EX-3.4 5 d82988exv3w4.htm EX-3.4 exv3w4
Exhibit 3.4
AMENDED AND RESTATED
BYLAWS OF
CLOVIS ONCOLOGY, INC.
Adopted ___________, 2011


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
         
    Page  
ARTICLE I — MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS
    1  
 
1.1 Place of Meetings
    1  
1.2 Annual Meeting
    1  
1.3 Special Meeting
    1  
1.4 Notice of Stockholders’ Meetings
    1  
1.5 Advance Notice
    2  
1.6 Quorum
    6  
1.7 Adjourned Meeting; Notice
    6  
1.8 Conduct of Business
    7  
1.9 Voting
    7  
1.10 Inspectors of Election
    8  
1.11 Stockholder Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting
    8  
1.12 Record Date for Stockholder Notice; Voting
    9  
1.13 Proxies
    9  
1.14 List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote
    9  
 
ARTICLE II — DIRECTORS
    10  
 
2.1 Powers
    10  
2.2 Number of Directors
    10  
2.3 Election, Qualification and Term of Office of Directors
    10  
2.4 Resignation and Vacancies
    10  
2.5 Place of Meetings; Meetings by Telephone
    11  
2.6 Conduct of Business
    11  
2.7 Regular Meetings
    11  
2.8 Special Meetings; Notice
    11  
2.9 Quorum; Voting
    12  
2.10 Board Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting
    12  
2.11 Fees and Compensation of Directors
    12  
2.12 Removal of Directors
    12  
 
ARTICLE III — COMMITTEES
    12  
 
3.1 Committees of Directors
    12  
3.2 Committee Minutes
    13  
3.3 Meetings and Actions of Committees
    13  
3.4 Subcommittees
    13  
 
ARTICLE IV — OFFICERS
    13  
 
4.1 Officers
    13  
4.2 Appointment of Officers
    14  
4.3 Subordinate Officers
    14  

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    Page  
4.4 Removal and Resignation of Officers
    14  
4.5 Vacancies in Offices
    14  
4.6 Representation of Securities of Other Entities
    14  
4.7 Authority and Duties of Officers
    14  
 
ARTICLE V — STOCK
    14  
 
5.1 Stock Certificates; Partly Paid Shares
    14  
5.2 Special Designation on Certificates
    15  
5.3 Lost Certificates
    15  
5.4 Dividends
    15  
5.5 Stock Transfer Agreements
    16  
5.6 Registered Stockholders
    16  
5.7 Transfers
    16  
 
ARTICLE VI — MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE AND WAIVER
    16  
 
6.1 Notice of Stockholder Meetings
    16  
6.2 Notice by Electronic Transmission
    16  
6.3 Notice to Stockholders Sharing an Address
    17  
6.4 Notice to Person with Whom Communication is Unlawful
    17  
6.5 Waiver of Notice
    17  
 
ARTICLE VII — GENERAL MATTERS
    18  
 
7.1 Fiscal Year
    18  
7.2 Seal
    18  
7.3 Construction; Definitions
    18  
 
ARTICLE VIII — AMENDMENTS
    18  
 

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BYLAWS
ARTICLE I — MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS
          1.1 Place of Meetings. Meetings of stockholders of Clovis Oncology, Inc. (the “Company”) shall be held at any place, within or outside the State of Delaware, determined by the Company’s board of directors (the “Board”). The Board may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as authorized by Section 211(a)(2) of the the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”). In the absence of any such designation or determination, stockholders’ meetings shall be held at the Company’s principal executive office.
          1.2 Annual Meeting. An annual meeting of stockholders shall be held at such date, at such time and at such place, as may be designated by the Board from time to time and stated in the Company’s notice of the meeting. Directors shall be elected and any other proper business may be transacted at the annual meeting. The Board of Directors may postpone, reschedule or cancel any annual meeting of stockholders previously scheduled by the Board of Directors.
          1.3 Special Meeting. A special meeting of the stockholders may be called, and business to be considered at any such meeting may be proposed, at any time exclusively by the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or a majority of the members of the Board. The Board of Directors may postpone, reschedule or cancel any special meeting of stockholders previously scheduled by the Board of Directors, the Chairperson of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to the purposes stated in the notice.
          If any person(s) other than the Board calls a special meeting, the request shall:
          (i) be in writing;
          (ii) specify the time of such meeting and the general nature of the business proposed to be transacted; and
          (iii) be delivered personally or sent by registered mail or by facsimile transmission to the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President (in the absence of a Chief Executive Officer) or the Secretary of the Company.
          The officer(s) receiving the request shall cause notice to be promptly given to the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting, in accordance with these bylaws, that a meeting will be held at the time requested by the person or persons calling the meeting. No business may be transacted at such special meeting other than the business specified in such notice to stockholders. Nothing contained in this paragraph of this section 1.3 shall be construed as limiting, fixing, or affecting the time when a meeting of stockholders called by action of the Board may be held.
          1.4 Notice of Stockholders’ Meetings. Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a notice of the meeting shall be given which shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting), and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Except as otherwise provided in

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the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting.
          1.5 Advance Notice
          (i) Advance Notice of Stockholder Business at Annual Meeting. At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business must be brought: (A) pursuant to the Company’s proxy materials with respect to such meeting, (B) by or at the direction of the Board or a committee thereof, or (C) by a stockholder of the Company who (1) is a stockholder of record at the time of the giving of the notice required by this section 1.5 and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the annual meeting and (2) has timely complied in proper written form with the notice procedures set forth in this section 1.5. In addition, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, such business must be a proper matter for stockholder action pursuant to these bylaws and applicable law. Except for proposals properly made in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, and the rules and regulations thereunder (as so amended and inclusive of such rules and regulations) (the “1934 Act”), and included in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Board, for the avoidance of doubt, clause (C) above shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to bring business before an annual meeting of stockholders.
               (a) To comply with clause (C) of section 1.5 above, a stockholder’s notice must set forth all information required under this section 1.5 and must be timely received by the secretary of the Company. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be received by the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company not later than the 90th day nor earlier than the 120th day before the one-year anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that in the event that no annual meeting was held in the previous year or if the date of the annual meeting is advanced by more than 30 days prior to or delayed by more than 60 days after the one-year anniversary of the date of the previous year’s annual meeting, then, for notice by the stockholder to be timely, it must be so received by the secretary not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (i) the 90th day prior to such annual meeting, or (ii) the tenth day following the day on which Public Announcement (as defined below) of the date of such annual meeting is first made. In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described in this section 1.5(i). “Public Announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or a comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the 1934 Act.
               (b) To be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the secretary must set forth as to each matter of business the stockholder intends to bring before the annual meeting: (1) a brief description of the business intended to be brought before the annual meeting, the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and, in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend these bylaws, the language of the proposed amendment) and the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting, (2) the name and address, as they appear on the Company’s books, of the stockholder proposing such business and any Stockholder Associated Person (as defined below), (3) the class and number of shares of the Company that are held of record or are beneficially owned by the stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person and any derivative positions held or beneficially held by the stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person, (4) whether and the

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extent to which any hedging or other transaction or series of transactions has been entered into by or on behalf of such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person with respect to any securities of the Company, and a description of any other agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares), the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to, or to manage the risk or benefit from share price changes for, or to increase or decrease the voting power of, such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person with respect to any securities of the Company, (5) any material interest of the stockholder or a Stockholder Associated Person in such business, and (6) a statement whether either such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person will deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Company’s voting shares required under applicable law to carry the proposal (such information provided and statements made as required by clauses (1) through (6), a “Business Solicitation Statement”). In addition, to be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the secretary must be supplemented not later than ten days following the record date for notice of the meeting to disclose the information contained in clauses (3) and (4) above as of the record date for notice of the meeting. For purposes of this section 1.5, a “Stockholder Associated Person” of any stockholder shall mean (i) any person controlling, directly or indirectly, or acting in concert with, such stockholder, (ii) any beneficial owner of shares of stock of the Company owned of record or beneficially by such stockholder and on whose behalf the proposal or nomination, as the case may be, is being made, or (iii) any person controlling, controlled by or under common control with such person referred to in the preceding clauses (i) and (ii).
               (c) Without exception, no business shall be conducted at any annual meeting except in accordance with the provisions set forth in this section 1.5 and, if applicable, section 1.5(ii). In addition, business proposed to be brought by a stockholder may not be brought before the annual meeting if such stockholder or a Stockholder Associated Person, as applicable, takes action contrary to the representations made in the Business Solicitation Statement applicable to such business or if the Business Solicitation Statement applicable to such business contains an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The chairperson of the annual meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare at the annual meeting that business was not properly brought before the annual meeting and in accordance with the provisions of this section 1.5, and, if the chairperson should so determine, he or she shall so declare at the annual meeting that any such business not properly brought before the annual meeting shall not be conducted. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section 1.5(i), unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual meeting of stockholders of the Company to propose business, such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Company. For purposes of this section 1.5(i), to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or must be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders.
          (ii) Advance Notice of Director Nominations at Annual Meeting. Notwithstanding anything in these bylaws to the contrary, only persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this section 1.5(ii) shall be eligible for election or re-election as directors at an annual meeting of stockholders. Nominations of persons for election or re-election to the Board of the Company shall be made at an annual meeting of stockholders only (A) by or at the direction of the Board or a committee thereof or (B) by a stockholder of the Company who (1) was a stockholder of record at the time of the giving of the notice required by this section 1.5(ii) and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the annual meeting and (2) has complied with the notice procedures set forth in this section 1.5(ii). In addition to any other applicable requirements, for a

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nomination to be made by a stockholder, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the secretary of the Company.
               (a) To comply with clause (B) of section 1.5(ii) above, a nomination to be made by a stockholder must set forth all information required under this section 1.5(ii) and must be received by the secretary of the Company at the principal executive offices of the Company at the time set forth in, and in accordance with, the final three sentences of section 1.5(i)(a) above.
               (b) To be in proper written form, such stockholder’s notice to the secretary must set forth:
                    (1) as to each person (a “nominee”) whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or re-election as a director: (A) the name, age, business address and residence address of the nominee, (B) the principal occupation or employment of the nominee, (C) the class and number of shares of the Company that are held of record or are beneficially owned by the nominee and any derivative positions held or beneficially held by the nominee, (D) whether and the extent to which any hedging or other transaction or series of transactions has been entered into by or on behalf of the nominee with respect to any securities of the Company, and a description of any other agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares), the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to, or to manage the risk or benefit of share price changes for, or to increase or decrease the voting power of the nominee, (E) a description of all arrangements or understandings between the stockholder and each nominee and any other person or persons (naming such person or persons) pursuant to which the nominations are to be made by the stockholder, (F) a written statement executed by the nominee acknowledging that as a director of the Company, the nominee will owe a fiduciary duty under Delaware law with respect to the Company and its stockholders, and (G) any other information relating to the nominee that would be required to be disclosed about such nominee if proxies were being solicited for the election or re-election of the nominee as a director, or that is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A under the 1934 Act (including without limitation the nominee’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement, if any, as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected or re-elected, as the case may be); and
                    (2) as to such stockholder giving notice, (A) the information required to be provided pursuant to clauses (2) through (5) of section 1.5(i)(b) above, and the supplement referenced in the second sentence of section 1.5(i)(b) above (except that the references to “business” in such clauses shall instead refer to nominations of directors for purposes of this paragraph), and (B) a statement whether either such stockholder or Stockholder Associated Person will deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of a number of the Company’s voting shares reasonably believed by such stockholder or Stockholder Associated Person to be necessary to elect or re-elect such nominee(s) (such information provided and statements made as required by clauses (A) and (B) above, a “Nominee Solicitation Statement”).
               (c) At the request of the Board, any person nominated by a stockholder for election or re-election as a director must furnish to the secretary of the Company (1) that information required to be set forth in the stockholder’s notice of nomination of such person as a director as of a date subsequent to the date on which the notice of such person’s nomination was given and (2) such other information as may reasonably be required by the Company to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director or audit committee financial expert of the Company under applicable law, securities exchange rule or regulation, or any publicly-disclosed corporate governance guideline or committee charter of the Company and (3) that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such nominee; in the absence of the furnishing of such information if requested, such stockholder’s nomination shall not be considered in

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proper form pursuant to this section 1.5(ii).
               (d) Without exception, no person shall be eligible for election or re-election as a director of the Company at an annual meeting of stockholders unless nominated in accordance with the provisions set forth in this section 1.5(ii). In addition, a nominee shall not be eligible for election or re-election if a stockholder or Stockholder Associated Person, as applicable, takes action contrary to the representations made in the Nominee Solicitation Statement applicable to such nominee or if the Nominee Solicitation Statement applicable to such nominee contains an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The chairperson of the annual meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare at the annual meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the provisions prescribed by these bylaws, and if the chairperson should so determine, he or she shall so declare at the annual meeting, and the defective nomination shall be disregarded. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section 1.5(ii), unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual meeting of stockholders of the Company to present a nomination, such nomination shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Company. For purposes of this section 1.5(ii), to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or must be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders.
               (e) Notwithstanding anything in this section 1.5(ii) to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board at the annual meeting is increased effective after the time period for which nominations would otherwise be due under this section 1.5(ii) and there is no public announcement by the Company naming the nominees for the additional directorships at least one hundred (100) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice required by this section 1.5(ii) shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for the additional directorships, if it shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which such Public Announcement is first made by the Company.
          (iii) Advance Notice of Director Nominations at Special Meetings.
               (a) For a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected or re-elected, nominations of persons for election or re-election to the Board shall be made only (1) by or at the direction of the Board or a committee thereof or (2) by any stockholder of the Company who (A) is a stockholder of record at the time of the giving of the notice required by this section 1.5(iii) and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the special meeting and (B) delivers a timely written notice of the nomination to the secretary of the Company that includes the information set forth in sections 1.5(ii)(b) and 1.5(ii)(c) above. To be timely, such notice must be received by the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such special meeting or the tenth day following the day on which Public Announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board to be elected or re-elected at such meeting. A person shall not be eligible for election or re-election as a director at a special meeting unless the person is nominated (i) by or at the direction of the Board or (ii) by a stockholder in accordance with the notice procedures set forth in this section 1.5(iii). In addition, a nominee shall not be eligible for election or re-election if a stockholder or Stockholder Associated Person, as applicable, takes action contrary to the representations made in the Nominee Solicitation Statement applicable to such nominee or if the Nominee Solicitation Statement applicable to such nominee contains

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an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section 1.5(iii), unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at a special meeting of stockholders of the Company to present a nomination, such nomination shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Company. For purposes of this section 1.5(iii), to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or must be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at such special meeting and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at such special meeting.
               (b) The chairperson of the special meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare at the meeting that a nomination or business was not made in accordance with the procedures prescribed by these bylaws, and if the chairperson should so determine, he or she shall so declare at the meeting, and the defective nomination or business shall be disregarded.
          (iv) Other Requirements and Rights. In addition to the foregoing provisions of this section 1.5, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of state law and of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this section 1.5. Nothing in this section 1.5 shall be deemed to affect any rights of:
               (a) a stockholder to request inclusion of proposals in the Company’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a 8 (or any successor provision) under the 1934 Act;
               (b) the Company to omit a proposal from the Company’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a 8 (or any successor provision) under the 1934 Act; or
               (c) holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors pursuant to any applicable provision of the certificate of incorporation.
          1.6 Quorum. Except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, at each meeting of stockholders the presence in person or by proxy of the holders of shares of stock having a majority of the votes which could be cast by the holders of all outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote at the meeting shall be necessary and sufficient to constitute a quorum. Where a separate vote by a class or series or classes or series is required, a majority of the outstanding shares of such class or series or classes or series, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter, except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.
          If, however, such quorum is not present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, then either (i) the chairperson of the meeting, or (ii) the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have the power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, in the manner provided in section 1.7, until a quorum is present or represented.
          1.7 Adjourned Meeting; Notice. Any meeting of stockholders, annual or special, may adjourn from time to time to reconvene at the same or some other place, and notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time, place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the Company may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original

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meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board shall fix as the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record as of the record date so fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.
          1.8 Conduct of Business. Meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by the Chairperson of the Board, if any, or in his or her absence by the Vice Chairperson of the Board, if any, or in the absence of the foregoing persons by the Chief Executive Officer, or in the absence of the foregoing persons by the President, or in the absence of the foregoing persons by a Vice President, or in the absence of the foregoing persons by a chairperson designated by the Board, or in the absence of such designation by a chairperson chosen at the meeting. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in his or her absence the chairperson of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting. The date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be announced at the meeting by the person presiding over the meeting. The Board may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of the meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate.
          Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board, the person presiding over any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to recess and/or adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such presiding person, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board or prescribed by the presiding person of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the presiding person of the meeting shall determine; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. The presiding person at any meeting of stockholders, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting, shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a matter or business was not properly brought before the meeting and if such presiding person should so determine, such presiding person shall so declare to the meeting and any such matter or business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted or considered. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board or the person presiding over the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.
          1.9 Voting. The stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of section 1.12 of these bylaws, subject to Section 217 (relating to voting rights of fiduciaries, pledgors and joint owners of stock) and Section 218 (relating to voting trusts and other voting agreements) of the DGCL.
          Except as may be otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each stockholder entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such stockholder which has voting power upon the matter in question. Voting at meetings of stockholders need not be by written ballot. If authorized by the Board, such requirement of a written ballot shall be satisfied by a ballot submitted by electronic transmission (as defined in section 6.2 of these bylaws), provided that any such electronic transmission must either set forth or be submitted with

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information from which it can be determined that the electronic transmission was authorized by the stockholder or proxy holder.
          Except as otherwise required by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, in all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders. Except as otherwise required by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. Where a separate vote by a class or series or classes or series is required, in all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of the majority of the affirmative voting power of the shares of such class or series or classes or series present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting shall be the act of such class or series or classes or series, except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.
          1.10 Inspectors of Election. Before any meeting of stockholders, the Board shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting or its adjournment and make a written report thereof. If any person appointed as inspector fails to appear or fails or refuses to act, then the Chairperson of the meeting may, and upon the request of any stockholder or a stockholder’s proxy shall, appoint a person to fill that vacancy.
          Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath to execute faithfully the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. The inspector or inspectors so appointed and designated shall (i) ascertain the number of shares of capital stock of the Company outstanding and the voting power of each share, (ii) determine the shares of capital stock of the Company represented at the meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots, (iii) count all votes and ballots, (iv) determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors, and (v) certify their determination of the number of shares of capital stock of the Company represented at the meeting and such inspector or inspectors’ count of all votes and ballots.
          In determining the validity and counting of proxies and ballots cast at any meeting of stockholders of the Company, the inspector or inspectors may consider such information as is permitted by applicable law.
          1.11 Stockholder Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting. Any action required by the DGCL to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders of a corporation, or any action which may be taken at any annual or special meeting of such stockholders, must be effected by a duly called meeting and may not be effected by any consent or consents in writing; provided, however, that, to the extent expressly permitted by the certificate of designation relating to one or more series of Preferred Stock, any action required or permitted to be taken by the holders of such series of Preferred Stock, voting separately as a series or separately as a class with one or more other such series, may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by the holders of outstanding shares of the relevant class or series having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted and shall be delivered to the Company by delivery to its registered office in Delaware, its principal place of business, or to an officer or agent of the Company having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded.

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          1.12 Record Date for Stockholder Notice; Voting. In order that the Company may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board and which record date:
          (i) in the case of determination of stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or adjournment thereof, shall, unless otherwise required by law, not be more than sixty nor less than ten days before the date of such meeting;
          (ii) in the case of determination of stockholders for any other action, shall not be more than 60 days prior to such other action; and
          (iii) in the case of determination of stockholders entitled to notice of a meeting or an adjournment thereof, if the Board so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination.
          If no record date is fixed by the Board:
          (i) the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held; and
          (ii) the record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board adopts the resolution relating thereto.
          A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting, provided that the Board may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting and stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting, the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance with the provisions of Section 213 of the DGCL and this section 1.12 at the adjourned meeting.
          1.13 Proxies. Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy authorized by an instrument in writing or by a transmission permitted by law filed in accordance with the procedure established for the meeting, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section 212 of the DGCL. A written proxy may be in the form of a telegram, cablegram, or other means of electronic transmission which sets forth or is submitted with information from which it can be determined that the telegram, cablegram, or other means of electronic transmission was authorized by the person.
          1.14 List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the Company shall prepare and make, at least ten days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (provided, however, if the record date for

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determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than ten (10) days before the date of the meeting, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth day before the meeting date), arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The Company shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of at least ten days prior to the meeting: (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the Company’s principal place of business. In the event that the Company determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Company may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Company. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then a list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.
ARTICLE II — DIRECTORS
          2.1 Powers. The business and affairs of the Company shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board, except as may be otherwise provided in the DGCL or the certificate of incorporation.
          2.2 Number of Directors. The Board shall consist of one or more members, each of whom shall be a natural person. Unless the certificate of incorporation fixes the number of directors, the number of directors shall be determined from time to time by resolution of the Board. No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director before that director’s term of office expires.
          2.3 Election, Qualification and Term of Office of Directors. Except as provided in section 2.4 of these bylaws, directors shall be elected at each annual meeting of stockholders. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws. The certificate of incorporation or these bylaws may prescribe other qualifications for directors. Each director shall hold office until such director’s successor is elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal.
          2.4 Resignation and Vacancies. Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Company; provided, however, that if such notice is given by electronic transmission, such electronic transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the electronic transmission was authorized by the director. A resignation is effective when the resignation is delivered unless the resignation specifies a later effective date or an effective date determined upon the happening of an event or events. A resignation which is conditioned upon the director failing to receive a specified vote for reelection as a director may provide that it is irrevocable. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, when one or more directors resign from the Board, effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective.
          Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws:

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          (i) Vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors elected by all of the stockholders having the right to vote as a single class may be filled only by a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director.
          (ii) Whenever the holders of any class or classes of stock or series thereof are entitled to elect one or more directors by the provisions of the certificate of incorporation, vacancies and newly created directorships of such class or classes or series may only be filled by a majority of the directors elected by such class or classes or series thereof then in office, or by a sole remaining director so elected.
          A director elected to fill a vacancy or newly created directorship shall be elected for the unexpired term of his or her predecessor in office and shall hold office until the next election of the class for which such elector shall have been chosen and until such director’s successor is duly elected and qualified, or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal.
          2.5 Place of Meetings; Meetings by Telephone. The Board may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or outside the State of Delaware.
          Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, members of the Board, or any committee designated by the Board, may participate in a meeting of the Board, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.
          2.6 Conduct of Business. Meetings of the Board shall be presided over by the Chairperson of the Board, if any, or in his or her absence by the Vice Chairperson of the Board, if any, or in the absence of the foregoing persons by a chairperson designated by the Board, or in the absence of such designation by a chairperson chosen at the meeting. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in his or her absence the chairperson of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.
          2.7 Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the Board.
          2.8 Special Meetings; Notice. Special meetings of the Board for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, or any two directors.
          Notice of the time and place of special meetings shall be:
          (i) delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone;
          (ii) sent by United States first-class mail, postage prepaid;
          (iii) sent by facsimile; or
          (iv) sent by electronic mail,
directed to each director at that director’s address, telephone number, facsimile number or electronic mail address, as the case may be, as shown on the Company’s records.

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          If the notice is (i) delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone, (ii) sent by facsimile or (iii) sent by electronic mail, it shall be delivered or sent at least 24 hours before the time of the holding of the meeting. If the notice is sent by United States mail, it shall be deposited in the United States mail at least four days before the time of the holding of the meeting. Any oral notice may be communicated to the director. The notice need not specify the place of the meeting (if the meeting is to be held at the Company’s principal executive office) nor the purpose of the meeting.
          2.9 Quorum; Voting. At all meetings of the Board, a majority of the total authorized number of directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. If a quorum is not present at any meeting of the Board, then the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present.
          The vote of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.
          If the certificate of incorporation provides that one or more directors shall have more or less than one vote per director on any matter, every reference in these bylaws to a majority or other proportion of the directors shall refer to a majority or other proportion of the votes of the directors.
          2.10 Board Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.
          2.11 Fees and Compensation of Directors. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the Board shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors.
          2.12 Removal of Directors. Unless otherwise restricted by statute, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any director or the entire Board may be removed by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors only for cause.
          No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director prior to the expiration of such director’s term of office.
ARTICLE III — COMMITTEES
          3.1 Committees of Directors. The Board may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Company. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board or in these bylaws, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board in the management of the business and affairs of the Company, and may authorize the seal of the Company to be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no such

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committee shall have the power or authority to (i) approve or adopt, or recommend to the stockholders, any action or matter (other than the election or removal of directors) expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval, or (ii) adopt, amend or repeal any bylaw of the Company.
          3.2 Committee Minutes. Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the Board when required.
          3.3 Meetings and Actions of Committees. Meetings and actions of committees shall be governed by, and held and taken in accordance with, the provisions of:
          (i) section 2.5 (Place of Meetings; Meetings by Telephone);
          (ii) section 2.7 (Regular Meetings);
          (iii) section 2.8 (Special Meetings; Notice);
          (iv) section 2.9 (Quorum; Voting);
          (v) section 2.10 (Board Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting); and
          (vi) section 6.5 (Waiver of Notice)
with such changes in the context of those bylaws as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the Board and its members. However:
          (i) the time of regular meetings of committees may be determined either by resolution of the Board or by resolution of the committee;
          (ii) special meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of the Board; and
          (iii) notice of special meetings of committees shall also be given to all alternate members, who shall have the right to attend all meetings of the committee. The Board may adopt rules for the governance of any committee not inconsistent with the provisions of these bylaws.
          Any provision in the certificate of incorporation providing that one or more directors shall have more or less than one vote per director on any matter shall apply to voting in any committee or subcommittee, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.
          3.4 Subcommittees. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, these bylaws or the resolutions of the Board designating the committee, a committee may create one or more subcommittees, each subcommittee to consist of one or more members of the committee, and delegate to a subcommittee any or all of the powers and authority of the committee.
ARTICLE IV — OFFICERS
          4.1 Officers. The officers of the Company shall be a President and a Secretary. The Company may also have, at the discretion of the Board, a Chairperson of the Board, a Vice Chairperson of the Board, a Chief Executive Officer, one or more Vice Presidents, a Chief Financial Officer, a Treasurer, one or more Assistant Treasurers, one or more Assistant Secretaries, and any such other officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of these bylaws. Any number of offices may be held by the same person.

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          4.2 Appointment of Officers. The Board shall appoint the officers of the Company, except such officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of section 4.3 of these bylaws, subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment.
          4.3 Subordinate Officers. The Board may appoint, or empower the Chief Executive Officer or, in the absence of a Chief Executive Officer, the President, to appoint, such other officers and agents as the business of the Company may require. Each of such officers and agents shall hold office for such period, have such authority, and perform such duties as are provided in these bylaws or as the Board may from time to time determine.
          4.4 Removal and Resignation of Officers. Subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment, any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by the Board at any regular or special meeting of the Board or, except in the case of an officer chosen by the Board, by any officer upon whom such power of removal may be conferred by the Board.
          Any officer may resign at any time by giving written or electronic notice to the Company; provided, however, that if such notice is given by electronic transmission, such electronic transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the electronic transmission was authorized by the officer. Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice. Unless otherwise specified in the notice of resignation, the acceptance of the resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation is without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the Company under any contract to which the officer is a party.
          4.5 Vacancies in Offices. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Company shall be filled by the Board or as provided in section 4.3.
          4.6 Representation of Securities of Other Entities. Unless otherwise directed by the Board, the President or any other person authorized by the Board or the President is authorized to vote, represent and exercise on behalf of the Company all rights incident to any and all securities of any other entity or entities standing in the name of the Company. The authority granted herein may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by such person having the authority.
          4.7 Authority and Duties of Officers. Except as otherwise provided in these bylaws, the officers of the Company shall have such powers and duties in the management of the Company as may be designated from time to time by the Board and, to the extent not so provided, as generally pertain to their respective offices, subject to the control of the Board.
ARTICLE V — STOCK
          5.1 Stock Certificates; Partly Paid Shares. The shares of the Company shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Company. Every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Company by the Chairperson of the Board or Vice-Chairperson of the Board, or the President or a Vice-President, and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer,

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transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Company with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue. The Company shall not have power to issue a certificate in bearer form.
          The Company may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid therefor. Upon the face or back of each stock certificate issued to represent any such partly paid shares, or upon the books and records of the Company in the case of uncertificated partly paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated. Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully paid shares, the Company shall declare a dividend upon partly paid shares of the same class, but only upon the basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.
          5.2 Special Designation on Certificates. If the Company is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate that the Company shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the DGCL, in lieu of the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate that the Company shall issue to represent such class or series of stock, a statement that the Company will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated stock, the Company shall send to the registered owner thereof a written notice containing the information required to be set forth or stated on certificates pursuant to this section 5.2 or Sections 156, 202(a) or 218(a) of the DGCL or with respect to this section 5.2 a statement that the Company will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the rights and obligations of the holders of uncertificated stock and the rights and obligations of the holders of certificates representing stock of the same class and series shall be identical.
          5.3 Lost Certificates. Except as provided in this section 5.3, no new certificates for shares shall be issued to replace a previously issued certificate unless the latter is surrendered to the Company and cancelled at the same time. The Company may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Company may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to give the Company a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.
          5.4 Dividends. The Board, subject to any restrictions contained in the certificate of incorporation or applicable law, may declare and pay dividends upon the shares of the Company’s capital stock. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the Company’s capital stock, subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation.
          The Board may set apart out of any of the funds of the Company available for dividends a reserve or reserves for any proper purpose and may abolish any such reserve.

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          5.5 Stock Transfer Agreements. The Company shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes of stock of the Company to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the Company of any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the DGCL.
          5.6 Registered Stockholders. The Company:
          (i) shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends and to vote as such owner;
          (ii) shall be entitled to hold liable for calls and assessments the person registered on its books as the owner of shares; and
          (iii) shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of another person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.
          5.7 Transfers. Transfers of record of shares of stock of the Company shall be made only upon its books by the holders thereof, in person or by an attorney duly authorized, and, if such stock is certificated, upon the surrender of a certificate or certificates for a like number of shares, properly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignation or authority to transfer.
ARTICLE VI — MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE AND WAIVER
          6.1 Notice of Stockholder Meetings. Notice of any meeting of stockholders, if mailed, is given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the Company’s records. An affidavit of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Company that the notice has been given shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.
          6.2 Notice by Electronic Transmission. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders pursuant to the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any notice to stockholders given by the Company under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Company. Any such consent shall be deemed revoked if:
          (i) the Company is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the Company in accordance with such consent; and
          (ii) such inability becomes known to the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice.
          However, the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.
          Any notice given pursuant to the preceding paragraph shall be deemed given:
          (i) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;

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          (ii) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;
          (iii) if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and
          (iv) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.
          An affidavit of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Company that the notice has been given by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.
          An “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.
          Notice by a form of electronic transmission shall not apply to Sections 164, 296, 311, 312 or 324 of the DGCL.
          6.3 Notice to Stockholders Sharing an Address. Except as otherwise prohibited under the DGCL, without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Company under the provisions of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws shall be effective if given by a single written notice to stockholders who share an address if consented to by the stockholders at that address to whom such notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Company. Any stockholder who fails to object in writing to the Company, within 60 days of having been given written notice by the Company of its intention to send the single notice, shall be deemed to have consented to receiving such single written notice.
          6.4 Notice to Person with Whom Communication is Unlawful. Whenever notice is required to be given, under the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, to any person with whom communication is unlawful, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required and there shall be no duty to apply to any governmental authority or agency for a license or permit to give such notice to such person. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to any such person with whom communication is unlawful shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. In the event that the action taken by the Company is such as to require the filing of a certificate under the DGCL, the certificate shall state, if such is the fact and if notice is required, that notice was given to all persons entitled to receive notice except such persons with whom communication is unlawful.
          6.5 Waiver of Notice. Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, a written waiver, signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need be

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specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.
ARTICLE VII — GENERAL MATTERS
          7.1 Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Company shall be fixed by resolution of the Board and may be changed by the Board.
          7.2 Seal. The Company may adopt a corporate seal, which shall be in such form as may be approved from time to time by the Board. The Company may use the corporate seal by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or in any other manner reproduced.
          7.3 Construction; Definitions. Unless the context requires otherwise, the general provisions, rules of construction, and definitions in the DGCL shall govern the construction of these bylaws. Without limiting the generality of this provision, the singular number includes the plural, the plural number includes the singular, and the term “person” includes both a corporation and a natural person.
ARTICLE VIII — AMENDMENTS
          These bylaws may be adopted, amended or repealed by the stockholders entitled to vote. In furtherance and not in limitation of the powers conferred by statute, the Board of Directors is expressly authorized to make, alter, amend or repeal these bylaws. The fact that such power has been so conferred upon the directors shall not divest the stockholders of the power, nor limit their power to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws.
          A bylaw amendment adopted by stockholders which specifies the votes that shall be necessary for the election of directors shall not be further amended or repealed by the Board.

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