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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________
FORM 10-K
____________________________________________
(Mark one)ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ________________ to ________________
Commission file number: 001-37444
____________________________________________
FITBIT, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________________________
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
 incorporation or organization)
20-8920744
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
199 Fremont Street, 14th Floor
San Francisco, California 94105
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
 (415) 513-1000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class

Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 par value
Trading symbol

FIT
Name of each exchange on which registered

The New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer


Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No ☒

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing sale price of the registrant's Class A common stock on June 28, 2019, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange, was approximately $1.0 billion.

As of February 14, 2020, there were 235,956,941 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock outstanding and 29,318,245 shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.




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Fitbit, Inc.
Form 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019

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 Page 

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NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements, within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy and plans, and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, but are not limited to, statements about:

the expected timing and anticipated closing of our pending acquisition by Google LLC;
our future revenue, cost of revenue, gross margin, operating expenses, including personnel costs, research and development expense, sales and marketing expense, and general and administrative expense;
continued investments in research and development, sales and marketing, and international expansion, and the impact of those investments;
competitors and competition in our markets;
our ability to anticipate and satisfy consumer preferences;
our smartwatches and their market acceptance and future potential;
our ability to develop and introduce new products and services, including recurring non-device revenue offerings, and improve our existing products and services;
our ability to grow and engage our user base;
our expectations to derive the substantial majority of our revenue from sales of devices;
our ability to accurately forecast consumer demand and adequately manage inventory;
trends in our quarterly operating results and other operating metrics;
the impact of the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 virus on the development, manufacturing, and shipment of our products, particularly in China;
the impact of tariffs or other restrictions placed on our products imported into the United States from other countries, including China;
the impact of changes in tax laws on our operating results;
the impact of our adoption of accounting pronouncements;
our ability to deliver an adequate supply of product to meet demand;
our ability to maintain and promote our brand and expand brand awareness;
our ability to detect, prevent, or fix defects;
our reliance on third-party suppliers, contract manufacturers, and logistics providers and our limited control over such parties;
legal proceedings and the impact of such proceedings;
the effect of seasonality on our results of operations;
our ability to attract and retain highly skilled employees;
the impact of our acquisitions in enhancing the features and functionality of our devices;
the impact of foreign currency exchange rates;
the sufficiency of our existing cash and cash equivalent balances and cash flow from operations to meet our working capital and capital expenditure needs for at least the next 12 months; and
general market, political, economic and business conditions.


We caution you that the foregoing list does not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We cannot assure you that the results, events, and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will
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be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments we may make.


PART I

Item 1. Business
 
Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Fitbit,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K refer to Fitbit, Inc. and, as applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries.

Our Vision

To make everyone in the world healthier.

Our Mission
 
To help people achieve positive health, wellness, and fitness outcomes by empowering them with intelligent insights, personalized guidance, and the motivation to reach their goals.
 
Overview
 
Fitbit is a technology company focused on delivering health solutions that impact health outcomes. The Fitbit platform combines wearable devices with software and services to give our users tools to help them reach their health and fitness goals, augmented by general purpose features that add further utility and drive user engagement. Our wearable devices, which include health and fitness trackers and smartwatches, enable our users to view data about their daily activity, exercise, and sleep in real-time. Our software and services, which include an online dashboard and mobile app, provide our users with data analytics, motivational and social tools, and virtual coaching through customized fitness plans and interactive workouts. In addition, our software and services drive engagement and can be leveraged to provide personalized insights. Together, our devices, services, and software have helped millions of users on their health and fitness journeys be more active, sleep better, eat smarter, and manage their weight. Fitbit appeals to a wide spectrum of consumers by addressing key health and fitness needs with advanced technology embedded in simple-to-use products and services.
 
The core of our platform is our family of wearable devices. These devices automatically track users’ daily steps, calories burned, distance traveled, and active minutes, and display real-time feedback to encourage users to become more active in their daily lives. Most of our wearable devices also measure floors climbed, and sleep duration and quality, and our more advanced products track heart rate and GPS-based information such as speed, distance, and exercise routes. Several of our devices also have more advanced features such as the ability to receive call and text notifications, and certain of our devices offer contactless payments, on-board music, notifications, and the ability to download third-party apps. To accompany certain of our products, we offer accessories that include interchangeable wrist bands and frames, colored clips, device charging cables, wireless sync dongles, band clasps, and Fitbit apparel. In addition, we offer Wi-Fi and Bluetooth® connected scales that record weight, body fat, and body mass index or BMI. We are able to enhance the functionality and features of our wearables through wireless updates.
 
Our platform also includes software that helps to encourage healthy behavior changes in three areas: activity, sleep, and nutrition. The software includes our online dashboard and mobile apps, which wirelessly and automatically sync with our devices. It enables users to see trends and achievements and access motivational tools such as coaching and guidance, or connections to our community. We believe gamifying behaviors and providing virtual badges, real-time progress notifications, social support, and a competition dashboard helps drive engagement. Our direct connection with our users also enables us to provide personalized insights. In addition, we extend the value of our platform through our open application programming
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interface, or API, which enables third-party developers to create health and fitness apps that interact with our platform. Through our open platform and our large community of users, we have established an ecosystem that includes thousands of third-party health and fitness apps that connect with our products and enhance the Fitbit experience.

Our platform enables a wide range of people to get fit their own way, whatever their interests and goals. Our users range from people interested in improving their health and fitness through everyday activities, to endurance athletes seeking to maximize their performance. To address this wide range of needs, we design our devices, apps, and services to be easy to use so that they fit seamlessly into peoples’ daily lives and activities. Our users can sync their Fitbit devices with and view their dashboard on their computers and over 200 mobile devices, including iOS, Android, and Windows Phone products. This cross-platform capability coupled with broad global distribution has enabled us to attract what we believe is one of the largest communities of wearable device users. The size of our user community increases the likelihood that our users will be able to find and engage with like-minded individuals, friends, and family, creating positive network effects that reinforce our growth. In addition, data from our large community enables us to enhance our product features, provide improved insights, and offer more valuable guidance for our users.

On November 1, 2019, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) with Google LLC, or Google, pursuant to which Google has agreed to acquire us for $7.35 per share in cash, valuing us at a fully diluted equity value of approximately $2.1 billion. Pursuant to the terms of, and subject to the conditions specified in, the Merger Agreement, we will become a wholly owned subsidiary of Google (the “Merger”). The Merger is expected to close in 2020, subject to customary closing conditions, including regulatory approvals. The Merger was approved by our stockholders on January 3, 2020. For more information see Note 1, “Basis of Presentation,” in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.


The Fitbit Platform
 
Our wearable platform is designed to enable our users to improve their health and fitness by:
 
Tracking activities through our wearable devices. We empower users to live healthier, more active lifestyles by both tracking the information that matters most to them and providing them with real-time feedback. Our wearable devices span multiple styles, form factors, and price points, and, as a result, address the needs of a wide range of people—from people simply looking to get fit by increasing their activity levels, to endurance athletes seeking to maximize their performance. Our devices, which include both health and fitness trackers and smartwatches and our Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connected scales, feature proprietary and advanced sensor technologies and algorithms, and long battery lives. In addition, the ease of use and small, lightweight, and durable designs of our devices help them fit effortlessly into our users’ lifestyles.

Learning through our online dashboard and mobile apps. We offer our users a personalized online dashboard and mobile apps that sync automatically with and display data from our wearable devices. We provide our users with a wide range of information and analytics, such as charts and graphs of their progress and the ability to log caloric intake. Both our online dashboard and mobile apps are free and work with all of our wearable devices. Our internally-developed software is regularly updated and enhanced, increasing the utility of our platform.

Staying motivated through social features, notifications, challenges, and virtual badges. Our products help millions of users achieve their goals both individually and within the community that they choose. On an individual level, we motivate users by delivering real-time feedback, including notifications, leaderboard and challenge updates, and virtual badges. Our platform also offers users social features that allow them to view and participate in a social feed, receive and provide support through specific groups organized by activity or health, and engage in friendly competition. Users can securely share some or all of their health and fitness information on an opt-in basis with friends, family, and other parties, and compete against each other on key statistics through leaderboards and daily or multi-day fitness challenges. In addition, users can choose to share their data with thousands of third-party apps and through social networks on an opt-in basis. As users create more connections on our network, they often benefit from higher levels of activity.

Improving health and fitness through goal-setting, personalized insights, premium services, and virtual coaching. Our primary goal is to help our users improve their health and fitness. We believe our platform assists users in changing their daily behavior, such as going for a run or walking more to reach a goal or win a challenge. We empower our users to set their own health and fitness goals and track their progress towards these goals. We also offer premium services on a subscription basis that provide personalized insights and virtual coaching through customized
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guidance and coaching, customized programs, advanced sleep features, and interactive video-based exercise experiences on mobile devices and computers. Our premium services feature in-depth data analysis and personalized reports, as well as benchmarking against peers.

Our Competitive Strengths
 
We believe our competitive strengths are brand, community, and data.

Brand

Fitbit is a leading global wearables brand. We stand for health and fitness and have a trusted relationship with our users. We have a singular focus on driving positive health outcomes by targeting activity, sleep, and nutrition.

Broad and differentiated go-to-market strategy. We have developed a broad go-to-market strategy designed to reach individuals regardless of where they shop. We sell our products in over 39,000 retail stores and in over 100 countries, through our retailers’ websites, through our online store at Fitbit.com, and through Fitbit Health Solutions. We believe the breadth and depth of our established selling channels and prominent presence in retail stores would be difficult for a competitor to replicate.

Community

Broad range of wearable devices. We believe everyone’s approach to fitness is different, so we offer our users a range of wearable devices spanning multiple styles, form factors, features, and price points to allow people to find the devices that fit their lifestyles and goals. In addition to our wrist-based and clippable wearable health and fitness devices, we also offer Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connected scales, which track weight, body fat, and BMI. We believe the breadth of our wearable devices provides us with a competitive advantage over our competitors, which often have a more limited line of products.

Large and growing community and powerful network effects. We believe the size of our community of users makes it more likely that users can connect with like-minded individuals, friends, and family, and in turn attracts new users to our platform. Achieving meaningful health and fitness outcomes over the long-term is difficult. We believe that access to a network of users who provide support and motivation can increase a user’s engagement with and duration on the platform, especially when that network provides positive support as observed on our social feed. Each of our users adds value to our platform by making progress towards their goals and syncing their data with our platform, which we leverage to provide better insights for our users. As our community of users continues to grow, we will develop a deeper understanding of our users and expect to deliver additional value to them through more detailed insights and analysis. We believe the growth and scale of our user community allows users to become not only more engaged with personalized and relevant content, but also less likely to leave a community in which many of their friends and family are active members.

Direct relationship and continuous communication with our users. The connectivity of our devices allows us to better understand our users’ health and fitness goals. This connectivity also allows us to communicate the most relevant analysis, features, advice, and content to our users throughout the day with our online dashboard, mobile apps, emails, and notifications. It also allows us to focus on developing software that influences the behavior of our users to improve health outcomes, which can not only drive new forms of monetization, but also further engagement and duration of usage. We also utilize these communication channels to help our users become aware of our new products and services.

Data

Advanced, purpose-built hardware and software technologies. Our wearable devices leverage industry-standard technologies, such as Bluetooth low energy, as well as proprietary technologies, such as our PurePulse® continuous heart rate tracking and our algorithms that measure and analyze user health and fitness metrics. We devote significant resources to help ensure that our devices effortlessly fit into our users’ lifestyles. For example, we design our small, lightweight, durable, and fashionable products to be optimized for power efficiency, which enables automatic wireless data syncing without compromising battery life. We place a similarly strong emphasis on our online dashboard and mobile apps to provide users with visualization of their progress and personalized guidance. Our highly-scalable cloud infrastructure enables millions of users around the world to engage with our platform in real-time.

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Broad mobile compatibility and open API. Our broad mobile compatibility and open API enable a large health and fitness ecosystem that provides additional value to our existing users and extends our reach to potential new users. Our users can sync their Fitbit devices with and view their online dashboard on their computers and over 200 mobile devices, including iOS, Android, and Windows Phone products. Additionally, we enable seamless integration with thousands of apps across iOS, Android, and Windows Phone through our open API, which allows our users to share data with third-party apps on an opt-in basis.

Our Devices and Accessories
 
Our line of devices includes the Fitbit Charge 3™, Fitbit Inspire™, Fitbit Inspire HR™, and Fitbit Ace 2™ activity trackers, in addition to the Fitbit Ionic™ and Fitbit Versa™ family of smartwatches, as well as Fitbit Flyer™ wireless headphones and the Fitbit Aria™ family of connected scales. We also offer a line of accessories including bands and frames for some of our devices.
 
Our Software and Services

We believe our software and services offer the ability to engage the user and effect behavior change, representing an opportunity to diversify our revenue stream and deepen our relationship with our users. As we continue to work towards driving and influencing health outcomes, we believe there is an opportunity for our software to play a role in chronic disease management. We offer both enterprise software, such as corporate challenges for Fitbit Health Solutions customers, and coaching and guidance for our retail customers. Revenue from our software and services has historically represented less than 2% of our annual revenue.

Fitbit online dashboard and mobile apps. We offer our users a personalized online dashboard and mobile apps that sync automatically with, and display real-time data from, our wearable devices. Through these offerings, we provide users with charts and graphs of their progress, deeper analysis of their activities, and the ability to log caloric intake. Additionally, we motivate users through real-time feedback including notifications, leaderboard and challenge updates, and virtual badges. Our platform also offers users social features, such as access to an online community of users, leaderboards and challenges, that allow users to receive and provide support and engage in friendly competition. Our online dashboard and mobile apps are available for free through the iOS App Store, Google Play, Windows Store, and on Fitbit.com.
 
Fitbit Premium™. In August 2019, we launched Fitbit Premium, a paid subscription service that uses the unique data of users to deliver actionable guidance and coaching to help users achieve their health and fitness goals. Fitbit Premium leverages insights from over ten years of Fitbit data, as well as academic and medical expertise, to help users move more, sleep better, and eat well with customized programs, advanced sleep features, personal insights, thousands of workouts, new challenges, health reports, and more, all in the Fitbit app. Fitbit Premium includes Fitbit Coach, which provides exercise programs through personal trainer and yoga apps that continuously adjust to our users based on feedback throughout the workout.

Fitbit Care. In September 2018, we launched Fitbit Care, a connected health platform for health plans, employers, and health systems that combines health coaching and virtual care through the new Fitbit Plus™ app, Fitbit’s wearable devices, and self-tracking and personalized digital interventions to help improve wellness, and disease management and prevention. Fitbit Care combines our experience inspiring people to get healthy with the clinically-proven behavior change principles of Twine Health, which we acquired in March 2018, to improve care team collaboration and health outcomes across the spectrum of care. Fitbit Care is sold through our Fitbit Health Solutions channel.

Our Commitment to Privacy
 
We are committed to respecting our users’ privacy, letting our users decide how their information is used and shared, and keeping their data safe.
 
We have developed our data collection and use practices in accordance with the Fair Information Practice Principles, or FIPPs. We are committed to the following privacy principles as outlined in our privacy policy:
 
Transparent and Easy to Understand Policies. We are transparent about our data practices and explain them in clear language. Our data collection practices are designed to only collect data that is useful to improving our products, services, and user experience.

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No Unexpected Uses. We never sell personally identifiable data or use it other than as described in our privacy policy.

Clear Notice and Consent. We only share personally identifiable data with third parties, including employers, when our users consent to the sharing and under the limited circumstances outlined in our privacy policy where users’ personally identifiable data can be shared without specific consent, such as our receipt of search warrants or subpoenas from law enforcement agencies, or in response to a validly issued legal process in a civil litigation matter.

Prioritize Security. We take the security of our users’ data seriously. We use a combination of technical and administrative security controls to help ensure the security of user data.

Research and Development
 
We are passionate about developing innovative products and services that empower our users to reach their health and fitness goals. We believe our future success depends on our ability to develop new products and features that expand the versatility and performance of our existing platform, and we plan to continue to invest significant resources to enhance performance, functionality, convenience, and style for our users.

Our global research and development team supports the design and development of our wearable devices, proprietary sensors, firmware, data algorithms, and online dashboard and mobile apps. Our team is also researching new advanced science to help deepen our penetration of wearable devices. The team is comprised of dedicated research employees, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, firmware engineers, site operations engineers, and mobile app developers. Our research and development team is based at our headquarters in San Francisco, California, as well as several other worldwide locations.
 
Manufacturing, Logistics and Fulfillment
 
We outsource the manufacturing of our products to several contract manufacturers. These contract manufacturers produce our products in their facilities, which are primarily located in Asia. The components used in our products are sourced either directly by us or on our behalf by our contract manufacturers from a variety of component suppliers selected by us and our contract manufacturers, and are located worldwide. Our operations employees coordinate our relationships with our contract manufacturers and component suppliers. We believe that using outsourced manufacturing enables greater scale and flexibility at lower costs than establishing our own manufacturing facilities. We evaluate our current contract manufacturers and component suppliers on an ongoing basis, including whether or not to utilize new or alternative contract manufacturers or component suppliers.
 
We work with third-party fulfillment partners that deliver our products from multiple locations worldwide, which we believe allows us to reduce order fulfillment time, reduce shipping costs, and improve inventory flexibility.
 
Sales Channels and Customers
 
We sell our products through three primary channels:
 
Retail and distribution channel. We offer our products in over 39,000 retail stores and in over 100 countries. We focus on building close relationships with our retailers, working with them to merchandise our products in a compelling manner both in-store and on their e-commerce sites, promoting our products through their marketing efforts, and educating their sales forces about our products. In addition, we sell to distributors who resell our products to retailers.
 
Consumer electronics and specialty retailers. Our products are sold by electronics retailers with a large domestic and international presence, such as Best Buy.
e-Commerce retailers. Our products are sold on Amazon.com, in addition to the e-commerce sites of our retailers.
Mass merchant, department store, and club retailers. Our products are sold by large retailers, including Target, Costco, Macy’s, Kohl’s, and Walmart.
Sporting goods and outdoors retailers. Our products are sold by sporting goods and outdoors retailers, including Dick’s Sporting Goods and REI.
Wireless carriers. Our products are sold by wireless carriers, including Verizon.
Distributors. Our products are sold by a network of distributors.

Consumer direct channel. We sell our full line of products directly to consumers in the United States and other countries through our online store at Fitbit.com, which represented 10% of our revenue in both 2019 and 2018. We drive consumers to our website through online and offline advertising as well as marketing promotions.
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Fitbit Health Solutions channel. Our Fitbit Health Solutions channel provides a resource for health and wellness solutions designed to increase engagement, improve health outcomes, and drive positive returns for employers, health plans, and health systems. It leverages our consumer device technology to build a platform of hardware and software tools to motivate people to make sustained behavior change. We believe our strong brand recognition and success with consumers makes Fitbit a desirable partner for the healthcare and enterprise ecosystem. Fitbit Health Solutions partners and sells offerings to employer health and wellness plans, health plans, hospitals, and researchers through a direct sales team and indirectly through partners. In 2018, we launched Fitbit Care, a connected health platform for health plans, employers, and health systems that combines health coaching and virtual care, wearable devices, and personalized digital interventions to better support patients outside the walls of the clinical environment.
 
Backlog
 
There is a relatively short cycle between order and shipment of our products. Therefore, we believe that backlog information is not material to the understanding of our business.

Marketing and Advertising
 
Our marketing and advertising programs are focused on building global brand awareness, increasing product adoption, and driving sales. Our marketing and advertising efforts target a wide range of consumers and leverage traditional advertising methods (including television and print magazines), sponsorships and public relations, digital marketing, channel marketing, and endorsements by professional athletes and celebrities.
 
Our in-store merchandising strategy focuses on our point of purchase, or POP displays. We install our freestanding, in-line, and endcap POP displays of varying sizes at our various retailers. These displays communicate our marketing messages, present our products and their features and, in many cases, allow consumers to try on our devices and view an interactive app that enables them to learn more about our products.
 
Intellectual Property
 
Intellectual property is an important aspect of our business, and we seek protection for our intellectual property as appropriate. We rely upon a combination of patent, copyright, trade secret, and trademark laws, as well as contractual restrictions, such as confidentiality agreements and licenses, to establish and protect our proprietary rights.
 
We have developed a significant patent portfolio to protect certain elements of our proprietary technology. As of December 31, 2019, we had 602 issued patents. We continually review our development efforts to assess the existence and patentability of new intellectual property. We pursue the registration of our domain names, trademarks, and service marks in the United States and in certain locations outside the United States.

Competition
 
The market for wearable devices is both evolving and highly competitive. We primarily compete in the wrist-based wearables market, which is comprised of both smartwatches and trackers. Growth of the wearables market has been primarily driven by the smartwatch category of the wearables market. The wearable devices market has a multitude of participants, including many large, broad-based consumer electronics companies that either compete in our market or adjacent markets or have announced plans to do so, such as Apple, Samsung, LG, and Google. For example, Apple sells the Apple Watch, which is a smartwatch with broad-based functionalities, including some health and fitness tracking capabilities, and Apple has sold a significant volume of its smartwatches since introduction. We also face competition from manufacturers of lower-cost devices, such as Xiaomi, with its Mi Band devices, and Huawei. Market participants also include specialized consumer electronics companies such as Garmin, as well as traditional watch companies such as Fossil. In addition, we compete with a wide range of stand-alone health and fitness-related mobile apps that can be purchased or downloaded through mobile app stores.
 
The principal competitive factors in our market include:
 
brand awareness and focus;
breadth of product offerings;
battery life, sensor technology, and tracking features;
product pricing;
online and mobile app experience;
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cross-platform capability (iOS, Android, and Windows Phone);
software algorithms;
partnerships;
strength of sales and marketing efforts; and
distribution strategy.

We believe we compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of these factors as a result of our community of users, leading global brand, and data. The size of our user community increases the likelihood that our users will be able to find and engage with like-minded individuals, friends, and family, creating positive network effects. We believe that our success with consumers, along with our focus on health and fitness, makes us an attractive wearables partner for the healthcare and enterprise ecosystem. Furthermore, our platform and open API have together enabled us to establish a large and growing health and fitness ecosystem that not only provides additional value to our existing users, but also extends our reach to potential new users.
 
Employees
 
As of December 31, 2019, we had 1,684 global employees. We have not experienced any work stoppages. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in March 2007 as Healthy Metrics Research, Inc. We changed our name to Fitbit, Inc. in October 2007. We completed our initial public offering, or IPO, in June 2015 and our Class A common stock is listed on The New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “FIT.” Our principal executive offices are located at 199 Fremont Street, 14th Floor, San Francisco, California 94105, and our telephone number is (415) 513-1000. Our website address is www.fitbit.com and our investor relations website address is http://investor.fitbit.com. Website references are intended to be inactive textual references only, and none of the information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Fitbit, the Fitbit logo, Fitbit Versa 2, Fitbit Versa Lite, Fitbit Versa, Fitbit Ionic, Fitbit Flyer, Fitbit Surge, Fitbit Blaze, Fitbit Inspire, Fitbit Inspire HR, Fitbit Charge 3, Fitbit Charge 2, Fitbit Charge HR, Alta, Fitbit Charge, Fitbit Flex 2, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Aria, PurePulse, SmartTrack, FitStar, and our other registered or common law trade names, trademarks, or service marks appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are our intellectual property. This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains additional trade names, trademarks, and service marks of other companies that are the property of their respective owners.

Through a link on our website, we make available the following filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC: our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All such filings are available free of charge. The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains all reports that we file or furnish with the SEC electronically.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
 
An investment in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making a decision regarding investment in our Class A common stock. Our business, operating results, financial condition, or prospects could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks and uncertainties. If any of these risks actually occurs, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment. Our business, operating results, financial performance, or prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material.
 
 
Risks Related to Our Business
 
The announcement and pendency of our agreement to be acquired by Google LLC could have an adverse effect on our business.

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On November 1, 2019, we entered into the Merger Agreement with Google, pursuant to which a wholly-owned subsidiary of Google will, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, merge with and into us, and we will be the surviving corporation of the Merger and will become a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. On January 3, 2020, our stockholders voted to adopt the Merger Agreement at a special meeting of our stockholders. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, at the effective time of the Merger, each share of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the Merger will be canceled and automatically converted into the right to receive $7.35 in cash, without interest.

Uncertainty about the effect of the proposed Merger on our employees, customers, users, partners and suppliers may have an adverse effect on our business and operations that may be material to our company. Our employees may experience uncertainty about their roles following the Merger. There can be no assurance we will be able to attract and retain key talent, including senior leaders, to the same extent that we have previously been able to attract and retain employees. Any loss or distraction of such employees could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations. In addition, we have diverted, and will continue to divert, significant management attention and resources towards the completion of the Merger, which could materially adversely affect our business and operations.

Our customers and users may experience uncertainty associated with the Merger, including with respect to treatment of user data and concerns about possible changes to our products and services or policies. Similarly, our partners and suppliers may experience uncertainty associated with the Merger, including with respect to current or future business relationships with us. Uncertainty may cause customers or users to refrain from purchasing our products and services, and partners and suppliers may seek to change existing business relationships, which could result in an adverse effect on our business, operations, and financial condition in a way that may be material to our company.

Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, we are subject to certain restrictions on the conduct of our business, including the ability in certain cases to enter into contracts, acquire or dispose of assets, incur indebtedness or incur capital expenditures, until the Merger becomes effective or the Merger Agreement is terminated. These restrictions may prevent us from taking actions with respect to our business that we may consider advantageous and result in our inability to respond effectively to competitive pressures and industry developments, and may otherwise harm our business and operations.

The failure to complete the merger with Google could adversely affect our business.

Completion of the Merger with Google is subject to conditions beyond our control that may prevent, delay, or otherwise adversely affect its completion in a material way, including the expiration or termination of applicable waiting periods under antitrust and competition laws, and similar competition approvals or consents that must be obtained from regulatory entities in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions. If the Merger or a similar transaction is not completed, the share price of our Class A common stock may drop to the extent that the current market price of our Class A common stock reflects an assumption that a transaction will be completed. In addition, the Merger Agreement provides that we will be required to pay Google a termination fee of $80 million in certain circumstances, such as a material, uncured breach of our obligations under the Merger Agreement. Further, a failure to complete the Merger may result in negative publicity and a negative impression of us in the investment community. Any disruption to our business resulting from the announcement and pendency of the Merger and from intensifying competition from our competitors, including any adverse changes in our relationships with our customers, users, partners, and suppliers, could continue or accelerate in the event of a failure to complete the Merger. There can be no assurance that our business, these relationships, or our financial condition will not be adversely affected, as compared to the condition prior to the announcement of the Merger, if the Merger is not consummated.

We operate in a highly competitive market. If we do not compete effectively, our prospects, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected.

The wearable devices market is highly competitive, with companies offering a variety of products and services. Wearables can be broadly defined as trackers, fitness watches, and smartwatches, as well as devices beyond the wrist. In terms of devices sold, we have primarily operated in the health and fitness tracker and smartwatch segments of the wearables market. We expect competition in our market to intensify in the future as new and existing competitors introduce new or enhanced products and services that are potentially more competitive than our products and services.

The wearable devices market has a multitude of participants, including large, broad-based consumer electronics companies that either compete in our market or adjacent markets or have announced plans to do so, such as Apple, Samsung, Google, and LG. For example, Apple sells the Apple Watch, which is a smartwatch with broad-based functionalities including
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some health and fitness tracking capabilities, and Apple has sold a significant volume of its smartwatches since introduction. Moreover, smartwatches with health and fitness functionalities may displace the market for traditional tracker devices. For example, the Apple Watch includes electrocardiogram (ECG) functionality and fall detection capability. We also face competition from manufacturers of lower-cost devices, such as Xiaomi with its Mi Band devices, and Huawei. Market participants also include specialized consumer electronics companies such as Garmin, as well as traditional watch companies such as Fossil. In addition, we compete with a wide range of stand-alone health and fitness-related mobile apps that can be purchased or downloaded through mobile app stores.

We believe many of our competitors and potential competitors have significant advantages, including longer operating histories; ability to leverage their sales efforts and marketing expenditures across a broader portfolio of products and services; larger and broader customer bases; more established relationships with a larger number of suppliers, contract manufacturers, and channel partners; greater brand recognition; ability to leverage app stores which they may operate; experience manufacturing particular wearable devices, such as smartwatches; and greater financial, research and development, marketing, distribution, and other resources than we do.

Some of our competitors may aggressively discount their products and services in order to gain market share, which could result in pricing pressures, reduced profit margins, lost market share, or a failure to grow market share for us. In addition, our new products may have varying selling prices and costs compared to legacy products, which could negatively impact our gross margins and operating results. Our competitors and potential competitors may also be able to develop products or services that are equal or superior to ours, achieve greater market acceptance of their products and services, and increase sales by utilizing different distribution channels than we do.

Furthermore, current or potential competitors may be acquired by third parties with greater available resources. As a result of such acquisitions, our current or potential competitors might be able to adapt more quickly to new technologies and consumer needs, devote greater resources to the promotion or sale of their products and services, initiate or withstand substantial price competition, take advantage of acquisition or other opportunities more readily, or develop and expand their products and services more quickly than we do. If we are not able to compete effectively against our current or potential competitors, our prospects, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected.

If we are unable to anticipate and satisfy consumer preferences in a timely manner, our business may be adversely affected.

Our success depends on our ability to anticipate and satisfy consumer preferences in a timely manner. All of our products and services are subject to changing consumer preferences that cannot be predicted with certainty. In terms of devices sold, we have primarily operated in the tracker and smartwatch segments of the wearable devices market. Consumer preference has increasingly shifted to the smartwatch segment of the wearables market. Although we are continuing to build out our smartwatch offerings, consumers may ultimately decide not to purchase our products and services as their preferences could shift rapidly to different types of wearable devices, or away from these types of products and services altogether. In addition, adoption of our products may vary by geographic region.

Our newer products and services may have different features, designs, or prices than our existing or earlier products and the products of some of our competitors, which may not appeal to consumers or only appeal to a smaller subset of consumers. For example, in the second quarter of 2019, Fitbit Versa Lite Edition sales were weaker than expected, which we attribute to our initial go-to-market pricing and promotional strategies. Partly as a result, smartwatch revenue declined on a year over year basis. It is also possible that competitors could introduce new products and services that negatively impact consumer preference for our wearable devices, which could result in decreased sales of our products and services and a loss in market share.

In addition, although we intend to build out our recurring non-device revenue offerings, it is possible that consumers or enterprise customers may not be receptive to these new services or that revenue from these offerings may continue to be immaterial. For example, in the third quarter of 2019, we launched Fitbit Premium, a paid subscription service that delivers a personalized experience with guidance and coaching. In addition, in the third quarter of 2018, we introduced Fitbit Care, a connected health platform for health plans and employers. To date, revenue from non-device offerings has been an immaterial portion of our overall revenue. In addition, we have limited experience operating services outside of our core device business. Our ability to forecast revenue and other financial and operating results for any new service, such as Fitbit Premium and Fitbit Care, is inherently uncertain, and our actual results may vary significantly from what we desire or predict or from the estimates of analysts.

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Our future success depends on our ability to anticipate and respond effectively to shifts in consumer preferences. If we fail to anticipate and satisfy consumer preferences in a timely manner, or if it is perceived that our future products and services will not satisfy consumer preferences, our business may be adversely affected.

If we are unable to successfully develop, timely introduce, and effectively manage the introduction of new products and services or enhance existing products and services, our business may be adversely affected.

We must continually develop and introduce new products and services and improve and enhance our existing products and services to maintain or increase our sales. We believe that our future growth depends on continuing to engage and expand our user base by introducing new form factors, software services and other offerings. For example, in 2019, we started shipping Fitbit Versa 2, the next generation of Fitbit Versa, Fitbit Versa Lite Edition, an everyday smartwatch, and the Fitbit Inspire family, our newest activity trackers. In the third quarter of 2019, we launched Fitbit Premium, a paid subscription service. In addition, in the third quarter of 2018, we introduced Fitbit Care, a connected health platform for health plans and employers. We typically have several products and services in development at the same time. The success of new or enhanced products and services depends on a number of factors including, among other things, anticipating and effectively addressing consumer preferences and demand; timely and successful research and development; appropriate pricing and go-to-market strategies; the success of our sales and marketing efforts; effective forecasting and management of product demand, purchase commitments, and inventory levels; effective management of manufacturing and supply costs; and the quality of or any defects in our products.

The development of our products and services is complex and costly. Given the complexity, we occasionally have experienced, and could experience in the future, delays in the development and introduction of new and enhanced products and services, product costs that are higher than planned, or lower than expected manufacturing yields of new and enhanced products, which may adversely affect our revenue and gross margins.

If revenues decline, we may be forced to reduce costs and may not be able to compete effectively. Unanticipated problems in developing products and services could also divert substantial research and development resources, which may impair our ability to develop new products and services, or enhancements of existing products and services, and could substantially increase our costs. Problems in the design or quality of our products or services may also have an adverse effect on our brand, business, financial condition, and operating results.

We must also successfully manage introductions of new or enhanced products or services. Introductions of new or enhanced products or services could adversely impact the sales of our existing products to retailers and consumers. For instance, retailers often purchase less of our existing products in advance of new product launches, retailers may be granted stock rotation rights and price protection, and we may experience higher returns from retailers or users of existing products, although some may continue to purchase existing products in lieu of new or enhanced products. We may face challenges managing the inventory of new or existing products, which could lead to excess inventory and discounting of such products. In addition, our new products may have varying selling prices and costs compared to legacy products, which could negatively impact our gross margins and operating results. For example, in 2019, gross margins decreased on a year-over-year basis, due in part to a decrease in average selling price associated with new products. We have also historically incurred higher levels of sales and marketing expenses accompanying each product introduction.

Accordingly, if we fail to successfully develop, manufacture, market, and manage the introduction of new or enhanced products, we may incur higher than expected costs, weaker than anticipated demand for new or enhanced products, and changes in demand for existing products, and our operating results, business, and reputation could be harmed.

Our operating results could be materially harmed if we are unable to accurately forecast consumer demand for our products and services and adequately manage our inventory.

If we fail to accurately forecast consumer demand, we may experience excess inventory levels or a shortage of products available for sale. Demand for our products and services could be affected by many factors that may be difficult to predict, including changes in consumer preferences, the nature of new product and service introductions by us and our competitors, channel inventory levels, sales promotions by us or our competitors, changes in wearable device market conditions, and changes in general economic conditions or consumer confidence in future economic conditions.

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To ensure adequate inventory supply, we must forecast inventory needs and expenses and place orders sufficiently in advance with our suppliers and contract manufacturers based on our estimates of future demand for particular products. We have previously faced and may continue to face challenges acquiring adequate and timely supplies of our products to satisfy demand, particularly in connection with new product introductions, which we believe may negatively affect our revenue. For example, during the three months ended June 30, 2018, we were impacted by supply constraints associated with Fitbit Versa, which limited our ability to fully satisfy demand for this product. As we continue to introduce new products, we also may face challenges managing the inventory of existing products.

Inventory levels in excess of consumer demand may result in inventory write-downs or write-offs, the sale of inventory at discounted prices, and other actions, which have caused and may continue to cause our gross margin to decline and could impair the strength of our brand. For example, during 2018 and 2019, we recorded write-downs for excess and obsolete inventory, accelerated depreciation of manufacturing and tooling equipment, price protection on certain products, and rebates. Reserves and write-downs for rebates, promotions, and excess inventory and tooling and manufacturing capacity are recorded based on our forecast of future demand. Actual future demand could be less than our forecast, which may result in additional reserves and write-downs in the future, or actual demand could be stronger than forecast, which may result in a reduction to previously recorded reserves and write-downs in the future and increase the volatility of our operating results.

Conversely, if we underestimate consumer demand for our products, we may in future periods be unable to meet customer, retailer or distributor demand for our products, or we may incur higher costs to secure the necessary production capacity and components, which could cause our business and operating results to be adversely affected and cause damage to our brand and customer relationships.

No assurance can be given that we will not incur additional charges in future periods related to our inventory management or that we will not underestimate or overestimate forecasted sales in a future period.

Our quarterly operating results or other operating metrics may fluctuate significantly, which could cause the trading price of our Class A common stock to decline.

Our quarterly operating results and other operating metrics have fluctuated in the past and may continue to fluctuate from quarter to quarter. We expect that this trend will continue as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including:

the impact of our pending Merger with Google;
the level of demand for our wearable devices and our ability to maintain or increase the size and engagement of our community of users;
the timing and success of new product and service introductions by us and the transition from legacy products;
the timing and success of new product and service introductions by our competitors or any other change in the competitive landscape of our market;
the mix of products sold in a quarter;
the continued market acceptance of, and the growth of the market for, wearable devices, and evolution of this market into smartwatches and other form factors;
pricing pressure as a result of competition or otherwise;
delays or disruptions in our supply, manufacturing, or distribution chain;
errors in our forecasting of the demand for our products, which could lead to lower revenue or increased costs, or both;
seasonal buying patterns of consumers;
increases in levels of channel inventory resulting from sales to our retailers and distributors in anticipation of future demand;
increases in and timing of sales and marketing and other operating expenses that we may incur to grow and expand our operations and to remain competitive;
impact of sales and marketing efforts and promotions by competitors, which are difficult to predict;
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insolvency, credit, or other difficulties faced by our distributors and retailers affecting their ability to purchase or pay for our products;
insolvency, credit, or other difficulties confronting our suppliers, contract manufacturers, or logistics providers leading to disruptions in our supply or distribution chain;
levels of product returns, stock rotation, and price protection rights;
levels of warranty claims or estimated costs of warranty claims;
adverse litigation judgments, settlements, or other litigation-related costs;
changes in the legislative or regulatory environment, such as with respect to privacy, information security, health and wellness devices, consumer product safety, advertising, and taxes;
product recalls, regulatory proceedings, or other adverse publicity about our products;
fluctuations in foreign exchange rates;
costs related to the acquisition of businesses, talent, technologies, or intellectual property, including potentially significant amortization costs and possible write-downs;
changes in the trade policies of the United States or other countries, such as the imposition of new tariffs on goods made in China; and
general economic conditions in either domestic or international markets.
Any one of the factors above, or the cumulative effect of several factors, may result in significant fluctuations in our operating results.

The variability and unpredictability of our quarterly operating results or other operating metrics could result in our failure to meet our expectations, those of any analysts that publish financial coverage of us, or those of investors with respect to revenue or other operating results for a particular period. If we fail to meet or exceed such expectations for these or any other reasons, the market price of our Class A common stock could fall substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class action suits.

We may not be able to achieve revenue growth or profitability in the future.

Our historical revenue growth in certain periods should not be considered indicative of our future performance. Our revenue has declined in recent periods, and we expect our revenue growth to be slower than in the past or to decline in future periods due to a number of factors, which may include slowing demand for our products and services, increasing competition, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, our failure for any reason to capitalize on growth opportunities, or the maturation of our business.

From 2014 to 2016, our annual revenue grew rapidly from $745.4 million to $2.2 billion. Although our annual revenue in 2016 was up 17% compared to 2015, our annual revenue in 2017 and 2018 declined compared to the prior year, and our revenue in 2019 declined 5% compared to 2018. In future periods, we could again experience a decline in revenue, or revenue could grow more slowly than we expect, which could have a material negative effect on our future operating results.

Because we have only a limited history operating our business at its current scale, it is difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. Our limited operating experience at this scale, combined with the rapidly evolving nature of the market in which we sell our products and services, substantial uncertainty concerning how these markets may develop, and other economic factors beyond our control, reduces our ability to accurately forecast quarterly or annual revenue. As such, any predictions about our future revenue and expenses may not be as accurate as they would be if we had a longer operating history or operated in a more developed and predictable market. Failure to manage our future growth effectively could have an adverse effect on our business, which, in turn, could have an adverse impact on our operating results and financial condition.

In addition, we have not consistently achieved profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. For example, we recorded a net loss of $320.7 million in 2019 and a net loss of $185.8 million in 2018. Lower levels of revenue and higher levels of operating expenses may result in limited profitability or losses in the future.

If we fail to manage our operating expenses effectively, our financial performance may be negatively impacted.

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Our success also depends on our ability to manage our operating expenses effectively. Our employee headcount and the scope and complexity of our business have increased significantly during recent years, although the number of employees decreased 1% on a year-over-year basis to 1,684 employees as of December 31, 2019. We have incurred significant net losses of $320.7 million, $185.8 million and $277.2 million in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

In addition, we are investing in areas we believe will grow revenue and our operating expenses might increase as a result of these investments. The development of our products and services is complex and costly, and we typically have several products and services in development at the same time. Our research and development efforts may require us to incur substantial expenses to support the development of our next generation devices and other new products and services. Our research and development expenses were $300.4 million, $332.2 million and $343.0 million, for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

We could also be required to continue to expand our sales and marketing, product development, and distribution functions; upgrade our business information technology systems and other processes and technology; and obtain more space for our workforce expansion. These efforts could increase the strain on our resources, and we could experience serious operating difficulties, including difficulties in hiring, training, and managing employees.

If our continued investments do not result in future revenue as expected, we may incur greater than expected losses or lower than expected profits, and our liquidity position may be materially adversely affected.

Conversely, in the future, we may again need to strategically realign our resources, adjust our product line and/or enact price reductions in order to stimulate demand, implement additional restructuring and workforce reductions, or downsize our facilities for a reduced workforce. Any such actions may result in the recording of special charges, including inventory-related write-offs, workforce reductions, or other restructuring costs. Additionally, our estimates with respect to the useful life or ultimate recoverability of our assets, including purchased intangible assets and tooling, could also change and result in impairment charges.

If we are unable to operate efficiently and manage our costs, we may continue to incur significant losses in the future and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.

Our business is subject to risks arising from the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 illness.

Our products are sourced from contract manufacturers in China, where a novel virus known as COVID-19 recently surfaced. The outbreak has caused, and may continue to cause, interruptions in the development, manufacturing (including the sourcing of key components), and shipment of our products, which could adversely impact our revenue, gross margins, and operating results. Such interruptions may be due to, among other things, temporary closures of our facilities or those of our customers, contract manufacturers, and other vendors in our supply chain; restrictions on travel; and quarantines of affected populations. The COVID-19 outbreak and mitigation measures may also have an adverse impact on global economic conditions and consumer confidence and spending, which could affect demand for our products. The extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak impacts our results will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning the severity of the virus and the actions to contain its impact.

We rely on a limited number of suppliers, contract manufacturers, and logistics providers, and each of our products is manufactured by a single contract manufacturer.

We rely on a limited number of suppliers, contract manufacturers, and logistics providers. In particular, we use contract manufacturers located in Asia, and each of our products is manufactured by a single contract manufacturer. Our reliance on a limited number of suppliers and a sole contract manufacturer for each of our products presents various risks. These include the risk that in the event of an interruption from any part of our supply chain for any reason, such as a natural catastrophe, labor dispute, epidemics such as the COVID-19 outbreak, system interruption, or actions taken in regard to increased tariffs on goods produced in certain countries such as China, we may not be able to develop an alternate source without incurring material additional costs and substantial delays.

In addition, if we experience a significant increase in demand, or if we need to replace an existing supplier, contract manufacturer, or logistics provider, or move our contract manufacturing to a different country, we may be unable to supplement or replace such supply, contract manufacturing, or logistics capacity on terms that are acceptable to us, which may adversely impact our ability to deliver our products to customers in a timely manner. For example, for certain of our products, it may take
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a significant amount of time to onboard a contract manufacturer that has the capability and resources to build the product to our specifications in sufficient volume. Identifying suitable suppliers, contract manufacturers, and logistics providers is an extensive process that requires us to become satisfied with their quality control, technical capabilities, responsiveness and service, financial stability, regulatory compliance, and labor and other ethical practices. In addition, our contract manufacturers often make significant investments to build capacity based upon our forecasted production. If we experience a significant decrease in demand as compared to our forecast, our contract manufacturers may seek to renegotiate the terms of their commitments or choose to limit or terminate their relationship with us. Accordingly, an interruption in performance by, or the loss of, any key supplier, contract manufacturer, or logistics provider could adversely impact our revenue, gross margins, and operating results.

Because some of the key components in our products come from a limited or single source of supply, we are susceptible to supply shortages, long lead times for components, and supply changes, any of which could disrupt our supply chain.

Some of the key components used to manufacture our products come from a limited or single source of supply. Our contract manufacturers generally purchase these components on our behalf, subject to certain approved supplier lists. We are subject to the risk of shortages and long lead times in the supply of these components and the risk that our suppliers may discontinue or modify components used in our products. In addition, the lead times associated with certain components are lengthy and preclude rapid changes in quantities and delivery schedules. We have in the past experienced and may in the future experience component shortages, and the predictability of the availability of these components may be limited. While component shortages have historically been immaterial, they could be material in the future.

In the event of a component shortage or supply interruption from suppliers of these components, we may not be able to develop suitable alternate sources in a timely manner. In addition, some of our suppliers, contract manufacturers, and logistics providers may have more established relationships with our competitors, and as a result of such relationships, such suppliers may choose to limit or terminate their relationship with us. Developing suitable alternate sources of supply for these components may be time-consuming, difficult, and costly and we may not be able to source these components on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, which may adversely affect our ability to meet our requirements or to fill our orders in a timely or cost-effective manner. Any interruption or delay in the supply of any of these parts or components, or the inability to obtain these parts or components from alternate sources at acceptable prices and within a reasonable amount of time, would harm our ability to meet our scheduled product deliveries to our customers and users. This could harm our relationships with our channel partners and users and cause delays in shipment of our products, which could adversely affect our operating results. In addition, increased component costs could result in lower gross margins. If we are unable to buy these components in quantities sufficient to meet our requirements on a timely basis, this could negatively affect our ability to deliver products and services to our customers and users, which could adversely impact our revenue, gross margins, and operating results.

Our future success depends on the continuing efforts of our key employees, including our founders, James Park and Eric N. Friedman, and on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled personnel and senior management.

Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to continue to attract and retain highly skilled personnel. In particular, we are highly dependent on the contributions of our co-founders, James Park and Eric N. Friedman, as well as other members of our management team. The loss of any key personnel could make it more difficult to manage our operations and research and development activities to deliver on our product road map, reduce our employee retention and revenue, and impair our ability to compete. Although we have generally entered into employment offer letters with our key personnel, these agreements have no specific duration and provide for at-will employment, which means they may terminate their employment relationship with us at any time.

Competition for highly skilled personnel is often intense, especially in the San Francisco Bay area where our corporate headquarters are located, and we may incur significant costs to attract personnel. We may not be successful in attracting, integrating, or retaining qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs. We have from time to time experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled employees with appropriate qualifications. Job candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment, and the significant decline in the price of our Class A common stock since our initial public offering may adversely affect our ability to attract or retain highly skilled employees. Fluctuations in the price of our Class A common stock may also make it more difficult or costly to use equity awards to motivate, incentivize and retain our employees. Furthermore, there can be no assurances that the number of shares reserved for issuance under our equity incentive plans will be sufficient to grant equity awards adequate to recruit new employees and to compensate existing employees. Additionally, changes in immigration laws may make it harder to attract and retain highly skilled employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be severely harmed.

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We spend significant amounts on advertising and other marketing campaigns to acquire new users, which may not be successful or cost effective.

In order to increase awareness of our products and services and acquire new users, we have spent, and expect to continue spending, significant amounts on advertising and other marketing campaigns in various media, such as television, print advertising, and social media. In 2019, 2018 and 2017, advertising expenses, excluding co-op advertising and rebates which are recorded as contra-revenue, were $170.4 million, $161.5 million and $226.3 million, respectively, representing approximately 12%, 11%, and 14% of our revenue, respectively. Co-op advertising costs were $89.8 million, $80.3 million, and $45.0 million for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. A significant portion of our advertising and marketing spend is typically incurred in the fourth quarter as part of our holiday promotions, as well as when new products are released. While we seek to structure our advertising campaigns in the manner that we believe is most likely to encourage people to buy our products and services, our campaigns may be less effective than anticipated if we fail to identify advertising opportunities that satisfy our anticipated return on advertising spend or fail to accurately predict user acquisition, including the conditions and behaviors that drive user behavior. In addition, the timing of our advertising and promotional spend may impact the timing of expected sales of our products and services. Particularly during the holiday season, there is significant competition for consumer spending, and we may not realize our expected sales or recover our advertising and promotional spend if other promotions or products are more compelling. If new products do not meet customer expectations, we may not recover our advertising and promotional spend for new product introductions. If for any reason any of our advertising campaigns prove less successful than anticipated in attracting new users, we may not be able to recover our advertising spend, and our rate of user acquisition may fail to meet market expectations, either of which could have an adverse effect on our business. There can be no assurance that our advertising and other marketing efforts will result in increased sales of our products and services. Further, promotional activity may adversely affect our gross margin.

Our current and future products and services may experience quality problems from time to time that can result in adverse publicity, product recalls, litigation, regulatory proceedings, and warranty claims resulting in significant direct or indirect costs, decreased revenue and operating margin, and harm to our brand.

We sell complex products and services that could contain design and manufacturing defects in their materials, hardware, and firmware. These defects could include defective materials or components, or “bugs,” that can unexpectedly interfere with the products’ intended operations or cause injuries to users or property. Although we extensively test new and enhanced products and services before their release, there can be no assurance we will be able to detect, prevent, or fix all defects. For example, our products may fail to provide accurate measurements and data to all users under all circumstances, or there may be reports or claims of inaccurate measurements under certain circumstances.

Failure to detect, prevent, or fix defects, or an increase in defects, could result in a variety of consequences, including a greater number of returns of products than expected from users and retailers, increases in warranty costs, regulatory proceedings, product recalls, and litigation, which could harm our revenue and operating results. We generally provide a 45-day right of return for purchases through Fitbit.com and a 12-month limited warranty on all of our products, though warranty duration and scope may vary by jurisdiction in compliance with applicable local law. The occurrence of real or perceived quality problems or material defects in our current and future products could expose us to warranty claims in excess of our current reserves. Moreover, we may offer stock rotation rights and price protection to our distributors. If we experience greater returns from retailers or users, or greater warranty claims, in excess of our reserves, our business, revenue, gross margin, and operating results could be harmed. In addition, any negative publicity or lawsuits filed against us related to the perceived quality and safety of our products could also affect our brand and decrease demand for our products and services, adversely affecting our operating results and financial condition.

We have limited control over our suppliers, contract manufacturers, and logistics providers, which subjects us to significant risks, including the potential inability to obtain or produce quality products on a timely basis or in sufficient quantity.

We have limited control over our suppliers, contract manufacturers, and logistics providers, including aspects of their specific manufacturing processes and their labor, environmental, or other practices, which subjects us to significant risks, including the following:

inability to satisfy demand for our products;
reduced control over delivery timing and product reliability;
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reduced ability to oversee the manufacturing process and components used in our products;
reduced ability to monitor compliance with our product manufacturing specifications;
price increases;
insolvency, credit problems, or other financial difficulties confronting our suppliers, contract manufacturers, or logistic providers;
risks related to the computer systems used by our suppliers, contract manufacturers, or logistic providers, such as system failures, viruses, cyberattacks, computer hackers and similar disruptions;
difficulties in establishing additional or alternative contract manufacturing relationships if we experience difficulties with our existing suppliers, contract manufacturers or logistic providers;
shortages of materials or components;
misappropriation of our intellectual property;
suppliers, contract manufacturers, and logistics providers may choose to limit or terminate their relationship with us;
exposure to natural catastrophes, political unrest, terrorism, labor disputes, and economic instability resulting in the disruption of trade from foreign countries in which our products are manufactured;
changes in local economic conditions in countries where our suppliers, contract manufacturers, or logistics providers are located;
the imposition of new laws and regulations, including those relating to labor conditions, quality and safety standards, imports, duties, taxes, and other charges on imports, as well as trade restrictions and restrictions on currency exchange or the transfer of funds and tariffs; and
insufficient warranties and indemnities on components supplied to our contract manufacturers.

If there are defects in the manufacture of our products, we may face negative publicity, government investigations, and litigation, and we may not be fully compensated by our contract manufacturers for any financial or other liability that we suffer as a result.

To date, we have derived substantially all of our revenue from sales of our wearable devices, and revenue from our Fitbit Health Solutions channel has historically accounted for less than 10% of our revenue.
 
To date, substantially all of our revenue has been derived from sales of our wearable devices, and we expect to continue to derive the substantial majority of our revenue from sales of these devices for the foreseeable future. In 2019, 2018 and 2017, we derived less than 10% of our revenue from sales of devices and software services through our Fitbit Health Solutions channel, through which we offer devices and software services to employers, health plans and health systems. However, in the future we plan to increase sales through this channel. For example, in September 2018, we launched Fitbit Care, a connected health platform that combines health coaching and virtual care, wearable devices, and personalized digital interventions to better support patients outside the walls of the clinical environment. If reception from employers, health plans, health systems or end users is unfavorable, or if we are unable to successfully further develop, market and sell our devices and software services through the Fitbit Health Solutions channel, we may be deprived of a potentially significant source of revenue in the future and our future growth and financial performance may be adversely affected. 

To date, we have derived substantially all of our revenue from sales of our wearable devices, and sales of our subscription-based premium services to consumers have historically accounted for less than 2% of our revenue.

To date, substantially all of our revenue has been derived from sales of our wearable devices, and we expect to continue to derive the substantial majority of our revenue from sales of these devices for the foreseeable future. In 2019, 2018 and 2017, we derived less than 2% of our revenue from sales of our subscription-based premium services to consumers. However, in the future we plan to increase sales of subscriptions to these services. For example, in the third quarter of 2019, we launched Fitbit Premium, a paid subscription service that delivers a personalized experience with guidance and coaching. If consumer reception is unfavorable or we are unable to successfully further develop, market and sell our premium services, we may be deprived of a potentially significant source of revenue in the future and our growth and financial performance may be adversely affected.

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If efforts to mitigate tariffs on our products imported into the United States from China are unsuccessful, or if related counter-measures are taken by China, it could have a material adverse impact on our business.

In general, our products are assembled in China by contract manufacturers using components sourced from suppliers worldwide, making the pricing and availability of our products susceptible to international trade risks. In 2018, the United States imposed additional duties under Section 301 of the U.S. Trade Act of 1974, ranging from 10% to 25%, on a variety of goods imported from China. While these tariffs initially did not affect our products, in May 2019, the United States proposed to place tariffs on essentially all remaining Chinese-origin imports. Subsequently, the Trump Administration announced that 15% tariffs would be imposed on a subset of these goods, including wearable devices, which went into effect September 1, 2019. These tariffs were reduced to 7.5% on February 14, 2020.

We began exploring possibilities to mitigate the impact of tariffs in 2018, in response to the Trump Administration's concerns regarding China and the ongoing tariff threat. We have made and continue to seek to make additional changes to our supply chain and manufacturing operations that we believe will significantly reduce our exposure to the tariffs on Chinese-origin products. Based on the progress we have made to date, we do not expect these tariffs to have a substantial ongoing impact on our operations in 2020. We have also taken opportunities to mitigate the impact of these tariffs for both past and future imports, including by petitioning for an exclusion from Section 301 duties for our products. However, if we are not successful in mitigating the effects of the tariffs or any related counter-measures that may be taken by China, our revenue, gross margins, and operating results may be adversely affected.

We are, and may in the future be, subject to claims and lawsuits alleging that our products fail to provide accurate measurements and data to our users.

Our products and services are used to track and display various information about users’ activities, such as daily steps taken, calories burned, distance traveled, floors climbed, active minutes, sleep duration and quality, and heart rate, as well as GPS-based information such as speed, distance, and exercise routes. We anticipate new features and functionality in the future, as well. From time to time, there have been reports and claims made against us alleging that our products do not provide accurate measurements and data to users, including claims asserting that certain features of our products do not operate as advertised. Such reports and claims have resulted in negative publicity and, in some cases, have required us to expend time and resources to defend litigation. If our products fail to provide accurate measurements and data to users, or if there are reports or claims of inaccurate measurements, claims of false advertisement, or claims of inaccuracy regarding the overall health benefits of our products and services in the future, we may become the subject of negative publicity, litigation, including class action litigation, regulatory proceedings, and warranty claims, and our brand, operating results, and business could be harmed.

Our gross margins have declined, and may continue to decline, and we have experienced operating losses as a result of decreased revenues and increased product costs and operating expenses.

Our business is subject to significant pressure on pricing and costs caused by many factors, including intense competition, new product introductions, the cost of components used in our products, labor costs, constrained sourcing capacity, inflationary pressure, pressure from users to reduce the prices we charge for our products and services, warranty claims, and changes in consumer demand. Costs for our manufactured products and the components used to make our products are affected by, among other things, energy prices, consumer demand, fluctuations in commodity prices and currency, tariffs, and other factors that are generally unpredictable and beyond our control. Any change to pricing and costs could have an adverse effect on, among other things, our average selling price, the cost of our products, gross margins, operating results, financial condition, and cash flows. Moreover, if we are unable to offset any decreases in our average selling price by increasing our sales volumes or by adjusting our product mix, or if our sales volume declines and we are not able to reduce our costs, our operating results and financial condition may be harmed.

A substantial portion of our expenses are personnel related and include salaries, stock-based compensation, and benefits, which are not seasonal in nature. Accordingly, in the event of revenue shortfalls, we are generally unable to mitigate a negative impact on operating margins in the short term. To the extent such revenue shortfalls recur in future periods, our operating results would be harmed.

Our success depends on our ability to maintain our brand. If events occur that damage our brand, our business and financial results may be harmed.

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Our success depends on our ability to maintain the value of the “Fitbit” brand. The “Fitbit” name is integral to our business as well as to implementation of our strategies for expanding our business. Maintaining, promoting, and positioning our brand depends largely on the success of our marketing and merchandising efforts; our ability to provide consistent, high quality products and services; our ability to successfully secure, maintain, and defend our rights to use the “Fitbit” mark and other trademarks important to our brand; and our ability to maintain a consistently high level of customer service. Our brand could be harmed if we fail to achieve these objectives and by any associated negative publicity.

The unlawful actions of third parties can harm our brand. The popularity of the “Fitbit” name makes it a target for counterfeiting or imitation. In recent years there has been an increase in third parties attempting to sell counterfeit and “knock-off” devices that try to replicate our products and that may infringe on our intellectual property.

Fitbit products and components may also be diverted or misappropriated from our contract manufacturers, distributors, authorized retailers, and other business partners and sold on the “gray market.” Gray market products result in shadow inventory that is not visible to us, making it difficult to forecast demand accurately. Also, gray market products are often heavily discounted, which adversely affects demand for devices sold by us and by our channel partners and negatively impacts our margins. In addition, gray market activities may result in customer satisfaction issues as devices purchased outside our authorized sales channels may be substandard, including those that have been designated for scrap, altered, mishandled, damaged, or previously used. Further, gray market products may not be eligible for warranty replacement, which can erode customer satisfaction.

Any occurrence of counterfeiting, imitation, gray market sales, or other confusion with our brand could adversely affect our reputation, place negative pricing pressure on our products, reduce sales of our products, and impair the value of our brand. Additionally, counterfeit and unauthorized grey market sales may result in secondary warranty replacement and service costs. Maintaining, protecting, and enhancing our brand may require us to make substantial investments, which may not be successful. If we fail to effectively maintain, promote, and position our brand and protect our reputation, or if we incur significant expenses in this effort, our business, financial condition, and operating results may be adversely affected.

Any insolvency, credit problems, or other financial difficulties impacting our retailers and distributors could expose us to financial risk.

Some of our retailers and distributors have experienced, and may continue to experience, insolvency, credit challenges, or other financial difficulties that could expose us to significant financial risk. In addition, if the credit capacity of any retailer or distributor declines due to deterioration in their financial condition or increases in their outstanding payable balance to us, we may be subject to additional financial risk. Financial difficulties of our retailers and distributors could also impede their effectiveness and expose us to risks if they are unable to pay for the products they purchase from us. For example, Wynit Distribution, LLC, or Wynit, historically our largest customer, filed for bankruptcy protection in September 2017, which caused us to incur $7.6 million in net bad debt expenses and $1.4 million in net cost of revenues in 2017. Credit and financial difficulties of our retailers and distributors may also lead to a reduction in sales, price reductions, increased returns of our products, and adverse effects on our brand and operating results. We maintain credit insurance for the majority of our customer balances, perform ongoing credit evaluations of customers, and maintain allowances for potential credit losses on customers’ accounts when deemed necessary. We may not have sufficient insurance coverage to cover losses resulting from the credit and financial difficulties of retailers and distributors. These difficulties may further lead to an increase in our credit insurance premiums and make it more difficult or impossible to obtain sufficient coverage, which could increase our exposure and result in increased bad debt expense or additional write-offs. Any reduction in sales by our current retailers or distributors, loss of large retailers or distributors, or decrease in revenue from our retailers or distributors could adversely affect our revenue, operating results, and financial condition.

We depend on retailers and distributors to sell and market our products, and our failure to maintain and further develop our sales channels could harm our business.

We primarily sell our products through retailers and distributors and depend on these third parties to sell and market our products to consumers. Any changes to our current mix of retailers and distributors could adversely affect our gross margin and could negatively affect both our brand image and our reputation. Our sales depend in part on retailers adequately displaying our products, including providing attractive space and point of purchase displays in their stores, and training their sales personnel to sell our products. Our retailers also often offer products and services of our competitors. If our retailers and distributors are not successful in selling our products, overestimate demand for our products, or promote competing products and services more effectively than our products and services, our revenue would decrease and our gross margins could decline due to increased
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product returns or price protection claims. In addition, our success in expanding and entering into new markets internationally will depend on our ability to establish relationships with new retailers and distributors. We also sell and will need to continue to expand our sales through online retailers, such as Amazon.com, and through our direct channel, Fitbit.com, as consumers increasingly make purchases online. If we do not maintain our relationship with existing retailers and distributors or develop relationships with new retailers and distributors, our ability to sell our products and services could be adversely affected and our business may be harmed.

In 2019 and 2018, our five largest retailers and distributors accounted for approximately 42% of our revenue during each period. Of these retailers and distributors, D&H Distribution Company accounted for approximately 11% and 10% of our revenue in 2019 and 2018, respectively, and Amazon.com accounted for approximately 10% of our revenue in both 2019 and 2018. No other retailers or distributors accounted for 10% or more of our revenue during these periods. The loss of, or reduction in business with, one or more of our large retailers or distributors could have a significant adverse impact on our operating results. For example, Wynit, historically our largest customer at the time, filed for bankruptcy protection in September 2017. While we have agreements with these large retailers and distributors, these agreements do not require them to purchase any meaningful amount of our products.

Consolidation of retailers or concentration of retail market share among a few retailers may increase and concentrate our credit risk and impair our ability to sell products.

The electronics retail and sporting goods markets in some countries, including the United States, our largest market, are dominated by a few large retailers with many stores. These retailers have in the past increased their market share and may continue to do so in the future by expanding through acquisitions and construction of additional stores. This can further concentrate our credit risk to a relatively small number of retailers, and, if any of these retailers experience credit or liquidity issues, it would increase the risk that our receivables from these customers may not be paid. In addition, increasing market share concentration among one or a few retailers in a particular country or region increases the risk that if any one of them substantially reduces their purchases of our wearable devices, we may be unable to find a sufficient number of other retail outlets for our products to sustain the same level of sales. These situations also may result in pricing pressure to us. Any reduction in sales by our retailers would adversely affect our revenue, operating results, and financial condition.

Our business is affected by seasonality and if our sales fall below our forecasts, our overall financial conditions and operating results could be adversely affected.

Our revenue and operating results are affected by general seasonal spending trends associated with holidays. For example, our fourth quarter has typically been our strongest quarter in terms of revenue and operating income, reflecting our historical strength in sales during the holiday season. We generated approximately 35%, 38% and 35% of our full year revenue during the fourth quarters of 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Accordingly, any shortfall in expected fourth quarter revenue would adversely affect our annual operating results, as well as our cash flow. We may also experience excess inventory levels or a shortage of products available for sale if we fail to accurately forecast consumer demand for the holiday season. In addition, revenue for our Fitbit Health Solutions channel is affected by seasonal trends associated with the health-care industry. For example, medical benefit plans typically start at the beginning of the calendar year, which may drive sales through the Fitbit Health Solutions channel in our first quarter.

Furthermore, our growth rate in recent years may obscure the extent to which seasonality trends have affected our business and may continue to affect our business. Accordingly, yearly or quarterly comparisons of our operating results may not be useful, and our results in any particular period will not necessarily be indicative of the results to be expected for any future period. Seasonality in our business can also be significantly impacted by the introduction of new or enhanced products and services, including the costs associated with such introductions.

We collect, store, process, and use personal information and other customer data, which subjects us to governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to privacy, information security, and data protection, and any security breaches or our actual or perceived failure to comply with such legal obligations could harm our business.

We collect, store, process, and use personal information and other user data, and we rely on third parties that are not directly under our control to do so. Our users’ exercise and activity-related data and other personal information may include, among other information, names, addresses, phone numbers, email addresses, payment account information, height, weight, and information such as heart rates, sleeping patterns, GPS-based location, and activity patterns.

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Due to the volume of the personal information and data we manage and the nature of our products, the security features of our platform and information systems are critical. If our security measures, some of which we manage using third-party solutions, are breached or fail, unauthorized persons may be able to obtain access to or acquire our users’ data. Furthermore, if third-party service providers that host user data on our behalf experience security breaches or violate applicable laws, agreements, or our policies, such events may also put our users’ information at risk and could in turn have an adverse effect on our business. Additionally, if we or any third-party, including third-party applications, with which our users choose to share their Fitbit data were to experience a breach of systems compromising our users’ personal data, our brand and reputation could be adversely affected, use of our products and services could decrease, and we could be exposed to a risk of loss, litigation, and regulatory proceedings.

Depending on the nature of the information compromised, in the event of a data breach or other unauthorized access to or acquisition of our user data, we may also have obligations to notify users about the incident and we may need to provide some form of remedy, such as a subscription to a credit monitoring service, for the individuals affected by the incident. A growing number of legislative and regulatory bodies have adopted consumer notification requirements in the event of unauthorized access to or acquisition of certain types of personal data. Such breach notification laws continue to evolve and may be inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another. Complying with these obligations could cause us to incur substantial costs and could increase negative publicity surrounding any incident that compromises user data. Our users may also inadvertently disclose or lose control of their passwords, creating the perception that our systems are not secure against third-party access. While we maintain insurance coverage that, subject to policy terms and conditions and a significant self-insured retention, is designed to address certain aspects of cyber risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise in the event we experience a security breach. In addition, any such security breaches may result in negative publicity, adversely affect our brand, decrease demand for our products and services, and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Our failure to comply with U.S. and foreign laws related to privacy, data security, and data protection, such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, and the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results, and brand.

We are or may become subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States and abroad regarding privacy, data protection, and data security. These laws and regulations are continuously evolving and developing. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to us are often uncertain and may be conflicting, particularly with respect to foreign laws.

In particular, there are numerous U.S. federal, state, and local laws and regulations and foreign laws and regulations regarding privacy and the collection, sharing, use, processing, disclosure, and protection of personal data. Such laws and regulations often have changes in scope, may be subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among different jurisdictions. For example, the GDPR, which became effective in May 2018, includes operational requirements for companies that receive or process personal data of residents of the European Union that are broader and more stringent than those previously in place in the European Union. The GDPR includes significant penalties for non-compliance, including fines of up to €20 million or 4% of total worldwide revenue. Additionally, in June 2018, California enacted the CCPA, which became effective in January 2020. The CCPA will require covered companies to provide California consumers with new disclosures and will expand the rights afforded consumers regarding their data. Fines for noncompliance may be up to $7,500 per violation. We cannot yet predict the potential impact of the CCPA on our business or operations.

Additionally, we rely on various legal mechanisms for transferring certain personal data outside of the European Economic Area, or EEA, including the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework, or Privacy Shield, and EU Standard Contractual Clauses, or SCCs. In November 2016, the U.S. Department of Commerce approved our Privacy Shield self-certification, which is available on the department’s Privacy Shield website. Both the Privacy Shield and the SCCs are the subject of ongoing legal challenges in European courts. If we fail or are perceived to fail to meet the Privacy Shield principles or our obligations under the SCCs, or if any of these legal mechanisms for transferring data from the EEA are invalidated by European courts or otherwise become defunct, European Union data protection authorities or the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, or FTC, could bring enforcement actions seeking to prohibit or suspend our data transfers or alleging unfair or deceptive practices. In such cases, we could be required to make potentially expensive changes to our information technology infrastructure and business operations, and we could face legal liability, fines, negative publicity, and resulting loss of business.

Certain privacy laws and regulations also apply to the collection of personal information from children, including the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act and GDPR. In the first quarter of 2018, we introduced Fitbit Ace, our first activity
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tracker designed for children and, in the first quarter of 2019, we introduced Fitbit Ace 2, our new tracker for children ages 6 and older for use with Fitbit family accounts.

Certain health-related laws and regulations such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, may also have an impact on our business. For example, we offer HIPAA-compliant capabilities to certain customers of our corporate wellness offerings who are “covered entities” under HIPAA, which may include our execution of HIPAA Business Associate Agreements, or BAAs, with such covered entities. In addition, changes in applicable laws and regulations may result in the user data we collect being deemed protected health information under HIPAA and HITECH. Furthermore, because we accept payment via credit cards, we are subject to payment card association operating rules and certification requirements, including the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, or PCI DSS. If we are unable to comply with the applicable privacy and security requirements under HIPAA, HITECH, or PCI DSS, or we fail to comply with BAAs that we enter into with covered entities, we could be subject to claims, legal liabilities, penalties, fines, and negative publicity, which could harm our operating results.

Governments are continuing to focus on privacy and data security, and it is possible that new privacy or data security laws will be passed or existing laws will be amended in a way that is material to our business. Any significant change to applicable laws, regulations, or industry practices regarding our users’ data could require us to modify our services and features, possibly in a material manner, and may limit our ability to develop new products, services, and features. Although we have made efforts to design our policies, procedures, and systems to comply with the current requirements of applicable state, federal, and foreign laws, changes to applicable laws and regulations in this area could subject us to additional regulation and oversight, any of which could significantly increase our operating costs.

We strive to comply with all applicable laws, policies, legal obligations, and industry codes of conduct relating to privacy, data security, and data protection. The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, the GDPR, CCPA, HIPAA, and similar laws may limit the use and adoption of our products and services, and/or require us to incur substantial compliance costs, which could have an adverse impact on our business. In addition, given that the scope, interpretation, and application of these laws and regulations are often uncertain and may be conflicting, it is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or our practices. Any failure or perceived failure by us or third-party service-providers to comply with our privacy or security policies or privacy-related legal obligations, the failure or perceived failure by third-party apps with which our users choose to share their Fitbit data to comply with their privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations as they relate to the Fitbit data shared with them, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personal data, may result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, damages, penalties, and negative publicity, and could also have an adverse effect on our brand and operating results.

Cybersecurity risks could adversely affect our business and disrupt our operations.

The threats to network and data security are increasingly diverse and sophisticated. Despite our efforts and processes to prevent breaches, our devices, as well as our servers, computer systems, and those of third parties that we use in our operations are vulnerable to cybersecurity risks, including cyber-attacks such as viruses and worms, phishing attacks, denial-of-service attacks, physical or electronic break-ins, employee theft or misuse, and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering with our servers and computer systems or those of third parties that we use in our operations. These attacks could lead to interruptions, delays, loss of critical data, unauthorized access to user data, and loss of consumer confidence. In addition, we may be the target of email scams that attempt to acquire personal information or company assets. Despite our efforts to create security barriers to such threats, we may not be able to entirely mitigate these risks. Any cyber-attack that attempts to obtain our or our users’ data and assets, disrupt our service, or otherwise access our systems, or those of third parties we use, if successful, could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition, be expensive to remedy, and damage our reputation. In addition, any such breaches may result in negative publicity, adversely affect our brand, decrease demand for our products and services, and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Any material disruption of our information technology systems, or those of third-party partners and data center providers, could materially damage user and business partner relationships and subject us to significant reputational, financial, legal, and operational consequences.

We depend on our information technology systems, as well as those of third parties, to develop new products and services, operate our website, host and manage our services, store data, process transactions, respond to user inquiries, and manage inventory and our supply chain. Any material disruption or slowdown of our systems or those of third parties whom we
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depend upon, including a disruption or slowdown caused by our failure to successfully manage significant increases in user volume or successfully upgrade our or their systems, system failures, or other causes, could cause outages or delays in our services, which could harm our brand and adversely affect our operating results. In addition, such disruption could cause information, including data related to orders, to be lost or delayed which could---especially if the disruption or slowdown occurred during the holiday season---result in delays in the delivery of products to stores and users or lost sales, which could reduce demand for our merchandise, harm our brand and reputation, and cause our revenue to decline. Our e-commerce platform, analytics capabilities and core Fitbit web and mobile application experiences are powered by systems that reside in cloud infrastructure environments. Should one of those providers experience a catastrophic event in their ecosystem of cloud data centers, capacity will become constrained in other centers as their clients work to bring up systems in new locations. In the event our location was impacted, we would require this constrained capacity to bring our business critical and customer facing services back online, or if other centers were impacted, our ability to add capacity in our center may be constrained due to this increased demand from other clients. This would be problematic only if we needed to scale our systems to meet increased demand during the same time period. Problems with our third-party data center service providers, the telecommunications network providers with whom they contract, or with the systems by which telecommunications providers allocate capacity among their users could adversely affect the experience of our users. Our third-party data center service providers could decide to close their facilities or cease providing us services without adequate notice. Any changes in third-party service levels at our data centers or any errors, defects, disruptions, or other performance problems with our platform could harm our brand and may damage the data of our users. If changes in technology cause our information systems, or those of third parties whom we depend upon, to become obsolete, or if our or their information systems are inadequate to handle our growth, we could lose users and our business and operating results could be adversely affected.

Our failure or inability to protect our intellectual property rights, or claims by others that we are infringing upon or unlawfully using their intellectual property, could diminish the value of our brand and weaken our competitive position, and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.

We currently rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret, and unfair competition laws, as well as confidentiality agreements and procedures and licensing arrangements, to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. We have devoted substantial resources to the development of our proprietary technologies and related processes. In order to protect our proprietary technologies and processes, we rely in part on trade secret laws and confidentiality agreements with our employees, licensees, independent contractors, commercial partners, and other advisors. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. We cannot be certain that the steps taken by us to protect our intellectual property rights will be adequate to prevent infringement of such rights by others, including imitation of our products and misappropriation of our brand. Additionally, the process of obtaining patent or trademark protection is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not be able to file, apply for, or prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications or trademark applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. We have obtained and applied for U.S. and foreign trademark registrations for the “Fitbit” brand and a variety of our product names, and we will continue to evaluate the registration of additional trademarks as appropriate. However, we cannot guarantee that any of our pending trademark or patent applications will be approved by the applicable governmental authorities. Moreover, intellectual property protection may be unavailable or limited in some foreign countries where laws or law enforcement practices may not protect our intellectual property rights as fully as in the United States, and it may be more difficult for us to successfully challenge the use of our intellectual property rights by other parties in these countries. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and our failure or inability to obtain or maintain trade secret protection or otherwise protect our proprietary rights could adversely affect our business.

We are and may in the future be subject to patent infringement and trademark claims and lawsuits in various jurisdictions, and we cannot be certain that our products or activities do not violate the patents, trademarks, or other intellectual property rights of third-party claimants. Companies in the technology industry, and other patent, copyright, and trademark holders seeking to profit from royalties in connection with grants of licenses, own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, domain names, and trade secrets and frequently commence litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation, or other violations of intellectual property or other rights. Companies and individuals may also be subject to criminal prosecution for trade secret theft under 18 U.S.C. section 1832. For example, we have been involved in litigation with Jawbone, as well as in a related federal criminal investigation concerning alleged theft of Jawbone’s trade secrets, which is described in Note 7 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We intend to vigorously defend and prosecute litigation matters against us. Litigation is inherently uncertain, and any judgment or injunctive relief entered against us or any adverse settlement could materially and adversely impact our business,
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financial condition, operating results, and prospects. In addition, litigation can involve significant management time and attention and can be expensive, regardless of outcome. During the course of these litigation matters, there may be announcements of the results of hearings and motions, and other interim developments related to the litigation matters. If securities analysts or investors regard these announcements as material and negative, the market price of our Class A common stock may decline.

Further, from time to time, we have received and may continue to receive letters from third parties alleging that we are infringing upon their intellectual property rights. Successful infringement claims against us could result in significant monetary liability, prevent us from selling some of our products and services, or require us to change our technology, design, or branding. In addition, resolution of claims may require us to redesign our products, license rights from third parties at a significant expense, or cease using those rights altogether. We have also in the past and may in the future bring claims against third parties for infringing our intellectual property rights. Costs of supporting such litigation and disputes may be considerable, and there can be no assurances that a favorable outcome will be obtained. Patent infringement, trademark infringement, trade secret misappropriation, and other intellectual property claims and proceedings brought against us or brought by us, whether successful or not, could require significant attention of our management and resources and have in the past and could further result in substantial costs, harm to our brand, and have an adverse effect on our business.

We are regularly subject to general litigation, regulatory disputes, and government inquiries.

We are regularly subject to claims, lawsuits, including potential class actions, government investigations, and other proceedings involving competition and antitrust, intellectual property, privacy, consumer protection, accessibility claims, securities, tax, labor and employment, commercial disputes, and other matters. The number and significance of these disputes and inquiries have increased as we have grown larger, our business has expanded in scope and geographic reach, and our products and services have increased in complexity.

The outcome and impact of such claims, lawsuits, government investigations, and proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty. Regardless of the outcome, such investigations and proceedings can have an adverse impact on us because of legal costs, diversion of management resources, and other factors. Determining reserves for our pending litigation is a complex, fact-intensive process that is subject to judgment calls. It is possible that a resolution of one or more such proceedings could require us to make substantial payments to satisfy judgments, fines, or penalties or to settle claims or proceedings, any of which could harm our business. These proceedings could also result in reputational harm, criminal sanctions, or orders preventing us from offering certain products or services, requiring a change in our business practices in costly ways, or requiring development of non-infringing or otherwise altered products or technologies. Any of these consequences could harm our business.

We may experience difficulties managing our cloud infrastructure migration.

In 2018 we announced our move to the Google Cloud Platform. Cloud infrastructure migrations are complex, time-consuming, and can involve substantial expenditures. Our cloud service is critical to developing and providing products and services to our customers, scaling our business for future growth, accurately maintaining data, and otherwise operating our business. Any such implementation involves risks inherent in the conversion to a new system, including loss of information; potential disruption to our normal operations; and deficiencies in our design, implementation or maintenance of the system, which could adversely affect our business.

The market for wearable devices is still evolving and if it does not continue to grow, grows more slowly than we expect, or fails to grow as large as we expect, our business and operating results would be harmed.

The market for wearable devices, which includes both health and fitness trackers and smartwatches, is still evolving and it is uncertain whether wearable devices will sustain high levels of demand and wide market acceptance. Our success will depend to a substantial extent on the willingness of people to widely adopt these products and services. Adoption of our products and services depends in part on the increasing prevalence of wearable devices driven by the introduction of new form factors, related software services and other offerings. However, it is not certain whether consumers will respond to these new form factors, software services and other offerings, and if our offerings fail to satisfy consumer preferences, our business may be adversely affected.

Furthermore, some individuals may be reluctant or unwilling to use wearable devices due to concerns regarding data privacy and security. If the wider public does not perceive the benefits of our wearable devices or chooses not to adopt them as a result of concerns regarding privacy or data security or for other reasons, then the market for these products and services may not further develop, may develop more slowly than we expect, may not achieve the growth potential we expect, or the growth
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may not be sustained, any of which would adversely affect our operating results. The development and growth of this market may not be sustained.

Our active user metric is only an indicator of potential repeat behavior. Therefore, you should not rely on the active user metric as a guarantee of repeat purchasing behavior.

Our active user metric tracks the first instance of a Fitbit device (excluding Aria connected scales, Flyer, and other accessories) pairing to a user account during the three months ending on the date of measurement, as well as a Fitbit user who previously activated another Fitbit device to his or her account.

The active user metric is only an indicator of potential repeat behavior. Actual repeat purchase behavior may depend on a number of factors, including but not limited to our ability to anticipate and satisfy consumer preferences. Therefore, you should not rely on our active user metric as a guarantee of repeat purchase behavior. Further, we do not believe that the active user metric has a direct effect on our revenue and operating results since substantially all of our revenue to date has been derived from sales of our wearable devices. However, we believe the size of our active user population is a potential indicator of future demand from repeat buyers for our devices and for other future monetization opportunities such as software services or coaching revenue.

See the sections titled, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Key Business Metrics,” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.

Our business and products are subject to a variety of additional U.S. and foreign laws and regulations that are central to our business; our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could harm our business or our operating results.

We are or may become subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States and abroad that involve matters central to our business, including laws and regulations regarding consumer protection, advertising, privacy, intellectual property, manufacturing, anti-bribery and anti-corruption, and economic or other trade prohibitions or sanctions.

The manufacturing, labeling, distribution, importation, marketing, and sale of our products are subject to extensive regulation by various U.S. state and federal and foreign agencies, including the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, or CPSC, FTC, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, the Federal Communications Commission, and state attorneys general, as well as by various other federal, state, provincial, local, and international regulatory authorities in the countries in which our products and services are manufactured, distributed marketed or sold. If we fail to comply with any of these regulations, we could become subject to enforcement actions or the imposition of significant monetary fines, other penalties, or claims, which could harm our operating results or our ability to conduct our business.

 The global nature of our business operations also creates various domestic and foreign regulatory challenges and subjects us to laws and regulations such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act, and similar anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions, and our products are also subject to U.S. export controls, including the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Export Administration Regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations established by the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. If we become liable under these laws or regulations, we may be forced to implement new measures to reduce our exposure to this liability. This may require us to expend substantial resources or to discontinue certain products or services, which would negatively affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. In addition, the increased attention focused upon liability issues as a result of lawsuits, regulatory proceedings, and legislative proposals could harm our brand or otherwise impact the growth of our business. Any costs incurred as a result of compliance or other liabilities under these laws or regulations could harm our business and operating results.

Our international operations subject us to additional costs and risks, and our continued expansion internationally may not be successful.

We have entered into many international markets in a relatively short time and may enter into additional markets in the future. Outside of the United States, we currently have operations in Australia and a number of countries in Asia and Europe. There are significant costs and risks inherent in conducting business in international markets, including:

establishing and maintaining effective controls at foreign locations and the associated increased costs;
adapting our technologies, products, and services to non-U.S. consumers’ preferences and customs;
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variations in margins by geography;
increased competition from local providers of similar products;
longer sales or collection cycles in some countries;
compliance with foreign laws and regulations;
compliance with the laws of numerous taxing jurisdictions where we conduct business, potential double taxation of our international earnings, and potentially adverse tax consequences due to U.S. and foreign tax laws as they relate to our international operations;
compliance with anti-bribery laws, such as the FCPA and the U.K. Bribery Act, by us, our employees, and our business partners;
complexity and other risks associated with current and future foreign legal requirements, including legal requirements related to consumer protection, consumer product safety, and data privacy frameworks, such as the GDPR, and any applicable privacy and data protection laws in foreign jurisdictions where we currently conduct business or intend to conduct business in the future;
currency exchange rate fluctuations and related effects on our operating results;
economic and political instability in some countries, particularly those in China where we have expanded;
the uncertainty of protection for intellectual property rights in some countries and practical difficulties of enforcing rights abroad;
tariffs and customs duties and the classification of our products by applicable governmental bodies; and
other costs of doing business internationally.

Our products are manufactured overseas and imported into the United States, the European Union, and other countries and may be subject to duties, tariffs and anti-dumping penalties imposed by applicable customs authorities. Those duties and tariffs are based on the classification of each of our products and is routinely subject to review by the applicable customs authorities. We are unable to predict whether those authorities will agree with our classifications, and if those authorities do not agree with our classifications, additional duties, tariffs or other trade restrictions may be imposed on the importation of our products. Such actions could result in increases in the cost of our products generally and might adversely affect our sales and profitability.

These factors and other factors could harm our international operations and, consequently, materially impact our business, operating results, and financial condition. Further, we may incur significant operating expenses as a result of our international expansion, and it may not be successful. We have limited experience with regulatory environments and market practices internationally, and we may not be able to penetrate or successfully operate in new markets. We may also encounter difficulty expanding into new international markets because of limited brand recognition in certain parts of the world, leading to delayed acceptance of our products and services by users in these new international markets. If we are unable to continue to expand internationally and manage the complexity of our global operations successfully, our financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

Our Aria scales are subject to FDA and corresponding regulations, and sales of this product or future regulated products could be adversely affected if we fail to comply with the applicable requirements.

Medical devices, including our Aria scales, are regulated by the FDA and corresponding state regulatory agencies in the United States and separate governmental authorities outside of the United States, and we may have future software features or hardware products that are regulated as medical devices by the FDA. In the United States, the medical device industry is regulated by governmental authorities, principally the FDA and corresponding state regulatory agencies. Before we can market or sell a new regulated product or make a significant modification to an existing medical device in the United States, we must comply with FDA Quality Management System regulations, and must obtain regulatory clearance or approval from the FDA, unless an exemption from pre-market review applies. In addition, certain future software functionality, whether standalone or embedded in existing or future devices, may be regulated as a medical device and require pre-market review and clearance or approval by the FDA. The process of obtaining regulatory clearances or approvals to market a medical device can be costly and time consuming, and we may not be able to obtain these clearances or approvals on a timely basis, or at all, for future products. Any delay in, or failure to receive or maintain, clearance or approval for any medical device products under development could prevent us from generating revenue from these products.

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Medical devices are also subject to numerous ongoing compliance requirements under the regulations of the FDA and corresponding state regulatory agencies, which can be costly and time consuming. For example, under FDA regulations medical device manufacturers are required to, among other things, (i) establish a quality management system to help ensure that their products consistently meet applicable requirements and specifications, (ii) establish and maintain procedures for receiving, reviewing, and evaluating complaints, (iii) establish and maintain a corrective and preventive action procedure, (iv) report certain device-related adverse events and product problems to the FDA, and (v) report to the FDA the removal or correction of a distributed product. If we experience any product problems requiring reporting to the FDA or if we otherwise fail to comply with applicable FDA regulations or the regulations of corresponding state regulatory agencies, with respect to our Aria scales or future regulated products, we could jeopardize our ability to sell our products and could be subject to enforcement actions such as fines, civil penalties, injunctions, recalls of products, delays in the introduction of products into the market, and refusal of the FDA or other regulators to grant future clearances or approvals, which could harm our reputation, business, operating results, and financial condition.

In addition, in the United States, the FDA has taken the position that device manufacturers are prohibited from promoting their products other than for the uses and indications set forth in the approved product labeling, and any failure to comply could subject us to significant civil or criminal exposure, administrative obligations and costs, and/or other potential penalties from, and/or agreements with, the federal government.

Government regulations outside the United States have, and may continue to, become increasingly stringent and common. In the European Union, for example, the European Union Medical Device Regulation was published in 2017 and, when it enters into full force in 2020, will include significant additional pre-market and post-market requirements. Penalties for regulatory non-compliance could be severe, including fines and revocation or suspension of a company’s business license, mandatory price reductions, and criminal sanctions. Future laws and regulations may have a material adverse effect on us.

An economic downturn or economic uncertainty may adversely affect consumer discretionary spending and demand for our products and services.

Our products and services may be considered discretionary items for consumers. Factors affecting the level of consumer spending for such discretionary items include general economic conditions, consumer confidence in future economic conditions, fears of recession, the availability and cost of consumer credit, levels of unemployment, and tax rates. As global economic conditions continue to be volatile or economic uncertainty remains, including economic conditions resulting from recent volatility in European markets, trends in consumer discretionary spending also remain unpredictable and subject to reductions. Unfavorable economic conditions may lead consumers to delay or reduce purchases of our products and services and consumer demand for our products and services may not grow as we expect. Our sensitivity to economic cycles and any related fluctuation in consumer demand for our products and services may have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

Our financial performance is subject to risks associated with changes in the value of the U.S. dollar versus local currencies.

Our primary exposure to movements in foreign currency exchange rates relates to non-U.S. dollar denominated sales and operating expenses worldwide. Weakening of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, while beneficial to our operating expenses, adversely affects the U.S. dollar value of our foreign currency-denominated sales and earnings, and generally leads us to raise international pricing, potentially reducing demand for our products. In some circumstances, for competitive or other reasons, we may decide not to raise local prices to fully offset the strengthening of the U.S. dollar, or at all, which would adversely affect the U.S. dollar value of our foreign currency denominated sales and earnings. Conversely, a strengthening of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, while generally beneficial to our foreign currency-denominated sales and earnings, could cause us to reduce international pricing, incur losses on our foreign currency derivative instruments, and incur increased operating expenses, thereby limiting any benefit. Additionally, strengthening of foreign currencies may also increase our cost of product components denominated in those currencies, thus adversely affecting gross margins.

We use derivative instruments, such as foreign currency forward contracts, to hedge certain exposures to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. The use of such hedging activities may not offset any, or more than a portion, of the adverse financial effects of unfavorable movements in foreign exchange rates over the limited time the hedges are in place. In addition, our counterparties may be unable to meet the terms of the agreements. We seek to mitigate this risk by limiting counterparties to major financial institutions and by spreading the risk across several major financial institutions.

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Changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional tax liabilities could adversely affect our earnings and financial condition.

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and foreign jurisdictions in which we do business. These foreign jurisdictions have statutory tax rates different from those in the United States. Accordingly, our provision for income taxes is subject to volatility and could be adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in countries where we have lower statutory rates and higher than anticipated in countries where we have higher statutory rates, by changes in foreign currency exchange rates, or by changes in the relevant tax, accounting, and other laws, regulations, principles, and interpretations, or by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities. As we operate in numerous taxing jurisdictions, the application of tax laws can be subject to diverging and sometimes conflicting interpretations by tax authorities of these jurisdictions.

Uncertainties in the interpretation and application of the 2017 Tax Act could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate.

On December 22, 2017, the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, or the 2017 Tax Act, was signed into law. It includes several key tax provisions that affected us, including a reduction of the statutory corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, elimination of certain deductions, and changes to how the United States imposes income tax on multinational corporations, among others. The 2017 Tax Act requires complex computations to be performed that were not previously required in U.S. tax law, and preparation and analysis of information not previously required or regularly produced. The U.S. Treasury Department, the IRS, and other standard-setting bodies will continue to interpret or issue guidance on how provisions of the 2017 Tax Act will be applied or otherwise administered. As future guidance is issued, we may make adjustments to amounts that we have previously recorded that may materially impact our financial statements in the period in which the adjustments are made.

If we are unable to protect our domain names, our brand, business, and operating results could be adversely affected.

We have registered domain names for websites, or URLs, that we use in our business, such as Fitbit.com. If we are unable to maintain our rights in these domain names, our competitors or other third parties could capitalize on our brand recognition by using these domain names for their own benefit. In addition, although we own the “Fitbit” domain name under various global top level domains such as .com and .net, as well as under various country-specific domains, we might not be able to, or may choose not to, acquire or maintain other country-specific versions of the “Fitbit” domain name or other potentially similar URLs. The regulation of domain names in the United States and elsewhere is generally conducted by Internet regulatory bodies and is subject to change. If we lose the ability to use a domain name in a particular country, we may be forced to either incur significant additional expenses to market our solutions within that country, including the development of a new brand and the creation of new promotional materials, or elect not to sell our solutions in that country. Either result could substantially harm our business and operating results. Regulatory bodies could establish additional top-level domains, appoint additional domain name registrars, or modify the requirements for holding domain names. As a result, we may not be able to acquire or maintain the domain names that utilize the name “Fitbit” in all of the countries in which we currently conduct or intend to conduct business. Further, the relationship between regulations governing domain names and laws protecting trademarks and similar proprietary rights varies among jurisdictions and is unclear in some jurisdictions. Domain names similar to ours have already been registered in the United States and elsewhere, and we may be unable to prevent third parties from acquiring and using domain names that infringe, are similar to, or otherwise decrease the value of, our brand or our trademarks. Protecting and enforcing our rights in our domain names and determining the rights of others may require litigation, which could result in substantial costs, divert management attention, and not be decided favorably to us.

Our use of “open source” software could negatively affect our ability to sell our products and subject us to possible litigation.

A portion of the technologies we use incorporates “open source” software, and we may incorporate open source software in the future. From time to time, companies that incorporate open source software into their products have faced claims challenging the ownership of open source software or compliance with open source license terms. Therefore, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or noncompliance with open source licensing terms. Some open source licenses may subject us to certain unfavorable conditions, including requirements that we offer our products and services that incorporate the open source software for no cost or that we make publicly available all or part of the source code for modifications or derivative works. Additionally, if a third-party software provider has incorporated open source software into software that we license or obtain from such provider, we could be required to disclose
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or provide at no cost all or part of our source code that incorporates such licensed software. If a copyright holder that distributes open source software that we use or license or other third party were to allege that we had not complied with the conditions of the applicable license, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and may be required to release portions of our proprietary source code, subject to significant damages, re-engineer our products and services, enjoined from the sale of our products and services that contained the open source software if re-engineering our products or services cannot be accomplished on a timely basis, or take other remedial action that may divert resources away from our development efforts. Any of the foregoing could disrupt the distribution and sale of our products and services and harm our business.

We may engage in merger and acquisition activities, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value, and adversely affect our operating results.

As part of our business strategy, and subject to Google's approval in accordance with the Merger Agreement, we may make investments in other companies, products, or technologies. For example, in 2016, we acquired assets from Coin, Inc., Pebble Industries, Inc., and Vector Watch S.R.L, and in 2018 we acquired Twine Health, Inc. We may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates and we may not be able to complete acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. If we do complete acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals, and any acquisitions we complete could be viewed negatively by users or investors. In addition, if we fail to successfully integrate such acquisitions, or the technologies associated with such acquisitions, into our company, the revenue and operating results of the combined company could be adversely affected.

Acquisitions may disrupt our or the acquired company’s ongoing operations, divert management from their primary responsibilities, subject us to additional liabilities, increase our expenses, and adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology and accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. Due diligence performed prior to closing acquisitions may not uncover certain risks or liabilities that could materially impact our business and financial results. We may have to pay cash, incur liabilities and/or debt, or issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition, each of which may affect our financial condition or the value of our capital stock and could result in dilution to our stockholders. Additionally, we may receive indications of interest from other parties interested in acquiring some or all of our business. The time required to evaluate such indications of interest could require significant attention from management, disrupt the ordinary functioning of our business, and adversely affect our operating results.

There have been reports that some users of certain of our devices have experienced skin irritations, which could result in additional negative publicity or otherwise harm our business. In addition, some of our users have filed personal injury lawsuits against us relating to certain of our devices, which could divert management’s attention from our operations and result in substantial legal fees and other costs.

Due to the nature of some of our wearable devices, some users have had in the past and may in the future experience skin irritations or other biocompatibility issues not uncommon with jewelry or other wearable products that stay in contact with skin for extended periods of time. There have been reports by some users of certain of our devices experiencing skin irritations. This negative publicity could harm sales of our products and also adversely affect our relationships with retailers that sell our products, including causing them to be reluctant to continue to sell our products. In addition, in the past, some of our users have filed personal injury lawsuits against us arising out of such claims relating to certain of our devices. While we do not believe that these lawsuits are material, due to the inherent uncertainties of litigation, we cannot accurately predict the ultimate outcome of any proceedings arising from such claims, and these actions or other third-party claims against us may result in the diversion of our management’s time and attention from other aspects of our business and may cause us to incur substantial litigation or settlement costs. If large numbers of users experience these problems, we could be subject to enforcement actions or the imposition of significant monetary fines, other penalties, or proceedings by the CPSC or other U.S. or foreign regulatory agencies and face additional personal injury or class action litigation, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

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We may be subject to CPSC recalls, regulatory proceedings, and litigation in various jurisdictions, including multi-jurisdiction federal and state class action and personal injury claims, which may require significant management attention and disrupt our business operations, and adversely affect our financial condition, operating results, and our brand.

We face product liability, product safety and product compliance risks relating to the marketing, sale, use, and performance of our products. The products we sell must be designed and manufactured to be safe for their intended purposes and must comply with applicable certain federal and state laws and regulations. For example, all of our products are subject to the Consumer Product Safety Act and the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, which empower the CPSC. The CPSC may take action against hazards presented by consumer products, up to and including product recalls. We are required to report certain incidents related to the safety and compliance of our products to the CPSC, and failure to do so could result in a civil penalty.

Over the last several years, the CPSC has conducted investigations into several of our products. Although the CPSC did not find a substantial product hazard, there can be no assurances that investigations will not be conducted in the future or that product hazards or other defects will not be found in the future with respect to our products. Regulatory investigations and proceedings, product recalls, and litigation have had and may continue to have an adverse impact on our financial condition, operating results, and brand. They may also divert management’s attention from our operations and result in substantial legal fees and costs, regardless of their merit. Furthermore, because of the global nature of our product sales, in the event we experience defects with respect to products sold outside the United States, we could become subject to recalls, regulatory proceedings, and litigation by foreign governmental agencies and private litigants, which could significantly increase the costs of managing any product issues.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the rules and regulations of the applicable listing standards of the New York Stock Exchange. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting, and financial compliance costs; make some activities more difficult, time-consuming, and costly; and strain our personnel, systems, and resources.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are also required to make a formal assessment and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, which must be attested to by our independent registered public accounting firm. In order to maintain the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we have expended, and anticipate that we will continue to expend, resources, including accounting-related costs and management oversight.

As disclosed in Item 9A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, we did not maintain effective controls over the accuracy of invoicing gross revenue for fiscal years 2018 and 2017. This represented a material weakness that did not result in the identification of any adjustments to our annual or interim consolidated financial statements. A material weakness is defined as a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Management identified and implemented changes to our internal control over financial reporting to remediate the control deficiencies that led to this material weakness, and the material weakness has been remediated as of December 31, 2019. However, we cannot provide assurance that remediation efforts will be sufficient to identify or prevent future material weaknesses, and the enhanced controls and procedures could require increased management time and attention and resources.

Additionally, current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of changes in conditions in our business. Further, other additional weaknesses in our disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting may be discovered in the future. Any failure to maintain or develop effective controls or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and may result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods. Any failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting also could adversely affect the results of periodic management evaluations and annual independent registered public accounting firm attestation reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Ineffective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our
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Class A common stock. In addition, if we are unable to continue to meet these requirements, we may not be able to remain listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

Our business is subject to the risk of disruptions caused by epidemics, political events, war, terrorism, earthquakes, fire, power outages, floods, and other catastrophic events.

War, terrorism, geopolitical uncertainties, trade restrictions, public health issues, natural disasters and other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to the economy and commerce on a global, regional or country-specific basis, and could disrupt supply or delivery of, or demand for, our products. For example, the recent COVID-19 outbreak, as well as the imposition of tariffs on imports from China by the Trump Administration, could have a negative effect on consumer confidence and spending, and other impacts, which could adversely affect our business.

Our business is also vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, fires, floods, power losses, telecommunications failures, human errors, break-ins, and similar events. The third-party systems and operations and contract manufacturers we rely on, such as the data centers we lease, are subject to similar risks. For example, a significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire, or flood, could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition, and our insurance coverage may be insufficient to compensate us for losses that may occur. Our corporate offices and one of our data center facilities are located in California, a state that experiences earthquakes. In addition, the facilities at which our contract manufacturers manufacture our products are located in parts of Asia that experience typhoons and earthquakes. Acts of terrorism, which may be targeted at metropolitan areas that have higher population density than rural areas, could also cause disruptions in our business or that of our suppliers, contract manufacturers, and logistics providers, or to the economy as a whole. We may not have sufficient protection or recovery plans in some circumstances, such as natural disasters affecting California or other locations where we have data centers or store significant inventory of our products. As we rely heavily on our data center facilities, computer and communications systems, and the Internet to conduct our business and provide high-quality customer service, these disruptions could negatively impact our ability to run our business and either directly or indirectly disrupt suppliers’ businesses, which could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.

If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect, our operating results could be adversely affected.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, and equity, and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, inventories, product warranty reserves, business combinations, accounting for income taxes, and stock-based compensation expense. Our operating results may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our operating results to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the price of our Class A common stock.

We are exposed to fluctuations in the market values of our investments.

Credit ratings and pricing of our investments can be negatively affected by liquidity, credit deterioration, financial results, economic risk, political risk, sovereign risk, changes in interest rates, or other factors. As a result, the value and liquidity of our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities may fluctuate substantially. Therefore, although we have not realized any significant losses on our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, future fluctuations in their value could result in a significant realized loss, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

Regulations related to conflict minerals may cause us to incur additional expenses and could limit the supply and increase the costs of certain metals used in the manufacturing of our products.

We are subject to requirements under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 that require us to conduct due diligence on and disclose whether or not our products contain conflict minerals as defined under these provisions. The implementation of these requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, availability, and pricing of the
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materials used in the manufacture of components used in our products. In addition, we incur additional costs to comply with the disclosure requirements, including costs related to conducting diligence procedures to determine the sources of minerals that may be used or necessary to the production of our products and, if applicable, potential changes to products, processes, or sources of supply as a consequence of such due diligence activities. It is also possible that we may face reputational harm if we determine that certain of our products contain minerals not determined to be conflict free or if we are unable to alter our products, processes, or sources of supply to avoid such materials.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock

The market price of our Class A common stock has been and will likely continue to be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The market price of our Class A common stock has been, and will likely continue to be, volatile. Since shares of our Class A common stock were sold in our initial public offering in June 2015 at a price of $20.00 per share, our stock price has ranged from $2.81 to $51.90 through December 31, 2019. In addition, the trading prices of the securities of technology companies in general have been highly volatile.

The market price of our Class A common stock may continue to fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

overall performance of the equity markets;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our revenue and other operating results;
changes in the financial projections we may provide to the public or our failure to meet these projections;
failure of securities analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow us, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
the economy as a whole and market conditions in our industry;
negative publicity related to problems in our manufacturing or the real or perceived quality of our products, as well as the failure to timely launch new products that gain market acceptance;
rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant technical innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;
new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;
lawsuits threatened or filed against us;
other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, or responses to these events; and
sales of shares of our Class A common stock by us or our stockholders.

In addition, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. Stock prices of many companies have fluctuated in a manner unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. We are currently subject to securities litigation, which is described in Note 7 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This or any future securities litigation could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and adversely affect our business.

Sales of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock in the public markets, or the perception that they might occur, could cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our Class A common stock into the public market, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers, and principal stockholders, or the perception that these sales might occur, could cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decline.

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As of December 31, 2019, there were 264.9 million shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding. All shares of our common stock are available for sale in the public market, subject in certain cases to volume limitations under Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or Securities Act, and various vesting agreements, as well as our insider trading policy.

In addition, as of December 31, 2019, we had stock options outstanding that, if fully exercised, would result in the issuance of 1.3 million shares of Class A common stock and 11.5 million shares of Class B common stock (which shares of Class B common stock generally convert to Class A common stock upon their sale or transfer). We also had restricted stock units, or RSUs, outstanding as of December 31, 2019 that may be settled for 19.0 million shares of Class A common stock. As of December 31, 2019, all of the shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options or settlement of RSUs, and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans, are registered for public resale under the Securities Act. Accordingly, these shares may be freely sold in the public market upon issuance subject to applicable vesting requirements.

In addition, certain holders of our capital stock have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements for the public resale of their shares or to include such shares in registration statements that we may file for us or other stockholders.

The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with our founders and certain other holders of our Class B common stock, including our directors, executive officers, and significant stockholders. This will limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents, and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or other major corporate transaction requiring stockholder approval.

Our Class B common stock has ten votes per share and our Class A common stock has one vote per share. As of December 31, 2019, our directors, executive officers, and holders of more than 5% of our common stock, and their respective affiliates, held a substantial majority of the voting power of our capital stock. Because of the ten-to-one voting ratio between our Class B and Class A common stock, our co-founders, who currently serve as our chief executive officer and chief technology officer, control a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock and therefore are able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval until the earlier of June 17, 2027 or the date the holders of a majority of our Class B common stock choose to convert their shares. This concentrated control will limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents, and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or other major corporate transaction requiring stockholder approval. In addition, this may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our capital stock that you may feel are in your best interest as one of our stockholders.

Transfers by holders of Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting to Class A common stock, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers effected for estate planning purposes. The conversion of Class B common stock to Class A common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares in the long term.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, the price of our Class A common stock and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Class A common stock depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If industry analysts cease coverage of us, the trading price for our common stock would be negatively affected. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our common stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our Class A common stock could decrease, which might cause our Class A common stock price and trading volume to decline.

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock and do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings for use in the development of our business and for general corporate purposes. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of
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directors. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.

Provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management, limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees, and limit the market price of our common stock.

Provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws include provisions that:

provide that our board of directors will be classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms at such time as the outstanding shares of our Class B common stock represent less than a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock;
permit the board of directors to establish the number of directors and fill any vacancies and newly created directorships;
require super-majority voting to amend some provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws;
authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that our board of directors could use to implement a stockholder rights plan;
provide that only the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer, or a majority of our board of directors will be authorized to call a special meeting of stockholders;
provide for a dual class common stock structure in which holders of our Class B common stock have the ability to control the outcome of matters requiring stockholder approval, even if they own significantly less than a majority of the outstanding shares of our Class A and Class B common stock, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or its assets;
prohibit stockholder action by written consent, which requires all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of our stockholders;
provide that the board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter, or repeal our bylaws; and
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at annual stockholder meetings.

In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for: any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation, or our restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, operating results, and financial condition.

Moreover, Section 203 of the DGCL may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company. Section 203 imposes certain restrictions on mergers, business combinations, and other transactions between us and holders of 15% or more of our common stock.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
 
None.

Item 2. Properties
 
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We are a global company with our corporate headquarters located in San Francisco, California. Our headquarters facilities in San Francisco comprise approximately 260,000 square feet of space pursuant to several leases that expire at various dates through July 2024. Our corporate headquarters serve as the principal facilities for our administrative, sales, marketing, product development, and customer support groups. We also lease additional office space in San Francisco and around the world for various product development, operational and support purposes. We believe our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current requirements. If we were to require additional space, we believe we will be able to obtain such space on acceptable and commercially reasonable terms.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

For a discussion of legal proceedings, see Note 7 in the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Further, we are and, from time to time, we may become, involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not presently a party to any other legal proceedings that in the opinion of our management, if determined adversely to us, would individually or taken together have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition, or cash flows.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
 
None.

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 

Market Information

Our Class A common stock has been listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “FIT” since June 18, 2015. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our Class A common stock. Our Class B common stock is neither listed nor traded.  

Holders of Record

As of December 31, 2019, we had 39 holders of record of our Class A common stock. Because many of our shares of Class A common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders. As of December 31, 2019, we had 23 holders of record of our Class B common stock.

Dividends

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions, and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

For information with respect to our equity compensation plans, please refer to Item 12 in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative total return on our Class A common stock with that of the S&P 500 Index and the Nasdaq Composite Index. The period shown commences on June 18, 2015, our initial public offering date, and ends on December 31, 2019, the end of our last fiscal year. The graph assumes $100 was invested at the close of market on June 18,
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2015 in our Class A common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the Nasdaq Composite Index, and assumes the reinvestment of any dividends. The stock price performance on the following graph is not intended to forecast or be indicative of future stock price performance of our Class A common stock.

fit-20191231_g1.jpg

This performance graph shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into any of our other filings under the Exchange Act, or the Securities Act, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities.
 
None.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

None.
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Item 6. Selected Financial Data
 
We derived the selected consolidated statements of operations data for 2019, 2018 and 2017, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statements of operations data for 2016 and 2015, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, are derived from consolidated financial statements that are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future. You should read this data together with our “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
201820172016
2015(1)
 (in thousands, except per share data)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
Revenue$1,434,788  $1,511,983  $1,615,519  $2,169,461  $1,857,998  
Cost of revenue (2)
1,007,116  908,404  924,618  1,323,577  956,935  
Gross profit427,672  603,579  690,901  845,884  901,063  
Operating expenses:
Research and development (2)
300,354  332,169  343,012  320,191  150,035  
Sales and marketing (2)
329,800  344,091  415,042  491,255  332,741  
General and administrative (2)
118,231  116,627  133,934  146,903  77,793  
Change in contingent consideration
—  —  —  —  (7,704) 
Total operating expenses748,385  792,887  891,988  958,349  552,865  
Operating income (loss)(320,713) (189,308) (201,087) (112,465) 348,198  
Interest income (expense), net10,291  7,808  3,647  3,156  (1,019) 
Other income (expense), net1,357  (2,642) 2,796  14  (59,230) 
Income (loss) before income taxes(309,065) (184,142) (194,644) (109,295) 287,949  
Income tax expense (benefit) (3)
11,646  1,687  82,548  (6,518) 112,272  
Net income (loss)$(320,711) $(185,829) $(277,192) $(102,777) $175,677  
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders (4):
Basic$(1.25) $(0.76) $(1.19) $(0.47) $0.88  
Diluted$(1.25) $(0.76) $(1.19) $(0.47) $0.75  
Other Data:
Devices sold (5)
15,988  13,939  15,343  22,295  21,355  
Active users (6)
29,566  27,627  25,367  23,238  16,903  
Adjusted EBITDA (7)
$(128,333) $(31,361) $(52,158) $29,985  $389,879  
Free cash flow (8)
$(193,363) $60,327  $(24,919) $60,080  $110,691  

(1)In March 2014, we recalled Fitbit Force. The recall, which primarily affected our results for the first quarter of 2014 and the fourth quarter of 2015, had the following effect on our income before income taxes in 2015 (in thousands).
Year Ended  
December 31,  
2015
(in thousands) 
Incremental benefit to cost of revenue$(5,755) 
Impact on gross profit(5,755) 
Incremental general and administrative benefit(4,416) 
Impact on income before income taxes$10,171  



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(2)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:
 Year Ended December 31,
 20192018201720162015
 (in thousands)
Cost of revenue$6,403  $7,312  $5,312  $4,797  $4,739  
Research and development44,855  57,188  54,123  47,207  18,251  
Sales and marketing11,585  14,726  14,959  11,575  7,419  
General and administrative14,896  17,783  17,187  15,853  10,615  
Total$77,739  $97,009  $91,581  $79,432  $41,024  
 
(3)In 2017, we established a valuation allowance of $99.6 million against our U.S. deferred tax assets. See Note 9 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.
(4)See Notes 2 and 10 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for an explanation of the calculations of our net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted.
(5)See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Key Business Metrics—Devices Sold” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information.
(6)See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Key Business Metrics—Active Users” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information.
(7)Adjusted EBITDA is a financial measure that is not calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. See the section below titled “Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Adjusted EBITDA” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information regarding our use of adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to net income (loss).
(8)Free cash flow is a financial measure that is not calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. See the section below titled “Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Free cash flow” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information regarding our use of free cash flow and a reconciliation to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities.
 As of December 31,
 20192018201720162015
 (in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities$518,502  $723,449  $679,300  $706,013  $664,478  
Working capital355,142  592,428  683,065  724,231  847,157  
Total assets1,368,086  1,515,547  1,582,075  1,821,926  1,519,066  
Retained earnings (accumulated deficit)(639,778) (319,067) (132,112) 140,142  242,919  
Total stockholders’ equity 487,263  735,938  823,963  998,532  981,451  
 

Non-GAAP Financial Measures
 
To supplement our consolidated financial statements presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, we monitor and consider adjusted EBITDA and free cash flow, which are non-GAAP financial measures. These non-GAAP financial measures are not based on any standardized methodology prescribed by U.S. GAAP and are not necessarily comparable to similarly-titled measures presented by other companies.

Adjusted EBITDA
 
We define adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) adjusted to exclude stock-based compensation expense, depreciation, intangible assets amortization, acquisition-related costs, litigation expense (credit) related to matters with Aliphcom, Inc. d/b/a Jawbone, or Jawbone, the impact of restructuring, the impact of the Fitbit Force recall, impairment of equity investment, the revaluation of our redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability prior to our initial public offering, or IPO, change in contingent consideration, interest income (expense), net, and income tax expense (benefit). We began excluding Jawbone related litigation expense in the second quarter of 2016 because we do not believe these expenses have a direct correlation to the operations of our business and because of the singular nature of the claims underlying the Jawbone litigation matters.

We use adjusted EBITDA to evaluate our operating performance and trends and make planning decisions. We believe that adjusted EBITDA helps identify underlying trends in our business that could otherwise be masked by the effect of the
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expenses and other items that we exclude in adjusted EBITDA. In particular, the exclusion of the effect of stock-based compensation expense and certain expenses in calculating adjusted EBITDA can provide a useful measure for period-to-period comparisons of our business. Accordingly, we believe that adjusted EBITDA provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results, enhancing the overall understanding of our past performance and future prospects, and allowing for greater transparency with respect to a key financial metric used by our management in its financial and operational decision-making.
 
Adjusted EBITDA is not prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and should not be considered in isolation of, or as an alternative to, measures prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. There are a number of limitations related to the use of this non-GAAP financial measure rather than net income (loss), which is the nearest U.S. GAAP equivalent of adjusted EBITDA. Some of these limitations are:
 
adjusted EBITDA excludes stock-based compensation expense, which has been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, a significant recurring expense for our business and an important part of our compensation strategy;
adjusted EBITDA excludes depreciation and intangible assets amortization expense and, although these are non-cash expenses, the assets being depreciated and amortized may have to be replaced in the future;
adjusted EBITDA excludes acquisition-related costs, which relates to acquisition retention bonuses, integration costs, advisory and consulting, legal, accounting, tax, other professional service fees, and SEC filing fees to the extent associated with the pending Merger or our acquisition of other companies;
adjusted EBITDA excludes external litigation expenses to support our legal proceedings with Jawbone, which is no longer a recurring expense;
adjusted EBITDA excludes the Fitbit Force recall, which impacted our results in 2015;
adjusted EBITDA excludes the impact of restructuring, which is infrequent and not related to normal operations;
adjusted EBITDA excludes the revaluation of our redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability, which was a historically recurring non-cash charge prior to our IPO, but will not recur in the periods following the completion of our initial public offering;
adjusted EBITDA excludes change in contingent consideration, a non-recurring benefit received for the reversal of a contingent liability incurred in connection with the acquisition of FitStar;
adjusted EBITDA excludes impairment charge to reflect the write-down of an equity investment in 2018;
adjusted EBITDA excludes interest expense, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our debt, which reduces cash available to us;
adjusted EBITDA excludes income tax expense (benefit); and
the expenses and other items that we exclude in our calculation of adjusted EBITDA may differ from the expenses and other items, if any, that other companies may exclude from adjusted EBITDA when they report their operating results.

Because of these limitations, adjusted EBITDA should be considered along with other operating and financial performance measures presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

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The following table presents a reconciliation of net income (loss) to adjusted EBITDA:
 Year Ended December 31,
 20192018201720162015
 (in thousands)
Net income (loss)$(320,711) $(185,829) $(277,192) $(102,777) $175,677  
Stock-based compensation expense*
77,739  97,009  90,853  79,432  41,024  
Depreciation and amortization62,836  56,815  45,693  38,133  21,107  
Litigation expense, net — Jawbone—  765  3,212  24,845  —  
Acquisition-related costs47,990  —  —  —  —  
Impact of restructuring2,458  —  6,375  —  —  
Impact of Fitbit Force recall—  —  —  26  (10,171) 
Impairment of equity investment—  6,000  —  —  —  
Revaluation of redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability—  —  —  —  56,655  
Change in contingent consideration—  —  —  —  (7,704) 
Interest (income) expense, net(10,291) (7,808) (3,647) (3,156) 1,019  
Income tax expense (benefit)11,646  1,687  82,548  (6,518) 112,272  
Adjusted EBITDA$(128,333) $(31,361) $(52,158) $29,985  $389,879  
* A portion of stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2017 was allocated to and included in "Impact of restructuring," thus explaining the difference between the total by function presented in this table compared to the amounts presented in the above tables.

Free cash flow

We define free cash flow as net cash provided by (used in) operating activities less purchase of property and equipment. We consider free cash flow to be a liquidity measure that provides useful information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated by the business that can possibly be used for investing in our business and strengthening the balance sheet, but it is not intended to represent the residual cash flow available for discretionary expenditures. Free cash flow is not prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and should not be considered in isolation of, or as an alternative to, measures prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

The following table presents a reconciliation of net cash provided by (used in) operating activities to free cash flow:
 Year Ended December 31,
 20192018201720162015
 (in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities (1)
$(156,832) $113,207  $64,241  $138,720  $141,257  
Purchase of property and equipment
(36,531) (52,880) (89,160) (78,640) (30,566) 
Free cash flow$(193,363) $60,327  $(24,919) $60,080  $110,691  
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities$25,761  $17,496  $(28,718) $(392,666) $(170,027) 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities (1)
$(8,406) $1,287  $4,635  $19,794  $368,953  

(1) Our adoption of ASU 2016-09 on January 1, 2017 resulted in excess tax benefits for share-based payments recorded as a reduction of income tax expense and reflected within operating cash flows, rather than recorded within equity and reflected within financing cash flows. We elected to adopt this new standard retrospectively, which impacted the presentation for all periods prior to the adoption date.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the section titled “Selected Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to those differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed above in the section titled “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Overview
 
Today, most of our revenue comes from the sale of wearable devices, including both trackers and smartwatches. Our products are available in over 100 countries worldwide through a variety of channels, including over 39,000 retail stores, retailer websites, Fitbit.com, and through Fitbit Health Solutions. 

On November 1, 2019, we entered into the Merger Agreement with Google, pursuant to which Google has agreed to acquire us for $7.35 per share in cash, valuing us at a fully diluted equity value of approximately $2.1 billion. The Merger is expected to close in 2020, subject to customary closing conditions, including regulatory approvals. The Merger was approved by our stockholders on January 3, 2020. The Merger Agreement may be terminated by mutual agreement of the parties or by either us or Google under specified conditions. We will be required to pay Google a termination fee of $80 million in certain circumstances, such as a material, uncured breach of our obligations under the Merger Agreement, and Google will be required to pay us a termination fee of $250 million in certain circumstances related to a failure to obtain regulatory approvals or the existence of a restraint arising under the antitrust laws. For more information see Note 1, “Basis of Presentation,” in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.

In 2019, we continued to focus on providing more choice and accessibility to consumers in wearables to drive the acquisition of users. During the first quarter of 2019, we introduced Fitbit Versa Lite Edition, an affordable everyday smartwatch, Fitbit Inspire HR, our most affordable heart rate tracking device, Fitbit Inspire, our even lower-cost tracker, and Fitbit Ace 2, our new tracker for children ages 6 and older. During the third quarter of 2019, we introduced Fitbit Versa 2, a premium, voice-enabled lifestyle smartwatch. During the fourth quarter of 2019, we introduced Fitbit Aria Air, an affordable Bluetooth scale that syncs with the Fitbit app.

Acquiring customers through the sale of a device increases the size of our community of users and also increases the potential for future demand for devices and other monetization opportunities, such as software services or coaching revenue. While software revenue was immaterial during 2019, we believe a growing community of active users provides us an opportunity to introduce or further develop software services for our community in the future.

In the third quarter of 2019, we launched Fitbit Premium, a paid subscription service that uses the unique data of users to deliver our most personalized experience yet, with actionable guidance and coaching to help users achieve their health and fitness goals. Fitbit Premium leverages insights from over 10 years of Fitbit data, as well as academic and medical expertise, to help users move more, sleep better, and eat well, with customized programs, advance sleep features, personal insights, thousands of workouts, new challengers, health reports, and more, all in the Fitbit app.

In addition, we continue to focus on growing our Fitbit Health Solutions channel, which delivers health and wellness solutions for employers, health plans and health systems and provides an opportunity to drive demand for our devices and software services. In the fall of 2018, we launched Fitbit Care, a connected health platform that combines health coaching and virtual care, wearable devices, and personalized digital interventions to better support patients outside the walls of the clinical environment. Revenue from the Fitbit Health Solutions channel was approximately 7% of total revenue in 2019.

Looking forward, we expect smartwatches to grow as a percentage of revenue, along with anticipated growth in our higher margin Fitbit Premium and Fitbit Health Solutions revenue streams. For the full year 2020 compared to the full year 2019, we expect research and development expenses to increase as we grow our investment into the expanding wearable device market, partially offset by a projected decrease in sales and general administrative expenses, with the exception of higher costs related to the Merger Agreement with Google.

The following are financial highlights for 2019, 2018 and 2017:
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 Year Ended December 31,
 201920182017
 (in thousands)
Revenue$1,434,788  $1,511,983  $1,615,519  
Net loss$(320,711) $(185,829) $(277,192) 

Key Business Metrics
 
In addition to the measures presented in our consolidated financial statements, we use the following key metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, develop financial forecasts, and make strategic decisions.
 For the Year Ended or As of December 31,
 201920182017
 (in thousands)
Devices sold15,988  13,939  15,343  
Active users 29,566  27,627  25,367  
Adjusted EBITDA$(128,333) $(31,361) $(52,158) 
Free cash flow$(193,363) $60,327  $(24,919) 
 
Devices Sold
 
Devices sold represents the number of wearable devices that are sold during a period, net of expected returns. Devices sold does not include sales of accessories. Growth rates between devices sold and revenue are not necessarily correlated because our revenue is affected by other variables, such as the types of products sold during the period, the introduction of new product offerings with differing U.S. manufacturer’s suggested retail prices, or MSRPs, and sales of accessories and premium services.
 
Active Users

We grow our community of users through device sales and investment in software to drive engagement. We define an active user as a registered Fitbit user who, within the three months prior to the date of measurement, has (a) an active Fitbit Premium or Fitbit Coach subscription, (b) paired a wearable device or Aria scale with his or her Fitbit account, or (c) logged at least 100 steps with a wearable device or a weight measurement using an Aria scale. Active users can be new users who joined the community during the past 90 days, existing users who have remained active, or previously active users who were inactive for 90 days or greater, if they meet the preceding definition of an active user. The active user number excludes users who have downloaded our mobile apps without purchasing any of our wearable devices and users who have downloaded free versions of Fitbit Coach but are not subscribers to its paid premium offerings.

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The active user metric is intended to provide a snapshot of the potential size and growth of our engaged user community. We believe interest in health and fitness ebbs and flows and as such, the active user metric is not designed to be a measure of the levels of continuous engagement of our individual users and does not track the number of individual users that have become inactive on our platform in a period. Accordingly, this metric does not take into account the extent to which inactive users are offset by new active users or how long an individual user remains active.

The number of active users is based on activity associated with each Fitbit user account. A user establishes an account with us by registering his or her email with us at Fitbit.com or through our app. As such, the active user metric reflects the number of Fitbit users who meet our definition of an active user during the measurement period; it is not associated with the particular device(s) owned by a user. Accordingly, a user with multiple devices synced to his or her account would only be counted as one active user. As a percentage of the active user metric, users who logged at least 100 steps with a health and fitness tracker or a weight measurement using an Aria scale but had an existing user account in a prior quarter increased from 82.5% as of December 31, 2018 to 83.0% as of December 31, 2019.

However, it is also possible to have multiple active users associated with a single device at different points in time, such as with users who acquired a refurbished device and with users who acquired a device directly from another user. In such cases, particularly the latter instance, it is also possible that the prior owner and new owner of a single device could each be counted as unique active users during the same measurement period. However, we believe it is appropriate to include both new and prior owners of a particular device in the active user metric because the metric is intended to provide a snapshot of the potential size and growth of our engaged user community during the measurement period. Since both the new and prior owners meet the active user metric, we believe both users would be appropriately included in the active user metric as both users independently have demonstrated a level of engagement with our devices and platform.
In addition, the active user metric is not intended to be an indicator of device sales in any period, as device sales are reported as a separate metric. We do not believe that the active user metric has a direct effect on our revenue and operating results since substantially all of our revenue to date has been derived from sales of our wearable devices. However, we believe the size of our active user population is a potential indicator of future demand from repeat buyers for our devices and for other future monetization opportunities such as software services or coaching revenue. We aim to increase the active user metric by developing products, services and content that are compelling for new, existing, and prior users.

Activations - Repeat and Re-Activated Users

We define an “Activation” as the first instance of a Fitbit device (excluding the Aria family, Flyer, and other accessories) pairing to a user account during the three months prior to the date of measurement. A “Repeat User” is defined as a Fitbit user who activated a Fitbit device to his or her account during the measurement period and activated a different Fitbit device to his or her account during a prior period. A “Re-Activated User” is defined as Repeat User who has not synced his or her prior device and taken at least 100 steps for 90 days or more prior to the measurement period with such device. 

In 2019, 39.1% of Activations came from Repeat Users, with Re-Activated Users representing 54.3% of those Repeat Users. In 2018, 37.6% of Activations came from Repeat Users, with Re-Activated Users representing 52.0% of those Repeat Users. We calculated the full year Activation metric by summing the Activations from Repeat Users and Re-Activated Users in each of the four quarters in 2019 and 2018. As such, a user who activated more than one Fitbit device to his or her account during the year and had activated a different Fitbit device in a prior year would count as a Repeat User more than once.

We believe that the Activations metric is a potential indicator of repeat purchase behavior but not a guarantee of repeat purchase behavior.  Actual repeat purchase behavior may depend on a number of factors, including but not limited to our ability to anticipate and satisfy consumer preferences. 

Adjusted EBITDA

We define adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) adjusted to exclude stock-based compensation expense, depreciation, intangible assets amortization, acquisition-related costs (including costs associated with the pending Merger with Google), litigation expense related to matters with Aliphcom, Inc. d/b/a Jawbone, or Jawbone, the impact of restructuring, the impact of the Fitbit Force recall, impairment of equity investment, the revaluation of our redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability prior to our initial public offering, or IPO, change in contingent consideration, interest income (expense), net, and income tax expense (benefit). See the section titled “Selected Financial Data-Non-GAAP Financial Measures-Adjusted EBITDA” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information regarding our use of adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to net income (loss).

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Free cash flow

We define free cash flow as net cash provided by (used in) operating activities less purchase of property and equipment. See the section titled “Selected Financial Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Free cash flow” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information regarding our use of free cash flow and a reconciliation of free cash flow to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities.
 
Factors Affecting Our Future Performance
 
Product Introductions
 
To date, product introductions have often had a significant, positive impact on our operating results due primarily to increases in revenue associated with sales of the new products in the quarters following their introduction. Furthermore, new product introductions, or NPI, which we define as new products shipped in the past 12 months, could also adversely impact the sales of our existing products to retailers and users. New products may also have higher costs associated with them, which could adversely affect our margins. In addition, we have incurred higher levels of sales and marketing expenses accompanying each product introduction. In the future, we intend to continue to release new products and enhance our existing products, and we expect that our operating results will be impacted by these releases.
 
International Expansion
 
Our revenue, based on ship-to destinations, from sales outside of the United States represented 44% and 42% of our revenue in 2019 and 2018, respectively. We believe our global opportunity is significant, and to address this opportunity, we intend to continue to invest in sales and marketing efforts, distribution channels, and infrastructure and personnel to support our international expansion, including establishing additional sales offices globally. Our growth will depend in part on the adoption and sales of our products and services in international markets. Moreover, our international expansion efforts have resulted and will continue to result in increased costs and are subject to a variety of risks, including increased competition, uncertain enforcement of our intellectual property rights, more complex distribution logistics, and the complexity of compliance with foreign laws and regulations.
 
Category Adoption, Expansion of our Total Addressable Market, and Market Growth
 
As a pioneer of the wearable device market, we believe we have contributed significantly to the market’s growth. However, our future growth depends in part on the continued consumer adoption of wearable devices as a means to improve health and fitness and the growth of this market. In addition, our long-term growth depends in part on our ability to expand into adjacent markets in the future.

Competition

The market for wearable devices is both evolving and highly competitive. We primarily compete in the wrist-based wearables market, which is comprised of both smartwatches and trackers. Growth of the wearables market has been primarily driven by the smartwatch category of the wearables market. The wearable device market has a multitude of participants, including many large, broad-based consumer electronics companies that either compete in our market or adjacent markets or have announced plans to do so, such as Apple, Samsung, LG, and Google. For example, Apple sells the Apple Watch, which is a smartwatch with broad-based functionalities, including some health and fitness tracking capabilities, and Apple has sold a significant volume of its smartwatches since introduction. We also face competition from manufacturers of lower-cost devices, such as Xiaomi, with its Mi Band devices, and Huawei. Market participants also include specialized consumer electronics companies such as Garmin, as well as traditional watch companies such as Fossil. In addition, we compete with a wide range of stand-alone health and fitness-related mobile apps that can be purchased or downloaded through mobile app stores.
 
Seasonality
 
Historically, we have experienced higher revenue in the fourth quarter compared to other quarters due in large part to seasonal holiday demand. For example, in 2019, 2018 and 2017, our fourth quarter represented 35%, 38% and 35% of our annual revenue, respectively. We also incur higher sales and marketing expenses during these periods.
 
Investing in Growth
 
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Our business is in a multi-year transition process where we expect to leverage our core assets of brand, community, and data to focus on four key areas: adapting to the changing wearable device market; deepening our reach within healthcare; increasing our agility and optimizing our cost structure; and transforming our business from an episodic driven model centered around device sales to more life-time value and recurring revenue. 

We expect to leverage the strength of our partners or make acquisitions where necessary, to increase speed to market and our ability to scale our business more effectively. For example, in 2016 we acquired assets from Coin, Pebble and Vector Watch to enhance the features and functionality of our devices, accelerate the expansion of our platform and ecosystem, and grow our capabilities in lower cost regions of the world. In 2018 we acquired Twine Health to further extend our reach into healthcare and to lay the foundation to expand our offerings to health plans, health systems, and self-insured employers, including the introduction of Fitbit Care, a connected health platform for health plans and employers, in the third quarter of 2018, while creating opportunities to increase our subscription-based revenue.

Furthermore, we intend to increase our focus on the health ecosystem, building relationships with employers, wellness providers, and payers. The corporate wellness market for the wearable devices market is new and is subject to a variety of challenges, including whether employers, health systems, and payers will continue to invest in such programs; long sales cycles; and substantial upfront sales costs. In each of 2019, 2018 and 2017, we derived less than 10% of our revenue from our Fitbit Health Solutions offerings. However, we believe that as healthcare costs continue to rise and as the healthcare ecosystem continues to seek ways to manage costs, this represents an opportunity to grow revenue. In order to grow our Fitbit Health Solutions presence, we intend to enhance our offerings as well as expand our sales team focused on this market.

Product Quality

We sell complex products and services that could contain design and manufacturing defects in their materials, hardware, and firmware. These defects could include defective materials or components, or “bugs,” that can unexpectedly interfere with the products’ intended operations or cause injuries to users or property. Although we extensively and rigorously test new and enhanced products and services before their release, there can be no assurance we will be able to detect, prevent, or fix all defects. In addition, we utilize products and services provided by third parties, such as vendors and contract manufacturers, and we rely on their representations and do not have full control over their processes. Failure to detect, prevent, or fix defects, or an increase in defects, could result in a variety of consequences including a greater number of returns of products than expected from users and retailers, increases in warranty costs, regulatory proceedings, product recalls, and litigation, which could harm our revenue and operating results.

Components of our Operating Results
 
Revenue
 
We have three sources of revenue: consumer device revenue, Fitbit Health Solutions revenue, and consumer non-device revenue. The vast majority of our revenue comes from the sale of wearable devices, which includes trackers, smartwatches, and accessories sold, through the retail, direct, and Fitbit Health Solutions channels. Within the Fitbit Health Solutions channel, revenue is comprised of devices, services, and software, with most of it driven by device sales. Consumer non-device revenue represents a small portion of our revenue, primarily from our subscription-based Fitbit Premium services.
 
Cost of Revenue
 
Cost of revenue consists of product costs, including costs of contract manufacturers for production, shipping and handling; warranty replacement; packaging, fulfillment; manufacturing and tooling equipment depreciation, warehousing, hosting, write-downs of excess and obsolete inventory, and amortization of developed technology intangible assets acquired, and certain allocated costs related to management, facilities, and personnel-related expenses and other expenses associated with supply chain logistics. Personnel-related expenses include salaries, bonuses, benefits, and stock-based compensation.

Operating Expenses
 
Operating expenses consist of research and development, sales and marketing, general and administrative expenses, and change in contingent consideration.
 
Research and Development. Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel-related expenses, consulting and contractor expenses, tooling and prototype materials, and allocated overhead costs.
 
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Substantially all of our research and development expenses are related to developing new products and services and improving our existing products and services. To date, research and development expenses have been expensed as incurred, because the release of products and services for sale has been short and development costs qualifying for capitalization have been insignificant.
 
Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses represent a significant component of our operating expenses and consist primarily of advertising and marketing promotions of our products and services and personnel-related expenses, as well as costs related to sales incentives, trade shows and events, sponsorship, consulting and contractors, travel, POP displays, and allocated overhead.
 
General and Administrative. General and administrative expenses consist of personnel-related expenses for our finance, legal, human resources, and administrative personnel, as well as the costs of professional services, allocated overhead, information technology, bad debt expense, amortization of intangible assets acquired, and other administrative expenses.

Interest Income (Expense), Net
 
Interest income (expense), net consists of interest expense associated with our debt financing arrangements, amortization of debt issuance costs, and interest income earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities.
 
Other Income (Expense), Net
 
Other income (expense), net consists of foreign currency gains and losses, and impairment loss from an equity investment.
 
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
 
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and foreign jurisdictions in which we do business. These foreign jurisdictions have statutory tax rates different from those in the United States. Accordingly, our effective tax rate will vary depending on the relative proportion of foreign to U.S. income and changes in tax laws.

On June 7, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in Altera Corp. v. Commissioner upheld U.S. Treasury Department regulations requiring that related parties in a cost-sharing arrangement share expenses related to stock-based compensation in proportion to the economic activity of the parties. The ruling reversed the prior decision of the U.S. Tax Court. On November 12, 2019, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals denied the plaintiff’s request for an en banc rehearing. Based on the appellate court’s ruling, we recorded a cumulative income tax expense of $5.3 million in the fourth quarter of 2019. The plaintiff filed a petition for a writ of certiorari in the U.S. Supreme Court on February 10, 2020, and we will continue to monitor developments in this matter.
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Operating Results
 
The following tables set forth the components of our consolidated statements of operations for each of the periods presented and as a percentage of our revenue for those periods. The period-to-period comparison of operating results is not necessarily indicative of results for future periods.
 Year Ended December 31,
 201920182017
 (in thousands)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
Revenue$1,434,788  $1,511,983  $1,615,519  
Cost of revenue (1)
1,007,116  908,404  924,618  
Gross profit427,672  603,579  690,901  
Operating expenses:
Research and development (1)
300,354  332,169  343,012  
Sales and marketing (1)