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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

 

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to            .

Commission file number: 001-37497

LIVE OAK BANCSHARES, INC.

 

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

North Carolina

 

26-4596286

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

 

1741 Tiburon Drive, Wilmington, NC

 

28403

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (910) 790-5867

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Voting Common Stock, no par value per share

LOB

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer

 

 

Accelerated Filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated Filer

 

☐ 

 

Smaller Reporting Company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2019, was approximately $518,033,826.  Shares of common stock held by each officer and director have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates.  There is no public market for the registrant's non-voting common stock.  For purposes of this calculation, the registrant has assumed that the market value of each share of non-voting common stock is equal to a share of voting common stock.

APPLICABLE ONLY TO CORPORATE ISSUERS:

As of February 26, 2020, there were 37,616,203 shares of the registrant’s voting common stock outstanding and 2,715,531 shares of the registrant’s non-voting common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which the registrant plans to file subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part III.  Portions of the registrant's annual report to shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2019, which will be posted on the registrant's website subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part II.

 

 


 

Live Oak Bancshares, Inc.

Annual Report on Form 10-K

December 31, 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

Item 1.

 

Business

 

1

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

14

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

34

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

34

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

34

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

34

PART II

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

35

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

36

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

38

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

78

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

80

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

81

 

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2019 and 2018

 

85

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017

 

86

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017

 

87

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017

 

88

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017

 

89

 

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

91

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

148

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

148

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

148

PART III

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

149

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

149

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

149

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

149

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

149

PART IV

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

150

Item 16

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

152

 

 

Signatures

 

153

 

 

 


 

Important Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Report”) contains statements that management believes are forward-looking statements, within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements generally relate to the financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance or business of Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. (the "Company"). They usually can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, such as “believes,” “expects,” or “are expected to,” “plans,” “projects,” “goals,” “estimates,” “will,” “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “continues,” “intends to,” “outlook” or “anticipates,” or variations of these and similar words, or by discussions of strategies that involve risks and uncertainties. You should not place undue reliance on these statements, as they are subject to risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to, those described in this Report. When considering these forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind these risks and uncertainties, as well as any cautionary statements management may make. Moreover, you should treat these statements as speaking only as of the date they are made and based only on information actually known to the Company at the time. Management undertakes no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Forward-looking statements contained in this Report are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about the Company’s business, management’s beliefs and assumptions made by management. These statements are not guarantees of the Company’s future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, which are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed or forecasted in the forward-looking statements. These risks, uncertainties and assumptions include, without limitation:

 

deterioration in the financial condition of borrowers resulting in significant increases in the Company’s loan and lease losses and provisions for those losses and other adverse impacts to results of operations and financial condition;

 

changes in Small Business Administration ("SBA") rules, regulations and loan products, including specifically the Section 7(a) program, changes in SBA standard operating procedures or changes to the status of Live Oak Banking Company (the "Bank") as an SBA Preferred Lender;

 

changes in rules, regulations or procedures for other government loan programs, including those of the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”);

 

changes in interest rates that affect the level and composition of deposits, loan demand and the values of loan collateral, securities, and interest sensitive assets and liabilities;

 

the failure of assumptions underlying the establishment of reserves for possible loan and lease losses;

 

changes in loan underwriting, credit review or loss reserve policies associated with economic conditions, examination conclusions, or regulatory developments;

 

a reduction in or the termination of the Company’s ability to use the technology-based platform that is critical to the success of the Company’s business model or to develop a next-generation banking platform, including a failure in or a breach of the Company’s operational or security systems or those of its third party service providers;

 

changes in financial market conditions, either internationally, nationally or locally in areas in which the Company conducts operations, including reductions in rates of business formation and growth, demand for the Company’s products and services, commercial and residential real estate development and prices, premiums paid in the secondary market for the sale of loans, and valuation of servicing rights;

 

changes in accounting principles, policies, and guidelines applicable to bank holding companies and banking;

 

fluctuations in markets for equity, fixed-income, commercial paper and other securities, which could affect availability, market liquidity levels, and pricing;

 

the effects of competition from other commercial banks, non-bank lenders, consumer finance companies, credit unions, securities brokerage firms, insurance companies, money market and mutual funds, and other financial institutions operating in the Company’s market area and elsewhere, including institutions operating regionally, nationally and internationally, together with such competitors offering banking products and services by mail, telephone and the Internet;

 

the Company's ability to attract and retain key personnel;

 


 

 

changes in governmental monetary and fiscal policies as well as other legislative and regulatory changes, including with respect to SBA or USDA lending programs and investment tax credits;

 

changes in political and economic conditions;

 

the impact of heightened regulatory scrutiny of financial products and services, primarily led by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and various state agencies;

 

the Company's ability to comply with any requirements imposed on it by regulators, and the potential negative consequences that may result;

 

operational, compliance and other factors, including conditions in local areas in which the Company conducts business such as inclement weather or a reduction in the availability of services or products for which loan proceeds will be used, that could prevent or delay closing and funding loans before they can be sold in the secondary market;

 

the effect of any mergers, acquisitions or other transactions, to which the Company or the Bank may from time to time be a party, including management’s ability to successfully integrate any businesses acquired;

 

other risk factors listed from time to time in reports that the Company files with the SEC, including those described under “Risk Factors” in this Report; and

 

the success at managing the risks involved in the foregoing.

Except as otherwise disclosed, forward-looking statements do not reflect: (i) the effect of any acquisitions, divestitures or similar transactions that have not been previously disclosed; (ii) any changes in laws, regulations or regulatory interpretations; or (iii) any change in current dividend or repurchase strategies, in each case after the date as of which such statements are made. All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which such statements are made, and the Company undertakes no obligation to update any statement, to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

 

 

 

 


 

PART I

Item 1.

BUSINESS

General

Live Oak Bancshares, Inc. (“LOB” and, collectively with its subsidiaries including Live Oak Banking Company, the “Company,” also referred to as "our" and "we"), headquartered in Wilmington, North Carolina, is the bank holding company for Live Oak Banking Company (the “Bank” or "Live Oak Bank").  The Bank was incorporated in February 2008 as a North Carolina-chartered commercial bank and operates an established national online platform for small business lending and deposit gathering.  LOB was incorporated under the laws of the state of North Carolina on December 18, 2008, for the purpose of serving as the bank holding company of Live Oak Bank.  LOB completed its initial public offering (“IPO”) in July 2015.

The Company

The Company predominantly originates loans partially guaranteed by the U.S. Small Business Administration (the "SBA") and to a lesser extent by the USDA Rural Energy for America Program ("REAP"), Water and Environmental Program (“WEP”), Business & Industry ("B&I") and Community Facilities loan programs.  These loans are to small businesses and professionals with what the Company believes are lower risk characteristics. Industries, or “verticals,” on which the Company focuses its lending efforts are carefully selected. Within these verticals the Company typically retains individuals who possess extensive industry-specific experience.

In addition to focusing on industry verticals, the Company emphasizes developing detailed knowledge of its customers’ businesses. This knowledge is developed, in part, through regular visits to customers’ operations, wherever they are located. These regular visits are designed to foster both for the Company and for the customer a deep and personalized experience throughout the lending relationship.  The Company has developed and continues to refine a technology-based platform to facilitate providing financial services to the small business community on a national scale and has leveraged this technology to optimize the Company's loan origination process, customer experience, reporting metrics, and servicing activity. The Company services customers efficiently throughout the loan process and monitors their performance by means of the technology-based platform without maintaining traditional branch locations.

For additional information on the Company's business, financial performance and results of operations, see “Overview” and “Executive Summary” in Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Report. For information on the Company’s financial information about geographic areas, see Part II, Item 8 of this Report.

LOB's voting common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) under the symbol “LOB.”  As of January 31, 2020, there were 341 holders of record of LOB's voting common stock. The Company's principal executive office is located at 1741 Tiburon Drive, Wilmington, North Carolina 28403, telephone number (910) 790-5867. The Company maintains a website at www.liveoakbank.com. Documents available on the website include: (i) the Company's Code of Ethics and Conflict of Interest Policy; and (ii) charters for the Audit and Risk, Compensation, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees of the Board of Directors. These documents also are available in print to any shareholder who requests a copy.

In addition, available free of charge through the Company's website is the Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing or furnishing such material to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).  These filings are also accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

The Company also will provide without charge a copy of this Report, as well as any documents available on the Company's website, to any shareholder by mail. Requests should be sent to Live Oak Bancshares, Inc., Attention: Corporate Secretary, 1741 Tiburon Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403.

1


 

Competition

Commercial banking in the United States is extremely competitive. The Company competes with national banking organizations, including the largest commercial banks headquartered in the country, all of which have small business lending divisions. The Company also competes with other federally and state chartered financial institutions such as community banks and credit unions, finance and business development companies, peer-to-peer and marketplace lenders and other non-bank lenders. Many of the Company's competitors have higher legal lending limits and are also able to provide a wider array of services and make greater use of media advertising given their size and resources.

Despite the intense level of competition among small business lenders, the Company believes that it occupies a lending category distinct from its competitors. One of the Company's principal advantages is the technology-based platform it uses, which management believes has accelerated the Company's ability to issue proposals, complete credit due diligence, finalize commitments and improve the overall customer experience. The Company believes that its personnel also provide a competitive advantage because they include industry participants with relevant experience in the Company's identified verticals.

Employees

As of December 31, 2019, the Company had 603 full-time employees and 32 part-time employees. None of these employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, and management considers relations with employees to be good.

Subsidiaries

In addition to the Bank, the Company directly or indirectly held the following wholly owned subsidiaries as of December 31, 2019:

 

Canapi Advisors, LLC, formed in September 2018 for the purpose of providing investment advisory services to a series of new funds focused on providing venture capital to new and emerging financial technology companies.

 

Live Oak Ventures, Inc., formed in August 2016 for the purpose of investing in businesses that align with the Company's strategic initiative to be a leader in financial technology;

 

Live Oak Grove, LLC, formed in February 2015 for the purpose of providing Company employees and business visitors an on-site restaurant location; and

 

Government Loan Solutions, Inc. (“GLS”), a management and technology consulting firm that specializes in the settlement, accounting, and securitization processes for government guaranteed loans, including loans originated under the SBA 7(a) loan program and USDA-guaranteed loans.

504 Fund Advisors, LLC (“504FA”), was formed in June 2013 to serve as the investment advisor to The 504 Fund, a closed-end mutual fund organized to invest in SBA section 504 loans. During 2019, 504FA completed the transfer of its advisory agreement and was dissolved in December 2019.  In 2019, Live Oak Clean Energy Financing LLC, which was formed in November 2016 for the purpose of providing financing to entities for renewable energy applications, became a subsidiary of the Bank.  In 2018, the Bank formed Live Oak Private Wealth, LLC, a registered investment advisor that provides high-net-worth individuals and families with strategic wealth and investment management services.  In 2010, the Bank formed Live Oak Number One, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary, to hold properties foreclosed on by the Bank.

SUPERVISION AND REGULATION

Federal Bank Holding Company Regulation and Structure

As a registered bank holding company, LOB is subject to regulation under the Bank Holding Company Act, or BHCA, and to the supervision, examination and reporting requirements of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). The Bank is a North Carolina-chartered commercial bank and is subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or the FDIC, and the North Carolina Commissioner of Banks, or NCCOB.

2


 

The BHCA requires every bank holding company to obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before:

 

it may acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank if, after the acquisition, the bank holding company will directly or indirectly own or control more than 5% of the voting shares of the bank;

 

it or any of its subsidiaries, other than a bank, may acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank; or

 

it may merge or consolidate with any other bank holding company.

The BHCA further provides that the Federal Reserve may not approve any transaction that would result in a monopoly or that would substantially lessen competition in the banking business, unless the public interest in meeting the needs of the communities to be served outweighs the anti-competitive effects. The Federal Reserve is also required to consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the bank holding companies and banks involved and the convenience and needs of the communities to be served. Consideration of financial resources generally focuses on capital adequacy, and consideration of convenience and needs issues focuses, in part, on the performance under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, both of which are discussed elsewhere in more detail.

Subject to various exceptions, the BHCA and the Change in Bank Control Act, together with related regulations, require Federal Reserve approval prior to any person or company acquiring “control” of a bank holding company. Control is conclusively presumed to exist if a person or company acquires 25% or more of any class of voting securities of a bank holding company. Control is also presumed to exist, although rebuttable, if a person or company acquires 10% or more, but less than 25%, of any class of voting securities and either:

 

the bank holding company has securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act; or

 

no other person owns a greater percentage of that class of voting securities immediately after the transaction.

LOB's voting common stock is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act. The regulations provide a procedure for challenging rebuttable presumptions of control.

On January 30, 2020, the Federal Reserve adopted a final rule revising the “controlling influence” prong of its “control” rules promulgated under the BHCA. The final rule largely reaffirms the Federal Reserve’s existing framework for analyzing “controlling influence” but with some new rules for presumptions of control for investments in and by banking organizations that represent more than 4.9% and less than 24.9% of control over any class of voting securities. The final rule becomes effective on April 1, 2020 and we are currently assessing its potential impact on our operations.

The BHCA generally prohibits a bank holding company from retaining direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any company which is not a bank or bank holding company or engaging in activities other than banking, managing or controlling banks or other permissible subsidiaries and acquiring or retaining direct or indirect control of any company engaged in any activities other than activities closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks. In determining whether a particular activity is permissible, the Federal Reserve considers whether performing the activity can be expected to produce benefits to the public that outweigh possible adverse effects, such as undue concentration of resources, decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interest or unsound banking practices. The Federal Reserve has the power to order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or control of any subsidiary when the continuation of the activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of any bank subsidiary of that bank holding company.

Under the BHCA, a bank holding company may file an election with the Federal Reserve to be treated as a financial holding company and engage in an expanded list of financial activities. The election must be accompanied by a certification that all of the company’s insured depository institution subsidiaries are “well capitalized” and “well managed.” Additionally, the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 rating of each subsidiary bank must be satisfactory or better. If, after becoming a financial holding company and undertaking activities not permissible for a bank holding company, the company fails to continue to meet any of the prerequisites for financial holding company status, the company must enter into an agreement with the Federal Reserve to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements. If the company does not return to compliance within 180 days, the Federal Reserve may order the company to divest its subsidiary banks or the company may discontinue or divest investments in companies engaged in activities permissible only for a bank holding company that has elected to be treated as a financial holding company. LOB filed an election and became a financial holding company in 2016.

3


 

Under Federal Reserve policy and as codified by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, or the Dodd-Frank Act, the Company is expected to act as a source of financial strength for Live Oak Bank and to commit resources to support Live Oak Bank. This support may be required at times when LOB might not be inclined to provide it or it might not be in LOB's best interests or the best interests of its shareholders. In addition, any capital loans made by the Company to Live Oak Bank will be repaid only after Live Oak Bank’s deposits and various other obligations are repaid in full.

Live Oak Bank is also subject to numerous state and federal statutes and regulations that affect its business, activities and operations and is supervised and examined by state and federal bank regulatory agencies. The FDIC and the NCCOB regularly examine the operations of Live Oak Bank and are given the authority to approve or disapprove mergers, consolidations, the establishment of branches and similar corporate actions. These agencies also have the power to prevent the continuance or development of unsafe or unsound banking practices or other violations of law.

Bank Merger Act

Section 18(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, popularly known as the “Bank Merger Act,” requires the prior written approval of appropriate federal bank regulatory agencies before any bank may (i) merge or consolidate with, (ii) purchase or otherwise acquire the assets of, or (iii) assume the deposit liabilities of, another bank if the resulting institution is to be a state nonmember bank.

The Bank Merger Act prohibits the applicable federal bank regulatory agency from approving any proposed merger transaction that would result in a monopoly, or would further a combination or conspiracy to monopolize or to attempt to monopolize the business of banking in any part of the United States. Similarly, the Bank Merger Act prohibits the applicable federal bank regulatory agency from approving a proposed merger transaction whose effect in any section of the country may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly, or which in any other manner would be in restraint of trade. An exception may be made in the case of a merger transaction whose effect would be to substantially lessen competition, tend to create a monopoly, or otherwise restrain trade, if the applicable federal bank regulatory agency finds that the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed in the public interest by the probable effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served.

In every proposed merger transaction, the applicable federal bank regulatory agency must also consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the existing and proposed institutions, the convenience and needs of the community to be served, and the effectiveness of each insured depository institution involved in the proposed merger transaction in combating money-laundering activities, including in overseas branches.

State Law

Live Oak Bank is subject to extensive supervision and regulation by the NCCOB. The NCCOB oversees state laws that set specific requirements for bank capital and that regulate deposits in, and loans and investments by, banks, including the amounts, types, and in some cases, rates. The NCCOB supervises and performs periodic examinations of North Carolina-chartered banks to assure compliance with state banking statutes and regulations, and banks are required to make regular reports to the NCCOB describing in detail their resources, assets, liabilities, and financial condition. Among other things, the NCCOB regulates mergers and consolidations of North Carolina state-chartered banks, capital requirements for banks, loans to officers and directors, payment of dividends, record keeping, types and amounts of loans and investments, and the establishment of branches.

The NCCOB has extensive enforcement authority over North Carolina banks. Such authority includes the ability to issue cease and desist orders and to seek civil money penalties. The NCCOB may also take possession of a North Carolina bank in various circumstances, including for a violation of its charter or of applicable laws, operating in an unsafe and unsound manner, or as a result of an impairment of its capital, and may appoint a receiver.

The Company is also required to maintain registration as a bank holding company with the NCCOB. Subject to certain exceptions, the Company may not acquire control over another bank or bank holding company or consummate a merger or other combination transaction with another company without the prior approval of the NCCOB. The NCCOB also has authority to assert civil money penalties against a holding company if the NCCOB determines such holding company to be in violation of any banking laws and the holding company fails to comply with an NCCOB order to cease and desist from such violations of law.

4


 

The primary state banking laws to which the Company and the Bank are subject are set forth in Chapters 53C and 53 of the North Carolina General Statutes.  The North Carolina Business Corporation Act is also applicable to the Company as a North Carolina business corporation and to the Bank as a North Carolina banking corporation.

Payment of Dividends and Other Restrictions

The Company is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank. While there are various legal and regulatory limitations under federal and state law on the extent to which banks can pay dividends or otherwise supply funds to holding companies, the principal source of cash revenues for the Company is dividends from the Bank. The relevant federal and state regulatory agencies have authority to prohibit a state bank or bank holding company, which would include the Bank and the Company, from engaging in what, in the opinion of such regulatory body, constitutes an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting its business. The payment of dividends could, depending upon the financial condition of a bank, be deemed to constitute an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting its business.

North Carolina commercial banks, such as Live Oak Bank, are subject to legal limitations on the amounts of dividends they are permitted to pay. Specifically, an insured depository institution, such as Live Oak Bank, is prohibited from making capital distributions, including the payment of dividends, if, after making such distribution, the institution would become “undercapitalized” (as such term is defined in the applicable law and regulations).

The Federal Reserve has issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve’s view that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that the holding company’s net income for the past four quarters is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the holding company’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. The Federal Reserve has also indicated that it would be inappropriate for a holding company experiencing serious financial problems to borrow funds to pay dividends. Furthermore, under the prompt corrective action regulations adopted by the Federal Reserve, the Federal Reserve may prohibit a bank holding company from paying any dividends if any of the holding company’s bank subsidiaries are classified as undercapitalized.

A bank holding company is required to give the Federal Reserve prior written notice of any purchase or redemption of its outstanding equity securities if the gross consideration for the purchase or redemption, when combined with the net consideration paid for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of its consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve may disapprove such a purchase or redemption if it determines that the proposal would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice or would violate any law, regulation, Federal Reserve order or any condition imposed by, or written agreement with, the Federal Reserve.

Capital Adequacy

General. The Company must comply with the Federal Reserve’s established capital adequacy standards, and Live Oak Bank is required to comply with the capital adequacy standards established by the FDIC. The Federal Reserve has promulgated two basic measures of capital adequacy for bank holding companies: a risk-based measure and a leverage measure. A bank holding company must satisfy all applicable capital standards to be considered in compliance.

The risk-based capital standards are designed to make regulatory capital requirements sensitive to differences in risk profile among banks and bank holding companies, account for off-balance-sheet exposure and minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets.


5


 

Assets and off-balance-sheet items are assigned to broad risk categories, each with appropriate weights. The resulting capital ratios represent capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets and off-balance-sheet items. Under applicable capital standards, the minimum risk-based capital ratios are a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 4.5%, a Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 6%, and a total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of 8%. In addition, to avoid restrictions on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments, the Company and the Bank are required to meet a capital conservation buffer of common equity Tier 1 capital in addition to the minimum common equity Tier 1 capital ratio. The capital conservation buffer is set at a ratio of 2.5% common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets, which sits “on top” of the 4.5% minimum common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets ratio. Common equity Tier 1 capital is predominantly composed of retained earnings and common stock instruments (that meet strict delineated criteria), net of treasury stock, and after making necessary capital deductions and adjustments. Tier 1 capital is composed of common equity Tier 1 capital plus Additional Tier 1 capital, which consists of noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and similar instruments meeting specified eligibility criteria and “TARP” preferred stock and other instruments issued under the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008. Total capital is composed of Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital, which consists of subordinated debt with a minimum original maturity of at least five years and a limited amount of loan loss reserves.

At December 31, 2019, the Company's risk-based capital ratios, as calculated under applicable capital standards were 14.85% common equity Tier 1 capital to risk weighted assets, 14.85% Tier 1 capital to risk weighted assets, and 16.10% total capital to risk weighted assets.

In addition, the Federal Reserve has established minimum leverage ratio guidelines for bank holding companies. These guidelines provide for a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to average total on-balance sheet assets, less goodwill and certain other intangible assets, of 4% for bank holding companies. The Company’s ratio at December 31, 2019 was 10.65% compared to 13.40% at December 31, 2018. The guidelines also provide that bank holding companies experiencing internal growth or making acquisitions will be expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels without significant reliance on intangible assets. Furthermore, the Federal Reserve has indicated that it will consider a “tangible Tier 1 Capital leverage ratio” and other indications of capital strength in evaluating proposals for expansion or new activities.

Failure to meet capital guidelines could subject a bank to a variety of enforcement remedies, including issuance of a capital directive, the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC, a prohibition on taking brokered deposits and certain other restrictions on its business. As described below, the FDIC can impose substantial additional restrictions upon FDIC-insured depository institutions that fail to meet applicable capital requirements.

Prompt Corrective Action.  The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, or FDI Act, requires the federal bank regulatory agencies to take “prompt corrective action” if a depository institution does not meet minimum capital requirements. The FDI Act establishes five capital tiers: “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized.” A depository institution’s capital tier will depend upon how its capital levels compare to various relevant capital measures and certain other factors, as established by regulation.

An institution may be downgraded to, or deemed to be in, a capital category that is lower than is indicated by its capital ratios if it is determined to be in an unsafe or unsound condition or if it receives an unsatisfactory examination rating with respect to certain matters. As of December 31, 2019, Live Oak Bank had capital levels that qualify as “well capitalized” under the applicable regulations.

The FDI Act generally prohibits an FDIC-insured bank from making a capital distribution (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its holding company if the bank is or would thereafter be “undercapitalized.” “Undercapitalized” banks are subject to growth limitations and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. The federal regulators may not accept a capital restoration plan without determining, among other things, that the plan is based on realistic assumptions and is likely to succeed in restoring the bank’s capital. In addition, for a capital restoration plan to be acceptable, the bank’s parent holding company must guarantee that the institution will comply with such capital restoration plan until the institution has been adequately capitalized on average during each of four consecutive calendar quarters. The aggregate liability of the parent holding company under such guaranty is limited to the lesser of: (i) an amount equal to 5% of the bank’s total assets at the time it became “undercapitalized”; and (ii) the amount which is necessary (or would have been necessary) to bring the institution into compliance with all capital standards applicable with respect to such institution as of the time it fails to comply with the plan. If a bank fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is “significantly undercapitalized.”


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“Significantly undercapitalized” insured banks may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become “adequately capitalized,” requirements to reduce total assets, cease receipt of deposits from correspondent banks, or dismiss directors or officers, and restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, compensation of executive officers, and capital distributions by the parent holding company. “Critically undercapitalized” institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator, may not make any payment of principal or interest on certain subordinated debt, extend credit for a highly leveraged transaction, or enter into any material transaction outside the ordinary course of business.

A bank that is not “well capitalized” is also subject to certain limitations relating to brokered deposits. If a bank is not well-capitalized, it cannot accept brokered deposits without prior FDIC approval. Even if approved, rate restrictions will govern the rate the institution may pay on the brokered deposits. In addition, a bank that is less than well-capitalized generally cannot offer an effective yield in excess of 75 basis points over the “national rate” (as defined below) paid on deposits (including brokered deposits, if approval is granted for the bank to accept them) of comparable size and maturity. The “national rate” is defined as a simple average of rates paid by insured depository institutions and branches for which data are available and is published weekly by the FDIC. Institutions subject to the restrictions that believe they are operating in an area where the rates paid on deposits are higher than the “national rate” can use the local market to determine the prevailing rate if they seek and receive a determination from the FDIC that it is operating in a high rate area. Regardless of the determination, institutions must use the national rate to determine conformance for all deposits outside their market area.

Basel III.  The regulatory capital framework under which the Company and Live Oak Bank operate changed in significant respects as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted in July 2010, and other regulations, including the separate regulatory capital requirements put forth by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, commonly known “Basel III.”

In July 2013, the Federal Reserve, FDIC and Office of the Comptroller of the Currency approved final rules that established an integrated regulatory capital framework that addressed shortcomings in certain capital requirements. The rules implemented in the United States the Basel III regulatory capital reforms from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and certain changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. These rules began to apply to the Company effective January 1, 2015.  Compliance by LOB and the Bank with these capital requirements affects their respective operations by increasing the amount of capital required to conduct operations.

Community Bank Leverage Ratio.  As discussed below, in May 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (“EGRRCPA”) became law, which directs the federal banking agencies to develop a community bank leverage ratio (“CBLR”) of not less than 8 percent and not more than 10 percent for qualifying community banking organizations.  EGRRCPA defines a qualifying community banking organization as a depository institution or depository institution holding company with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, which would include the Company and the Bank.  A qualifying community banking organization that exceeds the CBLR level established by the agencies is considered to have met: (i) the generally applicable leverage and risk-based capital requirements under the agencies’ capital rule; (ii) the capital ratio requirements in order to be considered well capitalized under the agencies’ prompt corrective action framework (in the case of insured depository institutions); and (iii) any other applicable capital or leverage requirements.  Section 201 of EGRRCPA defines the CBLR as the ratio of a banking organization’s CBLR tangible equity to its average total consolidated assets, both as reported on the banking organization’s applicable regulatory filing.  

On September 17, 2019, the FDIC passed a final rule on the CBLR, setting the minimum required CBLR at 9 percent.  The rule went into effect on January 1, 2020.  Under the final rule, a qualifying community banking organization may elect to use the CBLR framework if its CBLR is greater than 9 percent.  A qualifying community banking organization that has chosen the proposed framework is not required to calculate the existing risk-based and leverage capital requirements.  A bank is also considered to have met the capital ratio requirements to be well capitalized for the agencies’ prompt corrective action rules provided it has a CBLR greater than 9 percent.  The Company has not elected to implement the CBLR framework at this time.


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Acquisitions

The Company must comply with numerous laws related to any potential acquisition activity. Under the BHCA, a bank holding company may not directly or indirectly acquire ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares or substantially all of the assets of any bank or merge or consolidate with another bank holding company without the prior approval of the Federal Reserve. The acquisition of non-banking companies is also regulated by the Federal Reserve. Current federal law authorizes interstate acquisitions of banks and bank holding companies without geographic limitation. Furthermore, a bank headquartered in one state is authorized to merge with a bank headquartered in another state, as long as neither of the states has opted out of such interstate merger authority prior to such date, and subject to any state requirement that the target bank shall have been in existence and operating for a minimum period of time, not to exceed five years, and to certain deposit market-share limitations. After a bank has established branches in a state through an interstate merger transaction, the bank may establish and acquire additional branches at any location in the state where a bank headquartered in that state could have established or acquired branches under applicable federal or state law. Additionally, since passage of the Dodd-Frank Act, banks are now permitted to open a de novo branch in any state if that state would permit a bank organized in that state to open a branch.

Restrictions on Affiliate Transactions

Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act establish parameters for a bank to conduct “covered transactions” with its affiliates, with the objective of limiting risk to the insured bank. Generally, Sections 23A and 23B (i) limit the extent to which the bank or its subsidiaries may engage in “covered transactions” with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10% of such bank’s capital stock and surplus, and limit the aggregate of all such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20% of such capital stock and surplus and (ii) require that all such transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable, to the bank or subsidiary as those that would be provided to a non-affiliate. The term “covered transaction” includes the making of loans to the affiliate, purchase of assets from the affiliate, issuance of a guaranty on behalf of the affiliate and several other types of transactions.

The Dodd-Frank Act imposed additional restrictions on transactions between affiliates by amending these two sections of the Federal Reserve Act. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, restrictions on transactions with affiliates are enhanced by (i) including among “covered transactions” transactions between bank and affiliate-advised investment funds; (ii) including among “covered transactions” transactions between a bank and an affiliate with respect to securities repurchase agreements and derivatives transactions; (iii) adopting stricter collateral rules; and (iv) imposing tighter restrictions on transactions between banks and their financial subsidiaries.

FDIC Insurance Assessments

The Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC.  The standard FDIC insurance coverage amount is $250,000 per depositor.  The FDIC maintains its Deposit Insurance Fund, or DIF, for the purposes of (1) insuring the deposits and protecting the depositors of insured banks and (2) resolving failed banks.  The DIF is funded mainly through quarterly assessments on insured banks, but also receives interest income on securities.  The DIF is reduced by loss provisions associated with failed banks and by FDIC operating expenses.  

The FDIC imposes a risk-based deposit insurance premium assessment on member institutions in order to maintain the DIF.  The assessment rates for an insured depository institution vary according to the level of risk incurred in its activities, which for established small institutions like the Bank (i.e., those institutions with less than $10 billion in assets and insured for five years or more), is generally determined by reference to the institution’s supervisory ratings.  The assessment rate schedule can change from time to time, at the discretion of the FDIC, subject to certain limits. Live Oak Bank’s insurance assessments during 2019 and 2018 were $3.4 million and $3.2 million, respectively. The FDIC may terminate insurance of deposits upon a finding that an institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC.


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The Dodd-Frank Act expanded the base for FDIC insurance assessments, requiring that assessments be based on the average consolidated total assets less tangible equity capital of a financial institution. In 2011, the FDIC approved a final rule to implement the foregoing provision of the Dodd-Frank Act. Among other things, the final rule revised the assessment rate schedule to provide initial base assessment rates ranging from 5 to 35 basis points, subject to adjustments which could increase or decrease the total base assessment rates. The FDIC has three possible adjustments to an institution’s initial base assessment rate: (1) a decrease of up to five basis points (or 50% of the initial base assessment rate) for long-term unsecured debt, including senior unsecured debt (other than debt guaranteed under the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program) and subordinated debt; (2) an increase for holding long-term unsecured or subordinated debt issued by other insured depository institutions known as the Depository Institution Debt Adjustment; and (3) for institutions not well rated and well capitalized, an increase not to exceed 10 basis points for brokered deposits in excess of 10 percent of domestic deposits.

The law also gives the FDIC enhanced discretion to set assessment rate levels.  A significant increase in insurance premiums would likely have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations of the Company and the Bank.  Management cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future.  

The FDIC also collects a deposit-based assessment from insured financial institutions on behalf of the Financing Corporation, or the FICO. The funds from these assessments are used to service debt issued by FICO in its capacity as a financial vehicle for the Federal Savings & Loan Insurance Corporation. The FICO assessment rate is set quarterly. These assessments continued until the FICO bonds matured, which was in 2019.

Privacy

Financial institutions are required by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 to disclose their policies for collecting and protecting confidential customer information. Customers generally may prevent financial institutions from sharing personal financial information with nonaffiliated third parties except for third parties that market the institutions’ own products and services. Additionally, financial institutions generally may not disclose consumer account numbers to any nonaffiliated third party for use in telemarketing, direct mail marketing or other marketing through electronic mail to consumers. The Bank has established a privacy policy that it believes promotes compliance with these federal requirements.

Federal Home Loan Bank System

The Federal Home Loan Bank, or FHLB, System consists of 12 district FHLBs subject to supervision and regulation by the Federal Housing Finance Agency, or FHFA.  The FHLBs provide a central credit facility primarily for member institutions.  As a member of the FHLB of Atlanta, the Bank is required to acquire and hold shares of capital stock in the FHLB of Atlanta. The Bank was in compliance with this requirement with investment in FHLB of Atlanta stock of $3.3 million at December 31, 2019. The FHLB of Atlanta serves as a reserve or central bank for its member institutions within its assigned district. It is funded primarily from proceeds derived from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB System. It offers advances to members in accordance with policies and procedures established by the FHFA and the Board of Directors of the FHLB of Atlanta.  Long-term advances may only be made for the purpose of providing funds for residential housing finance, small businesses, small farms and small agribusinesses.

Community Reinvestment Act

The Community Reinvestment Act requires federal bank regulatory agencies to encourage financial institutions to meet the credit needs of low and moderate-income borrowers in their local communities. An institution’s size and business strategy determines the type of examination that it will receive. Large, retail-oriented institutions are examined using a performance-based lending, investment and service test. Small institutions are examined using a streamlined approach. All institutions may opt to be evaluated under a strategic plan formulated with community input and pre-approved by the bank regulatory agency.

The Community Reinvestment Act regulations provide for certain disclosure obligations. Each institution must post a notice advising the public of its right to comment to the institution and its regulator on the institution’s Community Reinvestment Act performance and to review the institution’s Community Reinvestment Act public file. Each lending institution must maintain for public inspection a file that includes a listing of branch locations and services, a summary of lending activity, a map of its communities and any written comments from the public on its performance in meeting community credit needs. The Community Reinvestment Act requires public disclosure of the regulators’ written Community Reinvestment Act evaluations of financial institutions. This promotes enforcement of Community Reinvestment Act requirements by providing the public with the status of a particular institution’s community reinvestment record.

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The Community Reinvestment Act agreements with private parties must be disclosed and annual Community Reinvestment Act reports relating to such agreements must be made available to a bank’s primary federal regulator. A bank holding company will not be permitted to become a financial holding company and no new activities authorized under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act may be commenced by a holding company or by a bank financial subsidiary if any of its bank subsidiaries received less than a satisfactory Community Reinvestment Act rating in its latest Community Reinvestment Act examination.

The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the FDIC have proposed changes to the regulations under the Community Reinvestment Act.  The Company will monitor the proposed changes as they make their way through the agency rulemaking process.

The Volcker Rule

Under provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act referred to as the “Volcker Rule,” certain limitations are placed on the ability of insured depository institutions and their affiliates to engage in sponsoring, investing in and transacting with certain investment funds, including hedge funds and private equity funds. The Volcker Rule also places restrictions on proprietary trading, which could impact certain hedging activities. The Volcker Rule became fully effective in July 2015, and banking entities had until July 21, 2017, to divest certain legacy investments in covered funds.  The Federal Reserve, Office of the Comptroller of Currency, FDIC, SEC, and Commodity Futures Trading Commission finalized amendments to the Volcker Rule in 2019, which relate primarily to the Volcker Rule’s proprietary trading and compliance program requirements.  These amendments to the Volcker Rule became effective January 1, 2020, with compliance required by January 1, 2021. The amendments do not change the Volcker Rule’s general prohibitions, but they offer certain clarifications and a simplified approach to compliance. On January 30, 2020, the agencies proposed further amendments to the Volcker Rule's funds provisions, which would, if adopted, clarify key definitions and add new, and modify certain existing, exclusions from the definition of covered fund. The proposal is currently open for comment, and the timeline for finalization remains uncertain.  Further, pursuant to EGRRCPA enacted in May 2018 and discussed below, community banks are excluded from the restrictions of the Volcker Rule if (i) the community bank, and every entity that controls it, has total consolidated assets equal to or less than $10 billion and (ii) trading assets and liabilities of the community bank, and every entity that controls it, are equal to or less than five percent of its total consolidated assets.  The Company and Live Oak Bank are currently below these thresholds and thus exempt from the Volcker Rule.

USA PATRIOT Act

The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, or the USA PATRIOT Act, required each financial institution: (i) to establish an anti-money laundering program; (ii) to establish due diligence policies, procedures and controls with respect to its private banking accounts involving foreign individuals and certain foreign banks; and (iii) to avoid establishing, maintaining, administering or managing correspondent accounts in the United States for, or on behalf of, foreign banks that do not have a physical presence in any country. The USA PATRIOT Act also required the Secretary of the Treasury to prescribe by regulation minimum standards that financial institutions must follow to verify the identity of customers, both foreign and domestic, when a customer opens an account. In addition, the USA PATRIOT Act encouraged cooperation among financial institutions, regulatory authorities and law enforcement authorities with respect to individuals, entities and organizations engaged in, or reasonably suspected of engaging in, terrorist acts or money laundering activities.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Sarbanes-Oxley, mandated for public companies, such as the Company, a variety of reforms intended to address corporate and accounting fraud and provided for the establishment of the PCAOB, which enforces auditing, quality control and independence standards for firms that audit SEC-reporting companies. Sarbanes-Oxley imposed higher standards for auditor independence and restricted the provision of consulting services by auditing firms to companies they audit and requires that certain audit partners be rotated periodically. It also requires chief executive officers and chief financial officers, or their equivalents, to certify the accuracy of periodic reports filed with the SEC, subject to civil and criminal penalties if they knowingly or willfully violate this certification requirement, and increases the oversight and authority of audit committees of publicly traded companies.

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Fiscal and Monetary Policy

Banking is a business which depends on interest rate differentials for success. In general, the difference between the interest paid by a bank on its deposits and its other borrowings, and the interest received by a bank on its loans and securities holdings, constitutes a significant portion of a bank’s earnings. Thus, the Company's earnings and growth will be subject to the influence of economic conditions generally, both domestic and foreign, and also to the monetary and fiscal policies of the United States and its agencies, particularly the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve regulates the supply of money through various means, including open market dealings in United States government securities, the discount rate at which banks may borrow from the Federal Reserve and the reserve requirements on deposits. The nature and timing of any changes in such policies and their effect on the Company's business and results of operations cannot be predicted.

Current and future legislation and the policies established by federal and state regulatory authorities will affect the Company's future operations. Banking legislation and regulations may limit the Company's growth and the return to its investors by restricting certain of its activities.

In addition, capital requirements could be changed and have the effect of restricting the activities of the Company or requiring additional capital to be maintained. The Company cannot predict with certainty what changes, if any, will be made to existing federal and state legislation and regulations or the effect that such changes may have on the Company's business and results of operations.

Real Estate Lending Evaluations

The federal regulators have adopted uniform standards for evaluations of loans secured by real estate or made to finance improvements to real estate. Banks are required to establish and maintain written internal real estate lending policies consistent with safe and sound banking practices and appropriate to the size of the institution and the nature and scope of its operations. The regulations establish loan to value ratio limitations on real estate loans. Live Oak Bank’s respective loan policies establish limits on loan to value ratios that are equal to or less than those established in such regulations.

Commercial Real Estate Concentrations

Lending operations of commercial banks may be subject to enhanced scrutiny by federal banking regulators based on a bank’s concentration of commercial real estate, or CRE, loans. The federal banking regulators have issued guidance to remind financial institutions of the risk posed by commercial real estate, or CRE, lending concentrations. CRE loans generally include land development, construction loans, and loans secured by multifamily property, and nonfarm, nonresidential real property where the primary source of repayment is derived from rental income associated with the property. The guidance prescribes the following guidelines for bank examiners to help identify institutions that are potentially exposed to significant CRE risk and may warrant greater supervisory scrutiny:

 

total reported loans for construction, land development and other land, or C&D, represent 100% or more of the institution’s total capital; or

 

total CRE loans represent 300% or more of the institution’s total capital, and the outstanding balance of the institution’s CRE loan portfolio has increased over 50% or more during the prior 36 months.

As of December 31, 2019, the Bank's C&D concentration as a percentage of bank capital totaled 147.1% and the Bank's CRE concentration, net of owner-occupied loans, as a percentage of capital totaled 146.9%.

Limitations on Incentive Compensation

In October 2009, the Federal Reserve issued proposed guidance designed to help ensure that incentive compensation policies at banking organizations do not encourage excessive risk-taking or undermine the safety and soundness of the organization. In connection with the proposed guidance, the Federal Reserve announced that it would review incentive compensation arrangements of bank holding companies such as the Company as part of the regular, risk-focused supervisory process.

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In June 2010, the Federal Reserve issued the incentive compensation guidance in final form and was joined by the FDIC, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. The final guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide employees incentives that appropriately balance risk and reward and, thus, do not encourage risk-taking beyond the organization’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management, and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors. Any deficiencies in compensation practices that are identified may be incorporated into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect its ability to make acquisitions or perform other actions. The guidance provides that enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements or related risk-management control or governance processes pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.

While the Dodd-Frank Act contemplated additional regulatory action to be taken related to incentive compensation, the administrative agencies have not yet adopted the contemplated regulations.

Registered Investment Adviser Regulation

Live Oak Private Wealth is a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and the SEC’s regulations promulgated thereunder. The Investment Advisers Act imposes numerous obligations on registered investment advisers, including fiduciary, recordkeeping, operational, and disclosure obligations. Supervisory agencies have the power to limit or restrict Live Oak Private Wealth from conducting its business in the event that it fails to comply with such laws and regulations. Possible sanctions that may be imposed in the event of such noncompliance include the suspension of individual employees, limitations on the business activities for specified periods of time, revocation of registration as an investment adviser and/or other registrations, and other censures and fines. Changes in these laws or regulations could have a material adverse impact on the profitability and mode of operations of Live Oak Private Wealth.

Economic Environment

The policies of regulatory authorities, including the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve, have a significant effect on the operating results of bank holding companies and their subsidiaries. Among the means available to the Federal Reserve to affect the money supply are open market operations in U.S. government securities, changes in the discount rate on member bank borrowings and changes in reserve requirements against member bank deposits. These means are used in varying combinations to influence overall growth and distribution of bank loans, investments and deposits, and their use may affect interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. The Federal Reserve’s monetary policies have materially affected the operating results of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. The nature of future monetary policies and the effect of these policies on the Company's business and earnings cannot be predicted.

Dodd-Frank Act

The Dodd-Frank Act was signed into law in 2010 and implemented many new changes in the way financial and banking operations are regulated in the United States, including through the creation of a new resolution authority, mandating higher capital and liquidity requirements, requiring banks to pay increased fees to regulatory agencies and numerous other provisions intended to strengthen the financial services sector. Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the Financial Stability Oversight Council, or the FSOC, was created and is charged with overseeing and coordinating the efforts of the primary U.S. financial regulatory agencies (including the Federal Reserve, the FDIC and the SEC) in establishing regulations to address systemic financial stability concerns. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or the CFPB, was also created as a new consumer financial services regulator. The CFPB is authorized to prevent unfair, deceptive and abusive practices and ensure that consumers have access to markets for consumer financial products and services and that such markets are fair, transparent and competitive.


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Federal and State Taxation

The Company and its subsidiaries file a consolidated federal income tax return and separate state income tax returns in North Carolina. All the returns are filed on a calendar year basis. Consolidated income tax returns have the effect of eliminating intercompany income and expense, including dividends, from the computation of consolidated taxable income for the taxable year in which the items occur. In accordance with an income tax sharing agreement, income tax charges or credits are allocated among Live Oak and its subsidiaries on the basis of their respective taxable income or taxable loss that is included in the consolidated income tax return.

Banks and bank holding companies are subject to federal and state income taxes in essentially the same manner as other corporations. Taxable income is generally calculated under applicable sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), with some modifications required by state law and the December 2017 tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cut and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act").  Although Live Oak’s federal income tax liability is determined under provisions of the Code, which is applicable to all taxpayers, Sections 581 through 597 of the Code apply specifically to financial institutions.

Among other things, the new Tax Act (i) establishes a new, flat corporate federal statutory income tax rate of 21%, (ii) eliminates the corporate alternative minimum tax and allows the use of any such carryforwards to offset regular tax liability for any taxable year, (iii) limits the deduction for net interest expense incurred by U.S. corporations, (iv) allows businesses to immediately expense, for tax purposes, the cost of new investments in certain qualified depreciable assets, (v) eliminates or reduces certain deductions related to meals and entertainment expenses, (vi) modifies the limitation on excessive employee remuneration to eliminate the exception for performance-based compensation and clarifies the definition of a covered employee and (vii) limits the deductibility of deposit insurance premiums. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act also significantly changes U.S. tax law related to foreign operations, however, such changes do not currently impact the Company. Based upon current 2020 projections, the effective tax rate for 2020 is anticipated to be approximately 25%; however, management continues to explore investments which generate investment tax credits and as a result there can be no assurance as to the actual effective rate because it will be dependent upon the nature and amount of future income and expenses as well as actual investments generating investment tax credits and transactions with discrete tax effects.

Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act  

On May 24, 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (“EGRRCPA”) was signed into law, which amended provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and was intended to ease, and better tailor, regulation, particularly with respect to smaller-sized institutions such as the Company.  EGRRCPA’s highlights include, among other things: (i) exempts banks with less than $10 billion in assets from the ability-to-repay requirements for certain qualified residential mortgage loans held in portfolio; (ii) not requiring appraisals for certain transactions valued at less than $400,000 in rural areas; (iii) clarifies that, subject to various conditions, reciprocal deposits of another depository institution obtained using a deposit broker through a deposit placement network for purposes of obtaining maximum deposit insurance would not be considered brokered deposits subject to the FDIC’s brokered-deposit regulations; (iv) raises eligibility for the 18-month exam cycle from $1 billion to banks with $3 billion in assets; and (v) simplifies capital calculations by requiring regulators to establish for institutions under $10 billion in assets a community bank leverage ratio (tangible equity to average consolidated assets) at a percentage not less than 8% and not greater than 10% that such institutions may elect to replace the general applicable risk-based capital requirements for determining well capitalized status. On September 17, 2019, the FDIC passed a final rule on the community bank leverage ratio, setting the minimum required community bank leverage ratio at 9 percent.  The rule went into effect on January 1, 2020.  In addition, the Federal Reserve was required to raise the asset threshold under its Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement from $1 billion to $3 billion for bank or savings and loan holding companies that are exempt from consolidated capital requirements, provided that such companies meet certain other conditions such as not engaging in significant nonbanking activities and not having a material amount of debt or equity securities outstanding (other than trust preferred securities) that are registered with the SEC.  Consistent with EGRRCPA, the Federal Reserve passed an interim final rule that became effective on August 30, 2018, to increase the asset threshold to $3 billion for qualifying for such policy statement.

Evolving Legislation and Regulatory Action

New laws or regulations or changes to existing laws and regulations, including changes in interpretation or enforcement, could materially adversely affect the Company's financial condition or results of operations. Many aspects of the Dodd-Frank Act are subject to further rulemaking and will take effect over several years. As a result, the overall financial impact on the Company and Live Oak Bank cannot be anticipated at this time.

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Item 1A.

RISK FACTORS

An investment in LOB common stock involves certain risks. The following discussion highlights the risks that management believes are material for the Company, but do not necessarily include all the risks that we may face. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not currently known or that management does not currently deem material could also have a material adverse impact on our business, results of our operations and financial condition.  You should carefully consider the risk factors and uncertainties described below and elsewhere in this Report in evaluating an investment in LOB’s common stock.

Risks Related to Our Business

We may experience increased delinquencies and credit losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our capital, financial condition, and results of operations.

Like other lenders, we face the risk that our customers will not repay their loans. A customer’s failure to repay us is usually preceded by missed monthly payments. In some instances, however, a customer may declare bankruptcy prior to missing payments, and, following a borrower filing bankruptcy, a lender’s recovery of the credit extended is often limited. Since many of our loans are secured by collateral, we may attempt to seize the collateral if and when a customer defaults on a loan. However, the value of the collateral might not equal the amount of the unpaid loan, and we may be unsuccessful in recovering the remaining balance from our customer. The resolution of nonperforming assets, including the initiation of foreclosure proceedings, requires significant commitments of time from management, which can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities, and which expose us to additional legal costs. Elevated levels of loan delinquencies and bankruptcies in our market areas, generally, and among our customers specifically, can be precursors of future charge-offs and may require us to increase our allowance for loan and lease losses, or ALLL. Higher charge-off rates, delays in the foreclosure process or in obtaining judgments against defaulting borrowers or an increase in our ALLL may negatively impact our overall financial performance, may increase our cost of funds, and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

SBA lending and other government guaranteed lending is an important part of our business. These lending programs are dependent upon the federal government, and we face specific risks associated with originating SBA and other government guaranteed loans.

Our SBA lending program is dependent upon the federal government. As an SBA Preferred Lender, we enable our clients to obtain SBA loans without being subject to the potentially lengthy SBA approval process necessary for lenders that are not SBA Preferred Lenders. The SBA periodically reviews the lending operations of participating lenders to assess, among other things, whether the lender exhibits prudent risk management. When weaknesses are identified, the SBA may request corrective actions or impose enforcement actions, including revocation of the lender’s Preferred Lender status. If we lose our status as a Preferred Lender, we may lose some or all of our customers to lenders who are SBA Preferred Lenders, and as a result we could experience a material adverse effect to our financial results. Any changes to the SBA program, including changes to the level of guarantee provided by the federal government on SBA loans, may also have a material adverse effect on our business.

During the fourth quarter of 2018, we began implementing a strategic decision to retain a larger portion of our loans eligible for sale on our balance sheet.  Notwithstanding this decision, we anticipate that gains on the sale of loans will comprise a significant component of our revenue in 2020.  We sell the guaranteed portion of some of our SBA 7(a) loans in the secondary market. These sales have resulted in premium income for us at the time of sale and created a stream of future servicing income. We may not be able to continue originating these loans or selling them in the secondary market. Furthermore, even if we are able to continue originating and selling SBA 7(a) loans in the secondary market, we might not continue to realize premiums upon the sale of the guaranteed portion of these loans. When we sell the guaranteed portion of our SBA 7(a) loans, we incur credit risk on the non-guaranteed portion of the loans, and if a customer defaults on the non-guaranteed portion of a loan, we share any loss and recovery related to the loan pro-rata with the SBA. If the SBA establishes that a loss on an SBA guaranteed loan is attributable to significant technical deficiencies in the manner in which the loan was originated, funded or serviced by us, the SBA may seek recovery of the principal loss related to the deficiency from us, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, we make loans through the Rural Energy for America Program of the United States Department of Agriculture, or the USDA, which provides guaranteed loan financing and grant funding to agricultural producers and rural small businesses for renewable energy systems or to make energy-efficient improvements, and through other USDA guaranteed lending programs.  A typical SBA 7(a) loan carries a 75% guarantee while USDA guarantees range from 60% to 80% depending on loan size and type.  We expect to continue to sell a large proportion of the USDA loans that we originate in the secondary market as they become eligible for sale.  The origination and sale of these loans are subject to similar risks associated with the origination and sale of SBA 7(a) loans as described above.  

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The laws, regulations and standard operating procedures that are applicable to SBA loan products may change at any time.  For example, effective January 1, 2018, the SBA changed its procedures relating to equity levels required to qualify for an SBA loan.  These changes had an adverse impact on originations, particularly in our Agriculture vertical and other verticals where the borrowers historically have faced challenges meeting equity requirements for eligibility. In March 2018, the Office of Inspector General (the “OIG”) for the SBA issued its Evaluation of SBA 7(a) Loans Made to Poultry Farmers.  The report summarized the OIG’s review of SBA 7(a) loans made to poultry farmers along with its findings and recommendations.  Among other things, the OIG report concluded that the loans to poultry farmers it had reviewed did not meet regulatory and SBA requirements for eligibility.  In response to the March 2018 OIG’s report, the SBA issued a proposed rule in September of 2018. In February 2020, the SBA issued a final interim rule on affiliation standards, including a process for the SBA to review poultry and agriculture contracts for an eligibility determination on affiliation. We are still assessing the potential impact of these final interim rules, including potential impacts on verticals outside of poultry lending.  We cannot predict the effects of future changes on our business and profitability. Because government regulation greatly affects the business and financial results of all commercial banks and bank holding companies and especially our organization, changes in the laws, regulations and procedures applicable to SBA and USDA loans could adversely affect our ability to operate profitably.

A prolonged U.S. government shutdown or default by the U.S. on government obligations would harm our results of operations.

Our results of operations, including revenue, non-interest income, expenses and net interest income, would be adversely affected in the event of widespread financial and business disruption on account of a default by the United States on U.S. government obligations or a prolonged failure to maintain significant U.S. government operations, particularly those pertaining to the SBA, the USDA or the FDIC. Any such failure to maintain such U.S. government operations would impede our ability to originate SBA loans and our ability to sell such loans in the secondary market, which would materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.  

We are dependent upon the use of intellectual property owned by third parties, and any change in our ability to use, or the terms upon which we may use, this intellectual property could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The technology-based lending platform that is pivotal to our success is dependent on the use of the nCino Bank Operating System and Salesforce.com, Inc.’s Force.com cloud computing infrastructure platform. We rely on a non-exclusive license to use nCino’s platform. Because our license is non-exclusive, the nCino Bank Operating System is available to other lenders and nothing would prevent our competitors from developing, licensing or using similar technology. Our license currently expires on November 14, 2021. Notwithstanding the term of our agreement, our license may be terminated if we are in material breach of the license and do not cure the breach within 30 days. In addition, nCino relies on a license to use the Salesforce.com platform, and if nCino were unable to maintain its rights under that license, our ability to rely on the nCino license could be adversely affected. We can offer no assurance that we will be able to renew or maintain our license to use the nCino Bank Operating System on terms that are acceptable. Termination of either of these licenses or the reduction or elimination of our licensed rights may result in our having to negotiate new licenses with less favorable terms, or the inability to obtain access to such licensed technology at all.

Similarly, Apiture LLC (“Apiture”) has provided the Bank significant engineering, development, professional and other services.  We are currently negotiating with Apiture for an agreement to deliver the products and services that will comprise the next-generation banking platform that we believe will be important for our future strategy and success.  There can be no assurance that Apiture will agree to, or be able to, develop and support the implementation of our new banking platform in a timely and cost-effective manner or that Apiture will continue to provide any services on which we rely at appropriate service levels or at prices that would be market competitive.  See “Risks Related to Our Investment in Apiture” below for additional risks that Apiture faces, some or all of which could have a material adverse impact on our Bank as a customer of Apiture.  In addition, we are an investor in Finxact, Inc., an early-stage fintech company developing an enterprise class, cloud-native Core-as-a-Service platform that we also believe will be important for our future strategy and success. We also rely on numerous other vendors and third parties to provide software and solutions comprising the new banking platform that we are developing. If this technology is not successfully developed and implemented at our Bank, if we were to lose access to any of this technology, or if we were only able to access the technology on less favorable terms, we would not be able to offer our customers the next-generation banking platform services that we intend to offer, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

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A failure in or breach of our operational or security systems, or those of our third party service providers, including as a result of cyber-attacks, could disrupt our business, result in unintentional disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses.

As a financial institution, our operations rely heavily on the secure data processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information on our computer systems and networks. Any failure, interruption or breach in security or operational integrity of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in our online banking system, customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit and loan servicing and other systems. The security and integrity of our systems and the technology we use could be threatened by a variety of interruptions or information security breaches, including those caused by computer hacking, cyber-attacks, electronic fraudulent activity or attempted theft of financial assets. We may fail to promptly identify or adequately address any such failures, interruptions or security breaches if they do occur. While we have certain protective policies and procedures in place, the nature and sophistication of the threats continue to evolve. We may be required to expend significant additional resources in the future to modify and enhance our protective measures.

The nature of our business may make it an attractive target and potentially vulnerable to cyber-attacks, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins or similar disruptions. The technology-based platform we use processes sensitive data from our borrowers, depositors and other customers. While we have taken steps to protect confidential information that we have access to, our security measures and the security measures employed by the owners of the technology in the platform that we use could be breached. Any accidental or willful security breaches or other unauthorized access to our systems could cause confidential customer, borrower, employee, vendor, partner or investor information to be stolen and used for criminal purposes. Security breaches or unauthorized access to confidential information could also expose us to liability related to the loss of the information, time-consuming and expensive litigation, and negative publicity. If security measures are breached because of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise, or if design flaws in the technology-based platform that we use are exposed and exploited, our relationships with customers, borrowers, employees, vendors, partners and investors could be severely damaged, and we could incur significant liability.

Because techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until they are launched against a target, we and our collaborators may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. In addition, federal regulators and many federal and state laws and regulations require companies to notify individuals of data security breaches involving their personal data. These mandatory disclosures regarding a security breach are costly to implement and often lead to widespread negative publicity, which may cause customers, borrowers, employees, vendors, partners or investors to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our data security measures. Any security breach, whether actual or perceived, would harm our reputation, we could lose customers, borrowers, employees, vendors, partners, or investors, and our business and operations could be adversely affected.

Additionally, we face the risk of operational disruption, failure, termination or capacity constraints of any of the third parties that facilitate our business activities, including exchanges, clearing agents, clearing houses or other financial intermediaries. Such parties could also be the source of an attack on, or breach of, our operational systems. Any failures, interruptions or security breaches in our information systems could damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, result in a violation of privacy or other laws, or expose us to civil litigation, regulatory fines or losses not covered by insurance.

Our business is dependent on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party providers. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. If significant, sustained or repeated, a system failure or service denial could compromise our ability to operate effectively, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, and/or subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the value of our common stock.

A return of recessionary conditions could result in increases in our level of nonperforming loans and/or reduce demand for our products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Like many financial institutions, we are subject to certain risks resulting from a weakened economy, such as increased charge-offs and levels of past-due loans and nonperforming assets.  A period of deteriorating economic conditions could adversely affect the ability of our customers to repay their loans, the value of our investments, and our ongoing operations, including our equipment leasing and title insurance businesses, costs and profitability. These events may cause us to incur losses and may materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Our loan portfolio mix, which includes owner-occupied commercial real estate loans, could result in increased credit risk in a challenging economy.

Our loan portfolio is concentrated in owner-occupied commercial real estate and owner-occupied commercial business loans. These types of loans generally are viewed as carrying more risk of default than residential real estate loans or certain other types of loans or investments. In fact, the FDIC has issued pronouncements alerting banks of its concern about heavy loan concentrations in certain types of commercial real estate loans, including acquisition, construction and development loans, and heavy loan concentrations in certain geographic segments. Because a portion of our loan portfolio is composed of these types of higher-risk loans, we face an increased risk of nonperforming loans that could result in a loss of earnings from these loans, an increase in the provision for loan and lease losses, or an increase in loan charge-offs, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The current economic environment and any deterioration or downturn in the economies or real estate values in the markets we serve could have a material adverse effect on both borrowers’ ability to repay their loans and the value of the real property securing those loans. Our ability to recover on defaulted loans would then be diminished, and we would be more likely to suffer losses on defaulted loans. Any of these developments could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The fair value of our investment securities can fluctuate due to factors outside of our control.

As of December 31, 2019, the fair value of our investment securities portfolio was approximately $540.0 million. Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions in respect of the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying securities, monetary tapering actions by the Federal Reserve, and changes in market interest rates and potential instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, could cause other-than-temporary impairments and realized or unrealized losses in future periods and declines in other comprehensive income, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects, as well as the value of our common stock. The process for determining whether impairment of a security is other-than-temporary usually requires complex, subjective judgments about the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Our inability to accurately predict the future performance of an issuer or to efficiently respond to changing market conditions could result in a decline in the value of our investment securities portfolio, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our allowance for loan and lease losses may prove to be insufficient to cover actual loan and lease losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our future success depends to a significant extent upon the quality of our assets, particularly loans. In originating loans, there is a substantial likelihood that we will experience credit losses. The risk of loss will vary with, among other things, general economic conditions, including the current economic environment and real estate market, the type of loan, the creditworthiness of the borrower over the term of the loan, and, in the case of a collateralized loan, the quality of the collateral for the loan.

Our loan customers may not repay their loans according to the terms of these loans, and the collateral securing the payment of these loans may be insufficient to assure repayment. As a result, we may experience significant loan losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. Our management makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of our loan portfolio, including the creditworthiness of our borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of many of our loans.  We maintain an allowance for loan and lease losses in an attempt to cover any loan and lease losses that may occur. In determining the size of the allowance, we rely on an analysis of our loan and lease portfolio based on historical loss experience, volume and types of loans and leases, trends in classification, volume and trends in delinquencies and non-accruals, national and local economic conditions, and other pertinent information.

If our assumptions are wrong, our current allowance may not be sufficient to cover future loan and lease losses, and we may need to make adjustments to allow for different economic conditions or adverse developments in our loan and lease portfolio. Material additions to our allowance in the form of provisions for loan and lease losses would materially decrease our net income. We expect our allowance to continue to fluctuate; however, given current and future market conditions, our allowance may not be adequate to cover future loan and lease losses.


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Federal and state regulators periodically review our allowance for loan and lease losses and may require us to increase our provision for loan and lease losses or recognize further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of our management. Any increase in our allowance for loan and lease losses or loan charge-offs as required by these regulators could have a negative effect on our operating results and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” as amended, on January 1, 2020 will impact our methodology for estimating the allowance for loan and lease losses. See Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies under the subheading entitled “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” further discussion of this new standard.

The valuation of our servicing rights is based on estimates and subject to fluctuation based on market conditions and other factors that are beyond our control.

The fair value of our servicing rights is estimated based upon projections of expected future cash flows generated by the loans we service, historical prepayment rates, future prepayment estimates, portfolio characteristics, interest rates based on interest rate yield curves, volatility, market demand for servicing rights and other factors. While this evaluation process uses historical and other objective information, the valuation of our servicing rights is ultimately an estimate based on our experience, judgment and expectations regarding our servicing portfolio and the broader market. This is an inherently uncertain process and the value of our servicing rights may be adversely impacted by factors that are beyond our control, which may in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The recognition of gains on the sale of loans reflects certain assumptions.

During the fourth quarter of 2018, we began implementing a strategic decision to retain a larger portion of our loans eligible for sale on our balance sheet. Notwithstanding this decision, we anticipate that gains on the sale of loans will comprise a significant component of our revenue in 2020. The determination of noncash gains is based on assumptions regarding the value of unguaranteed loans retained, servicing rights retained and deferred fees and costs. The value of retained unguaranteed loans and servicing rights are determined by our wholly owned subsidiary, GLS, which applies market derived factors such as prepayment rates, current market conditions and recent loan sales to arrive at valuations. Deferred fees and costs are determined using internal analysis of the cost to originate loans. Significant errors in assumptions used to compute gains on sale of loans could result in material revenue misstatements, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and profitability. In addition, while we believe that the valuations provided by GLS are at arm’s length, reflect fair value and are reperformed for indications of bias by an independent third party on a biannual basis, if such valuations are not reflective of fair market value then our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

We anticipate that going forward we will experience increasing growth in our held-for-sale and held-for-investment loan portfolios due to our strategic business decisions and increasing construction portfolio.

Our revenue model has historically been driven by selling loans that we originate, or a portion of those loans, in the secondary market when fully funded. The growth of our construction portfolio that typically funds in stages will result in a decrease in the volume of loans sold relative to production in any period, which, in turn, decreases our revenue relative to production in any period. In addition, we anticipate growth in our loans held for investment due to our origination of loans that we choose not to sell or for which there is no secondary market or due to other strategic choices, including the pursuit of potential opportunities in conventional lending outside of SBA or other government guarantee programs. During the fourth quarter of 2018, we began implementing a strategic decision to retain a larger portion of our loans eligible for sale on our balance sheet.  Growth in our held-for-sale and our held-for-investment loan portfolios exposes us to increased interest rate and credit risks.

Our rental equipment is subject to residual value risk upon disposition, and may not sell at the prices or in the quantities we expect.

The market value of any given piece of rental equipment could be less than its depreciated value at the time it is sold. The market value of used rental equipment depends on several factors, including:

 

the market price for new equipment of a like kind;

 

the age of the equipment at the time it is sold, as well as wear and tear on the equipment relative to its age;

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the supply of used equipment on the market;

 

technological advances relating to the equipment;

 

demand for the used equipment; and

 

general economic conditions.

We include in income from operations the difference between the sales price and the depreciated value of an item of equipment sold. Changes in our assumptions regarding depreciation could change our depreciation expense, as well as the gain or loss realized upon disposal of equipment. Sales of our used rental equipment at prices that fall significantly below our projections or in lesser quantities than we anticipate will have a negative impact on our results of operations and cash flows.

We are subject to liquidity risk in our operations.

Liquidity risk is the possibility of being unable, at a reasonable cost and within acceptable risk tolerances, to pay obligations as they come due, to capitalize on growth opportunities as they arise, or to pay regular dividends because of an inability to liquidate assets or obtain adequate funding on a timely basis. Liquidity is required to fund various obligations, including credit obligations to borrowers, loan originations, withdrawals by depositors, repayment of debt, dividends to shareholders, operating expenses, and capital expenditures. Our liquidity is derived primarily from retail deposit growth and retention, the sale of loans in the secondary market, principal and interest payments on loans and investment securities, net cash provided from operations, and access to other funding sources. A significant portion of our deposit base is gathered through our nationwide direct deposit platform, and we have historically also relied on brokered deposits.  If our Bank were to become less than well capitalized, we could not offer an effective yield on our deposits in excess of 75 basis points over the “national rate” as defined in applicable FDIC rules.  We also could not accept brokered deposits without FDIC approval.  See “Capital Adequacy” under the heading “Supervision and Regulation” above for more details on these restrictions.  If we became subject to these restrictions, they could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition.

Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities or at a reasonable cost could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry in general. Factors that could adversely affect our access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of our business activity due to a market downturn, failures of or interruptions to the next-generation banking platform we are developing, our lack of access to a traditional branch banking network designed to generate core deposits, and adverse regulatory action against us. Our ability to borrow could also be impaired by factors that are not specific to us, such as a severe disruption in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry as a whole. Our access to borrowed funds could become limited in the future, and we may be required to pay above market rates for additional borrowed funds, if we are able to obtain them at all, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Changes in the interest rate environment could reduce our net interest income, which could reduce our profitability.

As a financial institution, our earnings depend in part on our net interest income, which is the difference between the interest income that we earn on interest-earning assets, such as investment securities and loans, and the interest expense that we pay on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Additionally, changes in interest rates affect the premiums we may receive in connection with the sale of SBA 7(a) and USDA loans in the secondary market, pre-payment speeds of loans for which we own servicing rights, our ability to fund our operations with customer deposits, and the fair value of securities in our investment portfolio. Therefore, any change in general market interest rates, including changes in federal fiscal and monetary policies, affects us more than non-financial companies and can have a significant effect on our net interest income and results of operations. Our assets and liabilities may react differently to changes in overall market rates or conditions because there may be mismatches between the repricing or maturity characteristics of the assets and liabilities. As a result, an increase or decrease in market interest rates could have material adverse effects on our net interest margin, noninterest income and results of operations.  In a rising interest rate environment, potential borrowers could seek to defer loans as they wait for interest rates to settle, and borrowers of variable rate loans may be subject to increased interest rates, which could result in a greater rate of prepayment or default. Changes in interest rates may also present additional challenges to our business that we have not anticipated.


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The amount of other real estate owned, or OREO, may increase significantly, resulting in additional losses, and costs and expenses that will negatively affect our operations.

In connection with our banking business, we take title to real estate collateral from time to time through foreclosure or otherwise in connection with efforts to collect debts previously contracted. Such real estate is referred to as other real estate owned, or OREO. As the amount of OREO increases, our losses, and the costs and expenses to maintain the real estate, likewise increase. The amount of OREO we hold may increase due to various economic conditions or other factors. Any additional increase in losses and maintenance costs and other expenses due to OREO may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Such effects may be particularly pronounced in a market of reduced real estate values and excess inventory, which may make the disposition of OREO properties more difficult, increase maintenance costs and other expenses, and reduce our ultimate realization from any OREO sales. In addition, at the time of acquisition of the OREO we are required to reflect its fair market value in our financial statements. If the OREO declines in value subsequent to its acquisition, we are required to recognize a loss. As a result, declines in the value of our OREO will have a negative effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. As of December 31, 2019, we had six OREO properties with an aggregate carrying value of $5.6 million.

We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with our lending activities.

A significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real property. During the ordinary course of business, we may foreclose on and take title to properties securing certain loans. In doing so, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties. If hazardous or toxic substances are found, we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses and may materially reduce the affected property’s value or limit our ability to use or sell the affected property. In addition, future laws or more stringent interpretations or enforcement policies with respect to existing laws may increase our exposure to environmental liability. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our use of appraisals in deciding whether to make a loan secured by real property or how to value the loan in the future may not accurately reflect the net value of the collateral that we can realize.

In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, we generally require an appraisal of the property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made, and, as real estate values may experience changes in value in relatively short periods of time, especially during periods of heightened economic uncertainty, this estimate might not accurately describe the net value of the real property collateral after the loan has been closed. If the appraisal does not reflect the amount that may be obtained upon any sale or foreclosure of the property, we may not realize an amount equal to the indebtedness secured by the property. In addition, we rely on appraisals and other valuation techniques to establish the value of our OREO and to determine certain loan impairments. If any of these valuations are inaccurate, our consolidated financial statements may not reflect the correct value of OREO, and our Allowance for loan and lease losses may not reflect accurate loan impairments. The valuation of the properties securing the loans in our portfolio may negatively impact the continuing value of those loans and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We could be subject to losses, regulatory action or reputational harm due to fraudulent and negligent acts on the part of loan applicants, our borrowers, our employees and vendors.

In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and other third parties, including financial statements, property appraisals, title information, employment and income documentation, account information and other financial information which may include information furnished by sellers to our borrowers in connection with business acquisitions that we finance. We may also rely on representations of clients and other third parties as to the accuracy and completeness of such information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors. Any such misrepresentation or incorrect or incomplete information may not be detected prior to funding a loan or during our ongoing monitoring of outstanding loans. In addition, one or more of our employees or vendors could cause a significant operational breakdown or failure, either as a result of human error or where an individual purposefully sabotages or fraudulently manipulates our loan documentation, operations or systems. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.


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We may fail to realize all of the anticipated benefits, including estimated cost savings, of potential future acquisitions.

In the future, we may encounter difficulties in obtaining required regulatory approvals for, or face unexpected contingent liabilities from, businesses we may acquire. Integration of an acquired business can be complex and costly, sometimes including combining relevant accounting and data processing systems and management controls, as well as managing relevant relationships with employees, customers, suppliers and other business partners. Integration efforts could divert management attention and resources, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, during periods of market volatility and uncertainty, we may also experience increased credit costs or need to take additional markdowns and allowances for loan losses on assets and loans we may acquire. These increased credit costs, markdowns and allowances could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations, as well as the value of our common stock.

Implementation of our growth strategy depends, in part, on our ability to successfully identify acquisition opportunities and strategic partners that will complement our operating philosophy, and also on the successful integration of their operations with our own. To successfully acquire target companies or establish complementary lines of business, we must be able to correctly identify profitable or growing markets, as well as attract the necessary relationships and high caliber personnel to make these new business lines profitable. In addition, we may not be able to identify suitable opportunities for further growth and expansion. As consolidation of the financial services industry continues, the competition for suitable acquisition candidates may increase. We will compete with other financial services companies for acquisition opportunities, and many of these competitors have greater financial resources than we do and may be able to pay more for an acquisition than we are able or willing to pay. If we are unable to effectively implement our growth strategies, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

Acquisitions may be delayed, impeded, or prohibited due to regulatory issues.

Acquisitions by the Company or the Bank, particularly those of financial institutions, are subject to approval by a variety of federal and state regulatory agencies. Regulatory approvals could be delayed, impeded, restrictively conditioned or denied due to regulatory issues we have, or may have, with regulatory agencies, including, without limitation, issues related to the CRA; fair lending laws; fair housing laws; consumer protection laws; unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices regulations; and other similar laws and regulations. We may fail to pursue, evaluate or complete strategic and competitively significant acquisition opportunities as a result of our inability, or perceived or anticipated inability, to obtain regulatory approvals in a timely manner, under reasonable conditions or at all. Difficulties associated with potential acquisitions that may result from these factors could have a material adverse impact on our business, and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations.

The value of our goodwill and other intangible assets may decline in the future.

In connection with our acquisitions, we have generally recognized intangible assets, including goodwill, in our consolidated balance sheet. We may not realize the value of these assets. Management performs an annual review of the carrying values of any goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets and periodic reviews of the carrying values of all other intangible assets to determine whether events and circumstances indicate that an impairment in value may have occurred. A variety of factors could cause the carrying value of an asset to become impaired. Should a review indicate impairment, a write-down of the carrying value of the asset would occur, resulting in a non-cash charge which would adversely affect our results of operations for the period.  All goodwill and intangibles recorded in 2017 were related to the acquisition of Reltco.  On August 1, 2018, the Company financed the sale of its entire interest in Reltco for $3.0 million.  The Company’s divestiture was driven by expectations of future profitability under current market conditions impacting the mortgage industry.  See Note 2. Title Insurance Business for further information on this transaction and related financial impacts.  Although we did not have any goodwill or other intangible assets on our balance sheet as of December 31, 2019, we may recognize intangible assets in connection with future acquisitions.


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New lines of business or new products and services may subject us to additional risks.

We are focused on our long-term growth and have undertaken various new business initiatives, many of which involve activities that are new to us, or in some cases, are in the early stages of development. From time to time, we may develop, grow and/or acquire new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets for these products and services are not fully developed.  For example, we have expanded our services in the government contracting industry to provide consulting and merger and acquisition advisory services.  We have also launched a Venture Banking vertical where we provide credit and other financial services to venture-backed businesses that often have limited operating histories and are incurring significant losses.  During 2019, our subsidiary Canapi Advisors began providing investment advisory services to a series of new funds focused on providing venture capital to new and emerging financial technology companies.  Given our evolving business and product diversification, these new initiatives may subject us to, among other risks, increased business, reputational and operational risk, as well as more complex legal, regulatory and compliance costs and risks.

In developing and marketing new lines of business and/or new products and services, we may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and/or new products or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible.  External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business and/or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. All service offerings, including current offerings and those which may be provided in the future, may become more risky due to changes in economic, competitive and market conditions beyond our control.

We are subject to risk in connection with our strategic activities, including acquisitions, joint ventures, partnerships, and investments.

We are engaged, and may in the future engage, in strategic activities, including acquisitions, joint ventures, partnerships, investments or other business growth initiatives or undertakings. There can be no assurance that we will successfully identify appropriate opportunities, that we will be able to negotiate or finance such activities or that such activities, if undertaken, will be successful.

Our ability to execute strategic activities and new business initiatives successfully will depend on a variety of factors. These factors likely will vary based on the nature of the activity but may include our success in integrating an acquired company or a new internally-developed growth initiative into our business, operations, services, products, personnel and systems, operating effectively with any partner with whom we elect to do business, meeting applicable regulatory requirements and obtaining applicable regulatory licenses or other approvals, hiring or retaining key employees, achieving anticipated synergies, meeting management's expectations, actually realizing the anticipated benefits of the activities, and overall general market conditions. Our ability to address these matters successfully cannot be assured. In addition, our strategic efforts may divert resources or management's attention from ongoing business operations and may subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and potential liability. If we do not successfully execute a strategic undertaking, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation or growth prospects. In addition, if we were to conclude that the value of an acquired business had decreased and that the related goodwill had been impaired, that conclusion would result in an impairment of goodwill charge to us, which would adversely affect our results of operations.

In addition, in order to finance future strategic undertakings, we might require additional financing, which might not be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. If obtained, equity financing could be dilutive and the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.


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Our investments in financial technology companies and initiatives, including the activities of our subsidiary Canapi Advisors, subject us to material financial, reputational and strategic risks.

Our investments in various financial technology companies have had a significant impact on our results of operations, and we anticipate they will continue to have a significant impact on our results of operations in the future.  Investments where we have the ability to exercise significant influence but not control over the operating and financial policies of the investee are accounted for using the equity method of accounting.  For investments accounted for under the equity method, we increase or decrease our investment by our proportionate share of the investee’s net income or loss.  Those investments where we are not able to exercise significant influence over the investee are accounted for under ASU 2016-01, where changes in fair value resulting from observable price changes arising from orderly transactions are recognized in net income.  We also periodically evaluate our investments for impairment.  See Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies under the subheading entitled “Investments” for more information.  

Any earnings from our financial technology investments can be volatile and difficult to predict.  Furthermore, we invest in many of these financial technology companies for strategic purposes.  Where we are a minority shareholder, we may be unable to influence the activities of these organizations which could have an adverse impact on our ability to execute our strategic initiatives and successfully develop and implement the banking platform we are developing with these and other partners.

Our subsidiary Canapi Advisors is an investment advisor to Canapi Ventures, a series of new funds focused on providing venture capital to new and emerging financial technology companies.  Canapi Ventures plans to invest in early to growth-stage companies that may include companies that utilize advanced science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics to innovate in the financial technology market.  Investments in these companies involve a high degree of business and financial risk that can result in substantial losses.  These companies may be unseasoned, unprofitable or have no established operating histories or earnings and may lack technical, marketing, financial and other resources.  These companies often have the need for substantial additional capital to support expansion or to achieve or maintain a competitive position.  Less established companies tend to have lower capitalization and fewer resources and, therefore, are often more vulnerable to financial failure. These companies may be dependent upon the success of one product or service, a unique distribution channel, or the effectiveness of its manager or management team.  The failure of this one product, service or distribution channel, or the loss or ineffectiveness of a key executive or executives within the management team may have a materially adverse impact on such companies. Such companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing and service capabilities and a larger number of qualified managerial and technical personnel.  If Canapi Advisors is unable to successfully identify investment opportunities, it will likely lose the capital that it invests on behalf of the fund’s investors, including the capital that we will invest, and will not generate any carried interest for the benefit of Live Oak Bancshares, which would have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations, our reputation and our ability to raise successive funds for similar purposes.

Many of the financial technology companies in which we invest present risks similar to those in which Canapi Ventures will invest.  The possibility that the companies in which we and Canapi Ventures invest will not be able to commercialize their technology or product concept presents significant risk to our business operations and financial results. These companies tend to lack management depth, to have limited or no history of operations and to not have attained profitability.  Additionally, although some of these companies may already have a commercially successful product or product line at the time of investment, technology products and services often have a more limited market or life span than products in other industries. Thus, the ultimate success of these companies may depend on their ability to continually innovate in increasingly competitive markets. Most of the companies in which we and Canapi Ventures invest will require substantial additional equity financing to satisfy their continuing growth and working capital requirements. Each round of venture financing is typically intended to provide a company with enough capital to reach the next stage of development. The circumstances or market conditions under which such companies will seek additional capital is unpredictable. It is possible that one or more of such companies will not be able to raise additional financing or may be able to do so only at a price or on terms which are unfavorable.


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Our investments in other companies may be illiquid.

The equity securities of the companies in which we and Canapi Ventures invest are at the time of acquisition unmarketable and illiquid, and there can be no assurance that a ready market for these securities will ever exist.  Such securities generally cannot be sold publicly without prior agreement with the issuer to register the securities under the Securities Act or by selling such securities under Rule 144 or other provisions of the Securities Act which permit only limited sales under specified conditions.  We generally will realize the value of such securities only if the issuer is able to make an initial public offering of its shares or enters into a business combination with another company which purchases our equity securities or exchanges them for publicly traded securities of the acquirer. The feasibility of such transactions depends upon the company's financial results as well as general economic and equity market conditions. Furthermore, even if the equity securities owned become publicly traded, our ability to sell such securities may be limited by the lack of or limited nature of a trading market for such securities. There can be no assurance that the value at which we carry these assets will necessarily reflect the amount which could be realized upon a sale or other liquidity event.

We may be adversely impacted by the transition from LIBOR as a reference rate.

In 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced that after 2021 it would no longer compel banks to submit the rates required to calculate the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). This announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. Consequently, at this time, it is not possible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide submissions for the calculation of LIBOR. Similarly, it is not possible to predict whether LIBOR will continue to be viewed as an acceptable market benchmark, what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, or what the effect of any such changes in views or alternatives may be on the markets for LIBOR-indexed financial instruments.

We have loans and other financial instruments with attributes that are either directly or indirectly dependent on LIBOR. The transition from LIBOR could create considerable costs and additional risk. Since proposed alternative rates are calculated differently, payments under contracts referencing new rates will differ from those referencing LIBOR. The transition will change our market risk profiles, requiring changes to risk and pricing models, valuation tools, product design and hedging strategies. Furthermore, failure to adequately manage this transition process with our customers could adversely impact our reputation. Although we are currently unable to assess what the ultimate impact of the transition from LIBOR will be, failure to adequately manage the transition could have a material adverse effect on our busi