0001564590-17-002248.txt : 20170223 0001564590-17-002248.hdr.sgml : 20170223 20170223171651 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001564590-17-002248 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 10-K PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 92 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20161231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20170223 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20170223 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: Digimarc CORP CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001438231 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: SERVICES-COMPUTER INTEGRATED SYSTEMS DESIGN [7373] IRS NUMBER: 262828185 STATE OF INCORPORATION: OR FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 10-K SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-34108 FILM NUMBER: 17633629 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 9405 SW GEMINI DRIVE CITY: BEAVERTON STATE: OR ZIP: 97008 BUSINESS PHONE: 503-469-4618 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 9405 SW GEMINI DRIVE CITY: BEAVERTON STATE: OR ZIP: 97008 FORMER COMPANY: FORMER CONFORMED NAME: DMRC CORP DATE OF NAME CHANGE: 20080620 10-K 1 dmrc-10k_20161231.htm 10-K dmrc-10k_20161231.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016

OR

Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the transition period from          to          

Commission File Number 001-34108

 

DIGIMARC CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Oregon

 

26-2828185

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

9405 SW Gemini Drive, Beaverton, Oregon 97008

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(503) 469-4800

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, $0.001 Par Value Per Share

 

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

The aggregate market value of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed fiscal second quarter (June 30, 2016), was approximately $278 million. Shares of common stock beneficially held by each officer and director have been excluded from this computation because these persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for any other purposes.

As of February 17, 2017, 10,689,383 shares of the registrant’s common stock were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A (the “Proxy Statement”) for its 2017 annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated by reference into Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The registrant intends to file the Proxy Statement not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

PART I

 

 

 

Item 1.

Business

1

 

 

 

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

6

 

 

 

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

18

 

 

 

Item 2.

Properties

18

 

 

 

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

18

 

 

 

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

18

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

19

 

 

 

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

22

 

 

 

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

23

 

 

 

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

44

 

 

 

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

44

 

 

 

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

44

 

 

 

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

45

 

 

 

Item 9B.

Other Information

46

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

47

 

 

 

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

47

 

 

 

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

47

 

 

 

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

47

 

 

 

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

47

 

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

48

 

 

SIGNATURES

49

 

 

EXHIBIT INDEX

E-1

 

 

 

 


 

PART I

Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “Digimarc,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Digimarc Corporation.

All dollar amounts are in thousands except per share amounts or unless otherwise noted. Percentages within the following tables may not foot due to rounding.

Digimarc, Digimarc Discover and Guardian are registered trademarks of Digimarc Corporation. This Annual Report on Form 10-K also includes trademarks and trade names owned by other parties, and all other such trademarks and trade names mentioned in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are the property of their respective owners.

ITEM 1:

BUSINESS

The following discussion of Digimarc’s business contains forward-looking statements relating to future events or the future financial performance of Digimarc. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements. Please see the discussion regarding forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, under the caption “Forward-Looking Statements.”

The following discussion of our business should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Overview

Digimarc Corporation, an Oregon corporation founded in 2008, enables governments and enterprises around the world to give digital identities to media and objects that computers can sense and recognize, and to which they can react. We have developed the Digimarc Discover®, Digimarc Barcode and Intuitive Computing Platform that are designed to optimize the identification of all consumer brand impressions, wherever and whenever they may appear, facilitating modern mobile-centric shopping. The platform includes means to embed “Digimarc Barcodes,” invisible and inaudible barcode-like information that is recognizable by smartphones, tablets, industrial scanners, and other computer interfaces into virtually all forms of media content, including consumer product packaging. Digimarc Barcodes have many applications, including facilitating remarkably faster scanning of products at retail checkout as well as improved engagement with smartphone-equipped consumers. The Digimarc Barcode is robust yet imperceptible by people in ordinary use, allowing for reliable, efficient, economical, globally scalable, automatic identification of media without visible computer codes like traditional barcodes.

Our media identification and discovery innovations enable our business partners to create numerous applications across a wide range of media content, including solutions that:

 

Improve the speed of retail checkout;

 

Provide simple and intuitive mobile customer engagement experiences in stores;

 

Quickly and reliably identify and effectively manage music, movies, television programming, digital images, e-publications, documents and other printed materials, especially in light of non-linear distribution over the Internet;

 

Deter counterfeiting of money, media and goods, and piracy of e-publications, movies and music;

 

Support new digital media distribution models and methods to monetize media content;

 

Leverage the power of ubiquitous computing to instantly link consumers to a wealth of information and/or interactive experiences related to the media and objects they encounter each day;

 

Provide consumers with more choice and access to media content when, where and how they want it;

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Enhance imagery and video by associating metadata or authenticating media content for government and commercial uses; and

 

Better secure identity documents to enhance national security and combat identity theft and fraud.

Our Intuitive Computing Platform has a proprietary foundation in signal processing innovation known as “digital watermarking,” which allows imperceptible digital information to be embedded in all forms of digitally designed, produced or distributed media content and many physical objects, including photographs, movies, music, television, personal identification documents, financial instruments, industrial parts and product packages. We refer to the embedded information as the Digimarc Barcode. This digital information can be detected and read by a wide range of computers, smartphones, tablets and other digital devices.

Our inventions allow our business partners and customers to provide persistent digital identities for virtually any media content that is digitally processed at some point during its lifecycle. Our technology can be applied to printed materials, video, audio, and images to supply a wide range of consumer engagement, media management and security solutions across multiple consumer and government industry sectors. Over the years our enabling software and business processes, and associated intellectual property portfolio have grown to encompass many related technologies.

We provide our solutions directly and through our business partners. Our inventions provide a powerful element of document security, giving rise to a long-term relationship with a consortium of central banks (the “Central Banks”), and many leading companies in the information technology industry. We and our business partners have successfully propagated the use of our technology in music, movies, television broadcasts, digital images, e-publications and printed materials. Digimarc Barcodes have been used in these applications to improve media rights and asset management, reduce piracy and counterfeiting losses, improve marketing programs, permit more efficient and effective distribution of valuable media content and enhance consumer entertainment and commercial experiences.

Digimarc Barcodes can be used to enhance all forms of media and are imperceptible to human senses, but quickly detected by computers, networks or other digital devices like smartphones and tablets. Unlike traditional barcodes and tags, our solution does not require publishers to give up valuable visual space in magazines and newspapers; nor does it impact the overall layout or aesthetics of the publication for readers. Digimarc Barcodes are imperceptible in normal use and do all that visible barcodes do, but perform better. Our Digimarc Discover platform delivers a range of rich media experiences to its readers on their smartphones or tablets across multiple media formats, including print, audio, video and packaging. Unique to the Digimarc Discover platform is its seamless multi-modal use of various content identification technologies as needed, including Digimarc Barcode when present.

Banknote counterfeit deterrence was the first commercially successful large scale use of our technologies. Innovations based on our existing digital watermarking technology and experience have been leveraged to create new products to deter counterfeiting and tampering of driver licenses and other government-issued secure credentials. In parallel, our business partners, under patent or technology licenses from us, are delivering digital watermarking solutions to track and monitor the distribution of music, images, television and movies to consumers.

In November of 2007, we announced a relationship with The Nielsen Company (US) LLC (“Nielsen”) to license our patents in support of Nielsen’s industry leading television audience measurement solutions.

In October 2010, we entered into a patent licensing arrangement with IV Digital Multimedia Inventions, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company affiliated with Intellectual Ventures (“IV”), pursuant to which we granted an exclusive license to sublicense, subject to pre-existing encumbrances and a grant-back license, an aggregate of approximately 900 of the 1,200 patents and applications held by us at the time the agreement was entered into, as noted below in the section titled “Technology and Intellectual Property.” The number of patents licensed to IV is now approximately 550. Through ongoing development, our portfolio not licensed to IV has grown to over 550 patents and applications.

In December 2012, we entered into a renewal and extension through 2024 of the Counterfeit Deterrence System Development and License Agreement with the Central Banks, with a 5-year extension option.

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In January 2014, we introduced Digimarc Barcodes for use in consumer product packaging. These Digimarc Barcodes can contain the same information found in traditional universal product codes (“UPC”). The UPC information is invisibly repeated multiple times over the entire package surface. We partnered with Datalogic, a global leader in automatic data capture and industrial automation markets and producer of barcode readers, in introducing the Digimarc Barcode to the consumer product packaging market. The first retail scanner enabled was Datalogic’s MagellanTM 9800i multi-plane imaging scanner. Since then, additional scanner vendors and other channel partners have announced support for the Digimarc Barcode platform. Digimarc Barcodes can also connect mobile-enabled consumers directly from packaging to engaging mobile experiences such as additional product information, special offers, recommendations, reviews, social networks and more.

Financial Information About Geographic Areas

Financial information about geographic areas is included in Note 3 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Customers and Business Partners

Our revenue is generated through commercial and government applications of our technology. We derive our revenue primarily from development services, subscriptions for products and services, and licensing of our technology and patents. During 2016, we generated the majority of our revenue from development services under a long-term contract with the Central Banks, subscriptions to our anti-piracy and copyright protection services, and royalties from licensees.

In 2016, revenue from government contracts accounted for 63% of our total revenue. Central Banks accounted for substantially all revenue generated under our government contracts. Our government contracts typically span one or more base years and multiple option periods. Government customers generally have the right to not exercise option periods. As part of our work with government customers, we must comply with and are affected by laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of government contracts. Government contract laws and regulations affect how we do business with our government customers and, in some instances, impose added costs on our business.

Information about customers that accounted for 10% or more of revenue in the last three years is included in Note 3 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Products and Services

We provide media identification and management solutions to commercial entities and government customers and license our technology and patented inventions to other solution providers. Our largest government customer is the Central Banks, with whom we have been developing, deploying, supporting and enhancing a system to deter digital counterfeiting of currency using personal computers and digital reprographics for the last 18 years. We license primarily to commercial entities who use our technology and patented inventions in the media and entertainment industry. Commercial customers use a range of solutions from our business partners and us to identify, track, manage and protect content as it is distributed and consumed—either digitally or physically—and to enable new consumer applications to access networks and information from personal computers and mobile devices. Many movie studios, record labels, broadcasters, creative professionals and other customers rely on our technology as a cost-effective means to:

 

deter piracy and illegal use of movies, music, e-publications and images;

 

protect entertainment content from copyright infringement;

 

track and monitor entertainment content for rights usage and licensing compliance;

 

monitor advertisements to verify ad placement and measure return on investment;

 

enhance information access, search and provide marketing capabilities related to media content; and

 

enable authorized use of content by consumers.

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Digimarc Barcodes are easily embedded into all forms of media and are imperceptible to human senses, but quickly detected by computers, networks or other digital devices like smartphones. Unlike traditional barcodes and tags, our solution does not require content owners to give up valuable space on their media content; nor does it impact the overall layout or aesthetics of their media content. Our Digimarc Discover platform delivers a range of rich media experiences to smartphones across multiple media including print, audio, video and packaging. Unique to the Digimarc Discover platform is its ability to use various content identification technologies as needed, including our patented technology.

Digimarc Barcodes contain the same information found in traditional UPC codes used on consumer goods packing. The UPC information is invisibly repeated multiple times over the entire package surface. We partnered with Datalogic, a global leader in automatic data capture and industrial automation markets and producer of barcode readers, in bringing the Digimarc Barcode to the market. The first retail scanner enabled was Datalogic’s MagellanTM 9800i multi-plane imaging scanner. Since then additional scanner vendors and other channel partners have announced support for the Digimarc Barcode platform. Digimarc Barcodes can also connect mobile-enabled consumers directly from packaging to engaging mobile experiences such as additional product information, special offers, recommendations, reviews, social networks and more.

The market for patent licensing has become more challenging in recent years. As a result, we have shifted our focus from direct monetization via enforcement and licensing to:

 

facilitating progress toward the realization of our vision to enrich everyday living via pervasive, intuitive computing;

 

encouraging large scale adoption of our technologies by industry leaders;

 

improving our financial performance by enhancing our competitive differentiation;

 

increasing the scale and rate of growth of our products and services business; and

 

laying a foundation for continuing innovation.

Current patent licensees include, among others, AlpVision SA, IV, Kantar SAS, NexGuard Labs B.V., Nielsen, OverDrive, Inc., Signum Technologies, Teletrax B.V., Verance Corporation (“Verance”) and Verimatrix, Inc.

Technology and Intellectual Property

We seek patent protection for our inventions to differentiate our products and technologies, mitigate infringement risks, and develop opportunities for licensing. Our broad patent portfolio covers a wide range of methods, applications, system architectures and processes.

Many of our patents relate to various methods for embedding and decoding digital information in video, audio and images, whether the content is rendered in analog or digital formats. The digital information is generally embedded by making subtle modifications to the fundamental elements of the content itself, generally at a signal processing level. The changes necessary to embed this information are so subtle that they are generally not noticeable by people during normal use. Because the message is carried by the content itself, it is file-format independent. The embedded digital information generally survives most normal content transformations, including compression, edits, rotation, scaling, re-sampling, file-format transformations, copying, scanning and printing.

Our intellectual property contains many innovations in digital watermarking, content recognition (sometimes referred to as “fingerprinting”), digital rights management and related fields. To protect our inventions, we have implemented an extensive intellectual property protection program that relies on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, and nondisclosure agreements and other contracts. As a result, we believe we have one of the world’s most extensive patent portfolios in digital watermarking and related fields, with approximately 1,100 U.S. and foreign patents and pending patent applications as of December 31, 2016. We continue to develop and broaden our portfolio in the fields of media identification and management technology and related applications and systems. We devote significant resources to developing and protecting our inventions and continuously seek to

4


 

identify and evaluate potential licensees for our patents. The patents in our portfolio have a life of approximately 20 years from the effective filing date, and up to 17 years after the patent has been granted.

For a discussion of activities and costs related to our research and development in the last three years, please read “Research, development and engineering” under Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

Markets

Our patented inventions are used in various media identification and management products and solutions supporting a variety of media objects, from movies and music to banknotes, secure credentials and consumer packaged goods. Each media object enabled by our inventions creates the potential for several applications, such as:

 

counterfeiting and piracy deterrence;

 

online e-publication piracy protection;

 

content identification and media management;

 

authentication and monitoring;

 

retail point of sale transaction processing;

 

linking to networks and providing access to information; and

 

enhanced services in support of mobile commerce.

We believe the market for most of these applications is in the early stages of development and that existing solutions represent only a small portion of the potential market for our products, services and technology.

Competition

No single competitor or small number of competitors dominate our market. Our competitors vary depending on the application of our products and services. We generally compete with non-digital watermarking technologies for the security or marketing budgets of the producers and distributors of media objects, documents, products and advertising. These alternatives include, among other things, encryption-based security systems and technologies and solutions based on fingerprinting, pattern recognition, and traditional barcodes. Our competitive position in digital watermarking applications is strong because of our large, high-quality, sophisticated patent portfolio and our substantial and growing amount of intellectual property in related media security and management innovations that span basic technologies, applications, system designs and business processes. Our intellectual property portfolio allows us to use proprietary technologies that are well-regarded by our customers and partners, and not available to our competitors without a license. We compete based on the variety of features we offer and a traditional cost/benefit analysis against alternative technologies and solutions. We anticipate that our competitive position within some markets may be affected by factors such as reluctance to adopt new technologies and by changes in government regulations.

Backlog

Based on projected commitments we have for the periods under contract with our respective customers, we anticipate our current contracts as of December 31, 2016 will generate a minimum of $31 million in revenue. We expect approximately $17 million of this amount to be recognized as revenue during 2017.

Some factors that lead to increased backlog include:

 

contracts with new customers;

 

renewals with current customers;

 

add-on orders with customers; and

 

contracts with longer contractual periods replacing contracts with shorter contractual periods.

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Some factors that lead to decreased backlog include:

 

recognition of revenue associated with backlog currently in place;

 

contracts with shorter contractual periods replacing contracts with longer contractual periods;

 

modifications to existing contracts;

 

contract minimum payments ending; and

 

expiration of contracts with existing customers.

The mix of these factors, among others, dictates whether our backlog increases or decreases for any given period. Our backlog may not result in actual revenue in any particular period, because the orders, awards and contracts included in our backlog may be subject to modification, cancellation or suspension. We may not realize revenue on certain contracts, orders or awards included in our backlog or the timing of any realization may change.

Employees

At December 31, 2016, we had 180 full-time employees, including 58 in sales, marketing, technical support and customer support; 88 in research, development and engineering, including intellectual property; and 34 in finance, administration, information technology and legal.

Our employees are not covered by any collective bargaining agreement, and we have never experienced a work stoppage. We believe that our relations with our employees are good.

Available Information

We make available free of charge through our website at www.digimarc.com our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these and other reports filed or furnished by us pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we file these materials with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

 

ITEM 1A:

RISK FACTORS

The following risk factors are those risks of which we are aware and that we consider to be material to our business. If any of the following risks and uncertainties develops into actual events, our business, financial condition or results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline. Additionally, we cannot be certain or give any assurance that any actions taken to reduce known risks and uncertainties will be effective.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS

(1) As a purveyor of disruptive technology, if our channel partners and potential customers defer or delay adopting and implementing our technology, or if competitors or other market participants successfully engage in campaigns to discredit our technology, our revenues will be deferred and delayed. In addition, there are new and expanded components of our revenue engine that will need to be tested and proven.

While the Company’s legacy business remains strong, our primary engines of growth—Digimarc Discover® and Digimarc Barcode—are subject to the market forces and adoption curves common to other disruptive technologies. The market is in early stages of development. The revenue model anticipates annual subscriptions are the primary source of income. If adoption takes longer than anticipated, operating losses will continue.

We expect competing technologies to compete vigorously in the marketplace, and to fight to preserve their market share. While we believe that our technology can do what theirs can do—only better, cheaper and faster—to the extent they succeed in defending their position, our ability to achieve profitable operations will be impeded.

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With respect to our Digimarc Discover and Digimarc Barcode growth and prospects, our three major avenues for revenue generation include direct sales, web sales, and channel partners. Our growing direct sales force is relatively new, with an average tenure of less than two years with the Company. The redesign of our website to facilitate web-based sales is evolving. Most of our channel partners are new. Thus, the engine of growth for revenues is new and unproven. We are executing strategies intended to make each of these means of revenue generation effective. We face many obvious challenges.

(2) Our future growth will depend to a material extent on the successful advocacy of our technology by channel partners to their members and customers, and implementation of our technology in solutions propagated by channel partners and provided by third parties.

Our business has long relied on the success of business partners. Our continuing success is largely dependent on a new generation of business partners supporting Digimarc Discover and Digimarc Barcode. We have entered into agreements with numerous channel partners to propagate and support Digimarc Discover and Digimarc Barcode, including brand deployment and pre-media service providers Southern Graphics Systems, LLC, Schawk, Inc., and Diadeis, and consumer packaging solutions companies WestRock Company and Berry Plastics Group, Inc., all who offer Digimarc Barcode services to national and store brand owners and consumer products suppliers; HP, Inc., who can perform large scale serialization of unique identifiers; Perrigo Company, the world’s largest manufacturer of over-the-counter pharmaceutical products for the store brand market, to improve point-of-sale efficiency for retailers and provide consumers easier access to product information from enabled ‘smart’ labels; and platforms which provide unprecedented consumer engagement via smartphones, such as Shazam Entertainment Limited. Digimarc and GS1 US, the U.S. operation of the organization that maintains the global standards for barcodes, announced a broad collaboration to help the industries served by GS1 to make effective use of Digimarc Barcode. GS1 US will educate, train and provide access to services to their 300,000 member businesses. Among other things, Digimarc and GS1 US intend to improve product identification for retailers and consumers with brand-certified, accurate product information via Digimarc Barcodes. Digimarc has also entered into a similar collaboration with GS1 Germany.

If our channel partners are not successful in advocating and deploying our technology, we may not be able to achieve and sustain profitable operations. If other business partners who include our technology in their products or otherwise license our intellectual property for use in their products cease to do so, or we fail to obtain other partners who will incorporate, embed, integrate or bundle our technology, or these partners are unsuccessful in their efforts, expanding deployment of our technology and increasing revenues will be adversely affected. Consequently, our ability to increase revenue could be adversely affected and we may suffer other adverse effects to our business. In addition, if our technology does not perform according to market expectations, our future sales would suffer as customers seek and employ alternative technologies.

(3) If leading companies in the retail and consumer products industries or standard-setting bodies or institutions downplay, minimize or reject the use of our technology, deployment may be slowed and we may be unable to achieve or sustain profitable operations.

Many of our business endeavors, including the Digimarc Barcode, can be impeded or frustrated by larger, more influential companies or by standard-setting bodies or institutions downplaying, minimizing or rejecting the value or use of our technology. A negative position by such companies, bodies or institutions, could result in obstacles for us that we would be incapable of overcoming and may block or impede the adoption of our technology. In addition, potential customers may delay or reject initiatives that relate to deployment of our technology. Such a development would make the achievement of our business objectives in this market difficult or impossible.

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(4) We are subject to risks encountered by companies developing and relying upon new technologies, products and services to achieve and sustain profitable operations.

Our business and prospects must be considered in light of the risks and uncertainties to which companies with new and rapidly evolving technology, products and services are exposed. These risks include the following:

 

we may be unable to develop sources of new revenue or sustainable growth in revenue because our current and anticipated technologies, products and services may be inadequate or may be unable to attract or retain customers;

 

intense competition and rapid technological change could adversely affect the market’s acceptance of our existing and new products and services;

 

we may be unable to develop and maintain new technologies upon which our existing and new products and services are dependent which may cause our products and services to be less sustainable and competitive or which could make it harder for us to expand our revenue and business; and

 

our licensees may not be able to successfully enter new markets or grow their businesses, limiting royalties paid to us.

Some key technologies and solutions of our patent or technology licensees are in the development stage. Consequently, products incorporating our technology and solutions are undergoing technological change and are in the early stages of introduction in the marketplace. Delays in the adoption of these products or adverse competitive developments may result in delays in the development of new revenue sources or the growth in our existing revenue streams. We may be required to incur unanticipated expenditures if product changes or improvements are required. Moreover, new industry standards might redefine the products that we or our licensees are able to sell, especially if these products are only in the prototype stage of development. If product changes or improvements are required, success in marketing these products by us or our licensees and achieving or sustaining profitability from these products could be delayed or halted.

(5) A significant portion of our current and potential future revenue is subject to commercial and government contracts and development of new markets that may involve unpredictable delays and other unexpected changes. Such volatility and uncertainty might limit our actual revenue in any given quarter or year.

We derive a significant portion of our revenue from contracts tied to development schedules or development of new markets, which could shift for months, quarters or years as the needs of our customers and the markets in which they participate change. Government agencies and commercial customers also face budget pressures that introduce added uncertainty. Any shift in development schedules, the markets in which we or our licensees participate, or customer procurement processes, which are outside our control and may not be predictable, could result in delays in bookings forecasted for any particular period, could affect the predictability of our quarterly and annual results, and might limit our actual revenue in any given quarter or year, resulting in reduced and less predictable revenue and adversely affecting profitability.

We are expanding into new markets, which involve inherent risk and unpredictability. In recent years, particularly with the proliferation of smartphones and increased consumer demands for product information, we have investigated other technologies that may provide attractive future opportunities, for example, in the packaging and publishing markets. These generally include technologies that leverage our strength in signal processing and support our vision for intuitive, pervasive computing. As we seek to expand outside our areas of historical expertise, we lack the history and insight that benefited us in the watermarking field. Although we have extensive experience in the commercial application of digital watermarking, we are investing in but may not be as well-positioned in these other disciplines. Accordingly, it may be difficult for us to replicate our watermarking success in other technologies we might pursue.

(6) A small number of customers account for a substantial portion of our revenue, and the loss of any large contract could materially disrupt our business.

Historically, we have derived a significant portion of our revenue from a limited number of customers. Five customers represented approximately 73% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2016. Most of our

8


 

revenue comes from long-term contracts generally having terms of at least three to ten years, with some licenses for the life of the associated patents, which could be up to 20 years from the effective date. The agreements with our licensees generally provide for minimum and/or variable payment obligations. All payment obligations under our license agreements with Nielsen and Verance ended in 2014. Some contracts we enter into contain termination for convenience provisions. If we were to lose such a contract for any reason, or if revenue from variable payment obligations do not replace revenue under the existing fixed payment obligations, our financial results could be adversely affected.

We expect to continue to depend upon a small number of customers for a significant portion of our revenue for the foreseeable future. The loss of, or decline in, orders or backlog from one or more major customers could reduce our revenue and have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

(7) We were not profitable in 2014, 2015 or 2016 and may not be able to return to or sustain profitability in the future, particularly if we were to lose large contracts or fail in our new market development initiatives. Sustained lack of profitability could cause us to incur asset impairment charges for long-lived assets and/or record valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets.

We incurred net losses in 2014, 2015 and 2016 largely due to increased levels of investments in our business to support product development and sales growth initiatives, concurrent with the completion of royalty payments from Verance and license fee payments from Nielsen in 2014.

Returning to and maintaining profitability in the future will depend upon a variety of factors, including our ability to maintain and obtain more significant partnerships like we have with the Central Banks and acquiring new customers for Digimarc Discover, Digimarc Barcode and Guardian. Profitability will also depend on our efficiency in executing our business strategy and capitalizing on new opportunities. Various adverse developments, including the loss of large contracts or cost overruns on our existing contracts, could adversely affect our revenue, margins and profitability.

If we continue to incur operating losses, an impairment to the carrying value of our long-lived assets, including goodwill, acquired intangible assets, patent assets and property and equipment could result. We test for impairment of our long-lived assets when a triggering event occurs that would indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Our methodology for assessing impairment may require management to make judgments and assumptions regarding future cash flows. Our projections of future cash flows are largely based on historical experience, and these projections may or may not be achieved. Changes to these financial projections used in our impairment analysis could lead to an impairment of all or a portion of our long-lived assets. Any such impairment charge could adversely affect our results of operations and our stock price. We evaluated our long-lived assets for impairment as of December 31, 2016 and concluded there was no impairment. We cannot guarantee, however, that our long-lived assets will not become impaired in the future.

We record valuation allowances on our deferred tax assets if, based on available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that all or some portion of the assets will not be realized. The determination of whether our deferred tax assets are realizable requires management to identify and weigh all available positive and negative evidence. Management considers recent financial performance, projected future taxable income, scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, tax planning strategies and other evidence in assessing the realizability of our deferred tax assets. Adjustments to our deferred tax assets could adversely affect our results of operations and our stock price. We recorded a $6.8 million non-cash income tax charge during 2014 to record a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets largely due to the cumulative loss we had incurred over the previous three years, which is considered a significant piece of negative evidence in assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets. As of December 31, 2016 we determined a full valuation allowance was still appropriate given continued losses. We will not record tax benefits on any future losses until its determined that those tax benefits will be realized.

(8) We may be adversely affected by variability of contracted arrangements.

We periodically agree to modify the terms of contractual arrangements with our customers, partners and licensees in response to changes in circumstances underlying the original contractual arrangements, and it is likely that we will do so in the future. As a result of this practice, the terms of our contractual arrangements with our

9


 

customers, partners and licensees may vary over time and, depending on the particular modification, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Some of our customers and licensees report royalties to us based on their revenue and their interpretation and allocation of contracted royalty obligations. It is possible that we may not agree with the judgments of our customers on such matters, and such disagreement may lead to potential disputes and reduced revenue to us. These disputes could result in a distraction to our management and may not result in increased revenues to us but may nevertheless result in friction between us and our customers, and potentially the loss of customers, which may ultimately be harmful to our business.

(9) The market for our products is highly competitive, and alternative technologies or larger companies that compete with us may be more successful than us in gaining market share, which would decrease our revenue and profits.

The markets in which we compete for business are intensely competitive and rapidly evolving. We expect competition to continue from both existing competitors and new market entrants. We face competition from other companies and from alternative technologies, including some of our customers and licensees. We also may face competition from unexpected sources.

Alternative technologies that may directly or indirectly compete with particular applications of our watermarking technologies include:

 

Traditional anti-counterfeiting technologies—a number of solutions used by many government agencies (that compete for budgetary outlays) designed to deter counterfeiting, including optically sensitive ink, magnetic threads and other materials used in the printing of currencies;

 

Image recognition—one or several pre-specified or learned objects or object classes that can be recognized, usually together with their two-dimensional positions in the image or three-dimensional poses in the scene, such as Amazon Firefly or PTC Vuforia, which provides a stand-alone program illustration of this function;

 

Radio frequency tags—embedding a chip that emits a signal when in close proximity with a receiver, used in some photo identification credentials, labels and tags;

 

Internet technologies—numerous existing and potential Internet access and search methods are competitive with Digimarc mobile systems and the searching capabilities of Guardian;

 

Digital fingerprints and signatures—a metric, or metrics, computed solely from a source image or audio or video track, that can be used to identify an image or track, or authenticate the image or track; and

 

Barcodes or QR codes—data-carrying codes, typically visible in nature (but may be invisible if printed in ultraviolet- or infrared-responsive inks).

In the competitive environments in which we operate, product generation, development and marketing processes relating to technology are uncertain and complex, and require accurate prediction of demand as well as successful management of various risks inherent in technology development. In light of these uncertainties, it is possible that our failure to successfully accommodate future changes in technologies related to our technology could have a long-term negative effect on our growth and results of operations.

New developments are expected to continue, and discoveries by others, including current and potential competitors, possibly could render our services and products noncompetitive. Moreover, because of rapid technological changes, we may be required to expend greater amounts of time and money than anticipated to develop new products and services, which in turn may require greater revenue streams from those products and services to cover developmental costs. Many of the companies that compete with us for some of our business, as well as other companies with whom we may compete in the future, are larger and may have stronger brand recognition and greater technical, financial, marketing and political resources than we do. These attributes could enable these companies to have more success in the market than we have, either by providing better products or better pricing than we can provide. We may be unable to compete successfully against current or future participants

10


 

in our market or against alternative technologies, and the competitive pressures we face could decrease our revenue and profits in the future.

(10) An increase in our operations outside of the U.S. subjects us to risks additional to those to which we are exposed in our domestic operations.

We believe that revenue from sales of products and services to commercial, governmental and other customers outside the U.S. could represent a growing percentage of our total revenue in the future. Digimarc Discover is not bounded geographically, and we believe Digimarc Barcode will see global deployment. As such, certain contracts will be made and performed, in whole or in part, outside of the U.S. Similarly, for Guardian, we perform certain functions in various jurisdictions outside of the U.S. International operations are subject to a number of risks that can adversely affect our sales of products and services to customers outside of the U.S., or expose us to additional expense or liabilities, including the following:

 

difficulties and costs of staffing, developing and managing foreign operations as a result of distance, language and cultural differences;

 

the effect of laws governing employee and contractor relationships, and the existence of workers’ councils and labor unions in some jurisdictions;

 

changes in foreign government regulations and security requirements;

 

export license requirements, tariffs and taxes;

 

trade barriers;

 

difficulty in protecting intellectual property;

 

difficulty in collecting accounts receivable;

 

currency fluctuations;

 

longer payment cycles than those for customers in the U.S; and

 

political and economic instability.

We do not have an extensive operational infrastructure for international business. We generally depend on local or international business partners and subcontractors for performance of substantial portions of our business. These factors may result in greater risk of performance problems or of reduced profitability with respect to our international programs in these markets. In addition, if foreign customers, in particular foreign government authorities, terminate or delay the implementation of our products and services, it may be difficult for us, or we may not be able, to recover our potential losses.

(11) We depend on our management and key employees for our future success. If we are not able to retain, hire or integrate these employees, we may not be able to meet our commitments.

Our success depends to a significant extent on the performance and continued service of our management and our intellectual property team. The loss of the services of any of these employees could limit our growth or undermine customer relationships.

Due to the high level of technical expertise that our industry requires, our ability to successfully develop, market, sell, license and support our products, services, and intellectual property depends to a significant degree upon the continued contributions of our key personnel in engineering, sales, marketing, operations, legal and licensing, many of whom would be difficult to replace. We believe our future success will depend in large part upon our ability to retain our current key employees and our ability to attract, integrate and retain new personnel in the future. It may not be practical for us to match the compensation some of our employees could garner at other employment. In addition, we may encounter difficulties in hiring and retaining employees because of concerns related to our financial performance or operating results. These circumstances may have a negative effect on the market price of our common stock, and employees and prospective employees may factor in the uncertainties relating to our stability and the value of any equity-based incentives in their decisions regarding employment

11


 

opportunities and decide to leave our employ. Moreover, our business is based in large part on patented technology, which is a unique and sophisticated signal processing technology. New employees require substantial training, involving significant resources and management attention. Competition for experienced personnel in our business can be intense. If we do not succeed in attracting new, qualified personnel or in integrating, retaining and motivating our current personnel, our growth and ability to deliver products and services that our customers require may be hampered. Although our employees generally have executed agreements containing non-competition clauses, we do not assure you that a court would enforce all of the terms of these clauses or the agreements generally. If these clauses were not fully enforced, our employees could freely join our competitors. Although we generally attempt to control access to and distribution of our proprietary information by our employees, we do not assure you that the confidential nature of our proprietary information will be maintained in the course of such future employment. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our financial and business prospects.

(12) We may acquire or invest in other companies or technologies in the future, which could divert management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders, increase expenses, disrupt our operations and harm our operating results.

We acquired Attributor Corporation (“Attributor”) in December 2012, and we may in the future acquire, or invest in businesses, products or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our current product and service offerings, enhance our technical capabilities, expand our operations into new markets or otherwise offer growth opportunities. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses related to identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated.

There are inherent risks in integrating and managing acquisitions. We may not be able to assimilate or integrate the acquired personnel, operations and technologies successfully or effectively manage the combined business following an acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from an acquired business due to a number of factors, including:

 

unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition;

 

incurrence of acquisition-related costs, which would be recognized as a current period expense;

 

inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition or investment costs;

 

the inability to maintain relationships with customers and partners of the acquired business;

 

the need to implement additional controls, procedures and policies;

 

entry into geographic markets in which we have little or no prior experience, and challenges caused by distance, language and cultural differences;

 

differences in foreign labor and employment laws, including classification of employees and contractors;

 

disruption of our ongoing business;

 

the potential loss of key employees; and

 

use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.

Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our financial position. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our operating results, business and financial condition may suffer.

(13) (a) We may not be able to adequately secure patent or other protection for our technologies.

Our business depends in part on securing protection for our proprietary technology and successfully licensing our technology to third parties. To protect our intellectual property portfolio, we rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret rights, confidentiality procedures and licensing arrangements. Although we

12


 

regularly apply for patents to protect our intellectual property, there is no guarantee that we will secure patent protection for any particular technology we develop.

Changes in the U.S. and foreign patent laws, or in the interpretation of existing laws, may adversely affect our ability to secure or enforce patents. For example, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a decision in 2014 limiting patent eligibility of computer implemented inventions. The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act of 2011 (the “America Invents Act”) also codifies several changes to the U.S. patent laws, including the creation of a post-grant inter partes review process to challenge patents after they have issued. The America Invents Act allows third parties to petition the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or comparable government authorities in other jurisdictions to review and reconsider the patentability of any of our inventions claimed in our issued patents. Any such proceeding may result in one or more of our patent claims becoming limited, or being invalidated altogether. A limitation or invalidation of our patent claims could adversely affect our financial position and our operating results.

Patents have finite lives, and our ability to continue to commercially exploit our patents is limited to the term of the patents. Our earliest patents began expiring in July 2012. The size and strength of our portfolio depends on the number of patents that have been granted, offset by the number of patents that expire, in any given year. We continue to develop our patent portfolio, but we cannot assure you that we will be able to exploit newer patents to the extent that we have exploited our earlier patents.

As part of our confidentiality procedures, we generally enter into non-disclosure agreements with our employees, directors, consultants and corporate partners, and attempt to control access to and distribution of our technology, solutions, documentation and other proprietary information. Despite these procedures, third parties could copy or otherwise obtain and make unauthorized use of our technology, solutions or other proprietary information or independently develop similar technologies, solutions or information. The steps that we have taken to prevent misappropriation of our solutions, technology or other proprietary information may not succeed.

We cannot assure you that the protection of our proprietary rights will be adequate or that our competitors will not independently develop similar technologies, duplicate our services or design around any of our patents or other intellectual property rights.

(b) We may not be successful in enforcing our intellectual property rights against third parties.

Unlicensed copying and use of our intellectual property or infringement of our intellectual property rights may result in the loss of revenue to us and cause us other harm. If we encounter a company that we believe is infringing our intellectual property rights, we may try to negotiate a license arrangement with such party. If we try and are unable to negotiate a license or secure the agreement of such alleged infringing party to cease its activities, we must make decisions as to how best to enforce our intellectual property rights, which may result in additional costs.

The process of negotiating a license with a third party can be lengthy, and may take months or even years in some circumstances. It is possible that third parties who we believe are infringing our intellectual property rights are unwilling to license our intellectual property from us on terms we can accept, or at all.

If we cannot persuade a third party who we believe is infringing our technology to enter into a license with us, we may be required to consider other alternatives to enforce our rights, including commencing litigation. The decision to commence litigation over infringement of a patent is complex and may lead to several risks to us, including the following, among others:

 

the time, significant expense and distraction to management of managing such litigation;

 

the uncertainty of litigation and its potential outcomes;

 

the possibility that in the course of such litigation, the defendant may challenge the validity of our patents, which could result in a re-examination or post grant review of our patents and the possibility that our patents may be limited in scope or invalidated altogether;

 

the potential that the defendant may successfully persuade a court that their technology or products do not infringe our intellectual property rights;

13


 

 

the impact of such litigation on other licensing relationships we have or seek to establish, including the timing of renewing or entering into such relationships, as applicable, as well as the terms of such relationships; and

 

adverse publicity to us or harm to relationships we have with customers or others.

Also, enforcement of patent protection throughout the world is generally established on a country-by-country basis and we may not have as much success enforcing our patents in foreign jurisdictions.

If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights adequately, if there are adverse changes in applicable laws, or if we become involved in litigation relating to our intellectual property rights or the intellectual property rights of others, our business could be seriously harmed. In such cases, the value ascribed to our intellectual property could diminish, we may incur significant legal expenses that could harm our results of operations and our patents or other intellectual property rights may be limited or invalidated. Any of the foregoing could have a negative effect on the value of our common stock.

(c) We may be subject to infringement claims and other litigation, which could adversely affect our business.

As more companies engage in business activities relating to digital watermarking, and develop corresponding intellectual property rights, it is increasingly likely that claims may arise which assert that some of our products or services infringe upon other parties’ intellectual property rights. These claims could subject us to costly litigation and divert management resources. These claims may require us to pay significant damages, cease production of infringing products, terminate our use of infringing technology or develop non-infringing technologies. In these circumstances, continued use of our technology may require that we acquire licenses to the intellectual property that is the subject of the alleged infringement, and we might not be able to obtain these licenses on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our use of protected technology may result in liability that threatens our continuing operation.

Some of our contracts include indemnity and similar provisions regarding our non-infringement of third-party intellectual property rights. As deployment of our technology increases, and more companies enter our markets, the likelihood of a third party lawsuit resulting from these provisions increases. If an infringement arose in a context governed by such a contract, we may have to refund to our customer amounts already paid to us or pay significant damages, or we may be sued by the party whose intellectual property has allegedly been infringed upon.

(14) If our revenue models and pricing structures relating to products and services that are under development do not gain market acceptance, the products and services may fail to attract or retain customers and we may not be able to generate new revenue or sustain existing revenue.

Some of our business involves embedding digital watermarks in traditional and digital media, including consumer product packaging and related marketing materials, secure documents, audio, video and imagery, and licensing our intellectual property. Our revenues result from a combination of development, consulting, subscription and license fees from a variety of media identification and management applications. We launched Digimarc Discover in 2011 and the Digimarc Barcode in 2014, both of which incorporate new business and pricing models. We have not fully developed revenue models for some applications and licensing endeavors. Because some of our products and services are not yet well-established in the marketplace, and because some of these products and services will not directly displace existing solutions, we cannot be certain that the pricing structure for these products and services will gain market acceptance or be sustainable over time or that the marketing for these products and services will be effective.

(15) If we are unable to respond to regulatory or industry standards effectively, or if we are unable to develop and integrate new technologies effectively, our growth and the development of our products and services could be delayed or limited.

Our future success will depend in part on our ability to enhance and improve the responsiveness, functionality and features of our products and services, and those of our business partners, in accordance with regulatory or industry standards. Our ability to remain competitive will depend in part on our ability to influence and respond to

14


 

emerging industry and governmental standards in a timely and cost-effective manner. If we are unable to influence these or other standards or respond to these standards effectively, our growth and the development of various products and services could be delayed or limited.

Our market is characterized by new and evolving technologies. The success of our business will depend on our ability to develop and integrate new technologies effectively and address the increasingly sophisticated technological needs of our customers in a timely and cost-effective manner. Our ability to remain competitive will depend in part on our ability to:

 

enhance and improve the responsiveness, functionality and other features of the products and services we offer or plan to offer;

 

continue to develop our technical expertise; and

 

develop and introduce new services, applications and technologies to meet changing customer needs and preferences and to integrate new technologies.

We do not assure you that we will be successful in responding to these technological and industry challenges in a timely and cost-effective manner. If we are unable to develop or integrate new technologies effectively or respond to these changing needs, our margins could decrease, and our release of new products and services and the deployment of our technology could be adversely affected.

(16) We may need to retain additional employees or contract labor in the future in order to take advantage of new business opportunities arising from increased demand, which could increase costs and impede our ability to achieve or sustain profitability in the short term.

We have staffed our company with the intent of accelerating our product development and sales growth initiatives while also focusing on achieving and sustaining profitability. Our current staffing levels could affect our ability to respond to increased demand for our services. In addition, to meet any increased demand and take advantage of new business opportunities in the future, we may need to increase our workforce through additional employees or contract labor. Although we believe that increasing our workforce would potentially support anticipated growth and profitability, it would increase our costs. If we experience such an increase in costs, we may not succeed in achieving or sustaining profitability in the short term.

(17) The terms and conditions of our contracts could subject us to damages, losses and other expenses if we fail to meet delivery and other performance requirements.

Our service contracts typically include provisions imposing:

 

development, delivery and installation schedules;

 

customer acceptance and testing requirements; and

 

other performance requirements.

To the extent these provisions involve performance over extended periods of time, risks of noncompliance may increase. From time to time we have experienced delays in system implementation, timely acceptance of programs, concerns regarding program performance and other contractual disputes. If we fail to meet contractual performance requirements as promised, or to successfully resolve customer disputes, we could incur liability for damages, as well as increased costs, lower margins, or compensatory obligations in addition to other losses, such as harm to our reputation. Any unexpected increases in costs to meet our contractual obligations or any other requirements necessary to address claims and damages with regard to our customer contracts could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

15


 

(18) Products deploying our technology could have unknown defects or errors, which may give rise to claims against us, divert application of our resources from other purposes or increase our project implementation and support costs.

Products and services as complex as those we offer or develop may contain undetected defects or errors. Furthermore, we often provide complex implementation, integration, customization, consulting and other technical services in connection with the implementation and ongoing maintenance of our products. Despite testing, defects or errors in our products and services may occur, which could result in delays in the development and implementation of products and systems, inability to meet customer requirements or expectations in a timely manner, loss of revenue or market share, increased implementation and support costs, failure to achieve market acceptance, diversion of development resources, injury to our reputation, increased insurance costs, increased service and warranty costs and warranty or breach of contract claims. Although we attempt to reduce the risk of losses resulting from warranty or breach of contract claims through warranty disclaimers and liability limitation clauses in our sales agreements when we can, these contractual provisions are sometimes limited and may not be enforceable in every instance. If a court refuses to enforce the liability limiting provisions of our contracts for any reason, or if liabilities arise that were not contractually limited or adequately covered by insurance, the expense associated with defending these actions or paying the resultant claims could be significant.

(19) The security systems used in our product and service offerings may be circumvented or sabotaged by third parties, which could result in the disclosure of sensitive information or private personal information or cause other business interruptions that could damage our reputation and disrupt our business.

Our business relies on computers and other information technologies, both internal and at customer locations. The protective measures that we use may not prevent all security breaches, and failure to prevent security breaches may disrupt our business, damage our reputation, and expose us to litigation and liability. A party who is able to circumvent security measures could misappropriate sensitive or proprietary information or materials or cause interruptions or otherwise damage our products, services and reputation, and the property of our customers. If unintended parties obtain sensitive data and information, or create bugs or viruses or otherwise sabotage the functionality of our systems, we may receive negative publicity, incur liability to our customers or lose the confidence of our customers, any of which may cause the termination or modification of our contracts. Further, our insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover losses and liabilities that may result from these events.

In addition, we may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to protect ourselves against the threat of security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by these breaches. Any protection or remedial measures may not be available at a reasonable price or at all, or may not be entirely effective if commenced.

(20) We may experience outages and disruptions of our infrastructure that may harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be subject to outages or disruptions of our infrastructure, including information technology system failures and network disruptions. Substantially all of our computer and communications hardware is located at a single facility, our corporate headquarters in Beaverton, Oregon. System redundancy may be ineffective or inadequate, and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities.

If a natural disaster, cyber incident, weather event, power disruption, telecommunications failure, act of terrorism or other event occurred that prevented us from using all or a significant portion of our facility and/or damaged critical infrastructure, it could harm our ability to conduct normal business operations.

(21) We are periodically involved in the ordinary course of business in litigation, and an adverse resolution of such litigation may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

From time to time, in our normal course of business, we are a party to various legal claims, actions and complaints. For example, as part of our patent licensing program, we may bring claims or counterclaims of patent infringement to enforce our patent rights. Given the uncertain nature of litigation, we are not able to estimate the amount or range of gain or loss that could result from an outcome of litigation. Litigation can be expensive, lengthy, and disruptive to normal business operations. The results of complex legal proceedings are often uncertain and

16


 

difficult to predict. We could incur costs in excess of any established accruals and, to the extent available, excess liability insurance. An unfavorable outcome in any legal proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR CAPITAL STOCK

(22) Our common stock price may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment in shares of our common stock.

The price of shares of our common stock may fluctuate as a result of changes in our operating performance or prospects and other factors. Some specific factors that may have a significant effect on the price of shares of our common stock include:

 

the public’s reaction to our public disclosures;

 

actual or anticipated changes in our operating results or future prospects;

 

potential unfavorable changes from originally reported royalties by customers resulting from an audit performed by us or a third party, or self-corrected by the customer;

 

strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;

 

impact of acquisitions on our liquidity and financial performance;

 

new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles applicable to us;

 

conditions of the industry as a result of changes in financial markets or general economic or political conditions;

 

the failure of securities analysts to cover our common stock in the future, or changes in financial estimates by analysts;

 

changes in analyst recommendations or earnings estimates regarding us, other comparable companies or the industry generally, and our ability to meet those estimates;

 

changes in the amount of dividends paid, if any;

 

future issuances of our common stock or the perception that future sales could occur; and

 

volatility in the equity securities market.

(23) Our common stock price may increase or decrease on material news or developments.

As a thinly-traded microcap company, volatility in the equity securities market may disproportionately cause swings in our stock price, upward and downward, on positive and negative developments. We suspect that the effects of computerized trading also exacerbate fluctuations in our stock price.

(24) Our corporate governance documents, our rights agreement and Oregon law may delay or prevent an acquisition of us that shareholders may consider favorable, which could decrease the value of your shares.

Our articles of incorporation and bylaws and Oregon law contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us without the consent of our Board of Directors. These provisions include supermajority voting requirements for shareholders to amend our organizational documents and limitations on actions by our shareholders by written consent. In addition, our Board of Directors has the right to issue preferred stock without shareholder approval, which could be used to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer. In July 2008, our Board of Directors adopted a rights agreement pursuant to which one one-hundredth (1/100) of a preferred stock purchase right will be issued for each outstanding share of our common stock. In general terms, our rights agreement works by imposing a significant penalty upon any person or group that acquires 15% or more of our outstanding common stock without the approval of our Board of Directors. Oregon law also restricts the ability to vote shares of stock acquired in a transaction that causes the acquiring person to control at least one-fifth, one-third or one-half of

17


 

the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors (a “control share acquisition”). Shares acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except as authorized by a vote of the shareholders. Although we believe these provisions protect our shareholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics and thereby provide for an opportunity to receive a higher bid by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our Board of Directors, these provisions apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some shareholders.

ITEM 1B:

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2:

PROPERTIES

We lease our principal administrative, marketing, research, and intellectual property development facility, which is approximately 47,000 square feet in size and located in Beaverton, Oregon. In July 2015, we entered into an amendment with the landlord of our corporate offices in Beaverton, Oregon to extend the lease term through March 2024 for rent payments totaling $5.5 million, payable in monthly installments.

In February 2015, we entered into a new facilities lease agreement for a facility in San Mateo, California, which is approximately 5,400 square feet in size, with a lease term through March 2020 for rent payments totaling $1.0 million, payable in monthly installments. We lease this facility for sales, marketing and engineering staff in support of our Guardian products and services. See Note 7 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further lease related disclosures.

ITEM 3:

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We are subject from time to time to other legal proceedings and claims arising in the ordinary course of business. At this time, we do not believe that the resolution of any such matters will have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

ITEM 4:

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

 

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PART II

ITEM 5:

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC in October 2008 under the symbol “DMRC.” The closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market was $26.50 on February 17, 2017. The following table lists the high and low sales prices of our common stock for the periods indicated, as reported by the Nasdaq Global Market.

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

First quarter

 

$

44.94

 

 

$

26.23

 

 

$

29.71

 

 

$

21.37

 

Second quarter

 

$

32.03

 

 

$

25.04

 

 

$

45.43

 

 

$

20.90

 

Third quarter

 

$

40.13

 

 

$

30.39

 

 

$

49.25

 

 

$

29.88

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

38.58

 

 

$

26.70

 

 

$

39.34

 

 

$

21.80

 

 

At February 17, 2017, we had 254 shareholders of record of our common stock, as shown in the records of our transfer agent. Since many holders hold shares in “street name,” we believe that there is a significantly larger number of beneficial owners of our common stock than the number of record holders.

In August 2016, we sold 1,233 shares of our common stock in an underwritten public offering, plus an additional 185 shares in full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of common stock, at the price to the public of $30.00 per share. We received $39,953 of cash proceeds, net of discount of $2,447 and underwriter fees of $150, from the offering, and paid $253 in stock issuance costs for legal and accounting fees.

In August 2014, we entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement, whereby we could sell from time to time through Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, as our sales agent, our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $30,000. Wells Fargo Securities, LLC received from us a commission equal to 2.50% of the gross sales of common stock for shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $10,000, and a commission of 2.25% of the gross sales of common stock thereafter, for shares sold under the Equity Distribution Agreement. As of December 31, 2015, the Company had sold 1,026 shares under the Equity Distribution Agreement at an average price of $29.24 resulting in $29,300 of cash proceeds, net of sales commissions of $700, and paid $415 in stock issuance costs for legal and accounting fees. There are no shares remaining to be sold under the Equity Distribution Agreement.

We withhold (repurchase) shares of common stock in connection with the vesting of restricted shares to satisfy required tax withholding obligations.

19


 

The following table sets forth information regarding purchases of our equity securities during the three-month period ended December 31, 2016:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(d)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c)

 

 

Approximate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total number

 

 

dollar value

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of shares

 

 

of shares that

 

 

 

(a)

 

 

(b)

 

 

purchased as

 

 

may yet be

 

 

 

Total number

 

 

Average price

 

 

part of publicly

 

 

purchased

 

 

 

of shares

 

 

paid per

 

 

announced plans

 

 

under the plans

 

Period

 

purchased (1)

 

 

share (1)

 

 

or programs

 

 

or programs

 

Month 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 1, 2016 to October 31, 2016

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

Month 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 1, 2016 to November 30, 2016

 

 

22,408

 

 

$

29.35

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

Month 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

Total

 

 

22,408

 

 

$

29.35

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

(1)

Fully vested shares of common stock withheld (purchased) by us in satisfaction of required withholding tax liability upon vesting of restricted stock.

20


 

STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH

The following graph compares the performance of our common stock with the performance of (i) the Nasdaq U.S. Index and (ii) a peer group selected by us. The comparison assumes $100 was invested in our common stock on December 31, 2011 and in each of the two indices at the closing price on that date, and assumes reinvestment of any dividends. We believe that the companies in the peer group are comparable to us in terms of line-of-business, market capitalization, revenue, and number of employees, and therefore, comprise an appropriate peer group for purposes of comparing stock performance. The comparisons in the graph are based on historical data and are not indicative of, nor intended to forecast, future performance of our common stock.

 

 

Companies included in the Peer Group index of the stock performance graph are as follows:

 

8X8 INC

AWARE INC

BRIGHTCOVE INC

CALLIDUS SOFTWARE INC

CINEDIGM CORP

DATAWATCH CORPORATION

eGain CORPORATION

EVOLVING SYSTEMS INC

GLU MOBILE INC

GUIDANCE SOFTWARE

IMMERSION CORPORATION

ORBCOMM INC

PDF SOLUTIONS INC

SPARK NETWORKS INC

SUPPORT.COM INC

TOWERSTREAM CORPORATION

ZIX CORPORATION

_______________________________

(1) The peer group does not include DTS INC from our 2015 peer group, which was acquired in 2016.

 

 

 

 

21


 

ITEM 6:

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The selected financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes to the consolidated financial statements and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” which are included elsewhere in this report.

The following tables set forth our selected financial information as of and for each of the years in the five-year period ended December 31, 2016, which has been derived from audited financial statements as of December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013 and 2012 and for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013 and 2012.

Statement of Operations Data

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

2012

 

Revenue

 

$

21,793

 

 

$

22,189

 

 

$

25,658

 

 

$

34,964

 

 

$

44,375

 

Gross profit percentage

 

 

61

%

 

 

60

%

 

 

67

%

 

 

77

%

 

 

85

%

Operating income (loss)

 

$

(21,920

)

 

$

(17,977

)

 

$

(15,223

)

 

$

(2,412

)

 

$

14,594

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

(21,672

)

 

$

(17,934

)

 

$

(15,820

)

 

$

(507

)

 

$

8,272

 

Earnings (loss) per common share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earnings (loss) per common share—basic

 

$

(2.36

)

 

$

(2.19

)

 

$

(2.22

)

 

$

(0.10

)

 

$

1.16

 

Earnings (loss) per common share—

   diluted

 

$

(2.36

)

 

$

(2.19

)

 

$

(2.22

)

 

$

(0.10

)

 

$

1.12

 

Weighted average common shares

   outstanding—basic (in thousands)

 

 

9,188

 

 

 

8,198

 

 

 

7,187

 

 

 

6,866

 

 

 

6,757

 

Weighted average common shares

   outstanding—diluted (in thousands)

 

 

9,188

 

 

 

8,198

 

 

 

7,187

 

 

 

6,866

 

 

 

6,989

 

Cash dividends declared per common

   share

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

0.22

 

 

$

0.44

 

 

$

0.33

 

 

Balance Sheet Data

 

 

 

As of  December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

2012

 

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term

   marketable securities

 

$

56,134

 

 

$

36,187

 

 

$

38,323

 

 

$

29,662

 

 

$

32,269

 

Long-term marketable securities

 

$

4,392

 

 

$

2,999

 

 

$

749

 

 

$

5,302

 

 

$

6,787

 

Total assets

 

$

78,736

 

 

$

56,364

 

 

$

57,416

 

 

$

57,197

 

 

$

57,331

 

Long-term liabilities

 

$

956

 

 

$

226

 

 

$

203

 

 

$

496

 

 

$

673

 

Redeemable preferred stock

 

$

50

 

 

$

50

 

 

$

50

 

 

$

50

 

 

$

50

 

 

 

22


 

ITEM 7:

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements relating to future events or the future financial performance of Digimarc, which involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements. Please see the discussion regarding forward-looking statements included at the end of this discussion, under the caption “Forward-Looking Statements,” and Item 1A, “Risk Factors” for a discussion of some of the uncertainties, risks and assumptions associated with these statements.

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

All dollar amounts are in thousands except per share amounts or unless otherwise noted. Percentages within the following tables included in this section may not foot due to rounding.

Overview

Digimarc Corporation enables governments and enterprises around the world to give digital identities to media and objects that computers can sense and recognize, and to which they can react. We have developed the Digimarc Discover®, Digimarc Barcode and Intuitive Computing Platform that are designed to optimize the identification of all consumer brand impressions, wherever and whenever they may appear, facilitating modern mobile-centric shopping. The platform includes means to embed “Digimarc Barcodes,” invisible and inaudible barcode-like information that is recognizable by smartphones, tablets, industrial scanners, and other computer interfaces, into virtually all forms of media content, including consumer product packaging. Digimarc Barcodes have many applications, including facilitating remarkably faster scanning of products at retail checkout as well as improved engagement with smartphone-equipped consumers. The Digimarc Barcode is robust yet imperceptible by people in ordinary use, allowing for reliable, efficient, economical, globally scalable, automatic identification of media without visible computer codes like traditional barcodes.

Our growth strategy encompasses both our government and commercial businesses. We plan to continue investing in research and development and sales and marketing to develop and market our products, including Digimarc Discover, Digimarc Barcode and Guardian, and to continue to expand our intellectual property portfolio.

To protect our significant efforts in creating our technology, we have implemented an extensive intellectual property protection program that relies on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, and nondisclosure agreements and other contracts. As a result, we believe we have one of the world’s most extensive patent portfolios in the field of digital watermarking and related fields, with approximately 1,100 U.S. and foreign patents and pending patent applications as of December 31, 2016. We continue to develop and broaden our portfolio of patented technology in the fields of media identification and management technology and related applications and systems. We devote significant resources to developing and protecting our inventions and continuously seek to identify and evaluate potential licensees for our patents.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“U.S. GAAP”) requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to bad debts, contingencies, goodwill, income taxes, intangible assets, marketable securities, property and equipment and revenue recognition. We base our estimates on historical experience and on other assumptions we believe to be reasonable in the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

23


 

Some of our accounting policies require higher degrees of judgment than others in their application. These include revenue recognition, goodwill, impairment of long-lived assets, contingencies and income taxes. We believe the following critical accounting policies affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.

Revenue recognition: We account for customer arrangements that encompass multiple deliverables, such as patent licenses, professional services, software licenses, and maintenance and support fees, under ASC 605-25 “Multiple-Element Arrangements.” For arrangements that include multiple deliverables, we identify and divide the deliverables into separate units of accounting at inception if certain criteria are met. We apply ASC 985 to software deliverables when relevant. The consideration for the arrangements under ASC 605-25 is allocated to the separate units of accounting using the relative selling price method.

The relative selling price method allocates the consideration based on our specific assumptions rather than assumptions of a marketplace participant, and any discount in the arrangement proportionally to each deliverable on the basis of each deliverable’s selling price.

Applicable revenue recognition criteria are considered separately for each separate unit of accounting as follows:

 

Service revenue is generally determined based on time and materials. Revenue for development and consulting services is recognized as the services are performed. Billing for services rendered generally occurs within one month after the services are provided.

 

Subscription revenue, which includes revenue from the sale of Digimarc Discover, Digimarc Barcode and Guardian products and services, is generally paid in advance and recognized over the term of the subscription, which is generally one to three years.

 

License revenue is recognized when amounts owed to Digimarc have been earned, are fixed or determinable (within our normal 30 to 60 day payment terms), and collection is reasonably assured. If the payment terms extend beyond our normal 30 to 60 days, the fee may not be considered to be fixed or determinable, and the revenue would then be recognized when installments are due.

 

We record revenue from certain license agreements upon cash receipt as a result of collectability not being reasonably assured.

 

Our standard payment terms for license arrangements are 30 to 60 days. Extended payment terms on patent license arrangements are not considered to be fixed or determinable if payments are due beyond our standard payment terms, primarily because of the risk of substantial modification present in our patent licensing business. As such, revenue on license arrangements with extended payment terms are recognized as fees become fixed or determinable.

Goodwill: We account for business combinations under the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC 805, “Business Combinations,” where the total purchase price is allocated to the tangible and identified intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. The purchase price is allocated using the information currently available, and may be adjusted, up to one-year from acquisition date, after obtaining more information regarding, among other things, asset valuations, liabilities assumed and revisions to preliminary estimates.

Contingent consideration, if any, is recorded at the acquisition date based upon the estimated fair value of the contingent payments. The fair value of the contingent consideration is re-measured each reporting period with any adjustments in fair value being recognized in earnings from operations.

The purchase price in excess of the fair value of the tangible and identified intangible assets acquired less liabilities assumed is recognized as goodwill.

We test goodwill for impairment annually in June and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Such reviews assess the fair value of our assets compared to their

24


 

carrying value. We operate as a single reporting unit. We estimate the fair value of our single reporting unit using a market approach, which takes into account our market capitalization plus an estimated control premium.

In connection with our annual impairment test of goodwill as of June 30, 2016 and 2015, we concluded that there was no impairment because the estimated fair value of our single reporting unit substantially exceeded the carrying value.

Impairment of long-lived assets: We assess long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable, in accordance with the provisions of ASC 360 “Property, Plant and Equipment.” Conditions that could trigger a long-lived asset impairment assessment include, but are not limited to, a significant decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset, a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate that could affect the value of an asset, or a current-period operating or cash flow loss combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses.

Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of the assets to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the assets over their remaining useful life. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment would be recognized in operating results at the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Fair value is determined based on discounted cash flows or appraised values, depending on the nature of the assets.

Considerable management judgment is required in determining if and when a condition would trigger an impairment assessment of our long-lived assets and once such a determination has been made, considerable management judgment is required to determine the expected net undiscounted future cash flows to be generated by the assets over their remaining useful life and, if necessary, the fair market value of those assets.

Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.

Contingencies: We evaluate all pending or threatened contingencies or commitments, if any, that are reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our operations or financial position. We assess the probability of an adverse outcome and determine if it is remote, reasonably possible or probable as defined in accordance with the provisions of ASC 450 “Contingencies.” If information available prior to the issuance of our financial statements indicates that it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred at the date of our financial statements, and the amount of the loss, or the range of probable loss can be reasonably estimated, then the loss is accrued and charged to operations. If no accrual is made for a loss contingency because one or both of the conditions pursuant to ASC 450 are not met, but the probability of an adverse outcome is at least reasonably possible, we will disclose the nature of the contingency and provide an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss, or state that such an estimate cannot be made.

Income taxes: We record valuation allowances on our deferred tax assets if, based on available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that all or some portion of the assets will not be realized. The determination of whether our deferred tax assets are realizable requires management to identify and weigh all available positive and negative evidence. Management considers recent financial performance, projected future taxable income, scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, tax planning strategies and other evidence in assessing the realizability of our deferred tax assets.

We recorded a $6.8 million non-cash income tax charge during the fourth quarter of 2014 to record a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets largely due to the cumulative loss we had incurred over the previous three years, which is considered a significant piece of negative evidence when assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets. As of December 31, 2016, we determined a full valuation allowance was still appropriate due to continued losses.

We are subject to federal and state income taxes within the U.S., and, in the ordinary course of business, there are transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We report a liability (or contra asset) for unrecognized tax benefits resulting from uncertain tax positions taken (or expected to be taken) on a tax return. We recognize interest and penalties, if any, related to the unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense.

25


 

Results of Operations—the Years Ended December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015

The following tables present our consolidated statements of operations data for the periods indicated.

 

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

$

12,667

 

 

$

12,517

 

Subscription

 

 

5,808

 

 

 

6,377

 

License

 

 

3,318

 

 

 

3,295

 

Total revenue

 

 

21,793

 

 

 

22,189

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

 

5,673

 

 

 

5,488

 

Subscription

 

 

2,410

 

 

 

3,113

 

License

 

 

414

 

 

 

346

 

Total cost of revenue

 

 

8,497

 

 

 

8,947

 

Gross profit

 

 

13,296

 

 

 

13,242

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

11,888

 

 

 

9,275

 

Research, development and engineering

 

 

13,394

 

 

 

12,465

 

General and administrative

 

 

8,298

 

 

 

7,954

 

Intellectual property

 

 

1,636

 

 

 

1,525

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

35,216

 

 

 

31,219

 

Operating loss

 

 

(21,920

)

 

 

(17,977

)

Other income, net

 

 

258

 

 

 

109

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(21,662

)

 

 

(17,868

)

Provision for income taxes

 

 

(10

)

 

 

(66

)

Net loss

 

$

(21,672

)

 

$

(17,934

)

26


 

 

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

 

Percentages are percent of total revenue

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

 

58

%

 

 

56

%

Subscription

 

 

27

 

 

 

29

 

License

 

 

15

 

 

 

15

 

Total revenue

 

 

100

 

 

 

100

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

 

26

 

 

 

25

 

Subscription

 

 

11

 

 

 

14

 

License

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

Total cost of revenue

 

 

39

 

 

 

40

 

Gross profit

 

 

61

 

 

 

60

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

55

 

 

 

42

 

Research, development and

   engineering

 

 

61

 

 

 

56

 

General and administrative

 

 

38

 

 

 

36

 

Intellectual property

 

 

8

 

 

 

7

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

162

 

 

 

141

 

Operating loss

 

 

(101

)

 

 

(81

)

Other income, net

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(99

)

 

 

(81

)

Provision for income taxes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

 

(99

%)

 

 

(81

%)

 

Summary

Total revenue decreased $0.4 million or 2% to $21.8 million, primarily the result of lower subscription revenue.

Total operating expenses increased 13% to $35.2 million, primarily reflecting higher investment in sales, marketing and engineering as we continue to address important opportunities in market development and delivery for Digimarc Discover and Digimarc Barcode.

27


 

Revenue

 

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

Dollar

 

 

Percent

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

Increase

 

 

Increase

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

(Decrease)

 

 

(Decrease)

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

$

12,667

 

 

$

12,517

 

 

$

150

 

 

 

1

%

Subscription

 

 

5,808

 

 

 

6,377

 

 

 

(569

)

 

 

(9

)%

License

 

 

3,318

 

 

 

3,295

 

 

 

23

 

 

 

1

%

Total

 

$

21,793

 

 

$

22,189

 

 

$

(396

)

 

 

(2

)%

Revenue (as % of total revenue):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

 

58

%

 

 

56

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subscription

 

 

27

%

 

 

29

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

License

 

 

15

%

 

 

15

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

100

%

 

 

100

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service. Service revenue consists primarily of software development and consulting services. The majority of service revenue arrangements are structured as time and materials consulting agreements. Most of our service revenue is derived from contracts with the Central Banks and government agency contractors. The agreements range from several months to several years in length, and our longer term contracts are subject to work plans that are reviewed and agreed upon at least annually. These contracts generally provide for billing hours worked at predetermined rates and, to a lesser extent, reimbursement for third party costs and services. Increases or decreases in the services provided under these contracts are generally subject to both volume and price changes. The volume of work is generally negotiated at least annually and can be modified as the customer’s needs change. We also have provisions in our longer term contracts that allow for specific hourly rate price increases on an annual basis to account for cost of living variables. Contracts with government agency contractors are generally shorter term in nature, less linear in billings and less predictable than our longer term contracts because the contracts with government agency contractors are subject to government budgets and funding.

The increase in service revenue was primarily due to more program work with the Central Banks, partially offset by the expiration of minimum support services to IV.

Subscription. Subscription revenue includes Digimarc Discover, Digimarc Barcode and Guardian products and services, and is generally recurring in nature, paid in advance and recognized over the term of the subscription.

The decrease in subscription revenue was primarily due to lower software license revenue, which is recognized over the associated 12-month support period, partially offset by growth in sales of Digimarc Barcode.

License. License revenue originates primarily from licensing our intellectual property where we receive license fees and/or royalties as our income stream.

The increase in license revenue was insignificant.

28


 

Revenue by geography

 

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

Dollar

 

 

Percent

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

Increase

 

 

Increase

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

(Decrease)

 

 

(Decrease)

 

Revenue by geography:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Domestic

 

$

4,776

 

 

$

6,304

 

 

$

(1,528

)

 

 

(24

)%

International

 

 

17,017

 

 

 

15,885

 

 

 

1,132

 

 

 

7

%

Total

 

$

21,793

 

 

$

22,189

 

 

$

(396

)

 

 

(2

)%

Revenue (as % of total revenue):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Domestic

 

 

22

%

 

 

28

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

International

 

 

78

%

 

 

72

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

100

%

 

 

100

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The decrease in domestic revenue was primarily due to lower software license revenue and the expiration of minimum support services to IV.

The increase in international revenue was primarily due to more program work from the Central Banks and higher license revenue among international customers.

Cost of revenue

Service. Cost of service revenue primarily includes costs that are allocated from research, development and engineering, and sales and marketing that relate directly to performing services under our customer contracts and direct costs of program delivery. Costs include:

 

compensation, benefits, incentive compensation in the form of stock-based compensation and related costs of our software developers, quality assurance personnel, product managers, business development managers and other personnel where we bill our customers for time and materials costs;

 

payments to outside contractors that are billed to customers;

 

charges for equipment directly used by customers;

 

depreciation and other charges for machinery, equipment and software directly used by customers;

 

travel costs directly attributable to development and consulting contracts; and

 

charges for infrastructure and centralized costs of facilities and information technology.

Subscription. Cost of subscription revenue primarily includes:

 

compensation, benefits, incentive compensation in the form of stock-based compensation and related costs of operations personnel;

 

cost of outside contractors that provide operational support;

 

amortization of existing technology acquired in the acquisition of Attributor;

 

Internet service provider connectivity charges and image search data fees to support the services offered to our subscription customers; and

 

charges for infrastructure and centralized costs of facilities and information technology.

29


 

License. Cost of license revenue primarily includes:

 

amortization of capitalized patent costs; and

 

amortization of patent maintenance fees.

Gross profit

 

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

Dollar

 

 

Percent

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

Increase

 

 

Increase

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

(Decrease)

 

 

(Decrease)

 

Gross Profit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

$

6,994

 

 

$

7,029

 

 

$

(35

)

 

 

(0

)%

Subscription

 

 

3,398

 

 

 

3,264

 

 

 

134

 

 

 

4

%

License

 

 

2,904

 

 

 

2,949

 

 

 

(45

)

 

 

(2

)%

Total

 

$

13,296

 

 

$

13,242

 

 

$

54

 

 

 

0

%

Gross Profit (as % of related

   revenue components):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service

 

 

55

%

 

 

56

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subscription

 

 

59

%

 

 

51

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

License

 

 

88

%

 

 

89

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

61

%

 

 

60

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The increase in total gross profit was due primarily to higher margins on subscription revenue.

The decrease in service gross profit as a percentage of service revenue was insignificant.

The increase in subscription gross profit as a percentage of subscription revenue was primarily due to lower operations and contractor costs in support of our Guardian products and services.

The decrease in license gross profit as a percentage of license revenue was insignificant.

Operating expenses

We allocate certain costs of research, development and engineering, sales and marketing, and intellectual property to cost of revenue when they relate directly to our customer contracts. We record all remaining, or “residual,” costs as sales and marketing, research, development and engineering, general and administrative, and intellectual property expenses.

Sales and marketing

 

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

Year Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

Dollar

 

 

Percent

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

Increase

 

 

Increase

 

Sales and marketing

 

$

11,888

 

 

$

9,275

 

 

$

2,613

 

 

 

28

%

Sales and marketing

   (as % of total revenue)