EX-99.16 17 exhibit99-16.htm EXHIBIT 99.16 Primero Mining Corp.: Exhibit 99.16 - Filed by newsfilecorp.com

InnovExplo – Consulting Firm
Mines & Exploration
560, 3e Avenue
Val-d’Or, Québec, Canada, J9P 1S4
Telephone: 819.874.0447
Facsimile: 819.874.0379
Toll-free: 866.749.8140
Email: info@innovexplo.com
Web site: www.innovexplo.com

 
TECHNICAL REPORT AND MINERAL RESOURCE ESTIMATE
FOR THE GREY FOX PROJECT
(compliant with Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101 and Form 43-101F1)
 
Project Location
 
Latitude: 48º 30´ North; Longitude: 80º 18’ West
Hislop Township
Province of Ontario, Canada
 
Prepared for

Brigus Gold Corp.
56 Temperance Street, Suite 300
Toronto, Ontario M5H 3V5
Canada
Phone: 416-214-9867
 

Prepared by:    
     
Pierre-Luc Richard, MSc, PGeo  Bruno Turcotte, MSc, PGeo Carl Pelletier, BSc, PGeo
InnovExplo – Consulting Firm  InnovExplo – Consulting Firm InnovExplo – Consulting Firm
Val-d’Or (Québec)  Val-d’Or (Québec) Val-d’Or (Québec)
     
     
     
  Effective Date: June 21, 2013  
  Signature Date: July 30, 2013  


 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS  
           
           
SIGNATURE PAGE 6
CERTIFICATE OF AUTHOR – PIERRE-LUC RICHARD 7
CERTIFICATE OF AUTHOR – BRUNO TURCOTTE 8
CERTIFICATE OF AUTHOR – CARL PELLETIER 9
1. SUMMARY 10
2. INTRODUCTION 17
3. RELIANCE ON OTHER EXPERTS 18
4. PROPERTY DESCRIPTION AND LOCATION 19
  4.1 Location 19
  4.2 Mining Title and Claim Status 20
  4.3 Environment, Permits and Development Expenditures 24
5. ACCESSIBILITY, CLIMATE, LOCAL RESOURCES, INFRASTRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY 25
  5.1 Accessibility 25
  5.2 Climate 25
  5.3 Local Resources and Infrastructure 25
  5.4 Physiography 25
6. HISTORY 27
  6.1 Lease from the Frederick William Schumacher Estate (before Brigus Gold) 27
  6.2 Gibson Deposit Area (before BRIGUS GOLD) 28
  6.3 Grey Fox Property (Brigus Gold) 29
7. GEOLOGICAL SETTING AND MINERALIZATION 34
  7.1 Regional Geological Setting 34
    7.1.1 Archean Superior Province 34
    7.1.2 The Abitibi Terrane (Abitibi subprovince) 35
  7.2 Local Geological Setting 39
    7.2.1 Tisdale Assemblage 39
    7.2.2 The Kinojevis Assemblage 41
    7.2.3 The Timiskaming Assemblage 43
    7.2.4 Faults 44
      7.2.4.1 Porcupine-Destor Deformation Zone 44
      7.2.4.2 Arrow Fault 45
      7.2.4.3 Hislop Fault 45
      7.2.4.4 Ross Fault 46
   7.3 Grey Fox Property Geology 48
   7.4 Mineralization 48
    7.4.1 Alteration Associated with Mineralization (Ross and Rhys, 2011) 48
    7.4.2 Style of Gold Mineralization (Ross and Rhys, 2011) 49
    7.4.3 Control on mineralization (Ross and Rhys, 2011) 51
8. DEPOSIT TYPES 53
  8.1 Greenstone-hosted quartz-carbonate vein deposits 55
  8.2 Low-sulphidation epithermal Au deposits 56
9. EXPLORATION 59
10. DRILLING 60
11. SAMPLE PREPARATION, ANALYSES, AND SECURITY 69

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   11.1 Sample Preparation 69
   11.2 Gold Analysis 70
   11.3 Quality Control 70
    11.3.1  Blanks 70
    11.3.2   Certified Reference Materials (standards) 71
    11.3.3   Duplicates 72
  11.4 Conclusions 73
12. DATA VERIFICATION 74
  12.1 Historical Work 74
    12.1.1  Brigus Database 74
    12.1.2  Brigus Diamond Drilling 74
    12.1.3  Brigus sampling and assaying procedures 76
13. MINERAL PROCESSING AND METALLURGICAL TESTING 80
14. MINERAL RESOURCE ESTIMATES 81
  14.1 Methodology 81
    14.1.1  Drill hole database 81
    14.1.2  Interpretation of mineralized zones 81
    14.1.3  High grade capping 84
    14.1.4  Compositing 90
    14.1.5  Variography and ellipsoids 90
    14.1.6  Specific gravity 93
    14.1.7  Block model 94
    14.1.8  Grade block model 95
    14.1.9   Mineral Resource Classification, Category and Definition 96
  14.2 Mineral Resource Estimation 97
15. MINERAL RESERVE ESTIMATES 100
16. MINING METHODS 100
17. RECOVERY METHODS 100
18. PROJECT INFRASTRUCTURE 100
19. MARKET STUDIES AND CONTRACTS 100
20. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES, PERMITTING, AND SOCIAL OR COMMUNITY IMPACT 100
21. CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS 100
22. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 100
23. ADJACENT PROPERTIES 101
  23.1 The Black Fox Mine 101
  23.2 Hislop Mine (New Kelore) 102
  23.3 Gold Pike Mine Property 102
  23.4 Hislop Township gold project 103
24. OTHER RELEVANT DATA AND INFORMATION 105
25. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS 106
26. RECOMMENDATIONS 107
27. REFERENCES 110

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LIST OF FIGURES  
     
Figure 4.1 – Location map for the Grey Fox Project 19
Figure 4.2 – Location map showing mining titles and mineral and surface rights constituting the Grey Fox property 23
Figure 5.1 – Grey Fox property access 26
Figure 7.1 – Mosaic map of the Superior Province showing major tectonic elements, from Percival 35
Figure 7.2 – Location of the Grey Fox Property on divisions of the Abitibi greenstone belt into southern (SVZ) and northern volcanic zones (NVZ) with external and internal segments in the NVZ. 38
Figure 7.3 – Regional geological setting of Grey Fox property geology 40
Figure 7.4 – Inferred movement on segments in the Highway 101 area 47
Figure 7.5 – Altered variolitic host unit to the 147 Zone, from the mineralized interval (32 to 36 m) in GF11-244 (32 to 36 m) 49
Figure 7.6 – Samples illustrating vein textures from the mineralized interval between 31 and 36 m in drill hole GF11-244 50
Figure 7.7 – Samples from the Timiskaming clastic sediments adjacent to the contact with the mafic volcanic sequence illustrating structural styles associated with mineralization 52
Figure 8.1 – Schematic cross section showing the key geologic elements of the main gold systems and their crustal depths of emplacement 53
Figure 8.2 – Simplified geological map of the Abitibi greenstone belt showing the distribution of major fault zones and of gold deposits 54
Figure 8.3 – Illustration of the structural control to ore shoot formation in different structural environments and associated ore shoot orientations 57
Figure 8.4 – Conceptual model illustrating styles of magmatic arc porphyry Cu-Au and epithermal Au-Ag mineralisation (Corbet, 2007) 58
Figure 10.1 – Drill hole collar location on the Grey Fox property 68
Figure 11.1 – Distribution graph showing results from assayed blank samples from the latest drilling programs on the Grey Fox Project 71
Figure 11.2 – Distribution graph showing results from assayed standard samples from the latest drilling programs on the Grey Fox Project 72
Figure 11.3 – Linear graph comparing original field samples versus field duplicates (quarter- split core) from the 2012-2013 Grey Fox drilling program 73
Figure 12.1 – Well-maintained road access to the drilling sites 75
Figure 12.2 – Four drill rigs in operation during the authors’ site visits 75
Figure 12.3 – Some of the drill sites observed during the site visit 76
Figure 12.4 – General views of some of the core reviewed during the site visit 77
Figure 12.5 – General views of some of the core reviewed during the site visit 77
Figure 12.6 – Photos of the logging and sampling facili 78
Figure 12.7 – Photos of the Location of the Standards and Blanks used in the QA/QC program 78
Figure 12.8 – Outdoor core storage next to the core shed 79
Figure 14.1 – General view showing the fifteen (15) interpreted geological zones looking north- northeast 82
Figure 14.2 – Plan view 83
Figure 14.3 – Probability plot for the Contact Zone 84
Figure 14.4 – Probability plot for the VIV Zone 85
Figure 14.5 – Probability plot for all zones combined excluding Contact and VIV 85
Figure 14.6 – Normal histogram of gold grade distribution for all DDH samples from the Contact Zone 86

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Figure 14.7 – Normal histogram of gold grade distribution for all DDH samples from the VIV Zone 86
Figure 14.8 – Normal histogram of gold grade distribution for all DDH samples from all zones combined, excluding Contact and VIV 87
Figure 14.9 – Graph showing the percentage of metal versus the percentage of samples for the Contact Zone 87
Figure 14.10 – Graph showing the percentage of metal versus the percentage of samples for the VIV Zone 88
Figure 14.11 – Graph showing the percentage of metal versus the percentage of samples for all zones combined excluding Contact and VIV 88
Figure 14.12 – 3D variogram along the major axis of the Contact geological zone 91
Figure 14.13 – 3D variogram along the major axis of the VIV geological zone 91
Figure 14.14 – 3D variogram along the major axis of the remaining geological zones 91
Figure 14.15 – Different views of the ellipse determined by geostatistics for the Contact Zone   92
Figure 14.16 – Different views of the ellipse determined by geostatistics for the VIV Zone 92
Figure 14.17 – Different views of the ellipse determined by geostatistics for the remaining Zones 93
Figure 23.1 – Adjacent properties to the Grey Fox project 104

LIST OF TABLES  
     
Table 4.1 – Mineral and surface rights constituting the Grey Fox property 22
Table 6.1 – 2012 Resource Estimate for the Contact and 147 zones, Black Fox Complex 30
Table 6.2 – Historical work conducted the lease from the Frederick William Schumacher estate  31
Table 6.3 – Historical work conducted in the Gibson deposit area 32
Table 6.4 – Historical work conducted on the Grey Fox property 33
Table 10.1 – Brigus drill holes on the Grey Fox deposit 61
Table 13.1 – Head Analysis for the March 2013 SGS Metallurgical tests on the Grey Fox project 80
Table 14.1 – List of the fifteen (15) interpreted geological zones on the Grey Fox project 83
Table 14.2 – Metal factor distribution per decile and per zone 84
Table 14.3 – List of capped samples within the DDH database 89
Table 14.4 – Summary statistics for the assays by zone for the DDH population 89
Table 14.5 – Summary statistics for DDH composites 90
Table 14.6 – Specific Gravity determination 94
Table 14.7 – Grey Fox block model 95
Table 14.8 – Mineral Resource Estimate results for the Grey Fox project 97
Table 14.9 – Mineral Resource Estimate results for the indicated category at different cut-off grades 98
Table 14.10 – Mineral Resource Estimate results for the Inferred category at different cut-off grade 99
Table 26.1 – Budget estimate for the Phase I and II work programs 109

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SIGNATURE PAGE

TECHNICAL REPORT AND MINERAL RESOURCE ESTIMATE
FOR THE GREY FOX PROJECT
(compliant with Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101 and Form 43-101F1)
Effective Date: June 21, 2013
Signature Date: July 30, 2013
 
Prepared for
 
Brigus Gold Corp.
56 Temperance Street, Suite 300
Toronto, Ontario M5H 3V5
Canada
Phone: 416-214-9867

   (signed and sealed on original)   Signed at Val-d’Or on July 30, 2013
Pierre-Luc Richard, MSc, P.Geo.    
InnovExplo Inc.    
560, 3e Avenue, Val-d’Or,    
Québec, Canada, J9P 1S4    
     
     
     
     
   (signed and sealed on original)   Signed at Val-d’Or on July 30, 2013
Bruno Turcotte, MSc, P.Geo.    
InnovExplo Inc.    
560, 3e Avenue, Val-d’Or,    
Québec, Canada, J9P 1S4    
     
     
     
     
(signed and sealed on original)   Signed at Val-d’Or on July 30, 2013
Carl Pelletier, BSc, P.Geo.    
InnovExplo Inc.    
560, 3e Avenue, Val-d’Or,    
Québec, Canada, J9P 1S4    

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CERTIFICATE OF AUTHOR – PIERRE-LUC RICHARD

I, Pierre-Luc Richard, MSc, PGeo (APGO No. 1714, OGQ No. 1119), do hereby certify that:

1.

I am employed as a geologist by and carried out this assignment for: InnovExplo – Consulting Firm in Mines and Exploration, 560, 3e Avenue, Val-d’Or, Québec, Canada, J9P 1S4.

   
2.

I graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in geology from the Université du Québec à Montreal in 2004. In addition, I obtained an MSc from the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi in 2012.

   
3.

I am a member in good standing of the Ordre des Géologues du Québec (OGQ No. 1119) and of the Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario (APGO No. 1714).

   
4.

I have worked as a geologist for more than nine (9) years since my graduation from university.

   
5.

I have read the definition of “qualified person” set out in Regulation 43-101 / National Instrument 43-101 and certify that by reason of my education, affiliation with a professional association (as defined in Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101) and past relevant work experience, I fulfill the requirements to be a “qualified person” for the purposes of Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101.

   
6.

I am responsible for the preparation of sections 1, 9 to 22, and 24 to 27 of the technical report titled “Technical Report and Mineral Resource Estimate for the Grey Fox Project (compliant with Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101 and Form 43-101F1)” (the “Technical Report”), effective date of June 21, 2013 and signature date of July 30, 2013. I also supervised the writing of the entire report. I visited the property with Carl Pelletier on March 20, 2013 and on April 29 and 30, 2013.

   
7.

I have not had prior involvement with the property that is the subject of the Technical Report.

   
8.

I am not aware of any material fact or material change with respect to the subject matter of the Technical Report that is not reflected in the Technical Report, the omission to disclose which makes the Technical Report misleading.

   
9.

I am independent of the issuer applying all of the tests in section 1.5 of Regulation 43-101 and National Instrument 43-101.

   
10.

I have read Regulation 43-101/National Instrument 43-101 respecting standards of disclosure for mineral projects, as well as Form 43-101F1, and the Technical Report has been prepared in accordance with that regulation and form.

   
11.

1 I consent to the filing of the Technical Report with any stock exchange and other regulatory authority and any publication by them for regulatory purposes, including electronic publication in the public company files on their websites accessible by the public, of the Technical Report.

Dated this 30th day of July, 2013.

(signed and sealed on original)
Pierre-Luc Richard, MSc, PGeo
InnovExplo Inc
pierreluc.richard@innovexplo.com

1

If an issuer is using this certificate to accompany a technical report that it will file only with the exchange, then the exchange recommends that this paragraph is included in the certificate.


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CERTIFICATE OF AUTHOR – BRUNO TURCOTTE

I, Bruno Turcotte, PGeo (APGO No. 2136, OGQ No. 453) do hereby certify that:

1.

I am Consulting Geologist of InnovExplo Inc at 560, 3e Avenue, Val-d’Or, Québec, Canada, J9P 1S4.

   
2.

I graduated with a Bachelor of Geology degree from Université Laval in Quebec City in 1995. In addition, I obtained a Master’s in Earth Sciences degree from Université Laval in Quebec City in 1999.

   
3.

I am a member of the Ordre des Géologues du Québec (OGQ, no. 453) and of the Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario (APGO 2136).

   
4.

I have worked as a geologist for a total of 18 years since my graduation from university. My exploration expertise has been acquired with Noranda Exploration Inc, Breakwater Resources Ltd, South-Malartic Exploration Inc, and Richmont Mines Inc. My mining expertise was acquired on the Croinor pre-production project and at the Beaufor mine. I have been a consulting geologist for InnovExplo Inc since March 2007.

   
5.

I have read the definition of “qualified person” set out in Regulation 43-101 / National Instrument 43-101 and certify that by reason of my education, affiliation with a professional association (as defined in Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101) and past relevant work experience, I fulfill the requirements to be a “qualified person” for the purposes of Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101.

   
6.

I am responsible for the preparation of the sections 2.0 to 8.0, 23.0, and 27.0 of the technical report titled “Technical Report and Mineral Resource Estimate for the Grey Fox Project (compliant with Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101 and Form 43-101F1)” (the “Technical Report”), effective date of June 21, 2013 and signature date of July 30, 2013.

   
7.

I have not had prior involvement with the property that is the subject of the Technical Report. I did not visit the Grey Fox property.

   
8.

I am not aware of any material fact or material change with respect to the subject matter of the Technical Report that is not reflected in the Technical Report and that the omission to disclose would make the Technical Report misleading.

   
9.

I am independent of the issuer applying all of the tests in section 1.5 of Regulation 43-101 and National Instrument 43-101.

   
10.

I have read Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101 respecting standards of disclosure for mineral projects, as well as Form 43-101F1, and the Technical Report has been prepared in accordance with that regulation and form.

   
11.

I consent to the filing of the Technical Report with any stock exchange and other regulatory authority, and any publication by them of the Technical Report for regulatory purposes, including electronic publication in the public company files on their websites accessible by the public.1

Dated this 30th day of July, 2013.

(signed and sealed on original)
Bruno Turcotte, MSc, PGeo
bruno.turcotte@innovexplo.com

1

If an issuer is using this certificate to accompany a technical report that it will file only with the exchange, then the exchange recommends that this paragraph is included in the certificate.


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CERTIFICATE OF AUTHOR – CARL PELLETIER

I, Carl Pelletier, PGeo (APGO No. 1713, OGQ No. 384) do hereby certify that:

1.

I am Consulting Geologist of: InnovExplo Inc, 560 3e Avenue, Val d’Or, Québec, Canada, J9P 1S4.

   
2.

I graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in Geology (B.Sc.) from Université du Québec à Montréal (Montréal, Québec) in 1992, and I initiated a Master's degree at the same university for which I completed the course program but not the thesis.

   
3.

I am a member of the Ordre des Géologues du Québec (OGQ, no. 384), the Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario (APGO, no. 1713), and of the Canadian Institute of Mines (CIM), Harricana Section.

   
4.

I have worked as a geologist for a total of 20 years since my graduation from university. My mining expertise has been acquired in the Silidor, Géant Dormant, Bousquet II, Sigma-Lamaque and Beaufor mines, whereas my exploration experience has been acquired with Cambior Inc. and McWatters Mining Inc. I have been a consulting geologist for InnovExplo inc. since February 2004.

   
5.

I have read the definition of “qualified person” set out in Regulation 43-101 / National Instrument 43-101 and certify that by reason of my education, affiliation with a professional association (as defined in Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101) and past relevant work experience, I fulfill the requirements to be a “qualified person” for the purposes of Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101.

   
6.

I am responsible for supervising the preparation of the Mineral Resource Estimate of the Grey Fox Project, as well as supervising the preparation of all the sections of the technical report titled “Technical Report and Mineral Resource Estimate for the Grey Fox Project (compliant with Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101 and Form 43-101F1)” (the “Technical Report”), effective date of June 21, 2013 and signature date of July 30, 2013. I was accompanied by Pierre-Luc Richard for the visits of the property on March 20, 2013 and on April 29 and 30, 2013.

   
7.

I have not had prior involvement with the property that is the subject of the Technical Report.

   
8.

I am not aware of any material fact or material change with respect to the subject matter of the Technical Report that is not reflected in the Technical Report, the omission to disclose which makes the Technical Report misleading.

   
9.

I am independent of the issuer applying all of the tests in section 1.5 of Regulation 43-101 and National Instrument 43-101.

   
10.

I have read Regulation 43-101 / NI 43-101 and Form 43-101F1, and the Technical Report has been prepared in compliance with that instrument and form.

   
11.

1 I consent to the filing of the Technical Report with any stock exchange and other regulatory authority and any publication by them for regulatory purposes, including electronic publication in the public company files on their websites accessible by the public, of the Technical Report.

Dated this 30th day of July, 2013.

(signed and sealed on original)
Carl Pelletier, BSc, PGeo
carl.pelletier@innovexplo.com

1

If an issuer is using this certificate to accompany a technical report that it will file only with the exchange, then the exchange recommends that this paragraph is included in the certificate.


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1.

SUMMARY

On January 4 2013, InnovExplo Inc. (“InnovExplo”) was contracted by Howard Bird, Senior Vice President of Exploration of Brigus Gold Corp. (“Brigus Gold” or “the issuer”), to complete a Mineral Resource Estimate and a Technical Report (“the report”) for the Grey Fox project (“the project” or “the property”) in compliance with Regulation 43-101 and Form 43-101F1. The issuer, Brigus Gold Corp., is a Canadian mineral exploration company trading publicly on the TSX in Toronto (TSX-T: BRD). InnovExplo is an independent mining and exploration consulting firm based in Val-d’Or (Québec).

The authors, Pierre-Luc Richard, MSc, PGeo (APGO #1714; OGQ #1119), Bruno Turcotte, MSc, PGeo (APGO #2136; OGQ #453), and Carl Pelletier, BSc, PGeo (APGO #1713; OGQ #384), are all Qualified and Independent Persons as defined by Regulation 43-101. Pierre-Luc Richard completed the Mineral Resource Estimate after reviewing the available data, previous surveys, and all other relevant information deemed adequate and reliable. Pierre-Luc Richard and Bruno Turcotte wrote the report. The Mineral Resource Estimate and report were prepared under the supervision of Carl Pelletier. Technical support and collaboration were provided by Vincent Jourdain (PEng), Louise Charbonneau, Daniel Turgeon, all of InnovExplo. Venetia Bodycomb of Vee Geoservices provided the linguistic editing.

Authors Pierre-Luc Richard and Carl Pelletier visited the Grey Fox project for the first time on March 20, 2013 and a second visit took place on April 29 and 30, 2013. All the authors have a good knowledge of the geological setting of the area and its mineral potential. The authors also have a good understanding of mineral deposit exploration models for Archean gold deposits. InnovExplo conducted a review and appraisal of the information used to prepare the report and to formulate its conclusions and recommendations, and believes that such information is valid and appropriate considering the status of the project and the purpose for which the report is prepared. The author has fully researched and documented the conclusions and recommendations made in the report. The authors, by virtue of their technical review of the project’s production potential, affirm that the work program and recommendations presented in the report comply with Regulation 43-101 and CIM technical standards.

Property description and location

The Grey Fox property is located in Hislop Township, approximately 12 km east-southeast of the town of Matheson, in the province of Ontario, Canada. The property lies within NTS map sheet 42A/08. The approximate coordinates for the geographic centre of the Grey Fox property are 48°30'20.0”N and 80°18'20.0”N (UTM coordinates: 551100E and 5372750N, NAD 83, Zone 17). The surrounding land has an altitude of about 900 to 950 metres above mean sea level.

Claim status was supplied by Howard Bird, Senior Vice President of Exploration of Brigus Gold Corp. The property consists of one (1) block of land comprised of seven (7) parcels for a total of 284.46 ha. InnovExplo verified the status for all claims using the Ontario government’s online claim management system via the Geo-Claims website.

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Geological setting

The Grey Fox property lies within the Archean Superior Province, which forms the core of the North American continent and is surrounded by provinces of Paleoproterozoic age to the west, north and east, and the Grenville Province of Mesoproterozoic age to the southeast.

The Grey Fox property lies within the Abitibi subprovince (Abitibi Greenstone Belt) of the Archean Superior craton, in eastern Canada, along the northern margin of the Porcupine-Destor-Manneville deformation zone. This and the Larder Lake-Cadillac deformation zones are the most important deformation zones within the Abitibi subprovince in terms of both structural effects and gold production.

The local geological setting is represented by Neoarchean supracrustal rocks, which are intruded by Paleoproterozoic and Keweenawan-age diabase and Mesozoic kimberlite dikes and pipes, underlie the Highway 101 area. The supracrustal rocks are composed of ultramafic, mafic, intermediate and felsic metavolcanic rocks, related intrusive rocks, clastic and chemical metasedimentary rocks, and a suite of ultramafic to felsic alkalic plutonic and metavolcanic rocks (Berger, 2002). These rocks are divisible into five (5) distinct packages based on morphology, petrography, geochemistry and geochronology. These packages or assemblages (cf. Thurston 1991) in the Highway 101 area are correlated with regional assemblages proposed by Jackson and Fyon (1991) and modified by Ayer et al., (1999b). The five (5) assemblages, from oldest to youngest, are the Kidd-Munro, Tisdale, Kinojevis, Porcupine and Timiskaming assemblages. The first three are predominantly composed of metavolcanic rocks; the latter two are predominantly composed of metasedimentary rocks, although alkaline metavolcanic rocks and related intrusions occur within the Timiskaming Assemblage. The Grey Fox property is essentially covered by the Tisdale, and Timiskaming assemblages, but also by tiny part of the Kinojevis Assemblage.

Drilling

Brigus started drilling the Grey Fox property in 2008. This report, using the established cut-off date of June 10, 2013, considers 725 holes drilled, logged and sampled by the company totalling 245,793.07 metres. Out of those 725 holes, 689 holes (totalling 233,482.17 m) were included in the current Resource Estimate. The discarded 36 holes were located outside the Grey Fox deposit.

The original objective of the program was to investigate historical gold intervals that a limited number of drill holes had encountered between 1993 and 1997. This objective was quickly upgraded to systematic drilling of the mineralized zones when significant gold intervals were encountered. All holes were supervised, logged and sampled by Brigus personnel. The program produced 88,264 samples averaging 0.99 metre.

Data Verification

The diamond drill hole database used for the Resource Estimate presented herein was provided by Brigus and is referred to as the Brigus database in this item. A drilling program was underway at the time that this Report was written. Therefore, a cut-off date of June 10 2013 was established for the current Resource Estimate.

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InnovExplo’s data verification included field visits, a review of core, a review of the drill hole collar locations, a review of the assays, a review of lithologies, alterations, and structural descriptions, and a review of downhole surveys.

Metallurgical Testing

The latest metallurgical study was performed in March 2013 by SGS on the 147 and Contact areas. As reported in Legault and Geldart (2013), metallurgical testwork was conducted on the 147 and Contact Master Composites and on 16 Variability Composites. The Variability Composites represent 16 grid zones, 8 from the 147 area and 8 from the Contact area. The 147 and Contact Master Composites were submitted for gravity separation followed by carbon in-leach cyanidation (CIL) of the gravity tailing. The Variability Composites were submitted for whole ore carbon-in leach.

The recovery of gold from the 147 Master Composite by gravity separation ranged from 33% to 38%. The gold recovery from the Contact Zone Master Composite ranged from 9% to 18%. The gold recovery of the Variability Composites (whole ore carbon in leach test) ranged from 63% for 147 Zone 8 (test CN-8) at 93 μm to 94% for both the 147 Zone 3 (Test CN-3) at 71 μm and Contact Zone 5 (test CN-13) at 46 μm.

Mineral Resource Estimate

The 2013 Mineral Resource Estimate herein was performed by Pierre-Luc Richard, MSc, PGeo, under the supervision of Carl Pelletier, BSc, PGeo, using all available results. The main objectives of InnovExplo’s work were to: 1) update the interpretation; and 2) publish the results of an updated Mineral Resource Estimate for the Grey Fox Project. The mineral resources presented herein are not mineral reserves since they have no demonstrable economic viability. The result of the study is a single Mineral Resource Estimate for all mineralized zones, with Indicated and Inferred Resources, for both a Whittle-optimized in-pit volume and a complementary underground volume. The effective date of this Mineral Resource Estimate is June 21, 2013.

The Mineral Resource Estimate detailed in this report was made using 3D block modelling. Krigging and the inverse distance square interpolation (ID2) methods were used for an area of the Grey Fox Project with a strike-length of 1.3 kilometres and a width of up to approximately 1.0 kilometres, down to a vertical depth of 600 metres below surface. In order to conduct accurate resource modeling of the Grey Fox Project, InnovExplo, in close collaboration with Brigus geologists, updated a geological-zone solid model delimiting the geologically defined extent of the mineralized zones using a 1.3 kilometres strike-length corridor measuring 1.0 kilometre wide and extending down to 600 metres below surface. The geological-zone model was constructed to outline zones of geological continuity. Overall, fifteen geological zones have been interpreted along a steep, roughly north-northwest trend.

Given the density of the processed data, the search ellipse criteria, and the specific interpolation parameters, InnovExplo is of the opinion that the current Mineral Resource Estimate can be classified as Indicated and Inferred Resources. The estimate is compliant with CIM standards and guidelines for reporting mineral resources and reserves. Table 14.8 presents the combined resources by category for the overall Grey Fox project.

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Mineral Resource Estimate results for the Grey Fox project (Section 14 – Table 14.8)

 GreyFox-2013MINERALRESOURCEESTIMATE 
Resource
Class
Cut-offGrade
(g/tAu)

Potential Material

Tonnes
CappedAu
(g/t)
Contained
Au(oz)

Indicated
>2.84 Underground 1275000 6.2 255000
>0.72 OpenPit 3041500 2.6 252400
Total Indicated 4316500 3.7 507400

Inferred
>2.84 Underground 1025100 5.6 184800
>0.72 OpenPit 488900 2.8 43800
Total Inferred 1514000 4.7 228600

-

The Independent and Qualified Persons for the Mineral Resource Estimate, as defined by Regulation 43-101, are Pierre-Luc Richard, MSc, PGeo (InnovExplo Inc), and Carl Pelletier, BSc, PGeo (InnovExplo Inc), and the effective date of the estimate is June 21, 2013.

-

The quantity and grade of reported Inferred resources in this estimation are uncertain in nature and there has been insufficient exploration to define these Inferred resources as an Indicated or Measured mineral resource and it is uncertain if further exploration will result in upgrading them to an Indicated or Measured mineral resource category.

 

-

These Mineral Resources are not Mineral Reserves as they do not have demonstrated economic viability.

-

While the results are presented undiluted and in situ, the reported mineral resources are considered to have reasonable prospects for economic extraction.

 

-

CIM definitions and guidelines were followed for Mineral Resources.

-

The resource was estimated using Gemcom GEMS 6.5. The database used for the estimate contained diamond drill core composites and assays. All samples were collected by Brigus personnel. The estimate is based on 724 diamond drill holes (246,191m) drilled from 1993 to 2013, of which the vast majority (>95%) were drilled between 2008 and 2013. A minimum true thickness of 5.0 m was applied, using the grade of the adjacent material when assayed or a value of zero when not assayed.

-

Supported by statistical analysis and the high grade distribution within the deposit, a top cut varying from 50 g/t and 100 g/t was applied to assay grades prior to compositing grades for interpolation into model blocks using Ordinary Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighting Squared methods, and was based on 1.5 m composites within a 3m long x 3m wide x 3m high block model. The ordinary kriged grade model for part of the 147 and Contact zones and ID2 for the rest of the deposit was felt to best represent the continuity and distribution of the gold grade based on the current geological models.

-

Two passes for each of the geological zones were used for interpolation. Based on geostatistics, the ellipse maximum ranges for interpolation were 102m x 38m x 10m for the 147 Main geological zone, 76m x 42m x 10m for the Contact Main geological zone and 60m x 30m x 10m for remaining zones.

-

Bulk densities were calculated for individual interpreted lithological domains based on 638 density measurements. The calculated bulk densities vary from 2.76 g/cm3 to 2.96 g/cm3.

-

A Whittle optimized constraining shell was generated to constrain the potential open pit material for the 147 and Contact Zone. The potential underground material for the 147 and Contact zones is based on the remaining resource outside of the pit shells. No open pit constraining shell was run for the Grey Fox South zone and all of the resource is classified as underground potential material. In-Pit and Underground resources were compiled at cut-off grades from 0.40 to 5.00 g/t Au (for sensitivity characterization). A cut-off grade of 0.72 g/t Au was selected as the official in-pit cut-off grade and a cut-off grade of 2.84 g/t Au was selected as the official underground cut-off grade. Cut-off grades must be re-evaluated in light of prevailing market conditions (gold price, exchange rate and mining cost).

-

A gold price of US$1,400/oz and an exchange rate of US$1.00=C$1.01 was used in the gold cut-off grade calculations of 2.84 g/t for potential underground and 0.72 g/t for potential open-pit Mineral Resources. Underground and open-pit mining costs, process costs and G&A costs were estimated using experience gained from Brigus’ Black Fox mine.

-

The Indicated category is defined by combining various statistical criteria, such as a minimum of three drill holes within the search area, a maximum distance of 15m to the closest composite, and a maximum average distance of 25m to composites. Finally, a clipping boundary was interpreted to either upgrade or downgrade some of the resource based on confidence and geological continuity.

-

The pit shell used for the resource estimate extends slightly beyond the property limits in its southern portion of the 147 Zone. Although the entire resource lies within the property limits, some material outside the property limits will need to be removed to access some of the resource. Consequently, this portion of the pit may need to be re-considered in a future economic study. For the purpose of this study, such material outside the property limits was attributed a grade of 0 g/t Au.

 

-

Ounce (troy) = metric tons x grade / 31.10348. Calculations used metric units (metres, tonnes and g/t).

-

The number of metric tons was rounded to the nearest thousand. Any discrepancies in the totals are due to rounding effects; rounding followed the recommendations in Regulation 43-101.

-

InnovExplo is not aware of any known environmental, permitting, legal, title-related, taxation, socio-political or marketing issues or any other relevant issue that could materially affect the Mineral Resource Estimate.


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Conclusion and Recommendation

The Grey Fox deposit is at an advanced stage of exploration and hosts significant gold mineralization. Based on the density of the processed data, the search ellipse criteria, and the specific interpolation parameters, the authors are of the opinion that the current Mineral Resource Estimate can be classified as Indicated and Inferred Resources. The estimate follows CIM standards and guidelines for reporting mineral resources and reserves. A minimum mining width of five (5) metres (true width) and a cut-off grade of 0.72g/t Au (Open pit potential) and 2.84g/t Au (Underground potential) were used for the Mineral Resource Estimate. InnovExplo estimates that the Grey Fox deposit has Indicated Resources of 4,316,500 tonnes grading 3.7 g/t Au (507,400 ounces of gold) and Inferred Resources of 1,514,000 tonnes grading 4.7 g/t Au (228,600 ounces of gold).

InnovExplo, in close collaboration with Brigus geologists, updated the Grey Fox deposit using section views leading to fifteen (15) lithological zones, of which thirteen (13) are mineralized.

After conducting a detailed review of all pertinent information and completing the present Mineral Resource Estimate, InnovExplo concludes the following:

  • The Grey Fox Project contains at least thirteen (13) continuous mineralized lithological zones;

  • The geological and grade continuities of the gold mineralized zones of the Grey Fox project were demonstrated;

  • Grade continuity is better defined within oreshoots throughout the deposit;

  • The mineralized zones have strike lengths ranging up to 1.3 kilometres;

  • In spite of the current drill spacing, the geological continuity seems steady throughout the mineralized zones;

  • The mineralized zones encountered at the Grey Fox deposit have the possibility to expand at depth and to the south although the deposit currently reaches the property boundary in that direction;

  • The potential is high for adding new resources within oreshoots with additional diamond drilling;

  • The potential is high for upgrading Inferred Resources to Indicated Resources with more diamond drilling in all of the zones;

  • There is a possibility for identifying new parallel zones with additional diamond drilling.

The property is strategically positioned in an area known to be associated with gold mineralization. InnovExplo considers the present Mineral Resource Estimate to be reliable, thorough, based on quality data, reasonable hypotheses, and parameters compliant with Regulation 43-101 and CIM standards regarding mineral resource estimations. InnovExplo believes that the Grey Fox project Mineral Resources are sufficiently advanced for a prefeasibility study.

InnovExplo recommends additional work to confirm the economic potential of the Grey Fox deposit and the rest of the Grey Fox property.

The potential being high for upgrading Inferred Resources to Indicated Resources with more diamond drilling, the authors recommend additional in-fill drilling.

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Also, the mineralized zones encountered at the Grey Fox deposit have significant possibility to expand at depth and the potential is high for adding new underground resources within oreshoots of the Contact and 147 areas and both underground and open pit potential in the Grey Fox South area. Additional drilling is therefore warranted.

Following in-fill and at depth drilling program, InnovExplo recommends a feasibility study to determine the potential economic viability of the Mineral Resources. Both open pit and underground scenarios should be evaluated under the same model for the Grey Fox deposit.

Based on the current interpretation of the Grey Fox deposit, the authors believe that, based on the geological setting of the property, there is reasonable potential for identifying new zones parallel to the ones already identified. A comprehensive compilation of historical work over the entire property is recommended to fully understand the relationship between faults, shear zones and gold mineralization. A property-scale drilling program should be performed at Grey Fox to assess its full economic potential.

InnovExplo is of the opinion that the character of the Grey Fox property is of sufficient merit to justify the recommended exploration program described below. The program is divided into two (2) phases. Expenditures for Phase I of the work program are estimated at C$5,807,500 (including 15% for contingencies). Expenditures for Phase II of the work program are estimated at C$4,945,000 (including 15% for contingencies). The grand total is C$10,752,500 (including 15% for contingencies). Phase II of the program is contingent upon the success of Phase I.

Phase I – Drilling program on the Grey Fox deposit and property-scale compilation

Phase 1a) In-fill Drilling on the Grey Fox Deposit
InnovExplo recommends further definition drilling to upgrade Inferred resources to an Indicated category, in particular within the oreshoots already defined.

Phase 1b) Drilling Extensions of the Mineralized Zones
InnovExplo recommends further exploration drilling on the Grey Fox deposit to increase Inferred Resources. More specifically, the program should target the already identified oreshoots at depth and gaps within those close to surface. Lack of drilling close to surface in the Grey Fox South area should be prioritized in order to add open pit potential material.

Phase 1c) Compilation, Surface Mapping and Structural Study
A comprehensive compilation of all historical work should be undertaken in order to potentially provide new insights and targets on the property. Based on such a compilation, property-scale exploration programs, such as geophysics surveys, could be recommended. The main objectives of such studies should be to: 1) better understand the gold distribution of already known showings; and 2) establish new targets on the property.

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Phase 1d) Metallurgical Testing and Rock Mechanic Studies
Additional metallurgical testing is warranted to better understand recovery throughout the deposit and in the Grey Fox South area where no metallurgical testing was ever conducted. A lithology approach should be considered and treated independently. Rock mechanics studies should also be initiated in order to provide adequate data for future economic studies.

Phase II – Prefeasibility and property-scale drilling program

Phase 2a) Resource Estimate Update and Prefeasibility Study on the Grey Fox Deposit
InnovExplo recommends producing a Resource Estimate update following Phase 1 and initiating a prefeasibility study to determine the potential economic viability of the Mineral Resource. Both open pit and underground scenarios should be evaluated within the same model for the Grey Fox deposit.

Phase 2b) Property-scale Drilling Program
InnovExplo recommends further exploration drilling on the Grey Fox property. Such targets will need to be determined after completing Phase 1. A provision has been included in this budget, but will need to be adjusted based on the results of Phase 1.

Budget estimate for the Phase I and II work programs (Section 26 – Table 26.1)

Phase 1 - Work Program
Drilling program on the Grey Fox deposit and property-scale
compilation
Budget
Description
Cost
     
1a In-fill drilling on the Grey Fox deposit 20,000 m $ 2,000,000
       
1b Drilling along the extensions of the mineralized zones 20,000 m $ 2,000,000
       
1c Compilation, surface mapping and structural study   $ 250,000
       
1d Metallurgical testing and rock mechanics studies   $ 650,000
       
  Contingencies (~ 15%)   $ 735,000
       
  Phase 1 subtotal   C$ 5,635,000

Phase 2 - Work Program
Prefeasibility and property-scale drilling program
Budget
Description Cost
     
2a Mineral Resource Estimate update and prefeasibility study   $ 300,000
       
2b Property-scale exploration drilling 10,000 m $ 1,100,000
       
  Contingencies (~ 15%)   $ 210,000
       
  Phase 2 subtotal   C$ 1,610,000
       
                   TOTAL (Phase 1 and Phase 2)   C$ 7,245,000

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2.

INTRODUCTION

On January 4 2013, InnovExplo Inc. (“InnovExplo”) was contracted by Howard Bird, Senior Vice President of Exploration of Brigus Gold Corp. (“Brigus Gold” or “the issuer”) to complete a Mineral Resource Estimate and a Technical Report (“the report”) for the Grey Fox project (“the project” or “the property”) in compliance with Regulation 43-101 and Form 43-101F1. Brigus Gold Corp. is a Canadian mineral exploration company trading publicly on the TSX in Toronto (TSX-T: BRD).

Brigus Gold Corp. was formed pursuant to Articles of Arrangement dated June 25, 2002 under the Business Corporations Act (Ontario) as the result of a plan of arrangement in accordance with the terms of an arrangement agreement (the dated June 24, 2002 between International Pursuit Corporation and Nevoro Gold Corporation (Brigus Gold Annual Information Form, 2012 from SEDAR website). The Plan of Arrangement provided for, among other things, the amalgamation of Pursuit and Nevoro to continue as Apollo Gold Corporation. Apollo was continued under the Business Corporations Act (Yukon) pursuant to articles of continuance dated May 28, 2003. Pursuant to articles of amendment dated June 25, 2010, and following an acquisition of Linear Gold Corp., the Corporation changed its name from Apollo Gold Corporation to Brigus Gold Corp. and consolidated its issued and outstanding common shares on the basis of one new common share for each four old common shares. Brigus Gold Corp. was continued under the Canada Business Corporations Act pursuant to articles of continuance dated June 9, 2011.

InnovExplo is an independent mining and exploration consulting firm based in Val-d’Or (Québec). This report was prepared by InnovExplo for the purpose of providing a Mineral Resource Estimate for the Grey Fox Project. InnovExplo has reviewed the data provided by the issuer and/or by its agents. InnovExplo has also consulted other information sources, such as government databases that handle assessment work and mining title status.

The authors, Pierre-Luc Richard, MSc, PGeo (APGO #1714; OGQ #1119), Bruno Turcotte, MSc, PGeo (APGO #2136; OGQ #453), and Carl Pelletier, BSc, PGeo (APGO #1713; OGQ #384), are all Qualified and Independent Persons as defined by Regulation 43-101. Pierre-Luc Richard completed the Mineral Resource Estimate after reviewing the available data, previous surveys, and all other relevant information deemed adequate and reliable. Pierre-Luc Richard and Bruno Turcotte wrote the report. The Mineral Resource Estimate and report were prepared under the supervision of Carl Pelletier. Technical support and collaboration were provided by Vincent Jourdain (PEng), Louise Charbonneau, Daniel Turgeon, all of InnovExplo. Venetia Bodycomb of Vee Geoservices provided the linguistic editing.

Authors Pierre-Luc Richard and Carl Pelletier visited the Grey Fox Project for the first time on March 20, 2013 and a second visit took place on April 29 and 30, 2013. All the authors have a good knowledge of the geological setting of the area and its mineral potential. The authors also have a good understanding of mineral deposit exploration models for Archean gold deposits. InnovExplo conducted a review and appraisal of the information used to prepare the report and to formulate its conclusions and recommendations, and believes that such information is valid and appropriate considering the status of the project and the purpose for which the report is prepared. The author has fully researched and documented the conclusions and recommendations made in the report.

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3.

RELIANCE ON OTHER EXPERTS

The authors, Qualified and Independent Persons as defined by Regulation 43-101, were contracted by the issuer to study technical documentation relevant to the report, to perform a Mineral Resource Estimate on the Grey Fox Project, and to recommend a work program if warranted. The authors have reviewed the mining titles and their statuses, as well as any agreements and technical data supplied by the issuer (or its agents) and any available public sources of relevant technical information.

Some of the geological and/or technical reports for projects in the vicinity of the Grey Fox project were prepared before the implementation of National Instrument 43-101 in 2001 and Regulation 43-101 in 2005. The authors of such reports appear to have been qualified and the information prepared according to standards that were acceptable to the exploration community at the time. In some cases, however, the data are incomplete and do not fully meet the current requirements of Regulation 43-101. The authors have no known reason to believe that any of the information used to prepare this report is invalid or contains misrepresentations.

The authors relied on the following reports and opinions for information that is not within the authors’ fields of expertise:

  • Information about the mining titles and option agreements was supplied by the issuer. InnovExplo is not qualified to express any legal opinion with respect to the property titles or current ownership and possible litigation.

  • The metallurgical study and associated information was taken from an internal report prepared by SGS Canada Inc for Brigus Gold.

  • Linguistic editing of the report was performed by Venetia Bodycomb, MSc, of Vee Geoservices.

The authors believe the information used to prepare the report and to formulate its conclusions and recommendations is valid and appropriate considering the status of the project and the purpose for which the report is prepared.

The authors, by virtue of their technical review of the project’s exploration potential, affirm that the work program and recommendations presented in the report are in accordance with Regulation 43-101 and CIM technical standards.

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4.

PROPERTY DESCRIPTION AND LOCATION

   
4.1

Location

The Grey Fox property is located in Hislop Township, approximately 12 km east-southeast of the town of Matheson, in the province of Ontario, Canada (Fig. 4.1). The property lies within NTS map sheet 42A/08. The approximate coordinates for the geographic centre of the Grey Fox property are 48°30'20.0”N and 80°18'20.0”N (UTM coordinates: 551100E and 5372750N, NAD 83, Zone 17). The surrounding land has an altitude of about 900 to 950 metres above mean sea level.

Figure 4.1 – Location map for the Grey Fox Project

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4.2

Mining Title and Claim Status

Claim status was supplied by Howard Bird, Senior Vice President of Exploration of Brigus Gold Corp. InnovExplo verified the status for all claims using the Ontario government’s online claim management system via the Geo-Claims website at: http://www.geologyontario.mndm.gov.on.ca/website/geoclaims. The Grey Fox property (Fig. 4.2) consists of one (1) block of land comprised of seven (7) parcels for a total of 284,46 ha (Table 4.1).

On November 6, 2007, Apollo Gold, now Brigus Gold, leased the surface and mining rights from the Frederick William Schumacher estate to parcels 16262, 16265 and 16266, all in Hislop Township (Apollo Gold press release of November 27, 2007). The terms of the lease are as follows:

  A)

Term of twenty (20) years, with twenty-year extensions at the discretion of the Brigus Gold.

     
  B)

Exploration expenditures of $1,000,000 due on or before November 6, 2009.

     
  C)

Annual rent of $100,000 due on the 6th day of November in each and every year up to and including November 6, 2010.

     
  D)

Pre-commercial production subject to Consumer Price Indexing: A minimum annual prepayment production royalty of $100,000 payable in equal quarterly instalments of $25,000 due on the 1st day of the calendar quarter from the date of the fourth anniversary of lease commencement (November 6, 2011). The first quarterly payment is due on February 1, 2012.

     
  E)

Commercial production subject to Consumer Price Indexing: A sum equal to the greater of $100,000 or the Production Royalty equivalent to a 3% NSR paid quarterly less the total of all prepaid production royalties paid under (C) above with a minimum annual payment of $100,000 paid quarterly.

On September 9, 2009, Apollo Gold, now Brigus Gold, completed the acquisition of the Pike River property from Newmont Canada Corporation. The Pike River property comprises the surface and mineral rights to approximately 1,145 acres consisting of parcels 1735 LC, 1726 LC, 23687 SEC, 23777 SEC, 3852 SEC and 11125 SEC. Parcels 3852, L-512568 (1735 LC), L-512569 (1735 LC), and 23777 come from this acquisition and are part of the current Grey Fox property.

Pursuant to the terms of the purchase agreement, Apollo Gold paid to Newmont Canada Corporation the sum of $100,000 and granted to Newmont Canada Corporation a perpetual 2.5% net smelter production royalty from the sale or other disposition of all materials produced from the Pike River property. In addition, as further consideration, within thirty (30) days following the earlier of the following, Apollo Gold shall pay to Newmont Canada Corporation the additional sum of $1,000,000: (i) the date that at least 500,000 ounces of gold equivalent minerals sufficient to be reported pursuant to Canadian National Instrument 43-101 (“NI 43-101”) as combined reserves (proven and probable) and resources (measured, indicated and inferred) are determined to exist within the Pike River Property; or (ii) the commencement of commercial production from any portion of the Pike River Property.

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Parcels L-512568, L-512569, 23777, and 3852 are also liable to other financial obligations of Brigus Gold with royalty holder Parsons-Ginn. The terms of the financial obligation are as follows:

  A)

Advance Royalty of $3,000 payable January 1 of each year, divided as follows: Peter Ginn = $1,500, Gail Lackey = $750, Gerry Leckie = $750;

     
  B)

5% Net Proceeds Royalty shared 50/50 between Ginn (Peter Ginn) and Parsons (Gail Lackey and Gerry Leckie); or

     
  C)

Sliding Production Royalty based on the price of gold (parties elect annually as to which royalty will apply for that year).

Parcel 3858 is also liable to other financial obligations of Brigus Gold with royalty holders Brent George Gray and Tracy Edwin Gray. The terms of the financial obligation are as follows:

  A)

Net Smelter Royalty of 0.15% on all material that undergoes commercial production, provided however that the Net Smelter Royalty due to the Royalty Holder is capped at the sum of C$1,000,000.


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Table 4.1 – Mineral and surface rights constituting the Grey Fox property

  SURFACE AND MINERAL RIGHTS OWNED BY BRIGUS GOLD 
Township
Pin#
Parcel
Hectares
(Approx)
Status
Royalty Holder
Royalty type
Hislop







65380-0566







23777







64.95







SR&MR







i)NewmontCanada
ii)Parsons/Ginn






i)2.5%NSR
ii)Advanceroyalty
$3,000.00payableeachyear

ii)5%NetProceedsRoyalty

ii)SlidingProduction
Royaltybasedontheprice
gold
  LEASED MINERAL AND SURFACE RIGHTS BY BRIGUS GOLD 
Township
Pin#
Parcel
Hectares
(Approx)
Status
Royalty Holder
Royalty type
Hislop
65380-0489
16262
64.14
SR&MR
EstateofFrederick
WilliamSchumacher
c/oTheCanadaTrust
Company

3%NSR

Hislop 65380-0490 16265 32.48 SR&MR
Hislop 65380-0491 16266 32.48 SR&MR
  LEASED MINERAL RIGHTS BY BRIGUS GOLD 
Township
Pin#
Parcel
Hectares
(Approx)
Status
Royalty agreement
Royalty type
Hislop








65380-0498








3852








58.03








MRO








i)Tracy&BrentGray
ii)NewmontCanada
iii)Parsons/Ginn






i)0.15%NSR
ii)2.5%NSR
iii)Advanceroyalty
$3,000.00payableeachyear

iii)5%NetProceeds
Royalty
iii)SlidingProduction
Royaltybasedontheprice
gold
   LEASED MINING CLAIMS BY BRIGUS GOLD 
Township
Pin#
Parcel
Hectares
(Approx)
Status
Royalty agreement
Royalty type
Hislop


65380-0636


L-512568


16.19


Leased
Claims

i)NewmontCanada
ii)Parsons/Ginn





i)2.5%NSR
ii)Advanceroyalty
$3,000.00payableeachyear

ii)5%NetProceedsRoyalty
ii)SlidingProduction
Royaltybasedontheprice
gold
Hislop


65380-0636


L-512568


16.19


Leased
Claims


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Figure 4.2 – Location map showing mining titles and mineral and surface rights constituting the Grey Fox property

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4.3

Environment, Permits and Development Expenditures

The decline entrance on the southeast corner of claim L512568, which accesses the old Gibson West deposit, has been backfilled with muck and the site has been leveled. The main inclined ventilation raise to surface for the Gibson West underground workings, located in the northwest corner of parcel 23777, has been sealed with a cement cap. Both sites were previously inspected and approved by the Ministry of Northern Development and Mines (MNDM) (Garber and Dahn, 1997; Buss, 2010).

InnovExplo is not aware of any environmental or social issues with respect to the property. All exploration activities conducted on the property comply with relevant environmental permitting requirements. To InnovExplo’s knowledge, Brigus has obtained the appropriate permits to use the surface rights.

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5.

ACCESSIBILITY, CLIMATE, LOCAL RESOURCES, INFRASTRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY

   
5.1

Accessibility

   

The Project is located approximately 10 km east of Matheson, 55 km north of Kirkland Lake (population ~8,200) and 60 km east of Timmins (population ~43,000). Access to the Project area is via Tamarack Road, a gravel road running south from Highway 101. The nearest town is Holtyre, which is 5 km south of the property. The population of the Black River-Matheson Township, which includes the communities of Holtyre, Matheson, Ramore, Shillington, Val Gagne and Wavell, is approximately 2,600. Access within the property itself is achieved by various drill roads and all- terrain vehicle (ATV) trails.

   
5.2

Climate

   

The minimum and maximum mean annual temperatures in the region are -4.8°C and +7°C. July and January average temperatures are 17.3°C and -17.3°C, respectively. The mean annual rainfall for the region is 857 mm (www.worldclimate.com).

   

Rapid melting of accumulated snowfall can produce local flooding on the property for short periods during the spring months. Average monthly wind speeds for the region are 11 to 15 km/h (Dyck, 2007). It is possible to conduct exploration activities year- round.

   
5.3

Local Resources and Infrastructure

   

Supplies and services are available in Matheson or Timmins; materials can be delivered with a 12-hour turnaround time. Forestry and mining are the primary industries, and the property is located within a well-established mining camp. Mining and exploration personnel as well as equipment can therefore be locally sourced.

   

Electrical power is readily available at the exploration site via power lines along Tamarack Road. Electrical services were historically available on the property during production of the Gibson West Mine during the early 1980’s.

   
5.4

Physiography

   

The property is located in a Boreal Shield ecosystem. The topography is moderate and averages about 280 masl. Secondary-growth forest covers about 75% of the property and rock outcrops are sparse, comprising only 5% of the property physiography. The thick clay-rich overburden found across the property is typically 20 to 30 metres thick (Buss, 2010).


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Figure 5.1 – Grey Fox property access

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6.

HISTORY

   

This section summarizes previous exploration work in the area of Grey Fox project by period of activity. The Grey Fox project is located in the northeastern part of the Hislop Township. Moore (1937) describes the early work in and around Hislop Township that was carried out by the Ontario Department of Mines and by commercial interests. His report deals with the geology of Hislop Township and four adjoining townships that were mapped during the summer of 1936. Near the southeast corner of Hislop Township, in a farming section, a small outcrop containing quartz and pyrite attracted the attention of prospectors on more than one occasion, but no commercial ore was found until a prospector, Frank Tremblay, sampled another section of the exposure and found good gold values. He staked the claims, which later became known as the Ross mine.

   
6.1

Lease from the Frederick William Schumacher Estate (before Brigus Gold)

   

According to Buss (2010), Fredrick Schumacher was the first person to stake the property in the early 1900s. Eventually it was patented land and was worked as farm land until 1992. As a consequence, it is difficult to list the previous exploration work carried out on these parcels. No other ownership sequence was found during this time period. Most geological work in the area was conducted on the adjacent properties.

   

According to Buss (2010), Noranda Exploration Company acquired the property in the early 1990s. Noranda Exploration Company developed a north-south grid along the Contact Zone in 1993. A total of fourteen (14) diamond drill holes spaced 100 metres apart were drilled on the main Contact Zone for a total of 4,870 metres (Garber and Dahn, 1997). In 1994, Noranda Exploration Company re-established the north-south grid and conducted a magnetometer and IP resistivity survey on the property. This was followed up with three (3) exploration holes spaced 200 metres apart along the north end of the Contact Zone for a total of 919 metres. Whole rock geochemistry was also performed on one of the drill holes (Garber & Dahn, 1997).

   

Noranda Exploration Company optioned the property in 1995 to Hemlo Gold Mines (Buss, 2010). Hemlo Gold Mines and Battle Mountain Gold Company developed an east-west grid over the property and drilled seven (7) more holes on the south end of the zone in 1995 totalling 2,323 metres (Buss, 2010). They also calculated an estimated resource on the Contact Zone based on results from the previous year’s drilling program.

   

In July 1996, Hemlo Gold Mines merged with Battle Mountain Gold Company. Battle Mountain Gold obtained the lease in 1996. Battle Mountain Gold in conjunction with Cameco Gold drilled 16 holes on the Contact Zone to further delineate the estimated resource calculation. Eleven holes for 4,316 metres were drilled in 1996 on the central portion of the Contact Zone at 200 metre spacing. A further 2,331 metres were drilled in five (5) holes on the south end of the zone in 1997. Another more definitive historic resource calculation was completed in 1997 on the Contact Zone. Seven (7) drill core samples from the 1996 drilling program were also submitted for mineralogical examination (Garber & Dahn, 1997).


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The resource estimates done by Battle Mountain in 1997 produced three separate numbers. The initial estimate from the drilling program via a “Boreserve” computerized program produced a resource of 2,186,000 tonnes at 4.8 g/t Au. This included 1,270,000 tonnes at 7.0 g/t Au (Garber and Dahn, 1997). The second estimate, calculated from Gemcom software via polygonal method, was reported as 1,163,897 tonnes @ 6.4 g/t Au (Garber and Dahn, 1997). Another estimate was noted in a 1998 Exall Memorandum which stated there was an indicated resource of 1,541,000 tonnes at 7.0 g/t Au on the Contact Zone (Buss, 2010). Another 347,000 tonnes at an unknown grade was estimated as an inferred resource (Trimble, 1997). All of the tons/tonnes and grade estimates are historical in nature and were calculated prior to 2001. As such, the reader is cautioned that they do not comply with NI 43-101 and should be treated as general guidelines only. The property was then transferred back to the Schumacher Estate until 2007.

Apollo Gold acquired the property in November 2007. In 2008, Apollo Gold drilled another sixteen (16) holes for 3,063 metres on the southern extension of the Contact Zone. Four (4) drill core samples were sent out from the drilling program in 2008 for mineralogical analysis. Another 52 holes were drilled in 2009 by Apollo Gold on the main portion of the Contact Zone. Total metres drilled in 2009 amounted to 9,731 metres.

6.2

Gibson Deposit Area (before BRIGUS GOLD)

In 1939-1945, Abuy Gold Mines Ltd carried out surface sampling and diamond drilling (16 holes totalling 1,277 m) on the north half of lot 4, concession V of Hislop Township. The property consisted of the patented McBride claims. The drilling was based in part on the discovery of gold in a grab sample from a small exposure of variably sheared and quartz veined carbonatized basalt (Prest, 1957).

Martin-Bird Gold Mines Limited obtained an option in 1949 on the Ladouceur claim, on the north half of lot 4, concession IV (Prest, 1957). In all, eleven (11) short holes were completed totalling 2,972 metres. Values of gold were reported from the Contact Zone between an elongate body of hornblende syenite and a sedimentary-dacite complex.

In 1973-1974, the McBride claims were restaked and diamond drilled (11 holes totalling 610 m) by Nevada Exploration Limited (Salo, 2005). Gold values were reported in holes.

In 1979-1980, A. P. Ginn and G. E. Parsons held claims in the area and completed geological and magnetic surveys (Ginn, 1979; Parsons, 1980a) and diamond drilled at least 30 holes (Guindon, 2007; Parsons, 1980b). Many of these holes intersected gold grades. In 1981, H. E. Neal & Associates Limited reported they had intersected high grade gold in diamond drill core from the north half of lot 4, concession IV. A total of 18 holes were diamond drilled for 912 metres (Atherton, 1981).

In 1983, Geddes Resources Limited and Armco Minerals Exploration Limited diamond drilled a gold zone (Guindon, 2007). Armco Minerals Exploration Limited completed magnetic, IP electromagnetic surveys, trenching, and diamond drilling of 27 holes totalling 2,124 metres (Atherton, 1983) on the Gibson Option (the north half of lot 4, concession IV). The drilling is reported to have established the presence an auriferous zone striking N065°-N070°, and dipping 70° north to nearly vertical. The zone extends at least 75 metres laterally, and extends to at least a depth of 95 metres. In 1984, Armco Minerals Exploration Limited diamond drilled 1,676 metres in the same area.

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In 1986, Goldpost Resources Inc. completed a surface diamond drilling program (2,133 m) and initiated an exploration decline ramp to explore anomalous gold tenors associated with the north-northwest striking Gibson Fault (Guindon, 2007). In 1987, Goldpost Resources Inc. performed some underground development (the decline ramp was extended to the vertical 400-ft level) and a major diamond drilling program (56 holes totalling 7,796 m). In 1988, Goldpost Resources Inc. extended by 610 metres the decline ramp and carried out some underground development and performed a major diamond drilling program (7,620 m). In 1989, Goldpost Resources Inc. carried out diamond drilling definition above 400 foot level.

In 1989, Mining Corporation of Canada Limited purchased the Hislop West deposit from Goldpost Resources Inc. and announced plans to begin production, which started in October 1989. According to Hemlo Gold, about 8,000 tonnes were mined at a grade of 27.4 g/t Au (Guindon, 2007).

In 1993-1995, Noranda Exploration Company followed by Hemlo Gold explored the property and carried out surface diamond drilling totalling nine (9) holes. Gold values were intersected at the mafic volcanic-sedimentary rock contact to the east of the portal.

6.3

Grey Fox Property (Brigus Gold)

In September 2010, Scott Hogg & Associates Ltd. was commissioned by Brigus Gold to perform a helicopter-borne aeromagnetic gradient survey over the Black Fox Mine Block, which included the project area and the Black Fox Mill Block. The survey was performed on September 10 and 11, 2010, using a Wisk Air Bell 206 LR helicopter and a total of 1,074 line-kilometres of data was collected. Of this, 490 kilometres were from the Black Fox Mine Block, and 584 kilometres were from the Black Fox Mill Block (Scott Hogg and Associates Ltd, 2010).

The survey distinctly defined the key gold-bearing Contact Zone and Gibson Shear linear structures, as well as numerous untested linear targets (press release of November 30, 2010).

A Quantec Titan 24-Deep IP ground-based geophysical program was completed over the Black Fox Complex with 22 lines, spaced 200 metres apart, including the Grey Fox property (Martinez Del Pino and Faucher, 2010). The survey, which is designed to detect conductive mineralization, disseminated mineralization, alteration, structure and geology (November 30, 2010 press release), generated 12 high-priority drill targets and 14 secondary targets. As of early December 2011, only one of these had been drilled, and additional drilling of these targets is being planned (press release of November 29, 2011). A total of 38.9 line-kilometres were completed between September 26 and October 22, 2010.

The 2010 drilling program of Brigus Gold followed-up on historical data and also tested new gold occurrences on the project. Three drill rigs were used to explore the Contact Zone and the Gibson, Grey Fox South, Hislop North and 147 Zone targets (Daigle, 2011). Drilling was performed by Norex Drilling and the core was of NQ diameter. A total of 69 drill holes, amounting to 26,805.49 metres, were drilled on the property in 2010. In April 2010, Talbot Surveys, a certified land survey company called based in Timmins, surveyed all of the 2008, 2009 and historical drill hole collars. Talbot surveys used a Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS) with base station.

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During Brigus Gold’s 2011 drill program, two drill rigs were used for infill drilling and testing along strike and down-dip on the Contact Zone (Daigle, 2011). Two or three other drill rigs were used to expand the 147 Zone, and one drill rig was used to test other known gold-bearing structures and targets that were identified from the induced polarization and magnetic geophysical survey. Drilling was conducted by Norex Drilling and Laframboise Drilling Inc. All core samples were of NQ diameter.

In October 2012, Tetra Tech published a mineral resource estimation using Gemcom GEMS™ v.6.4.1 (GEMS™) desktop software for the project (Daigle, 2012). The dataset imported into GEMS™ contained information from 687 drill holes totalling 218,274.6 metres. The subset of data used for the resource estimates consisted of 488 completed drill holes totalling 151,704.1 metres of drilling. A total of 47,107 assay records and 74,008 composited records were used for the Resource Estimate.

The mineralization of the Black Fox Complex in the Contact Zone and the 147 Zone was classified as Indicated and Inferred Resources. The two zones were estimated using both Inverse Distance Squared (ID2) and Ordinary Kriging (OK) methods. No recoveries were applied.

The mineral resource was reported at a 0.65 g/t gold cut-off grade for potential open-pit material and at 2.63 g/t gold cut-off grade for the potential underground material. The limit between open-pit and underground potential was established by an arbitrary limit 200 metres below surface; no optimized pit shell was created. The total Indicated Resource is 7,105,378 t at a grade of 2.11 g/t Au. The total Inferred Resource is 1,692,267 t at a grade of 1.67 g/t Au. The classified mineral resources are shown in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1 – 2012 Resource Estimate for the Contact and 147 zones, Black Fox Complex (Daigle, 2012)

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Table 6.2 – Historical work conducted the lease from the Frederick William Schumacher estate

Year Company Activity Comments Reference

1900-1992
Frederick
William
Schumacher
Unknown

Difficulty to list the exploration
work due to the presence of
patented land

Buss, 2010

1993
Noranda
Exploration
Diamond
drilling
14 diamond drill holes
spaced 100 metres apart and
totalling 4,870 metres

Buss, 2010


1994


Noranda
Exploration

Line cutting
Ground magnetometer
and I. P. surveys
Diamond
drilling

3 diamond drill holes
spaced 200 metres apart and
totalling 919 metres


Buss, 2010



1995

Battle
Mountain
Gold
Hemlo
Gold
Diamond
drilling
Mineral
Resource
Estimate

7 diamond drill holes
spaced 200 metres apart and
totalling 919 metres


Buss, 2010



1996

Battle
Mountain
Gold
Cameco
Gold

Diamond
drilling


11 diamond drill holes
spaced 200 metres apart and
totalling 4,316 metres


Buss 2010




1997



Battle
Mountain
Gold
Cameco
Gold
Diamond
drilling
Mineral
Resource
Estimate
Mineralogical
Examination

5 diamond drill holes
totalling 2,331 metres

Seven drill core samples from
1996 program examined


Buss, 2010
Garber and
Dahn, 1997


2008
Apollo
Gold
Diamond
drilling
16 diamond drill holes
totalling 3,063 metres

Buss, 2010

2009
Apollo
Gold
Diamond
drilling
52 diamond drill holes
totalling 9,731 metres

Buss, 2010

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Table 6.3 – Historical work conducted in the Gibson deposit area

     Year Company Activity Comments Reference


1939-1945

Abuy Gold
Mines Ltd
Surface
sampling
diamond
drilling

16 diamond drill holes
totalling 1,277 metres


Prest, 1957

1949
Martin-Bird
Gold Mines Ltd
Diamond
drilling
11 diamond drill holes
totalling 2,972 metres

Prest, 1957

1973-1974
Nevada
Exploration
Limited
Diamond
drilling
11 diamond drill holes
totalling 610 metres

Salo, 2005


1979-1980


A. P. Ginn
G. E. Pearsons

Geological and
magnetic surveys
diamond
drilling


30 diamond drill holes


Guindon, 2007
Parsons, 1980b
Parsons, 1980a
Ginn, 1979
1981
H. E. Neal
& Associates
Diamond
drilling
18 diamond drill holes
totalling 912 metres
Guindon, 2007
Atherton, 1981


1983


Geddes
Resources Ltd
Armco Minerals
Exploration Ltd

Line cutting
I.P. and
magnetic surveys
diamond
drilling
trenching


27 diamond drill holes
totalling 2,124 metres


Guindon, 2007
Atherton, 1983



1984
Armco Minerals
Exploration Ltd
Diamond
drilling
1,676 metres of diamond drilling

Guindon, 2007


1986-1989

Goldpost
Resources Inc.
Diamond drilling
Decline ramp
underground
development

17,549 metres of diamond drlling



Guindon, 2007

1989
Mining Corporation
of Canada Ltd
Mining
operation
8,000 tons were mined at a
grade of 27.4 g/t Au

Guindon, 2007

1993-1995
Noranda
Exploration
Diamond
drilling
9 diamond drill holes

Guindon, 2007

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Table 6.4 – Historical work conducted on the Grey Fox property

Year Company Activity Comments Reference


2010


Brigus Gold
Helicopter-towed
aeromagnetic gradient
survey
diamond drilling

69 diamond drill holes
totalling 26,805.5 metres


Daigle, 2012

2011

Brigus Gold
Diamond
drilling
245 diamond drill holes
totalling 91,390.6 metres

Daigle, 2012

2012 *

Brigus Gold
Mineral Resource
Estimate
211 diamond drill holes
totalling 65,607.2 metres

Daigle, 2012

2012

Brigus Gold
Mineral Resource
Estimate
Resource estimate of the 147
and Contact Zone deposits.

Daigle, 2012

* Drill holes from January 1, 2012 to August 14, 2012

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7.

GEOLOGICAL SETTING AND MINERALIZATION

   
7.1

Regional Geological Setting

   
7.1.1

Archean Superior Province

The Archean Superior Province (Fig. 7.1) forms the core of the North American continent and is surrounded by provinces of Paleoproterozoic age to the west, north and east, and the Grenville Province of Mesoproterozoic age to the southeast. Tectonic stability has prevailed since approximately 2.6 Ga in large parts of the Superior Province. Proterozoic and younger activity is limited to rifting of the margins, emplacement of numerous mafic dyke swarms (Buchan and Ernst, 2004), compressional reactivation, large-scale rotation at approximately 1.9 Ga, and failed rifting at approximately 1.1 Ga. With the exception of the northwest and northeast Superior margins that were pervasively deformed and metamorphosed at 1.9 to 1.8 Ga, the craton has escaped ductile deformation.

A first-order feature of the Superior Province is its linear subprovinces, or “terranes”, of distinctive lithological and structural character, accentuated by subparallel boundary faults (e.g., Card and Ciesielski, 1986). Trends are generally east-west in the south, west-northwest in the northwest, and northwest in the northeast. In Figure 7.1, the term “terrane” is used in the sense of a geological domain with a distinct geological history prior to its amalgamation into the Superior Province during the 2.72 Ga to 2.68 Ga assembly events, and a “superterrane” shows evidence for internal amalgamation of terranes prior to the Neoarchean assembly. “Domains” are defined as distinct regions within a terrane or superterrane.

The Grey Fox property is located within the Abitibi terrane. The Abitibi terrane hosts some of the richest mineral deposits of the Superior Province (Fig. 7.1), including the giant Kidd Creek massive sulphide deposit (Hannington et al., 1999) and the large gold camps of Ontario and Québec (Robert and Poulsen, 1997; Poulsen et al., 2000).

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Figure 7.1 – Mosaic map of the Superior Province showing major tectonic elements, from Percival (2007). Data sources: Manitoba (1965), Ontario (1992), Thériault (2002), Leclair (2005).
Major mineral districts: 1 = Red Lake; 2 = Confederation Lake; 3 = Sturgeon Lake; 4 = Timmins; 5 = Kirkland Lake; 6 = Cadillac; 7 = Noranda; 8 = Chibougamau; 9 = Casa Berardi; 10 = Normétal.

7.1.2

The Abitibi Terrane (Abitibi subprovince)

The Grey Fox property lies within the Abitibi subprovince (Abitibi Greenstone Belt) of the Archean Superior craton, in eastern Canada (Fig. 7.1), along the northern margin of the Porcupine-Destor-Manneville deformation zone. This and the Larder Lake-Cadillac deformation zones are the most important deformation zones within the Abitibi subprovince in terms of both structural effects and gold production.

The Abitibi subprovince is divided into the Southern and Northern volcanic zones (SVZ and NVZ; Chown et al. 1992) representing a collage of two (2) arcs delineated by the Destor-Porcupine-Manneville Fault Zone (DPMFZ; Mueller et al. 1996). The SVZ is separated from the Pontiac Terrane sedimentary rocks, an accretionary prism (Calvert and Ludden 1999) to the south, by the Cadillac-Larder Lake Fault Zone (CLLFZ). The fault zones are terrane “zippers” that display the change from thrusting to transcurrent motion as documented in the turbiditic flysch basins unconformably overlain by, or in structural contact with, coarse clastic deposits in strike-slip basins (Mueller et al. 1991, 1994, 1996; Daigneault et al. 2002). A further subdivision of the NVZ into external and internal segments is warranted, based on distinct structural patterns with the intra-arc Chicobi sedimentary sequence representing the line of demarcation. Dimroth et al. (1982, 1983a) recognized this difference and used it to define internal and external zones (Fig, 7.2) of the Abitibi greenstone belt. Subsequently, numerous alternative Abitibi divisions were proposed (see Chown et al., 1992), but all models revolved around a plate tectonic theme. The identification of a remnant Archean north-dipping subduction zone by Calvert et al. (1999) corroborated these early studies.

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The 2735-2705 Ma NVZ is ten (10) times larger than the 2715-2697 Ma SVZ, and both granitoid bodies and layered complexes are abundant in the former. In contrast, plume-generated komatiites, a distinct feature of the SVZ, are only a minor component of the NVZ, observed only in the Cartwright Hills and Lake Abitibi area (Daigneault et al. 2004). Komatiites rarely constitute more than 5% of greenstone sequences and the Abitibi is no exception (Sproule et al. 2002). The linear sedimentary basins are significant in the history because they link arcs and best chronicle the structural evolution and tempo of Archean accretionary processes. The NVZ is composed of volcanics cycles 1 and 2, which are synchronous with sedimentary cycles 1 and 2, whereas the SVZ exhibits volcanic cycles 2 and 3, with sedimentary cycles 3 and 4 (Mueller et al. 1989; Chown et al. 1992; Mueller and Donaldson 1992; Mueller et al. 1996).

The southern Abitibi, in Ontario, is now interpreted to consist of nine autochthonous volcanic or sedimentary supracrustal assemblages (Ayer et al., 2002), previously interpreted as an amalgamation of numerous allochthonous terranes (Dimroth et al., 1983a; Jackson, 1994; Daigneault et al., 2002). In this autochthonous model, volcano-sedimentary successions throughout the Abitibi span 75 m.y. (2750-2675 Ma) and have conformable, unconformable, or disconformable contacts, which may be structurally modified.

The Abitibi subprovince displays a prominent E-W structural trend resulting from regional E-trending folds with an axial-planar schistosity that is characteristic of the Abitibi belt (Daigneault et al. 2002). The schistosity displays local variations in strike and dip, which are attributed to either oblique faults cross-cutting the regional trend, or deformation aureoles around resistant plutonic suites. Although dominant steeply-dipping fabrics are prevalent in Abitibi subprovince, shallow-dipping fabrics are recorded in the Pontiac subprovince and at the SVZ-NVZ interface in the Preissac-Lacorne area.

The Porcupine-Destor deformation zone (Hurst, 1936; Pyke, 1982) is the principal structure in the area of the Grey Fox property. It is a poorly exposed, regionally extensive fault zone that is characterized by steeply clipping penetrative foliations and serpentinite and talc-chlorite schists (Pyke, 1982). The Porcupine-Destor deformation zone is interpreted as a steeply dipping, long-lived strike-slip structure, more than 450 km long, which was active between ca. 2680 and 2600 Ma. There is no significant difference in crustal level on either side (hence there is negligible net dip-slip component) but with a minimum lateral offset of several kilometres (Bleeker, 1997). Diamond drilling indicates that the ductile component of the Porcupine-Destor deformation zone is a zone some hundreds of metres across, consisting of high-strain zones principally in ultramafic rocks, anastomosing around lower strain lozenges.

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The metamorphic grade in the Abitibi subprovince displays greenschist to sub-greenschist facies (Joly, 1978; Powell et al., 1993; Dimroth et al., 1983b; Benn et al., 1994) except around plutons where amphibolite grade prevails (Joly, 1978). In contrast, two (2) extensive high-grade zones coincide with areas of shallow-dipping fabrics. They are: (1) the turbiditic sandstone and mudstone of the Pontiac subprovince at the SVZ contact which exhibit a staurolite-garnet-hornblende-biotite assemblage (Joly, 1978; Benn et al., 1994); and (2) the Lac Caste Formation turbidites at the SVZ-NVZ interface (Malartic segment) with sandstone and mudstone metamorphosed to biotite schist with garnet and staurolite. Feng and Kerrich (1992) suggested that the juxtaposition of greenschist and amphibolite grade domains indicates uplift occurred during the compressional stage of collisional tectonics. According to Berger (2002), most of the rocks of southern Abitibi, in the region of the Grey Fox property, contain metamorphic mineral assemblages indicative of regional greenschist-facies metamorphism. Primary plagioclase, amphibole and, less commonly, pyroxene are largely replaced by metamorphic chlorite and epidote in mafic metavolcanic rocks. Epidote and quartz knots and stringers are locally abundant in pillow selvages and occur as amygdules. Leucoxene commonly replaces magneto-ilmenite and secondary quartz occurs in narrow stringers in many places. Secondary amphibole occurs only adjacent to the alkalic plutons and is considered part of a contact metamorphic aureole. Low-grade metamorphism is not apparently preserved in the mafic metavolcanic rocks, since zeolite minerals were not identified in the field or in thin section. Greenschist-facies metamorphic minerals in pelitic metasedimentary rocks are characteristically iron-rich chlorite and, less commonly, white mica. Primary detrital grains are well preserved in all metasedimentary rocks that have not undergone extensive hydrothermal alteration. In most places, biotite is absent indicating that metamorphism at low greenschist facies affected much of the area. Biotite does occur in metasedimentary rocks adjacent to some of the alkalic plutons, which is interpreted to result as a product of contact metamorphism.

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Figure 7.2 – Location of the Grey Fox Property on divisions of the Abitibi greenstone belt into southern (SVZ) and northern volcanic zones (NVZ) with external and internal segments in the NVZ. Modified from Chown et al. (1992), Daigneault et al. (2002, 2004), and Mueller et al. (2009).

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7.2

Local Geological Setting

   

The local geological setting is represented by Neoarchean supracrustal rocks, which are intruded by Paleoproterozoic and Keweenawan-age diabase and Mesozoic kimberlite dikes and pipes, underlie the Highway 101 area. The supracrustal rocks are composed of ultramafic, mafic, intermediate and felsic metavolcanic rocks, related intrusive rocks, clastic and chemical metasedimentary rocks, and a suite of ultramafic to felsic alkalic plutonic and metavolcanic rocks (Berger, 2002). These rocks are divisible into five (5) distinct packages based on morphology, petrography, geochemistry and geochronology (Fig, 7.3). These packages or assemblages (cf. Thurston 1991) in the Highway 101 area are correlated with regional assemblages proposed by Jackson and Fyon (1991) and modified by Ayer et al., (1999b). The five (5) assemblages, from oldest to youngest, are the Kidd-Munro, Tisdale, Kinojevis, Porcupine and Timiskaming assemblages. The first three (3) are predominantly composed of metavolcanic rocks; the latter two (2) are predominantly composed of metasedimentary rocks, although alkaline metavolcanic rocks and related intrusions occur within the Timiskaming Assemblage. The Grey Fox property is essentially covered by the Tisdale, and Timiskaming assemblages, but also by tiny part of the Kinojevis Assemblage.

   
7.2.1

Tisdale Assemblage

   

The Tisdale Assemblage underlies that part of Hislop Township that is north of the Arrow Fault (local name) and south of the Porcupine-Destor Deformation Zone (PDDZ). Rocks south the Arrow fault and north of the PDDZ, in Guibord and Michaud townships, are correlated with the Tisdale Assemblage based on rock type morphology, geochemistry and structures. The Tisdale Assemblage is predominantly tholeiitic mafic and komatiitic metavolcanic rocks with subordinate calc-alkaline intermediate and felsic flows, pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits. Jackson and Fyon (1991) referred to these rocks as the Bowman Assemblage, although Ayer et al., (1999a) and Ayer et al. (1999b) included these rocks with the Tisdale Assemblage based on U/Pb ages (ca. 2704 Ma) that are similar to those in the type area at Timmins.

   

Ultramafic metavolcanic rocks of the Tisdale assemblage are restricted to the PDDZ in Hislop Township. Talc-chlorite schist is most common, and green mica, iron carbonate and quartz veins occur in hydrothermally altered zones. Altered schist is dark green to black to orange-brown. It is generally fissile, but is locally indurated where silica and albite are present. Relict spinifex-textured flows occur at the Royal Oak open pit in Hislop Township and are reported in diamond-drill logs near the Glimmer mine (Berger, 2002). Massive, spinifex-textured and brecciated flows are common in less deformed areas. Elsewhere, ultramafic metavolcanic rocks are poorly exposed and their distribution is derived from diamond-drill data and airborne geophysical magnetic surveys.

   

Mafic metavolcanic rocks comprise approximately 50% of the Tisdale Assemblage and are predominantly composed of massive, pillowed and pillow breccia flows (Berger, 2002). Chlorite schist is common in faults and shear zones, and iron carbonate, albite, sericite and quartz occur in hydrothermally altered zones. Variolitic flows, flow breccia and hyaloclastite are common whereas tuff is rare. Massive flows are exposed in several areas and are generally green, fine- to medium-grained, equigranular rocks with no distinguishing features.


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Figure 7.3 – Regional geological setting of Grey Fox property geology (Adapted and modified from Ayer et al., 2005)

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Pillowed flows are common with pillows 60 to 70 cm long by 30 to 40 cm wide and with rims up to 2 cm thick (Berger, 2002). Pillows are generally well formed and may be either closely packed with little interpillow material or may have up to 15% interpillow chert and hyaloclastite. Flows are generally a few metres thick and are commonly capped by flow breccia and hyaloclastite.

Fragmental rocks are interpreted as mafic intrusion breccia, younger than the Porcupine Assemblage metasedimentary rock (Berger, 2002). These deposits are heterolithic with aphanitic and phaneritic mafic metavolcanic clasts, wacke, argillite, framboidal pyrite clasts and rare felsic porphyry clasts that are up to 30 cm in size, but average 2 to 8 cm. The clasts are angular to round; some have reaction rims, some chilled margins, a few have very angular boundaries, most are subangular massive mafic metavolcanic clasts. The deposits are generally clast supported with a matrix composed of fine-grained mafic tuff or rarely highly indurated, very fine-grained hyaloclastite. The deposits are poorly sorted; clast gradation and bedding planes are absent. Pyrite is common throughout the deposits both as clasts and as disseminations in the matrix.

Mafic schist occurs in faults and shear zones throughout the Tisdale Assemblage and is characterized by light to dark green fissile rock that retain few, if any, primary features (Berger, 2002). Chlorite and secondary amphibole are common minerals in unaltered schist. Iron carbonate, white mica and quartz are common minerals in hydrothermally altered schist.

Variolitic flows occur throughout the Tisdale Assemblage, but are less abundant than in the Kidd-Munro Assemblage (Berger, 2002). Variolitic flows, which occur north of the New Kelore mine shaft and northeast of the St Andrew Goldfields Limited Hislop Mine, contain between 30 to 85% varioles that are commonly coalesced. Some outcrops that appear massive and green-grey weathering contain microscopic variole structures. Variolitic flows were also observed at the Royal Oak open pit. The strong spatial association of variolitic flows with gold mineralization in the Abitibi subprovince appears to be a function of the ratio of Fe to Mg (Fe/Mg) and brittle failure of the altered flows in response to stress (Fowler et al. 2002; Ropchan, 2000; Jones, 1992).

7.2.2

The Kinojevis Assemblage

The Kinojevis Assemblage includes all mafic, intermediate and felsic metavolcanic rocks south of the Porcupine-Destor deformation zone and south of the Arrow fault (local name) in Hislop Township (Berger, 2002). Wacke and argillite interbedded with the metavolcanic rocks are also included in the assemblage. Ultramafic metavolcanic rocks are unknown in the Kinojevis Assemblage, unlike the Kidd-Munro and Tisdale assemblages. Ayer et al., (1999) inferred that the Kinojevis Assemblage is conformable on top of the Tisdale Assemblage primarily due to the short time interval recorded between the two (2) assemblages. The Kinojevis Assemblage is dominantly tholeiitic with minor calc-alkaline intermediate metavolcanic rocks in the west part of the assemblage.

Mafic metavolcanic rocks comprise greater than 90% of the Kinojevis Assemblage and are composed of massive, pillowed, flow brecciated and variolitic flows (Berger, 2002). Massive flows are green to dark green weathering and are commonly fine to medium grained. Rare coarse-grained flows are local.

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Pillowed flows are almost as common as massive flows (Berger, 2002). Pillows are typically between 50 to 100 cm long by 50 to 80 cm wide, well to poorly formed, close packed with selvages between 2 and 3 cm thick. The pillowed flows provide reliable indicators of stratigraphic "tops" throughout the assemblage. Amygdaloidal and variolitic pillows are common. Some pillowed flows contain up to 15% interpillow material composed of hyaloclastite and less commonly chert. Pillowed flows commonly overlie massive flows and may be intercalated with pillow breccia.

Variolitic flows similar to those described in the Tisdale Assemblage occur throughout the Kinojevis Assemblages (Berger, 2002). Massive and pillowed flows occur with individual varioles varying between 1 to 15 mm in diameter and vary in abundance between 10 and 95% of the rock. Most flows are less than 10 metres thick, although some flows are up to 30 metres thick as exposed in diamond-drill core. Massive variolitic flows commonly display flow banding and are light grey weathering and pale green on fresh surface. Varioles are 2 to 7 mm in diameter and locally comprise up to 80% of the rock. The flows are capped by hyaloclastite units with delicate primary structures preserved and local imbrications.

Felsic metavolcanic rocks comprise less than 2% of the Kinojevis Assemblage and occur as narrow units (30 to 50 m thick) that are continuous for up to 7 km along strike (Berger, 2002). The felsic rocks weather chalky white and have an aphanitic to glassy black fresh surface. Quartz-filled gas cavities and millimetre-sized amygdules are abundant, which suggests that the original magma was highly gaseous. The lower stratigraphic contact is irregular and conforms to the underlying mafic flow breccia. There appears to have been some local mechanical mixing of material as angular felsic fragments up to 2 cm in size occur within the mafic flow. The upper stratigraphic contact is abrupt and well defined with the overlying massive mafic flows. This type of contact would not be expected if the felsic rocks were silicified basalts, which has been suggested by some explorationists. In thin section, these rocks are composed of essential and secondary quartz, plagioclase and rare opaque minerals. White mica, epidote and chlorite occur in the groundmass.

Calc-alkalic metavolcanic rocks occur as narrow, discontinuous units (Berger, 2002). These rocks weather beige to light green in contrast to the dark green to black weathering tholeiitic rocks of the Kinojevis Assemblage. The Hislop Township unit is up to 250 metres wide by 6 km long and is restricted to east of the Hislop fault. Prest (1957) described the unit as crystal ash tuff with rare chert fragments. Beds vary between a few centimetres to greater than 2 metres thick and the author observed rare grain gradation. These rocks occur high in the stratigraphy of the Kinojevis Assemblage and indicate that the contact with the overlying calc-alkalic Blake River Assemblage is possibly transitional.

Metasedimentary rocks composed of wacke, argillite and graphitic argillite are interlayered with mafic metavolcanic flows near the base of the Kinojevis Assemblage (Berger, 2002). Massive to poorly bedded wacke is the most common rock type and contains beds that vary in thickness from a few centimetres to approximately 60 cm. Grain gradation is locally developed and provides reliable stratigraphic "top" determinations. Argillite is pale green to dark grey, very fine grained and well indurated. Graphitic argillite is black and is well indurated to fissile depending upon the graphite content. Argillite beds are commonly laminated to 5 cm thick and rarely form units thicker than 30 cm.

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7.2.3

The Timiskaming Assemblage

The Timiskaming Assemblage is separated into two (2) subdivisions: 1) clastic and chemical metasedimentary rocks spatially associated with the Porcupine-Destor deformation zone and related faults; and 2) alkalic intrusive and extrusive rocks that are broadly coeval with the metasedimentary rocks (Berger, 2002). The Timiskaming Assemblage spans approximately 15 million years in the Grey Fox property area.

Timiskaming Assemblage clastic metasedimentary rocks, composed of conglomerate, wacke-sandstone, siltstone, argillite and schist, are closely associated with the Porcupine-Destor deformation zone from the Quebec border to Hislop Township (Berger, 2002). Metasedimentary and alkalic metavolcanic rocks that are correlated with the Timiskaming Assemblage underlie the southeast part of Hislop Township, south of the Porcupine-Destor deformation zone, and display a close spatial relationship with the Hislop and Ross faults. Banded magnetite-hematite iron formation is complexly interbedded and structurally interleaved with clastic metasedimentary rocks.

Conglomerate occurs adjacent to the east side of the Hislop fault in south Hislop Township. This conglomerate unit contains large boulders, up to 50 cm in size, composed mainly of mafic scoria, syenite, feldspar porphyry and diorite with lesser quantities of vein quartz, sulphide clasts, jasper and felsic metavolcanic rocks. The clasts are unsorted, ungraded and intercalated with hematized alkalic flows and flow breccia. The conglomerate deposits are clast supported in a sandy matrix that contains abundant chlorite. The spatial restriction adjacent to the Hislop fault; the organization of the deposits; and the association with alkalic flows indicates that the conglomerate is likely a fault scarp deposit developed in rifted shallow water to subaerial tectonic environments.

Sandstone and siltstone underlie parts of Hislop Township (Berger, 2002). These metasedimentary rocks are fine to very fine grained, laminated to thinly bedded and massive. Light grey to green argillite is interbedded with the siltstone and locally comprises greater than 50% of the unit. These units are massive and display no grain gradation or load casts. They are strongly fractured and commonly featureless in outcrop and diamond-drill core. Quartz and plagioclase are the major detrital grains; rare argillite clasts are less than 5 mm in size and detrital microcline grains occur locally. White mica, carbonate, biotite and minor chlorite are the main matrix minerals. Apatite and zircon are common accessory minerals.

Magnetite-hematite iron formation is closely associated with clastic metasedimentary rocks correlated with the Timiskaming Assemblage (Berger, 2002).

The implications are that Timiskaming sedimentation involved early alluvial-fluvial coarse clastic sedimentation followed by finer grained basin-fill clastic and chemical sedimentation. Coarser grained units that eroded underlying strata periodically punctuated the finer grained portions of the sequence and resulted in iron formation fragments throughout the upper part of the Timiskaming Assemblage. Uplift in response to active tectonism is inferred to control this style of sedimentation and is similar to conclusions reached for other Timiskaming-age basins in the Abitibi and Wabigoon subprovinces (Mueller and Corcoran 1998).

Alkaline extrusive rocks are very rare in Grey Fox property area. Intermediate flows and flow breccia are interlayered with Timiskaming Assemblage metasedimentary rocks (Berger, 2002). These rocks weather earthy red to light grey and are deep red on fresh surface due to extensive hematization. Monolithic fragments, up to 3 cm in size, appear to be the same composition as the fine-grained groundmass. The flows are up to 200 metres thick and are exposed for less than 300 metres along strike. In thin section, most of the primary textures are masked by very fine-grained disseminated hematite, however, fragments and rare trachyte texture is locally preserved. Feldspar phenocrysts (up to 2 mm) are most common, mafic phenocrysts are altered to calcite and chlorite, and apatite phenocrysts occur throughout the rock. Geochemistry indicates that these rocks are shoshonitic trachyandesites.

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Alkaline intrusive rocks are common throughout Grey Fox property area and vary in composition from lamprophyre, "pyroxenite and/or hornblendite", monzonite, syenite and alkaline granite. These rocks may occur as isolated dikes, small dike swarms, and single-phase or multiphase intrusions up to 25 km2 in extent. Lamprophyre occurs as isolated dikes and part of intrusions and is divided into two groups based on composition and relative age relationships. Amphibole- and biotite- and/or phlogopite-bearing lamprophyre occurs as relatively early phases of alkaline intrusions and is most commonly spatially restricted to the periphery of larger intrusions.

7.2.4

Faults

   
7.2.4.1

Porcupine-Destor Deformation Zone

The Porcupine-Destor deformation zone (PDDZ) extends across Highway 101 area, and is traced west to the Kapuskasing Structural Zone (Ayer et al., 1999) and east through Quebec to the area of the Grenville Front (Mueller et al. 1996) for a total distance of more than 600 km. The PDDZ strikes southeast in Hislop Township and generally becomes more east striking along the rest of Highway 101 (Gerber, 2002). The deformation zone is complex, with different structural styles restricted to specific segments. Each segment is bounded, to a first-order approximation by prominent north-northwest-striking faults that transect the PDDZ. For example, distinct differences in structural style occur across the Hislop and Garrison faults.

West of the Hislop Fault, the PDDZ is southeast- to east-striking and moderately (45 to 65°) south dipping. The PDDZ marks the contact between the Porcupine and Tisdale assemblages and is characterized by mafic and ultramafic schist in zones from 250 to 800 metres wide; numerous foliation parallel and crosscutting brittle faults; and albitite, lamprophyre and quartz-feldspar porphyritic sills and dikes that intruded the zone. Basalt and some clastic metasedimentary rocks occur as relatively undeformed wedges within the deformation zone and provide competent hosts for gold mineralization. Kinematics are poorly understood along this portion of the PDDZ, however a reverse vertical movement (south-over-north) is interpreted at the Glimmer Mine and south-over-north thrusting is interpreted on the fault zone in the Monteith area.

The main trace of the PDDZ is accurate between the Hislop and Garrison faults (Berger, 2002). Timiskaming Assemblage clastic and chemical metasedimentary rocks occur within the deformation zone that varies between 100 and 1500 metres wide. Talc-chlorite schist occurs along the north margin of the deformation zone in the Tisdale Assemblage and is indicative of ductile strain. The southern limit of the deformation zone is marked by brittle-ductile faulting accompanied by diabase dike intrusions and abrupt contacts between the Kinojevis and Timiskaming assemblages. The deformation zone is near vertical, and kinematics are poorly constrained. North-northeast and north-northwest brittle and brittle-ductile faults transect and offset the PDDZ. Several poorly exposed shear zones occur parallel to and splay off of the main PDDZ to the north. The map pattern suggests that high strain and clockwise rotation affected the entire area between the PDDZ and Arrow fault.

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7.2.4.2

Arrow Fault

   

The Arrow fault (Fig. 7.4) is a local name applied to a shear zone striking 085° located near of the south limit of the Grey Fox property. The fault is defined by a prominent linear disruption in airborne magnetic patterns and corresponds to sheared rock on the ground (Berger, 2002). The Arrow fault transects strongly sericitized and carbonatized basalt near the Pike River bridge in Hislop Township. The Arrow fault appears to transect the PDDZ, but its relationship to the regional structures is poorly understood due to lack of exposure and study.

   
7.2.4.3

Hislop Fault

   

The Hislop Fault (Fig. 7.4) is located near of the west limit of the Grey Fox property. This fault strikes approximately 345° and extends from south of the Grey Fox property area through east-central Hislop Township. The Hislop Fault corresponds with a pronounced lineament across which there is a 40° clockwise rotation of the airborne magnetic pattern, which corresponds with a change in the strike of stratigraphy (Berger, 2002). The fault is described from diamond-drill data as a brittle-ductile structure that contains schist, fault gouge and extensive fracturing. Feldspar porphyry and syenite dikes are reported to intrude along the fault. Drost (1987) suggested that the Hislop fault represented a "mega-kink" structure that reflected a phase of development along the PDDZ, based on airborne geophysical magnetic patterns. However, the fault appears to have a fundamental control on geology and gold mineralization beyond that associated with kink-folding in the study area. West of the fault, the stratigraphy is an east-striking, south-facing homoclinal sequence. Structural fabrics are commonly nonpenetrative fracture cleavage.

   

Gold mineralization is largely confined to the vicinity of alkaline plutons, such as the Canadian Arrow deposit. East of the Hislop fault, stratigraphy is folded about southeast-trending axes in the Tisdale Assemblage and is a homoclinal south-facing sequence in the Kinojevis Assemblage. Ductile structures associated with folding are overprinted by brittle-ductile faults. Hydrothermal alteration and associated gold mineralization occur in a variety of structural and geological settings. Timiskaming Assemblage metasedimentary and alkaline metavolcanic rocks are most common adjacent to the east side of the Hislop fault. These data indicate that the Hislop Fault most likely controlled deposition of the Timiskaming Assemblage metasedimentary rocks that it is characterized by east-side-down vertical movement, and that it separates different structural blocks in the study area. As explained below, the Hislop Fault is 1 of 5 regional bounding cross faults that separate different segments along the PDDZ from Timmins to Quebec. The structural style and setting of gold mineralization in each segment is different and knowledge of these differences can be used to tailor exploration programs specific to each segment (Berger 2001).


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7.2.4.4

Ross Fault

Jensen (1985) identified a northwest-striking lineament immediately east of the Ross Mine as the Ross Fault (Fig. 7.4). Berger (2002) has modified the extent and strike of the fault based on detailed airborne geophysical data. The fault is located near or on the inferred axis of an anticline that closes in the vicinity of the Ross Mine. The fault is a brittle-ductile structure characterized by schist in the vicinity of the mine and by extensive fracturing and veining to the southeast. Berger (2002) believes that the Ross Fault is one of the important structural features responsible for localization of gold mineralization at the Ross Mine.

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Figure 7.4 – Inferred movement on segments in the Highway 101 area (Adapted and modified from Berger, 2002)

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7.3

Grey Fox Property Geology

   

The Grey Fox property geology essentially consists of Tisdale Assemblage mafic volcanic rocks and adjacent Timiskaming clastic sedimentary rocks (Ross and Rhys, 2011). The Timiskaming sediments here form a northwest-trending lens that is approximately 4 km long and several hundred metres wide, spatially associated on its southwest side with an alkaline intrusion of probable syenitic composition. Texture, composition and the spatial association of the intrusion with Timiskaming sedimentary rocks suggest that the intrusion may be part of the regional syn- Timiskaming magmatic suite. This magmatic suite is spatially associated with fault- related basins, associated Timiskaming clastic sedimentary rocks, and locally coeval alkaline volcanic rocks which are interbedded with the Timiskaming sediments in basins along, and spatially associated with, the Destor-Porcupine and Cadillac- Larder Lake fault systems throughout the region.

   

Like similar basins elsewhere in the region, the northwest-trending syenite- Timiskaming sediment band associated with the mineralized zones area may represent a subsidiary fault bounded basin to the Destor-Porcupine Fault, extending as a second-order feature southeastward from the main fault system, as is interpreted for the Gibson Shear which is interpreted to form the structural contact of the southwestern margin of the syenite-sediment band. Such faults, which are analogous to the Dome Fault in the Timmins area, may represent what were initially major brittle structures that formed prior to regional metamorphism, and which have been subsequently remobilized to varying degrees by regional ductile shear zones during the post-Timiskaming greenschist grade metamorphism and syn-metamorphic deformation that affected the region (Ross and Rhys, 2011). At the local scale, where remobilized, individual syn-Timiskaming fault strands form favourable sites for mineralization within them or in adjacent rheologically competent lithologic units that can focus vein formation.

   
7.4

Mineralization

   

Mineralized zones occur along and adjacent to the eastern end of the Timiskaming lens, which in the area of the mineralized zones trends northerly and dips steeply to the east. Drilling suggests that east of the mafic-sedimentary contact, the stratigraphy in the mafic volcanic sequence also trends north and dips steeply east. The sequence comprises alternating massive, pillowed and variolitic mafic units, and local thin volcanosedimentary horizons. Drill core observations suggest that the sequence is generally weakly foliated, despite proximity to the intense ductile strands of the Destor-Porcupine Fault system to the north, although some lithologies including sedimentary horizons and contacts may have localized displacement, as suggested by cataclastic breccias and narrow semi-brittle shear zones associated with mineralization (Ross and Rhys, 2011).

   
7.4.1

Alteration Associated with Mineralization (Ross and Rhys, 2011)

   

Mineralization is associated with hematization which occurs in albite-carbonate- dominant alteration assemblages (Fig. 7.5) often peripheral to mineralized zones, and also as outer envelopes to some veins. Pyritic carbonate-albite-sericite alteration generally overprints the hematite, suggesting that much of the pervasive hematite is early, although later structurally controlled hematite is suggested in vein envelopes as well. The hematite association, with associated albite-carbonate is common as an early alteration phase in several deposits along the Destor-Porcupine corridor,


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particularly where associated with syenitic intrusions that are syn-Timiskaming in age. This may suggest a magmatic contribution to mineralizing fluids, as has been interpreted also in several Archean Western Australian orogenic gold systems (e.g. Kalgoorlie, Wallaby) and may also be common in west African Proterozoic aged deposits which show similar alteration assemblages, paragenesis and association with late alkaline to subalkaline intrusions. The presence of hydrothermal hematite and carbon in vein envelopes suggest that alternating redox states, potentially in response to fluid mixing or evolution, may have contributed to gold deposition.

Figure 7.5 – Altered variolitic host unit to the 147 Zone, from the mineralized interval (32 to 36 m) in GF11-244 (32 to 36 m). Note the variolitic, elliptical relict textures in the core, which also shows the typical pale green-grey colour of the dominantly albite-carbonate-quartz-chlorite alteration. (Photo from Ross and Rhys, 2011)

7.4.2

Style of Gold Mineralization (Ross and Rhys, 2011)

The mineralization observed on the Grey Fox property occurs in association with quartz-carbonate veins which are often sheeted and occur at shallow to moderate core axis angles in drill holes which are drilled with from east to west with westerly azimuths, which is the dominant drilling direction. The veins in examined drill intersections form closely spaced sets 0.2 to 10 cm thick. Veins often have a complex, polygenerational history. In the 147 Zone, veins often have thin margins of crustiform banded quartz, overgrown by crustiform a quartz matrix breccia over, and later development of cores of fine-grained, matrix-supported quartz-carbonate matrix lithified vein breccia containing fragments of earlier quartz phases (Photo 2). These veins also often have thin, dark green-grey breccia selvages with abundant disseminated pyrite; petrography indicates they are carbon-bearing.

Visible gold was most commonly observed in these dark pyritic rims. Outer reddish selvages beyond the greenish-grey pyritic rims are locally present, and also occur surrounding some veinlets (Fig. 7.6A), suggesting redox changes during vein evolution which likely contributed to gold deposition. In other areas, veins form brittle networks that may anastomose but are generally subparallel and sheeted, with earlier vein generations containing grey quartz and later crosscutting carbonate dominant phases.

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Figure 7.6 – Samples illustrating vein textures from the mineralized interval between 31 and 36 m in drill hole GF11-244 (Ross and Rhys, 2011).

The veins are from a high-grade interval grading 20.11 g/t Au over 16.0 m. Veins occur at shallow core axis angles and would therefore cut across the steeply east-dipping sequence in this drill hole which was drilled along a moderate west dip. The veins are complex and polygenerational, with thin crustiform quartz-carbonate bands along their margins. An early breccia phase around which additional crustiform quartz has overgrown the earlier fragments is illustrated in the lower part of the vein in photo C. The central parts of the veins in A and B are filled with cream to pale grey fine-grained quartz-carbonate matrix vein breccia which incorporates fragments of the earlier crustiform quartz. A late pale grey breccia phase, evident in photo A, affects upper parts of the vein and extends into the wallrock. In all photos, the veins have dark green-grey pyrite-rich envelopes; petrography indicates they are carbon-bearing. These dark envelopes probably form the earliest phase of the fine-grained breccia, which overprints the green-grey albite-chlorite-carbonate altered wallrock and early foliation. Late greenish fill in the central parts of the vein in photo C is likely epidote. In photo A, note the reddish hematite in the vein envelope below the vein (Photo from Ross and Rhys, 2011).

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Minor brittle (cataclasite breccia) and semi-brittle shear zones with moderate to shallow core axis angles were also observed in association with veins in the 147 zone. This likely forms networks that both occur parallel to and cut across the mafic sequence, and which may have aided in vein localization, forming a permeable fracture network which likely controlled the distribution of mineralization. The deformation style is brittle-ductile suggesting alternation between these structural styles, likely due to changes in fluid pressure, temperature and fault displacement increments (strain rate) episodically occurring during vein formation.

In the Contact Zone, mineralization occurs on both sides of the mafic-sedimentary contact. The contact itself is not faulted in the examined drill hole intersection, but a broad zone of structural disruption which includes semi-brittle contact parallel minor shear zones (Fig. 7.7A) and slip surfaces is host to the mineralization. As with the 147 Zone, core axis angles of veins are shallow to moderate. The complex multigenerational crustiform veining observed in the 147 intercepts is not as well developed in the Contact Zone intercept, but veins do display compatible textures and style. Where developed in the Timiskaming sequence, the veins are oblique to and cut across bedding, often offsetting bedding planes, suggesting that they accommodate some shear displacement (Figs. 7.7B and 7.7C). As with the 147 veins, the crosscutting nature of the individual veins with respect to the steeply dipping stratigraphy suggest that the veins are stacked en echelon along the contact, in association with a network of contact-parallel minor faults and shear zones.

7.4.3

Control on mineralization (Ross and Rhys, 2011)

A significant control on mineralization in the 147 and Contact zones is lithology, since veins are developed in brittle lithologies or at lithologic contacts. In the 147 Zone, the mineralization is preferentially developed in a variolitic unit which has common quenched fine-grained hyaloclastic texture, suggesting that originally would have been a glassy unit that was susceptible to later hydrothermal albite-carbonate-quartz-chlorite alteration. Similar textures are developed at the Holloway deposit to the east, where variolitic flows with hyaloclastic breccia textures are host to much of the mineralization.

The 147 and Contact zone mineralization occurs in association with breccia veins, crustiform veining and thin quartz-carbonate matrix cataclastic-hydrothermal breccias. Overall mineralization style is brittle compared to other deposits in the region, and the crustiform textures are reminiscent of high level epithermal mineralization, although such textures can also be developed in shallow orogenic gold systems. The latter is suggested by the association with ductile carbonate-quartz-sericite shear zones that form narrow networks in association with, and on the margins of mineralized veins and vein networks in several intercepts, which are typical orogenic style. The more brittle nature of the mineralization than that in many other deposits may also reflect the albite-rich alteration style, albite deforms in a brittle style up to high temperatures. Brittle styles of mineralization in feldspar altered wallrock are common at Kirkland Lake (K-feldspar dominant there), where early hematization is also prevalent.

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Figure 7.7 – Samples from the Timiskaming clastic sediments adjacent to the contact with the mafic volcanic sequence illustrating structural styles associated with mineralization (Ross and Rhys, 2011).

The samples are from between 130.7 and 134 m in drill hole GF10-125; contact with the mafic volcanic sequence is at 130.7 m. A: Semi-brittle shear zone parallel to bedding in the sedimentary sequence, suggesting a steep easterly dip. This structure is narrow and sericite-rich (pale green) with carbonaceous stylolites, discontinuous deformed quartz-carbonate veinlets and diffuse bands of grey, siliceous cataclastic breccia. Such structures may exert local control on the vein systems, as a discontinuous network along and adjacent to the contact. B and C: Photos of veining and vein breccia styles, illustrating their orientation and structural style. In both photos veining occurs at shallow to moderate core axis angles, and cuts across bedding which is at a high core axis angle (brown banding at right in B and at left in C). In B, note the quartz breccia vein in the upper left which is at shallow core axis angle and is surrounded by additional breccia that extends into the wallrock. Also in B at lower right, a thin veinlet offsets bedding. Bedding offsets are clearly apparent in photo C and indicate that these veins are shear veins, and are likely stacked echelon upward along the contact area. Displacement direction is unclear as the core could not be re-oriented (Photo from Ross and Rhys, 2011).

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8.

DEPOSIT TYPES

Much has been published on gold deposits in the last decade leading to: (1) significant improvement in the understanding of some models; (2) the definition of new types or sub-types of deposits; and (3) the introduction of new terms (Robert et al., 2007). However, significant uncertainty remains regarding the specific distinction between some types of deposits. Consequently, specific giant deposits are ascribed to different deposit types by different authors.

As represented in Figure 8.1, thirteen globally significant types of gold deposits are presently recognized, each with its own well-defined characteristics and environments of formation. Minor types of gold deposits are not discussed in this paper. As proposed by Robert et al. (1997) and Poulsen et al. (2000), many of these gold deposit types can be grouped into clans; i.e., families of deposits that either formed by related processes or that are distinct products of large scale hydrothermal systems. These clans effectively correspond to the main classes of gold models, such as the orogenic, reduced intrusion-related, and oxidized intrusion-related ones (Hagemann and Brown, 2000). Deposit types such as Carlin, Au-rich VMS, and low-sulphidation are viewed by different authors either as stand-alone models or as members of the broader oxidized intrusion-related clan. They are treated here as stand-alone deposit types, whereas high- and intermediate-sulphidation and alkaline epithermal deposits are considered as part of the oxidized intrusion-related clan.

Figure 8.1 – Schematic cross section showing the key geologic elements of the
main gold systems and their crustal depths of emplacement
. Note the logarithmic
depth scale. Modified from Poulsen et al. (2000), and Robert (2004).

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The auriferous zones of the Grey Fox project seem to be associated with an orogenic gold occurrence related to longitudinal shear zones (greenstone-hosted quartz-carbonate vein deposit). Greenstone-hosted quartz-carbonate vein deposits are a subtype of lode-gold deposits (Poulsen et al., 2000). They correspond to structurally controlled, complex epigenetic deposits hosted in deformed metamorphosed terranes (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007).

The Grey Fox project is located with other gold deposits near the Porcupine-Destor Deformation Zone. Many of gold deposits are distributed along major compressional to transtensional crustal-scale fault zones (Ex. Porcupine-Destor and Larder Lake-Cadillac Deformation Zones) in deformed Abitibi greenstone terranes (Fig. 8.2). Greenstone-hosted quartz-carbonate veins are thought to represent a major component of the greenstone deposit clan (Fig. 8.1) (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007).

Figure 8.2 – Simplified geological map of the Abitibi greenstone belt showing the
distribution of major fault zones and of gold deposits
.
Modified from Poulsen et al. (2000).

The gold zones of the Grey Fox project could also be associated with a low sulphidation epithermal gold deposits. The tectonic setting of epithermal Au deposits is characterized by extension, at least at the district scale or larger, localizing and facilitating emplacement of magma and, at higher levels, hydrothermal fluids (Taylor, 2007). Regionally extensive rift zones can also provide the extensional framework. Extensional, pull-apart basins formed between regional strike-slip faults, or at transitions between these faults, provide favourable sites for intrusions and epithermal deposits. Synchronous tectonic and hydrothermal activity is indicated in some deposits by the fact that many of the vein-bearing faults were active during and after vein filling; tectonic vein breccias and displaced mineralized and altered mineralized and altered rocks resulted.

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Low-sulphidation epithermal Au deposits are harder to recognize in ancient terranes, owing to the facts that their commonly found alteration mineral assemblages are not unique, especially in regional metamorphic terranes, or may no longer be present, depending on the grade of subsequent metamorphism, and that these deposits are often not as intimately associated with igneous rocks (Taylor, 2007).

8.1

Greenstone-hosted quartz-carbonate vein deposits

Greenstone-hosted quartz-carbonate-vein deposits typically occur in deformed greenstone terranes of all ages (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007), especially those with commonly variolitic tholeiitic basalts and ultramafic komatiitic flows intruded by intermediate to felsic porphyry intrusions, and sometimes swarms of albitite or lamprophyre dykes (ex: Timmins and Red Lake districts). The deposits are associated with collisional or accretionary orogenic events. They are typically distributed along reverse-oblique crustal-scale major fault zones, commonly marking the convergent margins between major lithological boundaries such as volcano-plutonic and sedimentary domains (ex: Cadillac-Larder Lake fault) These major structures are characterized by different increments of strain, and consequently several generations of steeply dipping foliations and folds resulting in a fairly complex geological collisional setting.

The crustal scale faults are thought to represent the main hydrothermal pathways towards higher crustal level. However, the deposits are spatially and genetically associated with higher order compressional reverse-oblique to oblique brittle-ductile high-angle shear zones commonly located less than 5 km away and best developed in the hanging wall of the major fault (Robert, 1990). Brittle faults may also be the main host to mineralization as illustrated by the Kirkland Lake Main Break; a brittle structure hosting the 25 M oz Au Kirkland Lake deposit. The deposits formed typically late in the tectonic-metamorphic history of the greenstone belts (Groves et al., 2000) and the mineralization is syn- to late-deformation and typically post-peak greenschist facies and syn-peak amphibolite facies metamorphism (cf. Kerrich and Cassidy, 1994; Hagemann and Cassidy, 2000).

The greenstone-hosted quartz-carbonate vein deposits are also commonly spatially associated with Timiskaming-like regional unconformities. Several deposits are hosted by (e.g. Pamour and Dome deposit in Timmins) or located next to such a Timiskaming-like regional unconformity (Campbell-Red Lake deposit in Red Lake) (Dubé et al., 2003, in press), suggesting an empirical time and space relationship between large-scale greenstone quartz-carbonate gold deposits and regional unconformities (Hodgson, 1993; Robert, 2000; Dubé et al., 2003).

Stockworks and hydrothermal breccias may represent the main host to the mineralization when developed in competent units such as granophyric facies of gabbroic sills. Due to the complexity of the geological and structural setting and the influence of strength anisotropy and competency contrasts, the geometry of the vein network varies from simple such as the Silidor deposit, Canada, to more commonly fairly complex with multiple orientations of anastomosing and/or conjugate sets of veins, breccias, stockworks and associated structures (Dubé et al., 1989; Hodgson, 1989, Robert et al., 1994, Robert and Poulsen, 2001).

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Ore-grade mineralization also occurs as disseminated sulphides in altered (carbonatized) rocks along vein selvages. Ore shoots are commonly controlled by: 1) the intersections between different veins or host structures, or between an auriferous structures and an especially reactive and/or competent rock type such as iron-rich gabbro (geometric ore shoot); or 2) the slip vector of the controlling structure(s) (kinematic ore shoot). For laminated fault-fill veins, the kinematic ore shoot will be oriented at a high angle to the slip vector (Robert et al., 1994; Robert and Poulsen, 2001).

At the district scale, the greenstone-hosted quartz-carbonate-vein deposits are associated with large-scale carbonate alteration commonly distributed along major fault zones and associated subsidiary structures (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007). At the deposit scale, the nature, distribution and intensity of the wall-rock alteration is largely controlled by the composition and competence of the host rocks and their metamorphic grade. Typically, the alteration haloes are zoned and characterized - at greenschist facies - by iron-carbonatization and sericitization, with sulphidation of the immediate vein selvages (mainly pyrite, less commonly arsenopyrite).

The main gangue minerals are quartz and carbonate with variable amounts of white micas, chlorite, scheelite and tourmaline. The sulphide minerals typically constitute less than 10% of the ore. The main ore minerals are native gold with pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite without significant vertical zoning (Dubé and Gosselin, 2007).

8.2

Low-sulphidation epithermal Au deposits

Low-sulphidation epithermal Au deposits are distinguished from high-sulphidation deposits primarily by the different sulphide mineralogy (pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite) typically within quartz veins with local carbonate, and associated near neutral wall rock alteration (illite clays), deposited from dilute hydrothermal fluids (Corbett and Leach, 1998).

Nearly any rock type, even metamorphic rocks, may host epithermal Au deposits, although volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks tend to be more common (Taylor, 2007). Typically, epithermal deposits are younger than their enclosing rocks, except in the cases where deposits form in active volcanic settings and hot springs. Here, the host rocks and epithermal deposits can be essentially synchronous with spatially associated intrusive or extrusive rocks, within the uncertainty of the determined ages in some cases. Lithological control occurs mainly as competent or brittle host rocks which develop through going fractures as vein hosts, although permeability is locally important. In interlayered volcanic sequences epithermal veins may be confined to only the competent rocks while the intervening less competent sequences host only fault structures (Corbet, 2007).

Low-sulphidation Au deposits that occur further removed from active magmatic vents may be more apparently controlled by structural components, zones of fluid mixing, and emplacement of smaller magmatic bodies (e.g. dykes) (Taylor, 2007). Meteoric waters dominate the hydrothermal systems, which are more nearly pH neutral in character. Low-sulphidation Au deposits related geothermal systems are more closely linked to passive rather than to active magmatic degassing (if at all), and sustained by the energy provided by cooling, subvolcanic intrusions or deeper subvolcanic magma chambers.

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The morphology of epithermal vein-style deposits can be quite variable. Deposits may consist of roughly tabular lodes controlled by the geometry of the principal faults they occupy, or comprise a host of interrelated fracture fillings in stockwork, breccia, lesser fractures, or, when formed by replacement of rock or void space, they may take on the morphology of the lithologic unit or body of porous rock (e.g. irregular breccia pipes and lenses) replaced. Volumes of rock mineralized by replacement may be discordant and irregular, or concordant and tabular, depending on the nature of porosity, permeability, and water-rock interaction. In deposits of very near-surface origin (e.g. Cinola), an upward enlargement of the volume of altered and mineralized rocks may be found centred about the hydrothermal conduits. Brecciation of previously emplaced veins can form permeable zones along irregularities in fault planes: vertically plunging ore zones in faults with strike-slip motion and horizontal ore zones in dip-slip faults.

Structures act as fluid channelways and more dilational portions of the host structures may represent sites of enhanced fluid flow and so promote the development of ore shoots which host most mineralisation in many low-sulphidation vein systems (Corbett 2002). Elsewhere fault intersections host ore shoots at sites of fluid mixing. Several structural settings provide ore shoots of varying orientations (Fig. 8.3). Steep dipping strike-slip structures provide vertical ore shoots in flexures and fault jogs. Tension veins and dilatant sheeted veins dominate in the latter setting. Normal, and in particular listric faults, in extensional settings host wider and higher grade veins as flat ore shoots in steep dipping vein portions. In compressional settings reverse faults host flat plunging ore shoots in reverse faults.

Figure 8.3 – Illustration of the structural control to ore shoot formation in different
structural environments and associated ore shoot orientations
(from Corbet, 2007)

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Epithermal quartz Au deposits are characterised as Ag-poor often bonanza Au grades, developed greatest distances from magmatic source rocks (Fig. 8.4), in association with only minor quartz, illite, chlorite and local pyrite gangue, and so can be difficult to identify (Corbet, 2007). Typically, Ag:Au ratios for epithermal deposits, though variable, tend to be higher in low-sulphidation Au deposits than in high-sulphidation Au deposits (Taylor, 2007).


Figure 8.4 – Conceptual model illustrating styles of magmatic arc porphyry Cu-Au
and epithermal Au-Ag mineralisation (Corbet, 2007)

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9.

EXPLORATION

The most recent work on the property consisted exclusively of diamond drilling (see Section 10). The reader is referred to Item 6 for historical exploration work.

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10.

DRILLING

Information in this section was obtained from the Brigus exploration team and combined with InnovExplo’s database verification work.

Brigus started drilling the Grey Fox property in 2008. This report, using the established cut-off date of June 10, 2013, considers 725 holes drilled, logged and sampled by the company totalling 245,793.07 metres. Out of those 725 holes, 689 holes (totalling 233,482.17 m) were included in the current Resource Estimate. The discarded 36 holes were located outside the Grey Fox deposit.

The original objective of the program was to investigate historical gold intervals that a limited number of drill holes had encountered between 1993 and 1997. This objective was quickly upgraded to systematic drilling of the mineralized zones when significant gold intervals were encountered.

All holes were supervised, logged and sampled by Brigus personnel. The program produced 88,264 samples averaging 0.99 metre.

Table 10.1 lists collar information for all 689 drill holes drilled by Brigus from 2008 to June 10, 2013 and considered for the Resource Estimate. Figure 10.1 shows the location of all drill holes.

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Table 10.1 – Brigus drill holes on the Grey Fox deposit

Hole Easting  Northing  Elevation  Length  Azimut  Dip   Hole Easting  Northing  Elevation  Length  Azimut  Dip
GF08-01 551127 5372925 291.12 221.00 270.60 -47.80   GF09-51 551118 5372789 291.67 335.00 270.00 -67.00
GF08-02 551185 5372919 290.94 302.00 270.00 -65.00   GF09-52 551118 5372913 291.10 323.00 270.00 -65.00
GF08-03 551228 5372840 290.95 296.00 270.00 -62.00   GF09-53 551121 5372987 290.13 305.00 270.00 -59.00
GF08-04 551229 5372840 290.74 326.00 270.00 -45.00   GF09-54 551071 5373013 289.86 158.00 270.00 -72.50
GF08-05 551231 5372840 291.08 335.00 270.00 -60.00   GF09-55 551069 5373040 289.44 155.00 270.00 -56.00
GF08-06 551188 5373001 291.09 269.00 270.00 -56.00   GF09-56 551069 5373040 289.42 158.00 270.00 -72.00
GF08-07 551189 5373001 290.99 362.00 280.00 -70.00   GF09-57 551120 5372887 291.24 317.00 270.00 -65.00
GF08-08 551040 5373000 291.01 137.00 270.00 -45.00   GF09-58 551213 5373001 291.30 302.00 270.00 -71.00
GF08-09 551050 5372950 291.83 101.00 270.00 -52.00   GF09-59 551162 5373001 290.09 251.00 270.00 -54.00
GF08-10 551070 5372900 291.89 122.00 270.00 -55.00   GF09-60 551069 5372763 292.43 152.00 270.00 -58.00
GF08-11 551100 5372748 291.85 109.00 270.00 -52.00   GF09-61 551069 5372763 292.38 152.00 270.00 -73.00
GF08-12 551088 5372656 293.13 101.00 270.00 -52.00   GF09-62 551046 5373059 290.85 110.00 270.00 -61.00
GF08-13 551097 5372552 294.01 101.00 270.00 -61.00   GF09-63 551048 5373058 291.00 164.00 270.00 -85.50
GF08-14 551220 5372647 291.99 281.00 270.00 -55.00   GF09-64 551075 5373111 289.50 140.00 270.00 -54.00
GF08-15 551932 5372837 290.08 452.00 36.00 -53.00   GF09-65 551073 5373136 290.56 140.00 270.00 -55.00
GF08-16 551920 5372768 290.09 200.00 40.00 -51.00   GF09-66 551076 5373160 290.72 152.00 270.00 -55.00
GF09-17 551070 5372912 291.17 128.00 270.00 -56.50   GF09-67 551073 5373186 289.83 236.00 270.00 -57.00
GF09-18 551083 5372913 291.46 131.00 270.00 -56.00   GF09-68 551119 5373210 290.78 293.00 270.00 -53.00
GF09-19 551082 5372900 291.74 152.00 270.00 -58.00   GF09-69 551085 5373236 290.51 230.00 270.00 -53.00
GF09-20 551070 5372887 292.18 131.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-70 551150 5372854 291.16 320.00 271.00 -53.00
GF09-21 551082 5372887 291.89 152.00 270.00 -56.00   GF10-71 550951 5372972 293.63 314.00 270.00 -49.50
GF09-22 551070 5372937 290.03 116.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-73 550896 5372598 299.72 389.00 268.00 -59.00
GF09-23 551096 5372900 291.72 162.00 270.00 -57.00   GF10-74 551882 5372624 291.38 485.00 46.50 -53.00
GF09-24 551071 5373012 290.11 122.00 270.00 -58.50   GF10-75 551862 5372536 292.76 389.00 88.50 -50.00
GF09-25 551120 5372963 290.87 275.00 270.60 -60.00   GF10-76 551833 5372343 297.02 500.00 90.00 -60.00
GF09-26 551120 5372862 290.77 248.00 270.00 -57.50   GF10-77 551250 5372710 291.30 419.00 273.00 -68.00
GF09-27 551120 5372887 291.22 146.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-78 551240 5372661 290.56 404.00 270.00 -70.00
GF09-28 551096 5372937 291.11 128.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-79 551203 5372675 291.19 296.00 270.00 -52.80
GF09-29 551070 5372963 290.84 134.00 270.00 -56.00   GF10-80 551130 5372697 291.87 302.06 275.00 -66.00
GF09-30 551068 5372988 290.39 122.00 278.00 -58.00   GF10-81 551182 5372727 291.23 338.00 270.00 -50.00
GF09-31 551091 5372987 290.30 131.00 270.00 -61.00   GF10-82 551025 5373503 289.04 757.22 270.00 -50.00
GF09-32 551118 5372913 291.11 251.00 270.00 -58.50   GF10-83b 551170 5372747 290.70 344.00 270.00 -52.00
GF09-33 551084 5372962 289.95 152.00 270.00 -64.00   GF10-84 550948 5372883 293.83 443.00 270.00 -50.00
GF09-34 551070 5372862 291.95 131.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-85 550942 5372766 295.63 594.50 270.00 -55.00
GF09-35 551070 5372838 291.97 122.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-86 551014 5373432 286.53 386.00 270.00 -50.00
GF09-36 551071 5372812 292.40 122.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-87 551068 5373257 290.27 314.00 270.00 -65.00
GF09-37 551072 5372787 291.84 122.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-88 550915 5372548 289.86 323.00 270.00 -50.00
GF09-38 551096 5372788 291.32 140.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-89 551042 5373326 289.14 302.00 270.00 -50.00
GF09-39 551097 5372812 291.66 153.00 270.00 -57.00   GF10-90 551123 5373165 290.97 239.00 270.00 -54.00
GF09-40 551097 5372862 291.67 140.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-92 550901 5372652 297.04 380.00 270.00 -50.00
GF09-41 551097 5372836 291.73 139.00 270.00 -59.00   GF10-94 551183 5372980 290.07 497.00 270.00 -65.00
GF09-42 551095 5372888 292.05 140.00 270.00 -57.00   GF10-98 551131 5373125 290.51 362.00 270.00 -58.00
GF09-43 551095 5372913 291.48 140.00 270.00 -57.00   GF10-99 551132 5373124 290.46 530.00 270.00 -75.00
GF09-44 551106 5372900 291.30 140.00 270.00 -58.00   GF10-100 551179 5373034 291.04 479.00 270.00 -65.00
GF09-45 551120 5372937 291.11 251.00 270.00 -57.00   GF10-101 551118 5373221 291.00 507.00 270.00 -65.00
GF09-46 551120 5372836 291.31 251.00 270.00 -57.00   GF10-102 551864 5372772 291.86 176.00 40.00 -55.00
GF09-47 551120 5372836 291.04 314.00 270.00 -64.00   GF10-103 551165 5373071 290.93 500.00 270.00 -65.00
GF09-48 551121 5372808 290.89 272.00 270.00 -60.00   GF10-104 551814 5372714 292.17 329.00 40.00 -55.00
GF09-49 551122 5372808 290.86 329.00 270.00 -64.00   GF10-105 551821 5372664 292.39 401.00 40.00 -55.00
GF09-50 551118 5372789 291.59 314.00 270.00 -58.50   GF10-106 551187 5372944 290.51 401.00 270.00 -57.00

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Table 10.1 – Brigus drill holes on the Grey Fox deposit (cont’d)

Hole Easting  Northing  Elevation  Length  Azimut  Dip   Hole Easting  Northing  Elevation  Length  Azimut  Dip
GF10-107 551784 5372746 293.04 377.00 40.00 -55.00   GF11-163 551202 5372451 296.10 266.00 270.00 -50.00
GF10-108 551744 5372857 292.29 396.00 45.00 -55.00   GF11-164 551199 5372497 295.90 251.00 270.00 -50.00
GF10-109 551338 5372632 292.29 452.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-165 551353 5372399 292.88 401.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-110 551879 5372824 289.00 186.00 40.00 -55.00   GF11-166 551243 5373030 291.77 551.00 270.00 -64.00
GF10-111 551859 5372662 292.57 500.00 45.00 -55.00   GF11-167 551364 5372558 292.94 442.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-112 551357 5372582 293.07 466.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-168 551380 5372383 293.32 401.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-113 551895 5372581 292.07 566.00 45.00 -55.00   GF11-169 551349 5372499 292.31 317.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-114 551355 5372525 292.36 470.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-170 551343 5372605 294.40 383.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-115 551826 5372274 297.33 536.00 55.00 -55.00   GF11-171 551353 5372387 292.97 362.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-116 551357 5372475 293.18 503.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-172 551376 5372521 292.60 380.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-117 552000 5372259 298.95 467.00 55.00 -55.00   GF11-173 551361 5372452 292.53 416.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-118 551960 5372514 290.00 531.36 45.00 -55.00   GF11-174 551353 5372362 292.60 401.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-119 551370 5372431 292.79 467.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-175 551379 5372479 292.71 383.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-121 551630 5372447 296.62 452.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-176 551372 5372405 292.95 361.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-125 551118 5373079 290.07 350.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-177 551347 5372335 293.03 386.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-127 551002 5372969 291.91 392.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-178 551373 5372503 292.45 381.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-128 551426 5372903 294.14 329.00 270.00 -65.00   GF11-179 551391 5372431 293.20 401.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-129 551139 5373081 290.42 350.00 270.00 -51.70   GF11-180 551402 5372388 293.42 401.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-130 550951 5372972 293.63 452.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-181 551352 5372363 292.78 281.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-131 551243 5373002 291.62 400.00 270.00 -70.00   GF11-182 551382 5372456 292.90 399.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-132 551002 5372969 291.74 400.00 270.00 -70.00   GF11-183 551414 5372436 293.48 419.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-133 551140 5373085 292.00 245.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-184 551374 5372392 293.11 392.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-134 551117 5372986 289.88 293.00 270.00 -67.00   GF11-185 551374 5372357 293.32 389.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-135 551170 5373034 290.81 302.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-186 551405 5372276 294.43 399.00 270.00 -55.00
GF10-136 551192 5372899 291.14 341.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-187 551374 5372300 293.66 389.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-137 551831 5372259 297.43 440.00 65.00 -55.00   GF11-188 551424 5372391 293.97 425.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-138 551170 5373034 290.78 326.00 270.00 -46.00   GF11-189 551370 5372323 293.48 401.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-139 551200 5372624 291.55 275.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-190 551426 5372303 294.57 428.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-140 551212 5373031 291.67 551.00 270.00 -64.00   GF11-191 551426 5372353 294.29 425.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-141 551196 5372599 292.33 275.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-192 551451 5372278 294.87 423.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-142 551200 5372572 291.58 275.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-193 551418 5372327 294.49 425.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-143 551817 5372281 297.26 443.00 61.00 -55.00   GF11-194 551494 5372283 295.15 488.28 270.00 -55.00
GF11-144 551201 5372523 292.52 275.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-195 551457 5372322 294.92 425.00 270.00 -57.20
GF11-145 551201 5372476 293.14 275.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-196 551459 5372371 294.27 425.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-146 551201 5372425 293.24 215.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-197 551459 5372420 294.22 425.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-147 551356 5372374 293.63 392.00 265.00 -55.00   GF11-198 551458 5372481 293.70 461.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-148 551122 5373138 290.84 266.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-199 551452 5372347 294.83 425.00 270.00 -58.00
GF11-149 551201 5372375 293.61 269.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-200 551508 5372324 294.83 478.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-151 551120 5373138 290.79 287.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-201 551396 5372409 293.48 401.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-152 551348 5372323 293.02 410.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-202 551418 5372460 293.42 428.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-153 551206 5372326 293.63 275.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-203 551513 5372277 295.08 483.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-154 551240 5372942 291.34 497.00 270.00 -51.00   GF11-204 551510 5372373 294.90 452.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-155 551350 5372272 293.68 410.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-205 551458 5372524 293.48 482.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-156 551201 5372272 293.76 290.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-206 551508 5372427 294.73 479.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-157 551204 5372304 298.60 254.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-207 551411 5372524 292.95 434.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-158 551353 5372299 293.48 456.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-208 551460 5372575 295.20 482.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-159 551203 5372350 297.00 251.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-209 551409 5372576 294.30 434.50 270.00 -55.00
GF11-160 551240 5372942 291.34 536.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-210 551508 5372447 294.61 500.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-161 551200 5372399 297.30 251.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-211 551536 5372276 294.99 552.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-162 551347 5372348 292.98 407.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-212 551425 5372277 294.66 132.40 270.00 -55.00

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Table 10.1 – Brigus drill holes on the Grey Fox deposit (cont’d)

Hole Easting  Northing  Elevation  Length  Azimut  Dip   Hole Easting  Northing  Elevation  Length  Azimut  Dip
GF11-213 551332 5372361 293.06 332.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-263 551321 5372468 292.51 329.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-214 551406 5372599 293.20 461.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-264 551115 5373112 293.80 302.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-215 551458 5372601 293.61 540.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-265 551197 5373095 291.27 825.40 270.00 -65.00
GF11-216 551508 5372413 294.85 553.00 270.00 -57.90   GF11-266 551504 5372293 295.12 401.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-217 551406 5372624 293.13 452.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-267 551577 5372364 295.28 401.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-218 551458 5372626 293.77 518.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-269 551114 5373112 289.76 302.00 270.00 -70.00
GF11-219 551427 5372277 296.50 423.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-270 551322 5372468 292.64 302.00 270.00 -70.00
GF11-220 551330 5372347 293.28 308.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-271 551574 5372392 295.26 419.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-221 551330 5372334 293.32 308.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-272 551145 5373163 291.14 338.00 270.00 -58.00
GF11-222 550795 5373054 290.00 807.00 44.00 -65.00   GF11-274 551503 5372277 295.11 401.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-223 551508 5372400 294.83 555.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-275 551319 5372482 292.41 350.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-224 551403 5372668 293.41 458.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-276 551112 5373121 290.66 329.00 270.00 -58.00
GF11-225 551330 5372323 293.23 284.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-277 551571 5372402 295.18 401.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-226 551210 5373060 293.70 602.00 270.00 -65.00   GF11-279 551331 5372355 290.00 296.00 0.50 -54.00
GF11-227 551508 5372387 294.98 551.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-280 551396 5372369 293.62 485.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-228 551401 5372709 293.33 527.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-282 551178 5373023 290.91 389.00 270.00 -65.00
GF11-229 551330 5372309 293.43 281.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-284 551506 5372522 293.90 455.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-230 551330 5372296 295.40 341.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-286 551376 5372334 293.42 350.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-231 551230 5373061 293.10 774.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-287 551455 5372303 294.85 302.00 270.00 -54.00
GF11-232 551408 5372763 293.94 503.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-289 551121 5373185 290.97 362.00 270.00 -51.70
GF11-233 551585 5372277 295.14 614.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-292 551375 5372348 293.33 350.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-234 551073 5373136 290.56 227.00 270.00 -45.00   GF11-293 551222 5373171 291.25 534.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-235 551333 5372285 293.93 320.00 270.00 -53.00   GF11-294 551453 5372315 294.71 299.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-236 551075 5373111 289.51 206.00 270.00 -45.00   GF11-295 550718 5373070 290.00 227.00 157.00 -50.00
GF11-237 551075 5373111 289.51 188.00 270.00 -67.00   GF11-296 551120 5373198 290.85 311.00 270.00 -54.00
GF11-238 551073 5373161 290.53 176.00 270.00 -45.00   GF11-297 551470 5372276 294.86 338.00 275.00 -50.00
GF11-239 551332 5372273 293.91 347.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-298 551552 5372526 294.29 539.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-240 551584 5372304 295.15 590.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-299 551321 5372468 292.43 293.00 180.00 -53.00
GF11-241 551074 5373161 290.61 224.00 270.00 -65.00   GF11-300 550761 5373084 297.00 173.00 157.00 -50.00
GF11-242 551406 5372795 294.37 536.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-301 551224 5373150 291.45 399.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-243 551075 5372925 290.99 184.00 270.00 -59.00   GF11-302 551122 5373176 290.89 326.00 270.00 -50.00
GF11-244 551328 5372373 292.86 332.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-303 551503 5372267 295.08 302.00 275.00 -55.00
GF11-245 551124 5372935 290.67 302.00 270.00 -57.00   GF11-304 550805 5373103 290.00 197.00 157.00 -50.00
GF11-246 551127 5373049 289.98 182.00 270.00 -45.00   GF11-305 551553 5372513 294.11 398.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-247 551211 5373080 291.63 891.00 270.00 -64.00   GF11-307 551112 5373159 290.92 239.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-248 551411 5372843 294.43 521.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-308 551312 5372462 292.56 179.00 180.00 -53.00
GF11-249 551327 5372394 292.73 326.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-309 551319 5372413 290.00 251.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-250 551321 5372433 292.56 338.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-311 551167 5373156 291.29 302.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-251 551126 5373049 289.92 248.00 270.00 -67.00   GF11-312 551217 5373128 291.39 519.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-252 551125 5373062 289.43 284.00 270.00 -64.00   GF11-313 551554 5372496 294.09 398.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-253 551504 5372303 294.98 425.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-314 551451 5372335 294.65 199.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-254 551580 5372329 295.42 395.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-316 551166 5373170 291.23 278.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-255 551118 5373091 289.92 323.00 270.00 -45.00   GF11-317 551324 5372384 292.92 321.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-256 551321 5372443 292.54 303.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-318 551452 5372359 294.32 311.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-257 551579 5372352 295.31 422.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-319 551166 5373185 291.40 302.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-258 551320 5372456 292.24 329.00 270.00 -60.00   GF11-320 551317 5372495 292.07 332.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-259 551119 5373091 289.91 326.00 270.00 -52.00   GF11-321 551222 5373099 291.54 342.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-260 551223 5373171 291.40 495.00 270.00 -64.00   GF11-322 551447 5372386 294.27 317.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-261 551118 5373091 289.85 326.00 270.00 -64.00   GF11-323 551556 5372484 294.35 419.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-262 551576 5372375 295.24 401.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-324 551166 5373200 291.40 302.00 270.00 -55.00

43-101 Technical Report and Mineral Resource Estimate – Grey Fox Deposit 63



  www.innovexplo.com

Table 10.1 – Brigus drill holes on the Grey Fox deposit (cont’d)

Hole Easting  Northing  Elevation  Length  Azimut  Dip   Hole Easting  Northing  Elevation  Length  Azimut   Dip
GF11-325 551016 5373283 289.12 203.00 250.00 -45.00   GF11-384 551197 5373145 291.01 431.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-326 551189 5373128 291.06 387.00 270.00 -51.00   GF11-385 550923 5372647 290.00 485.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-328 551445 5372403 294.14 278.00 270.00 -54.00   GF11-386 551583 5372560 295.08 491.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-329 551561 5372463 294.61 431.00 270.00 -57.00   GF11-387 551045 5373324 289.24 266.00 320.00 -50.00
GF11-330 551312 5372513 291.94 275.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-388 551881 5372283 297.47 401.00 270.00 -50.00
GF11-331 551047 5373272 289.68 167.00 235.00 -45.00   GF11-389 551860 5372706 291.49 690.00 270.00 -58.00
GF11-332 551015 5373282 289.09 179.00 250.00 -63.00   GF11-391 551045 5373325 289.23 248.00 320.00 -60.00
GF11-334 551440 5372435 293.78 302.00 270.00 -57.00   GF11-392 551062 5373338 288.94 242.00 320.00 -60.00
GF11-335 551335 5372968 292.61 420.00 270.00 -65.00   GF11-393 551881 5372283 297.46 352.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-336 551301 5372537 291.85 437.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-395 551027 5373306 289.39 242.00 320.00 -50.00
GF11-337 551061 5373340 288.80 332.00 320.00 -45.00   GF11-396 551584 5372584 295.04 497.00 270.00 -56.00
GF11-338 551474 5372462 294.04 332.00 270.00 -56.00   GF11-398 551013 5373302 289.23 251.00 330.00 -50.00
GF11-339 551295 5372560 291.98 308.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-400 551027 5373307 289.35 302.00 320.00 -60.00
GF11-340 551180 5373236 291.95 386.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-401 551938 5372288 297.50 385.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-342 551562 5372440 294.62 440.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-402 551704 5372617 295.38 723.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-343 551328 5372918 293.20 453.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-403 551582 5372604 295.32 487.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-344 551153 5373237 291.20 350.00 270.00 -50.00   GF11-405 551139 5373368 289.29 200.00 330.00 -50.00
GF11-345 551404 5372478 293.07 314.00 270.00 -57.00   GF11-406 551013 5373302 289.12 332.00 330.00 -60.00
GF11-346 551212 5372963 290.46 500.00 270.00 -65.00   GF11-408 551938 5372288 297.45 374.00 270.00 -65.00
GF11-347 551402 5372493 292.89 326.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-409 551933 5372325 297.43 338.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-348 551511 5372546 293.91 401.00 270.00 -55.00   GF11-411 551138 5373368 289.31 266.00 330.00 -60.00
GF11-349 551289 5372585 292.06 311.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-412 551359 5372348 292.98 281.00 270.00 -56.00
GF11-350 551154 5373261 291.16 335.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-413 551373 5372275 293.70 233.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-352 550898 5372780 290.00 116.00 312.00 -72.00   GF12-414 551412 5372290 294.51 239.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-353 551271 5372605 291.91 317.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-415 551360 5372337 293.06 189.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-354 551224 5372623 291.95 334.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-416 551933 5372325 297.41 377.00 270.00 -65.00
GF11-355 551256 5372941 291.36 594.00 270.00 -63.00   GF12-417 551374 5372291 293.63 167.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-356 551532 5372548 293.96 464.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-418 551400 5372302 294.35 251.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-358 551399 5372505 292.64 281.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-419 551386 5372302 293.82 200.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-359 551402 5372548 290.00 326.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-420 551420 5372309 290.00 212.00 270.00 -56.00
GF11-361 550857 5372752 290.00 206.00 133.00 -50.00   GF12-421 551354 5372309 293.38 158.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-362 551594 5372485 296.06 51.60 270.00 -55.00   GF12-422 551460 5372276 295.09 59.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-363 551430 5372481 293.37 290.50 270.00 -55.00   GF12-423 551380 5372310 293.52 185.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-364 551229 5372648 291.87 245.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-424 551460 5372276 295.09 269.00 270.00 -51.00
GF11-365 551182 5372981 290.11 243.00 270.00 -45.00   GF12-425 551360 5372297 293.48 110.00 270.00 -58.00
GF11-366 551549 5372560 294.19 425.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-426 551385 5372322 293.55 182.00 270.00 -54.00
GF11-369 551216 5372660 291.53 260.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-427 551437 5372269 294.72 197.00 270.00 -53.00
GF11-371 551552 5372577 294.48 476.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-428 551362 5372284 293.50 125.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-372 551594 5372485 296.33 488.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-429 551484 5372284 295.03 242.00 270.00 -49.00
GF11-373 551193 5373198 291.62 470.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-430 551361 5372270 293.63 131.00 270.00 -54.00
GF11-374 551549 5372601 294.59 490.10 270.00 -55.00   GF12-431 551389 5372332 293.74 176.00 270.00 -60.00
GF11-375 551221 5372637 291.91 227.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-432 551436 5372297 294.65 200.00 270.00 -54.00
GF11-376 551206 5372981 290.17 707.00 270.00 -63.00   GF12-433 551466 5372297 294.95 239.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-377 551196 5373170 291.46 470.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-434 551345 5372282 293.63 110.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-378 551587 5372512 295.36 470.40 270.00 -55.00   GF12-435 551387 5372359 293.55 176.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-379 550920 5372598 290.00 521.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-436 551433 5372310 294.57 200.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-380 551756 5372630 293.85 632.30 270.00 -55.00   GF12-437 551463 5372313 294.74 35.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-381 550923 5372627 290.00 512.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-438 551343 5372307 293.41 122.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-382 551587 5372534 294.57 485.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-439 551341 5372400 292.63 101.00 270.00 -55.00
GF11-383 551544 5372625 294.61 467.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-440 551401 5372322 293.96 200.00 270.00 -56.00

43-101 Technical Report and Mineral Resource Estimate – Grey Fox Deposit 64



  www.innovexplo.com

Table 10.1 – Brigus drill holes on the Grey Fox deposit (cont’d)

Hole Easting  Northing  Elevation  Length  Azimut  Dip   Hole Easting  Northing  Elevation  Length  Azimut   Dip
GF12-441 551465 5372334 294.67 549.05 270.00 -60.00   GF12-491 551486 5372323 294.72 275.00 270.00 -56.00
GF12-442 551105 5372886 291.43 137.00 270.00 -56.00   GF12-492 551061 5373061 289.98 152.00 270.00 -70.00
GF12-443 551124 5372896 291.10 167.00 270.00 -56.00   GF12-493 551049 5373059 290.86 134.00 270.00 -70.00
GF12-444 551107 5372909 291.29 200.00 270.00 -63.00   GF12-494 551383 5372483 292.58 167.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-445 551332 5372411 292.44 101.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-495 551381 5372497 292.60 185.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-446 551404 5372333 294.12 191.00 270.00 -60.00   GF12-496 551183 5372948 290.49 251.00 270.00 -52.00
GF12-447 551465 5372349 294.59 236.00 270.00 -58.00   GF12-497 551396 5372495 293.01 200.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-448 551107 5372909 291.21 146.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-498 551194 5372998 290.94 302.00 270.00 -63.00
GF12-449 551312 5372421 292.89 101.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-499 551187 5373009 290.93 311.00 270.00 -60.90
GF12-450 551466 5372309 290.00 242.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-500 551396 5372473 292.87 200.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-451 551304 5372433 292.93 101.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-501 551435 5372321 294.49 206.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-452 551288 5372459 292.68 101.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-502 551498 5372322 295.43 290.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-453 551466 5372363 294.59 230.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-503 551398 5372457 293.01 182.00 270.00 -53.00
GF12-454 551394 5372349 293.51 176.00 270.00 -60.00   GF12-504 551401 5372310 294.18 164.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-455 551095 5372920 291.16 116.00 270.00 -54.00   GF12-505 551503 5372285 294.88 260.00 270.00 -51.00
GF12-456 551469 5372372 294.36 251.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-506 551478 5372273 294.98 236.00 270.00 -52.00
GF12-457 551401 5372363 293.59 191.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-507 551389 5372283 293.97 161.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-458 551291 5372472 292.76 101.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-508 551411 5372472 293.20 221.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-459 551077 5372936 290.18 125.00 270.00 -58.00   GF12-509 551193 5373021 291.05 476.00 270.00 -65.00
GF12-460 551469 5372382 294.35 230.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-510 551432 5372447 293.59 299.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-461 551409 5372372 293.65 200.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-511 551409 5372283 294.48 161.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-462 551304 5372500 292.32 195.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-512 551439 5372459 293.87 278.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-463 551321 5372523 291.54 251.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-513 551368 5372371 293.32 125.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-464 551132 5372960 290.67 215.00 270.00 -68.00   GF12-514 551454 5372447 294.01 350.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-465 551127 5372968 290.14 251.00 270.00 -71.00   GF12-515 551204 5373007 291.27 635.20 270.00 -64.00
GF12-466 551120 5372982 290.01 251.00 270.00 -71.00   GF12-516 551448 5372460 293.84 242.00 270.00 -56.00
GF12-467 551387 5372395 293.24 152.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-517 551349 5372374 292.86 125.00 270.00 -50.00
GF12-468 551473 5372393 294.35 251.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-518 551449 5372310 294.72 218.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-469 551336 5372521 292.20 152.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-519 551437 5372421 293.79 236.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-470 551336 5372481 291.97 116.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-520 551457 5372421 294.09 302.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-471 551477 5372408 294.29 275.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-521 551359 5372407 292.82 125.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-472 551404 5372407 293.58 200.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-522 551218 5373008 291.49 674.00 270.00 -65.00
GF12-473 551319 5372470 292.38 131.00 270.00 -62.00   GF12-523 551482 5372446 294.33 377.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-474 551303 5372458 292.54 101.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-524 551481 5372423 294.36 302.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-475 551490 5372396 294.37 275.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-525 551361 5372420 292.72 149.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-476 551405 5372396 293.48 176.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-526 551234 5373009 291.55 374.00 270.00 -66.00
GF12-477 551055 5373011 290.69 101.00 270.00 -66.00   GF12-527 551366 5372496 292.65 164.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-478 551336 5372460 292.10 125.00 270.00 -58.00   GF12-528 551422 5372407 293.80 221.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-479 551483 5372383 294.57 245.00 270.00 -55.10   GF12-529 551350 5372482 292.40 125.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-480 551424 5372374 294.13 200.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-530 551418 5372396 293.65 200.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-481 551069 5373035 288.83 101.00 270.00 -57.00   GF12-531 551366 5372485 292.74 146.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-482 551336 5372431 292.27 122.00 270.00 -60.00   GF12-532 551440 5372384 294.10 227.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-483 551480 5372347 294.85 251.00 270.00 -58.00   GF12-533 551465 5372409 294.27 248.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-484 551328 5372423 292.60 119.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-534 551171 5373082 291.14 344.00 270.00 -60.00
GF12-485 551479 5372334 294.72 281.00 270.00 -60.00   GF12-535 551368 5372471 292.79 149.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-486 551408 5372346 293.95 200.00 270.00 -60.00   GF12-536 551358 5372459 292.73 140.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-487 551049 5373048 290.82 101.00 270.00 -50.00   GF12-537 551437 5372360 294.06 225.00 270.00 -55.00
GF12-488 551345 5372420 292.59 131.00 270.00 -55.00   GF12-538 551477 5372507 294.03 350.00 270.00 -56.00
GF12-489 551373 5372444