6-K 1 d231671d6k.htm FORM 6-K Form 6-K
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Form 6-K

 

 

REPORT OF FOREIGN PRIVATE ISSUER

PURSUANT TO RULE 13a-16 OR 15d-16

UNDER THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the month of March 2022

Commission File Number: 000-53445

 

 

KB Financial Group Inc.

(Translation of registrant’s name into English)

 

 

26, Gukjegeumyung-ro 8-gil, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul 07331, Korea

(Address of principal executive office)

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant files or will file annual reports under cover of Form 20-F or Form 40-F.

Form 20-F  ☒             Form 40-F  ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(1):  ☐

Note: Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(1) only permits the submission in paper of a Form 6-K if submitted solely to provide an attached annual report to security holders.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(7):  ☐

Note: Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(7) only permits the submission in paper of a Form 6-K if submitted to furnish a report or other document that the registrant foreign private issuer must furnish and make public under the laws of the jurisdiction in which the registrant is incorporated, domiciled or legally organized (the registrant’s “home country”), or under the rules of the home country exchange on which the registrant’s securities are traded, as long as the report or other document is not a press release, is not required to be and has not been distributed to the registrant’s security holders, and, if discussing a material event, has already been the subject of a Form 6-K submission or other Commission filing on EDGAR.

 

 

 


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Audit Report of Kookmin Bank for Fiscal Year 2021

On March 11, 2022, KB Financial Group Inc. disclosed audit reports of Kookmin Bank, its wholly-owned subsidiary, for fiscal year 2021 based on the International Financial Reporting Standards as adopted by the Republic of Korea (including the consolidated and separate financial statements of Kookmin Bank as of and for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 and related notes) received from KPMG Samjong Accounting Corp., its independent auditor. The financial statements in such reports have not been approved by the shareholders of Kookmin Bank and remain subject to change.

KB Financial Group Inc. is furnishing the following documents as exhibits to this Form 6-K filing:

Exhibit 99.1: An English-language translation of the Consolidated Audit Report of Kookmin Bank for FY 2021.

Exhibit 99.2: An English-language translation of the Separate Audit Report of Kookmin Bank for FY 2021.


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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

     

KB Financial Group Inc.

      (Registrant)
Date: March 11, 2022     By:  

/s/ Scott Y. H. Seo

      (Signature)
      Name: Scott Y. H. Seo
      Title:   Senior Managing Director and Chief Finance Officer


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Exhibit 99.1

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

(With Independent Auditors’ Report Thereon)


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Independent Auditors’ Report

Based on a report originally issued in Korean

To the Shareholder and Board of Directors

Kookmin Bank

Opinion

We have audited the consolidated financial statements of Kookmin Bank and its subsidiaries (collectively the “Group”), which comprise the statements of financial position as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the statements of comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for the years then ended, and notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory information.

In our opinion, the accompanying consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Group as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and its financial performance and its cash flows for the year then ended in accordance with Korean International Financial Reporting Standards (“K-IFRS”).

Basis for Opinion

We conducted our audits in accordance with Korean Standards on Auditing (KSAs). Our responsibilities under those standards are further described in the Auditors’ Responsibilities for the Audit of the Consolidated Financial Statements section of our report. We are independent of the Group in accordance with the ethical requirements that are relevant to our audit of the consolidated financial statements in the Republic of Korea, and we have fulfilled our other ethical responsibilities in accordance with these requirements. We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our opinion.

Emphasis of Matter

The following matter may be helpful to the readers in their understanding of the consolidated financial statements.

As described in note 37.6 (b) to the consolidated financial statements, the proliferation of COVID-19 has had a negative influence on the global economy, which may have a greater impact on expected credit losses and potential impairment of assets in a particular portfolio, and it could negatively affect the profit generation capability of the Group. Our opinion is not modified in respect of this matter.

Responsibilities of Management and Those Charged with Governance for the Consolidated Financial Statements

Management is responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with K-IFRS, and for such internal control as management determines is necessary to enable the preparation of consolidated financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error.

In preparing the consolidated financial statements, management is responsible for assessing the Group’s ability to continue as a going concern, disclosing, as applicable, matters related to going concern and using the going concern basis of accounting unless management either intends to liquidate the Group or to cease operations, or has no realistic alternative but to do so.

Those charged with governance are responsible for overseeing the Group’s financial reporting process.

 

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Auditors’ Responsibilities for the Audit of the Consolidated Financial Statements

Our objectives are to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements as a whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, and to issue an auditors’ report that includes our opinion. Reasonable assurance is a high level of assurance, but is not a guarantee that an audit conducted in accordance with KSAs will always detect a material misstatement when it exists. Misstatements can arise from fraud or error and are considered material if, individually or in the aggregate, they could reasonably be expected to influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of these consolidated financial statements.

As part of an audit in accordance with KSAs, we exercise professional judgment and maintain professional skepticism throughout the audit. We also:

 

   

Identify and assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to fraud or error, design and perform audit procedures responsive to those risks, and obtain audit evidence that is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our opinion. The risk of not detecting a material misstatement resulting from fraud is higher than for one resulting from error, as fraud may involve collusion, forgery, intentional omissions, misrepresentations, or the override of internal control.

 

   

Obtain an understanding of internal control relevant to the audit in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Group’s internal control.

 

   

Evaluate the appropriateness of accounting policies used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements and the reasonableness of accounting estimates and related disclosures made by management.

 

   

Conclude on the appropriateness of management’s use of the going concern basis of accounting and, based on the audit evidence obtained, whether a material uncertainty exists related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt on the Group’s ability to continue as a going concern. If we conclude that a material uncertainty exists, we are required to draw attention in our auditors’ report to the related disclosures in the consolidated financial statements or, if such disclosures are inadequate, to modify our opinion. Our conclusions are based on the audit evidence obtained up to the date of our auditors’ report. However, future events or conditions may cause the Group to cease to continue as a going concern.

 

   

Evaluate the overall presentation, structure and content of the consolidated financial statements, including the disclosures, and whether the consolidated financial statements represent the underlying transactions and events in a manner that achieves fair presentation.

 

   

Obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence regarding the financial information of the entities or business activities within the Group to express an opinion on the consolidated financial statements. We are responsible for the direction, supervision and performance of the group audit. We remain solely responsible for our audit opinion.

We communicate with those charged with governance regarding, among other matters, the planned scope and timing of the audit and significant audit findings, including any significant deficiencies in internal control that we identify during our audit.

/s/ KPMG Samjong Accounting Corp.

Seoul, Korea

March 10, 2022

 

 

This report is effective as of March 10, 2022, the audit report date. Certain subsequent events or circumstances, which may occur between the audit report date and the time of reading this report, could have a material impact on the accompanying consolidated financial statements and notes thereto. Accordingly, the readers of the audit report should understand that the above audit report has not been updated to reflect the impact of such subsequent events or circumstances, if any.

 

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Consolidated Statements of Financial Position

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

(In millions of Korean won)  

Notes

   December 31, 2021      December 31, 2020  

Assets

       

Cash and due from financial institutions

  4,6,7,36    W 25,164,991      W 19,972,269  

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

  4,6,8,12      18,834,364        16,042,357  

Derivative financial assets

  4,6,9      2,965,626        4,456,668  

Loans measured at amortized cost

  4,6,8,10,11      361,144,701        327,332,495  

Financial investments

  4,6,8,12      63,744,909        58,286,482  

Investments in associates

  13      390,957        441,325  

Property and equipment

  8,14      3,933,943        4,041,894  

Investment property

  14      325,065        318,101  

Intangible assets

  15      1,028,494        962,654  

Current income tax assets

  32      61,314        47,847  

Deferred income tax assets

  16,32      149,869        58,339  

Assets held for sale

  17      237,318        197,727  

Other assets

  4,6,18      5,583,347        6,285,956  
    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total assets

     W 483,564,898      W 438,444,114  
    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Liabilities

       

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

  4,6    W 112,698      W 141,277  

Derivative financial liabilities

  4,6,9      2,749,412        4,282,364  

Deposits

  4,6,19      363,141,416        330,352,491  

Borrowings

  4,6,20      32,523,161        26,870,831  

Debentures

  4,6,21      29,718,734        26,969,584  

Provisions

  22      426,867        388,014  

Net defined benefit liabilities

  23      155,284        165,402  

Current income tax liabilities

  32      57,281        37,481  

Deferred income tax liabilities

  16,32      701,561        346,850  

Other liabilities

  4,6,24,30      21,089,571        18,481,746  
    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities

       450,675,985        408,036,040  
    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Equity

       

Capital stock

  25      2,021,896        2,021,896  

Hybrid securities

  25      574,523        574,523  

Capital surplus

  25      5,025,335        4,808,482  

Accumulated other comprehensive income

  25,34      1,395,156        494,445  

Retained earnings

  25,33,34      23,660,721        22,243,552  

(Provision of regulatory reserve for credit losses

       

December 31, 2021 : W 2,534,401 million

       

December 31, 2020 : W 2,441,875 million)

       

(Amounts estimated to be appropriated

       

December 31, 2021 : W 380,761 million

       

December 31, 2020 : W 92,526 million)

       
    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Equity attributable to the shareholder of Kookmin Bank

       32,677,631        30,142,898  

Non-controlling interests

       211,282        265,176  
    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total equity

       32,888,913        30,408,074  
    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total liabilities and equity

     W 483,564,898      W  438,444,114  
    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The above consolidated statements of financial position should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income

Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

(In millions of Korean won)  

Notes

   2021     2020  

Interest income

     W 10,674,361     W 10,456,165  

Interest income from financial instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income and amortized cost

       10,515,589       10,265,173  

Interest income from financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss

       158,772       190,992  

Interest expense

       (2,945,885     (3,701,399
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net interest income

  26      7,728,476       6,754,766  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Fee and commission income

       1,586,944       1,449,687  

Fee and commission expense

       (399,063     (381,765
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net fee and commission income

  27      1,187,881       1,067,922  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net gains on financial instrument at fair value through profit or loss

  28      342,834       244,183  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net other operating expenses

  29      (819,739     (230,206
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

General and administrative expenses

  14,15,23,30,40      (4,402,731     (4,201,346
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income before provision for credit losses

       4,036,721       3,635,319  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Provision for credit losses

  7,11,12,18,22      (522,728     (484,182
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net operating income

       3,513,993       3,151,137  

Share of profit (loss) of associates

  13      57,156       (48,158

Net other non-operating income (expenses)

  31      (79,605     28,844  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net non-operating expenses

       (22,449     (19,314
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Profit before income tax expense

       3,491,544       3,131,823  

Income tax expense

  32      (953,515     (812,304
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Profit for the period

       2,538,029       2,319,519  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Adjusted profit after provision of regulatory reserve for credit losses

  25     

December 31, 2021 :  W2,210,003 million

      

December 31, 2020 :  W2,205,669 million)

      

Items that will not be reclassified to profit or loss:

      

Remeasurements of net defined benefit liabilities

  23      (71,615     (4,166

Gains on equity securities at fair value through other comprehensive income

       873,707       666,641  

Items that may be subsequently reclassified to profit or loss:

    

Currency translation differences

       208,480       (154,972

Gains (losses) on debt securities at fair value through other comprehensive income

       (274,010     30,750  

Share of other comprehensive income (loss) of associates

     165       (6,978

Gains (losses) on hedging instruments of net investments in foreign operations

  9      (54,409     61,329  

Gains (losses) on cash flow hedging instruments

  9      9,984       (6,382
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other comprehensive income for the period, net of tax

  34      692,302       586,222  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total comprehensive income for the period

     W 3,230,331     W 2,905,741  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Profit attributable to:

      

Shareholder of Kookmin Bank

     W 2,590,764     W 2,298,195  

Non-controlling interests

       (52,735     21,324  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 
     W 2,538,029     W 2,319,519  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total comprehensive income for the period attributable to:

    

Shareholder of Kookmin Bank

     W 3,265,921     W 2,905,953  

Non-controlling interests

       (35,590     (212
    

 

 

   

 

 

 
     W       3,230,331     W       2,905,741  
    

 

 

   

 

 

 

The above consolidated statements of comprehensive income should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity

Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

    Attributable to the shareholder of Kookmin Bank              
(In millions of Korean won)   Capital
stock
    Hybrid
securities
    Capital
surplus
    Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income
    Retained
earnings
    Non-controlling
interests
    Total equity  

Balance as of January 1, 2020

  W 2,021,896     W 574,523     W 5,219,704     W 123,334     W 21,064,776     W —       W 29,004,233  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comprehensive income for the period

             

Profit for the period

    —         —         —         —         2,298,195       21,324       2,319,519  

Remeasurements of net defined benefit liabilities

    —         —         —         (4,111     —         (55     (4,166

Gains on equity securities at fair value through other comprehensive income

    —         —         —         429,994       236,647       —         666,641  

Currency translation differences

    —         —         —         (134,469     —         (20,503     (154,972

Gains (losses) on debt securities at fair value through other comprehensive income

    —         —         —         31,728       —         (978     30,750  

Share of other comprehensive loss of associates

    —         —         —         (6,978     —         —         (6,978

Gains on hedging instruments of net investments in foreign operations

    —         —         —         61,329       —         —         61,329  

Losses on cash flow hedging instruments

    —         —         —         (6,382     —         —         (6,382
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total comprehensive income for the period

    —         —         —         371,111       2,534,842       (212     2,905,741  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Transactions with the shareholder

             

Dividends

    —         —         —         —         (731,926     —         (731,926

Interim dividends

    —         —         —         —         (598,481     —         (598,481

Dividends on hybrid securities

    —         —         —         —         (25,659     —         (25,659

Transactions with non-controlling interests

    —         —         (411,222     —         —         265,388       (145,834
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total transactions with the shareholder

    —         —         (411,222     —         (1,356,066     265,388       (1,501,900
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance as of December 31, 2020

  W 2,021,896     W 574,523     W 4,808,482     W 494,445     W 22,243,552     W 265,176     W 30,408,074  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance as of January 1, 2021

  W 2,021,896     W 574,523     W 4,808,482     W 494,445     W 22,243,552     W 265,176     W 30,408,074  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comprehensive income for the period

             

Profit for the period

    —         —         —         —         2,590,764       (52,735     2,538,029  

Remeasurements of net defined benefit liabilities

    —         —         —         (72,054     —         439       (71,615

Gains (losses) on equity securities at fair value through other comprehensive income

    —         —         —         1,105,217       (231,510     —         873,707  

Currency translation differences

    —         —         —         192,705       —         15,775       208,480  

Gains (losses) on debt securities at fair value through other comprehensive income

    —         —         —         (274,941     —         931       (274,010

Share of other comprehensive income of associates

    —         —         —         165       —         —         165  

Losses on hedging instruments of net investments in foreign operations

    —         —         —         (54,409     —         —         (54,409

Gains on cash flow hedging instruments

    —         —         —         9,984       —         —         9,984  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total comprehensive income for the period

    —         —         —         906,667       2,359,254       (35,590     3,230,331  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Transactions with the shareholder

             

Dividends

    —         —         —         —         (917,941     —         (917,941

Dividends on hybrid securities

    —         —         —         —         (24,144     —         (24,144

Transactions with non-controlling interests

    —         —         216,853       (5,956     —         (18,304     192,593  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total transactions with the shareholder

    —         —         216,853       (5,956     (942,085     (18,304     (749,492
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance as of December 31, 2021

  W 2,021,896     W 574,523     W 5,025,335     W 1,395,156     W 23,660,721     W 211,282     W 32,888,913  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The above consolidated statements of changes in equity should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

(In millions of Korean won)    Notes      2021     2020  

Cash flows from operating activities

       

Profit for the period

      W 2,538,029     W 2,319,519  
     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjustment for non-cash items

       

Net gains on financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss

        (161,792     (217,768

Net losses on derivative financial instrument for hedging purposes

        13,132       8,168  

Adjustment of fair value of derivative financial instruments

        —         (3,198

Provision for credit losses

        523,010       484,257  

Net gains on financial investments

        (12,736     (179,941

Share of loss (profit) of associates

        (57,156     48,157  

Depreciation and amortization expense

        537,628       569,721  

Other net losses (gains) on property and equipment/intangible assets

 

     18,731       (77,011

Share-based payment

        27,995       13,364  

Post-employment benefits

        158,512       159,393  

Net interest income

        405,793       559,070  

Losses on foreign currency translation

        (89,447     (155,831

Other expenses (income)

        45,514       (14,318
     

 

 

   

 

 

 
        1,409,184       1,194,063  
     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities

       

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

        (1,629,702     (1,405,459

Derivative financial instrument

        71,935       42,804  

Loans measured at amortized cost

        (32,510,459     (28,338,718

Current income tax assets

        (4,308     (24,211

Deferred income tax assets

        (90,423     (58,957

Other assets

        (4,234,411     (3,478,528

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

        (34,193     49,648  

Deposits

        31,129,121       23,689,107  

Deferred income tax liabilities

        165,924       (174,090

Other liabilities

        3,221,530       (1,139,460
     

 

 

   

 

 

 
        (3,914,986     (10,837,864
     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash inflow (outflow) from operating activities

        32,227       (7,324,282
     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash flows from investing activities

       

Net cash flows from derivative financial instrument for hedging purposes

 

     9,575       8,983  

Disposal of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

        6,019,093       6,729,781  

Acquisition of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

        (6,993,541     (7,477,327

Disposal of financial investments

        42,261,739       72,170,571  

Acquisition of financial investments

        (46,589,385     (76,954,130

Disposal of investments in associates

        197,396       187,181  

Acquisition of investments in associates

        (89,644     (200,023

Disposal of property and equipment

        9,050       1,913  

Acquisition of property and equipment

        (198,681     (340,477

Disposal of investment property

        1,581       267,836  

Acquisition of investment property

        —         (125

Disposal of intangible assets

        1,834       4,260  

Acquisition of intangible assets

        (92,474     (77,960

Net cash flows from changes in ownership of subsidiaries

        80,451       (388,621

Others

        (23,269     33,219  
     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash outflow from investing activities

        (5,406,275     (6,034,919
     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash flows from financing activities

       

Net cash flows from derivative financial instrument for hedging purposes

 

     5,870       (16,182

Increase in borrowings

        4,743,115       6,332,405  

Increase in debentures

        20,014,042       19,952,932  

Decrease in debentures

        (17,598,345     (11,653,980

Payment of dividends

        (917,941     (1,330,407

Increase (decrease) in other payables to trust accounts

        (509,106     2,326,495  

Cash outflow from consolidated equtiy transactions

        (188,419     —    

Others

        (257,954     (60,866
     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash inflow from financing activities

        5,291,262       15,550,397  
     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

 

     275,678       (266,209
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

        192,892       1,924,987  

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the period

     36        6,804,299       4,879,312  
     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the period

     36      W 6,997,191     W 6,804,299  
     

 

 

   

 

 

 

The above consolidated statements of cash flows should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notes.

 

6


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

1. Reporting Entity

Kookmin Bank (the “Bank”) was incorporated in 1963 under the Citizens National Bank Act to provide banking services to the general public and to small and medium-sized enterprises. Pursuant to the Repeal Act of the Citizens National Bank Act, effective January 5, 1995, the Bank’s status changed to a financial institution which operates under the Banking Act and Commercial Act.

The Bank merged with Korea Long Term Credit Bank on December 31, 1998, and with its subsidiaries, Daegu, Busan, Jeonnam Kookmin Mutual Savings & Finance Co., Ltd., on August 22, 1999. Pursuant to the directive from the Financial Services Commission related to the Structural Improvement of the Financial Industry Act, the Bank acquired certain assets, including performing loans, and assumed most of the liabilities of Daedong Bank on June 29, 1998. Also, the Bank completed the merger with Housing and Commercial Bank (“H&CB”) on October 31, 2001, and merged with Kookmin Credit Card Co., Ltd., a majority-owned subsidiary, on September 30, 2003. Meanwhile, the Bank spun off its credit card business segment on February 28, 2011, and KB Kookmin Card Co., Ltd. became a subsidiary of KB Financial Group Inc.

The Bank listed its shares on the Stock Market Division of the Korea Exchange (“KRX”) in September 1994. As a result of the merger with H&CB, the shareholders of the former Kookmin Bank and H&CB received new common shares of the Bank which were relisted on the KRX on November 9, 2001. In addition, H&CB listed its American Depositary Shares (“ADS”) on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) on October 3, 2000, prior to the merger. Following the merger with H&CB, the Bank listed its ADS on the NYSE on November 1, 2001. The Bank became a wholly owned subsidiary of KB Financial Group Inc. through a comprehensive stock transfer on September 29, 2008. Subsequently, the Bank’s shares and its ADS, each listed on the KRX and the NYSE, were delisted on October 10, 2008 and September 26, 2008, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, the Bank’s paid-in capital is \ 2,021,896 million.

The Bank engages in the banking business in accordance with the Banking Act, trust business in accordance with the Financial Investment Services and Capital Markets Act, mobile virtual network business in accordance with Special Act on Support for Financial Innovation, and other relevant businesses. As of December 31, 2021, the Bank operates its Seoul headquarters and 914 domestic branches, and eight overseas branches (excluding six subsidiaries and one office).

2. Basis of Preparation

2.1 Application of Korean IFRS

The Bank and its subsidiaries (collectively the “Group”) maintains its accounting records in Korean won and prepares statutory consolidated financial statements in the Korean language in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as adopted by the Republic of Korea (“Korean IFRS”).

The consolidated financial statements of the Group have been prepared in accordance with Korean IFRS. Korean IFRS are the standards and related interpretations issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”) that have been adopted by the Republic of Korea.

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates. Management also needs to exercise judgment in applying the Group’s accounting policies. The areas that require a more complex and higher level of judgment or areas that require significant assumptions and estimations are disclosed in Note 2.4.

 

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Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

2.1.1 The Group has applied the following amended standards for the first time for its annual reporting period commencing January 1, 2021.

 

   

Amendments to Korean IFRS No.1116 Leases – Practical Expedient for COVID-19-Related Rent Exemption, Concessions, Suspension

As a practical expedient, a lessee may elect not to assess whether a rent concession occurring as a direct consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic is a lease modification, and the amounts recognized in profit or loss as a result of applying this exemption should be disclosed. These amendments do not have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Amendments to Korean IFRS No.1109 Financial Instruments, Korean IFRS No.1039 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement, Korean IFRS No.1107 Financial Instruments: Disclosure, Korean IFRS No.1104 Insurance Contracts, and Korean IFRS No.1116 Leases – Interest Rate Benchmark Reform

In relation to interest rate benchmark reform, the amendments provide a practical expedient allowing entities to change the effective interest rate instead of changing the carrying amount and apply hedge accounting without discontinuance although the interest rate benchmark is replaced in hedging relationship. These amendments do not have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

2.1.2 The following new and amended standards have been published that are not mandatory for December 31, 2021 reporting period and have not been adopted by the Group.

 

   

Amendments to Korean IFRS No.1116 Leases - COVID-19-Related Rent Concessions, etc. beyond June 30, 2021

The application of the practical expedient, a lessee may elect not to assess whether a rent concession occurring as a direct consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic is a lease modification, is extended to lease payments originally due on or before 30 June 2022. A lessee shall apply the practical expedient consistently to eligible contracts with similar characteristics and in similar circumstances. The amendments should be applied for annual reporting periods beginning on or after April 1, 2021, and earlier application is permitted. The Group does not expect that these amendments have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Amendments to Korean IFRS No.1103 Business Combination – Reference to the Conceptual Framework

The amendments update a reference of definition of assets and liabilities to qualify for recognition in revised Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting. However, the amendments add an exception for the recognition of liabilities and contingent liabilities within the scope of Korean IFRS No.1037 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, and Korean IFRS No.2121 Levies. The amendments also confirm that contingent assets should not be recognized at the acquisition date. The amendments should be applied for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2022, and earlier application is permitted. The Group does not expect that these amendments have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Amendments to Korean IFRS No.1016 Property, Plant and Equipment – Proceeds Before Intended Use

The amendments prohibit an entity from deducting from the cost of an item of property, plant and equipment any proceeds from selling items produced while the entity is preparing the asset for its intended use. Instead, the entity will recognize the proceeds from selling such items, and the costs of producing those items, as profit or loss. The amendments should be applied for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2022, and earlier application is permitted. The Group does not expect that these amendments have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

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Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

   

Amendments to Korean IFRS No.1037 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets – Onerous Contracts: Cost of Fulfilling a Contract

The amendments clarify that the direct costs of fulfilling a contract include both the incremental costs of fulfilling the contract and an allocation of other costs directly related to fulfilling contracts when assessing whether the contract is onerous. The amendments should be applied for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2022, and earlier application is permitted. The Group does not expect that these amendments have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Amendments to Korean IFRS No.1001 Presentation of Financial Statements – Classification of Liabilities as Current or Non-current

The amendments clarify that liabilities are classified as either current or non-current, depending on the substantive rights that exist at the end of the reporting period. Classification is unaffected by the likelihood that an entity will exercise the right to defer settlement of the liability or the management’s expectations thereof. Also, the settlement of liability includes the transfer of the entity’s own equity instruments; however, it would be excluded if an option to settle the liability by the transfer of the entity’s own equity instruments is recognized separately from the liability as an equity component of a compound financial instrument. The amendments should be applied for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2023, and earlier application is permitted. The Group does not expect that these amendments have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Issuance of Korean IFRS No.1117 Insurance Contracts

Korean IFRS No.1117 Insurance Contracts will replace Korean IFRS No.1104 Insurance Contracts. This standard requires an entity to estimate future cash flows of an insurance contract and measure insurance liabilities using discount rates applied with assumptions and risks at the measurement date and recognize insurance revenue on an accrual basis including services (insurance coverage) provided to the policyholder by each annual reporting period. In addition, investment components (refunds due to termination and maturity) repaid to a policyholder even if an insured event does not occur, are excluded from insurance revenue, and net insurance income and net investment income are presented separately to enable users of the information to understand the sources of net income. This standard should be applied for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2023, and earlier application is permitted for entities that applied Korean IFRS No.1109 Financial Instruments. The Group is scheduled to apply this standard for annual reporting period beginning on January 1, 2023. The Group does not expect that this new standard has a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Amendments to Korean IFRS No.1001 Presentation of Financial Statements – Accounting Policy Disclosure

The amendments require an entity to define and disclose their material accounting policy information. IFRS Practice Statement 2 Making Materiality Judgements was amended to explain and demonstrate how to apply the concept of materiality. The amendments should be applied for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2023, and earlier application is permitted. The Group does not expect that these amendments have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Amendments to Korean IFRS No.1008 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors – Definition of Accounting Estimates

The amendments introduce the definition of accounting estimates and clarify how to distinguish changes in accounting estimates from changes in accounting policies. The amendments should be applied for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2023, and earlier application is permitted. The Group does not expect that these amendments have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

9


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

   

Amendments to Korean IFRS No.1012 Income Taxes – Deferred Tax Related to Assets and Liabilities Arising from a Single Transaction

The amendments narrow the scope of the deferred tax recognition exemption so that it no longer applies to transactions that, on initial recognition, give rise to equal taxable and deductible temporary differences. The amendments should be applied for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2023, and earlier application is permitted. The Group does not expect that these amendments have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Annual improvements to Korean IFRS 2018-2020

Annual improvements of Korean IFRS 2018-2020 Cycle should be applied for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2022, and earlier application is permitted. The Group does not expect that these amendments have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Korean IFRS No.1101 First-time Adoption of Korean International Financial Reporting Standards – Subsidiaries that are first-time adopters

 

   

Korean IFRS No.1109 Financial Instruments – Fees related to the 10% test for derecognition of financial liabilities

 

   

Korean IFRS No.1116 Leases – Lease incentives

 

   

Korean IFRS No.1041 Agriculture – Measuring fair value

 

10


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

2.2 Measurement Basis

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared based on the historical cost accounting model unless otherwise specified.

2.3 Functional and Presentation Currency

Items included in the financial statements of each entity of the Group are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (“functional currency”). The consolidated financial statements are presented in Korean won, which is the reporting entity’s functional and presentation currency.

2.4 Critical Accounting Estimates

The Group applies accounting policies and uses judgements, accounting estimates, and assumptions that may have a significant impact on the assets (liabilities) and incomes (expenses) in preparing the consolidated financial statements. Management’s estimates of outcomes may differ from actual outcomes if management’s estimates and assumptions based on management’s best judgment are different from the actual environment.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are continually evaluated, and changes in accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are changed and in any future periods affected.

Uncertainties in estimates and assumptions with significant risks that may result in material adjustments to the consolidated financial statements are as follows:

2.4.1 Income taxes

As the income taxes on the Group’s taxable income is calculated by applying the tax laws of various countries and the decisions of tax authorities, there is uncertainty in calculating the final tax effect.

If a certain portion of the taxable income is not used for investments, wages, etc. in accordance with the Korean regulation called ‘Special Taxation for Facilitation of Investment and Mutually-beneficial Cooperation’, the Group is liable to pay additional income tax calculated based on the tax laws. Therefore, the effect of recirculation of corporate income should be reflected in current and deferred income tax. As the Group’s income tax is dependent on the actual investments, wages, etc. per each year, there are uncertainties in measuring the final tax effects during the period when the tax law is applied.

2.4.2 Fair value of financial instruments

The fair value of financial instruments where no active market exists or where quoted prices are not otherwise available is determined by using valuation techniques. Financial instruments, which are not actively traded in the market and those with less transparent market prices, will have less objective fair values and require broad judgment on liquidity, concentration, uncertainty in market factors, assumptions in fair value determination, and other risks.

As described in the significant accounting policies in Note 3.3 Recognition and Measurement of Financial Instruments, diverse valuation techniques are used to determine the fair value of financial instruments, from generally accepted market valuation models to internally developed valuation models that incorporate various types of assumptions and variables

 

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Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

2.4.3 Allowances and provisions for credit losses

The Group recognizes and measures allowances for credit losses of debt instruments measured at amortized cost and debt instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income. Also, the Group recognizes and measures provisions for credit losses of acceptances and guarantees, and unused loan commitments. Accuracy of allowances and provisions for credit losses is dependent upon estimation of expected cash flows of the borrower subject to individual assessment of impairment, and upon assumptions and variables of model used in collective assessment of impairment and estimation of provisions for credit losses of acceptances and guarantees, and unused loan commitments.

2.4.4 Net defined benefit liability

The present value of the net defined benefit liability is affected by changes in the various factors determined by the actuarial method.

2.4.5 Impairment of goodwill

The recoverable amounts of cash-generating units are determined based on value-in-use calculations to test whether impairment of goodwill has occurred.

2.4.6 Assessment of expected credit losses of financial instruments related to COVID-19

The proliferation of COVID-19 in 2021 negatively affected the global economy, despite various forms of government support policy. Accordingly, the Group was provided with various economic forecasting scenarios from KB Research, assuming macroeconomic changes due to the level of COVID-19 pandemic. The Group reviewed the possibilities of each scenario comprehensively, updated the forward-looking information, and reflected its effect on expected credit losses through the statistical method. In addition, for financial assets in risky industries vulnerable to the impact of COVID-19, the Group measured expected credit losses using a conservative scenario comparing to the forecasted forward-looking information and reflected credit risk that will increase in the future, such as by expanding the scope of loans subject to lifetime expected credit losses (non-impaired). The Group will continue to monitor the impact of COVID-19 on the expected credit losses by comprehensively considering the duration of the impact on the entire economy and the government’s policies.

 

12


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3. Significant Accounting Policies

The principal accounting policies applied in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements are set out below. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented, unless otherwise stated.

3.1 Consolidation

3.1.1 Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are companies that are controlled by the Group. The Group controls an investee when it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. Also, the existence and effects of potential voting rights that are currently exercisable or convertible are considered when assessing whether the Group controls the investee. Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date when control is transferred to the Group and de-consolidated from the date when control is lost.

If a subsidiary uses accounting policies other than those adopted in the consolidated financial statements for like transactions and events in similar circumstances, appropriate adjustments are made to that subsidiary’s financial statements in preparing the consolidated financial statements to ensure conformity with the Group’s accounting policies.

Profit or loss and each component of other comprehensive income are attributed to the owners of the Bank and to the non-controlling interests, if any. Total comprehensive income is attributed to the owners of the Bank and to the non-controlling interests even if this results in the non-controlling interests having a deficit balance.

Transactions with non-controlling interests that do not result in loss of control are accounted for as equity transactions (i.e., transactions with owners in their capacity as owners). The difference between fair value of any consideration paid and carrying amount of the subsidiary’s net assets attributable to the additional interests acquired, is recorded in equity. Gains or losses on disposals to non-controlling interests are also recorded in equity.

When the Group loses control, any investment retained in the former subsidiary is recognized at its fair value at the date when control is lost, with the resulting difference recognized in profit or loss. This fair value will be the fair value on initial recognition of a financial asset in accordance with Korean IFRS No.1109 or, when appropriate, the cost on initial recognition of an investment in an associate or joint venture. In addition, all amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income in relation to that subsidiary are accounted for on the same basis as would be required if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities. Therefore, amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss.

The Group accounts for each business combination by applying the acquisition method. The consideration transferred is measured at fair value, and identifiable assets acquired, and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are initially measured at acquisition-date fair values. For each business combination, the Group measures non-controlling interests in the acquiree that entitle their holders to a proportionate share of the acquiree’s net assets in the event of liquidation at either (a) fair value or (b) the proportionate share in the recognized amounts of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. Acquisition-related costs are expensed in the periods in which the costs are incurred.

 

13


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

In a business combination achieved in stages, the Group shall remeasure its previously held equity interest in the acquiree at its acquisition-date fair value and recognize the resulting gain or loss, if any, in profit or loss or other comprehensive income, as appropriate. In prior reporting periods, the Group may have recognized changes in the value of its equity interest in the acquiree in other comprehensive income. If so, the amount that was recognized in other comprehensive income shall be reclassified as profit or loss, or retained earnings, on the same basis as would be required if the Group had directly disposed of the previously held equity interest.

The Group applies the book-value method to account for business combinations of entities under common control. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured at their book value on the consolidated financial statements of the Group. In addition, the difference between (a) the sum of consolidated net book value of the assets and liabilities transferred and accumulated other comprehensive income and (b) the consideration paid is recognized as capital surplus.

3.1.2 Associates

Associates are entities over which the Group has significant influence over the financial and operating policy decisions. Generally, if the Group holds 20% or more of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the Group has significant influence.

Investments in associates are initially recognized at cost and equity method is applied after initial recognition. The carrying amount is increased or decreased to recognize the Group’s share of the profit or loss of the investee and changes in the investee’s equity after the date of acquisition. Distributions received from an investee reduce the carrying amount of the investment. Unrealized gains and losses resulting from transactions between the Group and associates are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s share in associates. If unrealized losses are an indication of an impairment that requires recognition in the consolidated financial statements, those losses are recognized for the period.

If associates use accounting policies other than those of the Group for like transactions and events in similar circumstances, if necessary, adjustments shall be made to make the associates’ accounting policies conform to those of the Group when the associates’ financial statements are used by the Group in applying the equity method.

If the Group’s share of losses of associates equals or exceeds its interest in the associates (including long-term interests that, in substance, form part of the Group’s net investment in the associates), the Group discontinues recognizing its share of further losses. After the Group’s interest is reduced to zero, additional losses are provided for, and a liability is recognized, only to the extent that the Group has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the associates.

The Group determines at each reporting period whether there is any objective evidence that the investments in the associates are impaired. If this is the case, the Group calculates the amount of impairment as the difference between the recoverable amount of the associates and its carrying amount and recognizes the amount as non-operating expenses in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income.

3.1.3 Structured entity

A structured entity is an entity that has been designed so that voting or similar rights are not the dominant factor in deciding who controls the entity. When the Group decides whether it has power over the structured entities in which the Group has interests, it considers factors such as the purpose, the form, the substantive ability to direct the relevant activities of a structured entity, the nature of its relationship with a structured entity, and the amount of exposure to variable returns.

 

14


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.1.4 Funds management

The Group manages and operates trust assets, collective investment, and other funds on behalf of investors. These trusts and funds are not consolidated, except for trusts and funds over which the Group has control.

3.1.5 Intragroup transactions

Intragroup balances, income, expenses, and any unrealized gains and losses resulting from intragroup transactions are eliminated in full, in preparing the consolidated financial statements. If unrealized losses are an indication of an impairment that requires recognition in the consolidated financial statements, those losses are recognized for the period.

3.2 Foreign Currency

3.2.1 Foreign currency transactions

A foreign currency transaction is recorded, at initial recognition in the functional currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the spot exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction. At the end of each reporting period, foreign currency monetary items are translated using the closing rate which is the spot exchange rate at the end of the reporting period. Non-monetary items that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date when the fair value was measured and non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Except for the exchange differences for the net investment in a foreign operation and the financial liability designated as a hedging instrument of net investment, exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on translating monetary items are recognized in profit or loss. When a gain or loss on a non-monetary item is recognized in other comprehensive income, any exchange component of that gain or loss is recognized in other comprehensive income, conversely, when a gain or loss on a non-monetary item is recognized in profit or loss, any exchange component of that gain or loss is recognized in profit or loss.

3.2.2 Foreign operations

The results and financial position of a foreign operation, whose functional currency differs from the Group’s presentation currency, are translated into the Group’s presentation currency based on the following procedures.

If the functional currency of a foreign operation is not the currency of a hyperinflationary economy, assets and liabilities for each statement of financial position presented (including comparatives) are translated at the closing rate at the end of the reporting period, income and expenses for each statement of comprehensive income presented (including comparatives) are translated using the average exchange rates for the period. All resulting exchange differences are recognized in other comprehensive income.

Any goodwill arising on the acquisition of a foreign operation and any fair value adjustments to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities arising on the acquisition of that foreign operation are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign operation. Thus, they are expressed in the functional currency of the foreign operation and are translated into the presentation currency at the closing rate.

 

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Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

On the disposal of a foreign operation, the cumulative amount of the exchange differences relating to that foreign operation, recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the separate component of equity, is reclassified from equity to profit or loss (as a reclassification adjustment) when the gain or loss on disposal is recognized. On the partial disposal of a subsidiary that includes a foreign operation, the Group re-attributes the proportionate share of the cumulative amount of the exchange differences recognized in other comprehensive income to the non-controlling interests in that foreign operation. In any other partial disposal of a foreign operation, the Group reclassifies to profit or loss only the proportionate share of the cumulative amount of the exchange differences recognized in other comprehensive income.

3.2.3 Translation of the net investment in a foreign operation

A monetary item that is receivable from or payable to a foreign operation, for which settlement is neither planned nor likely to occur in the foreseeable future is, in substance, a part of the Group’s net investment in that foreign operation, then foreign currency difference arising from that monetary item is recognized in the other comprehensive income and shall be reclassified to profit or loss on disposal of the net investment.

3.3 Recognition and Measurement of Financial Instruments

3.3.1 Initial recognition

The Group recognizes a financial asset or a financial liability in its consolidated statement of financial position when the Group becomes party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. A regular way purchase or sale of financial assets (a purchase or sale of a financial asset under a contract whose terms require delivery of the asset within the time frame established generally by regulation or convention in the marketplace concerned) is recognized and derecognized using trade date accounting.

For financial reporting purpose, the Group classifies (a) financial assets as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income, or financial assets at amortized cost and (b) financial liabilities as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, or other financial liabilities. These classifications are based on the business model for managing financial instruments and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial instrument at initial recognition.

At initial recognition, a financial asset or financial liability is measured at its fair value plus or minus, in the case of a financial asset or financial liability not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of the financial asset or financial liability. The fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. The fair value of a financial instrument on initial recognition is normally the transaction price (that is, the fair value of the consideration given or received) in an arm’s length transaction.

3.3.2 Subsequent measurement

After initial recognition, financial instruments are measured at amortized cost or fair value based on classification at initial recognition.

3.3.2.1 Amortized cost

The amortized cost of a financial asset or financial liability is the amount at which the financial asset or financial liability is measured at initial recognition minus the principal repayments, plus or minus the cumulative amortization using the effective interest method of any difference between that initial amount and the maturity amount and, for financial assets, adjusted for any loss allowance.

 

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Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.3.2.2 Fair value

The Group uses quoted price in an active market which is based on listed market price or dealer price quotations of financial instruments traded in an active market as best estimate of fair value. A financial instrument is regarded as quoted in an active market if quoted prices are readily and regularly available from an exchange, dealer, broker, industry group, pricing service or regulatory agency, and those prices represent actual and regularly occurring market transactions on an arm’s length basis.

If there is no active market for a financial instrument, fair value is determined either by using a valuation technique or independent third-party valuation service. Valuation techniques include using recent arm’s length market transactions between knowledgeable and willing parties, if available, referencing the current fair value of another instrument that is substantially the same, discounted cash flow analysis, and option pricing models.

The Group uses valuation models that are commonly used by market participants and customized for the Group to determine fair values of common over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives such as options, interest rate swaps, and currency swaps which are based on the inputs observable in markets. However, for some complex financial instruments that require fair value measurement by valuation techniques based on certain assumptions because some or all inputs used in the model are not observable in the market, the Group uses internal valuation models developed from general valuation models or valuation results from independent external valuation institutions.

In addition, the fair value information recognized in the consolidated statement of financial position is classified into the following fair value hierarchy, reflecting the significance of the input variables used in the fair value measurement.

Level 1 : Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Group can access at the measurement date

Level 2 : Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly

Level 3 : Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability

The fair value measurement is categorized in its entirety in the same level of the fair value hierarchy as the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement. For this purpose, the significance of an input is assessed against the fair value measurement in its entirety.

If a fair value measurement uses observable inputs that require significant adjustment using unobservable inputs, that measurement is a Level 3 measurement.

The Group’s Fair Value Evaluation Committee, which consists of the risk management department, trading department and accounting department, reviews the appropriateness of internally developed valuation models, and approves the selection and changing of the external valuation institution and other considerations related to fair value measurement. The results of regular verification of the internally developed valuation models are reported to the Market Risk Management Subcommittee.

If the valuation technique does not reflect all factors which market participants would consider in pricing the asset or liability, the fair value is adjusted to reflect those factors. Those factors include counterparty credit risk, bid-ask spread, liquidity risk, and others.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

The Group uses valuation technique which maximizes the use of market inputs and minimizes the use of entity-specific inputs. It incorporates all factors that market participants would consider in pricing the asset or liability and is consistent with economic methodologies applied for pricing financial instruments. Periodically, the Group calibrates the valuation technique and tests its validity using prices of observable current market transactions of the same instrument or based on other relevant observable market data.

3.3.3 Derecognition

Derecognition is the removal of a previously recognized financial asset or financial liability from the consolidated statement of financial position. The derecognition criteria for financial assets and financial liabilities are as follows:

3.3.3.1 Derecognition of financial assets

A financial asset is derecognized when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial assets expire or the Group transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, or the Group neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset and the Group has not retained control. Therefore, if the Group does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the Group continues to recognize the financial asset to the extent of its continuing involvement in the financial asset.

If the Group transfers the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset but retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the Group continues to recognize the transferred asset in its entirety and recognize a financial liability for the consideration received.

The Group writes off a financial asset when the Group has no reasonable expectations of recovering a financial asset in its entirety or a portion thereof. In general, the Group considers write-off when it is determined that the debtor does not have sufficient funds or income to cover the principal and interest. The write-off decision is made in accordance with internal regulations. After the write-off, the Group can continue to collect the written-off loans according to the internal policy. Recovered amounts from financial assets previously written-off are recognized in profit or loss.

3.3.3.2 Derecognition of financial liabilities

A financial liability is derecognized from the consolidated statement of financial position when it is extinguished (i.e., the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, canceled or expires).

3.3.4 Offsetting

A financial asset and a financial liability are offset, and the net amount is presented in the consolidated statement of financial position when, and only when, the Group currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. The legally enforceable right must not be contingent on a future event and must be legally enforceable in the normal course of business, the event of default, and the event of insolvency or bankruptcy of the Group and all of the counterparties.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.4 Cash and Due from Financial Institutions

Cash and due from financial institutions include cash on hand, foreign currency, and short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, and due from financial institutions. Cash and due from financial institutions are measured at amortized cost.

3.5 Non-derivative Financial Assets

3.5.1 Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

Financial assets are classified as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss unless they are classified as financial assets at amortized cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income.

The Group may designate certain financial assets upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss when the designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency (sometimes referred to as an ‘accounting mismatch’) that would otherwise arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognizing the gains and losses on them on different bases.

After initial recognition, a financial asset at fair value through profit or loss is measured at fair value and gains or losses arising from a change in fair value are recognized in profit or loss. Interest income using the effective interest method and dividend income from financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are also recognized in profit or loss.

3.5.2 Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income

The Group classifies below financial assets as financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income:

 

   

Debt instruments that are held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets, and where the assets’ cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding and;

 

   

Equity instruments that are not held for short-term trading but held for strategic investment, and designated as financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income

After initial recognition, a financial asset at fair value through other comprehensive income is measured at fair value. Gains or losses arising from a change in fair value, other than dividend income, interest income calculated using the effective interest method and exchange differences arising on monetary items which are recognized directly in profit or loss, are recognized in other comprehensive income in equity.

When the financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income is disposed of, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in other comprehensive income is reclassified from equity to profit or loss. However, cumulative gain or loss of equity instruments designated at fair value through other comprehensive income is reclassified to retained earnings not to profit or loss at disposal.

A financial asset at fair value through other comprehensive income denominated in foreign currency is translated at the closing rate. Exchange differences resulting from changes in amortized cost are recognized in profit or loss, and other changes are recognized in equity.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.5.3 Financial assets at amortized cost

A financial asset, which is held within the business model whose objective is achieved by collecting contractual cash flows, and where the assets’ cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding, is classified as a financial asset at amortized cost. After initial recognition, a financial asset at amortized cost is measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method and interest income is calculated using the effective interest method.

3.6 Expected Credit Losses of Financial Assets (Debt Instruments)

The Group recognizes loss allowances for expected credit losses at the end of the reporting period for financial assets at amortized cost and fair value through other comprehensive income except for financial assets at fair value through profit or loss.

Expected credit losses are estimated at present value of probability-weighted amount that is determined by evaluating a range of possible outcomes. The Group measures expected credit losses by reflecting all reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort at the reporting date about past events, current conditions, and forecasts of future economic conditions.

The approaches of measuring expected credit losses in accordance with Korean IFRS are as follows:

 

   

General approach: for financial assets and unused loan commitments not subject to the below approach

 

   

Credit-impaired approach: for financial assets that are credit-impaired at the time of acquisition

Application of general approach is differentiated depending on whether credit risk has increased significantly after initial recognition. If the credit risk on a financial instrument has not increased significantly since initial recognition, the Group measures loss allowances for that financial instrument at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses, whereas if the credit risk on a financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition, the Group measures loss allowances for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses. Lifetime is the period until the contractual maturity date of financial instruments and means the expected life.

The Group assesses whether the credit risk has increased significantly using the following criteria, and if one or more of the following criteria are met, it is deemed as significant increase in credit risk. Criterion of more than 30 days past due is applied to all subsidiaries, and other criteria are applied selectively considering specific indicators of each subsidiary or additionally considering specific indicators of each subsidiary. If the contractual cash flows of a financial asset have been renegotiated or modified, the Group assesses whether the credit risk has increased significantly using the same following criteria.

 

   

More than 30 days past due

 

   

Decline in credit rating at the end of the reporting period by certain notches or more compared to the time of initial recognition

 

   

Subsequent managing ratings below certain level in the early warning system

 

   

Debt restructuring (except for impaired financial assets) and

 

   

Credit delinquency information of Korea Federation of Banks, etc.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

The Group generally considers the loan to be credit-impaired if one or more of the following criteria are met:

 

   

90 days or more past due

 

   

Legal proceedings related to collection

 

   

A borrower registered on the credit management list of Korea Federation of Banks

 

   

A corporate borrower with the credit rating C and D

 

   

Refinancing and

 

   

Debt restructuring, etc.

3.6.1 Forward-looking information

The Group uses forward-looking information, when determining whether credit risk has increased significantly and measuring expected credit losses.

The Group assumes that the risk components have a constant correlation with the economic cycle and uses statistical methodologies to estimate the relation between key macroeconomic variables and risk components for the expected credit losses. The Group has derived a correlation between the time series data of 11 years or more and the key macroeconomic variables and calculates the expected credit losses by reflecting the results of the correlation on the risk component.

The correlation between the major macroeconomic variables and the credit risk are as follows:

 

Key macroeconomic variables    Correlation between the major
macroeconomic variables and the credit risk
 

Domestic GDP growth rate

     (- )

Composite stock index

     (-

Rate of change of construction investment

     (-

Rate of change of housing transaction price index

     (-

Interest rate spread

     (+

Private consumption growth rate

     (-

Forward-looking information used in calculation of expected credit losses is based on the macroeconomic forecasts utilized by management of the Group for its business plan considering reliable external agency’s forecasts and others. The forward-looking information is generated by KB Research with a comprehensive approach to capture the possibility of various economic forecast scenarios that are derived from the internal and external viewpoints of the macroeconomic situation. The Group determines the macroeconomic variables to be used in forecasting future conditions of the economy, considering the direction of the forecast scenario and the significant relationship between macroeconomic variables and time series data. And there are some changes compared to the macroeconomic variables used in the previous year.

In order to reflect additional credit risk for financial assets whose industries are highly affected by COVID-19, the Group measures expected credit losses using a conservative scenario compared to the forecasted forward-looking information.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.6.2 Measuring expected credit losses on financial assets at amortized cost

The expected credit losses of financial assets at amortized cost are measured as present value of the difference between the contractual cash flows to be received and the cash flows expected to be received. The Group estimates expected future cash flows for financial assets that are individually significant. The Group selects the individually significant financial assets by comprehensively considering quantitative and qualitative factors (such as debt restructuring or negative net assets, etc.) among financial assets with the credit risk has increased significantly or credit-impaired (individual assessment of impairment).

For financial assets that are not individually significant, the Group collectively estimates expected credit losses by grouping loans with a homogeneous credit risk profile (collective assessment of impairment).

3.6.2.1 Individual assessment of impairment

Individual assessment of impairment losses is performed using management’s best estimate on the present value of expected future cash flows. The Group uses all the available information including financial condition of the borrower such as operating cash flow and net realizable value of any collateral held.

3.6.2.2 Collective assessment of impairment

Collective assessment of impairment losses is performed by using a methodology based on historical loss experience and reflecting forward-looking information. Such a process incorporates factors such as type of collateral, type of product, type of borrower, credit rating, size of portfolio, and recovery period and applies Probability of Default (“PD”) on a group of assets and Loss Given Default (“LGD”) by type of recovery method. Also, the Group applies certain assumptions to model expected credit losses assessment and to determine input based on loss experience and forward-looking information. These models and assumptions are periodically reviewed to reduce the gap between loss estimate and actual loss experience.

The lifetime expected credit losses are measured by applying the PD to the carrying amount calculated by deducting the expected principal repayment amount from the carrying amount as of the reporting date and the LGD adjusted to reflect changes in the carrying amount.

3.6.3 Measuring expected credit losses on financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income

The Group measures expected credit losses on financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income in a manner that is consistent with the requirements that are applicable to financial assets at amortized cost. However, loss allowances are recognized in other comprehensive income. Upon disposal or repayment of financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income, the amount of loss allowances is reclassified from other comprehensive income to profit or loss.

3.7 Derivative Financial Instruments

The Group enters into numerous derivative financial instrument contracts such as currency forwards, interest rate swaps, currency swaps, and others for trading purposes or to manage its interest rate risk, currency risk, and others. The Group’s derivative financial instruments business focuses on addressing the needs of the Group’s corporate clients to hedge their risk exposure and to hedge the Group’s risk exposure that results from such client contracts. These derivative financial instruments are presented as derivative financial instruments in the consolidated financial statements irrespective of transaction purpose and subsequent measurement requirement.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

The Group designates certain derivative financial instruments as hedging instruments to hedge the risk of changes in fair value of a recognized asset or liability or of an unrecognized firm commitment (fair value hedge) and the risk of changes in cash flow (cash flow hedge). The Group designates certain derivative and non-derivative financial instruments as hedging instruments to hedge the currency risk of the net investment in a foreign operation (hedge of net investment).

At the inception of the hedging relationship, there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship and the Group’s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. This documentation includes identification of the hedging instrument, the hedged item, the nature of the risk being hedged, the inception date of hedging relationship and how the Group will assess the hedging instrument’s effectiveness in offsetting the changes in the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk.

Derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value. After initial recognition, derivative financial instruments are measured at fair value, and changes therein are accounted for as described below.

3.7.1 Derivative financial instruments held for trading

All derivative financial instruments, except for derivatives that are designated and qualify for hedge accounting, are measured at fair value. Gains or losses arising from changes in fair value are recognized in profit or loss as part of net gains or losses on financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss.

3.7.2 Derivative financial instruments for fair value hedges

If derivative financial instruments are designated and qualify for fair value hedges, changes in fair value of the hedging instrument and changes in fair value of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognized in profit or loss as part of other operating income or expenses. If the hedged items are equity instruments for which the Group has elected to present changes in fair value in other comprehensive income, changes in fair value of the hedging instrument and changes in fair value of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognized in other comprehensive income.

Fair value hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively if the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or the hedging relationship ceases to meet the qualifying criteria. Once fair value hedge accounting is discontinued, the adjustment to the carrying amount of a hedged item is amortized to profit or loss by the maturity of the financial instrument using the effective interest method.

3.7.3 Derivative financial instruments for cash flow hedges

The effective portion of changes in fair value of derivative financial instruments that are designated and qualify for cash flow hedges is recognized in other comprehensive income, limited to the cumulative change in fair value (present value) of the hedged item (the present value of the cumulative change in the hedged expected future cash flows) from inception of the hedge. The ineffective portion is recognized in profit or loss as other operating income or expenses. The associated gains or losses that were previously recognized in other comprehensive income are reclassified from equity to profit or loss (other operating income or expenses) as a reclassification adjustment in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecast cash flows affect profit or loss. Cash flow hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively if the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, or the hedging relationship ceases to meet the qualifying criteria. When the cash flow hedge accounting is discontinued, the cumulative gains or losses on the hedging instrument that have been recognized in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss over the period in which the forecast transaction occurs. If the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gains or losses that have been recognized in other comprehensive income are immediately reclassified to profit or loss.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.7.4 Derivative and non-derivative financial instruments designated for net investments hedges

If derivative and non-derivative financial instruments are designated and qualify for the net investment hedge, the effective portion of changes in fair value of the hedging instrument is recognized in other comprehensive income and the ineffective portion is recognized in profit or loss as other operating income or expenses. The cumulative gains or losses on the hedging instrument relating to the effective portion of the hedge that have been accumulated in other comprehensive income will be reclassified from other comprehensive income to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment on the disposal or partial disposal of the foreign operation.

3.7.5 Risk management strategy

Interest rate risk arises from changes in fair value resulting from changes in the discount rate of fixed rate financial instruments, and changes in cash flows resulting from changes in the nominal interest rate of floating rate financial instruments. Foreign currency risk arises from the net investment in a foreign operation, whose functional currency differs from the Group’s functional currency.

While the Group hedges the interest rate risk in its entirety, the Group hedges the foreign currency risk only the proportional part of the notional amount.

At inception of the hedge relationship, the Group reviews the hedge effectiveness; and periodically reviews the effectiveness in order to confirm that economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument exists. The requirement that an economic relationship exists means that the hedging instrument and the hedged item have values that generally move in the opposite direction due to the same risk, which is the hedged risk. The Group designates the exposure of hedged item opposite to the exposure of hedging instruments in order to meet economic relationship requirement.

The Group designates hedge relationship at one-on-one ratio between the nominal amount of hedging instrument and to the nominal amount of hedged item.

Hedge ineffectiveness could arise because of differences in the underlying parameters (acquisition date, credit risk or liquidity and others) or other differences between the hedging instrument and the hedged item that the Group accepts in order to achieve a cost-effective hedging relationship.

The Group avoids the cash flow variability of its floating rate debt securities by using interest rate swaps. Both are linked to the same interest rate; however, the paid amount of the floating rate may be set on different dates. Even if the variability of interest rate related cash flows (as a risk factor) is designated as a hedged item, the difference in set-up dates creates a hedge ineffectiveness.

The Group avoids the variability of fair values of its fixed rate debt securities by using interest rate swaps. The calculating method of the number of the dates for paying fixed-rate interest amount can be different between hedging instruments and hedged items. Even if the variability of the fair value due to the benchmark interest rate (as a risk factor) are designated as a hedged item, the difference in calculating method of the number of the dates creates a hedge ineffectiveness.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.7.6 Embedded derivatives

An embedded derivative is separated from the host contract and accounted for as a derivative if, and only if, (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative are not closely related to those of the host contract, (b) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative would meet the definition of a derivative and (c) the hybrid contract contains a host that is not a financial asset and is not designated as at fair value through profit or loss. Gains or losses arising from a change in fair value of an embedded derivative separated from the host contract are recognized in profit or loss as part of net gains or losses on financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss.

3.7.7 Day one gains or losses

If the Group uses a valuation technique that incorporates unobservable inputs for the fair value of the OTC derivatives at initial recognition, there may be a difference between the transaction price and the amount determined using that valuation technique. In these circumstances, the difference is not recognized in profit or loss but deferred and amortized using the straight-line method over the life of the financial instrument. If the fair value is subsequently determined using observable inputs, the remaining deferred amount is recognized in profit or loss as part of net gains or losses on financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss or other operating income or expenses.

3.8 Property and Equipment

3.8.1 Recognition and measurement

Property and equipment that qualify for recognition as an asset are measured at cost and subsequently carried at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

The cost of property and equipment includes any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management and the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.

Subsequent expenditures are capitalized only when they prolong the useful life or enhance values of the assets but the costs of the day-to-day servicing of the assets such as repair and maintenance costs are recognized in profit or loss as incurred. When part of an item of property and equipment has a useful life different from that of the entire asset, it is recognized as a separate asset.

3.8.2 Depreciation

Land is not depreciated, whereas other property and equipment are depreciated using the method that reflects the pattern in which the asset’s future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the Group. The depreciable amount of an asset is determined after deducting its residual value.

Each part of an item of property and equipment with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item is depreciated separately.

The depreciation method and estimated useful life of property and equipment are as follows:

 

Property and equipment

 

Depreciation method

  

Estimated useful life

Buildings

  Straight-line    20 ~ 40 years

Leasehold improvements

  Declining-balance    4 years

Equipment and vehicles

  Declining-balance    4 years

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

The residual value, the useful life, and the depreciation method applied to an asset are reviewed at each financial year-end and, if expectations differ from previous estimates, the changes are accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate.

3.9 Investment Properties

3.9.1 Recognition and measurement

Properties held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both are classified as investment properties. Investment properties are measured initially at their cost and subsequently the cost model is used.

3.9.2 Depreciation

Land is not depreciated, whereas other investment properties are depreciated using the method that reflects the pattern in which the asset’s future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the Group. The depreciable amount of an asset is determined after deducting its residual value.

The depreciation method and estimated useful life of investment properties are as follows:

 

Investment properties

 

Depreciation method

  

Estimated useful life

Buildings

  Straight-line    40 years

The residual value, the useful life, and the depreciation method applied to an asset are reviewed at each financial year-end and, if expectations differ from previous estimates, the changes are accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate.

3.10 Intangible Assets

Intangible assets are measured initially at cost and subsequently carried at their cost less any accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses.

Intangible assets, except for goodwill and membership rights, are amortized using the straight-line or declining-balance method with no residual value over their estimated useful life since the assets are available for use.

 

Intangible assets

 

Amortization method

  

Estimated useful life

Industrial property rights

  Straight-line    5 years

Software

  Straight-line    4 ~ 5 years

Others

  Straight-line /Declining-balance    1 ~ 13 years

The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at each financial year-end. Where an intangible asset is not being amortized because its useful life is indefinite, the Group carries out a review in each accounting period to confirm whether events and circumstances still support an indefinite useful life assessment. If they do not, the change in the useful life assessment from indefinite to finite is accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.10.1 Goodwill

3.10.1.1 Recognition and measurement

Goodwill related to business combinations before January 1, 2010, is stated at its carrying amount, which was recognized under the Group’s previous accounting policy, prior to the transition to Korean IFRS.

Goodwill acquired from business combinations after January 1, 2010, is initially measured as the excess of the consideration transferred over the fair value of net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. If the fair value of net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed exceeds the consideration transferred, the difference is recognized in profit or loss.

For each business combination, the Group decides at the acquisition date whether the non-controlling interests in the acquiree are initially measured at fair value or at the non-controlling interests’ proportionate share in the recognized amounts of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets.

Acquisition-related costs incurred to effect a business combination are charged to expenses in the periods in which the costs are incurred and the services are received, except for the costs to issue debt or equity securities.

3.10.1.2 Additional acquisitions of non-controlling interests

Additional acquisitions of non-controlling interests are accounted for as equity transactions. Therefore, no additional goodwill is recognized.

3.10.1.3 Subsequent measurement

Goodwill is not amortized and is stated at cost less accumulated impairment losses. However, goodwill that forms part of the carrying amount of an investment in associates is not separately recognized and an impairment loss recognized is not allocated to any asset, including goodwill, which forms part of the carrying amount of the investment in the associates.

3.10.2 Subsequent expenditures

Subsequent expenditures are capitalized only when they enhance values of the assets. Internally generated intangible assets, such as goodwill and trade name, are not recognized as assets but expensed as incurred.

3.11 Impairment of Non-financial Assets

The Group assesses at the end of each reporting period whether there is any indication that a non-financial asset, except for (a) deferred income tax assets, (b) assets arising from employee benefits and (c) non-current assets (or group of assets to be sold) classified as held for sale, may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. However, irrespective of whether there is any indication of impairment, the Group tests (a) goodwill acquired in a business combination, (b) intangible assets with an indefinite useful life and (c) intangible assets not yet available for use for impairment annually by comparing their carrying amount with their recoverable amount.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

The recoverable amount is estimated for the individual asset. If it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of the individual asset, the Group determines the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. A cash-generating unit is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets. The recoverable amount of an asset is the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from an asset or cash-generating unit that are discounted by a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the future cash flow estimates have not been adjusted.

If the recoverable amount of an asset is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset is reduced to its recoverable amount. That reduction is an impairment loss and recognized immediately in profit or loss. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is allocated to each of the cash-generating units that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. The impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the cash-generating unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the unit.

An impairment loss recognized for goodwill is not reversed in a subsequent period. The Group assesses at the end of each reporting period whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognized in prior periods for an asset, other than goodwill, may no longer exist or may have decreased, and an impairment loss recognized in prior periods for an asset other than goodwill shall be reversed if, and only if, there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The increased carrying amount of an asset other than goodwill attributable to a reversal of an impairment loss cannot exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.

3.12 Non-current Assets Held for Sale

A non-current asset or disposal group is classified as held for sale if its carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. For this to be the case, the asset (or disposal group) must be available for immediate sale in its present condition and its sale must be highly probable. A non-current asset (or disposal group) classified as held for sale is measured at the lower of (a) its carrying amount measured in accordance with the applicable Korean IFRS, immediately before the initial classification of the asset (or disposal group) as held for sale and (b) fair value less costs to sell.

A non-current asset while it is classified as held for sale or while it is part of a disposal group classified as held for sale is not depreciated (or amortized).

Impairment loss is recognized for any initial or subsequent write-down of the asset (or disposal group) to fair value less costs to sell. Gain is recognized for any subsequent increase in fair value less costs to sell of an asset, but not in excess of the cumulative impairment loss that has been recognized.

3.13 Financial Liabilities

The Group classifies financial liabilities into financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss or other financial liabilities in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangement and the definitions of financial liabilities. The Group recognizes financial liabilities in the consolidated statement of financial position when the Group becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the financial liability.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.13.1 Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading or designated as such at initial recognition. After initial recognition, financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value, and changes therein are recognized in profit or loss. At initial recognition, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition are recognized in profit or loss as incurred.

In relation to securities lending or borrowing transactions, when the Group borrows securities from the Korea Securities Depository and others, these transactions are managed as off-balance sheet items. The borrowed securities are treated as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss when they are sold. Changes in fair value at the end of the reporting period and difference between carrying amount at redemption and purchased amount are recognized in profit or loss.

3.13.2 Other financial liabilities

Non-derivative financial liabilities other than financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are classified as other financial liabilities. Other financial liabilities include deposits, borrowings, debentures, and others. At initial recognition, other financial liabilities are measured at fair value minus transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition. After initial recognition, other financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost, and its interest expense is recognized, using the effective interest method.

When an asset is sold under repurchase agreement, the Group continues to recognize the asset with the amount sold being accounted for as borrowings. The Group derecognizes a financial liability from the consolidated statement of financial position only when it is extinguished (i.e., when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, canceled or expires).

3.14 Provisions

Provisions are recognized when the Group has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Inevitable risks and uncertainties surrounding related events and circumstances are considered in measuring the best estimate of the provisions, and where the effect of the time value of money is material, the amount of provisions is the present value of the expenditures expected to be required to settle the obligation.

Provisions for confirmed and unconfirmed acceptances and guarantees, and unused credit lines of consumer and corporate loans are recognized using a valuation model that applies the credit conversion factor, PD, and LGD.

Provisions are reviewed at the end of each reporting period and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. If it is no longer probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation, the provisions are reversed.

An onerous contract is a contract in which the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it. The unavoidable costs under a contract reflect the least net cost of exiting from the contract, which is the lower of the cost of fulfilling it and any compensation or penalties arising from failure to fulfill it. If the Group has a contract that is onerous, the present obligation under the contract is recognized and measured as provisions.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.15 Financial Guarantee Contracts

Financial guarantee contracts require the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payments when due in accordance with the original or modified terms of a debt instrument.

Financial guarantee contracts are initially recognized at fair value and classified as other liabilities and are amortized over the contractual term. After initial recognition, financial guarantee contracts are measured at the higher of:

 

   

The amount determined in accordance with Korean IFRS No.1109 Financial Instruments and

 

   

The amount initially recognized less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognized in accordance with Korean IFRS No.1115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

3.16 Equity Instrument Issued by the Group

An equity instrument is any contract or agreement that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities.

3.16.1 Ordinary shares

Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or the exercise of stock option are deducted from the equity, net of any tax effects.

3.16.2 Hybrid securities

The financial instruments can be classified as either financial liabilities or equity in accordance with the terms of the contract. The Group classifies hybrid securities as an equity if the Group has the unconditional right to avoid any contractual obligation to deliver cash or another financial asset in relation to the financial instruments. However, hybrid securities issued by subsidiaries are classified as non-controlling interests, dividends are recognized in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income as profit attributable to non-controlling interests.

3.16.3 Compound financial instruments

A compound financial instrument is classified as a financial liability or an equity instrument depending on the substance of the contractual arrangement of such financial instrument. The liability component of the compound financial instrument is measured at fair value of the similar liability without conversion option at initial recognition and subsequently measured at amortized cost using effective interest method until it is extinguished by conversion or matured. Equity component is initially measured at fair value of compound financial instrument in its entirety less fair value of liability component net of tax effect, and it is not remeasured subsequently.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.17 Revenue Recognition

The Group recognizes revenues in accordance with the following steps determined in accordance with Korean IFRS No.1115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

 

   

Step 1: Identify the contract with a customer.

 

   

Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract.

 

   

Step 3: Determine the transaction price.

 

   

Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract.

 

   

Step 5: Recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.

3.17.1 Interest income and expense

Interest income and expense on debt securities at fair value through profit or loss (excluding beneficiary certificates, equity investments, and other debt instruments), loans, financial instruments at amortized cost, and debt securities at fair value through other comprehensive income are recognized in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income using the effective interest method in accordance with Korean IFRS No.1109 Financial Instruments. The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial asset or a financial liability and allocating the interest income or interest expense over the relevant period.

The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts or payments through the expected life of the financial instrument or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the gross carrying amount of a financial asset or to the amortized cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Group estimates expected cash flows by considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument but does not consider expected credit losses. The calculation includes all fees and points paid (main components of effective interest rate only) or received between parties to the contract that are an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs, and all other premiums or discounts. In those rare cases when it is not possible to reliably estimate the cash flows and the expected life of a financial instrument, the Group uses the contractual cash flows over the full contractual term of the financial instrument.

Interest income on impaired financial assets is recognized using the interest rate used to discount the expected cash flows for the purpose of measuring the impairment loss. Interest income on debt securities at fair value through profit or loss is also classified as interest income in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income.

3.17.2 Fee and commission income

The Group recognizes financial service fees in accordance with the purpose of charging the fees and the accounting standards of the financial instrument related to the fees earned.

3.17.2.1 Fees that are an integral part of the effective interest of a financial instrument

Such fees are generally treated as adjustments of effective interest rate. Such fees may include compensation for activities such as evaluating the borrower’s financial condition, evaluating and recording guarantees, collateral and other security arrangements, negotiating the terms of the instrument, preparing and processing documents, and closing the transaction and origination fees received on issuing financial liabilities at amortized cost. However, fees relating to the creation or acquisition of a financial instrument at fair value through profit or loss are recognized as revenue immediately.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.17.2.2 Fees related to performance obligations satisfied over time

If the control of a good or service is transferred over time, the Group recognizes revenue related to performance obligations over the period of performance obligations. Fees charged in return for the services for a certain period of time, such as asset management fees, consignment business fees, etc. are recognized over the period of performance obligations.

3.17.2.3 Fees related to performance obligations satisfied at a point in time

Fees earned at a point in time are recognized as revenue when a customer obtains controls of a promised good or service and the Group satisfies a performance obligation.

Commission on negotiation or participation in negotiation for the third party such as trading stocks or other securities, arranging merger and acquisition of business, is recognized as revenue when the transaction has been completed.

If the Group arranges a syndicated loan but does not participate in the syndicated loan or participates in the syndicated loan with the same effective profit as other participants, a syndication arrangement fee is recognized as revenue at the completion of the syndication service.

3.17.3 Net gains or losses on financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss

Net gains or losses on financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss (including changes in fair value, dividends, and gains or losses from foreign currency translation) include gains or losses on financial instruments as follows:

 

   

Gains or losses relating to financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss (excluding interest income using the effective interest rate method)

 

   

Gains or losses relating to derivative financial instruments for trading (including derivative financial instruments for hedging purpose but do not qualify for hedge accounting)

3.17.4 Dividend income

Dividend income is recognized in profit or loss when the right to receive payment is established. Dividend income is recognized as net gains or losses on financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss or other operating income depending on the classification of equity securities.

3.18 Employee Compensation and Benefits

3.18.1 Post-employment benefits

3.18.1.1 Defined contribution plans

When an employee has rendered service to the Group during a period, the Group recognizes the contribution payable to a defined contribution plan in exchange for that service as post-employment benefits for the period.

3.18.1.2 Defined benefit plans

All post-employment benefits, other than defined contribution plans, are classified as defined benefit plans. The amount recognized as a net defined benefit liability is the present value of the defined benefit obligation less the fair value of plan assets at the end of the reporting period.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

The present value of the defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. The rate used to discount post-employment benefit obligations is determined by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on high quality corporate bonds. The currency and term of the corporate bonds are consistent with the currency and estimated term of the post-employment benefit obligations. Actuarial gains and losses resulted from changes in actuarial assumptions and experience adjustments are recognized in other comprehensive income.

When the present value of the defined benefit obligation minus the fair value of plan assets results in an asset, it is recognized to the extent of the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan.

Past service cost is the change in the present value of the defined benefit obligation for employee service in prior periods, resulting from the introduction or changes to a defined benefit plan. Such past service cost is immediately recognized as an expense for the period.

3.18.2 Short-term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits are employee benefits that are expected to be settled wholly before twelve months after the end of the annual reporting period in which the employees render the related service. When an employee has rendered service to the Group during an accounting period, the Group recognizes the undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service as an expense for the period.

The expected cost of profit-sharing and bonus payments is recognized as liabilities when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation to make payments as a result of past events, such as service rendered by employees, and a reliable estimate of the obligation can be made.

3.18.3 Share-based payment

The Group provides its executives and employees with stock grants and mileage stock programs. When stock grants are exercised, the Group can either select to distribute shares of KB Financial Group Inc., the Parent Company or compensate in cash based on the share price. When mileage stock is exercised, the Group pays the amount equivalent to share price of KB Financial Group Inc. in cash.

For a share-based payment transaction in which the terms of the arrangement provide the Group with the choice of whether to settle in cash or by issuing equity instruments, the Group accounts for the transaction in accordance with the requirements applying to cash-settled share-based payment transactions because the Group determines that it has a present obligation to settle in cash based on a past practice and a stated policy of settling in cash. Therefore, the Group measures the liability incurred as consideration for the service received at fair value and recognizes related expense and accrued expense over the vesting periods. For mileage stock, the Group accounts for the transaction in accordance with the requirements applying to cash-settled share-based payment transactions, which are recognized as expense and accrued expenses at the time of vesting.

Until the liability is settled, the Group remeasures the fair value of the liability at the end of each reporting period and at the date of settlement, with any changes in fair value recognized in profit or loss as share-based payments.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

3.18.4 Termination benefits

Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated by the Group before the normal retirement date, or an employee’s decision to accept an offer of benefits in exchange for the termination of employment. The Group recognizes a liability and expense for termination benefits at the earlier of the following dates; when the Group can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits and when the Group recognizes costs for a restructuring that is within the scope of Korean IFRS No.1037 and involves the payment of termination benefits. If the termination benefits are not expected to be settled wholly before twelve months after the end of the annual reporting period, then the termination benefits are discounted to present value.

3.19 Income Tax Expense

Income tax expense comprises current tax expense and deferred income tax expense. Current and deferred income tax are recognized as income or expense and included in profit or loss for the period, except to the extent that the tax arises from (a) a transaction or event which is recognized, in the same or a different period, outside profit or loss, either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity and (b) a business combination.

3.19.1 Current income tax

Current income tax is the amount of income tax payable (recoverable) in respect of the taxable profit (tax loss) for a period. A difference between the taxable profit and accounting profit may arise when income or expense is included in accounting profit in one period but is included in taxable profit in a different period. Differences may also arise if there is revenue that is exempt from taxation, or expense that is not deductible in determining taxable profit (loss). Current income tax liabilities for the current and prior periods are measured using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The Group offsets current income tax assets and current income tax liabilities if, and only if, the Group (a) has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and (b) intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

3.19.2 Deferred income tax

Deferred income tax is recognized, using the asset-liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax-based amount of assets and liabilities and their carrying amount in the financial statements. Deferred income tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences and deferred income tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary difference can be utilized. However, deferred income tax liabilities are not recognized if they arise from the initial recognition of goodwill; deferred income tax assets and liabilities are not recognized if they arise from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination, and at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss.

The Group recognizes a deferred income tax liability for all taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates, except to the extent that the Group is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference, and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

The carrying amount of a deferred income tax asset is reviewed at the end of each reporting period. The Group reduces the carrying amount of a deferred income tax asset to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow the benefit of part or all of that deferred income tax asset to be utilized.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. The measurement of deferred income tax liabilities and deferred income tax assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Group expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

The Group offsets deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities if, and only if the Group has a legally enforceable right to set off current income tax assets against current income tax liabilities and the deferred income tax assets and the deferred income tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either the same taxable entity or different taxable entities which intend either to settle current income tax liabilities and assets on a net basis, or to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously, in each future period in which significant amounts of deferred income tax liabilities or assets are expected to be settled or recovered.

3.19.3 Uncertain tax positions

Uncertain tax positions arise from tax treatments applied by the Group which may be challenged by the tax authorities due to the complexity of the transaction or different interpretation of the tax laws, such as a claim for rectification, a claim for a refund related to additional tax or a tax investigation by the tax authorities. The Group recognizes its uncertain tax positions in the consolidated financial statements in accordance with Korean IFRS No.1012 and Interpretation of Korean IFRS No.2123. The income tax asset is recognized if a tax refund is probable for taxes levied by the tax authority, and the amount to be paid as a result of the tax investigation and others is recognized as the current tax payable. However, penalty tax and additional refund on tax are regarded as penalty or interest and are accounted for in accordance with Korean IFRS No.1037.

3.20 Transactions with the Trust Accounts

The Group accounts for trust assets separately from its own assets in accordance with the Financial Investment Services and Capital Markets Act. The borrowings from trust accounts represent transfer of funds in trust accounts into banking accounts. Such borrowings from trust accounts are recorded as receivables from the banking accounts in the trust accounts and as borrowings from trust accounts in the banking accounts. The Group earns trust fees from the trust accounts for its management of trust assets and operations. The reserves for future profits and losses are set up in the trust accounts for profits and losses related to those trust funds with a guarantee of the principal or of the principal and a certain minimum rate of return in accordance with the relevant laws and regulations applicable to trust operations. The reserves are used to provide for the losses on such trust funds and, if the losses incurred are in excess of the reserves, the excess losses are compensation paid as a loss on trust management in other operating expenses and the trust accounts recognize the corresponding compensation as compensation from banking accounts.

3.21 Lease

The Group as a lessor recognizes lease payments from operating leases as income on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Initial direct costs incurred in obtaining an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the underlying asset and recognized as expense over the lease term on the same basis as lease income. The respective leased assets are included in the consolidated statement of financial position based on their nature.

A lessee is required to recognize a right-of-use asset (lease assets) representing its right to use the underlying leased asset and a lease liability representing its obligation to make lease payments. Assets and liabilities arising from a lease are initially measured at the present value.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

Lease liabilities include the net present value of the following lease payments:

 

   

Fixed payments (including in-substance fixed payments), less any lease incentives receivable

 

   

Variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate

 

   

Amounts expected to be payable by the lessee under residual value guarantees

 

   

The exercise price of a purchase option if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option, and

 

   

Payments of penalties for terminating the lease, if the lease term reflects the lessee exercising an option to terminate the lease

The lease payments are discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease if that rate can be readily determined. If that rate cannot be readily determined, the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate is used, which is the rate of interest that a lessee would have to pay to borrow over a similar term, and with a similar security, the funds necessary to obtain an asset of a similar value to the right-of-use asset in a similar economic environment.

Right-of-use assets are measured at cost comprising the following:

 

   

The amount of the initial measurement of the lease liability

 

   

Any lease payments made at or before the commencement date, less any lease incentives received

 

   

Any initial direct costs incurred by the lessee, and

 

   

An estimate of restoration costs

However, the Group can elect not to apply the requirements of Korean IFRS No.1116 to short-term lease (lease that, at the commencement date, has a lease term of 12 months or less) and leases for which the underlying asset is of low value (for example, underlying leased asset under USD 5,000). The Group applies the exemption of the standard for one time lease of real estate (for training purpose) and leases of low-value assets (underlying assets less than W5 million or USD 5,000).

The right-of-use asset is depreciated from the commencement date to the earlier of the end of the useful life of the right-of-use asset or the end of the lease term.

For sale and leaseback transactions, the Group applies the requirements of Korean IFRS No.1115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, to determine whether the transfer of an asset is accounted for as a sale of that asset.

3.22 Operating Segments

The Group identifies its operating segments based on internal reports which are regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision maker to make decisions about resources to be allocated to the segment and assess its performance.

Segment information includes items which are directly attributable and can be allocated to the segment on a reasonable basis.

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4. Financial Risk Management

4.1 Summary

4.1.1 Overview of financial risk management policy

The financial risks that the Group is exposed to are credit risk, market risk, liquidity risk, operational risk, and others.

This note regarding financial risk management provides information about the risks that the Group is exposed to and about its objectives, policies, risk assessment and management procedures, and capital management. Additional quantitative information is disclosed throughout the consolidated financial statements.

The Group’s risk management system focuses on efficiently supporting long-term strategy and management decisions of each business group through increased risk transparency, spread of risk management culture, prevention of risk transfer between risk types, and preemptive response to rapidly changing financial environments. Credit risk, market risk, liquidity risk, and operational risk are recognized as the Group’s significant risks and measured and managed by quantifying them in the form of internal capital or Value at Risk (“VaR”) using statistical methods.

4.1.2 Risk management organization

4.1.2.1 Risk Management Committee

The Risk Management Committee, as the ultimate decision-making body, approves risk-related issues, such as establishing risk management strategies in accordance with the strategic direction determined by the board of directors, determining the affordable level of risk appetite, and reviewing the level of risk and the status of risk management activities.

4.1.2.2 Risk Management Council

The Risk Management Council deliberates on and resolves matters delegated by the Risk Management Committee and discusses the details of risk management of the Group.

4.1.2.3 Risk Management Subcommittees

The Risk Management Subcommittee implements decisions made by the Risk Management Council and makes practical decisions regarding the implementation of risk management policies and procedures.

 

   

Credit Risk Management Subcommittee

The Credit Risk Management Subcommittee conducts deliberation and resolution on new approval of non-standard and compound instruments with embedded credit risks, review of credit risks for new products with credit risks, and establishment of exposure limits by industry.

 

   

Market Risk Management Subcommittee

The Market Risk Management Subcommittee conducts deliberation and resolution on market risk-related matters, such as setting limits on market risk and approving detailed investment standards for new standard, non-standard and compound products.

 

   

Operational Risk Management Subcommittee

The Operational Risk Management Subcommittee reviews the issues that have a significant effect on the Group’s operational risk such as establishment, amendment and abolition of major system, process and others.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

   

Trust & Fund Customer Asset Risk Management Subcommittee

The Trust & Fund Customer Asset Risk Management Subcommittee reviews the issues that have a significant effect on the trust & fund customer asset risk management such as setting limits on trust & fund customer assets.

4.1.2.4 Risk Management Group

The Risk Management Group manages detailed risk management policies, procedures, and business processes.

4.2 Credit Risk

4.2.1 Overview of credit risk

Credit risk is the risk of loss from the portfolio of assets held due to the counterparty’s default, breach of contract, and deterioration of credit quality. For risk management reporting purposes, the Group considers all factors of credit risk exposure, such as default risk of individual borrowers, country risk, and risk of specific sectors. The Group defines default as the definition applied to the calculation of Capital Adequacy Ratio under the new Basel Accord (Basel III).

4.2.2 Credit risk management

The Group measures the expected loss and internal capital for the assets subject to credit risk management, including on-balance and off-balance assets, and uses them as management indicators. The Group allocates and manages credit risk internal capital limits.

In addition, to prevent excessive concentration of exposures by borrower and industry, the total exposure limit at the Group level is introduced, applied, and managed to control the credit concentration risk.

All of the Group’s loan customers (individuals and corporates) are assigned a credit rating and managed by a comprehensive internal credit evaluation system. For individuals, the credit rating is evaluated by utilizing personal information, income and job information, asset information, and bank transaction information. For corporates, the credit rating is evaluated by analyzing and utilizing financial and non-financial information which measures current and future corporate value and ability to repay the debt. Also, the extent to which corporates have the ability to meet debt obligations is comprehensively considered.

The credit rating, once assigned, serves as the fundamental instrument in the Group’s credit risk management, and is applied in a wide range of credit risk management processes, including credit approval, credit limit management, loan pricing, and assessment of allowances for credit losses. For corporates, the Group conducts a regular credit evaluation at least once a year, and the review and supervision departments regularly validate the adequacy of credit ratings to manage credit risks.

In order to establish a credit risk management system, the Group manages credit risk by forming a separate risk management organization. In particular, independently of the Sales Group, the Credit Management & Analysis Group, Retail Customer Group and SME/SOHO Customer Group are in charge of loan policy, loan system, credit rating, credit analysis, follow-up management, and corporate restructuring. The Risk Management Group is responsible for establishing policies on credit risk management, measuring and limiting internal capital of credit risk, setting credit limits, credit review, and verification of credit rating models.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.2.3 Maximum exposure to credit risk

The Group’s maximum exposures to credit risk without consideration of collateral values in relation to financial instruments other than equity securities as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

(In millions of Korean won)    December 31,
2021
     December 31,
2020
 

Financial assets

     

Due from financial institutions 1

     22,520,401        17,085,898  

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss:

     

Securities measured at fair value through profit or loss

     18,513,088        15,707,842  

Loans measured at fair value through profit or loss

     93,930        38,756  

Due from financial institutions measured at fair value through profit or loss

     113,622        89,965  

Derivatives

     2,965,626        4,456,668  

Loans measured at amortized cost 1

     361,144,701        327,332,495  

Financial investments:

     

Securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

     38,140,906        39,960,675  

Securities measured at amortized cost 1

     22,164,594        15,588,413  

Loans measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

     269,609        234,780  

Other financial assets 1

     5,277,227        5,986,686  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
     471,203,704        426,482,178  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Off-balance sheet items 2

     

Acceptances and guarantees contracts

     10,212,730        8,560,896  

Financial guarantee contracts

     6,021,250        4,354,919  

Commitments

     97,135,905        91,738,296  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
     113,369,885        104,654,111  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
     584,573,589        531,136,289  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

1

After netting of allowance

2

For details of related provisions, see Note 22.

4.2.4 Credit risk of loans

The Group maintains allowances for loan losses associated with credit risk of loans to manage its credit risk.

The Group assesses expected credit losses and recognizes loss allowances of financial assets at amortized cost and financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income (debt instruments). Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are excluded. Expected credit losses are a probability-weighted estimate of possible credit losses occurring in a certain range by reflecting reasonable and supportable information that is reasonably available at the end of the reporting period without undue cost or effort, including information about past events, current conditions, and forecasts of future economic conditions. The Group measures the expected credit losses of loans classified as financial assets at amortized cost, by deducting allowances for credit losses. The expected credit losses of loans classified as financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income are presented in other comprehensive income in the consolidated financial statements.

 

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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.2.4.1 Credit risk exposure

Credit qualities of loans as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

 

(In millions of Korean won)    December 31, 2021  
   12-month
expected
credit losses
     Lifetime expected
credit losses
     Credit
impaired
approach
     Not
applying
    expected    

credit
losses
     Total  
   Non-impaired      Impaired  

Loans measured at amortized cost *

 

Corporate

 

Grade 1

     103,439,876        4,787,901        3,583        —          —          108,231,360  

Grade 2

     62,433,823        7,488,667        4,321        —          —          69,926,811  

Grade 3

     4,622,781        2,794,294        2,489        —          —          7,419,564  

Grade 4

     479,723        1,025,557        7,548        —          —          1,512,828  

Grade 5

     12,851        351,420        2,082,350        —          —          2,446,621  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     170,989,054        16,447,839        2,100,291        —          —          189,537,184  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Retail

 

Grade 1

     157,931,555        4,297,133        10,972        —          —          162,239,660  

Grade 2

     4,174,715        4,066,176        12,202        —          —          8,253,093  

Grade 3

     762,603        1,128,603        8,161        —          —          1,899,367  

Grade 4

     38,566        140,041        3,134        —          —          181,741  

Grade 5

     494,814        305,052        605,210        —          —          1,405,076  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     163,402,253        9,937,005        639,679        —          —          173,978,937  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Credit card

 

Grade 1

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Grade 2

     32,376        —          —          —          —          32,376  

Grade 3

     935        —          —          —          —          935  

Grade 4

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Grade 5

     —          —          22,209        —          —          22,209  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     33,311        —          22,209        —          —          55,520  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     334,424,618        26,384,844        2,762,179        —          —          363,571,641  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Loans measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

 

Corporate

 

Grade 1

     189,872        —          —          —          —          189,872  

Grade 2

     79,737        —          —          —          —          79,737  

Grade 3

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Grade 4

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Grade 5

     —          —          —          —          —          —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     269,609        —          —          —          —          269,609  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     269,609        —          —          —          —          269,609  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     334,694,227        26,384,844        2,762,179        —          —          363,841,250  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

40


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

(In millions of Korean won)    December 31, 2020  
   12-month
expected
credit losses
     Lifetime expected
credit losses
     Credit
impaired
approach
     Not
applying
    expected    
credit
losses
     Total  
   Non-impaired      Impaired  

Loans measured at amortized cost *

 

Corporate

 

Grade 1

     85,802,797        4,470,806        6,545        —          —          90,280,148  

Grade 2

     58,494,076        6,777,700        1,119        —          —          65,272,895  

Grade 3

     2,228,426        2,436,658        3,042        —          —          4,668,126  

Grade 4

     487,038        1,003,942        7,878        —          —          1,498,858  

Grade 5

     17,941        384,014        2,101,014        —          —          2,502,969  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     147,030,278        15,073,120        2,119,598        —          —          164,222,996  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Retail

                 

Grade 1

     151,410,177        3,439,344        5,987        —          —          154,855,508  

Grade 2

     3,947,198        3,913,432        6,160        —          —          7,866,790  

Grade 3

     230,361        1,157,224        6,971        —          —          1,394,556  

Grade 4

     19,077        124,562        3,269        —          —          146,908  

Grade 5

     25,369        400,181        546,039        —          —          971,589  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     155,632,182        9,034,743        568,426        —          —          165,235,351  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Credit card

                 

Grade 1

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Grade 2

     37,053        —          —          —          —          37,053  

Grade 3

     1,467        —          —          —          —          1,467  

Grade 4

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Grade 5

     —          —          22,439        —          —          22,439  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     38,520        —          22,439        —          —          60,959  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     302,700,980        24,107,863        2,710,463        —          —          329,519,306  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Loans measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

 

Corporate

                 

Grade 1

     176,840        —          —          —          —          176,840  

Grade 2

     57,940        —          —          —          —          57,940  

Grade 3

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Grade 4

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Grade 5

     —          —          —          —          —          —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     234,780        —          —          —          —          234,780  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     234,780        —          —          —          —          234,780  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     302,935,760        24,107,863        2,710,463        —          —          329,754,086  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

*

Before netting of allowance

Credit qualities of loans graded according to internal credit ratings as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

     Corporate    Retail

Grade 1

   AAA ~ BBB+    1 ~ 5 grade

Grade 2

   BBB ~ BB    6 ~ 8 grade

Grade 3

   BB- ~ B    9 ~ 10 grade

Grade 4

   B- ~ CCC    11 grade

Grade 5

   CC or under    12 grade or under

 

41


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.2.4.2 Credit risk mitigation by collateral

Quantification of the extent to which collateral and other credit enhancements mitigate credit risk of loans as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

(In millions of Korean won)    December 31, 2021  
     12-month
expected
credit losses
     Lifetime expected
credit losses
     Credit
impaired
approach
     Not
applying
expected
 credit losses 
     Total  
   Non-impaired      Impaired  

Guarantees

     89,847,133        6,586,809        391,042        —          —          96,824,984  

Deposits and savings

     1,606,882        98,380        75,674        —          —          1,780,936  

Property and equipment

     4,364,540        327,722        279,961        —          —          4,972,223  

Real estate

     177,948,425        13,477,437        1,953,759        —          —          193,379,621  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     273,766,980        20,490,348        2,700,436        —          —          296,957,764  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(In millions of Korean won)    December 31, 2020  
     12-month
expected
credit losses
     Lifetime expected
credit losses
     Credit
impaired
approach
     Not
applying
expected
 credit losses 
     Total  
   Non-impaired      Impaired  

Guarantees

     78,510,868        5,708,138        184,422        —          —          84,403,428  

Deposits and savings

     1,424,757        149,745        64,355        —          —          1,638,857  

Property and equipment

     3,883,931        471,313        71,021        —          —          4,426,265  

Real estate

     166,812,667        12,453,807        1,792,642        —          —          181,059,116  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     250,632,223        18,783,003        2,112,440        —          —          271,527,666  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

42


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.2.5 Credit risk of securities

Credit qualities of securities exposed to credit risk other than equity securities among financial investments as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

(In millions of Korean won)    December 31, 2021  
     12-month
expected
credit losses
     Lifetime expected
credit losses
     Credit
impaired
approach
     Not
applying
expected
 credit losses 
     Total  
     Non-impaired      Impaired  

Securities measured at amortized cost *

                                      

Grade 1

     21,219,056        —          —          —          —          21,219,056  

Grade 2

     935,607        —          —          —          —          935,607  

Grade 3

     5,588        7,641        —          —          —          13,229  

Grade 4

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Grade 5

     —          —          —          —          —          —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     22,160,251        7,641        —          —          —          22,167,892  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

 

Grade 1

     35,690,767        —          —          —          —          35,690,767  

Grade 2

     2,377,924        —          —          —          —          2,377,924  

Grade 3

     29,108        3,973        —          —          —          33,081  

Grade 4

     39,134        —          —          —          —          39,134  

Grade 5

     —          —          —          —          —          —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     38,136,933        3,973        —          —          —          38,140,906  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
       60,297,184               11,614        —          —          —            60,308,798  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(In millions of Korean won)    December 31, 2020  
     12-month
expected
credit losses
     Lifetime expected
credit losses
     Credit
impaired
approach
     Not
applying
expected
 credit losses 
     Total  
     Non-impaired      Impaired  

Securities measured at amortized cost *

                                      

Grade 1

     15,076,443        —          —          —          —          15,076,443  

Grade 2

     468,773        —          —          —          —          468,773  

Grade 3

     38,454        7,061        —          —          —          45,515  

Grade 4

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

Grade 5

     —          —          —          —          —          —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     15,583,670        7,061        —          —          —          15,590,731  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

 

Grade 1

     38,289,525        —          —          —          —          38,289,525  

Grade 2

     1,584,293        —          —          —          —          1,584,293  

Grade 3

     79,336        —          —          —          —          79,336  

Grade 4

     7,521        —          —          —          —          7,521  

Grade 5

     —          —          —          —          —          —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     39,960,675        —          —          —          —          39,960,675  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
       55,544,345                 7,061        —          —          —            55,551,406  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

*

Before netting of allowance

 

43


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

Credit qualities of securities other than equity securities, according to the credit ratings by external credit rating agencies as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

    

Domestic

  

Foreign

Credit

quality

  

KIS

  

NICE P&I

  

FnPricing Inc.

  

S&P

  

Fitch-IBCA

  

Moody’s

Grade 1

   AA0 to AAA    AA0 to AAA    AA0 to AAA    A-to AAA    A-to AAA    A3 to Aaa

Grade 2

   A- to AA-    A- to AA-    A- to AA-    BBB-to BBB+    BBB-to BBB+    Baa3 to Baa1

Grade 3

   BBB0 to BBB+    BBB0 to BBB+    BBB0 to BBB+    BB to BB+    BB to BB+    Ba2 to Ba1

Grade 4

   BB0 to BBB-    BB0 to BBB-    BB0 to BBB-    B+ to BB-    B+ to BB-    B1 to Ba3

Grade 5

   BB- or under    BB- or under    BB- or under    B or under    B or under    B2 or under

Credit qualities of debt securities denominated in Korean won are based on the lowest credit rating by the domestic credit rating agencies above, and those denominated in foreign currencies are based on the lowest credit rating by the foreign credit rating agencies above.

4.2.6 Credit risk of due from financial institutions

Credit qualities of due from financial institutions as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

     December 31, 2021  
(In millions of Korean won)    12-month
expected
credit losses
     Lifetime expected
credit losses
     Credit
impaired
approach
     Total  
   Non-impaired      Impaired  

Due from financial institutions measured at amortized cost *

                                         

Grade 1

     20,705,356        —          —          —          20,705,356  

Grade 2

     1,305,500        —          —          —          1,305,500  

Grade 3

     61,177        —          —          —          61,177  

Grade 4

     439,511        —          —          —          439,511  

Grade 5

     10,984        —          —          —          10,984  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     22,522,528        —          —          —          22,522,528  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

     December 31, 2020  
(In millions of Korean won)    12-month
expected
credit losses
     Lifetime expected
credit losses
     Credit
impaired
approach
     Total  
   Non-impaired      Impaired  

Due from financial institutions measured at amortized cost *

              

Grade 1

     15,802,294        —          —          —          15,802,294  

Grade 2

     334,207        —          —          —          334,207  

Grade 3

     445,732        13,099        —          —          458,831  

Grade 4

     479,143        —          —          —          479,143  

Grade 5

     13,520        —          282        —          13,802  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     17,074,896        13,099        282        —          17,088,277  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

*

Before netting of allowance

The classification criteria of the credit qualities of due from financial institutions as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are the same as the criteria for securities other than equity securities.

 

44


Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.2.7 Credit risk mitigation of derivative financial instruments

Quantification of the extent to which collateral mitigates credit risk of derivative financial instruments as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

(In millions of Korean won)    December 31,
2021
     December 31,
2020
 

Deposits, savings, securities, and others

     424,731        1,264,017  

4.2.8 Credit risk concentration analysis

4.2.8.1 Classifications of loans by country as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

     December 31, 2021  
(In millions of Korean won)    Retail      Corporate *      Credit
card
     Total      %      Allowances     Carrying
amount
 

Korea

     170,760,822        168,733,575        —          339,494,397        93.28        (1,459,209     338,035,188  

Japan

     86        1,082,456        —          1,082,542        0.30        (2,332     1,080,210  

United States

     —          3,313,100        —          3,313,100        0.91        (25,289     3,287,811  

China

     34,982        6,743,756        —          6,778,738        1.86        (34,315     6,744,423  

Cambodia

     1,748,349        3,115,992        —          4,864,341        1.34        (66,155     4,798,186  

Indonesia

     1,249,822        3,710,586        55,520        5,015,928        1.38        (821,707     4,194,221  

Others

     184,876        3,201,258        —          3,386,134        0.93        (17,933     3,368,201  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 
     173,978,937        189,900,723        55,520        363,935,180        100.00        (2,426,940     361,508,240  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

     December 31, 2020  
(In millions of Korean won)    Retail      Corporate *      Credit
card
     Total      %      Allowances     Carrying
amount
 

Korea

     162,521,943        149,253,281        —          311,775,224        94.55        (1,362,777     310,412,447  

Japan

     94        960,604        —          960,698        0.29        (1,258     959,440  

United States

     —          1,690,540        —          1,690,540        0.51        (19,011     1,671,529  

China

     —          4,518,737        —          4,518,737        1.37        (20,485     4,498,252  

Cambodia

     1,302,850        2,272,777        —          3,575,627        1.08        (84,713     3,490,914  

Indonesia

     1,221,257        3,636,434        60,959        4,918,650        1.49        (689,408     4,229,242  

Others

     189,207        2,164,159        —          2,353,366        0.71        (9,159     2,344,207  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 
     165,235,351        164,496,532        60,959        329,792,842        100.00        (2,186,811     327,606,031  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

*

Expected credit losses of loans measured at fair value through other comprehensive income as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are W675 million and W395 million, respectively.

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.2.8.2 Classifications of corporate loans by industry as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

     December 31, 2021  
(In millions of Korean won)    Loans *      %      Allowances      Carrying
amount
 

Financial institutions

     18,037,439        9.50        (13,657      18,023,782  

Manufacturing

     48,190,687        25.38        (502,209      47,688,478  

Service

     80,868,551        42.58        (387,437      80,481,114  

Wholesale and retail

     26,108,596        13.75        (246,687      25,861,909  

Construction

     4,387,199        2.31        (202,627      4,184,572  

Public sector

     1,832,305        0.96        (94,668      1,737,637  

Others

     10,475,946        5.52        (289,934      10,186,012  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     189,900,723        100.00        (1,737,219      188,163,504  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

     December 31, 2020  
(In millions of Korean won)    Loans *      %      Allowances      Carrying
amount
 

Financial institutions

     12,807,603        7.78        (7,802      12,799,801  

Manufacturing

     45,229,743        27.49        (467,605      44,762,138  

Service

     71,466,009        43.45        (349,419      71,116,590  

Wholesale and retail

     22,414,994        13.63        (234,360      22,180,634  

Construction

     3,609,505        2.19        (164,845      3,444,660  

Public sector

     1,358,422        0.83        (74,717      1,283,705  

Others

     7,610,256        4.63        (266,134      7,344,122  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     164,496,532        100.00        (1,564,882      162,931,650  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

*

Expected credit losses of loans measured at fair value through other comprehensive income as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are W 675 million and W 395 million, respectively.

4.2.8.3 Classifications of retail loans and credit card receivables as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

     December 31, 2021  
(In millions of Korean won)    Loans      %      Allowances      Carrying
amount
 

Housing loan

     93,249,089        53.58        (68,753      93,180,336  

General loan

     80,729,848        46.39        (600,372      80,129,476  

Credit card

     55,520        0.03        (20,596      34,924  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     174,034,457        100.00           (689,721      173,344,736  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

     December 31, 2020  
(In millions of Korean won)    Loans      %      Allowances      Carrying
amount
 

Housing loan

     86,848,079        52.54        (59,059      86,789,020  

General loan

     78,387,272        47.42        (559,772      77,827,500  

Credit card

     60,959        0.04        (3,098      57,861  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     165,296,310        100.00           (621,929      164,674,381  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.2.8.4 Classifications of domestic mortgage loans as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

     December 31, 2021  
(In millions of Korean won)    Loans *      %      Allowances      Carrying
amount
 

Group1

     16,780,623        17.13        (10,465      16,770,158  

Group2

     39,583,150        40.41        (10,375      39,572,775  

Group3

     31,772,074        32.43        (9,957      31,762,117  

Group4

     9,677,419        9.88        (6,517      9,670,902  

Group5

     140,182        0.14        (273      139,909  

Group6

     10,328        0.01        (87      10,241  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
       97,963,776        100.00             (37,674        97,926,102  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

     December 31, 2020  
(In millions of Korean won)    Loans *      %      Allowances      Carrying
amount
 

Group1

     13,721,317        14.22        (8,252      13,713,065  

Group2

     26,749,535        27.74        (6,001      26,743,534  

Group3

     35,831,558        37.16        (9,458      35,822,100  

Group4

     19,706,942        20.44        (13,319      19,693,623  

Group5

     401,295        0.42        (1,413      399,882  

Group6

     15,962        0.02        (147      15,815  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
       96,426,609        100.00             (38,590        96,388,019  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

*

Retail loans for general purpose with the real estate as collateral are included.

 

    

Ranges

Group1

   LTV 0% to less than 20%

Group2

   LTV 20% to less than 40%

Group3

   LTV 40% to less than 60%

Group4

   LTV 60% to less than 80%

Group5

   LTV 80% to less than 100%

Group6

   LTV over 100%

 

*

LTV: Loan to Value ratio

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.2.8.5 Classifications of due from financial institutions, securities other than equity securities, and derivative financial assets by industry as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

     December 31, 2021  
(In millions of Korean won)    Amount      %      Allowances      Carrying
amount
 

Due from financial institutions measured at amortized cost

 

Finance and insurance

     22,522,528        100.00        (2,127      22,520,401  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     22,522,528        100.00        (2,127      22,520,401  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at fair value through profit or loss

           

Government and government funded institutions

     3,367,648        18.19        —          3,367,648  

Finance and insurance 1

     12,336,217        66.64        —          12,336,217  

Others

     2,809,223        15.17        —          2,809,223  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     18,513,088        100.00        —          18,513,088  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Derivative financial assets

           

Government and government funded institutions

     6,985        0.24        —          6,985  

Finance and insurance 1

     2,810,005        94.75        —          2,810,005  

Others

     148,636        5.01        —          148,636  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     2,965,626        100.00        —          2,965,626  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income 2

 

Government and government funded institutions

     13,553,504        35.54        —          13,553,504  

Finance and insurance

     19,463,563        51.03        —          19,463,563  

Others

     5,123,839        13.43        —          5,123,839  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     38,140,906        100.00        —          38,140,906  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at amortized cost

           

Government and government funded institutions

     12,402,272        55.95        —          12,402,272  

Finance and insurance

     9,552,417        43.09        (3,075      9,549,342  

Others

     213,203        0.96        (223      212,980  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     22,167,892        100.00        (3,298      22,164,594  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     104,310,040                  (5,425      104,304,615  
  

 

 

       

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

     December 31, 2020  
(In millions of Korean won)    Amount      %      Allowances      Carrying
amount
 

Due from financial institutions measured at amortized cost

 

Finance and insurance

     17,088,277        100.00        (2,379      17,085,898  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     17,088,277        100.00        (2,379      17,085,898  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at fair value through profit or loss

           

Government and government funded institutions

     3,856,785        24.55        —          3,856,785  

Finance and insurance 1

     10,382,964        66.10        —          10,382,964  

Others

     1,468,093        9.35        —          1,468,093  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     15,707,842        100.00        —          15,707,842  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Derivative financial assets

           

Government and government funded institutions

     44,670        1.00        —          44,670  

Finance and insurance 1

     3,829,897        85.94        —          3,829,897  

Others

     582,101        13.06        —          582,101  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     4,456,668        100.00        —          4,456,668  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income 2

 

  

Government and government funded institutions

     14,625,964        36.60        —          14,625,964  

Finance and insurance

     21,175,736        52.99        —          21,175,736  

Others

     4,158,975        10.41        —          4,158,975  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     39,960,675        100.00        —          39,960,675  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at amortized cost

           

Government and government funded institutions

     5,162,860        33.11        —          5,162,860  

Finance and insurance

     10,378,899        66.57               (2,300      10,376,599  

Others

     48,972        0.32        (18      48,954  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     15,590,731        100.00        (2,318      15,588,413  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
       92,804,193           (4,697        92,799,496  
  

 

 

       

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

1

Collective investment securities (including transactions with collective investment schemes) are classified as finance and insurance.

2

Expected credit losses of securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are W8,223 million and W4,312 million, respectively.

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.2.8.6 Classifications of due from financial institutions, securities other than equity securities, and derivative financial assets by country as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

     December 31, 2021  
(In millions of Korean won)    Amount      %      Allowances      Carrying
amount
 

Due from financial institutions measured at amortized cost

 

Korea

     16,666,513        74.00        —          16,666,513  

United States

     2,381,704        10.57        (39      2,381,665  

Others

     3,474,311        15.43        (2,088      3,472,223  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     22,522,528        100.00        (2,127      22,520,401  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at fair value through profit or loss

           

Korea

     16,289,547        87.99        —          16,289,547  

United States

     1,246,236        6.73        —          1,246,236  

Others

     977,305        5.28        —          977,305  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     18,513,088        100.00        —          18,513,088  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Derivative financial assets

           

Korea

     1,060,073        35.75        —          1,060,073  

United States

     707,545        23.86        —          707,545  

France

     370,787        12.50        —          370,787  

Others

     827,221        27.89        —          827,221  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     2,965,626        100.00        —          2,965,626  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income *

           

Korea

     34,298,370        89.93        —          34,298,370  

United States

     556,810        1.46        —          556,810  

Others

     3,285,726        8.61        —          3,285,726  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     38,140,906        100.00        —          38,140,906  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at amortized cost

           

Korea

     21,250,543        95.86               (2,803      21,247,740  

United States

     76,812        0.35        (106      76,706  

United Kingdom

     157,558        0.71        (141      157,417  

Others

     682,979        3.08        (248      682,731  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     22,167,892        100.00        (3,298      22,164,594  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     104,310,040           (5,425      104,304,615  
  

 

 

       

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

     December 31, 2020  
(In millions of Korean won)    Amount      %      Allowances      Carrying
amount
 

Due from financial institutions measured at amortized cost

 

Korea

     12,131,470        70.99        —          12,131,470  

United States

     1,952,700        11.43        (282      1,952,418  

Others

     3,004,107        17.58        (2,097      3,002,010  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     17,088,277        100.00        (2,379      17,085,898  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at fair value through profit or loss

           

Korea

     13,886,018        88.40        —          13,886,018  

United States

     1,132,332        7.21        —          1,132,332  

Others

     689,492        4.39        —          689,492  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     15,707,842        100.00        —          15,707,842  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Derivative financial assets

           

Korea

     2,120,424        47.58        —          2,120,424  

United States

     612,878        13.75        —          612,878  

France

     399,942        8.97        —          399,942  

Others

     1,323,424        29.70        —          1,323,424  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     4,456,668        100.00        —          4,456,668  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income *

 

  

Korea

     37,158,763        92.99        —          37,158,763  

United States

     223,750        0.56        —          223,750  

Others

     2,578,162        6.45        —          2,578,162  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     39,960,675        100.00        —          39,960,675  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Securities measured at amortized cost

           

Korea

     14,757,644        94.66               (2,015      14,755,629  

United States

     5,473        0.04        (4      5,469  

United Kingdom

     272,511        1.75        (103      272,408  

Others

     555,103        3.55        (196      554,907  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     15,590,731        100.00        (2,318      15,588,413  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
       92,804,193           (4,697        92,799,496  
  

 

 

       

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

*

Expected credit loss of securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are W8,223 million and W4,312 million, respectively.

Due from financial institutions, financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss linked to gold price, and derivative financial instruments are mostly related to the finance and insurance industry with high credit ratings.

 

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Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.3 Liquidity Risk

4.3.1 Overview of liquidity risk

Liquidity risk is a risk that the Group becomes insolvent due to the mismatch between the inflow and outflow of funds, unexpected cash outflows, or a risk of loss due to financing funds at a high interest rate or disposing of securities at an unfavorable price due to lack of available funds. The Group manages its liquidity risk through analysis of the contractual maturity of interest-bearing assets and liabilities, assets and liabilities related to the other inflows and outflows of funds, and off-balance sheet items related to the inflows and outflows of funds such as currency derivative instruments and others.

4.3.2 Liquidity risk management and indicator

The liquidity risk is managed by comprehensive risk management policies and Asset Liability Management (“ALM”) risk management guidelines set forth in these policies that apply to all risk management policies and procedures that may arise throughout the overall business of the Group.

The Group establishes a liquidity risk management strategy, including objectives of liquidity risk management, management policies, and internal control systems, and obtains a resolution from the Risk Management Committee. The Risk Management Committee establishes the Risk Management Council for efficient risk management to supervise the establishment and implementation of policies according to risk management strategies.

The Group calculates and manages Liquidity Coverage Ratio (“LCR”), Net Stable Funding Ratio (“NSFR”), liquidity ratio, maturity mismatch ratio and liquidity stress testing result for all transactions and off-balance transactions, that affect the cash flows in Korean won and foreign currency funds raised and operated for the management of liquidity risks and periodically reports them to the Risk Management Council and the Risk Management Committee.

4.3.3 Analysis of remaining contractual maturity of financial liabilities

The cash flows disclosed in the maturity analysis are undiscounted contractual amounts including principal and future interest and payments; as such, amounts in the table below do not match with those in the consolidated statements of financial position which are based on discounted cash flows. The future interest payments of floating-rate liabilities are calculated on the assumption that the current interest rate is the same until maturity.

 

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Table of Contents

Kookmin Bank and Subsidiaries

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

 

4.3.3.1 Remaining contractual maturity of financial liabilities other than derivatives held for cash flow hedge, and off-balance sheet items as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, are as follows:

 

(In millions of Korean won)    December 31, 2021  
   On demand      Up to
1 month
     1-3
months
     3-12
months
     1-5
years
     Over 5
years
     Total  

Financial liabilities

                    

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss 1

     112,698        —          —          —          —          —          112,698  

Derivatives held for trading 1

     2,706,941        —          —          —          —          —          2,706,941  

Derivatives held for hedging 2

     —          2,291        5,996        6,589        15,213        1,423        31,512  

Deposits 3

     197,481,610        16,451,640        30,892,560        109,842,440        9,940,768        1,412,235        366,021,253  

Borrowings

     55,250        9,790,484        4,454,109        10,242,437        7,335,764        901,063        32,779,107  

Debentures

     14,528        1,163,009        3,233,191        12,576,806        9,468,210        4,769,756        31,225,500  

Lease liabilities

     139        15,672        29,838        113,617        215,641        18,616        393,523  

Other financial liabilities

     —          16,929,504        1,486        119,647        47,631        —          17,098,268  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     200,371,166        44,352,600        38,617,180        132,901,536        27,023,227        7,103,093        450,368,802  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Off-balance sheet items

                    

Commitments 5

     97,135,905        —          —          —          —          —          97,135,905  

Acceptances and guarantees contracts

     10,212,730        —          —          —          —          —          10,212,730  

Financial guarantee contracts 6

     6,021,250        —          —          —          —          —          6,021,250  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     113,369,885        —          —          —          —          —          113,369,885  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
(In millions of Korean won)    December 31, 2020  
   On demand      Up to
1 month
     1-3
months
     3-12
months
     1-5
years
     Over 5
years
     Total  

Financial liabilities

                    

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss 1

     141,277        —          —          —          —          —          141,277  

Derivatives held for trading 1

     4,215,097        —          —          —          —          —          4,215,097  

Derivatives held for hedging 2

     —          2,807        3,556        14,545        32,981        109        53,998  

Deposits 3

     175,037,700        17,146,967        28,299,527        98,963,384        11,965,747        1,825,797        333,239,122  

Borrowings

     47,502        8,899,500        3,586,809        7,380,706        6,360,442        836,792        27,111,751  

Debentures

     17,783        1,184,565        4,136,912        7,550,002        11,299,725        4,038,300        28,227,287  

Lease liabilities

     205        16,362        29,955        111,734        214,008        27,970        400,234  

Other financial liabilities 4

     —          13,611,041        1,075        124,707        50,993        1,060        13,788,876  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
     179,459,564        40,861,242        36,057,834        114,145,078        29,923,896        6,730,028        407,177,642  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Off-balance sheet items

                    

Commitments 5

     91,738,296        —          —          —          —          —          91,738,296  

Acceptances and guarantees contracts

     8,560,896        —          —          —          —          —          8,560,896  

Financial guarantee contracts 6

     4,354,919        —          —          —