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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the year ended December 31, 2019
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OF 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from______ to ______
Commission File Number: 001-36330
CASTLIGHT HEALTH, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
26-1989091
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
150 Spear Street, Suite 400
San Francisco, CA 94105
(Address of principal executive offices)
(415) 829-1400
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class B Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareCSLTNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
Not applicable
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes No
Indicate by check-mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
Based on the closing price of the Registrant’s Common Stock on the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second quarter, which was June 30, 2019, the aggregate market value of its shares (based on a closing price of $3.23 per share) held by non-affiliates was approximately $395 million. As of February 25, 2020, there were 35,032,053 shares of the Registrant’s Class A common stock outstanding and 114,227,876 shares of the Registrant’s Class B common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”), to be filed within 120 days of the Registrant’s year ended December 31, 2019, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Report on Form 10-K. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part of this Form 10-K.




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Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements and Industry Data
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations, financial position and cash flows, our business strategy, expansion opportunities, results and outcomes for customers and users, and plans and our objectives for future operations are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “intend” and “expect” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors.” Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. We are under no duty to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or to conform these statements to actual results or revised expectations.
PART I
Item 1. Business
Overview

Castlight Health, Inc. (“Castlight”, “the Company” or “we”) provides health navigation solutions for large U.S. employers and health plans (“customers”) and their respective employees and members (“users”). Castlight’s offerings deliver a personalized and simplified user experience that helps connect individuals with the right provider or available benefit at the right time. Castlight’s navigation offerings have demonstrated measurable results, driving increased levels of user satisfaction and program utilization and lower healthcare costs for its customers and millions of users.

The foundation of Castlight’s solutions is our proprietary single stack software-as-a-service platform. We believe our platform is unique in its:

Breadth and depth of data and partner integrations across the healthcare ecosystem;
Personalization engine that leverages data from these integrations to customize each user experience and help steer users to the right benefits and providers;
Comprehensive coverage across a user’s available wellbeing, healthcare and condition management benefits; and
Ability to engage a user through digital (web, mobile app) and high-touch (telephonic) communication modes.

Our platform’s services-oriented architecture enables us to extend our technology for use beyond our own applications. This enables us to serve health plans and other entities seeking to leverage our technology within their own member-facing applications or user touch points.

We sell our platform as a suite of branded and white-labeled digital health navigation mobile applications and web services primarily to large, self-insured U.S. employers. We also sell branded product offerings through our direct sales force and partnerships with large benefits consultants, with a focus on serving large U.S. employers.

In July 2019, we expanded our strategy to focus on health plans as a customer and to package our products to support user experiences beyond those of Castlight-powered websites and applications. Specifically, we seek to leverage our white-labeled health navigation offering and our platform’s services-oriented architecture to power health navigation delivered through third-party digital interfaces, such as a health plan’s existing member app.

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Since this strategic expansion, we have begun demonstrating proof points for our expanded strategy, including:

In October 2019, we announced an enterprise license agreement with Anthem, Inc. (“Anthem”) that provides Anthem with access to key components of our platform. We are seeking opportunities to replicate this model with other health plans, such as U.S. regional health plans.

In late 2019, we introduced a pilot of our high-touch navigation offering – Castlight Care Guides – as a supplemental service for our large employer customers. Care Guides will support Castlight users and help them with their health navigation using Castlight’s core technology. We believe Castlight Care Guides will generate incremental user engagement and healthcare cost savings for our customers and users over time.

Castlight was incorporated in the State of Delaware in January 2008. Our principal executive offices are located in San Francisco, California.

The U.S. Healthcare Industry and Our Opportunity

We believe we have a significant opportunity to help existing and prospective customers and users navigate the major economic and social challenges associated with the U.S. healthcare system. We see the following industry trends affecting employers, health plans and individual users as potential long-term growth drivers for our business.

Our historical focus has been on large employers of the U.S. healthcare market. We continue to see significant opportunities within this customer category.
Employers play a significant role in U.S. healthcare benefits spending. According to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”):
Employer-sponsored private health insurance totaled $1.1 trillion in 2018, up 4.1% year-over-year. More than half of this amount was from private employer contributions to health insurance premiums.

CMS forecasted these expenditures to grow at an average annual growth rate of 4.9% from 2017 to 2027.
Nevertheless, employees continue to struggle to understand and utilize their benefits, limiting the effectiveness of employer cost and quality initiatives. Studies continue to demonstrate significant underutilization of such benefits:
According to a November 2018 study conducted by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, only 28% of employed adults are very confident they are fully utilizing their benefits, and only 38% are very confident they are current on the changes that have been made to their benefits.

A March 2017 study by Fidelity Investments, Inc. and the National Business Group on Health (“NBGH”) reported utilization rates are below 20% for key benefits offerings like financial wellness, weight management, condition management and resilience.

A January 2018 survey from NBGH and the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association has shown that one in three employer respondents report difficulty generating employee engagement with their “point solution” benefits such as virtual care and chronic condition management.

Based on these trends, we believe large employers are increasingly interested in innovative benefit plan designs and navigation technologies and services such as ours, to increase employee engagement, lower costs and improve outcomes:

Large employers offer high-deductible health plans (“HDHPs”), which shift more financial decision making onto employees. In HDHPs, individuals have lower monthly insurance premiums than traditional plans, but pay more out of pocket for medical expenses until their deductible is met. A recent study from the National Center for Health Statistics shows that HDHP enrollment of adults with employer-based coverage increased from 15% to 43% between 2007 and 2017.

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NBGH published a survey in September 2019 that listed their large employer members’ top healthcare initiatives for 2020:

Implementing more digital care solutions;
Deploying a more focused strategy on high-cost claims;
Expanding “centers of excellence” -- programs with concentrated expertise in a particular medical area -- to   include more conditions to lower costs; and
Implementing an engagement platform that aggregates point solutions and pushes personalized communications to employees.
As a result of these factors, we believe there is a significant opportunity to help large U.S. employers and their employees address their respective health benefit challenges through personalized health navigation solutions. Given the scalability of our platform, we also believe there is a significant market opportunity for us to offer our platform in new market categories by targeting health plans and other entities involved in health care services. Overall U.S. healthcare spending is projected to continue to grow each year for the foreseeable future:
CMS estimates that U.S. national health expenditures totaled $3.6 trillion in 2018, an increase of 4.4% year-over-year. CMS expects national health expenditures to increase at an average annual growth rate of 5.5% from 2017 to 2027, totaling approximately $6.0 trillion in 2027.

As a percentage of gross domestic product, CMS estimates that U.S. national health expenditures were approximately 17.8% in 2018 and projected to increase to 19.4% in 2027. This is significantly higher than most other developed nations.
However, there is scant evidence that these massive U.S. healthcare outlays are efficient or result in better outcomes for Americans:

Research published in the October 2019 edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association estimates that waste comprises approximately 25% of U.S. healthcare spending across categories, including failure of care delivery and coordination, over-treatment or low-value care, pricing failure, fraud and abuse and administrative complexity.

A 2019 Peter G. Peterson Foundation study illustrates that, in spite of its lead in healthcare spending, the U.S. does not generate healthcare outcomes that exceed those of other developed countries. In fact, the U.S. underperforms in basic health outcome metrics such as life expectancy, infant mortality and unmanaged diabetes.

In addition to the massive spending and inadequate value discussed above, potential regulatory changes, demographic shifts and the emergence of value-based payments also impact health plans:
In November 2019, CMS issued one final rule and one proposed rule to increase price transparency among hospitals, group health plans and health insurance issuers in the individual and group markets.

Medicare Advantage (“MA”) enrollment continues to grow across both the Individual and Group MA markets. According to research conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation, about 22 million enrollees in 2019 were on an individual MA plan in 2019 -- or 34% of the 64 million Medicare beneficiaries -- up from 23% of total Medicare enrollees in 2009.

The Group Medicare Advantage developed for employer and union group retirees now represents nearly 4.5 million enrollees in 2019, according to Mark Farrah Associates.
Value-based programs reward health care providers with incentive payments for the quality of care they give to people with Medicare. CMS is rolling out “value-based care” programs within Medicare to shift provider payments away from the quantity of care provided and toward quality care for patients. As a result, payments associated with these programs are increasing relative to the traditional fee-for-service payment model currently dominant in healthcare. According to a 2018 study led by the Healthcare Payment Learning & Action Network, 34% of total U.S. healthcare payments in 2017 were value-based, up from 23% in 2015.

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Health insurance is one of the lowest rated industries in terms of consumer satisfaction. Based on consumer demand, health insurers and providers are turning to digital tools to help improve their customer experience and lower costs:
As benchmarked by the American Consumer Satisfaction Index issued in November 2018, the health insurance industry ranks 40th out of 46 industries in customer satisfaction.

A 2018 joint study conducted by Bain & Company and Google concluded that a prototypical health insurer can lower costs by 15% to 20% over the next five years by deploying digital technologies.

Based on these healthcare industry dynamics, we believe there is a significant opportunity for us to leverage our platform to help health plans and other entities responsible for managing healthcare costs.

For example, we could power pricing, provider directory and personalization services that are delivered through a health plan’s existing member app that help users understand and utilize their health plan provider network and other benefits. We believe the platform could also be used to provide similar functionality to entities participating in value-based care programs to help these entities identify and partner with lower cost, higher-quality providers.
Our Solution

We have developed a comprehensive health navigation platform powered by a set of associated services and technologies that match individuals to the best resources available to them, and motivate them to take action. This, in turn, helps customers manage their benefits more effectively, and generate more value from their benefits investments. Our health navigation platform powers all of our products and services with the following key components:

Breadth and Depth of Data Integrations Across Major Health Plans, Benefits Vendors and Digital Health Point Solution Providers. Our ability to drive user engagement, program utilization and medical cost savings is based on our platform’s ability to ingest data across the entire healthcare ecosystem – from insurance carriers and employer eligibility files to third-party digital health point solutions and activity trackers – and utilize it to personalize the user experience. Further, the platform is designed to deliver these services in compliance with healthcare privacy and other applicable regulations.

The foundation of our platform is this breadth and depth of our data integrations, which, in aggregate, include more than one billion records. These integrations include:

Claims data across: more than 30 medical payers and more than 30 providers spanning pharmacy benefit managers, dental payers, and behavioral/employee assistance programs;
100+ employer eligibility file vendors;
100+ bank integrations for health savings accounts (“HSA”); and
100+ program integrations.

Our platform accesses data from additional sources, such as user searches, user-stated health goals, third-party provider quality sources, biometric data, Health Risk Assessment data, activity trackers, and third-party digital health programs, all of which are integrated into our platform.

Provider Quality Score. In the fourth quarter of 2018, we launched our proprietary provider quality score (“Q-Score”) to enhance our ability to recommend providers based on quality, in addition to cost and user convenience. Q-Score combines baseline provider metrics (years of experience, medical school degrees and board certifications) and third-party hospital and provider quality metrics with internally-derived outcomes metrics based on our analysis of our wealth of historical claims data. Based on these data inputs and our own proprietary algorithms, our platform is able to generate a Q-Score for approximately 80% of U.S. practitioners.

Castlight Genius Personalization Engine. Genius leverages our vast data resources to guide employees to the right available care, benefit program, or content based on their individual health needs. Genius works as follows:

Genius uses our data sets to score our user population across clinical and wellbeing categories;
Genius then stratifies these categories into 100+ different targeting segments; and
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Based on this segmentation and demographic data, Genius sends personalized educational content and recommendations to users. User outreach is delivered through channels such as email, mobile push notifications, and in-app and website.

Genius employs rules-based methods and machine learning models to segment the Castlight user population. During 2019, we doubled Genius’s segment-level targeting capacity to further enhance its personalization capabilities.

Third-Party Digital Health Ecosystem Program Integrations. We leverage our open architecture to simplify benefit vendor integration and management. Our platform integrates with nearly any vendor to create one seamless experience with third-party digital health applications and services across categories such as: activity tracking, biometric screening, financial wellness, health risk assessment, mental health and fitness, nutrition management, physical and behavioral health, resilience, second opinion, sleep management, weight coaching, and management of various specific conditions (e.g. heart health, diabetes, holistic wellbeing, maternal health, and medical decision support).

Comprehensive Employee Experience. We have designed our solutions to be the first place users go whenever they have a health benefits related need, wherever they are in their health journey. Whether a user is staying healthy or managing a condition, our solution engages them with personalized content and communication through branded and white-labeled websites and mobile applications.

Services-Oriented Architecture. We designed our platform with a services-oriented architecture, enabling us to extend its use beyond our own applications. This enables us to serve health plans and other entities wishing to leverage our technology within their own member-facing applications or user touch points. Our platform also includes services components such as pricing, personalization and provider directories.

Measurable Value. Since launching Castlight Complete in September 2018, we have demonstrated Complete’s ability to drive measurable value across three core areas: (i) user engagement; (ii) user behavior change; and (iii) medical cost savings that translate into a return on investment (“ROI”) on the customer’s Complete subscription costs. For example:

User Engagement:
Registration and Return Rates: Complete drove a 60%-plus subscriber registration rate and a 38% monthly user return rate over the course of 2019.
Employee Experience: The Castlight Complete mobile app generated a Net Promoter Score of 75 in 2019. In addition, Complete's Apple App Store rating was 4.7 stars with more than 10,000 reviews in 2019.

Behavior Change:
Appropriate care: 38% of registered Castlight users had a preventive office visit over the year compared with only 25% of non-users.
High-value provider: Employees using Complete received care in an emergency room 25% less often than non-users after being directed to more appropriate care options. Additionally, Complete has reduced medical spending, including approximately 12% reduction in labs and imaging costs for those who search for care within the Castlight app.
Program utilization: Complete achieved 1.4 to 2.4 times higher engagement in employer-offered health and wellness solutions that are integrated into the Complete platform.

Medical Cost Saving/ROI: In the latest reporting period available, 2018, Complete customers typically achieved 1.4% medical cost savings. For an employer with 20,000 employees, this equates to over $2 million in medical cost savings.

Our Products

For Large Employers: We offer our platform through three packages which we sell through our direct sales force:

Care Guidance Navigator: Our Care Guidance Navigator (“Care Guidance”) empowers users to make better care decisions and navigate their employer-sponsored healthcare benefit programs through an experience tailored specifically for a user’s networks, health plans, care options, and programs. By helping individuals choose the right available benefit and right care option at the right time, Care Guidance Navigator seeks to improve user satisfaction with benefits while helping employers achieve medical costs savings.

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Wellbeing Navigator: Our personalized, incentivized Wellbeing Navigator (“Wellbeing”) helps drive engagement across an employer’s entire benefits program. Wellbeing Navigator leverages a robust data set, advanced personalization and incentives to help drive engagement, improve health and increase employee satisfaction.

Complete Health Navigator: Complete Health Navigator (“Complete” or “Castlight Complete”) combines the full functionality of the Wellbeing Navigator and Care Guidance Navigator packages in one unified user experience. Complete addresses the unique needs of an organization and guides users through their entire health journey. Complete delivers personalized content and communications, whether users are working to stay healthy or managing a condition.

All the above Navigator packages include ecosystem integrations, the Castlight Genius personalization engine, and an engagement hub that aggregates all employee benefits, personalized recommendations and communications into one central location.

Castlight Care Guides: In October 2019, we announced the creation of a high-touch navigation service to complement our Navigator offerings. Castlight Care Guides combines Castlight’s personalized health navigation technology with a high-touch service to help navigate users to the best care for them. Examples include Care Guide support to assist users searching for care, understanding their benefits, challenging healthcare bills, or navigating a clinical need. With the addition of Castlight Care Guides, an employer can deploy both digital and high-touch navigation solutions and will no longer be limited to choose between the two options. We plan to make this solution broadly available in the third quarter of 2020.

For Health Plans:

White-Labeled Health Navigation Solutions: We offer white-labeled digital health navigation solutions to health plans. Currently, we power the Engage offering that Anthem deploys to its Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield health plans in the United States. Engage delivers the personalized user experience of our platform to Anthem members with additional features available through deep integrations with Anthem’s own assets, such as the Anthem Health Guide concierge, Anthem’s clinical and care management programs, and Anthem’s gaps-in-care and clinical analytics. Engage is offered in multiple packages, including a more streamlined version that can be offered by Anthem to its smaller size clients. Engage is available to Anthem, Inc. national accounts and large group accounts.

Embedded Platform Technology Services: As part of the Anthem enterprise license agreement effective January 1, 2020, we provide Anthem with a non-exclusive license for some of our underlying health navigation platform technology services, such as transparency and personalization. We offer our platform’s underlying technology services to other health plans seeking to embed our platform functionality into their existing user experiences instead of offering a full white-labeled solution.

Our Services

We provide a range of services to help employers implement and maximize the value of our offering, including:

Implementation Services. We provide implementation services to our customers to help ensure successful deployment of our offering, including executing required data feeds, loading customer data, configuring products, integrating with third-party and other applications, communication and comprehensive testing. We also offer communications services to drive employee engagement with our offering that span educational presentations, email campaigns, print collateral and employer-specific media. Communications initiatives are typically run during open enrollment, time of product launch and periodically post launch, and are designed to drive employee engagement and change management. Fees for these services are included as part of our contracts.
        
User and Customer Support. We offer end user support to help ensure effective use of our platform. We provide telephonic, live chat and email support for employees and their families in the areas of account maintenance, technical issue resolution, and navigation of online services. We offer interactive sessions to our customers that help them understand the impact of our product through various standard and customized reporting and provide deeper insights about their employee populations with a focus on employee engagement. Fees for these services are included as part of our subscription contracts.

Marketplace: Store and Rewards Center. To help employers drive employee engagement with their benefits, we offer an online store where employers can offer third-party health products and services (e.g. fitness trackers) to their
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employees for use with Wellbeing Navigator’s activity tracking functionality. Additionally, we power a Rewards Center where employees can redeem incentive points for items such as contributions to their HSA accounts, gift cards, and donations to charity. Revenues from products sold through our online marketplace are recognized on a net basis principally because we are not the primary obligor to the end-customers.

Customers

Our customers consist primarily of large self-insured employers and health plans, representing a wide range of industries, such as education, manufacturing, retail, technology and government, and includes some of the largest employers in the United States. We define a customer as a separate and distinct buying entity, such as a company, an educational or government institution, or health plan, or a distinct business unit of a large corporation, which has entered into a master subscription agreement with us to access our platform, including customers that are in the process of deploying our platform to their users.

In October 2019, we entered into a 30-month enterprise license agreement with Anthem, effective January 1, 2020, that extends and expands our existing relationship with Anthem first announced in 2015. The agreement includes our core care guidance technology, the Engage health navigation platform, and a new, non-exclusive license for some of our underlying health navigation platform technology services, such as transparency and personalization. With this new agreement, Anthem has moved from a channel partner for the Engage offering to a health plan customer.

Employees and Culture

We view our employees and company culture as critical assets for our business and a source of competitive strength. Our leadership team is focused on supporting our employees and fostering our unique culture. We believe this has enabled us to attract and retain some of the best minds in technology and health care to build and advance our platform.

As of December 31, 2019, we had a total of 463 full-time employees. We also engage contractors and consultants. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.

Sales and Marketing

We have a hybrid sales model that leverages a national direct sales organization and partner relationships.

Our sales team comprises enterprise-focused field sales professionals who are organized into geography-based teams. Our field professionals target large, self-insured U.S. employers and health plans. The sales team is supported by a sales operations staff, including product technology experts, lead generation professionals and sales data experts.

We also have a team of professionals who maintain relationships with key industry participants including benefit consultants, brokers, group purchasing organizations, and health plan partners. These partners can support our sales efforts to varying degrees by sourcing prospects, and working in collaboration with our direct sales team during the sales process. Through these relationships, we believe we are able to reach a broader set of potential customers and leverage existing relationships to promote our health benefits platform and products.

We also generate customer leads, accelerate sales opportunities and build brand awareness through our marketing programs. These programs target human resource executives and benefits leaders in addition to senior business leaders and health care and benefits channel partners, and include value-add research and learning opportunities for potential customers, channel marketing, demand generation activities, field marketing events, direct e-mail campaigns and participation in user conferences, industry events, trade shows and customer conferences.

Technology and Operations

We have designed our technology infrastructure to provide a highly available and secure multi-tenant, cloud-based offering. Our multi-tenant platforms allow us to use a standard data model and consistent management practices for all customers with multiple possible configurations, while securely partitioning each customer’s application data. This approach
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provides significant operating leverage and improved efficiency as it helps us reduce our fixed cost base and minimize unused capacity on our hardware.

The architecture, deployment and management of our technology are focused on:

Scalability. We have developed a robust and scalable data architecture infrastructure, which allows for automated loading and normalization of numerous data sources, including billions of claim transactions in our data warehouse.

Standardization. Our technology assimilates structured and unstructured data from disparate sources, and employs unique algorithms to convert these data into user-friendly information for our users. Additionally, we operate using Service-Oriented Architecture principles, with a platform of services that serve to deliver the application in a scalable and standardized way.

Security. We maintain a formal and comprehensive security program designed to ensure the security and integrity of customer data, protect against security threats or data breaches and prevent unauthorized access to our data or the data of our customers. We strictly regulate and limit all access to on-demand servers and networks at our production and remote backup facilities. All users are validated, authenticated and authorized before they can access our system. Users must have a valid user ID and associated password to log on to our services. We require Transport Layer Security between the user’s browser and our servers to protect data in transit. Encrypted backup files are transmitted over secure connections to redundant storage in a secondary data center.

We currently host our products from regionally dispersed data centers and lease third-party industry-class data center hosting facilities throughout the United States. We rely on third-party vendors to provide infrastructure support for our data centers, which are designed to host computer systems that require high levels of availability and have redundant subsystems and compartmentalized security zones. We utilize commercially available hardware for our data center servers. Our data center facilities employ advanced measures to ensure physical integrity, including redundant power and cooling systems and advanced fire and flood prevention.

Compliance and Certifications

Our software services and data are located at independently managed and third-party data center hosting facilities. We require those vendors to obtain third-party security examinations relating to security and data privacy such as Service Organization Controls (“SOC”) SOC 1 or SOC 2 reports. Our vendors’ examinations are conducted at least every 12 months by an independent third-party auditor, and address, among other areas, physical and environmental safeguards for production data centers, data availability and integrity procedures, change management procedures and logical security procedures. An independent auditor conducts an annual SOC 2 Type II audit of our operating processes and procedures and HITRUST certifications of our security controls. Our annual internal audits are based upon the international standard ISO/IEC 27001 that addresses, among other things, security, data privacy and operational controls.

Strategic Relationships

Data Collaborations. We have relationships with many national and regional health plans, pharmacy benefit managers, dental insurers, behavioral health plans, and health savings plans to support our mutual customers. These collaborations provide us with claims, balance integrations and other data on behalf of our employer customers. We have developed technologies in collaboration with several payers including real-time integrated APIs. The increasing number of data integrations we have in place is helping to position us as a health navigation platform for our customers, and enables employers to consolidate many of their sources of benefits information into a single point of reference.

Benefit Consultants and Brokers. Our relationships with brokers and consultants complement our direct sales capabilities. Through these relationships, we gain the ability to reach a broader set of potential customers and leverage existing relationships to promote our health benefits platform and cross-pollinate customer opportunities.

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Ecosystem Vendors. Castlight’s ecosystem provides access to pre-integrated digital health partners that we can resell to provide a more streamlined experience for our users. In addition to our sales partnerships, we also have performed over 1,000 third-party integrations for our customers that deliver effortless access to external benefit programs for our users.

Competition

Our market is still in an early stage of development, but is rapidly evolving and competitive. We currently face competition from both existing and emerging vendors across a variety of categories, from specialists in the care guidance and wellbeing areas of the market, to broader offerings that compete with our full health navigation platform. A listing of some of our common competitors, grouped by major category, includes:

Care Guidance competitors, which include: independent vendors such as ClearCost Health, Sapphire Digital (formerly Vitals), Compass, Healthcare Bluebook, Accolade, HealthAdvocate, HealthSparq, and Quantum Health; and U.S. health plans such as Aetna Inc., Cigna Corporation, United Healthcare Group, Inc., and Health Care Services Corporation that bundle basic care guidance functionality into their offering;
Wellbeing competitors, which include: Limeade, VirginPulse and Vitality; and
Platform competitors, which include: United Healthcare Group’s Rally Health offering, and emerging competitors such as Evive, Welltok, and Sharecare.

The principal competitive factors in our industry include:

ability to curate complex data from multiple sources and present it through an easy to navigate user interface;
capability for customization through configuration, integration, security, scalability and reliability of products;
ease of use and rates of user engagement;
complementary technology platform and high touch services;
breadth and depth of application functionality;
competitive and understandable pricing;
size of customer base and level of user engagement;
depth of access to third-party data sources;
ability to integrate with legacy enterprise infrastructures and third-party applications;
ability to innovate and respond rapidly to customer needs and regulatory changes;
domain expertise in benefits and health care consumerism;
accessibility on any browser or mobile device;
clearly defined implementation timeline; and
customer branding and styling.

While we believe that we compete favorably on the basis of these factors, many of our competitors have longer operating histories, significantly greater financial, technical, marketing, distribution or other resources and greater name recognition than we do. In addition, many of our competitors have strong relationships with current and potential customers and extensive knowledge of the health care industry. We also may face competition from new entrants to the field as healthcare delivery and services continue to evolve. As a result, we may not always compare favorably with respect to certain of the above factors. We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors, and our business, results of operations and financial condition may be harmed if we fail to meet these competitive pressures.

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Intellectual Property

We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions, to establish, maintain and protect our proprietary rights. These laws, procedures and restrictions provide only limited protection and any of our intellectual property rights may be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed or misappropriated. In addition, we may not be able to prevent others from developing technology that is similar to, but not the same as our proprietary technology. We generally require employees, consultants, customers, suppliers and partners to execute confidentiality agreements with us that restrict the disclosure of our intellectual property. We also require our employees and consultants to execute invention assignment agreements with us that protect our intellectual property rights.

As of December 31, 2019, we had one issued patent and two patent applications pending in the United States. Our issued patent expires on July 27, 2031. We own and use trademarks on or in connection with our products and services, including both unregistered common law marks and issued trademark registrations in the United States and elsewhere. We have trademark applications pending to register marks in the United States. We have also registered numerous Internet domain names. Although we rely on intellectual property rights, including trade secrets, patents, copyrights and trademarks, as well as contractual protections to establish and protect our proprietary rights, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, creation of new modules, features and functionality, and frequent enhancements to our products are more essential to establishing and maintaining our technology leadership position.

Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary technology and our intellectual property rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or obtain and use our technology to develop products with the same functionality as our offering. In addition, policing unauthorized use of our technology and intellectual property rights is difficult and may not be effective.

We expect that we and others in our industry may be subject to third-party infringement claims as the number of competitors grows and the functionality of products in different industry segments overlaps. Any of these third parties might make a claim of infringement against us at any time. Any such claim could pose a substantial distraction to the management of the company. A successful claim of this type may be costly and could require us to spend substantial time and effort in making our offering non-infringing.

Strategic Acquisition

On April 3, 2017, we completed our acquisition of Jiff, Inc (“Jiff”). Jiff provided an enterprise health benefits platform that served as a central hub for employee wellbeing and employee benefit programs and is the foundation for our Wellbeing Navigator. The acquisition enabled us to develop a product offering that provides the full spectrum of wellbeing, healthcare decision support and an engagement hub all in one complete package.

Regulatory Environment

Participants in the health care industry are required to comply with extensive and complex laws and regulations in the United States at the federal and state levels as well as applicable international laws. Although many regulatory and governmental requirements do not directly apply to our business, our customers are required to comply with a variety of laws, and we may be affected by these laws as a result of our contractual obligations. Similarly, there are a number of legislative proposals in the United States, both at the federal and state level, which could impose new obligations in areas affecting our business. We have attempted to structure our operations to comply with applicable legal requirements, but there can be no assurance that our operations will not be challenged or impacted by enforcement initiatives.

Healthcare Reform

Our business could be affected by changes in health care laws, including without limitation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“ACA”), which was enacted in March 2010. The ACA has changed how health care services are covered, delivered and reimbursed through expanded coverage of individuals, changes in Medicare program spending and insurance market reforms. Ongoing government and legislative initiatives may bring about other changes.

While most of the provisions of the ACA and other health care reform legislation will not be directly applicable to us, they may affect the business of many of our customers, which may in turn affect our business. Although we are unable to predict with any reasonable certainty or otherwise quantify the likely impact of the ACA, any amendment or repeal of the ACA,
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or other health care reform on our business model, financial condition, or results of operations, negative changes in the business of our customers and the number of individuals they insure may negatively impact our business.

Requirements Regarding the Privacy and Security of Personal Information

U.S.-HIPAA and Other Privacy and Security Requirements. There are many U.S. federal and state laws and regulations related to the privacy and security of personal health information. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), is a major new state law poised to affect the privacy landscape globally and allows the California Attorney General to impose fines for CCPA violations. The CCPA went into effect on January 1, 2020 and the earliest the California Attorney General may bring an enforcement action under the CCPA is July 1, 2020. The CCPA is applicable to our business and, as such, we implemented changes to our business operations aimed at compliance with the CCPA. However, the CCPA will likely require further changes to our business once the California Attorney General finalizes the draft regulations.

Additionally, regulations promulgated pursuant to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and its implementing regulations, collectively HIPAA, establishes privacy and security standards that limit the use and disclosure of protected health information and require the implementation of administrative, physical and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of individually identifiable health information in electronic form. Our health plan customers, as well as health care clearinghouses and certain providers with which we may have or may establish business relationships, are covered entities that are regulated under HIPAA. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, which became effective on February 17, 2010, significantly expanded HIPAA’s privacy and security requirements. Among other things, HITECH makes HIPAA’s privacy and security standards directly applicable to “business associates,” who are independent contractors or agents of covered entities that create, receive, maintain, or transmit protected health information in connection with providing a service for or on behalf of a covered entity. Under HIPAA and our contractual agreements with our customers, we are considered a “business associate” to our customers and thus are directly subject to HIPAA’s privacy and security standards. In order to provide our covered entity customers with services that involve the use or disclosure of protected health information, HIPAA requires our customers to enter into business associate agreements with it. Such agreements must, among other things, require us to:
 
limit how we will use and disclose the protected health information;
implement reasonable administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect such information from misuse;
enter into similar agreements with our agents and subcontractors that have access to the information;
report security incidents, breaches and other inappropriate uses or disclosures of the information; and
assist the customer in question with certain duties under the privacy standards. 

                In addition to HIPAA regulations, we may be subject to other state and federal privacy laws, including laws that prohibit unfair or deceptive practices and laws that place specific requirements on use of data. We cannot provide assurance regarding how the various privacy and security laws will be interpreted, enforced or applied to our operations.

International Privacy Requirements. International Privacy Requirements. In Europe, we are subject to the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) which replaced the 1995 European Union (“EU”) Directive on Data Protection in May 2018. GDPR includes operational requirements for companies that receive or process personal data of European Union residents, and includes significant penalties for non-compliance. In addition, some countries are considering or have passed legislation implementing data protection requirements or requiring local storage and processing of data, or similar requirements that could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our services.

Data Protection and Breaches. In recent years, there have been a number of well-publicized data breaches involving the improper use and disclosure of individuals’ personal information. Many states have responded to these incidents by enacting laws requiring holders of personal information to maintain safeguards and to take certain actions in response to a data breach, such as providing prompt notification of the breach to affected individuals and state officials. In addition, under HIPAA, we must report breaches of unsecured protected health information to our contractual partners. Notification must also be made to HHS and, in certain circumstances involving large breaches, to the media. Under the GDPR, the data controller is required to report personal data breaches to the supervisory authority within 72 hours of discovery of the breach.

We have implemented and maintained physical, technical and administrative safeguards intended to protect all personal data, and have processes in place to assist our compliance with all applicable laws, regulations and contractual requirements regarding the protection of these data and properly responding to any security breaches or incidents. However, we
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cannot be sure that these safeguards are adequate to protect all personal data, or to assist us in complying with all applicable laws and regulations regarding the privacy and security of personal data, and responding to any security breaches or incidents. Furthermore, in many cases, applicable state laws, including breach notification requirements, are not preempted by the HIPAA privacy and security standards and are subject to interpretation by various courts and other governmental authorities, thereby complicating our compliance efforts. Additionally, state and federal laws regarding deceptive practices may apply to public assurances we give to individuals about the security of services we provide on behalf of our contractual customers.

Other Requirements. In addition to HIPAA, numerous other U.S. state and federal laws govern the collection, dissemination, use, access to and confidentiality of personally identifiable information, individually identifiable health information and health care provider information. Some states also are considering new laws and regulations that further protect the confidentiality, privacy and security of such information. In many cases, these state laws are not preempted by the HIPAA privacy standards and may be subject to interpretation by various courts and other governmental authorities. Further, Congress and a number of states have considered or are considering prohibitions or limitations on the disclosure of medical or other information to individuals or entities located outside of the United States.

We dedicate significant resources to protecting our customers’ and users' information, including confidential and protected health information (“PHI”). Our security strategy employs various practices and technology to control and protect access to sensitive information. In February 2019, our application and infrastructure received certification status from the Health Information Trust Alliance, or HITRUST, the healthcare industry group that certifies an entity’s material compliance with HIPAA, and various states’ security and privacy laws regarding the creation, access, storage or exchange of personal health and financial information. Our certification status signifies that we exhibit and are able to maintain high security standards of electronic PHI.

Available Information
We file Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and other information, including all amendments to these filings, with the SEC. You may access our SEC filings, free of charge, from our website at www.castlighthealth.com under the “Investor Relations” tab promptly after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The SEC's website at www.sec.gov also has all the reports that we electronically file or furnish to the SEC. The information posted on or accessible through these websites is not incorporated into this filing.
Item 1A. Risk Factors

        The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event the market price of our Class B common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business
We rely on Anthem for a substantial portion of our sales, and if our relationships with Anthem, or others, are unsuccessful our sales results would be adversely affected and the growth of our business would be harmed.
        Our sales strategy relies on relationships we have developed with Anthem as well as relationships we have built or are working to build with other health plans, benefits consultants, brokers and other industry participants. We are continuing to invest in, and expect to continue to increase our reliance on, these types of relationships to access customers and grow our overall sales. However, there can be no assurance that these relationships will be successful, or will result in access to additional users or growth in sales. These relationships do not always meet our expectations and could fail for a variety of reasons, including changes in our partners’ business priorities, insufficient or misaligned incentives for our partners to assist us with sales, competition, or other factors.

In October 2019, we entered into new agreements with Anthem, Inc. (“Anthem”), whereby various services previously provided to Anthem’s customers on a disaggregated basis under separate service order forms have been consolidated under a Software-as-a-Service Agreement (the “SaaS Agreement”). Under the SaaS Agreement, Anthem is committed to paying us significant annual license fees for calendar years 2020 and 2021, and the first six months of 2022, which could constitute a
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substantial amount of our revenue for such periods. If the SaaS Agreement were to be terminated by Anthem under its terms, or if Anthem breaches the terms of the SaaS Agreement, our business could be materially and adversely harmed.

Our current growth strategy includes investing resources in pursuing relationships with other health plans to leverage what we have experienced with Anthem. Developing these relationships will take time, require significant upfront investment, and divert our attention from other opportunities. There is no guarantee that our efforts in this regard will yield additional relationships, and even if it does, there is no guarantee that we will receive a return on our investments.  

In addition, our reliance on sales through, or facilitated by, third parties could put downward pressure on the total revenue we are able to generate, and could result in existing customers electing to use alternative or lower-functionality versions of our products that we may elect to provide through relationships. The concentration of a material portion of business with any given partner could also create tensions with other companies with which we do business, including health plans on whom we rely to receive data and offer our services.

        Certain relationships we will enter or have entered will require substantial investments of our resources to support these initiatives. We plan to invest resources into developing products that are targeted to the needs of current partners or potential future partners. There can be no assurance that the investments we make to develop and support these relationships, or the effort required to do so or the products resulting from those efforts, will provide a positive return on our investment in the near term, or at all.  If any of these events materialize, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
If our new products and services are not adopted by our customers, or if we fail to continue to innovate and develop new products and services that are adopted by customers, then our revenue and operating results will be adversely affected.
In prior years, we derived a substantial majority of our revenue from sales of our legacy care guidance platform, and our continued growth depends in part on our ability to successfully develop and sell new products and services to new and existing customers. In addition to our legacy core Castlight platform (now marketed as our care guidance solution), we continue to introduce a number of products and cross-sells, such as our latest offerings of Castlight Complete, Care Guidance Navigator, Wellbeing Navigator, and Castlight Care Guides, as well as health plan solutions. We have also invested, and will continue to invest, significant resources in research and development to enhance our existing offering and introduce new high-quality products and services. If existing customers are not willing to make additional payments for such new products, or if new customers do not value such new products, our business and operating results will be harmed. If we are unable to predict user preferences or our industry changes, or if we are unable to modify our offering and services on a timely basis, we might lose customers. Our operating results would also suffer if our innovations are not responsive to the needs of our customers, appropriately timed with market opportunity or effectively communicated and brought to market. 
If our existing customers, including health plan customers, do not continue or renew their agreements with us, renew at lower fee levels or decline to purchase additional products and services from us, our business and operating results will suffer.
        We expect to derive a significant portion of our revenue from renewal of existing customer agreements, including existing and future agreements with health plan customers or prospective customers, and sales of additional products and services to existing customers. Revenue recognized in any quarter is largely derived from customer agreements signed in prior quarters. As a result, achieving a high renewal rate of our customer agreements and selling additional products and services is critical to our future operating results.

        We may experience significantly more difficulty than we anticipate in renewing existing customer agreements or in renewing them upon favorable terms. Factors that may affect the renewal rate for our offering, terms of those renewals, and our ability to sell additional products and services include:

the price, performance and functionality of our offering;
our customers’ user counts and benefit design features;
the availability, price, performance and functionality of competing or alternative solutions;
the potential for customers that are able to access lower-functionality versions of our offering that we provide through health plans or other channel partners to opt to use the lower-functionality versions of our offering;
the potential for customers to use competing solutions developed by health plans themselves;
our ability to develop complementary products and services;
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our continued ability to access the pricing and claims data necessary to enable us to deliver reliable data in our cost estimation and price transparency offering to customers;
the stability, performance and security of our hosting infrastructure and hosting services;
changes in health care laws, regulations or trends; and
the business environment of our customers, in particular, headcount reductions by our customers.

        We enter into master services agreements with our customers. These agreements generally have stated terms of three years. Our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for our offering after the term expires. In addition, our customers may negotiate terms less advantageous to us upon renewal, which may reduce our revenue from these customers. Factors that are not within our control may contribute to a reduction in our contract revenue. For instance, our customers may reduce their number of employees, which would result in a corresponding reduction in the number of employee users eligible for our offering and thus a lower aggregate monthly services fee. Our future operating results also depend, in part, on our ability to sell new products and services to our existing customers. If our direct or indirect customers fail to renew their agreements, renew their agreements upon less favorable terms or at lower fee levels, or fail to purchase new products and services from us, our revenue may decline or our future revenue may be constrained.
        
        In addition, a significant number of our customer agreements allow customers to terminate such agreements for convenience at certain times, typically with one to three months advance notice. We typically incur expenses associated with integrating a customer’s data into our health care database and related training and support prior to recognizing meaningful revenue from such customer. Customer subscription revenue is not recognized until our products are implemented for launch, which is generally from three to 12 months from contract signing. If a customer terminates its agreement early and revenue and cash flows expected from a customer are not realized in the time period expected or not realized at all, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.
        In order to grow our business, we anticipate that we will continue to depend on our relationships with third parties, including Anthem, Inc. In the future, this could include other health plans as well. We have continued to expand our ongoing relationship with Anthem, including Anthem’s offering of Engage, a Castlight-powered health navigation platform, and our development and support of the base technology underlying Anthem’s core care guidance offering. The culmination of these efforts was a license agreement entered into late 2019. This license agreement represents a substantial portion of our revenue and ARR, and if it is terminated early or not renewed, our business will suffer. In addition, adding new health plans as customers makes up a significant part of our go-forward strategy. If these health plans are slow to adopt our proposed solution, or adopt it in more limited ways than we expect, our operating result may be harmed.

Apart from health plan customers or potential customers, channel partners and data partners, our offering also includes the integration of products supplied by strategic partners, who offer complementary products and services. We rely on these strategic partners in the timely and successful deployment of our offering to our customers. If the products provided by these partners have defects or do not operate as expected, if the services provided by these partners are not completed in a timely manner, if our partners have organizational or supply issues, or if we do not effectively integrate and support products supplied by these strategic partners, then we may have difficulty with the deployment of our offering that may result in loss of, or delay in, revenues, increased service and support costs and a diversion of development resources. We also may compete in some areas with these same partners. If these strategic partners fail to perform or choose not to cooperate with us on certain projects, in addition to the effects described above, we could experience loss of customers and market share; and failure to attract new customers or achieve market acceptance for our products. Identifying partners, negotiating and documenting relationships and building integrations with them, requires significant time and resources. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with Anthem, or other third parties, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenue could be impaired and our operating results may suffer. Even if we are successful, we cannot assure you that these relationships will result in increased customer use of our platform or increased revenue.
We operate in a competitive industry, and if we are not able to compete effectively, our business and operating results will be harmed.
        
        The market for our products and services is competitive, and we expect the market to attract increased competition, which could make it hard for us to succeed. We currently face competition for portions of our offering from a range of companies, including healthcare information technology companies and specialized software and solution providers that offer
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similar solutions, often at substantially lower prices, and that are continuing to develop additional products and becoming more sophisticated and effective. Our market is in an early stage of development, but is rapidly evolving and competitive. We currently face competition from both existing and emerging vendors across a variety of categories, from specialists in the care guidance and wellbeing areas of the market, to broader offerings that compete with our full health navigation platform. There are a number of independent companies we compete with across the various functions of our health navigation platform. Care Guidance competitors include Accolade, ClearCost Health, Sapphire Digital (formerly Vitals) Compass, HealthAdvocate, HealthSparq, Healthcare Bluebook, and Quantum Health. Wellbeing competitors include VirginPulse, Limeade and Vitality. Platform competitors include Evive, United Health Group (Rally Health), Sharecare, and Welltok.

        In addition, large, well-financed health plans, with whom we cooperate and on whom we depend in order to obtain the pricing and claims data we need to deliver our offering to customers, have in some cases developed or acquired their own wellbeing and care guidance tools and provide these solutions to their customers at discounted prices or often for free. These health plans include, for example, Aetna Inc., Cigna Corporation, and UnitedHealth Group, Inc. (Rally). Competition from specialized software and solution providers, health plans and other parties may result in pricing pressure, which may lead to price decline in certain product segments, which could negatively impact our sales, profitability and market share. In addition, if health plans perceive continued cooperation with us as a threat to their business interests, they may take steps that impair our access to pricing and claims data, or that otherwise make it more difficult or costly for us to deliver our offering to customers.

        Some of our competitors, in particular health plans, have greater name recognition, longer operating histories and significantly greater resources than we do. Furthermore, our current or potential competitors may be acquired by third parties with greater available resources. As a result, our competitors might be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements and may have the ability to initiate or withstand substantial price competition. In addition, current and potential competitors have established, and might in the future establish, cooperative relationships with vendors of complementary products, technologies or services to increase the availability of their solutions in the marketplace. The field of healthcare and the services related to healthcare are subject to change, and there has been consolidation in the industry. Accordingly, new competitors or alliances might emerge that have greater market share, a larger customer base, more widely adopted proprietary technologies, greater marketing expertise, greater financial resources and larger sales forces than we have, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Our competitors could also be better positioned to serve certain segments of our market, such as customers that desire a more narrow solution, which could create additional price pressure. In light of these factors, even if our offering is more effective than those of our competitors, current or potential customers might accept competitive offerings in lieu of purchasing our offerings.
Our proprietary software may not operate properly, which could damage our reputation, give rise to claims against us or divert application of our resources from other purposes, any of which could harm our business and operating results.

        Proprietary software development is time-consuming, expensive and complex, and may involve unforeseen difficulties. We may encounter technical obstacles, and it is possible that we will discover additional problems that prevent our proprietary products from operating properly. We are currently developing new features and services in our proprietary software for all of our offerings. If any of our offerings fail to function reliably or fail to achieve customer expectations in terms of performance, customers could assert liability claims against us or attempt to cancel their contracts with us. This could damage our reputation and impair our ability to attract or maintain clients which would adversely affect our operating results.

        Moreover, data services that are as complex as those we offer have in the past contained, and may in the future develop or contain, undetected defects or errors. This includes products we develop ourselves, as well as those we integrate into our platform ecosystem and resell. Material performance problems, defects or errors in our existing or new software and products and services may arise in the future and may result from interface of our offering with systems and data that we did not develop and the function of which is outside of our control or undetected in our testing. These defects and errors, and any failure by us to identify and address them, could result in loss of revenue or market share, diversion of development resources, injury to our reputation and increased service and maintenance costs. Defects or errors in our health benefits platform might discourage existing or potential customers from purchasing our offering from us. Correction of defects or errors could prove to be impossible or impracticable. The costs incurred in correcting any defects or errors may be substantial and could adversely affect our operating results.
Any failure to offer high-quality technical support services may adversely affect our relationships with our customers and harm our financial results.
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        Our customers depend on our support organization to resolve any technical issues relating to our offering. In addition, our sales process is highly dependent on the quality of our offering, our business reputation and on strong recommendations from our existing customers. Any failure to maintain high-quality and highly-responsive technical support, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality and highly-responsive support, could harm our reputation, adversely affect our ability to sell our offering to existing and prospective customers, and harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
        We offer technical support services with our offering and may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for support services, particularly as we increase the size of our customer base. We also may be unable to modify the format of our support services to compete with changes in support services provided by competitors. It is difficult to predict customer demand for technical support services and if customer demand increases significantly, we may be unable to provide satisfactory support services to our customers and their employees. Additionally, increased customer demand for these services, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and adversely affect our operating results.
If we cannot implement our offering for customers in a timely manner, we may lose customers and our reputation may be harmed.
        Our customers have a variety of different data formats, enterprise applications and infrastructure and our offering must support our customers’ data formats and integrate with complex enterprise applications and infrastructures. If our platform does not currently support a customer’s required data format or appropriately integrate with a customer’s applications and infrastructure, or if an existing customer switches to unsupported infrastructure, then we may have to configure our platform to do so, which increases our expenses. Additionally, we do not control our customers’ implementation schedules. As a result, if our customers do not allocate internal resources necessary to meet their implementation responsibilities or if we face unanticipated implementation difficulties, the implementation may be delayed. Further, our implementation capacity has at times constrained our ability to successfully implement our offering for our customers in a timely manner, particularly during periods of high demand. If the customer implementation process is not executed successfully or if execution is delayed, we could incur significant costs, customers could become dissatisfied and decide not to increase usage of our offering, or not to use our offering beyond an initial period prior to their term commitment or, in some cases, revenue recognition could be delayed. Our data dependencies and implementation procedures differ for each new product that we launch. Accordingly, our ability to convert sales of new products into billings and revenue depends on our ability to create a scalable launch infrastructure in each case. In addition, competitors with more efficient operating models with lower implementation costs could penetrate our customer relationships.

        Additionally, large and demanding customers, who currently comprise the majority of our customer base, may request or require specific features or functions unique to their particular business processes, which increase our upfront investment in sales and deployment efforts and the revenue resulting from the customers under our typical contract length may not cover the upfront investments. If prospective large customers require specific features or functions that we do not offer, then the market for our offering will be more limited and our business could suffer.

        In addition, supporting large customers could require us to devote significant development services and support personnel and strain our personnel resources and infrastructure. Furthermore, if we are unable to address the needs of these customers in a timely fashion or further develop and enhance our offering, or if a customer or its employees are not satisfied with our quality of work, our offering or professional services then we could incur additional costs to address the situation. In addition, we may be required to issue credits or refunds for prepaid amounts related to unused services, the timing of recognition of revenue for, and the profitability of, that work might be impaired and the customer’s dissatisfaction with our offering could damage our ability to expand the number of products and services purchased by that customer. These customers may not renew their agreements, seek to terminate their relationship with us or renew on less favorable terms. Moreover, negative publicity related to our customer relationships, regardless of its accuracy, may further damage our business by affecting our ability to retain or compete for new business with current and prospective customers. If any of these were to occur, our revenue may fail to grow at historical rates or at all, or may even decline, and our operating results could be adversely affected.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our expenses could increase more than expected, our revenue may not increase and we may be unable to implement our business strategy.
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        We have experienced significant growth since our inception, both organic and through acquisitions, which puts strain on our business, operations and employees. Future revenues may not grow at the same rates they have historically or may even stagnate or decline. To manage our current and anticipated future growth effectively, we must continue to maintain and enhance our IT infrastructure, financial and accounting systems and controls. Moreover, we may from time to time decide to undertake cost savings initiatives, such as the reduction in workforce we implemented in 2018, or disposing of, or otherwise discontinuing certain products, in an effort to focus our resources on key strategic initiatives and streamline our business. We must also attract, train and retain a significant number of qualified personnel in key areas such as research and development, sales and marketing, customer support, professional services, and management, and the availability of such personnel, in particular software engineers, may be constrained. These and similar challenges, and the related costs, may be exacerbated by the fact that our headquarters is located in the San Francisco Bay Area.
        A key aspect to managing our growth is our ability to scale our capabilities to implement our offering satisfactorily with respect to both large and demanding enterprise customers, who currently comprise the majority of our customer base, as well as smaller customers. Large customers often require specific features or functions unique to their particular business processes, which at a time of rapid growth or during periods of high demand, may strain our implementation capacity and hinder our ability to successfully implement our offering to our customers in a timely manner. We may also need to make further investments in our technology and automate portions of our offering or services to decrease our costs, particularly as we grow sales of our health benefits platform to smaller customers. If we are unable to address the needs of our customers or their employees, or our customers or their employees are unsatisfied with the quality of our offering or services, they may not renew their agreements, seek to cancel or terminate their relationship with us or renew on less favorable terms. In addition, many of our customers adjust their benefit plan designs, benefits providers and eligibility criteria at the start of each new benefits plan year, requiring additional configurations for those customers. As our customer base grows, the complexity of these activities can increase. If we fail to automate these operations sufficiently and implement these changes on a timely basis or are unable to implement them effectively, our business may suffer.

        We have experienced additional challenges with managing our growth relating to our acquisition of Jiff and the resulting integration work it required. The operation and integration of the acquired technologies has required substantial financial costs and substantial management attention. If we fail to effectively manage the integrated solution in a proper manner, our business and financial results may suffer.

        Failure to effectively manage our growth could also lead us to over-invest or under-invest in development and operations, result in weaknesses in our infrastructure, systems or controls, give rise to operational mistakes, financial losses, loss of productivity or business opportunities and result in loss of employees and reduced productivity of remaining employees. Our growth is expected to require significant capital expenditures and might divert financial resources from other projects such as the development of new products and services. In addition, data and content fees, which are one of our primary operational costs, are not fixed as they vary based on the source and condition of the data we receive from third parties, and if they remain variable or increase over time, we would not be able to realize the economies of scale that we expect as we grow renewals and implementation of new customers, which may negatively impact our gross margin. If our management is unable to effectively manage our growth, our expenses might increase more than expected, our revenue may not increase or might grow more slowly than expected and we might be unable to implement our business strategy. The quality of our offering might also suffer, which could negatively affect our reputation and harm our ability to retain and attract customers.

We have experienced turnover in our senior management team, and the loss of one or more of our executive officers or key employees or an inability to attract and retain highly skilled employees or key subcontractor services could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our key executive officers. We have in the past and may in the future experience changes in our executive management team resulting from the departure of executives or subsequent hiring of new executives, which may be disruptive to our business. For example, effective July 26, 2019, Maeve O’Meara assumed the role of Chief Executive Officer, following the departure of John C. Doyle, and Will Bondurant assumed the role of Chief Financial Officer, effective November 15, 2019. Transitions such as these may have a disruptive impact on our ability to implement our business strategy and could have a material adverse effect on our business. Any changes in business strategies can create uncertainty, may negatively impact our ability to execute our business strategy quickly and effectively and may ultimately be unsuccessful. The impact of hiring new executives may not be immediately realized.
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        These executive officers are at-will employees and therefore may terminate employment with us at any time with no advance notice. We do not maintain “key person” insurance for any of these executive officers or any of our other key employees. We also rely on our leadership team in the areas of research and development, marketing, services and general and administrative functions. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. The replacement of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees would likely involve significant time and cost and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives.

        To continue to execute our growth strategy, we also must attract and retain highly skilled personnel, particularly in research and development and sales and marketing. Competition is intense for engineers with high levels of experience in designing and developing software and Internet-related services, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Area where we are located. We might not be successful in maintaining our unique culture and continuing to attract and retain qualified personnel. We have from time to time in the past experienced, and we expect to continue to experience in the future, difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled personnel with appropriate qualifications. The pool of qualified personnel with Software-as-a-Service, or SaaS, experience or experience working with the health care market is limited overall. In addition, many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. We supplement our hired skilled personnel through the use of subcontractors, particularly in the area of research and development, a significant portion of which perform services outside of the United States. If these subcontractors cease to perform services for us for any reason, our ability to meet our development goals may be impaired, and our business and future growth prospects could be severely harmed.
In addition, in making employment decisions, particularly in the Internet and high-technology industries, job candidates often consider the value of the stock options or other equity instruments they are to receive in connection with their employment. Volatility or performance trends in the price of our stock might, therefore, adversely affect our ability to attract or retain highly skilled personnel. Furthermore, the requirement to expense stock options and other equity instruments might discourage us from granting the size or type of stock option or equity awards that job candidates require to join our company. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be severely harmed.
Our marketing efforts depend significantly on our ability to receive positive references from our existing customers.
Our marketing efforts depend significantly on our ability to call on our current customers to provide positive references to new, potential customers. Given our limited number of long-term customers, the loss or dissatisfaction of any customer could substantially harm our brand and reputation, inhibit the market adoption of our offering and impair our ability to attract new customers and maintain existing customers. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our security measures are breached and customer’s data are compromised, our offering may be perceived as insecure, we may incur significant liabilities, our reputation may be harmed and we could lose sales and customers.
        Our offering involves the storage and transmission of customers’ proprietary information, personally identifiable information, and protected health information of our customers’ employees and their dependents, which is regulated under HIPAA. Because of the extreme sensitivity of this information, the security features of our offering are very important. If our security measures, some of which are managed by third parties, are breached or fail, unauthorized persons may be able to obtain access to sensitive customer or employee data, including HIPAA-regulated protected health information. A security breach or failure could result from a variety of circumstances and events, including third-party action, employee negligence or error, malfeasance, computer viruses, attacks by computer hackers, failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases or components thereof, power outages, hardware failures, telecommunication failures, user errors, and catastrophic events.

        If our security measures were to be breached or fail, our reputation could be severely damaged, adversely affecting customer or investor confidence, customers may curtail their use of or stop using our offering and our business may suffer. In addition, we could face litigation, damages for contract breach, penalties and regulatory actions for violation of HIPAA and other laws or regulations applicable to data protection and significant costs for remediation and for measures to prevent future occurrences. In addition, any potential security breach could result in increased costs associated with liability for stolen assets or information, repairing system damage that may have been caused by such breaches, incentives offered to customers or other business partners in an effort to maintain the business relationships after a breach and implementing measures to prevent future
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occurrences, including organizational changes, deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees and engaging third-party experts and consultants. While we maintain insurance covering certain security and privacy damages and claim expenses we may not carry insurance or maintain coverage sufficient to compensate for all liability and such insurance may not be available for renewal on acceptable terms or at all, and in any event, insurance coverage would not address the reputational damage that could result from a security incident.
        
        We outsource important aspects of the storage and transmission of customer information, and thus rely on third parties to manage functions that have material cyber-security risks. These outsourced functions include services such as software design and product development, software engineering, database consulting, call center operations, co-location data centers, data-center security, IT, network security and Web application firewall services. We attempt to address these risks by requiring outsourcing subcontractors who handle customer information to sign business associate agreements contractually requiring those subcontractors to adequately safeguard personal health data and in some cases by requiring such outsourcing subcontractors to undergo third-party security examinations. However, we cannot assure you that these contractual measures and other safeguards will adequately protect us from the risks associated with the storage and transmission of customers proprietary and protected health information.
        We may experience cyber-security and other breach incidents that may remain undetected for an extended period. Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against us, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventive measures. In addition, in the event that our customers authorize or enable third parties to access their data or the data of their employees on our systems, we cannot ensure the complete integrity or security of such data in our systems as we would not control that access. Third parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce our employees or customers and their employees into disclosing sensitive information such as user names, passwords or other information or otherwise compromise our security measures in order to gain access to customer information, which could result in significant legal and financial exposure, a loss of confidence in the security of our offering, interruptions or malfunctions in our operations, and, ultimately, harm to our future business prospects and revenue. Because our offering offers single sign-on capabilities for our customers and their employees to point solutions offered by our partners, unauthorized access to our offering could also result in security breaches of customer information and data in offerings by our partners. We may be required to expend significant capital and financial resources to invest in security measures, protect against such threats or to alleviate problems caused by breaches in security. If an actual or perceived breach of our security occurs, or if we are unable to effectively resolve such breaches in a timely manner, the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures could be harmed and we could lose sales and customers or suffer other reputational harm.
        Regardless of the merits of any such suit, defending it could be costly and divert management’s attention from leading our business.
We have a history of significant GAAP losses, which we expect to continue for the foreseeable future, and we may never achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
        We have incurred significant GAAP net losses in each year since our incorporation in 2008 and expect to continue to incur GAAP net losses for at least fiscal year 2020. We experienced GAAP net losses of $40.0 million, $39.7 million and $51.9 million during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. As of December 31, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $455.0 million. The GAAP losses and accumulated deficit were primarily due to the substantial investments we made to grow our business, enhance our technology and offering through research and development and acquire and support customers. We announced a restructuring program in July 2018 to reduce our workforce and better align our operations with evolving business needs, under which we reduced our expected expenses by approximately 12%. However, our estimates and forecasts relating to the success of our cost-savings measures may prove to be inaccurate. We anticipate that cost of revenue and operating expenses will increase in the foreseeable future as we seek to continue to grow our business, enhance our offerings and acquire additional customers. Many of our efforts to generate revenue from our business are new and unproven, and any failure to increase our revenue or generate revenue from new products and services could prevent us from achieving or maintaining profitability. Furthermore, to the extent we are successful in increasing our customer base, we could also incur increased GAAP losses because costs associated with entering into customer agreements are generally incurred up front, while customers are generally billed over the term of the agreement. Our prior GAAP losses, combined with our expected future GAAP losses, have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital. We expect to continue to incur GAAP operating losses for the foreseeable future and may never become profitable on a quarterly or annual basis, or if we do, we may not be able to sustain profitability in subsequent periods. As a result of these factors, we may
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need to raise additional capital through debt or equity financings in order to fund our operations, which could be dilutive to stockholders, and such capital may not be available on reasonable terms, or at all.
Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects.
        We were founded in 2008, began building the first version of our care guidance platform in 2009, did not complete our first customer sale and implementation until 2010 and did not make substantial investments in sales and marketing until 2012. Jiff was founded in 2010 and had its first customer implementation in 2013 before being acquired by Castlight in April of 2017. The limited operating histories of these two businesses, standalone and as combined, limit our ability to forecast our future operating results and such forecasts are subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model future growth.
        
        We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by new and growing companies in rapidly changing industries, such as determining appropriate investments of our limited resources, market adoption of our existing and future offerings, competition from other companies, acquiring and retaining customers, managing customer deployments, hiring, integrating, training and retaining skilled personnel, developing new products and services, determining prices for our products, handling unforeseen expenses and managing challenges in forecasting accuracy. If our assumptions regarding these and other similar risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan our business, are incorrect or change as we gain more experience operating our business or due to changes in our industry, or if we do not address these risks and uncertainties successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.

        In addition, we may need to change our current operations infrastructure in order for us to achieve profitability and scale our operations efficiently, which makes our future prospects even more difficult to evaluate. For example, in order to grow sales of our health benefits platform to smaller customers in a financially sustainable manner, we may need to further automate implementations, tailor our offering and modify our go-to-market approaches to reduce our service delivery and customer acquisition costs. If we fail to implement these changes on a timely basis or are unable to implement them effectively, our business may suffer.

The market for our offering is immature and volatile, and if it does not further develop, if it develops more slowly than we expect, or if our offering does not drive employee engagement, the growth of our business will be harmed.
        Our market is immature and volatile, and it is uncertain whether we will achieve and sustain high levels of demand and market adoption. Our success depends to a substantial extent on the willingness of employers to increase their use of our health navigation platform, the ability of our products to increase employee engagement, as well as on our ability to demonstrate the value of our offering to customers and their employees and to develop new products that provide value to customers and users. If employers do not perceive the benefits of our offering or our offering does not drive employee engagement, then our market might develop more slowly than we expect, or even shrink, which could significantly and adversely affect our operating results. In addition, we have limited insight into trends that might develop and affect our business. We might make errors in predicting and reacting to relevant business, legal and regulatory trends, which could harm our business. If any of these events occur, it could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

        In addition, we have devoted substantial efforts to our acquisition of Jiff. We have undertaken these efforts based on our belief that our customers are interested in a combined suite of offerings that address both health benefit management and wellness needs. However, if customer demand for a combined suite of offerings is lower than expected, then our business will be harmed and our operating results will suffer.

Moreover, we are making significant investments in building a team and strategy to allow us to sell our solution to health plans, to power services they provide to their own customers. We have undertaken these efforts and made these investments based on our belief that health plan customers would prefer to use our solution, rather than build one of their own, or use a solution offered by one of our competitors. However, if health plan demand for our solution is lower than expected, then our business will be harmed and our operating results will suffer.
Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly, which could adversely impact the value of our Class B common stock.
Our quarterly results of operations, including our revenue, gross margin, net loss and cash flows, may vary significantly in the future, and period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. Accordingly, our
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quarterly results should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including, without limitation, those listed elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section and those listed below:

the addition or loss of large customers, including through acquisitions or consolidations of such customers;
seasonal and other variations in the timing of the sales of our offering, as a significantly higher proportion of our customers either enter into new subscription agreements or renew previous agreements with us in the second half of the year.
the timing of recognition of revenue, including possible delays in the recognition of revenue due to lengthy and sometimes unpredictable implementation timelines;
failure to meet our contractual commitments under service-level agreements with our customers;
the amount and timing of operating expenses related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure;
our access to pricing and claims data managed by health plans and other third parties, or changes to the fees we pay for that data;
the timing and success of introductions of new products, services and pricing by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors, customers or strategic partners;
our ability to attract new customers;
customer renewal rates and the timing and terms of customer renewals;
network outages or security breaches;
the mix of products and services sold or renewed during a period;
general economic, industry and market conditions;
the timing of expenses related to the development or acquisition of technologies or businesses and potential future charges for impairment of goodwill from acquired companies; and
impacts of new accounting pronouncements.

        We are particularly subject to fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations since the costs associated with entering into customer agreements and implementing our offerings are generally incurred prior to launch, while we generally recognize revenue over the term of the agreement beginning at launch. In addition, some of our contracts with customers provide for one-time bonus payments, or in some cases fee reductions, if our offering does, or does not, achieve certain metrics, such as a certain rate of employee engagement. These bonuses or reductions may lead to additional fluctuations in our quarterly operating results. In certain contracts, employee engagement may refer to the number of first time registrations by employees of our customers and in other cases it may refer to return usage of our products by employees. Any fluctuations in our quarterly results may not accurately reflect the underlying performance of our business and could cause a decline in the trading price of our Class B common stock.
We incur significant upfront costs in our customer relationships, and if we are unable to maintain and grow these customer relationships over time, we are likely to fail to recover these costs and our operating results will suffer.
        We devote significant resources and incur significant upfront costs to establish relationships with our customers and implement our offering and related services, particularly in the case of large enterprises that in the past have requested or required specific features or functions unique to their particular business processes. Accordingly, our operating results will depend in substantial part on our ability to deliver a successful customer experience and persuade our customers to maintain and grow their relationship with us over time. For example, if we are not successful in implementing our offering or delivering a successful customer experience, a customer could terminate or decline to renew their agreement with us, we would lose or be unable to recoup the significant upfront costs that we had expended on such customer and our operating results would suffer. As we grow, our customer acquisition costs could outpace our build-up of recurring revenue, and we may be unable to reduce our total operating costs through economies of scale such that we are unable to achieve profitability.
Similarly, we will devote significant upfront costs to developing health plan relationships, through which we expect to our services to the health plans to power their own offerings. We expect these efforts to have long lead times and require significant upfront investment by us. As part of our sales efforts, these health plans may require specific features or functions unique to their own particular businesses. Our operating results will depend in substantial part also on our ability to deliver a
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successful experience and persuade health plans to maintain and grow our relationships over time. If we are unable to make meaningful sales to health plans, our business will be harmed and our operating results will suffer.
Our ability to deliver our full offering to customers depends in substantial part on our ability to access data and other resources that are managed by a limited number of health plans and other third parties.
        In order to deliver the full functionality offered by our health benefits platform, we need continued access, on behalf of our customers, to sources of pricing and claims data, much of which is managed by a limited number of health plans and other third parties. We have developed various long-term and short-term processes to obtain data from certain health plans and other third parties. We are limited in our ability to offer the full functionality of our offering to customers of health plans with whom we do not have a data-sharing or joint customer support process or arrangement.

        The terms of the arrangements under which we have access to data managed by health plans and other third parties vary, which can impact the offering we are able to deliver. Many of our arrangements with health plans and third parties have terms that limit our access to and permitted uses of claims or pricing data to the data associated with our mutual customers. Also, some agreements, processes, or arrangements may be terminated if the underlying customer contracts do not continue, or may otherwise be subject to termination or non-renewal in whole or in part.
        In addition, in order to deliver current and potential future functionality of our full health navigation platform, including third-party integrated services, we need access to other resources and services that are largely or fully controlled by third-party integration partners. While we have developed, and expect to continue to develop, relationships with third parties in order to allow us and our customers to access these resources and services, we are exposed to the risk that third parties may limit or eliminate our access, which would hinder our ability to provide certain integrated health navigation functionality to our customers and harm our business.
        The health plans and other third parties that we currently work with may, in the future, change their position and limit or eliminate our access to data and resources, increase the costs for access, provide data and resources to us in more limited or less useful formats, or restrict our permitted uses of data and resources. Furthermore, some health plans and third parties that we rely on to supply data and resources have developed or are developing their own proprietary products and services that may compete with aspects of our platform, and so may perceive continued cooperation with us as a competitive disadvantage and choose to limit or discontinue our access to these data and resources. Failure to continue to maintain and expand our access to suitable pricing and other data and resources may adversely impact our ability to continue to serve existing customers and expand our offering to new customers.
        If our access to the data and resources necessary to deliver health navigation functionality is eliminated, reduced or becomes more costly to us, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenue could be impaired and our operating results would suffer.
A significant portion of our revenue comes from a limited number of customers, the loss of which would adversely affect our financial results.
        Historically, we have relied on a limited number of customers for a substantial portion of our total revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2019, our top 10 customers by revenue accounted for approximately 27% of our total revenue. In calculating our top 10 customers by revenue, we include only direct customers, not channel partners. In addition, Anthem accounted for approximately 27% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019 and we expect this revenue to increase both in absolute dollars and as a percentage of our revenue in upcoming periods. We expect this concentration to increase as we pursue our strategy of selling to health plans. We rely on our reputation and recommendations from key customers in order to promote our offering to potential customers. The loss of any of our key customers, or a failure of some of them to renew or expand user subscriptions, could have a significant impact on the growth rate of our revenue, reputation and our ability to obtain new customers. For example, during the third quarter of 2018, one of our largest customers adopted a new benefits strategy and did not renew its agreement with us, and that agreement expired on December 31, 2018. In addition, mergers and acquisitions involving our customers could lead to cancellation or non-renewal of our agreements with those customers or by the acquiring or combining companies, thereby reducing the number of our existing and potential customers.
Because we generally bill our customers and recognize revenue over the term of the contract, near term declines in new or renewed agreements may not be reflected immediately in our operating results and may be difficult to discern.
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Most of our revenue in each quarter is derived from agreements entered into with our customers during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed agreements in any one quarter may not be fully reflected in our revenue for that quarter. Such declines, however, would negatively affect our revenue in future periods and the effect of significant downturns in sales of and market demand for our offering, and potential changes in our rate of renewals or renewal terms, may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. Accordingly, management measures sales performance and forecasts future subscription revenue based on signed annual recurring revenue, or ARR. ARR is a forward-looking metric based on contractual terms in existence as of the end of a reporting period and is subject to change resulting from a number of factors including, but not limited to, addition of new customers, changes in user counts, terminations or non-renewals, as well as upsells and cross-sells. For all of these reasons, the amount of subscription revenue we actually recognize may be different from ARR at the end of a period in which it was recorded. In addition, we may be unable to adjust our cost structure rapidly, or at all, to take account of reduced revenue. Our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our total revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers must be recognized over the applicable term of the agreement. Accordingly, the effect of changes in the industry impacting our business or changes we experience in our new sales may not be reflected in our short-term results of operations.

Our sales and implementation cycle can be long and unpredictable and require considerable time and expense, which may cause our operating results to fluctuate.

        The sales cycle for our health benefits platform, from initial contact with a potential lead to contract execution and implementation, varies widely by customer, ranging from three to 24 months. Some of our customers undertake a significant and prolonged evaluation process, including whether our offering meets a customer’s unique benefits program needs, that frequently involves not only the review of our offering but also of our competitors, which has in the past resulted in extended sales cycles. Our sales efforts involve educating our customers about the use, technical capabilities and benefits of our offering. Moreover, our large enterprise customers often begin to deploy our service on a limited basis, but nevertheless demand extensive configuration, integration services and pricing concessions, which increase our upfront investment in the sales effort with no guarantee that these customers will deploy our offering widely enough across their organization to justify our substantial upfront investment. It is possible that in the future we may experience even longer sales cycles, more complex customer needs, higher upfront sales costs and less predictability in completing some of our sales. In addition, even after contracts are signed, our implementation timelines can delay recognition of related revenue for several periods. If our sales cycle lengthens or our substantial upfront sales and implementation investments do not result in sufficient sales or revenue to justify our investments, our operating results may be harmed.
The health care industry is heavily regulated. Our failure to comply with regulatory requirements could create liability for us, result in adverse publicity and otherwise negatively affect our business.
        The health care and wellness industries are heavily regulated and constantly evolving due to the changing political, legislative and regulatory landscape and other factors. Many health care and wellness laws are complex, and their application to specific services and relationships may not be clear. Further, some health care laws differ from state to state and it is difficult to ensure our business complies with evolving laws in all states. Our operations may be adversely affected by enforcement initiatives. By offering third-party partner applications we may become subject to additional regulations that don’t ordinarily apply to our own core business. Our failure to accurately anticipate the application of these laws and regulations to our business, or any other failure to comply with regulatory requirements, could create liability for us, result in adverse publicity and negatively affect our business. For example, failure to comply with these requirements could result in the unwillingness of current and potential customers to work with us. Federal and state legislatures and agencies periodically consider proposals to revise aspects of the legal rules applicable to the health care industry, or to revise or create additional statutory and regulatory requirements. Such proposals, if implemented, could impact our operations, the use of our offering and our ability to market new products and services, or could create unexpected liabilities for us. We cannot predict what changes to laws or regulations might be made in the future or how those changes could affect our business or our operating costs.
If we fail to comply with applicable health information privacy and security laws and other applicable state, federal and international privacy and security laws, we may be subject to significant liabilities, reputational harm and other negative consequences, including decreasing the willingness of current and potential customers to work with us.
        We are subject to data privacy and security regulation within the jurisdictions where our users reside; these regulations address matters central to our business, including privacy and data protection, personal information, content, data security, data retention and deletion, and user communications. For example, we are subject to HIPAA, which established uniform federal
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standards for certain “covered entities,” which include health care providers and health plans, governing the conduct of specified electronic health care transactions and protecting the security and privacy of protected health information (“PHI”). The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (“HITECH”) which became effective on February 17, 2010, makes HIPAA’s privacy and security standards directly applicable to “business associates,” which are independent contractors or agents of covered entities that create, receive, maintain, or transmit PHI in connection with providing a service for or on behalf of a covered entity. HITECH also increased the civil and criminal penalties that may be imposed against covered entities, business associates and other persons, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce HIPAA’s requirements and seek attorney’s fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions.

        A portion of the data that we obtain and handle for or on behalf of our customers is considered PHI, subject to HIPAA as well as other regulations. Under HIPAA and our contractual agreements with our HIPAA covered entity health plan customers, we are considered a “business associate” to those customers, and are required to maintain the privacy and security of PHI in accordance with HIPAA and the terms of our business associate agreements with customers, including by implementing HIPAA-required administrative, technical and physical safeguards. We have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant costs to establish and maintain these safeguards and, if additional safeguards are required to comply with HIPAA regulations or our customers’ requirements, our costs could increase further, which would negatively affect our operating results. Furthermore, if we fail to maintain adequate safeguards, or we or our agents and subcontractors use or disclose PHI in a manner prohibited or not permitted by HIPAA or our business associate agreements with our customers, or if the privacy or security of PHI that we obtain and handle is otherwise compromised, we could be subject to significant liabilities and consequences, including, without limitation:

breach of our contractual obligations to customers, which may cause our customers to terminate their relationship with us and may result in potentially significant financial obligations to our customers;
investigation by regulatory authorities empowered to enforce HIPAA and other applicable regulations, including but not limited to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and state attorneys general, and the possible imposition of civil penalties;
private litigation by individuals adversely affected by any violation of HIPAA, HITECH or comparable laws for which we are responsible; and
negative publicity, which may decrease the willingness of current and potential customers to work with us and negatively affect our sales and operating results.

        In addition, we are subject to various state laws, including the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which recently was enacted by California. The CCPA will, among other things, require covered companies to provide new disclosures to California consumers, and afford such consumers new abilities to opt-out of certain sales of personal information. It went into effect on January 1, 2020. Legislators may propose amendments to the CCPA, and it remains unclear what, if any, modifications will be made to this legislation or how it will be interpreted in practice. We cannot yet predict the impact of the CCPA on our business or operations, but it may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply.

        We also have ongoing compliance obligations with respect to applicable portions of the EU General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective on May 25, 2018, which we have to comply with to the extent we have applicable users in the European Union, and we cannot assure you that our compliance efforts will be effective. The introduction of new products or expansion of our activities may subject us to additional laws and regulations. We have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant costs to establish and maintain compliance with new regulations that may apply to us, which would negatively affect our operating results.
        Further, we publish statements to end users of our services that describe how we handle and protect personal information. If federal or state regulatory authorities or private litigants consider any portion of these statements to be untrue, we may be subject to claims of deceptive practices, which could lead to significant liabilities and consequences, including, without limitation, costs of responding to investigations, defending against litigation, settling claims and complying with regulatory or court orders.
        We also send SMS text messages to potential end users who are eligible to use our service through certain customers and partners. While we get consent from or on behalf of these individuals to send text messages, federal or state regulatory authorities or private litigants may claim that the notices and disclosures we provide, form of consents we obtain or our SMS
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texting practices are not adequate. These SMS texting campaigns are potential sources of risk for class action lawsuits and liability for our company. Numerous class-action suits under federal and state laws have been filed in recent years against companies who conduct SMS texting programs. Many of those suits have resulted in multi-million dollar settlements to the plaintiffs.

Shifts in health care benefits trends, including any potential decline in the number of self-insured employers, or the emergence of new technologies may render our offering obsolete or require us to expend significant resources in order to remain competitive.
        The U.S. health care industry is extensive and complex, with a number of large market participants with conflicting agendas, is subject to significant government regulation and is currently undergoing significant change. Changes in our industry, for example, towards private health care exchanges or away from high deductible health plans, or the emergence of new technologies as more competitors enter our market, could result in our offering being less desirable or relevant.

        For example, we currently derive the majority of our revenue from customers that are self-insured employers. The demand for significant portions of our offering depends on the need of self-insured employers to manage the costs of health care services that they pay on behalf of their employees. While the percentage of employers who are self-insured has been increasing over the past decade, there is no assurance that this trend will continue. Various factors, including changes in the health care insurance market or in government regulation of the health care industry, could cause the percentage of self-insured employers to decline, which would adversely affect the market for our offering and would negatively affect our business and operating results. Furthermore, such trends and our business could be affected by changes in health care spending resulting from changes in the law like we saw with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Under the ACA, the federal government and several state governments established public exchanges in which consumers can purchase health insurance. In the event that the ACA, any amendment or repeal of the ACA, or other changes to the legal landscape causes our customers to change their health care benefits plans or move to use of exchanges such that it reduces the need for our offering, or if the number of self-insured employers otherwise declines, we would be forced to compete on additional product and service attributes or to expend significant resources in order to alter our offering to remain competitive.
        
If health care benefits trends shift or entirely new technologies, services or programs are developed that replace or disrupt existing offerings, our existing or future offerings could be rendered obsolete and our business could be adversely affected. In addition, we may experience difficulties with software development, industry standards, design or marketing that could delay or prevent our development, introduction or implementation of new products and enhancements.
We may require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all.
        
Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception and we intend to continue to make significant investments to support our business growth, respond to business challenges or opportunities, develop new products and services, enhance our existing offering and services, enhance our operating infrastructure and potentially acquire complementary businesses and technologies. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, our net cash used in operating activities was $17.4 million and $18.6 million, respectively. Our future capital requirements may be significantly different from our current estimates and will depend on many factors including our growth rate, new customer acquisitions, subscription renewal activity, operation and integration of the Jiff and Castlight functionalities, the timing and extent of spending to support development efforts, the expansion of sales and marketing activities, the introduction of new and enhanced services offerings and the continuing market acceptance of our cloud-based subscription services. Accordingly, we might need to engage in equity or debt financings or collaborative arrangements to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our Class B common stock. Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which might make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. We might have to obtain funds through arrangements with collaborative partners or others that may require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or offering that we otherwise would not relinquish. In addition, it may be difficult to obtain financing in the public markets or to obtain debt financing, and we might not be able to obtain additional financing on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited.
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We depend on data centers operated by third parties for our offering, and any disruption in the operation of these facilities could adversely affect our business.
        We provide our Castlight health navigation platform through computer hardware that is currently located in two geographically-dispersed third-party data centers in the U.S., each of which are operated by the same IT hosting company. Our Wellbeing services are hosted on Amazon Web Services hardware through virtual private clouds. While we control and have access to our owned servers and all of the components of our network that are located in these external data centers, we do not control the operation of these facilities and there could be performance or availability issues outside our control. The owners of our data centers and hosting services have no obligation to renew the agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we are unable to renew these types of agreements on commercially reasonable terms, or if our data center operators and hosting services are acquired or cease operations, we may be required to transfer our servers and other infrastructure to new data center facilities or hosting services, and we may incur significant costs and possible service interruption in connection with doing so.
        Problems faced by our third-party data center and hosting locations could adversely affect the experience of our customers. The operators of the data centers and hosting services could decide to close the facilities or change and suspend their service offerings without adequate notice. In addition, any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy, faced by the operators of the data centers or any of the service providers with whom we or they contract may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict. Additionally, if our data centers and hosting facilities are unable to keep up with our growing needs for capacity, this could have an adverse effect on our business. For example, a rapid expansion of our business could affect the service levels at our data centers and hosting locations or cause such data centers and systems to fail. Any changes in third-party service levels at our data centers and hosting locations or any disruptions or other performance problems with our product offering could adversely affect our reputation and may damage our customers’ stored files or result in lengthy interruptions in our services. Interruptions in our services might reduce our revenue, increase our costs associated with remediation or cause us to issue refunds to customers for prepaid and unused subscriptions, subject us to potential liability or adversely affect our renewal rates.
The information that we provide to our customers, and their employees and families, could be inaccurate or incomplete, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
        We provide price, quality and other health care-related information for use by our customers, and their employees and families, to search and compare options for health care services. Third-party health plans and our customers provide us with most of these data. Because data in the health care industry is fragmented in origin, inconsistent in format and often incomplete, the overall quality of data in the health care industry is poor, and we frequently discover data issues and errors. If the data that we provide to our customers are incorrect or incomplete or if we make mistakes in the capture or input of these data, our reputation may suffer and our ability to attract and retain customers may be harmed.
        
        In addition, a court or government agency may take the position that our storage and display of health information exposes us to personal injury liability or other liability for wrongful delivery or handling of health care services or erroneous health information. While we maintain insurance coverage, this coverage may prove to be inadequate or could cease to be available to us on acceptable terms, if at all. Even unsuccessful claims could result in substantial costs, harm to our reputation and diversion of management resources. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or under-insured could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we cannot maintain our corporate culture as we grow, we could lose the elements of our culture that we believe contribute to our success and our business may be harmed.
We believe that a critical asset for our business, and a source of our competitive strength, is our unique company culture, which we believe fosters a high level of cross-functional collaboration and desire for excellence in our performance and product. As we grow and change, we may find it difficult to maintain these important aspects of our corporate culture. This was true in the case of the Jiff acquisition, and will be true of any acquisitions we may make in the future. Any such acquisitions may present additional challenges to our ability to maintain our corporate culture. Any failure to preserve our culture could also negatively affect our ability to attract and retain personnel, our reputation and our ability to continue to build and advance our offering and may otherwise adversely affect our future success.
If we fail to develop widespread brand awareness cost-effectively, our business may suffer.
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        We believe that developing and maintaining widespread awareness of our brand in a cost-effective manner is critical to achieving widespread adoption of our offering and attracting new customers. Brand promotion activities may not generate customer awareness or increase revenue, and even if they do, any increase in revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or incur substantial expenses, we may fail to attract or retain customers necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts, or to achieve the widespread brand awareness that is critical for broad customer adoption of our offering.
Our estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
        Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. Our estimates and forecasts relating to the size and expected growth of the market for our products and services may prove to be inaccurate. Even if the market in which we compete meets our size estimates and forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our Class B common stock may be negatively affected.
        As a public company, we are required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal control. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and, provide a management report on our internal control over financial reporting on an annual basis. If we have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated. We will need to maintain and enhance these processes and controls as we grow, and we will require additional management and staff resources to do so. Additionally, even if we conclude our internal controls are effective for a given period, we may in the future identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal controls, in which case our management will be unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. We ceased being an emerging growth company on December 31, 2019, and are now required to include an attestation report from our independent registered public accounting firm on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting annually. Even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm may conclude that there are material weaknesses with respect to our internal controls or the level at which our internal controls are documented, designed, implemented or reviewed.
If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our auditors were to express an adverse opinion on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting because we had one or more material weaknesses, investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial disclosures, which could cause the price of our common stock to decline. Irrespective of compliance with Section 404, any failure of our internal control over financial reporting could have a material adverse effect on our reported operating results and harm our reputation. Internal control deficiencies could also result in a restatement of our financial results.

Any failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand.
        Our success depends in part on our ability to enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We rely upon a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, as well as license and access agreements and other contractual provisions, to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. In addition, we attempt to protect our intellectual property and proprietary information by requiring certain of our employees, consultants and contractors to enter into confidentiality, noncompetition and assignment of inventions agreements. These laws, procedures and restrictions provide only limited protection and any of our intellectual property rights may be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed or misappropriated. While we have two U.S. patent applications pending, and we currently have one issued U.S. patent, we cannot ensure that any of our pending patent applications will be granted or that our issued patent will adequately protect our intellectual property. In addition, if any patents are issued in the future, they may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be successfully challenged by third parties. To the extent that our intellectual property and other proprietary rights are not adequately protected, third parties might gain access to our proprietary information, develop and market solutions similar to ours, or use trademarks similar to ours, each of which could materially harm our business. Further, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or obtain and use our technology to develop products with the same functionality as our offering,
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and policing unauthorized use of our technology and intellectual property rights is difficult and may not be effective. The failure to adequately protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights could materially harm our business.
We could incur substantial costs as a result of any claim of infringement of another party’s intellectual property rights.
        In recent years, there has been significant litigation in the United States involving patents and other intellectual property rights. Companies in the Internet and technology industries are increasingly bringing and becoming subject to suits alleging infringement of proprietary rights, particularly patent rights, and our competitors and other third parties may hold patents or have pending patent applications, which could be related to our business. These risks have been amplified by the increase in third parties, which we refer to as non-practicing entities, whose sole or primary business is to assert such claims. We expect that we may receive in the future notices that claim we or our customers using our offering have misappropriated or misused other parties’ intellectual property rights, particularly as the number of competitors in our market grows and the functionality of products amongst competitors overlaps. If we are sued by a third party that claims that our technology infringes its rights, the litigation, whether or not successful, could be extremely costly to defend, divert our management’s time, attention and resources, damage our reputation and brand and substantially harm our business. We do not currently have an extensive patent portfolio of our own, which may limit the defenses available to us in any such litigation.
        In addition, in most instances, we have agreed to indemnify our customers against certain third-party claims, which may include claims that our offering infringes the intellectual property rights of such third parties. Our business could be adversely affected by any significant disputes between us and our customers as to the applicability or scope of our indemnification obligations to them. The results of any intellectual property litigation to which we might become a party, or for which we are required to provide indemnification, may require us to do one or more of the following:
cease offering or using technologies that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;
make substantial payments for legal fees, settlement payments or other costs or damages;
obtain a license, which may not be available on reasonable terms, to sell or use the relevant technology; or
incur substantial costs and reallocate resources to redesign our technology to avoid infringement.

        If we are required to make substantial payments or undertake any of the other actions noted above as a result of any intellectual property infringement claims against us or any obligation to indemnify our customers for such claims, such payments or costs could have a material adverse effect upon our business and financial results.
Our use of open source technology could impose limitations on our ability to commercialize our software platform.
        Our offering incorporates open source software components that are licensed to us under various public domain licenses. Some open source software licenses require users who distribute open source software as part of their software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to such software or make available any derivative works of the open source code on unfavorable terms or at no cost. There is little or no legal precedent governing the interpretation of many of the terms of these licenses and therefore the potential impact of such terms on our business is somewhat unknown. There is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to market our software platform. While we monitor our use of open source software and try to ensure that none is used in a manner that would require us to disclose our source code or that would otherwise breach the terms of an open source agreement, such use could inadvertently occur and we may be required to release our proprietary source code, pay damages for breach of contract, re-engineer our offering, discontinue sales of our offering in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis or take other remedial action that may divert resources away from our development efforts, any of which could cause us to breach customer contracts, harm our reputation, result in customer losses or claims, increase our costs or otherwise adversely affect our business and operating results.
We may face risks related to securities litigation that could result in significant legal expenses and settlement or damage awards.

        We have been in the past and may in the future become subject to claims and litigation alleging violations of the securities laws or other related claims, which could harm our business and require us to incur significant costs. For example, during the second quarter of 2015, four purported securities class action lawsuits, which were later consolidated into a single action, were filed in the Superior Court of the State of California, County of San Mateo, against us, certain of our current and former directors, executive officers, significant stockholders and underwriters associated with our initial public offering. On October 28, 2016, the Court approved a mediated cash settlement of an aggregate amount of $9.5 million. As a result of the
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settlement, we recorded a net charge of $2.9 million to general and administrative expense in 2016. This amount represents the portion of settlement that was not covered by insurance and legal fees incurred in 2016 regarding this matter. Future litigation may require significant attention from management and could result in significant legal expenses, settlement costs or damage awards that could have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
The development and expansion of our business through acquisitions of other companies or technologies or other strategic transactions could divert our management’s attention, result in dilution to our stockholders and otherwise disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results.
        As we have done in the past, we may in the future seek to acquire or invest in businesses, products and services or technologies or enter into other strategic transactions that we believe could complement or expand our offering, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. We have limited experience in acquiring other businesses and entering into strategic transactions. We may not achieve any of the anticipated benefits of any of these strategic transactions. The pursuit of potential acquisitions and other strategic transactions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions and strategic alliances or transactions, whether or not they are consummated. We may not achieve any of the anticipated benefits or stated objectives from these or other strategic transactions we may enter into in the future.
        
        Factors affecting our ability to achieve the benefits of potential acquisitions or strategic alliances could include:

inability to integrate or benefit from acquired technologies or services or strategic collaborations or alliances in an efficient, effective or profitable manner;
unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition or strategic transaction;
challenges in achieving strategic objectives, cost savings and other benefits expected from such transactions;
the lack of unilateral control over a strategic alliance and the risk that strategic partners have business goals and interests that are not aligned with ours;
delays, difficulties or unexpected costs in the integration, assimilation, implementation or modification of platforms, systems, functions, technologies and infrastructure to support the combined business or strategic alliance, as well as maintaining and integrating accounting systems and operations, uniform standards, controls (including internal accounting controls), procedures and policies;
difficulty converting the customers of the acquired business onto our platform and contract terms, including disparities in the revenue, licensing, support or professional services model of the acquired company;
diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;
adverse effects to our existing business relationships with business partners and customers as a result of the acquisition or strategic transaction;
the potential loss of key employees;
the risk that we do not realize a satisfactory return on our investments;
diversion of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and
use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition or strategic transaction.

        In addition, in prior acquisitions we completed, a significant portion of the purchase price was allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our operating results based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

        Past acquisitions also resulted, and other acquisitions and strategic transactions could also result, in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our operating results. In addition, if an acquired business or other strategic transaction fails to meet our expectations, our operating results, business and financial position may suffer.
Changes in accounting principles may cause previously unanticipated fluctuations in our financial results, and the implementation of such changes may impact our ability to meet our financial reporting obligations.
        We prepare our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP which are subject to interpretation or changes by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, the SEC, and other various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. New accounting pronouncements and changes in accounting principles have occurred in the past and are expected to occur in the future which may have a significant effect on our financial results. For example, effective
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January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standard Codification Topic 606 (“ASC 606”), Revenue from Contracts with Customers. We adopted the requirements of the new standard utilizing the full retrospective method, which required us to recast prior reporting periods. While the adoption of the new standard did not change the cash flows we receive from our contracts with customers, the changes to our reporting practices and the fluctuations in our reported revenue could cause a decline and/or fluctuations in the price of our common stock.

        The adoption of ASC 606 significantly impacted our costs to fulfill as well as our costs to obtain contracts with customers. For fulfillment costs, the new standard states that an entity shall recognize an asset from the costs incurred to fulfill a contract if certain criteria are met. Similar to fulfillment costs, for costs to obtain a contract (which are primarily sales commissions and broker fees), the standard states that costs to obtain a contract shall be amortized on a systematic basis that is consistent with the transfer to the customer of the goods or services to which the asset relates. Prior to adoption, we expensed costs to fulfill a contract when they were incurred, capitalized certain sales commissions and amortized those costs over the non-cancelable portion of our subscription contracts. Under the new standard, the amortization period for our costs to obtain a contract could be longer. Additionally, the timing of revenue recognition for certain of our revenue arrangements was impacted by the changes imposed by the new standard. Any difficulties in implementation of changes in accounting standards, including the ability to modify our accounting systems, could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm investors’ confidence in us.
We incur significantly increased costs and devote substantial management time as a result of operating as a public company.
        As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. For example, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and are required to comply with the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange, including the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls, changes in corporate governance practices and required filing of annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and operating results. Compliance with these requirements increases our legal and financial compliance costs and makes some activities more time consuming and costly. In addition, our management and other personnel divert attention from operational and other business matters to devote substantial time to these public company requirements. In particular, we incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as we ceased to be an emerging growth company on December 31, 2019.

        Operating as a public company makes it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and in the future we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. This could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.
We may not be able to utilize a significant portion of our net operating loss or research tax credit carryforwards, which could adversely affect our profitability.
        Our primary tax jurisdiction is the United States. All of our tax years are open to examination by U.S. federal and state tax authorities. We have provided a full valuation allowance for our deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty surrounding the future realization of such assets. Therefore, no benefit has been recognized for the net operating loss carryforwards and other deferred tax assets. The net operating loss could expire unused and be unavailable to reduce future income tax liabilities, which could adversely affect our profitability.
Natural or man-made disasters and other similar events may significantly disrupt our business and negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
        Our offices may be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including earthquakes, power outages, fires, floods, nuclear disasters and acts of terrorism or other criminal activities, which may render it difficult or impossible for us to operate our business for some period of time. For example, our headquarters is located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity. Any disruptions in our operations related to the repair or replacement of our office could negatively impact our business and results of operations and harm our reputation. In addition, we may not carry business insurance sufficient to compensate for losses that may occur. Any such losses or damages could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the facilities of significant customers,
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health plans or major strategic partners may be harmed or rendered inoperable by such natural or man-made disasters, which may cause disruptions, difficulties or material adverse effects on our business.
Risks Related to Our Class B Common Stock
The stock price of our Class B common stock may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance.

        The market price of our Class B common stock has fluctuated significantly since our initial public offering and may continue to fluctuate. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our Class B common stock. Factors, many of which are beyond our control, that could cause additional fluctuations in the market price of our Class B common stock include the following:

overall performance of the equity markets;
our operating performance and the performance of other similar companies;
changes in the estimates of our operating results that we provide to the public or our failure to meet these projections;
failure of securities analysts to maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts who follow our company or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors or changes in recommendations by securities analysts that elect to follow our Class B common stock;
sales of shares of our Class B common stock by us or our stockholders, including same day sales to cover tax withholdings as a result of settlement of restricted stock units;
announcements of technological innovations, new products or enhancements to services, acquisitions, strategic alliances or significant agreements by us or by our competitors;
disruptions in our services due to computer hardware, software or network problems;
announcements of customer additions and customer cancellations or delays in customer purchases;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
the economy as a whole, market conditions in our industry and the industries of our customers;
litigation involving us, our industry or both, or investigations by regulators into our operations or those of our competitors;
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;
new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business; and
the size of our market float.
        In addition, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many technology companies. Stock prices of many technology companies have fluctuated in a manner unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. In the past, stockholders have filed securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in new securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business and adversely affect our business.
If there are substantial sales of shares of our Class B common stock, the price of our Class B common stock could decline.
        The price of our Class B common stock could decline if there are substantial sales of our Class B common stock, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers and significant stockholders, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares of our Class B common stock intend to sell their shares, and may make it more difficult for stockholders to sell Class B common stock at a time and price that they deem appropriate. We are unable to predict the effect that sales may have on the prevailing market price of our Class B common stock.
        In addition, certain of our stockholders have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares and to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or our stockholders. Registration of the resale of these shares under the Securities Act would generally result in the shares becoming freely tradable without restriction. Any sales of securities by existing stockholders could adversely affect the trading price of our Class B common stock. We also registered shares of Class B common stock that we have issued and may issue under our employee equity incentive and employee stock purchase plans. These shares may be sold freely in the public market upon issuance.
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The dual class structure of our Class A and Class B common stock will have the effect of concentrating significant voting influence or control with our executive officers, directors and their affiliates; this will limit or preclude a stockholder's ability to influence corporate matters.
        Each share of Class A common stock and each share of Class B common stock has one vote per share, except on the following matters (in which each share of Class A common stock has ten votes per share and each share of Class B common stock has one vote per share):
adoption of a merger or consolidation agreement involving our company;
a sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of our property and assets;
a dissolution or liquidation of our company; or
every matter, if and when any individual, entity or “group” (as such term is used in Regulation 13D of the Exchange Act) has, or has publicly disclosed (through a press release or a filing with the SEC) an intent to have, beneficial ownership of 30% or more of the number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock, combined.
        Because of our dual class common stock structure, the holders of our Class A common stock, who in large part consist of our founders, early investors, directors, executives, employees, will continue to be able to exert significant influence over the corporate matters listed above if any such matter is submitted to our stockholders for approval even if they own less than 50% of the outstanding shares of our Class A and Class B common stock, combined. As of December 31, 2019, holders of our Class A common stock owned approximately 24% of the outstanding shares of our Class A and Class B common stock, combined, however, holders of our Class A common stock, including our executive officers and directors and their affiliates, have approximately 76% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock with respect to the matters specified above. This concentrated control by holders of our Class A common stock will limit or preclude the ability of a holder of our Class B common stock to influence those corporate matters for the foreseeable future and, as a result, we may take actions that our stockholders do not view as beneficial. The market price of our Class B common stock could be adversely affected by the structure. In addition, this may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for capital stock that a stockholder may feel are in its best interests.
        Transfers by holders of our Class A common stock will generally result in those shares converting to our Class B common stock, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers effected for estate planning purposes. The conversion of our Class A common stock to our Class B common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class A common stock who retain their shares in the long term. If, for example, directors and their affiliates retain a significant portion of their holdings of our Class A common stock for an extended period of time, they could continue to significantly influence the combined voting power of our Class A and Class B common stock with respect to each of the matters identified in the list above.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
        The trading market for our Class B common stock depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Class B common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our Class B common stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our Class B common stock could decrease, which might cause our Class B common stock price and trading volume to decline.

Anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law and in our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws could make a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove members of our board of directors or current management and depress the trading price of our Class B common stock.
        Our status as a Delaware corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders.
        In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws contain provisions that may make the acquisition of our company or changes in our board of directors or management more difficult, including the following:
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Our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms and directors are only able to be removed from office for cause, which may delay the replacement of a majority of our board of directors or impede an acquirer from rapidly replacing our existing directors with its own slate of directors.
Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock to elect directors under specified circumstances, only our board of directors has the right to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of our board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors.
Our stockholders may not act by written consent or call special stockholders’ meetings; as a result, a holder, or holders, controlling a majority of our Class A and Class B common stock are not be able to take certain actions other than at annual stockholders’ meetings or special stockholders’ meetings, which special meetings may only be called by the chairman of our board, our chief executive officer, our president, or a majority of our board of directors.
Certain litigation against us can only be brought in Delaware.
Our restated certificate of incorporation authorizes undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued, by our board of directors without the approval of the holders of Class B common stock, which makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to acquire us.
Advance notice procedures and additional disclosure requirements apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before a meeting of stockholders, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.
Our restated certificate of incorporation prohibits cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates.
Amendment of the anti-takeover provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation require super majority approval by holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding Class A and Class B common stock, combined.
In certain circumstances pertaining to change in control, the sale of all or substantially all of our assets and liquidation matters, and on all matters if and when any individual, entity or group has, or has publicly disclosed an intent to have, beneficial ownership of 30% or more of the number of outstanding shares of our Class A and Class B common stock, combined, holders of our Class A common stock are entitled to ten votes per share and holders of our Class B common stock are entitled to one vote per share. As of December 31, 2019, holders of our Class A common stock owned approximately 24% and holders of our Class B common stock owned approximately 76% of the outstanding shares of our Class A and Class B common stock, combined. However, because of our dual class common stock structure these holders of our Class A common stock have approximately 76% and holders of our Class B common stock have approximately 24% of the total votes with respect to the matters specified above. In all other circumstances, holders of our Class A and Class B common stock are each entitled to one vote per share, and in these other circumstances the holders of our Class A common stock have approximately 24% and holders of our Class B common stock have approximately 76% of the total votes.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

Our corporate headquarters are located in San Francisco, California, where we occupy a facility totaling approximately 31,000 square feet under a lease which expires in 2022. We use these facilities for administration, sales and marketing, research and development, engineering, customer support and professional services. We also lease office space in Sunnyvale, California totaling approximately 11,000 square feet under a lease that expires in 2025. We use this facility primarily for research and development. We also lease approximately 25,000 square feet of office space in Salt Lake City, Utah for customer support operations which expires in 2025. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current needs.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we may become subject to legal proceedings, claims or litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. In addition, we may receive letters alleging infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights. If an unfavorable outcome were to occur in litigation, the impact could be material to our business, financial condition, cash flow or results of operations, depending on the specific circumstances of the outcome.

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Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information for Common Stock
Our Class B common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “CSLT.”
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid dividends on our capital stock. We do not expect to pay dividends on our capital stock for the foreseeable future. Instead, we anticipate that all of our earnings, if any, will be used for the operation and growth of our business. Any future determination to declare cash dividends would be subject to the discretion of our board of directors and would depend upon various factors, including our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity requirements, restrictions that may be imposed by applicable law and our contracts and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.
Stockholders
As of December 31, 2019, there were 39 stockholders of record of our Class A common stock (not including beneficial holders of stock held in street name), as well as 66 stockholders of record of our Class B common stock (not including beneficial holders of stock held in street name).
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
The information required by this item will be included in an amendment to this Annual Report on Form 10-K or incorporated by reference from our definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A.
Stock Performance Graph
The following shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into any of our other filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return on the NYSE Composite Index and the S&P Software & Services Select Industry Index for the period beginning on December 31, 2014 through December 31, 2019. The graph assumes that $100 was invested at the market close on December 31, 2014 in the common stock of Castlight, NYSE Composite Index and the S&P Software & Services Select Industry Index. Data for the NYSE Composite Index and the S&P Software & Services Select Industry Index assume reinvestment of dividends.
The comparisons in the graph below are based upon historical data and are not indicative of, nor intended to forecast, future performance of our common stock.
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cslt-20191231_g1.jpg
12/201412/201512/201612/201712/201812/2019
Castlight Health, Inc.$100.00  $36.50  $42.31  $32.05  $18.55  $11.37  
NYSE Composite Index$100.00  $93.58  $102.01  $118.17  $104.94  $128.36  
S&P Software & Services Select Industry Index$100.00  $107.62  $117.93  $151.00  $164.72  $223.91  

Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data
The following tables present selected historical consolidated financial data for our business. You should read this information in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes and other information included elsewhere in this filing.
We derived the consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, from our audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in Part II, Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We derived the consolidated statement of operations data as of the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 from our audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.
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 Year Ended December 31,
 2019201820172016
2015 (1)
 (in thousands, except per share data)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
Revenue:
Subscription$137,393  $143,901  $121,368  $91,943  $70,350  
Professional services and other5,915  12,503  10,652  6,765  4,965  
Total revenue, net143,308  156,404  132,020  98,708  75,315  
Cost of revenue:
Cost of subscription
34,067  34,691  28,410  16,463  12,417  
Cost of professional services and other
25,007  25,498  18,242  15,403  21,351  
Total cost of revenue
59,074  60,189  46,652  31,866  33,768  
Gross profit
84,234  96,215  85,368  66,842  41,547  
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing
38,597  49,134  59,767  58,641  67,414  
Research and development
58,994  61,355  54,502  40,460  30,077  
General and administrative
27,981  25,620  28,825  26,859  24,274  
Total operating expenses125,572  136,109  143,094  125,960  121,765  
Operating loss(41,338) (39,894) (57,726) (59,118) (80,218) 
Other income, net1,336  188  618  432  298  
Loss before income tax benefit(40,002) (39,706) (57,108) (58,686) (79,920) 
Income tax benefit—  —  (5,206) —  —  
Net loss$(40,002) $(39,706) $(51,902) $(58,686) $(79,920) 
Net loss per share, basic and diluted (2)
$(0.28) $(0.29) $(0.41) $(0.58) $(0.85) 
Weighted-average shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share (2)
145,172  137,686  125,534  100,798  93,753  
        
 As of December 31,
 
2019 (4)
2018
2017 (3)
2016
2015 (1)
 (in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:
Cash and cash equivalents$43,017  $66,005  $61,319  $48,722  $19,150  
Marketable securities16,411  11,327  32,025  65,882  101,274  
Working capital40,563  56,650  62,257  90,303  96,384  
Property and equipment, net4,856  3,963  5,263  5,285  6,896  
Total assets242,784  253,514  279,883  183,498  173,274  
Total deferred revenue10,745  21,223  30,442  29,634  34,112  
Total liabilities69,910  58,843  68,326  48,970  54,920  
Total stockholders’ equity 172,874  194,671  211,557  134,528  118,354  
(1) The summary consolidated financial data for the year ended December 31, 2015 and as of December 31, 2015 does not reflect the adoption of ASC 606.
(2) Net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period.
(3) In 2017, we completed the acquisition of Jiff. Please refer to Note 5 –Business Combinations to the consolidated financial statements for a discussion of the allocation of the purchase consideration to the assets and liabilities acquired.
(4) The selected financial data for 2019 reflects the adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2016-02, Leases, and subsequent amendments (“ASC 842”). See Note 2 - Accounting Standards and Significant Accounting Policies for further detail. The selected financial data for prior years do not reflect the adoption of ASC 842.
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CASTLIGHT HEALTH, INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this filing. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this filing, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this filing for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

Discussion and analysis of our 2017 fiscal year specifically, as well as the year-over-year comparison of our 2018 financial performance to 2017, are located in Part II, Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019, which is available on our website at www.castlighthealth.com under the “Investor Relations” tab and the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

Overview
Castlight Health, Inc. (“Castlight”, “the Company” or “we”) provides health navigation solutions for large U.S. employers and health plans (“customers”) and their respective employees and members (“users”). Castlight’s offerings deliver a personalized and simplified user experience that helps connect individuals with the right provider or available benefit at the right time. Castlight’s navigation offerings have demonstrated measurable results, driving increased levels of user satisfaction and program utilization and lower healthcare costs for its customers and millions of users.

The foundation of Castlight’s solutions is its proprietary single stack software-as-a-service platform. We believe our platform is unique in its:

Breadth and depth of data and partner integrations across the healthcare ecosystem;
Personalization engine that leverages data from these integrations to customize each user experience and help steer users to the right benefits and providers;
Comprehensive coverage across a user’s available wellbeing, healthcare and condition management benefits; and
Ability to engage a user through digital (web, mobile app) and high-touch (telephonic) communication modes.

Our platform’s services-oriented architecture enables us to extend our technology for use beyond our own applications. This enables us to serve health plans and other entities seeking to leverage our Company’s technology within their own member-facing applications or user touch points.

We sell our platform as a suite of branded and white-labeled digital health navigation mobile applications and web services primarily to large, self-insured U.S. employers. We also sell branded product offerings through our direct sales force and partnerships with large benefits consultants, with a focus on serving large U.S. employers.

In July 2019, we expanded our strategy to focus on health plans as a customer and to package our products to support user experiences beyond those of Castlight-powered websites and applications. Specifically, we seek to leverage our white-labeled health navigation offering and our platform’s services-oriented architecture to power health navigation delivered through third-party digital interface, such as a health plan’s existing member app.

Since this strategic expansion, we have begun demonstrating proof points for our expanded strategy, including:

In October 2019, we announced an enterprise license agreement with Anthem, Inc. (“Anthem”) that provides Anthem with access to key components of our platform. We are seeking opportunities to replicate this model with other health plans, such as U.S. regional health plans.

In late 2019, we introduced a pilot of our high-touch navigation offering – Castlight Care Guides – as a supplemental service for our large employer customers. Care Guides will support Castlight users and help them with their health
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navigation using Castlight’s core technology. We believe Castlight Care Guides will generate incremental user engagement and healthcare cost savings for our customers and users over time.

Castlight was incorporated in the State of Delaware in January 2008. Our principal executive offices are located in San Francisco, California.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

Sales of Products. Our revenue growth rate and long-term profitability are affected by our ability to sell products to new and existing customers, directly and through our channel partners. Additionally, we believe that there is a significant opportunity to sell subscriptions to add-on products as our customers become more familiar with our offering and seek to address additional needs.

Renewals of Customer Contracts. We believe that our ability to retain our customers and expand their subscription revenue growth over time will be an indicator of the stability of our revenue base and the long-term value of our customer relationships.

Channel Partnerships. We have relationships with channel partners including Anthem in 2019, which complement our direct sales capabilities. These relationships allow deeper penetration into our market and enable us to promote our health benefits platform and products to create customer cross-sell opportunities. With the new agreement signed with Anthem effective January 1, 2020, Anthem has moved from a channel partner to a health plan customer.

Ecosystem Partnerships: We have relationships with digital health partners that integrate with our platform to provide a more streamlined experience for our customers and users. We also have many third-party benefit solutions integrated with our products to enable effortless access to these programs to our users. We believe these partnerships enable a single user experience that is essential to drive engagement and increase user satisfaction.

Implementation Timelines. Our ability to convert backlog into revenue and improve our gross margin depends on how quickly we complete customer implementations. Our implementation timelines vary from customer to customer based on the source and condition of the data we receive from third parties, the configurations that we agree to provide and the size of the customer. Our implementation timelines for our products are typically three to 12 months after entering into an agreement with a customer.

Professional Services Model. We believe our professional services capabilities support the adoption of our subscription offerings. As a result, our sales efforts have been focused primarily on our subscription offering, rather than the profitability of our professional services business. Our professional services are generally priced on a fixed-fee basis and the costs incurred to complete these services, which consist mainly of personnel-related costs, have been greater than the amount charged to the customer. We also concluded that our implementation services are not distinct for accounting purposes. Accordingly, we recognize implementation services revenue in the same manner as the associated subscription revenue.

Seasonality. We have historically observed seasonality related to employee benefits cycles as a significantly higher proportion of our customers enter into new subscription agreements with us in the second half of the year, compared to the first half of the year. As we continue to leverage our channel relationships and expand our business, there is no assurance this seasonality will continue. The impact from any seasonality in our new customer agreements is not immediately apparent in our revenue because we do not begin recognizing revenue from new customer agreements until we have implemented our offering, based on the implementation timelines discussed above.

Revenue recognized in any quarter is primarily from customer agreements entered into in prior quarters. In addition, the mix of customers paying monthly, quarterly, or annually varies from quarter to quarter and impacts our deferred revenue balance. As a result of variability in our billing and implementation timelines, the deferred revenue balance does not represent the total value of our customer contracts, nor do changes in deferred revenue serve as a reliable indicator of our future subscription revenue.
   
Key Business Metrics
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We review a number of operating metrics, including the following key metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, and make strategic decisions.

Signed Annual Recurring Revenue (“ARR”)
As of
December 31, 2019December 31, 2018
 (in millions)
Signed Annual Recurring Revenue $147.0  $150.5  

Revenue recognized in any quarter is largely derived from customer agreements signed in prior quarters. Accordingly, management measures sales performance and forecasts future subscription revenue based on signed Annual Recurring Revenue. ARR is a forward-looking metric based on contractual terms in existence as of the applicable ARR measurement date and is subject to change resulting from a number of factors including, but not limited to, addition of new customers, changes in user counts, terminations or non-renewals, renewal terms as well as upsells and cross-sells. As discussed above, we begin recognizing revenue from new customer agreements when we have implemented our offering, which can take from approximately three to 12 months after entering into an agreement with a customer.

ARR represents the annualized value of subscription revenue under contract with customers at the end of a quarter, which we refer to for this purpose as a measurement date. To calculate ARR, we first calculate the annualized subscription value for each signed customer (whether implemented or not), as of the applicable measurement date, by multiplying the monthly contract value of the subscription services under contract by 12. We exclude from this calculation any customers that have provided us with formal notice of termination or non-renewal as of the measurement date. ARR does not take into account the (i) potential for customers to terminate, or decline to renew, their agreements with us, (ii) achievement of non-recurring or yet-to-be-earned performance guarantees, (iii) one-time engagement bonuses included within our customer contracts or (iv) revenues related to professional services, such as implementation and communications services. ARR is not determined in reference to GAAP.

Our ARR at December 31, 2019 was $147.0 million, compared to $150.5 million at December 31, 2018, representing a decrease of approximately 2.3%, primarily attributable to churn, partially offset by new customers, the Anthem enterprise license agreement and renewals.

Annual Net Dollar Retention Rate (“NDR”)
Year Ended December 31,
20192018
Annual Net Dollar Retention Rate 94 %82 %
We assess our performance on customer retention by measuring our Annual Net Dollar Retention Rate. We believe that our ability to retain our customers and expand their subscription revenue growth over time will be an indicator of the stability of our revenue base and the long-term value of our customer relationships. Our NDR provides a measurement of our ability to increase revenue across our existing customer base through expansion of our additional products to existing customers, increases in user count for existing customers and customer renewals, as offset by terminations or pricing changes. The addition or loss of a significant customer or customers during the calendar year can have a significant impact on NDR. We calculate NDR for a given period as the aggregate annualized subscription contract value as of the last day of that year from those customers that were also customers as of the last day of the prior year, divided by the aggregate annualized subscription contract value from all customers as of the last day of the prior year. In calculating NDR, we exclude one-time fees. NDR does not include subscriptions by new customers contracted since the end of the most recently completed year. We observed an annual net dollar retention rate of 94% and 82% for our signed customer base, for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The NDR of 94% at the end of 2019 was primarily due to churn, partially offset by the Anthem agreement, upsells and cross-sells. See Note 3 - Revenue, Deferred Revenue, Contract Balances and Performance Obligations, under the caption “Anthem Agreement” for additional information.
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Components of Results of Operations
Revenue

We generate revenue from subscription fees from customers for access to the products they select. We also earn revenue from professional services primarily related to the implementation of our offering, including communications support to drive adoption by our customers’ employees and their dependents, products sold through our online marketplace and add-on subscription products made available from our other ecosystem partners.
Our subscription fees are based primarily on the number of users that employers identify as eligible to use our offering, which typically includes all of our customers’ employees and adult dependents that receive health benefits.
Typically, we recognize subscription fees on a straight-line basis ratably over the contract term beginning when our products are implemented and ready for launch. Our customer agreements generally have a term of three years. We generally invoice our customers in advance on a monthly, quarterly or annual basis. Amounts that have been invoiced are initially recorded as deferred revenue. Amounts that have not been invoiced where revenue has been recognized are reflected as contract assets and recorded as accounts receivable and other in our consolidated financial statements.

As a result of variability in our billing terms, the deferred revenue balance does not represent the total value of our customer contracts, nor do changes in deferred revenue serve as a reliable indicator of our future subscription revenue in a given period.
Costs of Revenue

Cost of revenue consists of the cost of subscription revenue and cost of professional services revenue.

Cost of subscription revenue primarily consists of data fees, employee-related expenses (including salaries, bonuses, benefits and stock-based compensation), hosting costs of our cloud-based subscription service, cost of subcontractors, expenses for service delivery (which includes call center support), amortization of internal-use software, depreciation of owned computer equipment and software, amortization of intangibles related to developed technology and backlog, and allocated overhead.

Cost of professional services and other revenue consists primarily of employee-related expenses (including salaries, bonuses, benefits and stock-based compensation) associated with these services, the cost of subcontractors, deferred and amortized professional services costs, travel costs and allocated overhead. The time and costs of our customer implementations vary based on the source and condition of the data we receive from third parties, the configurations that we agree to provide and the size of the customer.

Our cost of subscription revenue is expensed as we incur the costs. The cost of professional services and other revenue, to the extent they are incurred and are directly attributable to fulfillment of performance obligations under a customer contract, are deferred and amortized over the benefit period of five years.

Operating Expenses

Operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, research and development and general and administrative expenses.
Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses (including salaries, sales commissions and bonuses, benefits and stock-based compensation), travel-related expenses, marketing programs, amortization of intangibles related to customer relationships and allocated overhead. All commissions earned by our sales force and third-party referral fees are deferred and amortized generally over a period of five years.

Research and Development. Research and development expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses (including salaries, bonuses, benefits and stock-based compensation), costs associated with subcontractors and allocated overhead.
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General and Administrative. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses (including salaries, bonuses, benefits and stock-based compensation) for finance and accounting, legal, human resources and management information systems personnel, legal costs, professional fees, other corporate expenses, acquisition-related costs, and allocated overhead.
Overhead Allocation. Expenses associated with our facilities and IT costs are allocated between cost of revenues and operating expenses based on employee headcount determined by the nature of work performed.
Results of Operations
The following tables set forth selected consolidated statements of operations data and such data as a percentage of total revenue for each of the periods indicated:
Year Ended December 31,
201920182017
Revenue:
Subscription96 %92 %92 %
Professional services and other%%%
Total revenue, net100 %100 %100 %
Cost of revenue:
Cost of subscription24 %22 %21 %
Cost of professional services and other17 %16 %14 %
Total cost of revenue41 %38 %35 %
Gross margin59 %62 %65 %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing27 %32 %45 %
Research and development41 %39 %41 %
General and administrative20 %16 %22 %
Total operating expenses
88 %87 %108 %
Operating loss(29)%(25)%(43)%
Other income, net%— %— %
Loss before income tax benefit(28)%(25)%(43)%
Income tax benefit— %— %(4)%
Net loss(28)%(25)%(39)%

Revenue
Year Ended December 31,
2019201820172018 to 2019 % change2017 to 2018 % change
(in thousands, except percentages)
Revenue:
Subscription$137,393  $143,901  $121,368  (5)%19 %
Professional services and other5,915  12,503  10,652  (53)%17 %
Total revenue, net$143,308  $156,404  $132,020  (8)%18 %

2019 compared to 2018
Subscription revenue decreased $6.5 million, or 5%, primarily due to customer terminations in 2018 and 2019, partially offset by customer launches in 2018 and 2019. Professional services and other revenue decreased primarily due to revenue from non-recurring professional services in 2018.
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Costs and Operating Expenses
Year Ended December 31,
2019201820172018 to 2019 % change2017 to 2018 % change
(in thousands, except percentages)
Cost of revenue:
Subscription$34,067  $34,691  $28,410  (2)%22 %
Professional services and other
25,007  25,498  18,242  (2)%40 %
Total cost of revenue$59,074  $60,189  $46,652  (2)%29 %
Gross margin (loss) percentage:
Subscription75 %76 %77 %
Professional services and other
(323)%(104)%(71)%
Total gross margin59 %62 %65 %
Gross profit$84,234  $96,215  $85,368  (12)%13 %

2019 compared to 2018
Cost of subscription revenue decreased $0.6 million or 2%, primarily due to a decrease of $0.5 million in data fees.
Cost of professional services revenue decreased $0.5 million or 2%, primarily due to a decrease of $0.6 million in third-party contractor and professional service fees.
Gross margin for the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased primarily due to revenue decline.
Sales and Marketing
Year Ended December 31,
2019201820172018 to 2019 % change2017 to 2018 % change
(in thousands, except percentages)
Sales and marketing$38,597  $49,134  $59,767  (21)%(18)%
2019 compared to 2018
Sales and marketing expense decreased $10.5 million or 21%, due to decreases of $7.6 million in employee-related costs, $0.5 million in marketing programs, $0.4 million in travel-related expenses, $0.4 million in allocated overhead, $0.3 million in third-party referral fees and $0.3 million in third-party contractor fees.

Research and Development
Year Ended December 31,
2019201820172018 to 2019 % change2017 to 2018 % change
(in thousands, except percentages)
Research and development$58,994  $61,355  $54,502  (4)%13 %
2019 compared to 2018
Research and development expense decreased $2.4 million or 4%, primarily due to $2.2 million in lease exit and related charges recorded in 2018.
General and Administrative
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Year Ended December 31,
2019201820172018 to 2019 % change2017 to 2018 % change
(in thousands, except percentages)
General and administrative$27,981  $25,620  $28,825  %(11)%
2019 compared to 2018
General and administrative expense increased $2.4 million or 9%, due to increases of $0.9 million in third-party contractor and professional service fees, $0.5 million in legal costs, $0.4 million in employee-related costs and $0.4 million in taxes and fees.

Income tax benefit

The effective tax rate for 2019, 2018 and 2017 was 0.0%, 0.0% and 9.1%, respectively. As a result of the acquisition of Jiff in April 2017, the Company recorded a tax benefit of $5.2 million as a discrete item in the second quarter of 2017. This tax benefit is a result of the partial release of its existing valuation allowance since the acquired deferred tax liabilities from Jiff will provide a source of income for the Company to realize a portion of its deferred tax assets, for which a valuation allowance is no longer needed. The Company's effective tax rate for 2019 and 2018 was primarily a result of the tax loss for the year and the change in valuation allowance.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
Year Ended December 31,
201920182017
(in thousands)
Net cash used in operating activities$(17,392) $(18,551) $(23,457) 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(6,797) 19,222  34,610  
Net cash provided by financing activities1,201  4,015  1,625  
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$(22,988) $4,686  $12,778  

As of December 31, 2019, our principal sources of liquidity were cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaling $59.4 million, which were held for working capital purposes. Our securities are comprised of U.S. agency obligations, U.S. treasury securities and money market funds.
Since our inception, we have financed our operations primarily through sales of equity securities and receipts from our customers. We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will be sufficient to meet our working capital and capital expenditure needs for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors including our growth rate, new customer acquisitions, subscription renewal activity, the timing and extent of spending to support development efforts, the introduction of new and enhanced services offerings and the continuing market acceptance of our cloud-based subscription services. Although we currently are not a party to any agreement and do not have any understanding with any third parties with respect to potential investments in, or acquisitions of, businesses or technologies, we may in the future enter into these types of arrangements.
On April 3, 2017, Castlight, Jiff and Silicon Valley Bank agreed to refinance the existing term loan facility owed by Jiff to the Silicon Valley Bank. Refer to Note 10 – Debt to the consolidated financial statements for further information on debt.
During the second quarter of 2019, the Company entered into an agreement with a financial institution to process vendor payments using a credit card program, which carries a $20.0 million limit. The Company pays the financial institution monthly based on the terms of the credit card program.
We may be required to seek additional equity or debt financing. In the event that additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us, or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when desired, our business, operating results and financial condition would be adversely affected.
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Operating Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2019, cash used in operating activities was $17.4 million. Cash used in operating activities resulted primarily from our net loss of $40.0 million, which includes $42.0 million in non-cash expenses. The non-cash adjustments to net loss included stock-based compensation expense of $15.0 million, amortization and impairment of deferred commissions of $10.8 million, depreciation and amortization of $5.9 million, amortization and impairment of deferred professional services fees of $5.2 million and non-cash operating lease expense of $5.3 million, partially offset by accretion of marketable securities of $0.2 million. Uses of cash included a decrease in deferred revenue of $10.5 million, an increase in deferred commissions of $5.3 million, an increase in accounts receivable of $4.6 million, primarily as a result of the timing of billings and collections, an increase in deferred professional costs of $1.7 million, a decrease in operating lease liabilities of $5.7 million and a decrease in accrued expenses and other liabilities of $3.8 million. These uses of cash were partially offset by an increase of $9.3 million in accounts payable due to the timing of payments and vendor invoicing and an increase in accrued compensation of $2.8 million.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, cash used in operating activities was $18.6 million. Cash used in operating activities resulted primarily from our net loss of $39.7 million, which include $45.5 million in non-cash adjustments. The non-cash adjustments to net loss included stock-based compensation expense of $18.1 million, amortization and impairment of deferred commissions of $13.1 million, depreciation and amortization of $6.9 million, amortization and impairment of deferred professional services fees of $5.3 million and lease exit and related charges of $2.6 million, partially offset by accretion of marketable securities of $0.5 million. Uses of working capital included a decrease in deferred revenue of $9.2 million, a decrease in accrued compensation of $8.0 million, an increase in deferred commissions of $5.7 million, an increase in accounts receivable of $4.9 million driven by 37% increase in billings year over year and the timing of billings and collections and an increase in deferred professional costs of $2.7 million. These uses of cash were partially offset by sources of working capital which included an increase of $5.7 million in accounts payable due to the timing of payments and vendor invoicing.
Investing Activities

Cash used in investing activities was $6.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Cash used in investing activities was attributable to $4.8 million of purchases net of maturities of marketable securities and $2.0 million of purchases of property and equipment. Cash provided by investing activities was $19.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Cash provided was primarily the result of the timing of purchases, sales and maturities of marketable securities, the net result of which was $21.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. These increases were partially offset by purchases of property and equipment, which were $2.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Financing Activities

For the year ended December 31, 2019, cash provided by financing activities was $1.2 million, primarily from cash proceeds from exercises of employee stock options of $3.1 million, partially offset by principal payments on long-term debt of $1.9 million. For the year ended December 31, 2018, cash provided by financing activities was $4.0 million, primarily from cash proceeds from exercises of employee stock options, partially offset by principal payments on long-term debt.
Backlog
Backlog is equivalent to our remaining performance obligations and represents our non-cancellable contractual commitments for which service will be performed. Remaining performance obligations are defined as deferred revenue and amount yet to be billed for the non-cancelable portion of contracts. Backlog generally increases with bookings and converts into revenue as performance obligations are fulfilled.
The amount of our backlog for subscription and professional services contracts was approximately $253.7 million and $156.8 million as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The increase is primarily due to the enterprise license agreement with Anthem.
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Contractual Obligations and Commitments
Our principal commitments primarily consist of debt obligations, lease obligations for office space and data centers. As of December 31, 2019, the future non-cancellable minimum payments under these commitments were as follows (in thousands): 
TotalLess Than
1 Year
1-3
Years
3-5
Years
More than 5 Years
Long-term debt maturities (1)
$3,254  $1,859  $1,395  $—  $—  
Interest payments on long-term debt (1)
114  92  22  —  —  
Operating leases for facilities and data centers (2)
20,124  7,002  9,710  2,757  655  
Total$23,492  $8,953  $11,127  $2,757  $655  
 
(1)The above table assumes that our long-term debt is held to maturity, and the interest rate on our debt remains unchanged for the remaining life of the debt from the rate in effect at December 31, 2019. In addition to principal and interest payments, the Company is also required to pay $0.5 million as final payment on the earlier of maturity, termination or prepayment of the Term Loan. See Note 10 – Debt to our consolidated financial statements for additional information.
(2)Operating leases for facilities space and data centers represent our obligations under leases. Minimum payments have not been reduced by sublease rentals of $6.0 million due in the future under non-cancellable subleases. Excludes variable costs such as common area maintenance, insurance and tax payments for which the Company is also obligated. In 2019, these charges totaled approximately $0.7 million. See Note 13 – Leases to our consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Our existing lease agreements provide us with the option to renew and generally provide for rental payments on a graduated basis. Our future operating lease obligations would change if we entered into additional operating lease agreements as we expand our operations and if we exercised these options. Contractual obligations represent future cash commitments and liabilities under agreements with third parties and exclude purchase orders for goods and services. Purchase orders are not included in the table above. Our purchase orders represent authorizations to purchase rather than binding agreements. The contractual commitment amounts in the table above are associated with agreements that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum services to be used, fixed, minimum or variable price provisions and the approximate timing of the transaction. Obligations under contracts that we can cancel without a significant penalty are not included in the table above.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
During the periods presented, we did not have, nor do we currently have, any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes. We are therefore not exposed to the financing, liquidity, market or credit risk that could arise if we had engaged in those types of relationships.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and assumptions. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

We believe that certain of our significant accounting policies, which are described in Note 2 Accounting Standards and Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements, involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity. Accordingly, these are the policies that we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
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Revenue Recognition
We derive our revenue primarily from contracts with customers for subscription services and professional services. Revenues are recognized when control of these services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those services. Revenues do not include sales taxes.
We determine revenue recognition through the following steps:

Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer;
Identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
Determination of the transaction price;
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
Recognition of revenue when, or as, the Company satisfies a performance obligation.

Subscription Revenue. Subscription revenue recognition commences on the date that our subscription services are made available to the customer, which we consider to be the launch date, and subscription revenue is generally recognized over the contract term. Subscription contracts are generally three years in length and certain contracts include termination provisions.

Some of our subscription contracts include performance incentives that are generally based on engagement. Additionally, some of our subscription contracts include audit provisions. We consider fees related to performance incentives and audit provisions to be variable consideration. We estimate variable consideration at the most likely amount to which we expect to be entitled. We include estimated amounts in the transaction price to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved. Our estimates of variable consideration and determination of whether to include estimated amounts in the transaction price are based largely on an assessment of anticipated performance as well as other information available to us. We reassess estimates related to variable consideration each reporting period and records adjustments when appropriate.

Professional Services and Other Revenue. Professional services and other revenue is primarily comprised of implementation services and communication services related to our subscription service. Nearly all of our professional services are sold on a fixed-fee basis.

We determined that our implementation services are not capable of being distinct. Accordingly, we recognize implementation services revenue in the same manner as the subscription service, beginning on the launch date. We determined our communication services are distinct and the associated revenue is recognized over time from the commencement of the communication services through the end of the contractual term.

Professional services and other revenue also includes revenue from products sold through our online marketplace and add-on subscription services made available from other ecosystem partners. These revenues are recognized on a net basis primarily because we act as an agent in these contracts.

Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations. Most of our contracts have multiple performance obligations consisting of subscription services and professional services, including implementation services and communication services. For arrangements with multiple performance obligations, we evaluate whether the individual performance obligations are distinct. If the performance obligations are distinct, revenue is recognized for the respective performance obligation separately. If one or more of the performance obligations are not distinct, the performance obligations that are not distinct are combined with our subscription service, and revenue for the combined performance obligation is recognized over the term of the subscription service commencing on the launch date.

We concluded that our subscription services and our communication services are distinct. Conversely, we concluded that our implementation services are not distinct, primarily because these services are not capable of being distinct as the customer cannot benefit from the implementation services on their own. Accordingly, we consider the separate performance obligations in multiple performance obligation contracts to be communication services and a combined performance obligation comprised of subscription services and implementation services.

The transaction price for arrangements with multiple performance obligations is allocated to the separate performance obligations based on their standalone selling price. We determine standalone selling prices based on overall pricing objectives
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taking into consideration market conditions and other factors, including the value of the contracts, the subscription services sold, and customer demographics.

Contract Balances

We record a contract asset when revenue is recognized prior to invoicing. Contract assets are presented within accounts receivable and other, net in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet. A contract liability represents deferred revenue.

Deferred revenue consists of professional services and cloud-based subscription services that have been billed in advance of revenue being recognized. We invoice our customers for cloud-based subscription services based on the terms of the contract, which can be annual, quarterly or monthly installments. Deferred revenue that is anticipated to be recognized during the succeeding 12-month period is recorded as current deferred revenue, and the remaining portion is recorded as non-current.
Goodwill
We review goodwill for impairment at least annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable. We have elected to first assess the qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the Company’s single reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If it is determined that it is more likely than not that its fair value is less than its carrying amount, we perform a quantitative impairment test of goodwill, in which the fair value of our single reporting unit is compared to its carrying value. Any excess of the goodwill carrying amount over the fair value is recognized as an impairment loss, and the carrying value of goodwill is written down to fair value.
Intangible Assets
Acquired finite-lived intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives. We evaluate the recoverability of our intangible assets for possible impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability of these assets is measured by a comparison of the carrying amounts to the future undiscounted cash flows the assets are expected to generate. If such review indicates that the carrying amount of intangible assets is not recoverable, the carrying amount of such assets is reduced to fair value. We have not recorded any such impairment charges.
Deferred Commissions
Deferred commissions are the incremental costs that are incurred to obtain contracts with customers and consist primarily of sales commissions paid to our sales force and channel partners. The commissions for initial contracts are deferred and amortized on a straight-line basis over a period of benefit that we determined typically to be five years. We determined the period of benefit by taking into consideration the expected life of its subscription contracts, the expected life of the technology underlying its subscription services and other factors. The commissions for renewal contracts are deferred and then amortized on a straight-line basis over the related contractual renewal period. The deferred commission amounts are recoverable through our future revenues. Amortization of deferred commissions is included in sales and marketing expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. All costs deferred are reviewed for impairment periodically.

Deferred Professional Service Costs

Deferred professional services costs are the direct costs incurred to fulfill subscription contracts that occur prior to the launch of our subscription services. Professional service costs, which primarily consist of employee related expenses attributable to launch activities, are deferred and then amortized on a straight-line basis over a period of benefit that we determined typically to be five years for the same reasons as described in the deferred commissions disclosure above. Deferred professional service costs are recoverable through future revenues. Amortization of deferred professional service costs is included in cost of professional services and other revenue in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. All costs deferred are reviewed for impairment periodically.
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CASTLIGHT HEALTH, INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Stock-Based Compensation
Compensation expense related to stock-based transactions, including employee, consultant and non-employee director stock option awards, is measured and recognized in the financial statements based on fair value. The options assumed and awarded in connection with the acquisition of Jiff were valued using the Monte Carlo simulation model. The fair value of all other options and stock purchase rights under the employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”) is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The stock-based compensation expense, net of forfeitures, is recognized using a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards, which is generally four years. For restricted stock units, fair value is based on the closing price of our Class B common stock on the grant date. For awards with performance based and service vesting conditions, compensation cost is recognized over the requisite service period if it is probable that the performance condition will be satisfied based on the accelerated attribution method.

Our option-pricing model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including the fair value of the underlying common stock, the expected term of the option, the expected volatility of the price of our common stock, risk-free interest rates and the expected dividend yield of our common stock. The assumptions used in our option-pricing model represent management’s best estimates. These estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. If factors change and different assumptions are used, our stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future.

Please refer to Note 15 – Stockholders' Equity and Stock Compensation to the consolidated financial statements for assumptions used in our valuation of stock options and shares under the ESPP.

Adoption of New and Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

Please refer to Note 2 – Accounting Standards and Significant Accounting Policies to the consolidated financial statements for a discussion of adoption of new and recently issued accounting pronouncements.
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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Interest Rate Sensitivity
We had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaling $59.4 million as of December 31, 2019 and $77.3 million as of December 31, 2018. This amount was invested primarily in U.S. agency obligations, U.S. treasury securities and money market mutual funds. The cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities are held for working capital purposes. Our investments are made for capital preservation purposes. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes. All our investments are denominated in U.S. dollars.
Our cash equivalents and our portfolio of marketable securities are subject to market risk due to changes in interest rates. Fixed rate securities may have their market value adversely affected due to a rise in interest rates, while floating rate securities may produce less income than expected if interest rates fall. Due in part to these factors, our future investment income may fall short of expectations due to changes in interest rates or we may suffer losses in principal if we are forced to sell securities that decline in market value due to changes in interest rates. However, because we classify our marketable securities as “available for sale”, no gains or losses are recognized due to changes in interest rates unless such securities are sold prior to maturity or declines in fair value are determined to be other-than-temporary. Our fixed-income portfolio is subject to interest rate risk.

An immediate increase or decrease of 100-basis points in interest rates would result in an immaterial change in the market value of our investments as of December 31, 2019. This estimate is based on a sensitivity model that measures market value changes when changes in interest rates occur. Fluctuations in the value of our investment securities caused by a change in interest rates (gains or losses on the carrying value) are recorded in other comprehensive income, and are realized only if we sell the underlying securities.

We also have interest rate exposure as a result of our loan agreement, which provides a term loan and revolving credit facility, as described in Note 10 – Debt to the consolidated financial statements. The revolving credit facility expired on April 3, 2019, its termination date, and no borrowings were made under the facility through that date. We currently do not hedge the interest rate exposure on the term loan. At December 31, 2019, we had $3.3 million outstanding under the term loan that is subject to variable interest rates based on the prime rate as published in the money rates section of The Wall Street Journal. Changes in the prime rate will affect the interest on borrowings under the loan agreement. However, a 50-basis point increase in the interest rate on the term loan would not materially increase interest expense during 2019.

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Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

CASTLIGHT HEALTH, INC.
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Page

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Castlight Health, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Castlight Health, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2019 and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2019, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 28, 2020 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Adoption of New Accounting Standard

As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the company has changed its method of accounting for leases in 2019 due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842).

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2010
San Francisco, California
February 28, 2020










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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Castlight Health, Inc.

Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited Castlight Health, Inc’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, Castlight Health, Inc. (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, based on the COSO criteria.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2019, and the related notes and our report dated February 28, 2020 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

San Francisco, California
February 28, 2020

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CASTLIGHT HEALTH, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
As of December 31,
 20192018
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$43,017  $66,005  
Marketable securities16,411  11,327  
Accounts receivable and other, net 31,397  26,816  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets4,645  3,680  
Total current assets95,470  107,828  
Property and equipment, net4,856  3,963  
Restricted cash, non-current1,144  1,325  
Deferred commissions14,718  20,142  
Deferred professional service costs6,711  10,133  
Intangible assets, net