10-K 1 hqy-2018x01x3110k.htm 10-K Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2018
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to            
Commission File Number: 001-36568
 
 
 
HEALTHEQUITY, INC.
 
 
 
(Exact name as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
7389
 
52-2383166
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
15 West Scenic Pointe Drive
Suite 100
Draper, Utah 84020
(801) 727-1000
(Address, including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share
The NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted to its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
þ
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No þ
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant on July 31, 2017, based on the closing price of $45.87 for shares of the registrant’s common stock as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market was approximately $2.3 billion. For purposes of determining whether a stockholder was an affiliate of the registrant at July 31, 2017, the registrant assumed that a stockholder was an affiliate of the registrant at July 31, 2017 if such stockholder (i) beneficially owned 10% or more of the registrant’s capital stock, as determined based on public filings, and/or (ii) was an executive officer or director, or was affiliated with an executive officer or director of the registrant, at July 31, 2017. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of February 28, 2018, there were 60,952,042 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Registrant's definitive proxy statement related to its 2018 annual meeting of shareholders (the "2018 Proxy Statement") are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. The 2018 Proxy Statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.
 



HealthEquity, Inc. and subsidiaries
Form 10-K annual report

Table of contents
 
 
Page
Part I.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Part III.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Part IV.
Item 15.
Item 16.
 






SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, including in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk factors,” and “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations.” These forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements regarding our industry, business strategy, plans, goals and expectations concerning our markets and market position, future operations, expenses and other results of operations, margins, profitability, tax rates, capital expenditures, liquidity and capital resources and other financial and operating information. When used in this discussion, the words “may,” “believes,” “intends,” “seeks,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “estimates,” “expects,” “should,” “assumes,” “continues,” “could,” “will,” “future” and the negative of these or similar terms and phrases are intended to identify forward-looking statements in this report.
Forward-looking statements reflect our current expectations regarding future events, results or outcomes. These expectations may or may not be realized. Although we believe the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we can give you no assurance these expectations will prove to be correct. Some of these expectations may be based upon assumptions, data or judgments that prove to be incorrect. Actual events, results and outcomes may differ materially from our expectations due to a variety of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors. Although it is not possible to identify all of these risks and factors, they include, among others, risks related to the following:
our ability to compete effectively in a rapidly evolving healthcare industry;
our dependence on the continued availability and benefits of tax-advantaged health savings accounts;
the significant competition we face and may face in the future, including from those with greater resources than us;
cybersecurity breaches of our platform and other data interruptions, including resulting costs and liabilities, reputational damage and loss of business;
the current uncertain healthcare environment, including changes in healthcare programs and expenditures and related regulations;
our ability to comply with current and future privacy, healthcare, tax, investment advisor and other laws applicable to our business;
our reliance on partners and third party vendors for distribution and important services;
our ability to successfully identify, acquire and integrate additional portfolio purchases or acquisition targets;
our ability to develop and implement updated features for our platform and successfully manage our growth;
our ability to protect our brand and other intellectual property rights;
our reliance on our management team and key team members; and
other risks and factors listed under “Risk factors” and elsewhere in this report.

Unless the context otherwise indicates or requires, the terms “we,” “our,” “us,” “HealthEquity,” and the “Company,” as used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, refer to HealthEquity, Inc. and its subsidiaries as a combined entity, except where otherwise stated or where it is clear that the terms mean only HealthEquity, Inc. exclusive of its subsidiaries.


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Part I
Item 1. Business
Company overview
We are a leader and an innovator in the high growth category of technology-enabled services platforms that empower consumers to make healthcare saving and spending decisions. Our platform provides an ecosystem where consumers can access their tax-advantaged healthcare savings, compare treatment options and pricing, evaluate and pay healthcare bills, receive personalized benefit and clinical information, earn wellness incentives, and make educated investment choices to grow their tax-advantaged healthcare savings. We can integrate with any health plan or banking institution to be the independent and trusted partner that enables consumers as they seek to manage, save and spend their healthcare dollars. We believe the secular shift to greater consumer responsibility for healthcare costs will require a significant portion of the approximately 190 million under-age 65 consumers with private health insurance in the United States to use a platform such as ours.
The core of our ecosystem is the health savings account, or HSA, a financial account through which consumers spend and save long term for healthcare on a tax-advantaged basis. We refer to the HSAs for which we serve as custodian as our HSA Members. As of January 31, 2018, we were the integrated HSA platform for 124 health plan and administrator partners and for employees at more than 40,000 employer clients. Our customers include individuals, employers of all sizes, health plans, and administrators. We refer to our individual customers as our members, our health plan and administrator customers as our Health Plan and Administrator Partners and our employer clients as our Employer Partners. Our Health Plan and Administrator Partners and Employer Partners collectively constitute our Network Partners. As of January 31, 2018, we had over 3.4 million HSAs on our platform. Management estimates that this represents over 7.5 million lives. During the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, we added approximately 723,000, 703,000 and 751,000 new HSA Members, representing approximately 1.6 million, 1.5 million and 1.7 million lives, respectively.
We have developed technology and a differentiated focus on the consumer to facilitate the transition to a more consumer-centric approach to healthcare saving and spending. Our solution is deployed as a cloud-based platform that is accessible to our customers through the Internet and on mobile devices and is hosted on private servers, which allows us to scale on demand. Core to our technology is a configurable framework and open platform that we believe provides us greater functionality and flexibility than generic technologies used by our legacy competitors and requires less investment and time to configure and customize to our customers’ needs.
We are able to seamlessly integrate third-party applications into our platform, which has afforded us an advantage in an expanding consumer healthcare landscape. A growing number of companies are attempting to integrate into the consumer's daily healthcare spending experience by leveraging our platform. These companies offer functions such as price transparency, benefits enrollment, population health, wellness, analytics, health insurance and investment services, and are looking to reach the consumer at the critical "save" and "spend" moment. In an effort to capitalize on this opportunity, we continue to expand the number of ecosystem partners with whom our platform is integrated.
Our business model provides strong visibility into our future operating performance. As of the beginning of the past several fiscal years, we had approximately 90% visibility into the revenue of the subsequent fiscal year. We earn monthly service revenue primarily through contracts with our Network Partners and our custodial agreements with individual members. We earn custodial revenue primarily from our custodial cash assets that are deposited with our FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners or invested in an annuity contract with our insurance company partner. In addition, we earn recordkeeping fees in respect of assets held with our investments partner and we earn fees for investment advisory services through our registered investment advisor subsidiary. We also earn interchange revenue, which is primarily interchange fees charged to merchants on payments made with our cards via payment networks. Monthly service revenue, custodial revenue, and interchange revenue are recurring in nature, providing strong visibility into our future business.


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Our products and services
Healthcare saving and spending platform. We offer a cloud-based platform, accessed by our members online via a desktop or mobile device, through which individuals can make health saving and spending decisions, pay healthcare bills, compare treatment options and prices, receive personalized benefit and clinical information, earn wellness incentives, grow their savings and make investment choices. The platform provides users with access to services we provide as well as services provided by third parties selected by us or by our Network Partners.
Among other features, the platform includes the capability to present to users medical bills upon adjudication by a health plan, including details such as the amount paid by insurance, specific nature of the medical service provided, and diagnostic code. Users of the platform can pay these bills from an account of ours or from any bank account, online, via a mobile device, or using our payment card. All users of the platform gain access to our healthcare consumer specialists, available every hour of every day, via a toll-free telephone number or email. Our specialists can assist users with such tasks as contacting a medical provider to dispute a bill, negotiating a payment schedule, optimizing the use of tax-advantaged accounts to reduce medical spending or selecting from among medical plans offered by an employer or health plan.
Health savings accounts. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 created HSAs, a tax-exempt trust or custodial account managed by a custodian that is a bank, an insurance company, or a non-bank custodian specifically authorized by the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, as meeting certain ownership, capitalization, expertise and governance requirements. We are an IRS approved non-bank custodian of our members' HSAs, designated to serve as both a passive and non-passive non-bank custodian of HSAs.
To be eligible to contribute to an HSA, an individual must be covered under a high deductible healthcare plan, or HDHP, have no additional health coverage, not be enrolled in Medicare, and not be claimed as a dependent on someone else’s tax return. HSAs have several tax-advantaged benefits, which we call the "triple tax savings": (1) individuals can claim a tax deduction for contributions they make to their HSAs, and contributions that their employers make to their HSAs may be excluded from their gross income for purposes of federal and most state income and employment tax; (2) the interest or earnings on the assets in the account, including reinvestment, accumulate without being subject to tax; and (3) distributions may be tax free if they are used to pay qualified medical expenses. There is no requirement to provide receipts to us to substantiate HSA distributions to members, whether made through our payment card or directly from our online platform. Additionally, taxable distributions other than for qualified medical expenses are permitted without penalty (although subject to income tax) after age 65. Balances remain in the account until used, i.e., there is no “use or lose” requirement. An HSA is owned by the account holder; it remains the account holder’s property upon a change of employment, health plan or retirement.
Investment platform and advisory services. We offer a mutual fund investment platform and an online-only automated investment advisory service to all of our members whose account balances exceed a stated threshold. These services are entirely elective to the member. The advisory service is delivered through a web-based tool, AdvisorTM, which is offered and managed by HealthEquity Advisors, LLC, our SEC-registered investment adviser subsidiary. HealthEquity Advisors, LLC provides investment advice to its clients exclusively through the AdvisorTM tool on an interactive website. Members who utilize our mutual fund investment platform or subscribe for AdvisorTM services pay asset-based fees, which include the cost of the advisory service and all trading commissions and other expenses associated with transactions made through these online tools.
AdvisorTM provides investment education guidance and management, including maintaining HSA cash (liquidity) in amounts directed by the member, targeting risk appropriate portfolio diversification, and mutual fund selection.
We offer three levels of service to investors:
Self-driven: For members who do not subscribe for AdvisorTM, we provide a mutual fund investment platform to invest HSA balances. Neither we nor AdvisorTM provides advice to members in respect of investments among funds on the platform;
GPS: AdvisorTM provides guidance and advice, but the member makes the final investment decisions and implements portfolio allocation and investment advice through the HealthEquity platform; and
Auto-pilot: AdvisorTM manages the account and implements portfolio allocation and investment advice automatically for the member.
Regardless of the level of service selected, members are responsible for their proportionate share of fees and expenses payable by the underlying mutual funds and other investment vehicles in which they invest.
Reimbursement arrangements. Reimbursement arrangements, or RAs, include health reimbursement arrangements, or HRAs, and flexible spending arrangements, or FSAs. An RA may be administered by any third-

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party administration, or TPA, firm. Most HSA custodians are not TPAs, and most TPAs are not HSA custodians. We are among only a few firms that are able to administer HSAs and RAs on the same technology platform.
RAs are employer sponsored accounts that employees can use to reimburse qualified medical or dependent care expenses. Before payment can be made, expenses must be substantiated using electronic claims from a health plan, data gleaned from operation of our payment card where permitted, or submission of receipts or other documentation by the employee. Like HSAs, amounts allocated to RAs and reimbursements from RAs may be excluded from employees’ gross income for federal and most state income and employment tax purposes. RAs are not portable, however; any value remaining upon termination of employment is forfeited (subject to COBRA). In addition, FSAs are subject to “use or lose” restrictions that limit to $500 the amount that may be rolled over from year to year. As of January 31, 2018, we had approximately 559,000 RAs on our platform.
HealthEquity retirement. Through our subsidiary HealthEquity Retirement Services, LLC, we offer ERISA plan administration and investment services (with partnered advisors and record keepers) that can help reduce the cost, risk, and work of managing a 401(k) or similar retirement plan. In addition to these plan services, we are able to connect third party retirement solutions to our HSA platform, allowing users to manage their HSA and 401(k) balances from a single convenient dashboard, with a common set of investment options to enhance financial literacy and help optimize health and wealth savings.
Our technology
Our proprietary technology is deployed as a cloud-based solution that is accessible to customers through the web and mobile devices. We utilize a multi-tenant architecture that allows changes made for one Network Partner to be extended to all others. This architecture provides operating leverage by reducing costs and improving efficiencies, enabling us to maximize the utilization of our infrastructure capacity with a reduction in required maintenance. We are continually improving and devoting resources to our technology. During the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, we capitalized software development costs of $8.1 million, $7.7 million and $5.6 million, respectively. In addition, we incurred $12.2 million, $10.0 million and $7.6 million, respectively, in software development costs primarily related to the post-implementation and operation stages of our proprietary software.
Our solution is hosted on a virtual private cloud with an ability to scale on demand. This allows us to quickly support our current and projected growth. We utilize two redundant third-party data centers to ensure continuous access and data availability. The data centers are purpose-built facilities for hosting mission critical systems with multiple built-in redundancy layers to minimize service disruptions and meet industry-standard measures.
Due to the sensitive nature of our customers’ data, we have a heightened focus on data security and protection. We have implemented industry-standard processes, policies and tools through all levels of our software development and network administration, reducing the risk of vulnerabilities in our system.
Our competitive landscape
We view our competition in terms of direct and indirect competitors. Our direct competitors are HSA custodians that include state or federally chartered banks, insurance companies and non-bank trustees approved by the IRS as meeting certain ownership, capitalization, expertise and governance requirements. Our indirect competitors are benefits administration and payment technology and service providers that work with other HSA custodians to market to health plans and/or employers.
We believe that the primary competitive factors in the market for technology platforms that empower healthcare consumers are: integration with the broader healthcare system; level of consumer education and support; breadth of product offering; flexibility of technology to meet partner requirements; brand strength and reputation; and price. We believe that many of our large financial competitors may view their HSA businesses as non-core and have historically under-invested in developing these businesses. Many of our competitors have not incorporated personal health information into their offerings, as this would require significant upfront investment in technology, training, and segregation of business operations from other bank or custodial operations, as well as integration with data sources such as health plans and pharmacy benefits managers. We believe competitors within the technology, payments or benefits administration service provider sector are limited from expanding their presence in this area due to regulatory requirements for capital adequacy and demonstrated expertise in custodial operations. However, we experience significant competition from banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions that have greater resources than us, and the intensity of competition may increase over time.

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Our competitive strengths
We believe we are well-positioned to benefit from the transformation of the healthcare benefits market. Our platform is aligned with a healthcare environment that rewards consumer engagement and fosters an integrated consumer experience.
Leadership and first-mover advantage. We have established a defensible leadership position in the HSA industry through our first-mover advantage, focus on innovation and differentiated capabilities. Our leadership position is evidenced by the tripling of our market share (measured by custodial assets), from 4% in December 2010 to 13% in December 2017, as noted by the 2017 Devenir HSA Research Report, which indicates we are the third largest HSA custodian by market share.
Complete solution for managing consumer healthcare saving and spending. Our members utilize our platform in a number of ways and in varying frequencies. For example, our members utilize our platform to evaluate and pay healthcare bills through the member portal, which allows members to pay their healthcare providers, receive reimbursements and learn of savings opportunities for prescription drugs. Members also utilize the platform’s mobile app to view and pay claims on-the-go, including uploading medical and insurance documentation to the platform with their mobile phone cameras. During the year ended January 31, 2018, our platform experienced 36.3 million logons and, on average, every month 22% of our members signed into our platform.
Proprietary and integrated technology platform. We have a proprietary cloud-based technology platform, developed and refined during more than a decade of operations, which we believe is highly differentiated in the marketplace for a number of key reasons:
Purpose-built technology:    Our platform was designed specifically to serve the needs of healthcare consumers, health plans and employers. We believe it provides greater functionality and flexibility than the technologies used by our competitors, many of which were originally developed for banking, benefits administration or retirement services. We believe we are one of few providers with a platform that encompasses all of the core functionality of healthcare saving and spending in a single secure and compliant system, including custodial administration of individual savings and investment accounts, card and electronic funds transaction processing, benefits enrollment and eligibility, electronic and paper medical claims processing, medical bill presentment, tax-advantaged reimbursement account and health incentive administration, HSA trust administration, online investment advice and sophisticated analytics.
Data integration:    Our technology platform allows us to integrate data from disparate sources, which enables us to seamlessly incorporate personal health information, clinical insight and individually tailored strategies into the consumer experience. We currently have more than 2,680 distinct integrations with health plans, pharmacy benefit managers, employers and other benefits provider systems. Many of our partners’ systems rely on custom data models, non-standard formats, complex business rules and security protocols that are difficult or expensive to change.
Configurability:    Our flexible technology platform enables us to create a unique solution for each of our Network Partners. For example, a HealthEquity team member can readily configure more than 250 product attributes, including integration with a partner’s chosen healthcare price transparency or wellness tools, single sign on, sales and broker support sites, branding, member communication, custom fulfillment and payment card, savings options and interest rates, fees and mutual fund investment choices. We currently have more than 1,500 unique partner configurations of our offerings in use.
Differentiated consumer experience. We have designed our solutions and support services to deliver a differentiated consumer experience, which is a function of our culture and technology. We believe this provides a significant competitive advantage relative to legacy competitors whom we believe prioritize transaction processing and benefits administration.
Culture:    We call our culture “DEEP Purple,” which we define as driving excellence, ethics, and process while providing remarkable service. Our DEEP Purple culture is a significant factor in our ability to attract and retain customers and to address nimbly opportunities in the rapidly changing healthcare sector.
Technology:    Our technology helps us to deliver on our commitment to DEEP Purple. We tailor the content of our platform and the guidance of our experts to be timely, personal and relevant to each member. For example, our technology generates health savings strategies that are delivered to our members when they interact with our platform or call us. We employ individuals, which we refer to as Member Education Specialists, who provide real-time assistance to our members via telephone.

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We believe our DEEP Purple culture drives our success. Our commitment to DEEP Purple has been rewarded with consumer loyalty scores that far exceed those of most banks and traditional health insurers.
Large and diversified channel access. We believe our differentiated distribution platform provides a competitive advantage by efficiently enabling us to reach a growing consumer market. Our platform is built on a business-to-business-to-consumer, or B2B2C, channel strategy, whereby we rely on our Network Partners to reach consumers instead of marketing our services to these potential members directly. Reaching the consumer is critical in order for us to increase the number of our HSA Members.
We work directly with our Network Partners to reach the consumer in various ways. Our Health Plan and Administrator Partners collectively employ thousands of sales representatives and account managers who promote both the Health Plan and Administrators Partner’s health insurance products, such as HDHPs, and our HSAs. Our Employer Partners collectively employ thousands of human resources professionals who are tasked with explaining the benefits of our HSAs to their employees. Our sales and account management teams work with and train the sales representatives and account management teams and the human resource professionals of our Network Partners on the benefits of enrolling in, contributing to, and saving and spending through our HSAs, and our Network Partners then convey these benefits to prospective members. As a result of this collaboration, we develop relationships with each member who enrolls in an HSA with us. This constitutes our B2B2C channel strategy.
Scalable operating model. We believe that our technology is scalable because our products and services are accessed primarily through our technology platform, which is cloud based. After initial on-boarding and a period of education, our service costs for any given customer typically decline over time. Our opportunity to earn high-margin revenue from existing HSA Members grows over time because our HSA Members’ balances typically grow, increasing custodial revenue without significant incremental cost to us.
Strong customer retention rates. Retention of our HSA Members has been consistent over time. Retention rates for the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 were 97.6%, 95.5% and 97.4%, respectively. Individually owned trust accounts, including HSAs, have inherently high switching costs, as switching requires a certain amount of effort on the part of the account holder and may result in closure fees. We believe that our retention rates are also high due to our technology platform’s integration with the broader healthcare system used by our HSA members and our focus on the consumer experience.
Selectively pursue strategic acquisitions. We have a successful history of acquiring HSA portfolios and businesses that strengthen our platform. We expect to continue this growth strategy and regularly evaluate opportunities. During the year ended January 31, 2018, we acquired two HSA portfolios. We have developed an internal capability to source, evaluate and integrate acquisitions that have created value for shareholders. We believe the nature of our competitive landscape provides significant acquisition opportunities. Many of our competitors view their HSA businesses as non-core functions. We believe they may look to divest these assets and, in certain cases, be limited from making acquisitions due to depository capital requirements.
Government regulation
Our business is subject to extensive, complex and rapidly changing federal and state laws and regulations.
IRS regulations
We are subject to applicable IRS regulations, which lay the foundation for tax savings and eligible expenses under the HSAs, HRAs and FSAs we administer. The IRS issues guidance regarding these regulations regularly. In addition, we are subject to conflict of interest and other prohibited transaction rules that are enforced through excise taxes under the Internal Revenue Code. Although the excise taxes are enforced by the IRS, the underlying rules are promulgated by the Department of Labor.
In February 2006, HealthEquity, Inc. received designation by the U.S. Department of Treasury to act as a passive non-bank custodian, which allows HealthEquity, Inc. to hold custodial assets for individual account holders.  In July 2017, HealthEquity, Inc. received designation by the U.S. Department of Treasury to act as both a passive and non-passive non-bank custodian, which allows HealthEquity, Inc. to hold custodial assets for individual account holders and use discretion to direct investment of such assets held. As a passive and non-passive non-bank custodian, the Company must maintain net worth (assets minus liabilities) greater than 2% of passive custodial funds held at each calendar year-end and 4% of the non-passive custodial funds held at each calendar year-end in order to take on additional custodial assets. As of December 31, 2017, the Company's year-end for trust and tax purposes, the net worth of the Company exceeded the required thresholds.

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Privacy and data security regulations
In the provision of HSA custodial services and directed TPA services for RAs, we are subject to the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 (Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act or GLBA), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act), and similar state laws.
GLBA imposes financial privacy and security requirements on financial institutions that relate to the collection, storage, use, and disclosure of an account holder’s nonpublic personal information. Nonpublic personal information includes information that is collected or generated in the course of offering a financial product or service. For example, nonpublic personal information includes information submitted by a prospective account holder in an application, an account holder’s name and contact information, and transaction information. Because part of our business is the administration of financial products such as HSAs, we are required under the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s financial privacy rule under GLBA to send a notice of privacy practices to account holders and to comply with restrictions on the disclosure of nonpublic personal information to non-affiliated third parties. We are also required under GLBA to establish reasonable administrative, technical, and physical safeguards to protect the security, confidentiality, and integrity of nonpublic personal information pursuant to the Federal Trade Commission’s safeguards rule. Violations of GLBA can result in civil and criminal penalties.
HIPAA covered entities and their business associates are required to adhere to HIPAA privacy and security standards. Covered entities include most healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses. Because we perform services (such as RA services) for covered entities that include processing protected health information, we are a business associate and subject to HIPAA. The two rules that most significantly affect our business are: (i) the Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information, or the Privacy Rule; and (ii) the Security Standards for the Protection of Electronic Protected Health Information, or the Security Rule. The Privacy Rule restricts the use and disclosure of protected health information, and requires us to safeguard that information and provide certain rights to individuals with respect to that information. The Security Rule establishes requirements for safeguarding protected health information transmitted or stored electronically. Both civil and criminal penalties apply for violating HIPAA, which may be enforced by both the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office for Civil Rights and state attorneys general. Violations of HIPAA may also subject us to contractual remedies under the terms of agreements with covered entities.
States also have laws and regulations that impose additional restrictions on our collection, storage, and use of personally identifiable information, and we strive to adhere to all such applicable laws.
ERISA
Our private-sector clients’ FSAs, HRAs, and 401(k) and other account-based retirement plans are covered by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, or ERISA, which governs “employee benefits plans.” Title I of ERISA does not generally apply to HSAs. ERISA generally imposes extensive reporting requirements on employers, as well as an obligation to provide various disclosures to covered employees and beneficiaries; and employers and third-party administrators that have authority or discretion over management, administration, or investment of plan assets are subject to fiduciary responsibility under ERISA. ERISA's requirements affect our RA and 401(k) businesses, including HealthEquity Retirement Services, LLC. The Department of Labor can bring enforcement actions or assess penalties against employers, investment advisers, administrators, and other service providers for failing to comply with ERISA’s requirements. Participants and beneficiaries may also file lawsuits against employers, investment advisers, administrators, and other service providers under ERISA.
Department of Labor
The Department of Labor, or the DOL, regulates plans that are subject to ERISA, including health FSAs, HRAs, and 401(k) and other retirement plans. The DOL also issues guidance related to fiduciary responsibility and prohibited transactions under ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code that affect administration of HSAs (as well as health FSAs, HRAs, and retirement plans).
The DOL issues regulations, technical releases and other guidance that apply to employee benefit plans and tax-favored savings arrangements (including HSAs) generally. In addition, in response to a request by an individual or an organization, the DOL’s Employee Benefits Security Administration may issue an advisory opinion that interprets and applies ERISA and/or corresponding prohibited transaction rules under the Internal Revenue Code to a specific situation, including issues related to consumer-centric healthcare accounts and retirement plans.
In April 2016, the DOL issued a new regulation that expanded the types of conduct and communication that are treated as fiduciary investment advice, resulting in increased responsibility for service providers to retirement

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accounts and HSAs.  The rule became effective in June 2017, subject to a transition period and delayed applicability of certain elements of the rule until July 1, 2019. The DOL is currently studying the regulation’s impacts and considering whether to make changes. We have updated certain procedures to comply with the rule. However, in March 2018, the rule was vacated by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, and accordingly its future is uncertain.
Healthcare reform
In March 2010, the federal government enacted significant reforms to healthcare benefits through the Affordable Care Act. The legislation amended various provisions in many federal laws, including the Internal Revenue Code and ERISA. The reforms included new excise taxes that incentivize employers to provide health benefits (including HSA-compatible benefits) to all full-time employees and new coverage mandates for health plans. The new rules directly affect health FSAs and HRAs and have an indirect effect on HSAs. Further changes to the Affordable Care Act and related healthcare regulation remain under consideration.
Investment Advisers Act of 1940
Our subsidiary HealthEquity Advisors, LLC is an SEC-registered investment adviser that provides web-only automated investment advisory services to members. As an SEC-registered adviser, it must comply with the requirements of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, or the Advisers Act, and related Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, regulations and is subject to periodic inspections by the SEC staff. Such requirements relate to, among other things, fiduciary duties to clients, disclosure obligations, recordkeeping and reporting requirements, marketing restrictions limitations on agency cross and principal transactions between the adviser and its clients, and general anti-fraud prohibitions. The SEC is authorized to institute proceedings and impose sanctions for violations of the Advisers Act, ranging from fines and censure to termination of an investment adviser’s registration. Investment advisers also are subject to certain state securities laws and regulations. Failure to comply with the Advisers Act or other federal and state securities and regulations could result in investigations, sanctions, profit disgorgement, fines or other similar consequences.
Intellectual property
Intellectual property is important to our success. We have registered our trademark “HealthEquity” with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and maintain trademark rights to the mark “Building Health Savings.”
We also rely on other forms of intellectual property rights and measures, including trade secrets, know-how and other unpatented proprietary processes, and nondisclosure agreements, to maintain and protect proprietary aspects of our products and technologies. We require our team members and consultants to execute confidentiality agreements in connection with their employment or consulting relationships with us. We also require our team members and consultants to disclose and assign to us all inventions conceived during the term of their employment or engagement while using our property or which relate to our business.
Geographic areas
Our sole geographic market is the U.S.
Employees
We refer to our employees as our team members. As of January 31, 2018, we had 1,027 team members, including 717 in service delivery, 143 in technology and development and 167 in sales, general and administrative. We consider our relationship with our team members to be good. None of our team members are represented by a labor union or party to a collective bargaining agreement.
Corporate information
HealthEquity, Inc. was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on September 18, 2002. Our principal business office is located at 15 W. Scenic Pointe Dr., Ste. 100, Draper, Utah 84020. Our website address is www.healthequity.com. We do not incorporate the information contained on, or accessible through, our corporate website into this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and you should not consider it to be part of this report.
Where you can find additional information
Our website is located at www.healthequity.com, and our investor relations website is located at ir.healthequity.com. Copies of our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, are available, free of charge, on our investor relations website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material electronically with or furnish it to the SEC. The SEC also

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maintains a website that contains our SEC filings. The address of the site is www.sec.gov. Further, a copy of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is located at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.

Item 1A. Risk factors
You should carefully consider the risks described below together with the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which could materially affect our business, financial condition and future results. The risks described below are not the only risks facing our company. Risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. If any of the following risks are realized, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our common stock could decline.
Risks relating to our business and industry
The healthcare industry is rapidly evolving and the market for technology-enabled services that empower healthcare consumers is relatively immature and unproven. If we are not successful in promoting and improving the benefits of our platform, our growth may be limited and our business may be adversely affected.
The market for our products and services is subject to rapid and significant change and competition. The market for technology-enabled services that empower healthcare consumers is characterized by rapid technological change, new product and service introductions, evolving industry standards, changing customer needs, existing competition and the entrance of non-traditional competitors. In addition, there may be a limited-time opportunity to achieve and maintain a significant share of this market due in part to the rapidly evolving nature of the healthcare and technology industries and the substantial resources available to our existing and potential competitors. The market for technology-enabled services that empower healthcare consumers is relatively new and unproven, and it is uncertain whether this market will achieve and sustain high levels of demand and market adoption. In order to remain competitive, we are continually involved in a number of projects to develop new services or compete with these new market entrants. These projects carry risks, such as cost overruns, delays in delivery, performance problems and lack of acceptance by our customers.
Our success depends to a substantial extent on the willingness of consumers to increase their use of technology platforms to manage their healthcare saving and spending, the ability of our platform to increase consumer engagement, and our ability to demonstrate the value of our platform to our existing customers and potential customers. If our existing customers do not recognize or acknowledge the benefits of our platform or our platform does not drive consumer engagement, then the market for our products and services might develop more slowly than we expect, which could adversely affect our operating results. In addition, we have limited insight into trends that might develop and affect our business. We might make errors in predicting and reacting to relevant business, legal and regulatory trends, which could harm our business. If any of these events occur, it could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Finally, our competitors may have the ability to devote more financial and operational resources than we can to developing new technologies and services, including services that provide improved operating functionality, and adding features to their existing service offerings. If successful, their development efforts could render our services less desirable, resulting in the loss of our existing customers or a reduction in the fees we earn from our products and services.
Our business is dependent upon the availability of tax-advantaged health accounts to consumers and employers. Any diminution in, elimination of, or change in the availability or use of these accounts would materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
Substantially all of our revenue is earned from transactions involving tax-advantaged health accounts, such as HSAs, HRAs and FSAs. Based on our experience with our customers, we believe that many consumers are not familiar with, or do not fully appreciate, the tax-advantaged benefits of HSAs and other similar tax-advantaged healthcare savings arrangements. If employers reduce or cease to offer HSA, HRA or FSA programs, the tax benefits for these accounts are reduced, or consumer adoption of these accounts decreases, our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects would be materially adversely affected.

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We may be unable to compete effectively against our current and future competitors, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.
The market for our products and services is highly competitive, rapidly evolving and fragmented. We view our competition in terms of direct and indirect competitors. Our direct competitors are HSA custodians that include state or federally chartered banks, such as Webster Bank and Optum Bank, and non-bank custodians approved by the U.S. Treasury as meeting certain ownership, capitalization, expertise and governance requirements, such as Payflex Systems USA, Inc. This market is highly fragmented. We also have numerous indirect competitors, including benefits administration technology and service providers that work with other HSA custodians to sell into health plans and/or employer channels. Increased focus on HSA-favorable healthcare regulatory reforms may create renewed interest and investment by our competitors in their HSA offerings and lead to greater competition, which could make it harder for us to maintain our growth trajectory. Our competitors may also offer reduced fee or no-fee HSAs, which may permit them to increase market share in our market and lead to customer and Network Partner attrition, or cause us to reduce our fees; and this risk could be compounded if legal requirements or administrative rules are interpreted in a way that makes compliance more onerous for us than for our competitors. Furthermore, if one or more of our competitors were to merge or partner with another of our competitors, the change in the competitive landscape could materially adversely affect our ability to compete effectively. Our competitors may also establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with our current or future Network Partners or other strategic partners, thereby limiting our ability to promote our solution with these parties. Our Health Plan and Administrator Partners may also decide to offer HSAs directly, which would significantly reduce our channel partner opportunities.
Many of our competitors, in particular banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions, have longer operating histories and significantly greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we have. As a result, some of these competitors may be in a position to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their products and services and have offered, or may in the future offer, a wider range of products and services that may be more attractive to potential customers, and they may also use advertising and marketing strategies that (including loss-leaders) achieve broader brand recognition or acceptance.
In addition, well-known retail mutual fund companies, such as Vanguard, who currently do not have a strong presence or have somewhat limited products in the market for technology-enabled services that empower healthcare consumers may in the future decide to expand their products or attempt to grow their presence in the market. These investment companies have significant advantages over us in terms of brand name recognition, years of experience managing tax-advantaged retirement accounts (e.g., 401(k) and IRA), highly developed recordkeeping, trust functions, and fund advisory and customer relations management, among others. If we are unable to compete effectively with new competitors, our results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
Developments in the rapidly changing healthcare industry could adversely affect our business.
Substantially all of our revenue is derived from healthcare-related saving and spending by consumers, which could be affected by changes affecting the broader healthcare industry, including decreased spending in the industry overall. General reductions in expenditures by healthcare industry participants could result from, among other things:
government regulation or private initiatives that affect the manner in which healthcare industry participants interact with consumers and the general public;
consolidation of healthcare industry participants;
reductions in governmental funding for healthcare; and
adverse changes in general business or economic conditions affecting healthcare industry participants.
Even if general expenditures by industry participants remain the same or increase, developments in the healthcare industry may result in reduced spending in some or all of the specific market segments that we serve now or in the future. The healthcare industry has changed significantly in recent years, and we expect that significant changes will continue to occur. However, the timing and impact of developments in the healthcare industry are difficult to predict. We cannot assure you that the demand for our products and services will continue to exist at current levels or that we will have adequate technical, financial and marketing resources to react to changes in the healthcare industry.

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If our members do not continue to utilize our payment cards, our results of operations, business and prospects would be materially adversely affected.
We derived 22%, 23% and 22% of our total revenue during the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, from fees that are paid to us when our customers utilize our payment cards. These fees represent a percentage of the expenses transacted on each card. If our customers do not use these payment cards at the rate we expect, if they elect to withdraw funds using a non-revenue generating mechanism such as direct reimbursement, or if other alternatives to these payment cards develop, our results of operations, business and prospects would be materially adversely affected.
Data security, technological and intellectual property risks
If our security measures are breached or unauthorized access to data is otherwise obtained, our platform may be perceived as not being secure, our customers may reduce the use of, or stop using, our products and services, we may incur significant liabilities, our reputation may be harmed and we could lose sales and customers.
Our proprietary technology platform enables the exchange of, and access to, sensitive information, and security breaches could result in the loss of this sensitive information, theft or loss of actual funds, litigation, indemnity obligations to our customers, fines and other liabilities, including under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, disrupt our operations and the services we provide to our members and Network Partners, damage our reputation and cause a loss of confidence in our products and services. While we have security measures in place, we have experienced limited data privacy incidents in the past. If in the future our security measures are breached or unauthorized access to data is otherwise obtained as a result of third-party action, employee error or otherwise, our reputation could be significantly damaged, our business may suffer and we could incur substantial liability which could result in loss of sales and customers. If third parties improperly obtain and use the personal information of our customers, we may be required to expend significant resources to resolve these problems. A major breach of our network security and systems could have serious negative consequences for our businesses, including:
possible fines, penalties and damages;
reduced demand for our services;
an unwillingness of consumers and other data owners to provide us with their payment information;
an unwillingness of customers and other data owners to provide us with personal information; and
harm to our reputation and brand.
Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to or sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Any or all of these issues could negatively impact our ability to attract new customers and increase engagement by existing customers, and/or subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines, contractual liability and/or other action or liability, thereby harming our operating results.
We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant costs to protect against security breaches. We may incur significant additional costs in the future to address problems caused by any actual or perceived security breaches. Cybersecurity breaches could compromise our data and the data of our customers and partners, which may expose us to liability and would likely cause our business and reputation to suffer.
Our ability to ensure the security of our online platform and thus sensitive customer and partner information is critical to our operations. We rely on standard Internet and other security systems to provide the security and authentication necessary to effect secure transmission of data. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to cybersecurity threats, including attacks by hackers and other malfeasance. Any such security breach could compromise our networks and result in the information stored or transmitted there to be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings leading to liability, including under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, disrupt our operations and the services we provide to our clients, damage our reputation and cause a loss of confidence in our products and services, which could adversely affect our business, operations and competitive position.

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Fraudulent and other illegal activity involving our products and services, including our payment cards, could lead to reputational damage to us and reduce the use and acceptance of our platform.
Criminals are using increasingly sophisticated methods to capture personal information in order to engage in illegal activities such as counterfeiting and identity theft. We rely upon third parties for some transaction processing services, data feeds, and vendors, which subjects us to risks related to the vulnerabilities of those third parties. For example, we are exposed to risks relating to the theft of payment card numbers housed in a merchant's point of sale systems if our members use our payment cards at a merchant whose systems are compromised. We may make our customers whole for losses sustained when using our payment cards, even in instances where we are not directly responsible for the underlying cause of such loss. A single significant incident of fraud, or increases in the overall level of fraud, involving our payment cards, our custodial accounts or our reimbursement administration services, could result in financial and reputational damage to us, which could reduce the use and acceptance of our products and services, or cause our customers to cease doing business with us.
We rely on software licensed from third parties that may be difficult to replace or that could cause errors or failures of our online platform that could lead to lost customers or harm to our reputation.
We rely on certain cloud-based software licensed from third parties to run our business. This software may not continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms and any loss of the right to use any of this software could result in delays in the provisioning of our products and services until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained and integrated, which could harm our business. In addition, we have certain service level agreements with certain of our employer clients for which the availability of this software is critical. Any decrease in the availability of our service as a result of errors, defects, a disruption or failure of our licensed software may require us to provide significant fee credits or refunds to our customers. Our software licensed from third parties is also subject to change or upgrade, which may result in our incurring significant costs to implement such changes or upgrades.
Developing and implementing new and updated applications, features and services for our technology platform may be more difficult than expected, may take longer and cost more than expected, or may result in the platform not operating as expected, which may harm our operating results or may not result in sufficient increases in revenue to justify the costs.
Attracting and retaining new customers requires us to continue to improve the technology underlying our proprietary technology platform and requires our technology to operate as expected. Accordingly, we must continue to develop new and updated applications, features and services, and maintain existing applications, features and services. If we are unable to do so on a timely basis or if we are unable to implement new applications, features and services that enhance our customers’ experience without disruption to our existing ones or if we encounter technical obstacles that result in the technology not operating properly, we may lose potential and existing customers. We rely on a combination of internal development, strategic relationships, licensing and acquisitions to develop our content offerings and healthcare saving and spending services. These efforts may:
cost more than expected;
take longer than originally expected;
require more testing than originally anticipated;
require significant cost to address or resolve technical defects or obstacles;
require additional advertising and marketing costs; and
require the acquisition of additional personnel and other resources.
The revenue opportunities earned from these efforts may fail to justify the amounts spent. In addition, material performance problems, defects or errors in our existing or new software may occur in the future, which may harm our operating results.
Our online platform is hosted from two data centers. Any disruption of service at our facilities or our third-party hosting providers could interrupt or delay our customers’ access to our products and services, which could harm our operating results.
The ability of our team members, members, Health Plan and Administrator Partners and Employer Partners to access our technology platform is critical to our business. We currently serve our customers from data centers located in Draper, Utah, with a backup site in Austin, Texas. We cannot ensure that the measures we have taken will be effective to prevent or minimize interruptions to our operations. Our facilities are vulnerable to interruption or

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damage from a number of sources, many of which are beyond our control, including, without limitation:
extended power loss;
telecommunications failures from multiple telecommunications providers;
natural disaster or an act of terrorism;
software and hardware errors, or failures in our own systems or in other systems;
network environment disruptions such as computer viruses, hacking and similar problems in our own systems and in other systems;
theft and vandalism of equipment; and
actions or events caused by or related to third parties.
We attempt to mitigate these risks through various business continuity efforts, including redundant infrastructure, 24/7/365 system activity monitoring, backup and recovery procedures, use of a secure storage facility for backup media, separate test systems and change management and system security measures, but our precautions may not protect against all potential problems. Our data recovery center is equipped with physical space, power, storage and networking infrastructure and Internet connectivity to support our online platform in the event of the interruption of services at our primary data center. Even with this data recovery center, however, our operations would be interrupted during the transition process should our primary data center experience a failure. Disruptions at our data centers could cause disruptions to our online platform and data loss or corruption. We have experienced interruptions and delays in service and availability for data centers, and bandwidth and other technology issues in the past. Any future errors, failure, interruptions or delays experienced in connection with these third-party technologies could delay our customers’ access to our products, which would harm our business. This could damage our reputation, subject us to potential liability or costs related to defending against claims or cause our customers and strategic partners to cease doing business with us, any of which could negatively impact our revenue.
Interruption or failure of our information technology and communications systems could impair our ability to effectively deliver our products and services, which could cause us to lose customers and harm our operating results.
Our business depends on the continuing operation of our technology infrastructure and systems. Any damage to or failure of our systems could result in interruptions in our ability to deliver our products and services. Interruptions in our service could reduce our revenue and profits, and our reputation could be damaged if people believe our systems are unreliable. Our systems and operations are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, terrorist attacks, floods, fires, power loss, break-ins, hardware or software failures, telecommunications failures, computer viruses or other attempts to harm our systems and similar events.
Any unscheduled interruption in our service would result in an immediate loss of revenue. Frequent or persistent system failures that result in the unavailability of our platform or slower response times could reduce our customers’ ability to access our platform, impair our delivery of our products and services and harm the perception of our platform as reliable, trustworthy and consistent. Our insurance policies provide only limited coverage for service interruptions and may not adequately compensate us for any losses that may occur due to any failures or interruptions in our systems.
We must adequately protect our brand and the intellectual property rights related to our products and services and avoid infringing on the proprietary rights of others.
We believe that the HealthEquity brand is critical to the success of our business, and we utilize trademark registration and other means to protect it. Our business would be harmed if we were unable to protect our brand against infringement and its value was to decrease as a result.
We rely on a combination of trademark and copyright laws, trade secret protection and confidentiality and license agreements to protect the intellectual property rights related to our products and services such as our applications and the content on our website. We also rely on intellectual property licensed from third parties. We may unknowingly violate the intellectual property or other proprietary rights of others and, thus, may be subject to claims by third parties. If so, we may be required to devote significant time and resources to defending against these claims or to protecting and enforcing our own rights. As a result of any such dispute, we may have to:
develop non-infringing technology;

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pay damages;
enter into royalty or licensing agreements;
cease providing certain products or services; or
take other actions to resolve the claims.
Additionally, we have largely relied, and expect to continue to rely, on copyright, trade secret and trademark laws, as well as generally relying on confidentiality procedures and agreements with our team members, consultants, customers and vendors, to control access to, and distribution of, technology, software, documentation and other confidential information. Despite these precautions, it may be possible for a third party to copy or otherwise obtain, use or distribute our technology without authorization, particularly in foreign jurisdictions where some of our intellectual property rights may not be protected by intellectual property laws. If this were to occur, we could lose revenue as a result of competition from products infringing or misappropriating our technology and intellectual property and we may be required to initiate litigation to protect our proprietary rights and market position. U.S. copyright, trademark and trade secret laws offer us only limited protection and the laws of some foreign countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent. Accordingly, defense of our trademarks and proprietary technology may become an increasingly important issue as we continue to expand our operations.
Policing unauthorized use of our trademarks and technology is difficult and the steps we take may not prevent misappropriation of the trademarks or technology on which we rely. If competitors are able to use our trademarks or technology without recourse, our ability to compete would be harmed and our business would be materially and adversely affected. We may elect to initiate litigation in the future to enforce or protect our proprietary rights or to determine the validity and scope of the rights of others.
The loss of our intellectual property or the inability to secure or enforce our intellectual property rights or to defend successfully against an infringement action could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
If we fail to develop further brand awareness cost-effectively, our business may suffer.
We believe that developing and maintaining awareness of our brand in a cost-effective manner is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our products and services and attracting new customers and strategic partners. Brand promotion activities may not generate customer awareness or increase revenue, and even if they do, any increase in revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or incur substantial expenses, we may fail to attract or retain a sufficient number of customers and strategic partners necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts, or to achieve the widespread brand awareness that is critical for broad customer adoption of our products and services.
Confidentiality arrangements with team members and others may not adequately prevent disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information.
We have devoted substantial resources to the development of our technology, business operations and business plans. In order to protect our trade secrets and proprietary information, we rely in significant part on confidentiality arrangements with our team members, independent contractors, advisers and customers. These arrangements may not be effective to prevent disclosure of confidential information, including trade secrets, and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. In addition, others may independently discover trade secrets and proprietary information, and in such cases we would not be able to assert trade secret rights against such parties. The loss of trade secret protection could make it easier for third parties to compete with our products and services by copying functionality. In addition, any changes in, or unexpected interpretations of, the trade secret and other intellectual property laws may compromise our ability to enforce our trade secret and intellectual property rights. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.
If we cannot protect our domain name, our ability to successfully promote our brand will be impaired.
We currently own the web domain name www.healthequity.com, which is critical to the operation of our business. The acquisition and maintenance of domain names, or Internet addresses, is generally regulated by governmental agencies and their designees. The regulation of domain names in the U.S. is subject to change. Governing bodies may establish additional top-level domains, appoint additional domain name registrars or modify the requirements for holding domain names. Furthermore, it is unclear whether laws protecting trademarks and similar proprietary rights will be extended to protect domain names. Therefore, we may be unable to prevent third parties from

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acquiring domain names that are similar to, infringe upon or otherwise decrease the value of our trademarks and other proprietary rights. We may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy of establishing a strong brand for HealthEquity if we cannot prevent others from using similar domain names or trademarks. This failure could impair our ability to increase our market share and revenue.
Legal and regulatory risks
The healthcare regulatory and political framework is uncertain and evolving, and we cannot predict the effect that further healthcare reform and other changes in government programs may have on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Healthcare laws and regulations are rapidly evolving and may change significantly in the future, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. For example, the Affordable Care Act, which includes a variety of healthcare reform provisions and requirements that may become effective at varying times through 2022, substantially changes the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and may significantly impact our industry. Further changes to the Afforable Care Act and related healthcare regulation remain under consideration. The full impact of recent healthcare reform and other changes in the healthcare industry and in healthcare spending is unknown, and we are unable to predict accurately what effect the Affordable Care Act or other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future will have on our business.
Changes in applicable federal and state laws relating to the tax benefits available through tax-advantaged healthcare accounts such as HSAs would materially adversely affect our business.
The efforts of governmental and third-party payers to raise revenue or contain or reduce the costs of healthcare as well as legislative and regulatory proposals aimed at changing the U.S. healthcare system, which could include restructuring the tax benefits available through HSAs, FSAs, and similar tax-advantaged healthcare accounts, may adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition. For example, the federal government or states may seek to raise revenues by enacting tax laws that eliminate the tax deductions available to individuals who contribute to HSAs. Our business is substantially dependent on the tax benefits available through HSAs. We cannot predict if any new healthcare reforms will ultimately become law, or if enacted, what their terms or the regulations promulgated pursuant to such reforms will be. If the laws or regulations are changed to limit or eliminate the tax benefits available through these accounts, such a change would have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are subject to privacy regulations regarding the access, use and disclosure of personally identifiable information.  If we or any of our third-party vendors experience a breach of personally identifiable information, it could result in substantial financial and reputational harm, including possible criminal and civil penalties.
State and federal laws and regulations govern the collection, dissemination, access and use of personally identifiable information, including HIPAA and HITECH, which govern the treatment of protected health information, and the Gramm-Leach Bliley Act, which governs the treatment of nonpublic personal information.  In the provision of services to our customers, we and our third-party vendors may collect, access, use, maintain and transmit personally identifiable information in ways that are subject to many of these laws and regulations.  If we or any of our third-party vendors experience a breach of personally identifiable information, it could result in substantial financial and reputational harm, including possible criminal and civil penalties.  Additionally, we may be required to report breaches to partners, regulators, state attorney generals, and impacted individuals depending on the severity of the breach, our role, legal requirements and contractual obligations.  Although we have implemented measures to comply with privacy laws, rules and regulations, we have experienced limited data privacy issues in recent years. Continued compliance with privacy laws, rules and regulations in a rapidly changing technology environment could result in higher compliance and technology costs for us.
Changes in laws and regulations relating to interchange fees on payment card transactions would adversely affect our revenue and results of operations.
Existing laws and regulations limit the fees or interchange rates that can be charged on payment card transactions. For example, the Federal Reserve Board has the power to regulate payment card interchange fees and has issued a rule setting a cap on the interchange fee an issuer can receive from a single payment card transaction. Our HSA-linked payment cards are exempt from this rule (although we are subject to a general requirement of reasonable compensation for services rendered). To the extent that our payment cards lose their exempt status, the interchange rates applicable to transactions involving our payment cards could be impacted, which would decrease our revenue and profit and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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Our investment advisory, custodial, and retirement services are subject to complex regulation, and any compliance failures or regulatory action could adversely affect our business.
Our subsidiary HealthEquity Advisors, LLC is an SEC-registered investment adviser that provides automated web-only investment advisory services. As such, it must comply with the requirements of the Advisers Act and related SEC regulations and is subject to periodic inspections by the SEC staff. Such requirements relate to, among other things, fiduciary duties to clients, disclosure obligations, recordkeeping and reporting requirements, marketing restrictions, limitations on agency cross and principal transactions between the adviser and its clients, and general anti-fraud prohibitions. The SEC is authorized to institute proceedings and impose sanctions for violations of the Advisers Act, ranging from fines and censure to termination of an investment adviser’s registration. Investment advisers also are subject to certain state securities laws and regulations.
Our subsidiary HealthEquity Trust Company is a non-depository trust company and subject to regulation and supervision by the Wyoming Division of Banking. Compliance with regulatory requirements may divert internal resources and take significant time and effort. Any claim of non-compliance, regardless of merit or ultimate outcome, could subject us to investigation by the SEC, the Wyoming Division of Banking or other regulatory authorities. This in turn could result in additional claims or class action litigation brought on behalf of our members or Network Partners, any of which could result in substantial cost to us and divert management’s attention and other resources away from our operations. Furthermore, investor perceptions of us may suffer, and this could cause a decline in the market price of our common stock. Our compliance processes may not be sufficient to prevent assertions that we failed to comply with any applicable law, rule or regulation. In addition, all of our business are subject, to varying degrees, to fiduciary and other service provider obligations under ERISA, the Internal Revenue Code, and underlying regulations. A failure to comply could subject us to disgorgement of profits, excise taxes, civil penalties, private lawsuits, and other costs, including reputational harm.
If we are unable to meet or exceed the net worth test required by the IRS, we could be unable to maintain our non-bank custodian status, which would have a material adverse impact on our ability to operate our business.
As a non-bank custodian, we are required to comply with Treasury Regulations Section 1.408-2(e), or the Treasury Regulations, including the net worth requirements set forth therein. If we should fail to comply with the Treasury Regulations’ non-bank custodian requirements, including the net worth requirements, such failure would materially and adversely affect our ability to maintain our current custodial accounts and grow by adding additional custodial accounts, and it could result in the institution of procedures for the revocation of our authorization to operate as a non-bank custodian.
Risks relating to our partners and service providers
Our distribution model relies on the cooperation of our Network Partners. If our Network Partners choose to partner with other providers of technology-enabled services that empower healthcare consumers, including HSA services, our business could be materially and adversely affected.
Our business depends on our Network Partners’ willingness to partner with us to offer their customers and/or employees our products and services. In particular, certain of our Health Plan and Administrator Partners enjoy significant market share in various geographic regions. If these Health Plan and Administrator Partners choose to partner with our competitors, our results of operations, business and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
We rely on a single bank identification number sponsor for our payment cards, and a change in relationship with this sponsor or its failure to comply with certain banking regulations could materially and adversely affect our business.
We rely on a single bank identification number, or BIN, sponsor in relation to the payment cards we issue. A BIN sponsor is a bank or credit union that provides the BIN that allows a prepaid card program to run on one of the major card brand networks (e.g., VISA, MasterCard, Discover or American Express). Our BIN sponsor enables us to link the payment cards that we offer our members to the VISA network, thereby allowing our members to use our payment cards to pay for healthcare-related expenses with a “swipe” of the card. If any material adverse event were to affect our BIN sponsor, including a significant decline in its financial condition, a decline in the quality of its service, its inability to comply with applicable banking and financial service regulatory requirements, systems failure or its inability to pay us fees, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected because we may be forced to reduce the availability of, or eliminate entirely, our payment card offering. In addition, we do not have a long-term contract with our BIN sponsor, and it may increase the fees it

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charges us or terminate its relationship with us. If we were required to change BIN sponsors, we could not accurately predict the success of such change or that the terms of our agreement with a new BIN sponsor would be as favorable to us, especially in light of the recent increased regulatory scrutiny of the payment card industry, which has rendered the market for BIN sponsor services less competitive.
We rely on our FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners for certain custodial account services from which we earn fees. A business failure in any FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partner would materially and adversely affect our business.
As a non-bank custodian, we rely on our FDIC-insured custodial bank partners to hold and invest our custodial cash assets. If any material adverse event were to affect one of our FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners, including a significant decline in its financial condition, a decline in the quality of its service, loss of deposits, its inability to comply with applicable banking and financial services regulatory requirements, systems failure or its inability to pay us fees, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. If we were required to change custodial depository banking partners, we could not accurately predict the success of such change or that the terms of our agreement with a new banking partner would be as favorable to us as our current agreements, especially in light of the consolidation in the banking industry, which has rendered the market for FDIC-insured retail banking services less competitive.
We receive important services from third-party vendors. Replacing them would be difficult and disruptive to our business.
We have entered into contracts with third-party vendors to provide critical services relating to our business, including fraud management and other customer verification services, transaction processing and settlement, telephony services, and card production. In the event that these service providers fail to maintain adequate levels of support, do not provide high quality service, increase the fees they charge us, discontinue their lines of business, terminate our contractual arrangements or cease or reduce operations, we may suffer additional costs and be required to pursue new third-party relationships, which could materially disrupt our operations and our ability to provide our products and services, and could divert management’s time and resources. If we are unable to complete a transition to a new provider on a timely basis, or at all, we could be forced to temporarily or permanently discontinue certain services, which could disrupt services to our customers and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also be unable to establish comparable new third-party relationships on as favorable terms or at all, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Acquisition and growth-related risks
We have in the past completed acquisitions and may acquire or invest in other companies or technologies in the future, which could divert management’s attention, fail to meet our expectations, result in additional dilution to our stockholders, increase expenses, disrupt our operations and harm our operating results.
We have in the past acquired, and we may in the future acquire or invest in, assets, businesses, products or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our products and services, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. There is no assurance that we will realize the anticipated benefits of these or any future acquisitions. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses related to identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated.
There are inherent risks in integrating and managing acquisitions. If we acquire additional businesses, we may not be able to assimilate or integrate the acquired personnel, operations and technologies successfully or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition, and our management may be distracted from operating our business. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including, without limitation:
unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition;
incurrence of acquisition-related costs, which would be recognized as a current period expense;
inability to earn sufficient revenue to offset acquisition or investment costs;
the inability to maintain relationships with customers and partners of the acquired business;
the difficulty of incorporating acquired technology and rights into our platform and of maintaining quality and security standards consistent with our brand;

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the need to integrate or implement additional controls, procedures and policies;
harm to our existing business relationships with customers and strategic partners as a result of the acquisition;
the diversion of management’s time and resources from our core business;
the potential loss of key team members;
use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business and diversion of management and employee resources;
our ability to coordinate organizations that are geographically diverse and that have different business cultures;
our inability to comply with the regulatory requirements applicable to the acquired business;
the inability to recognize acquired revenue in accordance with our revenue recognition policies; and
use of substantial portions of our available cash or the incurrence of debt to consummate the acquisition.
Acquisitions also increase the risk of unforeseen legal liability, including for potential violations of applicable law or industry rules and regulations, arising from prior or ongoing acts or omissions by the acquired businesses which are not discovered by due diligence during the acquisition process. Generally, if an acquisition fails to meet our expectations, our operating results, business and financial condition may suffer. Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. Even if we are successful in completing and integrating an acquisition, the acquisition may not perform as we expect or enhance the value of our business as a whole.
We must be able to operate and scale our technology effectively to match our business growth.
Our ability to continue to provide our products and services to a growing number of customers, as well as to enhance our existing products and services, attract new customers and strategic partners, and offer new products and services, is dependent on our information technology systems. If we are unable to manage the technology associated with our business effectively, we could experience increased costs, reductions in system availability and customer loss. We are currently investing in significant upgrading of the capacity and performance of our proprietary technology platform and database design to ensure continued performance at scale, to reduce spending on maintenance activities and to enable us to execute technology innovation more quickly. If we are unsuccessful in implementing these upgrades to our platform, we may be unable to adequately meet the needs of our customers and/or implement technology-based innovation in response to a rapidly changing market, which could harm our reputation and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to manage future growth effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The continued rapid expansion and development of our business may place a significant strain upon our management and administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. As of January 31, 2018, we had approximately 3.4 million HSA Members and $6.8 billion in custodial assets representing growth of 24% and 35%, respectively, from January 31, 2017. For the year ended January 31, 2018, our total revenue and Adjusted EBITDA were approximately $229.5 million and $84.7 million, respectively, which represents year-over-year annual growth rates of approximately 29% and 35%, respectively. See “Key financial and operating metrics” for the definition of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of net income, the most comparable GAAP measure, to Adjusted EBITDA. While to date we believe we have effectively managed the effect on our operations resulting from the rapid growth of our business, our growth strategy contemplates further increasing the number of our HSA Members and our custodial assets at relatively higher growth rates than industry averages. However, the rate at which we have been able to attract new HSA Members in the past may not be indicative of the rate at which we will be able to attract additional HSA Members in the future.
Our success depends in part upon the ability of our executive officers to manage growth effectively. Our ability to grow also depends upon our ability to successfully hire, train, supervise, and manage new team members, obtain financing for our capital needs, expand our systems effectively, control increasing costs, allocate our human resources optimally, maintain clear lines of communication between our operational functions and our finance and accounting functions, and manage the pressures on our management and administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. There can be no assurance that we will be able to accurately anticipate and respond to the changing demands we will face as we continue to expand our operations or that we will be able to manage growth effectively

-18-


or to achieve further growth at all. If our business does not continue to grow or if we fail to effectively manage any future growth, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We plan to extend and expand our products and services and introduce new products and services, and we may not accurately estimate the impact of developing, introducing and updating these products and services on our business.
We intend to continue to invest in technology and development to create new and enhanced products and services to offer our customers and to enhance our platform’s compatibilities. We may not be able to anticipate or manage new risks and obligations or legal, compliance or other requirements that may arise in these areas. The anticipated benefits of such new and improved products and services may not outweigh the costs and resources associated with their development. Some new services may be received negatively by our existing and/or potential customers and strategic partners and have to be put on hold or canceled entirely.
Our ability to attract and retain new customer revenue from existing customers will depend in large part on our ability to enhance and improve our existing products and services and to introduce new products and services. The success of any enhancement or new product or service depends on several factors, including the timely completion, introduction and market acceptance of the enhancement or new product or service. Any new product or service we develop or acquire may not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner and may not achieve the broad market acceptance necessary to earn significant revenue. If we are unable to successfully develop or acquire new products or services or enhance our existing products or services to meet member or network partner requirements, our results of operations, financial condition, business or prospects may be materially adversely affected.
We have recorded a significant amount of intangible assets. We may need to record write-downs from future impairments of identified intangible assets and goodwill, which could adversely affect our costs and business operations.
Our consolidated balance sheet includes significant intangible assets, including approximately $4.7 million in goodwill and $83.6 million in intangible assets, together representing approximately 24% of our total assets as of January 31, 2018. The determination of related estimated useful lives and whether these assets are impaired involves significant judgments. We test our goodwill for impairment each fiscal year, but we also test goodwill and other intangible assets for impairment at any time when there is a change in circumstances that indicates that the carrying value of these assets may be impaired. Any future determination that these assets are carried at greater than their fair value could result in substantial non-cash impairment charges, which could significantly impact our reported operating results.
Risks relating to our service and culture
Any failure to offer high-quality customer support services could adversely affect our relationships with our customers and strategic partners and our operating results.
Our customers depend on our support and customer education organizations to educate them about, and resolve technical issues relating to, our products and services. We may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for education and support services. Increased customer demand for these services, without a corresponding increase in revenue, could increase costs and adversely affect our operating results. In addition, our sales process is highly dependent on the reputation of our products, services and business and on positive recommendations from our existing customers. Any failure to maintain high-quality education and technical support, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality education support, could adversely affect our reputation, our ability to sell our products and services to existing and prospective customers and our business and operating results. We promote 24/7/365 education and support along with our proprietary technology platform. Interruptions or delays that inhibit our ability to meet that standard may hurt our reputation or ability to attract and retain customers.
We rely on our management team and key team members and our business could be harmed if we are unable to retain qualified personnel.
Our success depends, in part, on the skills, working relationships and continued services of our founder and senior management team and other key personnel. While we have entered into offer letters or employment agreements with certain of our executive officers, all of our team members are “at-will” employees, and their employment can be terminated by us or them at any time, for any reason and without notice, subject, in certain cases, to severance payment rights. In order to retain valuable team members, in addition to salary and cash incentives, we provide stock options and other equity-based awards that vest over time or based on performance. The value to team members of these awards will be significantly affected by movements in our stock price that are beyond our control

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and may at any time be insufficient to counteract offers from other organizations. The departure of key personnel could adversely affect the conduct of our business. In such event, we would be required to hire other personnel to manage and operate our business, and there can be no assurance that we would be able to employ a suitable replacement for the departing individual, or that a replacement could be hired on terms that are favorable to us. Volatility or lack of performance in our stock price may affect our ability to attract replacements should key personnel depart.
Our success also depends on our ability to attract, retain, and motivate additional skilled management personnel. Although we have not historically experienced unique difficulties attracting qualified team members, we could experience such problems in the future. For example, competition for qualified personnel in our field is intense due to the limited number of individuals who possess the skills and experience required by our industry. In addition, we have experienced employee turnover and expect to continue to experience employee turnover in the future. New hires require significant training and, in most cases, take significant time before they achieve full productivity. New team members may not become as productive as we expect, and we may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals. If our retention efforts are not successful or our employee turnover rate increases in the future, our business will be harmed.
 
If we cannot maintain our corporate culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, teamwork, passion and focus on execution that we believe contribute to our success, and our business may be harmed.
We believe that a critical component to our success has been our corporate culture. We have invested substantial time and resources in building our team. As we continue to grow, we may find it difficult to maintain these important aspects of our corporate culture. Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel and to effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives.
Financing, tax and related risks
We may require significant capital to fund our business, and our inability to generate and obtain such capital could harm our business, operating results, financial condition, and prospects.
To fund our expanding business, we must have sufficient working capital to continue to make significant investments in our service offerings, advertising, technology, and other activities. As a result, in addition to the revenue we earn from our business, we may need additional equity or debt financing to provide the funds required for these endeavors. If such financing is not available on satisfactory terms or at all, we may be unable to operate or expand our business in the manner and at the rate desired. Debt financing increases expenses, may contain covenants that restrict the operation of our business and must be repaid regardless of operating results. Equity financing, or debt financing that is convertible into equity, could result in additional dilution to our existing stockholders, and any new securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those associated with our common stock. Furthermore, the current economic environment may make it difficult for us to raise additional capital or obtain additional credit, when needed, on acceptable terms or at all.
Our inability to generate or obtain the financial resources needed to fund our business and growth strategies may require us to delay, scale back or eliminate some or all of our operations or the expansion of our business, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.
A decline in interest rate levels may reduce our ability to earn income on our custodial cash assets and to attract HSA contributions, which would adversely affect our profitability.
As a non-bank custodian, we partner with FDIC-insured custodial depository banks to hold our custodial cash assets. We earn a significant portion of our consolidated revenue from fees we earn from our FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners. For example, during the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, we earned an increasing portion (approximately 38%, 33% and 30%, respectively) of our total revenue from custodial revenue. A decline in prevailing interest rates may negatively affect our business by reducing the yield we realize on our custodial cash assets. In addition, if we do not offer competitive interest rates, our members may choose another HSA custodian. Any such scenario could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

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Covenants in our debt agreements could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition.
Our revolving credit facility, or credit agreement, with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., provides for a secured revolving credit facility for a term of five years. Our credit agreement is required to be guaranteed by our material domestic subsidiaries, and it is secured by substantially all of our assets as well as substantially all assets of any subsidiary that becomes a guarantor. The credit agreement contains restrictive financial and other covenants which affect, among other things, the manner in which we may structure or operate our business. A failure by us to comply with our contractual obligations under the credit agreement, including restrictive, financial and other covenants, could result in a variety of material adverse consequences, including the acceleration of our indebtedness under the credit agreement and the exercise of remedies by our creditors thereunder. We cannot assure you that our assets or cash flow would be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under the credit agreement, either upon maturity or if accelerated upon an event of default, or that we would be able to refinance or restructure the payments becoming due on the credit agreement. Also, the lenders under the credit agreement could foreclose upon all or substantially all of the assets securing our obligations thereunder.
Our ability to secure insurance may not be sufficient to cover potential liabilities.
We maintain various forms of liability insurance coverage, including coverage for errors and omissions, fiduciary, cybersecurity, employment practices, directors and officers insurance. It is possible, however, that claims could exceed the amount of our applicable insurance coverage, if any, or that this coverage may not continue to be available on acceptable terms or in sufficient amounts. Even if these claims do not result in liability to us, investigating and defending against them could be expensive and time-consuming and could divert management’s attention away from our operations. In addition, negative publicity caused by these events may affect the current market acceptance of our products and services, any of which could materially adversely affect our reputation and our business.
We are subject to taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Legislative, regulatory and legal developments involving income taxes could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to U.S. federal, U.S. state income, payroll, property, sales and use, and other types of taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our provisions for income taxes. Changes in tax rates, enactments of new tax laws, revisions of tax regulations, and claims or litigation with taxing authorities could result in substantially higher taxes. As a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017, the reduction in the corporate income tax rate reduced the value of our existing deferred tax assets and consequently we recorded a provisional charge of $458,000 in the fiscal year ending January 31, 2018 related to this item. Other significant provisions of this tax reform are effective as of January 1, 2018, including, but not limited to: a limitation on the deductibility of net interest expense, changes in the deductibility of certain meals and entertainment business expenses, as well as moving expenses, transportation expenses, and other fringe benefits, and changes in the deductibility of certain employee remuneration in excess of $1 million. While we have applied these provisions in our accounting for income taxes using our interpretations and available guidance, the net impact of tax reform remains uncertain at this time and is subject to any other regulatory or administrative developments, including any regulations or other guidance promulgated by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service as well as state governments and may adversely affect our earnings.
If one or more jurisdictions successfully assert that we should have collected or in the future should collect additional sales and use taxes on our fees, we could be subject to additional liability with respect to past or future sales and the results of our operations could be adversely affected.
We do not collect sales and use taxes in all jurisdictions in which our customers are located, based on our belief that such taxes are not applicable. Sales and use tax laws and rates vary by jurisdiction and such laws are subject to interpretation. In those jurisdictions and in those cases where we do believe sales taxes are applicable, we collect and file timely sales tax returns. Currently, such taxes are minimal. Jurisdictions in which we do not collect sales and use taxes may assert that such taxes are applicable, which could result in the assessment of such taxes, interest and penalties, and we could be required to collect such taxes in the future. This additional sales and use tax liability could adversely affect the results of our operations.

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Acts of terrorism, acts of war and other unforeseen events may cause damage or disruption to us or our customers, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Natural disasters, acts of war, terrorist attacks and the escalation of military activity in response to such attacks or otherwise may have negative and significant effects, such as imposition of increased security measures, changes in applicable laws, market disruptions and job losses. Such events may have an adverse effect on the economy in general. Moreover, the potential for future terrorist attacks and the national and international responses to such threats could affect the business in ways that cannot be predicted. The effect of any of these events or threats could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks relating to owning our common stock
If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting in the future, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.
As a public company, we are required to maintain internal controls over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or Sarbanes-Oxley, requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting and provide a management report on internal controls over financial reporting. Sarbanes-Oxley also requires that our management report on internal controls over financial reporting be attested to by our independent registered public accounting firm.
If we have a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley in a timely manner, if we are unable to assert that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.
Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly from period to period, which could adversely impact the value of our common stock.
Our quarterly operating results, including our revenue, gross profit, net income and cash flows, may vary significantly in the future, which could cause our stock price to decline rapidly, may lead analysts to change their long-term models for valuing our common stock, could cause short-term liquidity issues, may impact our ability to retain or attract key personnel or cause other unanticipated issues. If our quarterly operating results or guidance fall below the expectations of research analysts or investors, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Our quarterly operating expenses and operating results may vary significantly in the future and period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. You should not rely on the results of one quarter as an indication of future performance.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile.
The stock market in general has been highly volatile. As a result, the market price and trading volume for our common stock may also be highly volatile, and investors in our common stock may experience a decrease in the value of their shares, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. Factors that could cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate significantly include:
our operating and financial performance and prospects and the performance of other similar companies;
our quarterly or annual earnings or those of other companies in our industry;
conditions that impact demand for our products and services;
the public’s reaction to our press releases, financial guidance and other public announcements, and filings with the SEC;

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changes in earnings estimates or recommendations by securities or research analysts who track our common stock;
market and industry perception of our success, or lack thereof, in pursuing our growth strategy;
strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;
any data breaches or interruptions in our services;
changes in government and other regulations, particularly those relating to the benefits of HSAs;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
arrival and departure of key personnel;
sales of common stock by us, our investors or members of our Board and management team; and
changes in general market, economic and political conditions in the U.S. and global economies or financial markets, including those resulting from natural disasters, telecommunications failure, cyber attack, civil unrest in various parts of the world, acts of war, terrorist attacks or other catastrophic events.
Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the trading volume and market price of our common stock and may prevent you from being able to sell your shares at or above the price you paid for your shares of our common stock. Following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, stockholders often file securities class-action lawsuits against such company. Our involvement in a class-action lawsuit could divert our senior management’s attention and, if adversely determined, could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We do not intend to pay regular cash dividends on our common stock and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.
We have no current plans to declare and pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all our future earnings, if any, to fund our growth. Therefore, you are not likely to receive any dividends on your common stock for the foreseeable future and the success of an investment in our common stock will depend upon any future appreciation in its value. There is no guarantee that our common stock will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which our stockholders have purchased their shares.
Future offerings of debt or equity securities, which may rank senior to our common stock, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
If we decide to issue debt securities in the future, which would rank senior to shares of our common stock, it is likely that they will be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Additionally, any equity securities or convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common stock and may result in dilution to owners of our common stock. We and, indirectly, our stockholders will bear the cost of issuing and servicing such securities. Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, holders of our common stock will bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting the value of their shareholdings in us.
Provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could discourage a takeover that stockholders may consider favorable.
Certain provisions in our governing documents could make a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving us difficult; even if such events would be beneficial to the interests of our stockholders. These provisions include the inability of our stockholders to act by written consent and certain advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and nominations for candidates for the election of directors. In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law which, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits stockholders owning in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us. Accordingly, our board of directors could rely upon these or other provisions in our governing documents and Delaware law to prevent or delay a transaction involving a change in control of our company, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders.

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Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or team members.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a claim for breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors and officers to us or our stockholders, any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, or any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other team members, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other team members. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Item 1B. Unresolved staff comments
None.

Item 2. Properties
We do not currently own any of our facilities. Our principal executive offices are located in Draper, Utah, where we lease approximately 187,000 square feet of office space under a lease that expires in March 2027. We also lease approximately 3,000 square feet of office space in Overland Park, Kansas under a lease that expires in February 2019 and lease additional space at data centers located in Draper, Utah and Austin, Texas, pursuant to leases expiring in July 2020 and November 2020, respectively. We believe that our current facilities are sufficient to meet our current needs.

Item 3. Legal proceedings

From time-to-time, we may be subject to various legal proceedings and claims that arise in the normal course of our business activities. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are not a party to any litigation whereby the outcome of such litigation, if determined adversely to us, would individually or in the aggregate be reasonably expected to have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, prospects, cash flows, financial position or brand.

Item 4. Mine safety disclosures

Not applicable.


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Part II.

Item 5. Market for registrant's common equity, related stockholder matters and issuer purchases of equity securities

Market information

Our common stock began trading publicly on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol "HQY" on July 31, 2014. Prior to that time, there was no public market for our common stock.

Holders

As of February 28, 2018, there were approximately 27 holders of record of our common stock. This stockholder figure does not include a substantially greater number of holders whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.

Stock price

The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices for our common stock as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market for the indicated periods:



Price Range
 
Fiscal year ended January 31, 2018:

High


Low

Fourth Quarter

$
55.31


$
42.92

Third Quarter

$
52.87


$
40.21

Second Quarter

$
54.50


$
43.51

First Quarter

$
47.91


$
37.62




Price Range
 
Fiscal year ended January 31, 2017:

High


Low

Fourth Quarter

$
49.25


$
30.34

Third Quarter

$
38.80


$
28.12

Second Quarter

$
31.69


$
22.26

First Quarter

$
26.75


$
15.80


Dividend policy

We have no current plans to pay dividends on our common stock. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, cash requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans

For information regarding securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans, see Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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Performance graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.

The following graph compares the cumulative total return of our common stock with the total return of the NASDAQ Composite Index (the "NASDAQ Composite"), and the Russell 3000 Index (the "Russell 3000") from July 31, 2014 (the date our common stock commenced trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market) through January 31, 2018. The chart assumes $100 was invested on July 31, 2014 in the common stock of HealthEquity, Inc., the NASDAQ Composite and the Russell 3000, and assumes reinvestment of any dividends. The stock price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

hqy-2015x01x3_chartx02552a02.jpg
Use of proceeds from sale of registered equity securities

On August 5, 2014, we closed our initial public offering of 10,465,000 shares of common stock sold by us. The offer and sale of all of the shares in the initial public offering were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-196645), which was declared effective by the SEC on July 30, 2014. JP Morgan & Chase Co. and Wells Fargo acted as the lead underwriters. The public offering price of the shares sold in the offering was $14.00 per share. The total gross proceeds from the offering to us were approximately $146.5 million. After deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of approximately $10.2 million and offering expenses payable by us of approximately $3.7 million, we received approximately $132.6 million. There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our initial public offering as described in our final prospectus (dated July 30, 2014) filed with the SEC on August 1, 2014 pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act. In connection with the completion of our initial public offering, we paid a previously declared cash dividend of $50.0 million on shares of our common stock outstanding on August 4, 2014. In addition,

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we paid a cash dividend of $347,000 on shares of our outstanding series D-3 redeemable convertible preferred stock accrued through the date of conversion of such shares into common stock, which occurred on August 4, 2014.

On May 11, 2015, we closed our public offering of 972,500 shares of common stock sold by us. The offer and sale of all of the shares in the public offering were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to registration statements on Form S-1 (File Nos. 333-203190 and 333-203888), which became effective on May 5, 2015. Wells Fargo acted as the lead underwriter. The public offering price of the shares sold in the offering was $25.90 per share. Certain selling stockholders sold 3,455,000 shares of common stock in the offering, including 380,000 shares of common stock which were issued upon the exercise of outstanding options. The Company received net proceeds of approximately $23.5 million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of approximately $1.0 million and other offering expenses payable by the Company of approximately $688,000. The Company did not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling stockholders other than $222,000 representing the exercise price of the options that were exercised by certain selling stockholders in connection with the offering. We paid all of the expenses related to the registration and offering of the shares sold by the selling stockholders, other than underwriting discounts and commissions relating to those shares. Other than these expenses, we made no payments directly or indirectly to (i) any of our officers or directors or their associates, (ii) any persons owning 10% or more of any class of our equity securities, or (iii) any of our affiliates. There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our public offering as described in our final prospectus (dated May 5, 2015) filed with the SEC on May 6, 2015 pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act.

During the year ended January 31, 2016, the Company used funds received from the offerings to acquire the rights to be the custodian of the Bancorp and M&T Bank HSA portfolios for approximately $34.2 million and approximately $6.2 million, respectively.
During the year ended January 31, 2018, the Company used funds received from the offerings to acquire the rights to be custodian of two HSA portfolios for approximately $6.4 million and $8.0 million in cash, respectively, the assets of BenefitGuard LLC, a 401(k) provider that offers plan administrator and named fiduciary services for 401(k) employer sponsors, for approximately $2.9 million, and the rights to be the sole administrator of a portfolio of HSA Members for $3.3 million.
The remainder of the funds received have been invested in registered money market accounts and mutual funds.

Unregistered sales of equity securities
None.

Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers
None.





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Item 6. Selected financial data
The following selected consolidated financial data is derived from our consolidated financial statements. As our operating results are not necessarily indicative of future operating results, this data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto, and with Item 7. Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations.

 

Year ended January 31,
 
(in thousands, except for per share data)
2018

2017

2016

2015
 
2014

Consolidated statements of operations data:







 

Revenue
$
229,525


$
178,370


$
126,786


$
87,855

 
$
62,015

Cost of revenue
94,609


72,015


54,188


39,882

 
29,213

Gross profit
134,916


106,355


72,598


47,973

 
32,802

Operating expenses
80,498


65,143


46,455


31,100

 
21,278

Income from operations
54,418


41,212


26,143


16,873

 
11,524

Other expense
(2,229
)

(1,092
)

(589
)

(1,109
)
 
(6,150
)
Income before income taxes
52,189


40,120


25,554


15,764

 
5,374

Income tax provision (1)
4,827


13,744


8,941


5,598

 
4,141

Net income
$
47,362


$
26,376


$
16,613


$
10,166

 
$
1,233

Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders:







 
 
Basic
$
47,362


$
26,376


$
16,613


$
12,058

 
$
(7,132
)
Diluted
$
47,362


$
26,376


$
16,613


$
10,901

 
$
(7,132
)
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:







 
 
Basic
$
0.79


$
0.45


$
0.29


$
0.39

 
$
(1.26
)
Diluted
$
0.77


$
0.44


$
0.28


$
0.21

 
$
(1.26
)
Weighted-average number of shares used in computing net income per share attributable to common stockholders:







 
 
Basic
60,304


58,615


56,719


31,181

 
5,651

Diluted
61,854


59,894


58,863


51,856

 
5,651

Consolidated balance sheet data:







 
 
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
$
240,269


$
180,359


$
123,775


$
111,005

 
$
13,917

Working capital
244,906


185,116


130,942


115,888

 
14,327

Total assets
369,159


279,136


219,795


158,769

 
55,090

Total liabilities
22,885


17,196


16,338


14,674

 
21,082

Total redeemable convertible preferred stock







 
46,714

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)
$
346,274


$
261,940


$
203,457


$
144,095

 
$
(12,706
)
(1) For the year ended January 31, 2018, the Company recorded excess tax benefits of $14.1 million within its provision for income taxes in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income due to the adoption of ASU 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting.

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Item 7. Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs, and involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results and the timing of certain events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors, including those discussed in the section titled “Risk factors” included under Part I, Item 1A and elsewhere in this report. See “Special note regarding forward-looking statements.”
Overview
We are a leader and an innovator in the high-growth category of technology-enabled services platforms that empower consumers to make healthcare saving and spending decisions. Our platform provides an ecosystem where consumers can access their tax-advantaged healthcare savings, compare treatment options and pricing, evaluate and pay healthcare bills, receive personalized benefit and clinical information, earn wellness incentives, and make educated investment choices to grow their tax-advantaged healthcare savings.
The core of our ecosystem is the HSA, a financial account through which consumers spend and save long-term for healthcare on a tax-advantaged basis. We are the integrated HSA platform for 124 Health Plan and Administrator Partners and over 40,000 employer clients.
Since our inception in 2002, we have been committed to developing technology solutions that empower healthcare consumers. In 2003, we began offering live 24/7/365 consumer support from health saving and spending experts. In 2005, we integrated HSAs with our first health plan partner, and in 2006, we were authorized to act as an HSA custodian by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. In 2009, we integrated HSAs with multiple health plans of a single large employer, began delivering integrated wellness incentives through an HSA, and partnered with a private health insurance exchange as its preferred HSA partner. In 2011, we integrated HSAs, RAs, and investment accounts on one website, and in 2013, our registered investment advisor subsidiary began delivering HSA-specific investment advice online. In 2015, we launched our HSA Optimizer, which helps HSA members optimize their accounts based on their individual preferences and goals. In 2016, we launched a new feature which provides account holders advance access to funds.
We earn revenue primarily from three sources: service revenue, custodial revenue and interchange revenue. We earn service revenue by providing monthly account services on our platform, primarily through contracts with our Network Partners, and custodial agreements with individual members. We earn custodial revenue from custodial cash assets deposited with our FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners and with our insurance company partner, and recordkeeping fees we earn in respect of mutual funds in which our members invest. We also earn interchange revenue from interchange fees that we earn on payments that our members make using our physical and virtual payment cards.

Key factors affecting our performance
We believe that our performance and future success are driven by a number of factors, including those identified below. Each of these factors presents both significant opportunities and significant risks to our future performance. See the section entitled “Risk factors” included in Part 1, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Structural change in U.S. private health insurance
Substantially all of our revenue is derived from healthcare-related saving and spending by consumers in the United States, which is impacted by changes affecting the broader healthcare industry in the U.S. The healthcare industry has changed significantly in recent years, and we expect that significant changes will continue to occur that will result in increased participation in HDHPs and other consumer-centric health plans. In particular, we believe that continued growth in healthcare costs, and related factors will spur HDHP and HSA growth; however, the timing and impact of these and other developments in the healthcare industry are difficult to predict, and changes in U.S. healthcare policy could adversely affect our business.

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Attracting and penetrating network partners
We created our business model to take advantage of the changing dynamics of the U.S. private health insurance market. Our model is based on a B2B2C distribution strategy, meaning that we rely on our Employer Partners and Health Plan and Administrator Partners to reach potential members to increase the number of our HSA Members. Our success depends in large part on our ability to further penetrate our existing Network Partners by adding new HSA Members from these partners and adding new Network Partners.
Our innovative technology platform
We believe that innovations incorporated in our technology that enable consumers to make healthcare saving and spending decisions differentiate us from our competitors and drive our growth in revenue, HSA Members, Network Partners and custodial assets. Similarly, these innovations underpin our ability to provide a differentiated consumer experience in a cost-effective manner. For example, we are currently undertaking a significant update of our proprietary platform’s architecture, which will allow us to improve our transaction processing capabilities and related platform infrastructure to support continued account and transaction growth. We intend to continue to invest in our technology development to enhance our platform’s capabilities and infrastructure.
Our “DEEP Purple” culture
The new healthcare consumer needs education and guidance delivered by people as well as technology. We believe that our "DEEP Purple" culture which we define as driving excellence, ethics, and process while providing remarkable service, is a significant factor in our ability to attract and retain customers and to address nimbly opportunities in the rapidly changing healthcare sector. We make significant efforts to promote and foster DEEP Purple within our workforce. We invest in and intend to continue to invest in human capital through technology-enabled training, career development and advancement opportunities.
Interest rates
As a non-bank custodian, we contract with FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners and an insurance company partner to hold custodial cash assets on behalf of our members, and we earn a significant portion of our total revenue from interest rates offered to us by these partners. The contract terms range from three to five years and have either fixed or variable interest rates. As our custodial assets increase and existing agreements expire, we seek to enter into new contracts with FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners, the terms of which are impacted by the then-prevailing interest rate environment. The diversification of deposits among bank partners and varied contract terms substantially reduces our exposure to short-term fluctuations in prevailing interest rates and mitigates the short-term impact of a sustained increase or decline in prevailing interest rates on our custodial revenue. A sustained decline in prevailing interest rates may negatively affect our business by reducing the size of the interest rate yield, or yield, available to us and thus the amount of the custodial revenue we can realize. Conversely, a sustained increase in prevailing interest rates can increase our yield over time. An increase in our yield would increase our custodial revenue as a percentage of total revenue. In addition, as our yield increases, we expect the spread to grow between the interest offered to us by our custodial depository bank partners and the interest retained by our members, thus increasing our profitability. However, we may be required to increase the interest retained by our members in a rising prevailing interest rate environment. Changes in prevailing interest rates are driven by macroeconomic trends and government policies over which we have no control.
Our competition and industry
Our direct competitors are HSA custodians. Many of these are state or federally chartered banks and other financial institutions for which we believe technology-based healthcare services are not a core business. Certain of our direct competitors have chosen to exit the market despite increased demand for these services. This has created, and we believe will continue to create, opportunities for us to leverage our technology platform and capabilities to increase our market share. However, some of our direct competitors are in a position, should they choose, to devote more resources to the development, sale and support of their products and services than we have at our disposal. In addition, numerous indirect competitors, including benefits administration technology and service providers, partner with banks and other HSA custodians to compete with us. Our Health Plan and Administrator Partners may also choose to offer technology-based healthcare services directly, as some health plans have done. Our success depends on our ability to predict and react quickly to these and other industry and competitive dynamics.
Regulatory environment
Federal law and regulations, including the Affordable Care Act, the Internal Revenue Code and IRS regulations, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act and Department of Labor regulations, and public health regulations that govern the provision of health insurance, play a pivotal role in determining our market opportunity. Privacy and data

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security-related laws such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, or HIPAA, and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, laws governing the provision of investment advice to consumers, such as the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, or the Advisers Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, anti-money laundry laws, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, all play a similar role in determining our competitive landscape. In addition, state-level regulations also have significant implications for our business in some cases. For example, our subsidiary HealthEquity Trust Company is regulated by the Wyoming Division of Banking, and several states are considering, or have already passed, new fiduciary rules that can affect our business. Our ability to predict and react quickly to relevant legal and regulatory trends and to correctly interpret their market and competitive implications is important to our success.
Our acquisition strategy
We have a successful history of acquiring complementary assets and businesses that strengthen our platform. We seek to continue this growth strategy and are regularly engaged in evaluating different opportunities. We have developed an internal capability to source, evaluate and integrate acquisitions that have created value for shareholders. We believe the nature of our competitive landscape provides a significant acquisition opportunity. Many of our competitors view their HSA businesses as non-core functions. We believe more of them will look to divest these assets and, in certain cases, be limited from making acquisitions due to depository capital requirements. We intend to continue to pursue acquisitions of complementary assets and businesses that we believe will strengthen our platform.

Key financial and operating metrics
Our management regularly reviews a number of key operating and financial metrics to evaluate our business, determine the allocation of our resources, make decisions regarding corporate strategies and evaluate forward-looking projections and trends affecting our business. We discuss certain of these key financial metrics, including revenue, below in the section entitled “Key components of our results of operations.” In addition, we utilize other key metrics as described below.
HSA Members
The following table sets forth our HSA Members for the periods indicated:
 
 
 
 
% change from

% change from


January 31, 2018

January 31, 2017

January 31, 2016

2017 to 2018

2016 to 2017

HSA Members
3,402,889

2,746,132

2,140,631

24
%
28
%
Average HSA Members - Year-to-date
2,951,790

2,339,091

1,600,327

26
%
46
%
Average HSA Members - Quarter-to-date
3,188,927

2,519,382

1,850,843

27
%
36
%
HSA Members with investments
121,614

65,906

44,680

85
%
48
%
HSA Members is critical because our service revenue is driven by the amount we charge per HSA Member.
The number of our HSA Members increased by approximately 657,000, or 24%, from January 31, 2017 to January 31, 2018, and by approximately 606,000, or 28%, from January 31, 2016 to January 31, 2017.
The increase in the number of our HSA Members in these periods was primarily driven by the addition of new Network Partners and further penetration into existing Network Partners. In addition, during the year ended January 31, 2018, we acquired the rights to be custodian of First Interstate Bancsystem and Alliant Credit Union portfolios consisting of approximately 14,000 and 40,000 HSA Members, respectively. During the year ended January 31, 2016, we acquired the rights to be the custodian of the Bancorp Bank and M&T Bank HSA portfolios consisting of approximately 160,000 and 35,000 HSA Members, respectively, the latter of which transitioned to our platform during the year ended January 31, 2017.

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Custodial assets
The following table sets forth our custodial assets for the periods indicated:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
% change from


% change from

(in thousands, except percentages)

January 31, 2018


January 31, 2017


January 31, 2016


2017 to 2018


2016 to 2017

Custodial cash

$
5,489,617


$
4,380,487


$
3,278,628


25
%

34
%
Custodial investments

1,288,693


658,580


405,878


96
%

62
%
Total custodial assets

$
6,778,310


$
5,039,067


$
3,684,506


35
%

37
%
Average daily custodial cash - Year-to-date

$
4,571,341


$
3,661,058


$
2,326,506


25
%

57
%
Average daily custodial cash - Quarter-to-date

$
4,876,438


$
3,854,518


$
2,682,827


27
%

44
%
Our custodial assets, which are our HSA Members' assets for which we are the custodian, consist of the following components: (1) custodial cash deposits, which are deposits with our FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners, (2) custodial cash deposits invested in an annuity contract with our insurance company partner and (3) members' investments in mutual funds through our custodial investment fund partner. Measuring our custodial assets is important because our custodial revenue is directly affected by average daily custodial balances.
Our total custodial assets increased by $1.7 billion, or 35%, from January 31, 2017 to January 31, 2018. Our total custodial assets increased by $1.4 billion, or 37%, from January 31, 2016 to January 31, 2017. The increase in total custodial assets in these periods was driven by additional custodial assets from our existing HSA Members and new custodial assets from new HSA Members added during the fiscal year. In addition, during the year ended January 31, 2018, we acquired the rights to be custodian of First Interstate Bancsystem and Alliant Credit Union portfolios consisting of approximately $55.0 million and $109.0 million of custodial assets, respectively.
During the year ended January 31, 2016, we acquired the rights to be the custodian of the Bancorp Bank and M&T Bank HSA portfolios consisting of approximately $390.0 million and $63.0 million of custodial assets, respectively, the latter of which transitioned to our platform during the year ended January 31, 2017.
Adjusted EBITDA
We define Adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial metric, as adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation expense, and certain other non-cash statement of operations items. We believe that Adjusted EBITDA provides useful information to investors and analysts in understanding and evaluating our operating results in the same manner as our management and our board of directors because it reflects operating profitability before consideration of non-operating expenses and non-cash expenses, and serves as a basis for comparison against other companies in our industry.
The following table presents a reconciliation of net income, the most comparable GAAP financial measure, to Adjusted EBITDA for each of the periods indicated:


Year ended January 31,
 
(in thousands)

2018


2017


2016

Net income

$
47,362


$
26,376


$
16,613

Interest income

(734
)

(531
)

(414
)
Interest expense

274


275


91

Income tax provision

4,827


13,744


8,941

Depreciation and amortization

11,089


8,889


6,393

Amortization of acquired intangible assets

4,863


4,297


2,208

Stock-based compensation expense

14,310


8,398


5,883

Other (1)

2,689


1,348


910

Adjusted EBITDA

$
84,680


$
62,796


$
40,625

(1)
For the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, Other consisted of non-income based taxes of $439, $358 and $334, acquisition-related costs of $2,197, $631 and $471, and other costs of $53, $359 and $105, respectively.
The following table sets forth our Adjusted EBITDA:

Year ended January 31,
 

% change from


% change from

(in thousands, except percentages)
2018


2017


2016


2017 to 2018


2016 to 2017

Adjusted EBITDA
$
84,680


$
62,796


$
40,625


35
%

55
%
As a percentage of revenue
37
%

35
%

32
%





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Our Adjusted EBITDA increased by $21.9 million, or 35%, from $62.8 million for the year ended January 31, 2017 to $84.7 million for the year ended January 31, 2018. The increase in Adjusted EBITDA was driven by the overall growth of our business, including a $13.2 million, or 32%, increase in income from operations.
Our Adjusted EBITDA increased by $22.2 million, or 55%, from $40.6 million for the year ended January 31, 2016 to $62.8 million for the year ended January 31, 2017. The increase in Adjusted EBITDA was driven by the overall growth of our business, including a $15.1 million, or 58%, increase in income from operations.
Our use of Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and it should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP.

Key components of our results of operations
Revenue
The following table sets forth our revenue for the periods indicated:

Year ended January 31,
 

% change from


% change from

(in thousands, except percentages)
2018


2017


2016


2017 to 2018


2016 to 2017

Service revenue
$
91,619


$
77,254


$
61,608


19
%

25
%
Custodial revenue
87,160


59,593


37,755


46
%

58
%
Interchange revenue
50,746


41,523


27,423


22
%

51
%
Total revenue
$
229,525


$
178,370


$
126,786


29
%

41
%
We earn revenue from three primary sources: service revenue, custodial revenue and interchange revenue.
Service revenue.    We earn service revenue from the fees we charge our Network Partners, employer clients and individual members for the administration services we provide in connection with the HSAs and RAs we offer. With respect to our Network Partners, our fees are generally based on a fixed tiered structure for the duration of our agreement with the relevant Network Partner and are paid to us on a monthly basis. We recognize revenue on a monthly basis as services are rendered under our written service agreements.
Custodial revenue.    We earn custodial revenue from our custodial cash assets deposited with our FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners and with our insurance company partner, and recordkeeping fees we earn in respect of mutual funds in which our members invest. As a non-bank custodian, we deposit our custodial cash with our various bank partners pursuant to contracts that (i) have terms up to five years, (ii) provide for a fixed or variable interest rate payable on the average daily cash balances deposited with the relevant bank partner, and (iii) have minimum and maximum required deposit balances. We earn custodial revenue on our custodial cash that is based on the interest rates offered to us by these bank partners. In addition, once a member’s HSA cash balance reaches a certain threshold, the member is able to invest his or her HSA assets in mutual funds through our custodial investment partner. We receive a recordkeeping fee related to such custodial investments.
Interchange revenue.    We earn interchange revenue each time one of our members uses one of our payment cards to make a qualified purchase. This revenue is collected each time a member “swipes” our payment card to pay a healthcare-related expense. We recognize interchange revenue monthly based on reports received from third parties, namely, the card-issuing bank and the card processor.
Cost of revenue
Cost of revenue includes costs related to servicing member accounts, managing customer and partner relationships and processing reimbursement claims. Expenditures include personnel-related costs, depreciation, amortization, stock-based compensation, common expense allocations (such as office rent, supplies, and other overhead expenses), new member and participant supplies, and other operating costs related to servicing our members. Other components of cost of revenue include interest retained by members on custodial cash and interchange costs incurred in connection with processing card transactions for our members.
Service costs.    Service costs include the servicing costs described above. Additionally, for new accounts, we incur on-boarding costs associated with the new accounts, such as new member welcome kits, the cost associated with issuance of new payment cards and costs of marketing materials that we produce for our Network Partners.
Custodial costs.    Custodial costs are comprised of interest retained by our HSA Members and fees we pay to banking consultants whom we use to help secure agreements with our FDIC-insured custodial depository banking partners. Interest retained by HSA Members is calculated on a tiered basis. The interest rates retained by HSA Members can change based on a formula or upon required notice.

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Interchange costs.    Interchange costs are comprised of costs we incur in connection with processing payment transactions initiated by our members. Due to the substantiation requirement on RA-linked payment card transactions, which is the requirement that we confirm each purchase involves a qualified medical expense as defined under applicable law, payment card costs are higher for RA card transactions. In addition to fixed per card fees, we are assessed additional transaction costs determined by the amount of the transaction.
Gross profit and gross margin
Our gross profit is our total revenue minus our total cost of revenue, and our gross margin is our gross profit expressed as a percentage of our total revenue. Our gross margin has been and will continue to be affected by a number of factors, including the amount we charge our partners and members, interest rates, how many services we deliver per account, and payment processing costs per account. We expect our annual gross margin to remain relatively steady over the near term, although our gross margin could fluctuate from period to period depending on the interplay of these factors.
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing.    Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel and related expenses for our sales and marketing staff, including sales commissions for our direct sales force, external agent/broker commission expenses, marketing expenses, depreciation, amortization, stock-based compensation, and common expense allocations.
Technology and development.    Technology and development expenses include personnel and related expenses for software engineering, information technology, and product development. Technology and development expenses also include software engineering services, the costs of operating our on-demand technology infrastructure, depreciation, amortization of capitalized software development costs, stock-based compensation, and common expense allocations.
General and administrative.    General and administrative expenses include personnel and related expenses of, and professional fees incurred by our executive, finance, legal, compliance, and people departments. They also include depreciation, amortization, stock-based compensation and common expense allocations.
Amortization of acquired intangible assets.    Amortization of acquired intangible assets results primarily from our acquisition of intangible member assets. We acquired these intangible member assets from third-party custodians. We amortize these assets over the assets’ estimated useful life of 15 years. We also acquired other intangible assets, which are 401(k) customer relationships, in connection with an acquisition of a business. We amortize these assets over the assets' estimated useful life of 10 years. We evaluate our acquired intangible assets for impairment at least each year, or at a triggering event.
Other expense, net
Other expense primarily consists of interest expense associated with our credit facility, miscellaneous taxes, and acquisition-related expenses.
Income tax provision
We are subject to federal and state income taxes in the United States based on a calendar tax year which differs from our fiscal year-end for financial reporting purposes. We use the asset and liability method to account for income taxes, under which current tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the estimated taxes payable or refundable on the tax returns for the current fiscal year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, net operating loss carryforwards, and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted statutory tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be realized or settled. As of January 31, 2018, we recorded a net non-current deferred tax asset.
Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce net deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. Due to the positive evidence of historical profits coupled with forecasted profitability, no valuation allowance was required as of January 31, 2018.


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Results of operations
Service revenue
The $14.4 million, or 19%, increase in service revenue from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018 was primarily due to an increase in the number of our HSA Members, partially offset by the lower service revenue per HSA Member described below. The $15.6 million, or 25%, increase in service revenue from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017 was also primarily due to an increase in the number of our HSA Members. The number of our HSA Members increased by approximately 657,000, or 24%, from January 31, 2017 to January 31, 2018, and by approximately 606,000, or 28%, from January 31, 2016 to January 31, 2017.
Service revenue per HSA Member decreased by approximately 6% from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018, and 14% from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017. Our service revenue tier structure incentivizes Network Partners to add HSA Members by charging a lower rate as additional HSA Members are added. Accordingly, as Network Partners add more HSA Members, the service revenue per HSA Member will continue to decrease. Additionally, as RAs grow less rapidly than HSAs, service revenue per HSA Member will decrease. The decrease in service revenue per HSA Member was partially offset by an increase in custodial revenue per HSA Member described below.
Custodial revenue
The $27.6 million, or 46%, increase in custodial revenue from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018 was primarily due to an increase in average daily custodial cash of $910.3 million, or 25%, and an increase in the yield on average custodial cash from 1.58% in the year ended January 31, 2017 to 1.83% in the year ended January 31, 2018.
The $21.8 million, or 58%, increase in custodial revenue from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017 was primarily due to an increase in average daily custodial cash of $1.3 billion, or 57%, as well as a slight increase in the yield on average custodial cash from 1.57% in the year ended January 31, 2016 to 1.58% in the year ended January 31, 2017.
Custodial revenue as a percentage of our total revenue continues to increase primarily due to our entry into new custodial depository agreements with higher interest rates payable on average cash balances deposited thereunder, and also due to average daily custodial cash assets growing at a faster rate than the number of HSA Members, which is evidenced by an increase in custodial cash per HSA, which was $1,613, $1,595, and $1,532 as of January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Custodial revenue per HSA Member increased by approximately 16% from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018, and approximately 8% from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017, primarily due to the higher yield and higher average custodial cash balances.
Interchange revenue
The $9.2 million, or 22%, increase in interchange revenue from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018 was due to an overall increase in the number of our HSA Members and payment activity, partially offset by the lower interchange revenue per HSA Member described below. In addition, we continued to see a trend toward more HSA spending through payment card transaction swipes and less by checks and ACH or electronic reimbursements, which increased our interchange revenue.
The $14.1 million, or 51%, increase in interchange revenue from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017 was due to an overall increase in the number of our HSA Members and payment activity.
Interchange revenue per HSA Member decreased by approximately 3% from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018, primarily due to a decrease in payment activity per HSA Member. Interchange revenue per HSA Member increased by approximately 4% from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017, as a result of our efforts increase card spend on our platform.
Total revenue
Total revenue per HSA Member increased by 2% from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018, due to the increase in custodial revenue per HSA Member, largely offset by the decreases in service revenue and interchange revenue per HSA Member. Total revenue per HSA Member decreased by 4% from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017, due to decreases in service revenue per HSA Member partially offset by increases in custodial and interchange revenue per HSA Member.

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Cost of revenue
The following table sets forth our cost of revenue for the periods indicated:
(in thousands, except percentages)
Year ended January 31,
 

% change from


% change from

2018


2017


2016


2017 to 2018


2016 to 2017

Service costs
$
70,426


$
51,868


$
39,418


36
%

32
%
Custodial costs
11,400


9,767


6,522


17
%

50
%
Interchange costs
12,783


10,380


8,248


23
%

26
%
Total cost
$
94,609


$
72,015


$
54,188


31
%

33
%
Service costs
The $18.6 million, or 36%, increase in service costs from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018 was due to the higher volume of total accounts being serviced. The $18.6 million increase includes $11.0 million related to the hiring of additional personnel to implement and support our new Network Partners and HSA Members, increased activation and processing costs of $4.4 million related to account and card activation, monthly processing of statements and other communications, as well as fraud prevention measures, stock compensation of $814,000, depreciation and amortization of $614,000, general overhead allocation of $748,000 and $1.2 million in other expenses.
The $12.5 million, or 32%, increase in service costs from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017 was due to the higher volume of total accounts being serviced. The $12.5 million increase includes $6.1 million related to the hiring of additional personnel to implement and support our new Network Partners and HSA Members, increased activation and processing costs of $2.9 million related to account and card activation as well as monthly processing of statements and other communications, stock compensation of $692,000, depreciation and amortization of $495,000, general overhead allocation of $1.6 million and $393,000 in other expenses.
Custodial costs
The $1.6 million, or 17%, increase in custodial costs from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018 was due to an increase in average daily custodial cash from $3.66 billion for the year ended January 31, 2017 to $4.57 billion during the year ended January 31, 2018, which was partially offset by a decrease in custodial costs on average custodial cash from 0.27% for the year ended January 31, 2017 to 0.25% for the year ended January 31, 2018.
The $3.2 million, or 50%, increase in custodial costs from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017 was due to an increase in average daily custodial cash from $2.33 billion for the year ended January 31, 2016 to $3.64 billion during the year ended January 31, 2017, which was partially offset by a decrease in custodial costs on average custodial cash from 0.28% for the year ended January 31, 2016 to 0.27% for the year ended January 31, 2017.
Interchange costs
The $2.4 million, or 23%, increase in interchange costs from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018, and the $2.1 million, or 26%, increase from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017, was a result of the overall increase in payment activity, which is attributable to the growth in HSA Members.
Cost of revenue
As we continue to add HSA Members, we expect that our cost of revenue will increase in dollar amount to support our Network Partners and members. Cost of revenue will continue to be affected by a number of different factors, including our ability to implement new technology in our Member Education Center as well as scaling our Network Partner implementation and account management functions.

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Operating expenses
The following table sets forth our operating expenses for the periods indicated:
(in thousands, except percentages)
Year ended January 31,
 

% change from


% change from

2018


2017


2016


2017 to 2018


2016 to 2017

Sales and marketing
$
23,139


$
18,320


$
13,302


26
%

38
%
Technology and development
27,385


22,375


16,832


22
%

33
%
General and administrative
25,111


20,151


14,113


25
%

43
%
Amortization of acquired intangible assets
4,863


4,297


2,208


13
%

95
%
Total operating expenses
$
80,498


$
65,143


$
46,455


24
%

40
%
Sales and marketing
The $4.9 million, or 26%, increase in sales and marketing expenses from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018 primarily consisted of increased staffing and sales commissions of $2.7 million, increased stock-based compensation expense of $1.1 million, increased partner commissions of $345,000, and an increase in other expenses of $703,000.
The $5.0 million, or 38%, increase in sales and marketing expenses from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017 primarily consisted of increased staffing and sales commissions of $2.3 million, increased partner commissions of $928,000, increased travel and marketing expenses of $862,000, increased promotion discounts of $418,000, and an increase in other expenses of $502,000.
We expect our sales and marketing expenses to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to increase the size of our sales and marketing organization and expand into new markets. On an annual basis, we expect our sales and marketing expenses to remain steady as a percentage of our total revenue over the near term. However, our sales and marketing expenses may fluctuate as a percentage of our total revenue from period to period due to the seasonality of our total revenue and the timing and extent of our sales and marketing expenses.
In addition, we expect the adoption of the new revenue standard to have a material impact on total sales and marketing expenses. We expect to capitalize incremental contract acquisition costs, such as sales commissions included in sales and marketing expenses in the consolidated statement of operations, and amortize these costs over the average economic life of an HSA Member. The Company's current practice is to fully expense sales commissions when the member is added to the Company's platform.
Technology and development
The $5.0 million, or 22%, increase in technology and development expenses from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018 resulted primarily from the hiring of additional personnel of $4.4 million, increased amortization and depreciation of $1.6 million, stock compensation of $1.4 million, and other expenses of $81,000, which were partially offset by a decrease in professional services of $2.0 million and an increase in capitalized engineering costs of $341,000 associated with the development and enhancement of our proprietary technology platform.
The $5.5 million, or 33%, increase in technology and development expenses for the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017 resulted primarily from the hiring of additional personnel of $3.4 million, increased amortization and depreciation of $1.9 million, information technology expenses of $1.1 million, stock compensation of $889,000, professional services of $726,000, and other expenses of $548,000, which were offset by an increase in capitalized engineering costs of $2.1 million associated with the development and enhancement of our proprietary technology platform, and redeployment of resources from technology and development to general and administrative of $855,000.
We expect our technology and development expenses to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to invest in the development of our proprietary system. On an annual basis, we expect our technology and development expenses to increase as a percentage of our total revenue. Our technology and development expenses may fluctuate as a percentage of our total revenue from period to period due to the seasonality of our total revenue and the timing and extent of our technology and development expenses.
General and administrative
The $5.0 million, or 25%, increase in general and administrative expenses from the year ended January 31, 2017 to the year ended January 31, 2018 was primarily attributable to the hiring of additional personnel of $3.3 million,

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increased stock compensation of $2.6 million and other expenses of $1.1 million, which were offset by a decrease in professional services of $2.0 million.
The $6.0 million, or 43%, increase in general and administrative expenses from the year ended January 31, 2016 to the year ended January 31, 2017 was primarily attributable to the hiring of additional personnel of $2.4 million, increased professional fees of $1.1 million, stock compensation of $922,000 and other expenses of $814,000, and redeployment of resources from technology and development to general and administrative of $855,000.
We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase for the foreseeable future due to the additional demands on our legal, compliance, accounting, insurance, and investor relations functions that we continue to incur as a public company, as well as other costs associated with continuing to grow our business. On an annual basis, we expect our general and administrative expenses to remain steady as a percentage of our total revenue. Our general and administrative expenses may fluctuate as a percentage of our total revenue from period to period due to the seasonality of our total revenue and the timing and extent of our general and administrative expenses.

Amortization of acquired intangible assets
The $566,000 and $2.1 million increase in amortization of acquired intangible assets for the years ended January 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, was attributable to the HSA portfolio asset acquisitions and acquisition of a business. On an annual basis, we expect total amortization of acquired intangible assets to remain steady.
Other expense
The change in other income and expense, net for the year ended January 31, 2018 is primarily attributable to an increase in ongoing acquisition-related activity costs.
The change in other income and expense, net for the year ended January 31, 2017 is primarily attributable to an increase in ongoing acquisition-related activity costs and interest expense.
Income tax provision
Income tax provision for the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016 was $4.8 million, $13.7 million, and $8.9 million, respectively. The decrease in income tax provision during the year ended January 31, 2018 compared to the year ended January 31, 2017 was primarily the result of a $14.1 million decrease related to excess tax benefits on stock-based compensation expense recognized in the provision for income taxes, pursuant to the adoption of ASU 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting as well as an increase in federal and state income taxes driven by an increase in income before income taxes netted with a decrease. The increase in income tax provision during the year ended January 31, 2017 compared to the year ended January 31, 2016 was primarily the result of an increase in federal and state income taxes driven by an increase in income before income taxes netted with an increase in research and development credits claimed.
Our effective income tax rate for the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 was 9.2%, 34.3%, and 35.0%, respectively. The difference between the effective income tax rate and the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate each period is impacted by a number of factors, including the relative mix of earnings among state jurisdictions, credits, excess tax benefits or shortfalls on stock-based compensation expense due to the adoption of ASU 2016-09, and other discrete items. The decrease in the effective tax rate for the year ended January 31, 2018 compared to the year ended January 31, 2017 was primarily the result of excess tax benefits on stock-based compensation expense. The decrease in the effective tax rate for the year ended January 31, 2017 compared to the year ended January 31, 2016 was primarily the result of an increase in research and development credits.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which was enacted on December 22, 2017, reduced the statutory federal income tax rate from a top rate of 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018. Refer to Note 8. Income Taxes, within the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion of the impact of this tax reform on our consolidated financial statements.
Seasonality
Seasonal concentration of our growth combined with our recurring revenue model create seasonal variation in our results of operations. A significant number of new and existing Network Partners bring us new HSA Members beginning in January of each year concurrent with the start of many employers’ benefit plan years. Before we realize any revenue from these new HSA Members, we incur costs related to implementing and supporting our new Network Partners and new HSA Members. These costs of services relate to activating accounts and hiring additional staff, including seasonal help to support our member support center. These expenses begin to ramp up during our third fiscal quarter with the majority of expenses incurred in our fourth fiscal quarter.

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We also experience higher operating expenses in our fourth fiscal quarter due to sales commissions for new accounts activated in January. Beginning in the year ended January 31, 2019, the Company will adopt ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. As a result of this adoption, the Company will capitalize incremental contract acquisition costs, such as sales commissions, and amortize these costs over the average economic life of a member.
Liquidity and capital resources
Cash and marketable securities overview
As of January 31, 2018, our principal source of liquidity was our current cash and marketable securities balances, collections from our service, custodial and interchange revenue activities, and availability under our credit facility. We rely on cash provided by operating activities to meet our short-term liquidity requirements, which primarily relate to the payment of corporate payroll and other operating costs, and capital expenditures.
As of January 31, 2018 and 2017, cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities were $240.3 million and $180.4 million, respectively.
Capital resources
As a result of our follow-on offering in May 2015, we received net proceeds of approximately $23.5 million from the sale of 972,500 shares of our common stock.
On September 9, 2015, we filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC. This shelf registration statement, which includes a base prospectus, allows us at any time to offer any combination of securities described in the prospectus in one or more offerings. Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement accompanying the base prospectus, we would use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered pursuant to the shelf registration statement for general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, sales and marketing activities, general and administrative matters and capital expenditures, and if opportunities arise, for the acquisition of, or investment in, assets, technologies, solutions or businesses that complement our business. Pending such uses, we may invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing securities. In addition, we may conduct concurrent or other financings at any time.
On September 30, 2015, we entered into a $100.0 million credit facility. The credit facility has a term of five years. The new credit facility contains covenants and events of default customary for facilities of this type. There were no borrowings under the facility as of January 31, 2018. We were in compliance with all covenants as of January 31, 2018.
Use of cash
Capital expenditures for the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016 were $15.8 million, $12.7 million, and $9.3 million, respectively. We expect to continue our increased capital expenditures during the year ending January 31, 2019 as we continue to devote a significant amount of our capital expenditures to improving the architecture and functionality of our proprietary system. Costs to improve the architecture of our proprietary system include software engineering services, computer hardware, and personnel and related costs for software engineering.
We believe our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, will be sufficient to meet our operating and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months. To the extent these current and anticipated future sources of liquidity are insufficient to fund our future business activities and requirements we may need to raise additional funds through public or private equity or debt financing. In the event that additional financing is required, we may not be able to raise it on favorable terms, if at all.
The following table shows our cash flows from operating activities, investing activities and financing activities for the stated periods:


Year ended January 31,
 
(in thousands)

2018


2017


2016

Net cash provided by operating activities

$
81,702


$
45,591


$
26,541

Net cash used in investing activities

(36,748
)

(13,054
)

(90,552
)
Net cash provided by financing activities

14,564


23,776


36,647

Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

59,518


56,313


(27,364
)
Beginning cash and cash equivalents

139,954


83,641


111,005

Ending cash and cash equivalents

$
199,472


$
139,954


$
83,641


-39-


Cash flows provided by operating activities. Net cash provided by operating activities during the year ended January 31, 2018 resulted primarily from our net income of $47.4 million adjusted for the following non-cash items: depreciation and amortization of $16.0 million and stock-based compensation of $14.3 million, and changes in deferred taxes of $4.3 million, accrued compensation of $3.8 million, other long-term liabilities of $939,000, and amortization of deferred financing costs, bad debt expense, changes in inventories and accrued liabilities and other totaling $1.1 million. These were offset by changes in accounts receivable of $4.7 million and other assets and accounts payable of $1.3 million.
Net cash provided by operating activities during the year ended January 31, 2017 resulted primarily from our net income of $26.4 million adjusted for the following non-cash items: depreciation and amortization of $13.2 million and stock-based compensation of $8.4 million, and changes in accrued liabilities of $1.7 million, other long-term liabilities of $1.2 million, accrued compensation of $946,000, and accounts payable, amortization of deferred financing costs, bad debt expense, and inventories totaling of $698,000. These were offset by changes in deferred income taxes of $2.9 million, accounts receivable of $2.7 million and other assets of $1.3 million.
Net cash provided by operating activities during the year ended January 31, 2016 resulted primarily from our net income of $16.6 million adjusted for the following non-cash items: depreciation and amortization of $8.6 million and stock-based compensation of $5.9 million, changes in accrued compensation of $2.5 million, and accounts payable of $1.0 million. These were offset by changes in accounts receivable of $5.2 million, deferred income taxes of $2.2 million, and accrued liabilities, other long-term liabilities and other assets of $742,000.
Cash flows used in investing activities. We continued to increase our purchases of software and capitalized software development costs due to continued growth. During the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, purchases of software and capitalized software development costs were $10.4 million, $9.0 million, and $6.9 million, respectively. We also increased our purchases of property and equipment to $5.5 million, $3.6 million and $2.4 million, respectively, due to our continued growth.
Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended January 31, 2018 was primarily the result of the acquisition of the right to be the custodian of the First Interstate Bancsystem and Alliant Credit Union HSA portfolio acquisitions for $6.4 million and $8.0 million, respectively, as well as our acquisition of the rights to be the sole administrator of a portfolio of HSA Members for $3.3 million and an acquisition of a business for $2.9 million.
Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended January 31, 2016 was primarily the result of the acquisition of the right to be the custodian of the Bancorp and M&T HSA portfolios totaling $40.5 million, the purchases of marketable securities of $40.3 million, and a $500,000 investment in a limited partnership that engages in the development of technology-based financial healthcare products.
Cash flows provided by financing activities. Cash flow provided by financing activities during the year ended January 31, 2018 resulted primarily from proceeds associated with the exercise of stock options of $14.6 million.
Cash flow provided by financing activities during the year ended January 31, 2017 resulted primarily from proceeds associated with the exercise of stock options of $7.1 million, and the associated tax benefits of $16.6 million.
Cash flow used in financing activities during the year ended January 31, 2016 resulted primarily from our follow-on offering, from which we received net proceeds of $23.5 million from the sale of 972,500 shares of our common stock, proceeds associated with the exercise of stock options of $1.9 million, and the associated tax benefits of $11.6 million. These items were offset by deferred financing costs paid of $317,000 in conjunction with the credit agreement entered into during the year.
Contractual obligations
We lease office space, data storage facilities, equipment and certain maintenance requirements under long-term non-cancelable operating leases. Future minimum lease payments required under non-cancelable obligations as of January 31, 2018 are as follows:

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Payment due by period
 
(in thousands)

Less than
1 year


1-3
years


3-5
years


More than
5 years


Total

Office lease obligations

$
3,904


$
7,944


$
8,501


$
17,034


$
37,383

Data storage and equipment lease obligations

343


301


68




712

Processing services agreement

825


1,650






2,475

Telephony services

288








288

Other

856


2,252


1,396




4,504

Total

$
6,216


$
12,147


$
9,965


$
17,034


$
45,362


Office lease obligations—On May 15, 2015, the Company entered into a lease agreement to expand its headquarters in Draper, Utah. The lease provides for the new landlord to construct a building at its cost. The lease commenced upon the substantial completion and delivery of the building to the Company on July 1, 2016 and has an initial term of 129 months thereafter, with an option for the Company to extend the lease for two additional five-year periods. The Company is responsible for payment of taxes and operating expenses for its portion of the building, in addition to an annual base rent in the initial amount of approximately $1.0 million, with 2.5% annual increases. In conjunction with the aforementioned lease, the Company entered into an amended and restated lease agreement for its existing office space at its headquarters in Draper, Utah. The lease commenced on July 1, 2015 and has an initial term of 129 months thereafter, with an option for the Company to extend the lease for two additional five-year periods. The Company is responsible for payment of taxes and operating expenses for its portion of the building, in addition to an annual base rent in the initial amount of approximately $1.6 million, with 2.5% annual increases.
On September 16, 2016, the Company amended its lease to expand its current office space. The term of the lease commenced on July 1, 2016 and will expire on March 31, 2027. The Company is responsible for payment of taxes and operating expenses for its portion of the building, in addition to an annual base rent in the initial amount of approximately $569,000, with 2.5% annual increases.
On May 31, 2017, the Company entered into an amendment to its lease agreement, dated May 15, 2015, to expand its current office space. The term of the lease commenced on January 1, 2018 and will expire on March 31, 2027. The Company is responsible for payment of taxes and operating expenses for its portion of the building, in addition to an annual base rent in the initial amount of approximately $513,000, with annual increases ranging from 2.5% to 3.1%.
Lease expense for office space for the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 totaled $4.3 million, $3.3 million and $2.1 million, respectively. The Company also leases office space in Overland Park, Kansas, which expires in February 2019.
Data storage and equipment lease obligations—The data storage and equipment leases relate to our offsite data storage facility and office equipment leases. All of these leases expire during the year ended January 31, 2020.
Telephony services—The telephony service agreement relates to our 24/7/365 member support center. The agreement expires in September 2019.
Processing services agreement—The Company's processing services agreement with a vendor expires December 31, 2020 and requires the Company to pay a minimum processing fee based on the processing year of the agreement. The Company may terminate the agreement beginning January 1, 2020 by providing 180 days’ written notice.
If the processing agreement is terminated prior to December 31, 2020, the Company is required to pay the vendor a termination fee, equal to 75% of the aggregate value of the minimum processing fees for the remaining years of the agreement, plus a portion of the account-boarding incentive fee.
For each of the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, the Company exceeded the minimum amounts required under the agreement.
The Company also has agreements with several entities for access to technology and software. The agreements are based on usage, and there are no minimum required monthly payments.

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Off-balance sheet arrangements
Except as disclosed in the notes to our financial statements, we do not have any relationships with unconsolidated organizations or financial partnerships, such as structured finance or special purpose entities, that would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements.
Critical accounting policies and significant management estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses and related disclosures. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. In many instances, we could have reasonably used different accounting estimates, and in other instances, changes in the accounting estimates are reasonably likely to occur from period to period. Accordingly, actual results could differ significantly from the estimates made by our management. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and actual results, our future financial statement presentation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows will be affected.
In many cases, the accounting treatment of a particular transaction is specifically dictated by GAAP and does not require management’s judgment in its application, while in other cases, management’s judgment is required in selecting among available alternative accounting standards that allow different accounting treatment for similar transactions. We believe that there are several accounting policies that are critical to understanding our business and prospects for future performance, as these policies affect the reported amounts of revenue and other significant areas that involve management’s judgment and estimates. These significant policies and our procedures related to these policies are described in detail below.
Revenue recognition
We earn revenue primarily from three sources: service revenue, custodial revenue and interchange revenue. We recognize revenue when the following criteria are met: (1) collectability is reasonably assured; (2) delivery has occurred; (3) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; and (4) there is a fixed or determinable fee.
Service revenue:    We charge our Network Partners or individual members a monthly service fee once a member account is set up on our system. We recognize revenue on the monthly service fees in the month during which we service each member account. In addition, we earn fees paid by employer partners and plan participants in connection with plan administrator and fiduciary services for 401(k) employer sponsors. The fees are paid on a quarterly basis and revenue is recognized in the month in which it is earned.
Custodial revenue:    We earn interest on custodial cash. This interest is earned from various FDIC-insured bank partners and from an annuity contract with our insurance company partner with whom we deposit our members’ HSA cash assets. We also receive certain administrative and recordkeeping fees for custodial investments from our investment partners and customers. We recognize this revenue in the month in which it is earned.
Interchange revenue:    We earn interchange revenue from card transaction “swipes” by our members when our members use our payment cards to pay healthcare-related claims and expenses. We recognize this revenue in the month in which it is earned.

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Marketable securities
Marketable securities consist primarily of mutual funds invested in corporate bonds, U.S. government agency securities, U.S. treasury bills, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, municipal notes, and bonds with original maturities beyond three months at the time of purchase. Marketable securities are classified as available-for-sale, held-to-maturity, or trading at the date of purchase. We classify marketable securities, including securities with maturities beyond twelve months, as current assets in the consolidated balance sheets. All marketable securities are recorded at their estimated fair value. Unrealized gains and losses for available-for-sale securities are recorded in other comprehensive income, net of the related tax effect. We evaluate marketable securities to assess whether those with unrealized loss positions are other-than-temporarily impaired. We consider impairments to be other than temporary if they are related to deterioration in credit risk or if it is likely it will sell the securities before the recovery of their cost basis. Realized gains and losses and declines in value judged to be other-than-temporary are determined based on the specific identification method and are reported in other expense, net in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
Capitalized software development costs
We account for the costs of computer software developed or obtained for internal use in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 350-40, “Internal-Use Software.” Costs incurred during operation and post-implementation stages are charged to expense. Costs incurred that are directly attributable to developing or obtaining software for internal use incurred in the application development stage are capitalized. Management’s judgment is required in determining the point when various projects enter the stages at which costs may be capitalized, in assessing the ongoing value of the capitalized costs and in determining the estimated useful lives over which the costs are amortized.
Acquisitions
To determine whether an acquisition qualifies as a business combination or an asset acquisition, we make certain judgments, which include assessment of the inputs, processes, and outputs associated with the acquired group of assets. If we determine that the acquisition consists of inputs, as well as processes that when applied to those inputs have the ability to create outputs, the acquisition is determined to be a business combination. In instances where the acquired group of assets does not include sufficient inputs and processes to produce outputs, the acquisition is determined to be an asset acquisition. Under the asset acquisition method of accounting, the Company is required to fair value the assets transferred. The cost of the assets acquired is allocated to the individual assets acquired based on their relative fair values and does not give rise to goodwill.
If an acquisition qualifies as a business combination, the related transaction costs are recorded as an expense in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. If an acquisition qualifies as an asset acquisition, the related transaction costs are capitalized and subsequently amortized over the useful life of the acquired assets.
Goodwill and intangible assets
We apply ASC 805, ‘‘Business Combinations,’’ and ASC 350, ‘‘Intangibles—Goodwill and Other’’ to account for goodwill and intangible assets. In accordance with these standards, we amortize all finite lived intangible assets over their respective estimated useful lives, while goodwill has an indefinite life and is not amortized. We review finite lived intangible assets subject to amortization for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the associated carrying amount may not be recoverable. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment at least annually or more frequently whenever a triggering event or change in circumstances occurs, at the reporting unit level. We are required to recognize an impairment charge if the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value.
Prior to our initial public offering, management used all available information to make this fair value determination, including the present values of expected future cash flows using discount rates commensurate with the risks involved in the assets and observed market multiples of operating cash flows and net income. After the consummation of our initial public offering, our stock price and associated market capitalization were also considered in the determination of reporting unit fair value. In addition, if the estimated fair value of the reporting unit is less than the book value (including the goodwill), further management judgment must be applied in determining the fair values of individual assets and liabilities. No impairments for goodwill or other intangible assets were recorded during the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. However, a lower fair value estimate in the future could result in impairment. A prolonged or significant decline in our stock price could provide evidence of a need to record a material impairment of goodwill.

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Income taxes
We account for income taxes and the related accounts under the liability method as set forth in the authoritative guidance for accounting for income taxes. Under this method, current tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the estimated taxes payable or refundable on the tax returns for the current fiscal year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, for net operating losses, and for tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted statutory tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be realized or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of changes in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided for when it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets may not be realized in future years.
We use the tax law ordering approach of intraperiod allocation in determining when excess tax benefits have been realized for provisions of the tax law that identify the sequence in which those amounts are utilized for tax purposes. We have also elected to exclude the indirect tax effects of share-based compensation deductions in computing the income tax provision recorded within the Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Income. Also, we use the portfolio approach in releasing income tax effects from accumulated other comprehensive income.
We recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return using a two-step approach. The first step is to evaluate the tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained upon examination by the relevant taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. For tax positions that are more likely than not to be sustained upon audit, the second step is to measure the tax benefit in the financial statements as the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being sustained upon settlement. We recognize interest and penalties, if any, related to unrecognized tax benefits as a component of other income (expense) in the Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. Significant judgment is required to evaluate uncertain tax positions. Changes in facts and circumstances could have a material impact on our effective tax rate and results of operations. In light of the recently enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, refer to Note 8. Income Taxes, within the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion of the impact of this tax reform on our consolidated financial statements.
Stock-based compensation
Stock options. We award time-based and performance-based stock options to team members, directors, and executive officers. Stock-based compensation costs related to stock options granted are measured at the date of grant based on the estimated fair value of the award, net of estimated forfeitures. We estimate the grant date fair value, and the resulting stock-based compensation expense, using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. With respect to time-based stock options, the grant date fair value of stock-based awards is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the award. With respect to performance-based stock options, stock compensation expense is recognized over the requisite service period using the graded-vesting attribution method when it is probable that the performance condition will be achieved. Each reporting period, we evaluate the probability of achieving the performance criteria and of the number of shares that are expected to vest; compensation expense is then adjusted to reflect the number of shares expected to vest. Accordingly, the expense recognized is an estimate that may change over time as key assumptions are updated. We expect to continue to grant stock options in the future, and to the extent that we do, our stock-based compensation expense recognized in future periods will likely increase.
The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires the use of highly subjective assumptions to estimate the fair value of stock-based awards. If we had made different assumptions, our stock-based compensation expense, net income and net income per share of common stock could have been significantly different. These assumptions include:
Expected volatility:    As we do not have adequate length of trading history for our common stock, the expected stock price volatility for our common stock was estimated by taking the average historical price volatility for industry peers based on daily price observations. We did not rely on implied volatilities of traded options in our industry peers’ common stock because the volume of activity was relatively low. We intend to continue to consistently apply this process using the same or similar public companies until a sufficient amount of historical information regarding the volatility of our own common stock price becomes available, or unless circumstances change such that the identified companies are no longer similar to us, in which case, more suitable companies whose share prices are publicly available would be utilized in the calculation.

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Expected term:    The expected term represents the period that our stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding. We use the "simplified" method to estimate the expected term as determined under Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 110 due to the lack of option exercise history as a public company.
Risk-free interest rate:    The risk-free interest rate is based on the yields of U.S. Treasury securities with maturities similar to the expected term of the options for each option group.
Expected dividend yield:    We have never declared or paid any cash dividends to our common stockholders and do not presently plan to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future, other than in connection with the special dividend described in Item 5- Market for registrant's common equity, related stockholders matters and issuer purchases of equity securities. Consequently, we used an expected dividend yield of zero.
The following table presents the weighted-average assumptions used to estimate the fair value of options granted during the periods presented:
  

Year ended January 31,
 
  

2018


2017


2016

Expected dividend yield

%

%

%
Expected stock price volatility

37.79% - 38.01%


38.01% - 38.37%


38.29% - 40.29%

Risk-free interest rate

1.18% - 2.07%


1.18% - 2.18%


1.47% - 1.80%

Expected life of options

4.50 - 6.25 years


4.50 - 6.25 years


5.43 - 6.25 years

We will continue to use judgment in evaluating the assumptions utilized for our stock-based compensation expense calculations on a prospective basis.
The estimated fair value of a stock option using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model is impacted significantly by changes in a company’s stock price. For example, all other assumptions being equal, the estimated fair value of a stock option will increase as the closing price of a company’s stock increases, and vice versa. Prior to the closing of the IPO, we were a private company and, as such, we were required to estimate the fair value of our common stock. In the absence of a public trading market, we determined a reasonable estimate of the then-current fair value of our common stock for purposes of granting stock-based compensation based on multiple criteria. We estimated the fair value of our common stock utilizing methodologies, approaches and assumptions consistent with the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Practice Aid, “Valuation of Privately-Held-Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation", or the AICPA Practice Aid. After closing of the IPO, the fair value of our common stock is no longer an estimate as it is based upon the closing price of our stock on the NASDAQ Market on the date of grant.
Restricted stock units. Restricted stock units and performance-based RSUs are valued based on the current value of the Company's closing stock price on the date of grant, less the present value of future expected dividends discounted at the risk-free interest rate. Expense for restricted stock units is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. Expense for performance-based RSUs is recognized when it is considered probable that the performance conditions will be met.
Self insurance
We are self-insured for medical and dental benefits for all qualifying employees. The medical plan carries a stop-loss policy which will protect from individual claims during the plan year exceeding $110,000. We record estimates of costs of claims incurred but not reported based on an analysis of historical data and independent estimates.
Recent accounting pronouncements
See Note 1. Summary of business and significant accounting policies within the financial statements included in this Form 10-K for further discussion.

Item 7A. Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk
Market risk
Concentration of market risk. We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from providing services to tax-advantaged healthcare account holders. A significant downturn in this market or changes in state and/or federal laws impacting the preferential tax treatment of healthcare accounts such as HSAs could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. During the years ended January 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, no one customer

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accounted for greater than 10% of our total revenue. We monitor market and regulatory changes regularly and make adjustments to our business if necessary.
Inflation. Inflationary factors may adversely affect our operating results. Althought we do not believe that inflation has had a material impact on our financial position or results of operations to date, a high rate of inflation in the future may have an adverse effect on our ability to maintain current levels of expenses as a percentage of revenue if our revenue does not correspondingly increase with inflation.
Concentration of credit risk
Financial instruments, which potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk, consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. We maintain our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities in bank and other depository accounts, which, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. Our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities as of January 31, 2018 were $240.3 million, of which $750,000 was covered by federal depository insurance. We have not experienced any material losses in such accounts and believe we are not exposed to any significant credit risk with respect to our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities. Our accounts receivable balance as of January 31, 2018 was $21.6 million. We have not experienced any significant write-offs to our accounts receivable and believe that we are not exposed to significant credit risk with respect to our accounts receivable. We continue to monitor our credit risk and place our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities with reputable financial institutions.
Interest rate risk
Custodial cash assets. Our custodial cash assets consists of custodial HSA funds we hold in custody on behalf of our members. As of January 31, 2018, we had custodial cash of approximately $5.5 billion. As a non-bank custodian, we contract with FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners and an insurance company partner to hold custodial cash assets on behalf of our members, and we earn a significant portion of our total revenue from interest rates offered to us by these partners. The contract terms range from three to five years and have either fixed or variable interest rates. As our custodial assets increase and existing agreements expire, we seek to enter into new contracts with FDIC-insured custodial depository bank partners, the terms of which are impacted by the then-prevailing interest rate environment. The diversification of deposits among bank partners and varied contract terms substantially reduces our exposure to short-term fluctuations in prevailing interest rates and mitigates the short-term impact of a sustained increase or decline in prevailing interest rates on our custodial revenue. A sustained decline in prevailing interest rates may negatively affect our business by reducing the size of the interest rate yield, or yield, available to us and thus the amount of the custodial revenue we can realize. Conversely, a sustained increase in prevailing interest rates can increase our yield. An increase in our yield would increase our custodial revenue as a percentage of total revenue. In addition, as our yield increases, we expect the spread to grow between the interest offered to us by our custodial depository bank partners and the interest retained by our members, thus increasing our profitability. However, we may be required to increase the interest retained by our members in a rising prevailing interest rate environment. Changes in prevailing interest rates are driven by macroeconomic trends and government policies over which we have no control.
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. We consider all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be unrestricted cash equivalents. Our unrestricted cash and cash equivalents are held in institutions in the U.S. and include deposits in a money market account that is unrestricted as to withdrawal or use. As of January 31, 2018, we had unrestricted cash and cash equivalents of $199.5 million. Due to the short-term nature of these instruments, we believe that we do not have any material exposure to changes in the fair value of our cash and cash equivalents as a result of changes in interest rates.
As of January 31, 2018, we had marketable securities of $40.8 million. Marketable securities are recorded at their estimated fair value. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes. Our marketable securities are exposed to market risk due to a fluctuation in interest rates, which may affect the fair market value of our marketable securities. However, because we classify our marketable securities as "available-for-sale," no gains or losses are recognized in net income due to changes in interest rates unless such securities are sold prior to maturity or declines in fair value are determined to be other-than-temporary.

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Item 8. Financial statements and Supplementary Data

HealthEquity, Inc. and subsidiaries
Index to consolidated financial statements



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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of HealthEquity, Inc.

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of HealthEquity, Inc. and its subsidiaries as of January 31, 2018 and 2017, and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income, of stockholders' equity and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2018, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of January 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2018 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management's report on internal control over financial reporting. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made

-48-


only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.


/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Salt Lake City, Utah
March 28, 2018

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2013.  



-49-



HealthEquity, Inc. and subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except par value)
January 31, 2018


January 31, 2017

Assets



Current assets



Cash and cash equivalents
$
199,472


$
139,954

Marketable securities, at fair value
40,797


40,405

Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
240,269


180,359

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $208 and $75 as of January 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
21,602


17,001

Inventories
215


592

Other current assets
3,310


2,867

Total current assets
265,396


200,819

Property and equipment, net
7,836


5,170

Intangible assets, net
83,635


65,020

Goodwill
4,651


4,651

Deferred tax asset
5,461


1,615

Other assets
2,180


1,861

Total assets
$
369,159


$
279,136

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity



Current liabilities



Accounts payable
$
2,420


$
3,221

Accrued compensation
12,549


8,722

Accrued liabilities
5,521


3,760

Total current liabilities
20,490


15,703

Long-term liabilities



Other long-term liabilities
2,395


1,456

Deferred tax liability


37

Total long-term liabilities
2,395


1,493

Total liabilities
22,885


17,196

Commitments and contingencies (see note 6)



Stockholders’ equity



Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 100,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding as of January 31, 2018 and 2017



Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 900,000 shares authorized, 60,825 and 59,538 shares issued and outstanding as of January 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
6


6

Additional paid-in capital
261,237


232,114

Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net
(269
)

(165
)
Accumulated earnings
85,300


29,985

Total stockholders’ equity
346,274


261,940

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
369,159


$
279,136

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

-50-



HealthEquity, Inc. and subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
(in thousands, except per share data)
Year ended January 31,
 
2018


2017


2016

Revenue





   Service revenue
$
91,619


$
77,254


$
61,608

   Custodial revenue
87,160


59,593


37,755

   Interchange revenue
50,746


41,523


27,423

   Total revenue
229,525


178,370


126,786

 Cost of revenue





   Service costs
70,426


51,868


39,418

   Custodial costs
11,400


9,767


6,522

   Interchange costs
12,783


10,380


8,248

   Total cost of revenue
94,609


72,015


54,188

 Gross profit
134,916


106,355


72,598

 Operating expenses





   Sales and marketing
23,139


18,320


13,302

   Technology and development
27,385


22,375


16,832

   General and administrative
25,111


20,151


14,113

   Amortization of acquired intangible assets
4,863


4,297


2,208

   Total operating expenses
80,498


65,143


46,455

 Income from operations
54,418


41,212


26,143

 Other expense





   Other expense, net
(2,229
)

(1,092
)

(589
)
 Total other expense
(2,229
)

(1,092
)

(589
)
 Income before income taxes
52,189


40,120


25,554

 Income tax provision
4,827


13,744


8,941

 Net income
$
47,362


$
26,376


$
16,613

Net income per share:





 Basic
$
0.79


$
0.45


$
0.29

 Diluted
$
0.77


$
0.44


$
0.28

Weighted-average number of shares used in computing net income per share:





 Basic
60,304


58,615


56,719

 Diluted
61,854


59,894


58,863

Comprehensive income:








Net income
$
47,362


$
26,376


$
16,613

Other comprehensive loss:








Unrealized loss on available-for-sale marketable securities, net of tax
(59
)

(67
)

(98
)
Comprehensive income
$
47,303


$
26,309


$
16,515

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

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HealthEquity, Inc. and subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

Stockholders’ equity
 

Common stock
 
Additional
paid-in
capital

Accumulated compre-
hensive loss

Accumulated earnings
(deficit)

Total
stockholders'
equity

(in thousands, except exercise prices)
Shares

Amount

Balance as of January 31, 2015
54,802

$
5

$
157,094

$

$
(13,004
)
$
144,095

Issuance of common stock:












Exercise of 1,951 options at $0.98 per share
1,951

1

1,914



1,915

Issuance of common stock
973


23,492



23,492

Stock-based compensation


5,883



5,883

Tax benefit on stock options exercised


11,557



11,557

Other comprehensive loss, net of tax



(98
)

(98
)
Net income




16,613

16,613

Balance as of January 31, 2016
57,726

$
6

$
199,940

$
(98
)
$
3,609

$
203,457

Issuance of common stock:












Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options, and for restricted stock units
1,812


7,142



7,142

Stock-based compensation


8,398



8,398

Tax benefit on stock options exercised


16,634



16,634

Other comprehensive loss, net of tax



(67
)

(67
)
Net income




26,376

26,376

Balance as of January 31, 2017
59,538

$
6

$
232,114

$
(165
)
$
29,985

$
261,940

Issuance of common stock:












Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options, and for restricted stock units
1,287


14,564



14,564

Stock-based compensation


14,310



14,310

Cumulative effect from adoption of ASU 2016-09


249


7,908

8,157

Adoption of ASU 2018-02



(45
)
45


Other comprehensive loss, net of tax



(59
)

(59
)
Net income




47,362

47,362

Balance as of January 31, 2018
60,825

$
6

$
261,237

$
(269
)
$
85,300

$
346,274

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.    

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HealthEquity, Inc. and subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

Year ended January 31,
 
(in thousands)
2018


2017


2016

 Cash flows from operating activities:





 Net income
$
47,362


$
26,376


$
16,613

 Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:





Depreciation and amortization
15,952


13,186


8,601

Deferred taxes
4,306


(2,891
)

(2,178
)
Stock-based compensation
14,310


8,398


5,883

Bad debt expense
133


35


24

Amortization of deferred financing costs and loss on other investments
87


68


23

 Changes in operating assets and liabilities:








Accounts receivable
(4,734
)

(2,728
)

(5,174
)
Inventories
377


28


5

Other assets
(760
)

(1,343
)

(107
)
Accounts payable
(581
)

567


1,011

Accrued compensation
3,827


946


2,475

Accrued liabilities
484


1,729


(383
)
Other long-term liabilities
939


1,220


(252
)
 Net cash provided by operating activities
81,702


45,591


26,541

 Cash flows from investing activities:





Purchase of marketable securities
(483
)

(379
)

(40,291
)
Purchase of property and equipment
(5,458
)

(3,645
)

(2,376
)
Purchase of software and capitalized software development costs
(10,380
)

(9,030
)

(6,896
)
Acquisition of intangible member assets
(17,545
)



(40,489
)
Acquisition of a business
(2,882
)




Purchases of other investments




(500
)
 Net cash used in investing activities
(36,748
)

(13,054
)

(90,552
)
 Cash flows from financing activities:





Proceeds from follow-on offering, net of payments for offering costs




23,492

Proceeds from exercise of common stock options
14,564


7,142


1,915

Tax benefit from exercise of common stock options


16,634


11,557

Deferred financing costs paid




(317
)
 Net cash provided by financing activities
14,564


23,776


36,647

 Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
59,518


56,313


(27,364
)
 Beginning cash and cash equivalents
139,954


83,641


111,005

 Ending cash and cash equivalents
$
199,472


$
139,954


$
83,641

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

-53-



HealthEquity, Inc. and subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (continued)

Year ended January 31,
 
(in thousands)
2018


2017


2016

Supplemental cash flow data: