's investment advisory products can generally redeem investments with prior notice. The rate of redemptions could accelerate at any time. Historically, redemptions have created difficulties in managing the liquidity of certain of the Company's investment advisory products, reduced assets under management and adversely affected the Company's revenues, and may do so in the future.
Investors in the Company's funds and investors with managed accounts may generally redeem their investments with prior notice, subject to certain initial holding periods. Investors may reduce the aggregate amount of their investments, or transfer their investments to other funds or asset managers with different fee rate arrangements, for any number of reasons, including investment performance, changes in prevailing interest rates and financial market performance. Furthermore, investors in the Company's funds may be investors in products managed by other alternative asset managers where redemptions have been restricted or suspended. Such investors may redeem capital from Company's funds, even if the Company's funds' performance is superior, due to an inability to redeem capital from other managers. Increased volatility in global markets could accelerate the pace of fund and managed account redemptions. Redemptions of investments in the Company's funds could also take place more quickly than assets may be sold by those funds to meet the price of such redemptions, which could result in the relevant funds and/or the Company being in breach of applicable legal, regulatory and contractual requirements in relation to such redemptions, resulting in possible regulatory and investor actions against the Company and/or the Company's funds. If the Company's funds or managed accounts underperform, existing investors may decide to reduce or redeem their investments or transfer asset management responsibility to other asset managers and the Company may be unable to obtain new alternative investment business. Any such action could potentially cause further redemptions and/or make it more difficult to attract new investors.
The redemption of investments in the Company's funds or in managed accounts could also adversely affect the revenues of the Company's alternative investment business, which are substantially dependent upon the assets under management in the Company's funds. If redemptions of investments cause revenues to decline, they would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. If market conditions, negative performance or other factors cause an increased level of redemption activity returns, it could become more difficult to manage the liquidity requirements of the Company's funds, making it more difficult or more costly for the Company's funds to liquidate positions rapidly to meet redemption requests or otherwise. This in turn may negatively impact the Company's returns on its own invested capital.
In addition to the impact on the market value of assets under management, illiquidity and volatility of the global financial markets could negatively affect the ability of the Company's alternative investment business to manage inflows and outflows from the Company's funds. Several alternative investment managers, including the Company's alternative investment business, have in the past exercised, and may in the future exercise, their rights to limit, and in some cases, suspend, redemptions from the funds they manage. The Company's alternative investment business has also negotiated, and may in the future negotiate, with investors or exercise such rights in an attempt to limit redemptions or create a variety of other investor structures to bring fund assets and liquidity requirements into a more manageable balance. To the extent that the Company's alternative investment business has negotiated with investors to limit redemptions, it may be likely that such investors will continue to seek further redemptions in the future. Such actions may have an adverse effect on the ability of the Company's funds to attract new capital

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to existing funds or to develop new investment platforms. Poor performance relative to other asset management firms may result in reduced investments in the Company's funds and managed accounts and increased redemptions from the Company's funds and managed accounts. As a result, investment underperformance would likely have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations and financial condition.
Hedge fund investments, including the investments of the Company's own capital in the Company's funds, are subject to other additional risks.
Investments by the Company's funds are subject to certain risks that may result in losses. Decreases to assets under management as a result of investment losses or client redemptions may have a material adverse effect on the Company's revenues, net income and cash flows and could harm our ability to maintain or grow assets under management in existing funds or raise additional funds in the future. Additional risks include the following:
Generally, there are few limitations on hedge funds' investment strategies, which are often subject to the sole discretion of the management company or the general partner of such funds.
Hedge funds may engage in short selling, which is subject to a theoretically unlimited risk of loss because there is no limit on how much the price of a security sold short may appreciate before the short position is closed out. A fund may be subject to losses if a security lender demands return of the lent securities and an alternative lending source cannot be found or if the fund is otherwise unable to borrow securities that are necessary to hedge its positions. Furthermore, by the SEC and other regulatory authorities outside the United States have imposed trading restrictions and reporting requirements on short selling, which in certain circumstances may impair hedge funds' ability to use short selling effectively.
The efficacy of investment and trading strategies depend largely on the ability to establish and maintain an overall market position through a combination of financial instruments. A hedge fund's trading orders may not be executed in a timely and efficient manner due to various circumstances, including systems failures or human error. In such event, the fund might only be able to acquire some but not all of the components of the position, or if the overall position were in need of adjustment, the fund might not be able to make such an adjustment. As a result, a hedge fund would not be able to achieve the market position selected by the management company or general partner of such fund, and might incur a loss in liquidating its position.
Credit risk may arise through a default by one of several large institutions that are dependent on one another to meet their respective liquidity or operational needs, so that a default by one institution causes a series of defaults by the other institutions. This "systemic risk" may adversely affect the financial intermediaries (such as clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms, other counterparties and exchanges) with which the hedge funds interact on a daily basis.
Hedge funds are subject to risks due to the potential illiquidity of assets. Hedge funds may make investments or hold trading positions in markets that are volatile and which may become illiquid. The timely sale of trading positions can be impaired by decreased trading volume, increased price volatility, concentrated trading positions, limitations on the ability to transfer positions in highly specialized or structured transactions to which they may be a party, and changes in industry and government regulations. It may be impossible or highly costly for hedge funds to liquidate positions rapidly to meet margin calls, redemption requests or otherwise, particularly if there are other market participants seeking to dispose of similar assets at the same time, if the relevant market is otherwise moving against a position or in the event of trading halts or daily price movement limitations on the market. In addition, increased levels of redemptions may result in increased illiquidity as more liquid assets are sold to fund redemptions.
Hedge fund investments are subject to risks relating to investments in commodities, futures, options and other derivatives, the prices of which are highly volatile and may be subject to the theoretically unlimited risk of loss in certain circumstances. Price movements of commodities, futures and options contracts and payments pursuant to swap agreements are influenced by, among other things, interest rates, changing supply and demand relationships, trade, fiscal, monetary and exchange control programs and policies of governments and national and international political and economic events and policies. The value of futures, options and swap agreements also depends upon the price of the commodities underlying them. In addition, hedge funds' assets are subject to the risk of the failure of any of the exchanges on which their positions trade. 
Hedge fund investments that are not denominated in the U.S. dollar are subject to the risk that the value of a particular currency will change in relation to one or more other currencies. Among the factors that may affect currency values are trade balances, the level of short-term interest rates, differences in relative values of similar assets in different currencies, long-term opportunities for investment and capital appreciation and political developments. Officials in foreign countries may, from time to time, take actions in respect of their currencies that could significantly affect the value of a hedge fund’s assets denominated in those currencies or the liquidity of such investments. For example, a

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foreign government may unilaterally devalue its currency against other currencies, which would typically have the effect of reducing the U.S. dollar value of investments denominated in that currency. A foreign government may also limit the convertibility or repatriation of its currency or assets denominated in that currency. While the Company generally expects to hedge its exposure to currencies other than the U.S. dollar, and may do so through foreign currency futures contracts and options thereon, forward foreign currency exchange contracts, swaps or any combination thereof, but there can be no assurance that such hedging strategies will be implemented, or if implemented, will be effective. While a hedge fund may enter into currency hedging transactions to seek to reduce risk, such transactions may result in a poorer overall performance than if it had not engaged in such hedging transactions. For a variety of reasons, the Company may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between the hedging instruments utilized and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Such an imperfect correlation may prevent the Company from achieving the intended hedge or expose a fund to risk of loss.
Hedge funds are also subject to the risk that war, terrorism, and related geopolitical events may lead to increased short-term market volatility and have adverse long-term effects on the U.S. and world economies and markets generally, as well as adverse effects on issuers of securities and the value of investments. War, terrorism, and related geopolitical events have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on U.S. and non-U.S. economies and markets generally. Those events, as well as other changes in U.S. and non-U.S. economic and political conditions, also could adversely affect individual issuers or related groups of issuers, securities markets, interest rates, credit ratings, inflation, investor sentiment and other factors affecting the value of the Company’s investments.
If the Company's or managed account's counterparty for any of its derivative or non-derivative contracts defaults on the performance of those contracts, the Company may not be able to cover its exposure under the relevant contract.
The Company's funds and managed accounts enter into numerous types of financing arrangements with a wide array of counterparties around the world, including loans, hedge contracts, swaps, repurchase agreements and other derivative and non-derivative contracts. The terms of these contracts are generally complex and often customized and generally are not subject to regulatory oversight. The Company is subject to the risk that the counterparty to one or more of these contracts may default, either voluntarily or involuntarily, on its performance under the contract. Any such default may occur at any time without notice. Additionally, the Company may not be able to take action to cover its exposure if a counterparty defaults under such a contract, either because of a lack of the contractual ability or because market conditions make it difficult to take effective action. The impact of market stress or counterparty financial condition may not be accurately foreseen or evaluated and, as a result, the Company may not take sufficient action to reduce its risks effectively.
Counterparty risk is accentuated where the fund or managed account has concentrated its transactions with a single or small group of counterparties. Generally, hedge funds are not restricted from concentrating any or all of their transactions with one counterparty. Moreover, the Company's internal review of the creditworthiness of their counterparties may prove inaccurate. The absence of a regulated market to facilitate settlement and the evaluation of creditworthiness may increase the potential for losses.
In addition, these financing arrangements often contain provisions that give counterparties the ability to terminate the arrangements if any of a number of defaults occurs with respect to the Company or its funds or managed accounts, as the case may be, including declines in performance or assets under management and losses of key management personnel, each of which may be beyond our control. In the event of any such termination, the Company's funds or managed accounts may not be able to enter into alternative arrangements with other counterparties and our business may be materially adversely affected.
The Company may suffer losses in connection with the insolvency of prime brokers, custodians, administrators and other agents whose services the Company uses and who may hold assets of the Company's funds.
All of the Company's funds use the services of prime brokers, custodians, administrators or other agents to carry out certain securities transactions and to conduct certain business of the Company's funds. In the event of the insolvency of a prime broker and/or custodian, the Company's funds might not be able to recover equivalent assets in full as they may rank among the prime broker's and custodian's unsecured creditors in relation to assets which the prime broker or custodian borrows, lends or otherwise uses. In addition, the Company's funds' cash held with a prime broker or custodian (if any) may not be segregated from the prime broker's or custodian's own cash, and the funds will therefore rank as unsecured creditors in relation thereto.
Operational risks relating to the failure of data processing systems and other information systems and technology may disrupt our alternative investment business, result in losses and/or limit the business's operations and growth.
The Company's alternative investment business and its funds rely heavily on financial, accounting, trading and other data processing systems to, among other things, execute, confirm, settle and record transactions across markets and geographic locations in a time-sensitive, efficient and accurate manner. If any of these systems does not operate properly or are disabled,

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the Company could suffer financial loss, a disruption of its business, liability to the Company's funds, regulatory intervention and/or reputational damage. In addition, the Company's alternative investment business is highly dependent on information systems and technology, and the cost of maintaining such systems may increase from its current level. Such a failure to accommodate the operational needs of the Company's alternative investment business, or an increase in costs related to such information systems, could have a material adverse effect on the Company, both with respect to a decrease in the operational performance of its alternative investment business and an increase in costs that may be necessary to improve such systems.
The Company depends on its presence in New York, New York, where most of the Company's alternative investment personnel are located, for the continued operation of its business. We have taken precautions to limit the impact that a disruption to operations at our New York headquarters could cause (for example, by ensuring that the Company can operate independently of offices in other geographic locations). Although these precautions have been taken, a disaster or a disruption in the infrastructure that supports our alternative investment business, including a disruption involving electronic communications or other services used by the third parties with whom the Company's alternative investment business conducts business (including the funds invested in by the Company’s fund of funds platform), or directly affecting the New York, New York, headquarters, could have a material adverse impact on the Company's ability to continue to operate its alternative investment business without interruption. The Company's disaster recovery programs may not be sufficient to mitigate the harm that may result from such a disaster or disruption. In addition, insurance might only partially reimburse us for our losses, if at all. Finally, the Company relies on third party service providers for certain aspects of its business, including for certain information systems and technology and administration of the Company's funds. Severe interruptions or deteriorations in the performance of these third parties or failures of their information systems and technology could impair the quality of the Company's alternative investment business operations and could impact the Company's reputation and materially adversely affect our alternative investment business.
Certain of the Company's funds may invest in relatively high-risk, illiquid assets, and the Company may fail to realize any profits from these activities for a considerable period of time or lose some or all of the principal amounts of these investments.
Certain of the Company's funds and managed accounts invest a portion of their assets in securities that are not publicly traded. In many cases, such funds may be prohibited by contract or by applicable securities laws from selling such securities for a period of time or there may not be a public market for such securities. Even if the securities are publicly traded, large holdings of securities can often be disposed of only over a substantial length of time, exposing the investment returns to risks of downward movement in market prices during the disposition period. Accordingly, under certain conditions, the Company's funds may be forced to either sell securities at lower prices than they had expected to realize or defer, potentially for a considerable period of time, sales that they had planned to make. Investing in these types of investments can involve a high degree of risk, and the Company's funds may lose some or all of the principal amount of such investments, including our own invested capital.
Risk management activities may materially adversely affect the return on the Company's funds' investments if such activities do not effectively limit a fund's exposure to decreases in investment values or if such exposure is overestimated.
When managing the Company's funds' exposure to market risks, the relevant fund (or one of the funds invested in by the Company) may use forward contracts, options, swaps, caps, collars and floors or pursue other strategies or use other forms of derivative financial instruments to limit its exposure to changes in the relative values of investments that may result from market developments, including changes in interest rates, currency exchange rates and asset prices. The success of such derivative transactions generally will depend on the Company's (or the underlying fund manager's) ability to accurately predict market changes in a timely fashion, the degree of correlation between price movements of a derivative instrument, the position being hedged, the creditworthiness of the counterparty and other factors. As a result, these transactions may result in poorer overall investment performance than if they had not been executed. Such transactions may also limit the opportunity for gain if the value of a hedged position increases. A perfect correlation between the instruments used in a hedging or other derivative transaction and the position being hedged may not be attained. An imperfect correlation could give rise to a loss. Also, it may not be possible to fully or perfectly limit exposure against all changes in the value of an investment because the value of an investment is likely to fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, many of which will be beyond the Company's (or the underlying fund manager's) control or ability to hedge.
Fluctuations in currency exchange rates could materially affect the Company's alternative investment business and its results of operations and financial condition.
The Company uses U.S. dollars as its reporting currency. Investments in the Company's funds and managed accounts are made in different currencies, including Euros, Pounds Sterling, Australian Dollar and Yen. In addition, the Company's funds and managed accounts hold investments denominated in many foreign currencies. To the extent that the Company's revenues from its alternative investment business are based on assets under management denominated in such foreign currencies, our reported revenues may be significantly affected by the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar against these currencies. Typically, an increase in

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the exchange rate between U.S. dollars and these currencies will reduce the impact of revenues denominated in these currencies in the financial results of our alternative investment business. For example, management fee revenues derived from each Euro and Australian Dollar of assets under management denominated in Euros and Australian Dollar will decline in U.S. dollar terms if the value of the U.S. dollar appreciates against the Euro and Australian Dollar. In addition, the calculation of the amount of assets under management is affected by exchange rate movements as assets under management denominated in foreign currencies are converted to U.S. dollars. The Company's alternative investment business also incurs a portion of its expenditures in currencies other than U.S. dollars. As a result, our alternative investment business is subject to the effects of exchange rate fluctuations with respect to any currency conversions and the Company’s ability to hedge these risks and the cost of such hedging or the Company’s decision not to hedge could impact the performance of the Company's funds and our alternative investment business and its results of operations and financial condition.
The due diligence process that the Company's alternative investment business undertakes in connection with investments by the Company's funds is inherently limited and may not reveal all facts that may be relevant in connection with making an investment.
Before making investments, particularly investments in securities that are not publicly traded, the Company endeavors to conduct a due diligence review of such investment that it deems reasonable and appropriate based on the facts and circumstances applicable to each investment. When conducting due diligence, the Company is often required to evaluate critical and complex business, financial, tax, accounting, environmental and legal issues. Outside consultants, legal advisors, accountants, investment bankers and financial analysts may be involved in the due diligence process in varying degrees depending on the type of investment. Nevertheless, when conducting due diligence and making an assessment regarding an investment, the Company is limited to the resources available, including information provided by the target of the investment and, in some circumstances, third party investigations. The due diligence investigation that the Company conducts with respect to any investment opportunity may not reveal or highlight all relevant facts that may be necessary or helpful in evaluating such investment opportunity. Moreover, such an investigation will not necessarily result in the investment being successful, which may adversely affect the performance of the Company's funds and managed accounts and the Company's ability to generate returns on its own invested capital from any such investment.
The Company's real estate business is subject to the risks inherent in the ownership and operation of real estate and the construction and development of real estate.
The Company's real estate business is subject to the risks inherent in the ownership and operation of real estate and real estate-related businesses and assets. These risks include those associated with general and local economic conditions, changes in supply of and demand for competing properties in an area, changes in environmental regulations and other laws, various uninsured or uninsurable risks, natural disasters, changes in real property tax rates, changes in interest rates, the reduced availability of mortgage financing which may render the sale or refinancing of properties difficult or impracticable, environmental liabilities, contingent liabilities on disposition of assets, terrorist attacks, war and other factors that are beyond our control. Further, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has found that global climate change could increase the severity and perhaps the frequency of extreme weather events, which could subject real property to increased weather-related risks in the coming years. There are also presently a number of current and proposed regulatory initiatives, both domestically and globally, that are geared towards limiting and scaling back the emission of greenhouse gases, which certain scientists have linked to global climate change. Although not known with certainty at this time, such regulation could adversely affect the costs to construct and operate real estate in the coming years, such as through increased energy costs.
In recent years commercial real estate markets in the United States generally experienced major disruptions due to the unprecedented lack of available capital, in the form of either debt or equity, and declines in value as a result of the overall economic decline. If these conditions were to occur again transaction volume may drop precipitously, negatively impacting the valuation and performance of the Company's real estate investments significantly. Additionally, if the Company's real estate business acquires direct or indirect interests in undeveloped land or underdeveloped real property, which may often be non-income producing, they will be subject to the risks normally associated with such assets and development activities, including risks relating to the availability and timely receipt of zoning and other regulatory or environmental approvals, the cost, potential for cost overruns and timely completion of construction (including risks beyond the control of the investor, such as weather or labor conditions or material shortages) and the availability of both construction and permanent financing on favorable terms.
Our third party reinsurance business could expose us to losses.
We provide third party reinsurance coverage through our Luxembourg subsidiary, Hollenfels Re S.A (“Hollenfels”). We have written polices relating to property and casualty, worker's compensation, general liability and construction performance bonds and may issue reinsurance policies relating to other types of insurance. Because we write reinsurance, the success of our underwriting efforts depends, in part, upon the policies, procedures and expertise of the ceding companies making the original underwriting decisions. We face the risk that these ceding companies may fail to accurately assess the risks that they assume initially, which, in turn, may lead us to inaccurately assess the risks we assume. If we fail to establish and receive appropriate

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premium rates or the claims we receive exceed the premiums and retrocession recoverables we are able to collect, we will suffer losses.
We may be unable to purchase retrocession reinsurance and our retrocession agreements subject us to third-party credit risk.
We may enter into retrocession agreements with third parties in order to limit our exposure to losses from the reinsurance coverage provided by Hollenfels. Changes in the availability and cost of retrocession reinsurance, which are subject to market conditions that are outside of our control, may reduce to some extent our ability to use retrocession reinsurance to balance exposures across our reinsurance operations. Accordingly, we may not be able to obtain our desired amounts of retrocession reinsurance. In addition, even if we are able to obtain such reinsurance, we may not be able to negotiate terms that we deem appropriate or acceptable or obtain such reinsurance from entities with satisfactory creditworthiness. While we seek to do business with creditworthy counterparties, if the parties who provide us with retrocession are not able to meet their obligations to us or fail to make timely payments under the terms of our retrocession agreements, we could be materially and adversely affected because we may remain liable under the terms.
The alternative investment industry is intensely competitive, which may adversely affect the Company's ability to attract and retain investors and investment professionals.
The alternative investment industry is extremely competitive. Competition includes numerous international, national, regional and local asset management firms and broker-dealers, commercial bank and thrift institutions, and other financial institutions. Many of these institutions offer products and services that are similar to, or compete with, those offered by us and have substantially more personnel and greater financial resources than the Company does. The key areas for competition include historical investment performance, the ability to identify investment opportunities, the ability to attract and retain the best investment professionals and the quality of service provided to investors. The Company's ability to compete may be adversely affected if it underperforms in comparison to relevant benchmarks, peer groups or competing asset managers. The competitive market environment may result in increased downward pressure on fees, for example, by reduced management fee and incentive allocation percentages. The future results of operations of the Company's alternative investment business are dependent in part on its ability to maintain appropriate fee levels for its products and services. In the current economic environment, many competing asset managers experienced substantial declines in investment performance, increased redemptions, or counterparty exposures which impaired their businesses. Some of these asset managers have reduced their fees in an attempt to avoid additional redemptions. Competition within the alternative investment industry could lead to pressure on the Company to reduce the fees that it charges its clients for alternative investment products and services. A failure to compete effectively may result in the loss of existing clients and business, and of opportunities to generate new business and grow assets under management, each of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's alternative investment business and results of operations, financial condition and prospects. Furthermore, consolidation in the alternative investment industry may accelerate, as many asset managers are unable to withstand the substantial declines in investment performance, increased redemptions, and other pressures impacting their businesses, including increased regulatory, compliance and control requirements. Some competitors may acquire or combine with other competitors. The combined business may have greater resources than the Company does and may be able to compete more effectively against the Company and rapidly acquire significant market share.
Increased regulatory focus could result in regulation that may limit the manner in which the Company and the investment advisory products it manages invest in the Company's investment advisory products, materially impacting the Company's business.
The Company's alternative investment business may be adversely affected if new or revised legislation or regulations are enacted, or by changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing rules and regulations imposed by the SEC, other U.S. or foreign governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations that supervise the financial markets and their participants. Such changes could place limitations on the type of investor that can invest in alternative investment funds or on the conditions under which such investors may invest. Further, such changes may limit the scope of investing activities that may be undertaken by alternative investment managers as well as their funds. It is impossible to determine the extent of the impact of any new or recently enacted laws, including the Dodd-Frank Act, or any regulations or initiatives that may be proposed, or whether any of the proposals will become law. Compliance with any new laws or regulations could be difficult and expensive and affect the manner in which the Company's alternative investment business conducts itself, which may adversely impact its results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Additionally, as a result of highly publicized financial scandals, investors, regulators and the general public have exhibited concerns over the integrity of both the U.S. financial markets and the regulatory oversight of these markets. As a result, the business environment in which Company's alternative investment business operates is subject to heightened regulation. With respect to alternative investment funds, in recent years, there has been debate in both U.S. and foreign governments about new rules or regulations, including increased oversight or taxation, in addition to the recently enacted

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legislation described above. As calls for additional regulation have increased, there may be a related increase in regulatory investigations of the trading and other investment activities of alternative investment funds, including the Company's funds. Such investigations may impose additional expenses on the Company, may require the attention of senior management and may result in fines if any of the Company's funds are deemed to have violated any regulations.
The Company's alternative investment business may suffer as a result of loss of business from key investors.
The loss of all or a substantial portion of the business provided by key investors could have a material impact on income derived from management fees and incentive allocations and consequently have a material adverse effect on our alternative investment business and results of operations or financial condition.
The success of our Cowen Aviation business depends on our ability to lease the aircraft we own and to dispose of the aircraft at the end of the lease terms.
Our Cowen Aviation business leases specialized aircraft to various counterparties.  We may incur losses if these counterparties do not renew their leases with us if we are unable to re-lease the aircraft to different counterparties.  In addition, we may also incur losses if the residual value of the aircraft at the end of the lease terms is less than what we expected the value to be or if we are unable to dispose of the aircraft at the end of the lease term.
Risks Related to the Company's Broker-Dealer Business
The Company's broker-dealer business focuses principally on specific sectors of the economy, and deterioration in the business environment in these sectors or a decline in the market for securities of companies within these sectors could materially affect our broker-dealer business.
The Company focuses principally on the Target Sectors of the economy. Therefore, volatility in the business environment in these sectors or in the market for securities of companies within these sectors could substantially affect the Company's financial results. The business environment for companies in these sectors has been subject to substantial volatility, and the Company's financial results have consequently been subject to significant variations from year to year. The market for securities in each of the Company's target sectors may also be subject to industry-specific risks. For example, changes in policies of the United States Food and Drug Administration, along with changes to Medicare and government reimbursement policies, may affect the market for securities of healthcare companies, and changes to how the U.S. government reviews foreign acquisitions of U.S. based companies may make executing M&A transactions more difficult.
As an investment bank which focuses primarily on specific growth sectors of the economy, the Company also depends significantly on private company transactions for sources of revenues and potential business opportunities. To the extent the pace of these private company transactions slows or the average size declines due to a decrease in private equity financings, difficult market conditions in the Company's target sectors or other factors, the Company's business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
The financial results of the Company's broker-dealer business may fluctuate substantially from period to period.
The Company has experienced, and we expect to experience in the future, significant periodic variations in its revenues and results of operations. These variations may be attributed in part to the fact that its investment banking revenues are typically earned upon the successful completion of a transaction, the timing of which is uncertain and beyond the Company's control. In most cases, the Company receives little or no payment for investment banking engagements that do not result in the successful completion of a transaction. As a result, our broker-dealer business is highly dependent on market conditions as well as the decisions and actions of its clients and interested third parties. For example, a client's acquisition transaction may be delayed or terminated because of a failure to agree upon final terms with the counterparty, failure to obtain necessary regulatory consents or board or stockholder approvals, failure to secure necessary financing, adverse market conditions or unexpected financial or other problems in the client's or counterparty's business. If the parties fail to complete a transaction on which the Company is advising or an offering in which the Company is participating, we will earn little or no revenue from the transaction, and we may incur significant expenses that may not be recouped. This risk may be intensified by the Company's focus on growth companies in the Target Sectors as the market for securities of these companies has experienced significant variations in the number and size of equity offerings. Many companies initiating the process of an IPO are simultaneously exploring other strategic alternatives, such as a merger and acquisition transaction. The Company's broker-dealer revenues would be adversely affected in the event that an IPO for which it is acting as an underwriter is preempted by the company's sale if the Company is not also engaged as a strategic advisor in such sale. As a result, our broker-dealer business is unlikely to achieve steady and predictable earnings on a quarterly basis.



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Pricing and other competitive pressures may impair the revenues of the Company's brokerage business.
The Company's brokerage business accounted for approximately 60% of the broker-dealer segment's revenues during 2016. Along with other firms, the Company has experienced price competition in this business in recent years. In particular, the ability to execute trades electronically and through alternative trading systems has increased the pressure on trading commissions and spreads. We expect to continue to experience competitive pressures in these and other areas in the future as some of our competitors in the investment banking industry seek to obtain market share by competing on the basis of price or use their own capital to facilitate client trading activities. In addition, the Company faces pressure from larger competitors, who may be better able to offer a broader range of complementary products and services to clients in order to win their trading or prime brokerage business. We are committed to maintaining and improving the Company's comprehensive research coverage to support its brokerage business and the Company may be required to make additional investments in the Company's research capabilities.
The Company faces strong competition from larger firms.
The research, brokerage and investment banking industries are intensely competitive, and the Company expects them to remain so. The Company competes on the basis of a number of factors, including client relationships, reputation, the abilities of the Company's professionals, market focus and the relative quality and price of the Company's services and products. The Company has experienced intense price competition in some of its businesses, including trading commissions and spreads in its brokerage business. In addition, pricing and other competitive pressures in investment banking, including the trends toward multiple book runners, co-managers and financial advisors, and a larger share of the underwriting fees and discounts being allocated to the book-runners, could adversely affect the Company's revenues from its broker-dealer business.
The Company is a relatively small investment bank. Many of the Company's competitors in the research, brokerage and investment banking industries have a broader range of products and services, greater financial resources, larger customer bases, greater name recognition and marketing resources, a larger number of senior professionals to serve their clients' needs, greater global reach and more established relationships with clients than the Company has. These larger competitors may be better able to respond to changes in the research, brokerage and investment banking industries, to compete for skilled professionals, to finance acquisitions, to fund internal growth and to compete for market share generally.
The scale of our competitors in the investment banking industry has increased in recent years as a result of substantial consolidation among companies in the research, brokerage and investment banking industries. In addition, a number of large commercial banks and other broad-based financial services firms have established or acquired underwriting or financial advisory practices and broker-dealers or have merged with other financial institutions. These firms have the ability to offer a wider range of products than the Company does which may enhance their competitive position. They also have the ability to support their investment banking and advisory groups with commercial banking and other financial services in an effort to gain market share, which has resulted, and could further result, in pricing pressure in the Company's businesses. If we are unable to compete effectively with our competitors in the investment banking industry, the Company's business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
The Company's capital markets and strategic advisory engagements are singular in nature and do not generally provide for subsequent engagements.
The Company's investment banking clients generally retain the Company on a short-term, engagement-by-engagement basis in connection with specific capital markets or mergers and acquisitions transactions, rather than on a recurring basis under long-term contracts. As these transactions are typically singular in nature and the Company's engagements with these clients may not recur, the Company must seek out new engagements when its current engagements are successfully completed or are terminated. As a result, high activity levels in any period are not necessarily indicative of continued high levels of activity in any subsequent period. If the Company is unable to generate a substantial number of new engagements that generate fees from new or existing clients, the Company's broker-dealer business and results of operations would likely be adversely affected.
Larger and more frequent capital commitments in the Company's trading and underwriting businesses increase the potential for significant losses.
There has been a trend toward larger and more frequent commitments of capital by financial services firms in many of their activities. For example, in order to compete for certain transactions, investment banks may commit to purchase large blocks of stock from publicly traded issuers or significant stockholders, instead of the more traditional marketed underwriting process in which marketing is completed before an investment bank commits to purchase securities for resale. To the extent the total net capital of the Company's broker-dealers allows it, the Company anticipates participating in this trend and, as a result, the Company will be subject to increased risk as it commits capital to facilitate business. As of December 31, 2016, the Company has total net capital of approximately $65.3 million. Furthermore, the Company may suffer losses as a result of the

21



positions taken in these transactions even when economic and market conditions are generally favorable for others in the industry.
The Company may enter into large transactions in which it commits its own capital as part of its trading business to facilitate client trading activities. The number and size of these large transactions may materially affect the Company's results of operations in a given period. Market fluctuations may also cause the Company to incur significant losses from its trading activities. To the extent that the Company owns assets (i.e., has long positions), a downturn in the value of those assets or in the markets in which those assets are traded could result in losses. Conversely, to the extent that the Company has sold assets it does not own (i.e., has short positions), in any of those markets, an upturn in the value of those assets or in markets in which those assets are traded could expose the Company's broker-dealer business to potentially large losses as it attempts to cover short positions by acquiring assets in a rising market.
Operational risks relating to the failure of data processing systems and other information systems and technology or other infrastructure may disrupt the Company's broker-dealer business and result in losses or limit our operations and growth in the industry.
The Company's broker-dealer business is highly dependent on its ability to process, on a daily basis, a large number of transactions across diverse markets, and the transactions that the Company processes have become increasingly complex. The inability of the Company's systems to accommodate an increasing volume of transactions could also constrain the Company's ability to expand its broker-dealer business. If any of these systems do not operate properly or are disabled, or if there are other shortcomings or failures in the Company's internal processes, people or systems, the Company could suffer impairments, financial loss, a disruption of its broker-dealer business, liability to clients, regulatory intervention or reputational damage.
The Company has outsourced certain aspects of its technology infrastructure including data centers and wide area networks, as well as some trading applications. The Company is dependent on its technology providers to manage and monitor those functions. A disruption of any of the outsourced services would be out of the Company's control and could negatively impact our broker-dealer business. The Company has experienced disruptions on occasion, none of which has been material to the Company's operations and results. However, there can be no guarantee that future material disruptions with these providers will not occur.
The Company also faces the risk of operational failure of or termination of relations with any of the clearing agents, exchanges, clearing houses or other financial intermediaries that the Company uses to facilitate its securities transactions. Any such failure or termination could adversely affect the Company's ability to effect transactions and to manage its exposure to risk.
In addition, the Company's ability to conduct its broker-dealer business may be adversely impacted by a disruption in the infrastructure that supports Company and the communities in which we are located. This may affect, among other things, the Company's financial, accounting or other data processing systems. This may include a disruption involving electrical, communications, transportation or other services used by us or third parties with which the Company conducts business, whether due to fire, other natural disaster, power or communications failure, act of terrorism or war or otherwise. Nearly all of our broker-dealer employees in our primary locations in New York, Boston, San Francisco and London work in close proximity to each other. Although the Company has a formal disaster recovery plan in place, if a disruption occurs in one location and our broker-dealer employees in that location are unable to communicate with or travel to other locations, the Company's ability to service and interact with its clients may suffer, and the Company may not be able to implement successfully contingency plans that depend on communication or travel.
Our broker-dealer business also relies on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information in its computer systems and networks. The Company's computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer viruses or other malicious code and other events that could have a security impact. If one or more of such events occur, this could jeopardize our or our broker-dealer clients' or counterparties' confidential and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, the Company's computer systems and networks, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our broker-dealer business', its clients', its counterparties' or third parties' operations. The Company may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify its protective measures, to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures or to make required notifications, and the Company may be subject to litigation and financial losses that are either not insured against or not fully covered through any insurance maintained by the Company.




22



The market structure in which our market-making business operates may make it difficult for this business to maintain profitability.
        Market structure changes have had an adverse effect on the results of operations of our market-making business. These changes may make it difficult for us to maintain and/or predict levels of profitability of, or may cause us to generate losses in, our market-making business.
The growth of electronic trading and the introduction of new technology in the markets in which our market-making business operates may adversely affect this business and may increase competition.
        The continued growth of electronic trading and the introduction of new technologies is changing our market-making business and presenting new challenges. Securities, futures and options transactions are increasingly occurring electronically, through alternative trading systems. It appears that the trend toward alternative trading systems will continue to accelerate. This acceleration could further increase program trading, increase the speed of transactions and decrease our ability to participate in transactions as principal, which would reduce the profitability of our market-making business. Some of these alternative trading systems compete with our market-making business and with our algorithmic trading platform, and we may experience continued competitive pressures in these and other areas. Significant resources have been invested in the development of our electronic trading systems, which includes our ATM business, but there is no assurance that the revenues generated by these systems will yield an adequate return on the investment, particularly given the increased program trading and increased percentage of stocks trading off of the historically manual trading markets.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.    Properties
Our principle offices, all of which are leased, are located in New York City, Boston, San Francisco and London.  Our other offices, all of which are leased, are located in Atlanta, Chicago, Cleveland, Greenwich, Houston, Jersey City, Menlo Park, Port Orange, Stamford, Purchase, Washington D.C., Luxembourg, Belfast, Hong Kong, and other various locations.  Our corporate headquarters are located in New York, New York and comprise approximately 150,000 square feet of leased space pursuant to lease agreements through 2023.  We lease approximately 19,000 square feet of space in Boston pursuant to a lease agreement expiring in 2023, which is used primarily by our broker-dealer segment.  In San Francisco, we lease approximately 22,000 square feet of space, pursuant to a lease agreement expiring in 2025 which is used by our broker-dealer segment.  Our London offices are subject to lease agreements expiring in 2022 which are used by our alternative investment and broker-dealer segments.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings    
In the ordinary course of business, we are named as defendants in, or as parties to, various legal actions and proceedings. Certain of these actions and proceedings assert claims or seek relief in connection with alleged violations of securities, banking, anti-fraud, anti-money laundering, employment and other statutory and common laws. Certain of these actual or threatened legal actions and proceedings include claims for substantial or indeterminate compensatory or punitive damages, or for injunctive relief.
In the ordinary course of business, we are also subject to governmental and regulatory examinations, information gathering requests (both formal and informal), certain of which may result in adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions or other relief. Certain of our affiliates and subsidiaries are investment banks, registered broker-dealers, futures commission merchants, investment advisers or other regulated entities and, in those capacities, are subject to regulation by various U.S., state and foreign securities, commodity futures and other regulators. In connection with formal and informal inquiries by these regulators, we receive requests, and orders seeking documents and other information in connection with various aspects of our regulated activities.
Due to the global scope of our operations, and presence in countries around the world, we may be subject to litigation, and governmental and regulatory examinations, information gathering requests, investigations and proceedings (both formal and informal), in multiple jurisdictions with legal and regulatory regimes that may differ substantially, and present substantially different risks, from those we are subject to in the United States.
The Company seeks to resolve all litigation and regulatory matters in the manner management believes is in the best interests of the Company and its shareholders, and contests liability, allegations of wrongdoing and, where applicable, the amount of damages or scope of any penalties or other relief sought as appropriate in each pending matter.
In accordance with US GAAP, the Company establishes reserves for contingencies when the Company believes that it is probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. The Company discloses a

23



contingency if there is at least a reasonable possibility that a loss may have been incurred and there is no reserve for the loss because the conditions above are not met. The Company's disclosure includes an estimate of the reasonably possible loss or range of loss for those matters, for which an estimate can be made. Neither a reserve nor disclosure is required for losses that are deemed remote.
The Company appropriately reserves for certain matters where, in the opinion of management, the likelihood of liability is probable and the extent of such liability is reasonably estimable. Such amounts are included within accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities in the accompanying consolidated statements of financial condition. Estimates, by their nature, are based on judgment and currently available information and involve a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, the type and nature of the litigation, claim or proceeding, the progress of the matter, the advice of legal counsel, the Company's defenses and its experience in similar cases or proceedings as well as its assessment of matters, including settlements, involving other defendants in similar or related cases or proceedings. The Company may increase or decrease its legal reserves in the future, on a matter-by-matter basis, to account for developments in such matters. The Company accrues legal fees as incurred.
The following information reflects developments with respect to the Company's legal proceedings that occurred in the year ended December 31, 2016.
On May 28, 2014, Energy Intelligence Group, Inc. and Energy Intelligence Group UK (collectively, "EIG") filed a lawsuit against Cowen and Company, LLC in the United States Court for the Southern District of New York (Energy Intelligence Group, Inc. and Energy Intelligence Group UK v. Cowen and Company, LLC, No. 14-CV-3789). The complaint alleged copyright infringement based on alleged impermissible distribution of EIG's publication, Oil Daily, by Cowen and Company and Dahlman Rose & Company, LLC, as Cowen's alleged predecessor-in-interest. EIG sought statutory damages based on alleged willful infringement of their copyrights. On November 12, 2014, the Company filed an answer and affirmative defenses to the EIG complaint.  On September 25, 2015, the Company filed its motion for partial summary judgment to dismiss certain of EIG’s claims relating to Dahlman Rose’s alleged copyright infringement.  During the second quarter of 2016 the Company also filed a motion to disqualify EIG’s copyright counsel on conflict of interest grounds.  Both of the Company’s motions were heard in the second quarter of 2016.  On July 15, 2016 the District Court ruled in favor of the Company on both of its motions.  The Company and EIG entered into a settlement agreement on September 30, 2016, pursuant to which EIG agreed to withdraw its lawsuit with prejudice. The settlement amount paid by the Company and the current period impact of the settlement was not material to the Company’s financial position or the results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2016. The dismissal of the lawsuit was approved by the District Court on October 4, 2016.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not Applicable.
PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Stock Price Information and Stockholders
Our Class A common stock is listed and trades on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol "COWN." As of February 24, 2017, there were approximately 40 holders of record of our Class A common stock. This number does not include stockholders for whom shares were held in "nominee" or "street" name.
The following table contains historical quarterly price information for the year ended December 31, 2016. On December 5, 2016, we effected a one-for-four reverse stock split. On February 24, 2017, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock was $14.55.

24



2016 Fiscal Year
High
 
Low
First Quarter
$
15.88

 
$
9.88

Second Quarter
15.56

 
10.92

Third Quarter
15.32

 
11.48

Fourth Quarter
16.75

 
11.60

 
 
 
 
2015 Fiscal Year
High
 
Low
First Quarter
$
22.12

 
$
16.40

Second Quarter
26.04

 
20.60

Third Quarter
26.36

 
17.44

Fourth Quarter
19.60

 
15.08

Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on Class A common stock or any other class of common stock. Any payment of cash dividends on stock in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our results of operations, earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to fund the operation, development and expansion of our business, and therefore we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on common stock in the foreseeable future.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities: Sales of Unregistered Securities
As of December 31, 2016, the Company's Board of Directors has approved a share repurchase program that authorizes the Company to purchase up to $138.3 million of Cowen Class A common stock from time to time through a variety of methods, including in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions, in accordance with applicable securities laws. During the year ended December 31, 2016, through the share repurchase program, the Company repurchased 533,939 shares of Cowen Class A common stock at an average price of $14.33 per share.
The table below sets forth the information with respect to purchases made by or on the behalf of the Company or any “affiliated purchaser” (as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Exchange Act, as amended), of our common stock during the year ended December 31, 2016. All amounts have been retroactively updated to reflect the one-for-four reverse stock split, which was effective December 5, 2016.


25



Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
 
Month 1 (January 1, 2016 – January 31, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 

 
$

 

 
18,019,322


Employee transactions(2)
 
888

 
$
18.27

 

 

 
Total
 
888

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Month 2 (February 1, 2016 – February 29, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 

 
$

 

 
25,000,000


Employee transactions(2)
 
5,916

 
$
12.93

 

 

 
Total
 
5,916

 
$
12.93

 
 
 
 
 
Month 3 (March 1, 2016 – March 31, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 
249,530

 
$
14.31

 
249,530

 
21,429,975


Employee transactions(2)
 
274,365

 
$
14.28

 

 

 
Total
 
523,895

 
$
14.29

 
 
 
 
 
Month 4 (April 1, 2016 – April 30, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 

 
$

 

 
25,000,000


Employee transactions(2)
 
20,284

 
$
14.32

 

 

 
Total
 
20,284

 
$
14.32

 
 
 
 
 
Month 5 (May 1, 2016 – May 31, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 

 
$

 

 
25,000,000

 
Employee transactions(2)
 
297,355

 
$
12.98

 

 

 
Total
 
297,355

 
$
12.98

 
 
 
 
 
Month 6 (June 1, 2016 – June 30, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 
181,250

 
$
13.48

 
181,250

 
22,556,160


Employee transactions(2)
 
28,924

 
$
13.83

 

 

 
Total
 
210,174

 
$
13.53

 
 
 
 
 
Month 7 (July 1, 2016 – July 31, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 

 
$

 

 
22,556,160


Employee transactions(2)
 
781

 
$
10.92

 

 

 
Total
 
781

 
$
10.92

 
 
 
 
 
Month 8 (August 1, 2016 – August 31, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 

 
$

 

 
22,556,160


Employee transactions(2)
 
1,689

 
$
13.60

 

 

 
Total
 
1,689

 
$
13.60

 
 
 
 
 
Month 9 (September 1, 2016 – September 30, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 

 
$

 

 
22,556,160


Employee transactions(2)
 
14,503

 
$
13.70

 

 

 
Total
 
14,503

 
$
13.70

 
 
 
 
 
Month 10 (October 1, 2016 – October 31, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 

 
$

 

 
22,556,160


Employee transactions(2)
 
16

 
$
12.96

 

 

 
Total
 
16

 
$
12.96

 
 
 
 
 
Month 11 (November 1, 2016 – November 30, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 

 
$

 

 
22,556,160


Employee transactions(2)
 
1,585

 
$
12.42

 

 

 
Total
 
1,585

 
$
12.42

 
 
 
 
 
Month 12 (December 1, 2016 – December 31, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 
103,159

 
$
15.90

 
103,159

 
20,916,234


Employee transactions(2)
 
1,624

 
$
14.00

 

 

 
Total
 
104,783

 
$
15.87

 
 
 
 
 
Total (January 1, 2016 – December 31, 2016)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common stock repurchases(1)
 
533,939

 
$
14.33

 
533,939

 
20,916,234


Employee transactions(2)
 
647,930

 
$
13.64

 

 

 
Total
 
1,181,869

 
$
13.95

 
 
 
 
 
(1)
The Company's Board of Directors have authorized the repurchase, subject to market conditions, of up to $138.3 million of the Company's outstanding common stock.

26



(2)
Represents shares of common stock withheld in satisfaction of tax withholding obligations upon the vesting of equity awards or other similar transactions.
(3)
Board approval of repurchases is based on dollar amount. The Company cannot estimate the number of shares that may yet be purchased.
Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
The following table sets forth our selected consolidated financial and other data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, and 2012. The selected consolidated statements of financial condition data and consolidated statements of operations data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, and 2012 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. Our selected consolidated financial data are only a summary and should be read in conjunction with the section entitled "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and with our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(in thousands except per share data)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Investment banking
$
133,279

 
$
222,781

 
$
170,506

 
$
105,333

 
$
71,762

Brokerage
199,180

 
157,722

 
140,132

 
114,593

 
91,167

Management fees
40,612

 
41,906

 
40,627

 
37,303

 
38,116

Incentive income
8,334

 
1,466

 
2,785

 
12,586

 
5,411

Interest and dividends
14,732

 
13,796

 
48,870

 
39,454

 
24,608

Reimbursement from affiliates
10,504

 
21,557

 
12,495

 
10,434

 
6,274

Aircraft lease revenue
4,161

 

 

 

 

Reinsurance premiums
32,459

 

 

 

 

Other revenues
22,355

 
3,726

 
9,446

 
5,418

 
3,668

Consolidated Funds revenues
5,949

 
1,613

 
2,915

 
3,398

 
509

Total revenues
471,565

 
464,567

 
427,776

 
328,519

 
241,515

Expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Employee compensation and benefits
310,038

 
321,386

 
305,483

 
207,248

 
194,034

Non-compensation expense
198,112

 
180,678

 
180,740

 
151,630

 
131,190

Reinsurance claims, commissions and amortization of deferred acquisition costs
29,904

 

 

 

 

Goodwill impairment

 

 
2,334

 

 

Consolidated Funds expenses
9,064

 
2,310

 
1,634

 
2,039

 
1,676

Total expenses
547,118

 
504,374

 
490,191

 
360,917

 
326,900

Other income (loss)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net gains (losses) on securities, derivatives and other investments
23,381

 
36,789

 
104,928

 
39,651

 
54,630

Consolidated Funds net gains (losses)
20,685

 
14,497

 
15,323

 
11,044

 
7,246

Total other income (loss)
44,066

 
51,286

 
120,251

 
50,695

 
61,876

Income (loss) before income taxes
(31,487
)
 
11,479

 
57,836

 
18,297

 
(23,509
)
Income tax expense (benefit)
(19,092
)
 
(47,496
)
 
(124,944
)
 
457

 
448

Net income (loss)
(12,395
)
 
58,975

 
182,780

 
17,840

 
(23,957
)
Net income (loss) attributable to redeemable non-controlling interests in consolidated subsidiaries and funds
6,882

 
15,246

 
15,564

 
13,193

 
(72
)
Net income (loss) attributable to Cowen Group, Inc.
(19,277
)
 
43,729

 
167,216

 
4,647

 
(23,885
)
Preferred stock dividends
6,792

 
4,075

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to Cowen Group, Inc. common stockholders
$
(26,069
)
 
$
39,654

 
$
167,216

 
$
4,647

 
$
(23,885
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic (a)
26,857

 
27,522

 
28,731

 
29,175

 
28,600

Diluted (a)
26,857

 
29,043

 
29,871

 
30,279

 
28,600

Earnings (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic (a)
$
(0.97
)
 
$
1.44

 
$
5.82

 
$
0.16

 
$
(0.84
)
Diluted (a)
$
(0.97
)
 
$
1.37

 
$
5.60

 
$
0.15

 
$
(0.84
)
 
(a) Share and per share amounts have been retroactively updated to reflect the one-for-four reverse stock split effective as of December 5, 2016.

27



 
As of December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition Data:
(dollars in thousands)
Total assets
$
2,018,523

 
$
1,787,659

 
$
2,399,718

 
$
1,842,000

 
$
1,638,476

Total liabilities
866,668

 
810,755

 
1,635,967

 
1,248,420

 
1,057,664

Redeemable non-controlling interests
379,205

 
186,911

 
86,076

 
85,814

 
85,703

Total Stockholders' Equity
$
772,650

 
$
789,993

 
$
677,675

 
$
507,766

 
$
495,109


28



Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
         The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes that appear elsewhere in this Annual Report. In addition to historical information, this discussion includes forward-looking information that involves risks and assumptions, which could cause actual results to differ materially from management's expectations. See "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview
Cowen Group, Inc. (the "Company"), a Delaware corporation formed in 2009, is a diversified financial services firm and, together with its consolidated subsidiaries (collectively, "Cowen", "Cowen Group" or the "Company"), provides alternative investment management, investment banking, research, sales and trading and prime brokerage services through its two business segments: alternative investment and broker-dealer. The alternative investment segment includes private investment funds, managed accounts, commodity pools, real estate funds, private equity structures, registered investment companies and listed vehicles and also manages a significant portion of the Company’s proprietary capital. The broker-dealer segment offers industry focused investment banking for growth-oriented companies including advisory and global capital markets origination and domain knowledge-driven research and a sales and trading platform for institutional investors.
The Company's alternative investment platform, which operates primarily under the Ramius name, offers innovative investment products and solutions across the liquidity spectrum to institutional and private clients. The predecessor to this business was founded in 1994 and, through one of its subsidiaries, has been a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the "Advisors Act") since 1997. Ramius offers investors access to strategies to meet their specific needs including long/short equity, merger arbitrage, activist equity, event driven credit, fundamental global macro, managed futures, health care royalties and real estate direct lending and equity. Ramius focuses on attracting and retaining talented in-house and affiliated investment teams and providing seed capital and working capital, an institutional infrastructure, robust sales and marketing and industry knowledge. A significant portion of the Company’s capital is invested alongside Ramius’s alternative investment clients. The Company has also invested some of its capital in its recently formed aviation and reinsurance businesses. Our alternative investment business had approximately $10.5 billion of assets under management as of January 1, 2017. See the section titled "Assets Under Management and Fund Performance" for further analysis.
Our broker-dealer businesses include research, sales and trading, prime brokerage and investment banking services to companies and primarily institutional investor clients. Our primary target sectors ("Target Sectors") are healthcare, technology, media and telecommunications, information and technology services, consumer, aerospace and defense, industrials, energy and transportation. We provide research and brokerage services to over 1,000 domestic and international clients seeking to trade securities and other financial instruments, principally in our target sectors. The broker-dealer segment also offers a full-service suite of introduced prime brokerage services targeting emerging hedge fund managers. Historically, we have focused our investment banking efforts on small to mid-capitalization public companies as well as private companies. From time to time, the Company invests in private capital raising transactions of its investment banking clients.
On December 5, 2016, the Company effected a one-for-four reverse sock split of our common stock. Except where the context indicates otherwise, all share and per share information has been retroactively adjusted to reflect the reverse stock split.
Certain Factors Impacting Our Business
Our alternative investment business and results of operations are impacted by the following factors:
Assets under management.  Our revenues from management fees are directly linked to assets under management. As a result, the future performance of our alternative investment business will depend on, among other things, our ability to retain assets under management and to grow assets under management from existing and new products. In addition, positive performance increases assets under management which results in higher management fees.
Investment performance.  Our revenues from incentive income are linked to the performance of the funds and accounts that we manage. Performance also affects assets under management because it influences investors' decisions to invest assets in, or withdraw assets from, the funds and accounts managed by us.
Fee and allocation rates.  Our management fee revenues are linked to the management fee rates we charge as a percentage of assets under management. Our incentive income revenues are linked to the incentive allocation rates we charge as a percentage of performance-driven asset growth. Our incentive allocations are generally subject to “high-water marks,” whereby incentive income is generally earned by us only to the extent that the net asset value of a fund at the end of a measurement period exceeds the highest net asset value as of the end of the earlier measurement period for which we earned incentive income. Our incentive allocations, in some cases, are subject to performance hurdles.

29



Investment performance of our own capital.  We invest our own capital and the performance of such invested capital affects our revenues.
Our broker-dealer business and results of operations are impacted by the following factors:
Underwriting, private placement and strategic/financial advisory fees.  Our revenues from investment banking are directly linked to the underwriting fees we earn in equity and debt securities offerings in which the Company acts as an underwriter, private placement fees earned in non-underwritten transactions, sales commissions earned in at-the-market offerings and success fees earned in connection with advising both buyers and sellers, principally in mergers and acquisitions. As a result, the future performance of our investment banking business will depend on, among other things, our ability to secure lead manager and co-manager roles in clients capital raising transactions as well as our ability to secure mandates as a client's strategic financial advisor.
Commissions.  Our commission revenues depend for the most part on our customer trading volumes.
Principal transactions. Principal transactions revenue includes net trading gains and losses from the Company's market-making activities and net trading gains and losses on inventory and other firm positions. Commissions associated with these transactions are also included herein. In certain cases, the Company provides liquidity to clients buying or selling blocks of shares of listed stocks without previously identifying the other side of the trade at execution, which subjects the Company to market risk.
Equity and credit research fees.  Equity and credit research fees are paid to the Company for providing equity and credit research. The Company also permits institutional customers to allocate a portion of their commissions to pay for research products and other services provided by third parties. Our ability to generate revenues relating to our equity and credit research depends on the quality of our research and its relevance to our institutional customers and other clients.
Investment performance of our own capital.  Investment income in the broker-dealer business includes gains and losses generated by the capital the Company invests in private capital raising transactions of its investment banking clients.  Our revenues from investment income are linked to the performance of the underlying investments.
External Factors Impacting Our Business
Our financial performance is highly dependent on the environment in which our businesses operate. We believe a favorable business environment is characterized by many factors, including a stable geopolitical climate, transparent financial markets, low inflation, low interest rates, low unemployment, strong business profitability and high business and investor confidence. Unfavorable or uncertain economic or market conditions can be caused by declines in economic growth, business activity or investor or business confidence, limitations on the availability (or increases in the cost of) credit and capital, increases in inflation or interest rates, exchange rate volatility, unfavorable global asset allocation trends, outbreaks of hostilities or other geopolitical instability, corporate, political or other scandals that reduce investor confidence in the capital markets, or a combination of these or other factors. Our businesses and profitability have been and may continue to be adversely affected by market conditions in many ways, including the following:
Our broker-dealer business has been, and may continue to be, adversely affected by market conditions. Increased competition continues to affect our investment banking and capital markets businesses. The same factors also affect trading volumes in secondary financial markets, which affect our brokerage business. Commission rates, market volatility, increased competition from larger financial firms and other factors also affect our brokerage revenues and may cause these revenues to vary from period to period.
Our broker-dealer business focuses primarily on small to mid-capitalization and private companies in specific industry sectors. These sectors may experience growth or downturns independent of general economic and market conditions, or may face market conditions that are disproportionately better or worse than those impacting the economy and markets generally. In addition, increased government regulation has had, and may continue to have, a disproportionate effect on capital formation by smaller companies. Therefore, our broker-dealer business could be affected differently than overall market trends.
Our alternative investment business can be adversely affected by unanticipated levels of requested redemptions. We experienced significant levels of requested redemptions during the 2008 financial crisis and, while the environment for investing in alternative investment products has since improved, it is possible that we could intermittently experience redemptions above historical levels, regardless of fund performance.
Our businesses, by their nature, do not produce predictable earnings. Our results in any period can be materially affected by conditions in global financial markets and economic conditions generally. We are also subject to various legal and regulatory actions that impact our business and financial results.

30



Recent Developments
The Company completed its previously announced one-for-four reverse stock split of the Company's Class A and B common stock. Pursuant to the reverse split, common shareholders automatically received one common share for every four common shares owned. The Company’s Class A common stock began trading on a reverse split adjusted basis on the NASDAQ Global Market at the opening of trading on December 5, 2016. The Company believes that existing stockholders will benefit from the ability to attract a broader range of investors as a result of the reverse stock split and a higher per share stock price.
Basis of presentation
The Company's consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with US GAAP as promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") through Accounting Standards Codification as the source of authoritative accounting principles in the preparation of financial statements, of the Company appearing in Part IV of this Form 10-K include the accounts of the Company, its subsidiaries, and entities in which the Company has a controlling financial interest or a substantive, controlling general partner interest. All material intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain fund entities that are consolidated in the consolidated financial statements, are not subject to these consolidation provisions with respect to their own investments pursuant to their specialized accounting.
The Company serves as the managing member/general partner and/or investment manager to affiliated fund entities which it sponsors and manages. Certain of these funds in which the Company has a substantive, controlling general partner interest are consolidated with the Company pursuant to US GAAP as described below (the “Consolidated Funds”). Consequently, the Company's consolidated financial statements reflect the assets, liabilities, income and expenses of these funds on a gross basis. The ownership interests in these funds which are not owned by the Company are reflected as redeemable non-controlling interests in consolidated subsidiaries in the consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The management fees and incentive income earned by the Company from these funds are eliminated in consolidation.
Acquisitions
On April 22, 2016, Cowen Aviation Finance Holdings Inc. ("Cowen Aviation Finance") entered into a transaction whereby Cowen Aviation Finance acquired Low Country III, LLC, which is comprised of a portfolio of four specialized aircraft currently on lease in exchange for an immaterial upfront payment and a minority equity interest in Cowen Aviation Finance. As part of the transaction Cowen Aviation Finance also acquired the associated debt financing and lease contracts for each aircraft. Separate from the transaction, Cowen Aviation Finance entered into services agreements with Tempus Applied Solutions, Inc., a related party through common directors, which, among other services, will provide marketing, maintenance, and lease administration services for Cowen Aviation Finance's current aircraft fleet. This acquisition was accounted for as an asset acquisition in accordance with US GAAP because, upon separation from the seller, the acquired assets do not meet the definition of a business.
On May 6, 2016, the Company completed its previously announced acquisition of the credit products, credit research, special situations and emerging markets units from CRT Capital Group LLC (“CRT”). The acquisition was completed for a combination of cash of $6.3 million and contingent consideration payable annually based on future revenues exceeding specific targets. The acquisition was accounted for under the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with US GAAP. As such, the results of operations of the businesses acquired are included in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations since the date of the acquisition and the assets acquired, liabilities assumed and the resulting goodwill were recorded at their fair values within their respective line items on the accompanying condensed consolidated statement of financial condition.
Divestitures
    On September 23, 2016, the Company and the portfolio managers of Ramius Alternative Solutions LLC ("RASL") completed the sale of their respective ownership interests in RASL, an investment advisor, and RASL was deconsolidated as of that date. RASL offered a range of customized hedge fund investment solutions with approximately $2.5 billion in client assets. As the Company will continue to offer its alternative investment platform to institutional and retail investors, the sale was not presented as discontinued operations. The overall impact on the consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows is not expected to be significant.
Revenue recognition
Our principal sources of revenue are derived from two segments: an alternative investment segment and a broker-dealer segment, as more fully described below.

31



Our alternative investment segment generates revenue through three principal sources: management fees, incentive income and investment income from the Company's own capital.
Our broker-dealer segment generates revenue through three principal sources: investment banking, brokerage and investment income.
Management fees
The Company earns management fees from affiliated funds and certain managed accounts that it serves as the investment manager based on assets under management. The actual management fees received vary depending on distribution fees or fee splits paid to third parties either in connection with raising the assets or structuring the investment.
Several general partners of the funds are owned jointly by the Company and third parties. Accordingly, the management fees generated by these funds are split between the Company and the other general partners. Pursuant to US GAAP, these fees received by the general partners that are accounted for under the equity method of accounting and are reflected under net gains (losses) on securities, derivatives and other investments in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Management fees are generally paid on a quarterly basis at the beginning of each quarter in arrears and are prorated for capital inflows and redemptions. While some investors may have separately negotiated fees, in general the management fees are as follows:
Hedge Funds. Management fees for the Company's hedge funds are generally charged at an annual rate of up to 2% of assets under management or notional trading level. Management fees are generally calculated monthly based on assets under management at the end of each month before incentive income.
Registered Funds. Management fees for the Company’s registered funds (State Street/Ramius Managed Futures Strategy Fund and Ramius Archview Credit and Distressed Fund) are generally charged at an annual rate of up to 1.50% of assets under management.
Real Estate. Management fees from the Company's real estate business are generally charged at an annual rate from 0.25% to 1.50% of total capital commitments during the investment period and of invested capital or net asset value of the applicable fund after the investment period has ended. Management fees are typically paid to the general partners on a quarterly basis, at the beginning of the quarter in arrears, and are prorated for changes in capital commitments throughout the investment period and invested capital after the investment period.
HealthCare Royalty Partners. In HealthCare Royalty Partners main funds, during the investment period (as defined in the relevant partnership agreements), management fees are generally charged at an annual rate of 1% to 2% of committed capital. After the investment period, management fees for these funds are generally charged at an annual rate of 0.5% to 2% of the net asset value or the aggregate cost basis of the unrealized investments held by the funds. For the other funds (and managed account) managed by Healthcare Royalty Partners, the management fee ranges from .2% to 1% and there is no adjustment based on an investment period. Management fees for the HealthCare Royalty Partners funds are calculated on a quarterly basis.
Ramius Trading Strategies. Management fees and platform fees for the Company's private commodity trading advisory business are generally charged at an annual rate of up to 0.5%. Management and platform fees are generally calculated monthly based on each account's notional trading level at the end of each month.
Incentive income
The Company earns incentive income based on net profits (as defined in the respective investment management agreements) with respect to certain of the Company's funds and managed accounts, allocable for each fiscal year that exceeds cumulative unrecovered net losses, if any, that have been carried forward from prior years. For the products we offer, incentive income earned is typically up to 20% for hedge funds (in certain cases on performance in excess of a benchmark), of the net profits earned for the full year that are attributable to each fee-paying investor. Generally, incentive income on real estate funds is earned after the investor has received a full return of their invested capital, plus a preferred return. However, for certain real estate funds, the Company is entitled to receive incentive fees earlier, provided that the investors have received their preferred return on a current basis or on an investor by investor basis. These funds are generally subject to a potential clawback of these incentive fees upon the liquidation of the fund if the investor has not received a full return of its invested capital plus the preferred return thereon. Incentive income in the HealthCare Royalty Partners funds is generally earned only after investors receive a full return of their capital plus a preferred return. Pursuant to US GAAP, incentive income received by the general partners that are accounted for under the equity method of accounting and are reflected under net gains (losses) on securities, derivatives and other investments in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.

32



In periods following a period of a net loss attributable to an investor, the Company generally does not earn incentive income on any future profits attributable to that investor until the accumulated net loss from prior periods is recovered, an arrangement commonly referred to as a “high-water mark.” The Company has elected to record incentive income revenue in accordance with “Method 2” of US GAAP. Under Method 2, the incentive income from the Company's funds and managed accounts for any period is based upon the net profits of those funds and managed accounts at the reporting date. Any incentive income recognized in the accompanying consolidated statement of operations may be subject to future reversal based on subsequent negative performance prior to the conclusion of the fiscal year, when all contingencies have been resolved.
Carried interest in the real estate funds and HealthCare Royalty Partners funds are subject to clawback to the extent that the carried interest actually distributed to date exceeds the amount due to the Company based on cumulative results. As such, the accrual for potential repayment of previously received carried interest, which is a component of accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities, represents all amounts previously distributed to the Company, less an assumed tax liability, that would need to be repaid to certain funds if these funds were to be liquidated based on the current fair value of the underlying funds' investments as of the reporting date. The actual clawback liability does not become realized until the end of a fund's life.
Investment Banking
The Company earns investment banking revenue primarily from fees associated with public and private capital raising transactions and providing strategic advisory services. Investment banking revenues are derived primarily from small and mid-capitalization companies within the Company's Target Sectors.     
Investment banking revenue consists of underwriting fees, strategic/financial advisory fees and placement and sales agent fees.    
Underwriting fees. The Company earns underwriting fees in securities offerings in which the Company acts as an underwriter, such as initial public offerings, follow-on equity offerings, debt offerings, and convertible security offerings. Fee revenue relating to underwriting commitments is recorded when all significant items relating to the underwriting process have been completed and the amount of the underwriting revenue has been determined. This generally is the point at which all of the following have occurred: (i) the issuer's registration statement has become effective with the SEC or the other offering documents are finalized; (ii) the Company has made a firm commitment for the purchase of securities from the issuer; and (iii) the Company has been informed of the number of securities that it has been allotted.
When the Company is not the lead manager for an underwriting transaction, management must estimate the Company's share of transaction-related expenses incurred by the lead manager in order to recognize revenue. Transaction-related expenses are deducted from the underwriting fee and therefore reduce the revenue the Company recognizes as co-manager. Such amounts are adjusted to reflect actual expenses in the period in which the Company receives the final settlement, typically within 90 days following the closing of the transaction.
Strategic/financial advisory fees. The Company's strategic advisory revenues include success fees earned in connection with advising companies, principally in mergers and acquisitions and restructuring transactions. The Company also earns fees for related advisory work such as providing fairness opinions. The Company records strategic advisory revenues when the services for the transactions are completed under the terms of each assignment or engagement and collection is reasonably assured. Expenses associated with such transactions are deferred until the related revenue is recognized or the engagement is otherwise concluded.
Placement and sales agent fees. The Company earns agency placement fees and sales agent commissions in non-underwritten transactions such as private placements of loans and debt and equity securities, including, private investment in public equity transactions (“PIPEs”), and as sales agent in at-the-market offerings of equity securities. The Company records placement revenues (which may be in cash and/or securities) when the services for the transactions are completed under the terms of each assignment or engagement and collection is reasonably assured. The Company records sales agent commissions on a trade date basis. Expenses associated with such transactions are deferred until the related revenue is recognized or the engagement is otherwise concluded.
Brokerage
Brokerage revenue consists of commissions, principal transactions and research fees.
Commissions. Commission revenue includes fees from executing client transactions. These fees are recognized on a trade date basis. The Company permits institutional customers to allocate a portion of their commissions to pay for research products and other services provided by third parties. The amounts allocated for those purposes are commonly referred to as soft dollar arrangements. Commissions on soft dollar brokerage are recorded net of the

33



related expenditures on an accrual basis. Commission revenues also includes fees from making algorithms available to clients.
Principal transactions. Principal transactions revenue includes net trading gains and losses from the Company's market-making activities in over-the-counter equity and fixed income securities, trading of convertible securities, and trading gains and losses on inventory and other firm positions, which include warrants previously received as part of investment banking transactions. In certain cases, the Company provides liquidity to clients by buying or selling blocks of shares of listed stocks without previously identifying the other side of the trade at execution, which subjects the Company to market risk. These positions are typically held for a very short duration.
Equity and credit research fees. Equity and credit research fees are paid to the Company for providing equity and credit research. Revenue is recognized once an arrangement exists, access to research has been provided, the fee amount is fixed or determinable, and collection is reasonably assured.
Investment Income
Investment income earned by the alternative investment and broker-dealer segments are earned from investing the Company's capital in various strategies and from investments in private capital raising transactions of its investment banking clients.
Interest and Dividends
Interest and dividends are earned by the Company from various sources. The Company receives interest and dividends primarily from securities held by the Company for purposed of investing capital, investments held by its Consolidated Funds and its brokerage balances. Interest is recognized on an accrual basis and interest income is recognized on the debt of those issuers that is deemed collectible. Interest income and expense includes premiums and discounts amortized and accreted on debt investments based on criteria determined by the Company using the effective yield method, which assumes the reinvestment of all interest payments. Dividends are recognized on the ex-dividend date.
Reimbursement from Affiliates     
The Company allocates, at its discretion, certain expenses incurred on behalf of its hedge fund and real estate businesses. These expenses relate to the administration of such subsidiaries and assets that the Company manages for its funds. In addition, pursuant to the funds' offering documents, the Company charges certain allowable expenses to the funds, including charges and personnel costs for legal, compliance, accounting, tax compliance, risk and technology expenses that directly relate to administering the assets of the funds. Such expenses that have been reimbursed at their actual costs are included in the consolidated statements of operations as employee compensation and benefits, professional, advisory and other fees, communications, occupancy and equipment, client services and business development and other.
Aircraft lease revenue
Aircraft lease revenue associated with the Company's aircraft leasing business is recorded on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease, net of the amortization of rent receivables, deferred rent, and/or prepaid initial direct costs.
Reinsurance premiums
Premiums for insurance-related contracts are earned over the coverage period. In most cases, premiums are recognized as revenues ratably over the term of the contract with unearned premiums computed on a monthly basis. For each of its contracts, the Company determines if the contract provides indemnification against loss or liability relating to insurance risk, in accordance with US GAAP. If the Company determines that a contract does not expose it to a reasonable possibility of a significant loss from insurance risk, the Company records the contract under the deposit method of accounting with any net amount receivable reflected as an asset in other assets, and any net amount payable reflected as a liability within accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities on the consolidated statements of financial condition.
The liabilities for losses and loss adjustment expenses are recorded at the estimated ultimate payment amounts, including reported losses.  Estimated ultimate payment amounts are based upon (1) reports of losses from policyholders, (2) individual case estimates and (3) estimates of incurred but not reported losses.
Provisions for losses and loss adjustment expenses are charged to earnings after deducting amounts recovered and estimates of recoverable amounts and are included in other expenses on the consolidated statements of operations.
Costs of acquiring new policies, which vary with and are directly related to the production of new policies, have been deferred to the extent that such costs are deemed recoverable from future premiums or gross profits. Such costs include commissions and allowances as well as certain costs of policy issuance and underwriting and are included within other assets on the consolidated statements of financial condition.

34



Expenses
The Company's expenses consist of compensation and benefits, interest expense and general, administrative and other expenses.
Compensation and Benefits.  Compensation and benefits is comprised of salaries, benefits, discretionary cash bonuses and equity-based compensation. Annual incentive compensation is variable, and the amount paid is generally based on a combination of employees' performance, their contribution to their business segment, and the Company's performance. Generally, compensation and benefits comprise a significant portion of total expenses, with annual incentive compensation comprising a significant portion of total compensation and benefits expenses.
Interest and Dividends.  Interest and dividend expense relates primarily to trading activity with respect to the Company's investments and interest expense on debt issued during March and October 2014.
Reinsurance claims, commissions and amortization of deferred acquisition costs. Reinsurance related expenses relate to loss and claim reserves, acquisition costs and other expenses related to our insurance and reinsurance related policies entered into during the second quarter of 2016 related to our respective businesses which commenced at the end of the fourth quarter of 2015.
General, Administrative and Other.  General, administrative and other expenses are primarily related to professional services, occupancy and equipment, business development expenses, communications, expenses associated with our reinsurance business and other miscellaneous expenses. These expenses may also include certain one-time charges and non-cash expenses.
Consolidated Funds Expenses.  Certain funds are consolidated by the Company pursuant to US GAAP. As such, the Company's consolidated financial statements reflect the expenses of these consolidated entities and the portion attributable to other investors is allocated to a redeemable non-controlling interest.
Income Taxes
The taxable results of the Company’s U.S. operations are subject to U.S. federal, state and city taxation as a corporation. The Company is also subject to foreign taxation on income it generates in certain countries.
The Company records deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax benefit or expense that will result from differences between the carrying value of its assets for income tax purposes and for financial reporting purposes, as well as for operating or capital loss and tax credit carryovers. A valuation allowance is recorded to bring the net deferred tax assets to a level that, in management’s view, is more likely than not to be realized in the foreseeable future. This level will be estimated based on a number of factors, especially the amount of net deferred tax assets of the Company that are actually expected to be realized, for tax purposes, in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax liabilities that cannot be realized in a similar future time period and thus that cannot offset the Company’s deferred tax assets are not taken into account when calculating the Company’s net deferred tax assets.
Redeemable Non-controlling Interests
Redeemable non-controlling interests represent the pro rata share of the income or loss of the non-wholly owned consolidated entities attributable to the other owners of such entities. Due to the fact that the non-controlling interests are redeemable at the option of the holder they have been classified as temporary equity.
Assets Under Management and Fund Performance
Assets Under Management
Assets under management refer to all of our alternative investment products, solutions and services including hedge funds, private equity structures, registered investment companies and listed vehicles. The Company's alternative investment segment includes such strategies as long/short equity, activist equity, event driven equity, event driven credit, global macro, customized portfolio solutions, managed futures, health care royalties and private real estate.
Assets under management also include the fair value of assets the Company manages pursuant to separately managed accounts, collateralized debt obligations for which the Company is the collateral manager, and, as indicated in the footnotes to the table below, proprietary assets which the Company has invested in these products. Also, as indicated, assets under management for certain products may represent committed capital or committed funding that may not be under our control but forms part of the alternative investment product’s trading level. 
As of January 1, 2017, the Company had assets under management of $10.5 billion, a 20.9% decrease as compared to assets under management of $13.3 billion as of January 1, 2016. The $2.8 billion decrease in assets under management during

35



the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily resulted from the sale of the alternative solutions business (see note (a) to the following table).
The following table is a breakout of total assets under management by platform as of January 1, 2017 (which excludes cross investments from other Ramius platforms):
 
 
Platform
 
 
Hedge Funds (a) (b) (g) (l)
 
Alternative Solutions (a)
 
Ramius Trading Strategies
(h)
 
Real Estate (a) (i)
 
Healthcare Royalty Partners (c) (d) (j)
 
Other (k)
 
Total
 
 
(dollars in millions)
January 1, 2014
 
$
3,168

 
$
2,936

 
$
94

 
$
1,639

 
$
1,523

 
$
67

 
$
9,427

Subscriptions
 
1,132

 
1,326

 
35

 
249

 
1,059

 

 
3,801

Redemptions
 
(935
)
 
(272
)
 

 
(181
)
 

 
(19
)
 
(1,407
)
Performance (e)
 
853

 
(206
)
 
18

 

 

 

 
665

Net Return (f)
 
26.93
 %
 
(7.02
)%
 
19.15
 %
 
%
 
%
 
%
 
7.05
 %
January 1, 2015
 
4,218

 
3,784

 
147

 
1,707

 
2,582

 
48

 
12,486

Subscriptions
 
2,725

 
997

 

 

 

 

 
3,722

Redemptions
 
(572
)
 
(810
)
 
(49
)
 
(65
)
 
(178
)
 
(14
)
 
(1,688
)
Performance (e)
 
(781
)
 
(419
)
 
(3
)
 

 
5

 

 
(1,198
)
Net Return (f)
 
(18.52
)%
 
(11.07
)%
 
(2.04
)%
 
%
 
0.19
%
 
%
 
(9.59
)%
January 1, 2016
 
5,590

 
3,552

 
95

 
1,642

 
2,409

 
34

 
13,322

Subscriptions
 
1,537

 

 

 

 

 

 
1,537

Redemptions
 
(714
)
 
(3,641
)
 
(40
)
 
(220
)
 
(137
)
 
(21
)
 
(4,773
)
Performance (e)
 
362

 
89

 
(3
)
 

 
10

 

 
458

Net Return (f)
 
6.48
 %
 
2.51
 %
 
(3.16
)%
 
%
 
0.42
%
 
%
 
3.44
 %
January 1, 2017
 
$
6,775

 
$

 
$
52

 
$
1,422

 
$
2,282

 
$
13

 
$
10,544

(a)
The Company owns between 20% and 55% of the general partners or managing members of the real estate business, the activist business, the global macro strategy business (the single strategy hedge funds) and the alternative solutions business (starting as of September 2013). On September 23, 2016 the Company completed the sale of its interest in the alternative solutions business, thereby reducing the Company’s estimated assets under management by approximately $2.5 billion.
(b)
These amounts include the Company's invested capital of approximately $176.6 million, $173.6 million and $172.2 million as of January 1, 2017, January 1, 2016 and January 1, 2015, respectively.
(c)
These amounts include the Company's invested capital of approximately $10.5 million, $20.2 million and $20.7 million as of January 1, 2017, January 1, 2016 and January 1, 2015, respectively.
(d)
This amount reflects committed capital.
(e)
Performance and net returns are net of all management and incentive fees and includes the effect of any foreign exchange translation adjustments and leverage in certain funds.
(f)
Net returns are calculated on the platform as a whole. Net return of individual funds will vary based on the timing and strategy the respective funds.
(g)
The Company’s actively marketed hedge fund products have varying liquidity terms typically ranging from daily to quarterly liquidity with less liquidity applying to certain co-investment vehicles. In 2010, the Company suspended redemption rights with respect to certain hedge funds that are being wound down. The hedge funds that have suspended redemption rights represent approximately 4.94% of the total hedge fund assets under management.
(h)
The Ramius Trading Strategies products offer investors daily liquidity.
(i)
The real estate business does not provide investors with redemption rights. Investors receive distributions upon dispositions of the underlying real estate investments of which a portion reflects committed capital.

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(j)
The Healthcare Royalty funds do not provide investors with redemption rights. Investors receive distributions upon realizations of the funds’ investments.
(k)
The collateralized debt obligations managed by the Company is an amortizing pool of assets with cash returned to investors in periodic distributions as it becomes available.
(l)
Due to the sale of its interest in Orchard Square Partners, effective December 31, 2014, redemptions during the 2014 year include $420.8 million of assets under management related to this business.
Fund Performance
For the quarter ended December 31, 2016, the Company's strategies had mostly positive results relative to their respective benchmarks, as was the case for the year ended December 31, 2016.
Our activist strategy had slightly negative results for the quarter, lagging the Russell 2000 Index, which rebounded sharply following the U.S. presidential and congressional elections in November. This strategy was positive for the year but underperformed the Russell 2000 Index in 2016; however, the portfolio management team has maintained its long term out performance since the strategy’s inception. The merger arbitrage strategy finished the year in positive territory despite losses relating to one specific transaction in the second quarter. The strategy significantly outperformed its benchmark index for the fourth quarter and for the the period after the loss relating to the specific merger arbitrage transaction in the second quarter. There was substantial growth in assets under management in 2016 pursuant to this strategy. The new UCITS Merger Fund, in partnership with Bank America Merrill Lynch, also had positive results since trading was initiated in July. The Ramius event team manages the merger arbitrage component for two multi-manager Advisor Act funds. Positive results were also achieved in these products for the quarter.
Our options-based global macro strategy had positive performance for the fourth quarter despite the continuance of an overall decline in volatility across multiple asset classes throughout 2016. Another of our affiliate managers engages in equity long/short investing in consumer-related stocks. Since joining Ramius, the strategy had generated positive results, but experienced a challenging fourth quarter due to extreme intra-sector movements within the consumer space. Our other equity long/short affiliate successfully launched its commingled fund on October 1, 2016 and enjoyed a positive fourth quarter, substantially exceeding the results of the HFRX Equity Hedge Index. In contrast to our affiliate manager that engages in equity long/short investing in consumer-related stocks, this team follows a multi-sector approach and was able to take advantage of the performance dispersion across various equity sectors.
The State Street Ramius Managed Futures Strategy Fund, which offers exposure to multi-manager managed futures, had negative returns for both the fourth quarter and the year. During a challenging period for commodity trading advisors, in general, performance was slightly better than the relevant index for the quarter and slightly behind for the full year. The internally managed multi-strategy vehicles maintained their focus on capital preservation, while also experiencing an overall increase in valuation on the remaining assets during the quarter. The management team continues to execute opportunistic transactions linked to certain holdings in order to create liquidity. As a result, we expect further distributions to investors in this product during 2017.
With regard to the longer-dated investment vehicles in real estate, the largest legacy real estate debt vehicle, as well as the legacy equity vehicles experienced minimal changes in value for the fourth quarter. Certain of the legacy real estate funds, inclusive of these two, are in the process of returning capital to investors.  The most recent real estate debt vehicle remains active, with interim results meeting performance expectations. Our healthcare royalty strategy, having raised a substantial amount of capital in 2014, still remains in its investment period. As noted in previous quarterly comments, ongoing turbulence in the pharmaceutical and health care sectors in 2016 presented attractive opportunities to long term investors. As a result, the strategy has been able to invest significant capital in both its latest commingled fund and separate managed accounts.
Invested Capital
The Company invests a significant portion of its capital base to help drive results and facilitate the growth of its alternative investment and broker/dealer businesses. Management allocates capital to three primary investment categories: (i) trading strategies; (ii) merchant banking investments; and (iii) real estate investments. The Company seeks to make strategic and opportunistic investments in varying capital structures across a diverse array of businesses, hedge funds and mutual funds. Much of the Company's trading strategy portfolio is invested alongside the Company's alternative investment clients and includes liquid investment strategies such as corporate credit trading, event driven, macro trading, and enhanced cash management. Within its merchant banking investments, management generally takes a long-term view that typically involves investing directly in public and private companies globally, private equity funds and alongside its alternative investment clients. In addition, from time to time the Company makes investments in private capital raising transactions of its investment banking

37



clients. The Company's real estate investment strategy focuses on making investments alongside the alternative investment clients invested in the RCG Longview funds, as well as in direct investments in commercial real estate projects.
As of December 31, 2016, the Company's invested capital amounted to a net value of $656.8 million (supporting a long market value of $1,030.0 million), representing approximately 85% of Cowen Group's stockholders' equity presented in accordance with US GAAP. The table below presents the Company's invested equity capital by strategy and as a percentage of Cowen Group's stockholders' equity as of December 31, 2016. The net values presented in the table below do not tie to Cowen Group's consolidated statement of financial condition as of December 31, 2016 because they are included in various line items of the accompanying consolidated statement of financial condition, including “securities owned, at fair value”, “other investments”, “cash and cash equivalents”, and “consolidated funds-securities owned, at fair value”.
Strategy
Net Value
 
% of Stockholders' Equity
 
(dollars in millions)
 
 
Trading
$
426.6

 
55%
Merchant Banking
176.2

 
23%
Real Estate
54

 
7%
Total
656.8

 
85%
Stockholders' Equity
$
772.7

 
100%
The allocations shown in the table above will change over time.
Results of Operations
To provide comparative information of the Company's operating results for the periods presented, a discussion of Economic Income (Loss) (which is a non-GAAP measure) of our alternative investment and broker-dealer segments follows the discussion of our total consolidated US GAAP results. Economic Income (Loss) reflects, on a consistent basis for all periods presented in the Company's consolidated financial statements, income earned from the Company's funds and managed accounts and from its own invested capital. Economic Income (Loss) excludes certain adjustments required under US GAAP. See the section titled “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of the Company-Segment Analysis and Economic Income (Loss),” and Note 23 to the accompanying Company's consolidated financial statements, appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K, for a reconciliation of Economic Income (Loss) to total Company US GAAP net income (loss).

38



Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2015
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Period to Period
 
2016
 
2015
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
(dollars in thousands)
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Investment banking
$
133,279

 
$
222,781

 
$
(89,502
)
 
(40
)%
Brokerage
199,180

 
157,722

 
41,458

 
26
 %
Management fees
40,612

 
41,906

 
(1,294
)
 
(3
)%
Incentive income
8,334

 
1,466

 
6,868

 
468
 %
Interest and dividends
14,732

 
13,796

 
936

 
7
 %
Reimbursement from affiliates
10,504

 
21,557

 
(11,053
)
 
(51
)%
Aircraft lease revenue
4,161

 

 
4,161

 
NM

Reinsurance premiums
32,459

 

 
32,459

 
NM

Other revenues
22,355

 
3,726

 
18,629

 
500
 %
Consolidated Funds revenues
5,949

 
1,613

 
4,336

 
269
 %
Total revenues
471,565

 
464,567

 
6,998

 
2
 %
Expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Employee compensation and benefits
310,038

 
321,386

 
(11,348
)
 
(4
)%
Interest and dividends
29,308

 
26,220

 
3,088

 
12
 %
Reinsurance claims, commissions and amortization of deferred acquisition costs
29,904

 

 
29,904

 
NM

General, administrative and other expenses
168,804

 
154,458

 
14,346

 
9
 %
Consolidated Funds expenses
9,064

 
2,310

 
6,754

 
292
 %
Total expenses
547,118

 
504,374

 
42,744

 
8
 %
Other income (loss)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net gains (losses) on securities, derivatives and other investments
23,381

 
36,789

 
(13,408
)
 
(36
)%
Consolidated Funds net gains (losses)
20,685

 
14,497

 
6,188

 
43
 %
Total other income (loss)
44,066

 
51,286

 
(7,220
)
 
(14
)%
Income (loss) before income taxes
(31,487
)
 
11,479

 
(42,966
)
 
(374
)%
Income taxes expense (benefit)
(19,092
)
 
(47,496
)
 
28,404

 
60
 %
Net income (loss)
(12,395
)
 
58,975

 
(71,370
)
 
(121
)%
Net income (loss) attributable to redeemable non-controlling interests in consolidated subsidiaries and funds
6,882

 
15,246

 
(8,364
)
 
(55
)%
Net income (loss) attributable to Cowen Group, Inc.
(19,277
)
 
43,729

 
(63,006
)
 
(144
)%
Preferred stock dividends
6,792

 
4,075

 
2,717

 
67
 %
Net income (loss) attributable to Cowen Group, Inc. common stockholders
$
(26,069
)
 
$
39,654

 
$
(65,723
)
 
(166
)%
Revenues
Investment Banking
Investment banking revenues decreased $89.5 million to $133.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $222.8 million in the prior year period. During the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company completed 76 underwriting transactions, 15 strategic advisory transactions and seven debt capital market transactions. During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company completed 129 underwriting transactions, 13 strategic advisory transactions and seven debt capital market transactions. The average underwriting fee per transaction was 12.2% less for the twelve months ended December 31, 2016 as compared to the prior year.
Brokerage
Brokerage revenues increased $41.5 million to $199.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $157.7 million in the prior year period. This was attributable to higher commissions due to an increase in customer trading volumes, the initiation of our prime brokerage businesses in the third and fourth quarters of 2015 and the initiation of our credit trading business in May 2016. Customer trading volumes across the industry (according to Bloomberg) increased 6% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2016 compared to the prior year.


39



Management Fees
Management fees decreased $1.3 million to $40.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $41.9 million in the prior year period. The decrease was primarily related to lower management fees from our alternative solutions business (due to the sale of our interest in the business) offset partially by an increase in management fees from our prime services business (acquired during the fourth quarter of 2015) and our macro options business.
Incentive Income
Incentive income increased $6.8 million to $8.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared with $1.5 million in the prior year period. This increase was primarily related to an increase in performance fees from certain private investments.
Interest and Dividends
Interest and dividends increased $0.9 million to $14.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $13.8 million in the prior year period. This was primarily attributable to an increase in the number of investments in interest bearing securities during 2016 as compared to 2015.
Reimbursements from Affiliates
Reimbursements from affiliates decreased $11.1 million to $10.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $21.6 million in the prior year period. The decrease is primarily related to a decrease in reimbursements from the activist business.
Aircraft lease revenues
Aircraft lease revenues were $4.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 relating to our new aircraft leasing business which began during 2016.
Reinsurance premiums
Reinsurance premiums of $32.5 million relate to premiums from our insurance-related business (which was entered into at the end of the fourth quarter of 2015).
Other Revenues
Other revenues increased $18.7 million to $22.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $3.7 million in the prior year period. The increase primarily relates to the sale of our interest in the alternative solutions business.
Consolidated Funds Revenues
Consolidated Funds revenues increased $4.3 million to $5.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $1.6 million in the prior year period. The increase is due to the consolidation of new funds during 2016.
Expenses
Employee Compensation and Benefits
Employee compensation and benefits expenses decreased $11.3 million to $310.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $321.4 million in the prior year period. The decrease is primarily due to $7.0 million higher total revenues offset by $7.2 million lower other income (loss) during 2016 as compared to 2015, resulting in a lower compensation and benefits accrual. The compensation to revenue ratio, including other income (loss), was 60% for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared with 62% in the prior year period.
Interest and Dividends
Interest and dividend expenses increased $3.1 million to $29.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $26.2 million in the prior year period. This was primarily attributable to an increase in the number of debt securities held during 2016 as compared to 2015.
Reinsurance claims, commissions and amortization of deferred acquisition costs
Reinsurance related expenses of $29.9 million relate to loss and claim reserves, acquisition costs and other expenses related to our insurance and reinsurance related policies entered into during the second quarter of 2016 and are related to our respective businesses which commenced at the end of the fourth quarter of 2015.



40



General, Administrative and Other Expenses
General, administrative and other expenses increased $14.3 million to $168.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $154.5 million in the prior year period. The increase is primarily related to higher floor brokerage and trade execution costs, due to higher brokerage revenue, and increased marketing and business development expenses, legal and other professional fees, depreciation and amortization and increased occupancy costs, some of which is related to acquisitions during late 2015 and during 2016.
Consolidated Funds Expenses
Consolidated Funds expenses increased $6.8 million to $9.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $2.3 million in the prior year period. The increase is due to the consolidation of new funds during 2016.
Other Income (Loss)
Other income (loss) decreased $7.2 million to $44.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with $51.3 million in the prior year period. The decrease primarily relates to decrease in performance of the Company's own invested capital. The gains and losses shown under Consolidated Funds reflect the consolidated total performance for such funds, and the portion of those gains or losses that are attributable to other investors is allocated to redeemable non-controlling interests.
Income Taxes
Income tax benefit decreased $28.4 million to $19.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with an income tax benefit of $47.5 million in the prior year period. This decrease in benefit is primarily attributable to the deferred tax benefit recognized by the Company’s Luxembourg subsidiary in 2015, partially offset by the reversal of a basis difference in the Company’s Luxembourg subsidiaries in 2016.
Income (Loss) Attributable to Redeemable Non-controlling Interests
Income (loss) attributable to redeemable non-controlling interests decreased $8.4 million to income of $6.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 compared with income of $15.2 million in the prior year period. The decrease was primarily the result of losses incurred by one of our consolidated funds. Non-controlling interests represent the pro rata share of the income or loss of the non-wholly owned consolidated entities attributable to the other owners of such entities.
Preferred Stock Dividends
On May 19, 2015, the Company completed its offering of 120,750 shares of the Company's 5.625% Series A cumulative perpetual convertible preferred stock. Each share of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock is entitled to dividends at a rate of 5.625% per annum. The Company may, at its option, pay dividends in cash, common stock or a combination thereof.

41



Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared with the Year Ended December 31, 2014
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Period to Period
 
2015
 
2014
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
(dollars in thousands)
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Investment banking
$
222,781

 
$
170,506

 
$
52,275

 
31
 %
Brokerage
157,722

 
140,132

 
17,590

 
13
 %
Management fees
41,906

 
40,627

 
1,279

 
3
 %
Incentive income
1,466

 
2,785

 
(1,319
)
 
(47
)%
Interest and dividends
13,796

 
48,870

 
(35,074
)
 
(72
)%
Reimbursement from affiliates
21,557

 
12,495

 
9,062

 
73
 %
Other revenues
3,726

 
9,446

 
(5,720
)
 
(61
)%
Consolidated Funds revenues
1,613

 
2,915

 
(1,302
)
 
(45
)%
Total revenues
464,567

 
427,776

 
36,791

 
9
 %
Expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Employee compensation and benefits
321,386

 
305,483

 
15,903

 
5
 %
Interest and dividends
26,220

 
42,752

 
(16,532
)
 
(39
)%
General, administrative and other expenses
154,458

 
137,988

 
16,470

 
12
 %
Goodwill impairment

 
2,334

 
(2,334
)
 
NM

Consolidated Funds expenses
2,310

 
1,634

 
676

 
41
 %
Total expenses
504,374

 
490,191

 
14,183

 
3
 %
Other income (loss)

 

 
 
 
 
Net gain (loss) on securities, derivatives and other investments
36,789

 
104,928

 
(68,139
)
 
(65
)%
Consolidated Funds net gains (losses)
14,497

 
15,323

 
(826
)
 
(5
)%
Total other income (loss)
51,286

 
120,251

 
(68,965
)
 
(57
)%
Income (loss) before income taxes
11,479

 
57,836

 
(46,357
)
 
(80
)%
Income tax expense (benefit)
(47,496
)
 
(124,944
)
 
77,448

 
(62
)%
Net income (loss)
58,975

 
182,780

 
(123,805
)
 
(68
)%
Net income (loss) attributable to redeemable non-controlling interests in consolidated subsidiaries and funds
15,246

 
15,564

 
(318
)
 
(2
)%
Net income (loss) attributable to Cowen Group, Inc.
43,729

 
167,216

 
(123,487
)
 
(74
)%
Preferred stock dividends
4,075

 

 
4,075

 
NM

Net income (loss) attributable to Cowen Group, Inc. common stockholders
$
39,654

 
$
167,216

 
$
(127,562
)
 
(76
)%
Revenues
Investment Banking
Investment banking revenues increased $52.3 million to $222.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $170.5 million in the prior year period. During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company completed 129 underwriting transactions, 13 strategic advisory transactions and seven debt capital market transactions. During the year ended December 31, 2014, the Company completed 129 underwriting transactions, 12 strategic advisory transactions and 16 debt capital market transactions. The average underwriting fee per transaction was 45.0% greater for the year ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the prior year period.
Brokerage
Brokerage revenues increased $17.6 million to $157.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $140.1 million in the prior year period. This was attributable to higher commissions due to an increase in customer trading volumes, a decrease in facilitation losses in our cash equity and option businesses, an increase in payments for research services and the initiation of our prime brokerage businesses in the third and fourth quarter of 2015. Customer trading volumes across the industry (according to Bloomberg) increased 9% for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the prior year.
Management Fees
Management fees increased $1.3 million to $41.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $40.6 million in the prior year period. This increase was primarily related to an increase in management fees from our healthcare

42



royalty business and prime services business offset partially by a decrease in management fees from the long/short credit business, which was sold in the fourth quarter of 2014.
Incentive Income
Incentive income decreased $1.3 million to $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared with $2.8 million in the prior year period. This decrease was primarily related to a decrease in performance fees from our alternative solutions business and a decrease in performance fees from the long/short credit business, which was sold in the fourth quarter of 2014.
Interest and Dividends
Interest and dividends decreased $35.1 million to $13.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $48.9 million in the prior year period. This decrease was attributable to the completion of the wind down of our securities lending business during the first quarter of 2015.
Reimbursements from Affiliates
Reimbursements from affiliates increased $9.1 million to $21.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $12.5 million in the prior year period. The increase is primarily related to an increase in reimbursements from the activist business.
Other Revenues
Other revenues decreased $5.7 million to $3.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $9.4 million in the prior year period.
Consolidated Funds Revenues
Consolidated Funds revenues decreased $1.3 million to $1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $2.9 million in the prior year period.
Expenses
Employee Compensation and Benefits
Employee compensation and benefits expenses increased $15.9 million to $321.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $305.5 million in the prior year period. The increase is primarily due to $36.8 million higher total revenues partially offset by $69.0 million lower other income (loss) during 2015 as compared to 2014, resulting in a higher compensation and benefits accrual to remain consistent with the Company's compensation to revenue ratio. The compensation to revenue ratio, based on total revenues only, was 69% for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared with 71% in the prior year period. The compensation to revenue ratio, including other income (loss), was 62% for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared with 56% in the prior year period.
Interest and Dividends
Interest and dividend expenses decreased $16.6 million to $26.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $42.8 million in the prior year period. This decrease was attributable to the completion of the wind down of our securities lending business during the first quarter of 2015 offset partially by an increase related to the convertible debt and other notes payable issued during the first and fourth quarters of 2014.
General, Administrative and Other Expenses
General, administrative and other expenses increased $16.5 million to $154.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $138.0 million in the prior year period. This was primarily due to higher legal and other professional fees, increased occupancy costs and an increase in client services and business development and floor brokerage and trade execution, which are variable expenses, related to higher revenues, as well as transaction costs related to acquisitions.
Goodwill Impairment
During the fourth quarter of 2014, the Company made a decision to wind down the operations of its securities lending business, therefore, the Company recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $2.3 million.
Consolidated Funds Expenses
Consolidated Funds expenses increased $0.7 million to $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $1.6 million in the prior year period.

43



Other Income (Loss)
Other income (loss) decreased $69.0 million to $51.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $120.3 million in the prior year period. The decrease primarily relates to a decrease in performance in our activist strategy and the Company's own invested capital offset partially by the agreement to sell a portion of the Company's ownership in the activist business to the principal owners of Starboard Value. The gains and losses shown under Consolidated Funds reflect the consolidated total performance for such funds, and the portion of those gains or losses that are attributable to other investors is allocated to redeemable non-controlling interests.
Income Taxes
Income tax benefit decreased $77.4 million to an income tax benefit of $47.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to an income tax benefit of $124.9 million in the prior year period. This increase in expense is primarily attributable to the release, in 2014, of the Company’s valuation allowance that were previously recorded against the Company’s US federal and state deferred tax assets, partially offset by the deferred tax benefit recognized by the Company's Luxembourg subsidiary in 2015.
Income (Loss) Attributable to Redeemable Non-controlling Interests
Income (loss) attributable to redeemable non-controlling interests decreased $0.4 million to $15.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with $15.6 million in the prior year period. The decrease was primarily the result of losses incurred by our merchant banking co-investments and a decrease in performance in the alternative solutions business offset partially by an increase in performance in our healthcare royalty business. Non-controlling interests represent the pro rata share of the income or loss of the non-wholly owned consolidated entities attributable to the other owners of such entities.
Preferred Stock Dividends
On May 19, 2015, the Company completed its offering of 120,750 shares of the Company's 5.625% Series A cumulative perpetual convertible preferred stock. Each share of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock is entitled to dividends at a rate of 5.625% per annum. The Company may, at its option, pay dividends in cash, common stock or a combination thereof.
Segment Analysis and Economic Income (Loss)
Segments
The Company conducts its operations through two segments: an alternative investment segment and a broker-dealer segment.
For the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, the Company's alternative investment segment includes hedge funds, private equity structures, registered investment companies and listed vehicles operating results and other investment platforms operating results.
For the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, the Company's broker-dealer segment includes investment banking, research, sales and trading and prime brokerage businesses' operating results.
Economic Income (Loss)
The performance measure used by the Company for each segment is Economic Income (Loss), which management uses to evaluate the financial performance of and to make operating decisions for the firm as a whole and each segment. Accordingly, management assesses its business by analyzing the performance of each segment and believes that investors should review the same performance measure that it uses to analyze its segment and business performance. In addition, management believes that Economic Income (Loss) is helpful to gain an understanding of its segment results of operations because it reflects such results on a consistent basis for all periods presented.
Our Economic Income (Loss) may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies. We use Economic Income (Loss) as a measure of each segment's operating performance, not as a measure of liquidity. Economic Income (Loss) should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for operating income, net income, operating cash flows, investing and financing activities, or other income or cash flow statement data prepared in accordance with US GAAP. As a result of the adjustments made to arrive at Economic Income (Loss), Economic Income (Loss) has limitations in that it does not take into account certain items included or excluded under US GAAP, including our Consolidated Funds. Economic Income (Loss) is considered by management as a supplemental measure to the US GAAP results to provide a more complete understanding of each segment's performance as measured by management. For a reconciliation of Economic Income (Loss) to US GAAP net income (loss) for the periods presented and additional information regarding the reconciling adjustments discussed above, see Note 23 to the Company's consolidated financial statements included in this 10-K.

44



In general, Economic Income (Loss) is a pre-tax measure that (i) eliminates the impact of consolidation for consolidated funds (ii) excludes goodwill and intangible impairment (iii) excludes certain other acquisition-related adjustments and/or reorganization expenses and (iv) excludes preferred stock dividends. In addition, Economic Income (Loss) revenues include investment income that represents the income the Company has earned in investing its own capital, including realized and unrealized gains and losses, interest and dividends, net of associated investment related expenses. For US GAAP purposes, these items are included in each of their respective line items. Economic Income (Loss) revenues also include management fees, incentive income and investment income earned through the Company's investment as a general partner in certain real estate entities and the Company's investment in the activist business. For US GAAP purposes, all of these items are recorded in other income (loss). In addition, Economic Income (Loss) expenses are reduced by reimbursement from affiliates, which for US GAAP purposes is presented gross as part of revenue.
Economic Income (Loss) Revenues
The Company's principal sources of Economic Income (Loss) revenues are derived from activities in the following business segments:
Our alternative investment segment generates Economic Income (Loss) revenues through three principal sources: management fees, incentive income and investment income from our own capital. Management fees are directly impacted by any increase or decrease in assets under management, while incentive income is impacted by our funds' performance and resulting increase or decrease in assets under management. Investment income from the Company's own capital is impacted by the performance of the funds and other securities in which our capital is invested.
Our broker-dealer segment generates Economic Income (Loss) revenues through two principal sources: investment banking and brokerage. The Company earns investment banking revenue primarily from fees associated with public and private capital raising transactions and providing strategic advisory services. Investment banking revenues are derived primarily from small and mid-capitalization companies within the Company's Target Sectors: healthcare, technology, media and telecommunications, information and technology services, consumer, aerospace and defense, industrials, energy and transportation. The Company's brokerage revenues consist of commissions, principal transactions and fees paid for equity research. Cowen's broker-dealer segment also offers a full-service suite of prime brokerage services. Management reviews brokerage revenue on a combined basis as the vast majority of the revenue is derived from the same group of clients. The Company derives its brokerage revenue primarily from trading equity and equity-linked securities on behalf of institutional investors. The majority of the Company's trading gains and losses are a result of activities that support the facilitation of client orders in both listed and over-the-counter securities, although all trading gains and losses are recorded in brokerage in the accompanying consolidated statement of operations.
Economic Income (Loss) Expenses
The Company's Economic Income expenses consist of non-interest expenses and interest expense. Non interest expenses consist of compensation and benefits and non-compensation expenses (fixed and variable), less reimbursement from affiliates. Interest expense is primarily interest from indebtedness, not trading activity (which is included within investment income (loss)).
Non-controlling Interests
Non-controlling interests represent the pro rata share of the income or loss of the non-wholly owned consolidated entities attributable to the partners of such entities.

45



Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2015
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
Total
Period-to-Period
 
Alternative
Investment
 
 
 
Total
 
Alternative
Investment
 
 
 
Total
 
 
Broker-Dealer
 
Broker-Dealer
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
(dollars in thousands)
Economic Income Revenues