424B5 1 d833835d424b5.htm 424B5 424B5
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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-222366

 

The information contained in this preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to the securities has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission. This preliminary prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities and are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED DECEMBER 11, 2019

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To prospectus dated January 10, 2018)

 

 

 

LOGO

                 Shares of Common Stock

Pre-Funded Warrants to Purchase                 Shares of Common Stock

We are offering                  shares of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement.

We are also offering to a certain existing investor the opportunity to purchase, in lieu of the shares of our common stock, warrants, which we refer to as pre-funded warrants, to purchase shares of our common stock. The purchase price of each pre-funded warrant will equal the price per share that shares of our common stock are being sold to the public in this offering, minus $0.001, and the exercise price of each pre-funded warrant will equal $0.001 per share. This prospectus supplement also relates to the offering of the shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of such pre-funded warrants. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ASMB.” On December 9, 2019, the last reported sale price of shares of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $16.63 per share. We do not intend to list the pre-funded warrants on The NASDAQ Global Select Market, any other national securities exchange or any other nationally recognized trading system.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-5 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

     PER SHARE      PER PRE-
FUNDED
WARRANT
     TOTAL  

Public offering price

   $                    $                    $                

Underwriting discounts and commissions (1)

   $        $                    $    

Proceeds to Assembly Biosciences, Inc., before expenses

   $        $                    $    

 

 

(1)    See “Underwriting” beginning on page S-20 of this prospectus supplement for a description of the compensation payable to the underwriters.

Delivery of the shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants is expected to be made on or about December                     , 2019. We have granted the underwriters a 30-day option from the date of this prospectus supplement to purchase up to             additional shares of our common stock. If the underwriters exercise the option in full, the underwriting discounts and commissions payable by us will be $            , and the total proceeds to us, before expenses, will be $            .

Joint Book-Running Managers

 

Jefferies   SVB Leerink   William Blair

Prospectus Supplement dated                 , 2019


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

     PAGE  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

  

About This Prospectus Supplement

     S-ii  

Prospectus Supplement Summary

     S-1  

The Offering

     S-3  

Risk Factors

     S-5  

Cautionary Statement on Forward-Looking Statements

     S-8  

Use of Proceeds

     S-10  

Dilution

     S-11  

Market For Our Common Stock

     S-13  

Dividend Policy

     S-14  

Description of Pre-Funded Warrants

     S-15  

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for Non-U.S. Holders

     S-16  

Underwriting

     S-19  

Legal Matters

     S-26  

Experts

     S-27  

Where You Can Find More Information

     S-28  

Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference

     S-29  

PROSPECTUS

  

About This Prospectus

     1  

Risk Factors

     2  

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     3  

Our Company

     5  

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     6  

Use of Proceeds

     6  

Securities We May Offer

     7  

Description of Capital Stock

     8  

Description of Debt Securities

     12  

Description of Warrants

     27  

Description of Units

     28  

Plan of Distribution

     32  

Legal Matters

     35  

Experts

     35  

Where You Can Find More Information

     35  

Incorporation by Reference

     36  

 

 


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document contains two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also supplements and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which provides more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. If the information contained in this prospectus supplement differs or varies from the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or in any document incorporated by reference herein or therein that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) before the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information set forth in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a subsequently filed document deemed incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus supplement.

We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide you with information that is in addition to or different from that contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or contained in any permitted free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may provide.

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where such offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus supplement or the dates of the accompanying prospectus, and the information in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is accurate only as of the dates of those respective documents, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or of any sale of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in making your investment decision. You should read both this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the additional information described under the section titled ‘‘Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus, before investing in our common stock.

Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus to “Assembly,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Assembly Biosciences, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference contain estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.

No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of the securities or possession or distribution of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus in that jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus applicable to that jurisdiction.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our securities. Before investing in our common stock, you should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the sections titled “Risk Factors” and the financial statements and accompanying notes and other information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

Our Company

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing innovative therapeutics targeting chronic hepatitis B virus (“HBV”) infection and diseases associated with the microbiome.

Over 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HBV. Our HBV-cure program is pursuing multiple drug candidates that inhibit the HBV lifecycle and block the generation of covalently closed circular DNA, with the aim of increasing the current low cure rate for patients with HBV. We have discovered several novel core inhibitors, which are small molecules that directly target and allosterically modulate the HBV core protein.

Our Microbiome program consists of a fully integrated platform that includes a strain isolation, identification, characterization and function based selection process, methods for strain purification and growth under current Good Manufacturing Practice conditions, and a licensed patented delivery system that we call GEMICEL®, which is designed to allow for targeted oral delivery of live biologic and conventional therapies to the lower gastrointestinal tract. In connection with our Microbiome program, we filed an investigational new drug, or IND, application with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in December 2018 for ABI-M201. In February 2019, we initiated a Phase 1b human clinical study for ABI-M201 in patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC) to evaluate safety, efficacy and exploratory endpoints, and in June 2019, we initiated dosing of the first patient in this clinical study. Using our microbiome platform capabilities, we are also exploring product candidates for multiple disease indications, including UC, Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with Allergan Pharmaceuticals International Limited (Allergan) in connection with its Research, Development, Collaboration and License Agreement (the Collaboration Agreement), as well as immune-mediated and metabolic disorders and oncology, which indications we will pursue either internally or in collaboration with other parties.

We currently have corporate and administrative offices in Carmel, Indiana, administrative offices and research laboratory space in South San Francisco, California and research, development and small-scale manufacturing activities in Groton, Connecticut. We also currently have an administrative office and research laboratory space in Shanghai, China and a regulatory office in Beijing, China.

Recent Developments

In July 2018, we commenced two Phase 2a combination studies for ABI-H0731, ABI-H0731-201 (Study 201) and ABI-H0731-202 (Study 202), at sites in the United States, Canada, Hong Kong, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. All patients who completed treatment in Study 201 or Study 202 had the option to roll over into Study 211 and receive the combination of ABI-H0731 with ongoing standard of care nucleos(t)ide pol inhibitor (NrtI) therapy. We expect that subjects in Study 211 will be treated for up to 76 weeks from the time of completion of their participation in either Study 201 or Study 202. Subjects in Study 211 who achieve a complete response will begin a six-month treatment consolidation period and then have the opportunity to stop all treatment (ABI-H0731 and NrtI) and be monitored for six or more months off therapy to assess whether combination therapy improves the rate of sustained viral responses. On November 11, 2019, we presented final 24-week results for HBeAg-positive patients from Studies 201 and 202 and interim long-term



 

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data for Study 211 during the late-breaker poster session at the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Annual Meeting (The Liver Meeting®) in Boston, Massachusetts.

ABI-H2158, our second product candidate in the HBV-cure program, is an internally discovered and developed drug product candidate that is chemically distinct from ABI-H0731. In November 2018, we initiated a Phase 1a/1b dose-ranging clinical study of ABI-H2158 in New Zealand, to assess the safety, tolerability and PK of ABI-H2158 in healthy volunteers and then subsequently assess the safety, tolerability, PK and initial antiviral potency in non-cirrhotic patients with chronic HBV infection. We presented final data from the Phase 1a portion of the Phase 1a/1b dose-ranging clinical study at European Association for the Study of the Liver (“EASL”) in April 2019. We initiated the Phase 1b dose-ranging portion of this study in April 2019 to assess the safety, PK and antiviral activity of ABI-H2158 in patients with chronic HBV infection. On November 11, 2019, we presented interim data from the first dose cohort of this ongoing Phase 1b study during the late-breaker poster session at The Liver Meeting. This Phase 1b study is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2020.

ABI-H3733 is our third product candidate for the treatment of HBV and is currently undergoing investigational new drug application enabling studies. We presented a summary of preclinical data for this candidate at the EASL meeting in Paris in April 2019. We expect to initiate Phase 1a studies for this product candidate in the first quarter of 2020.

Corporate Information

Assembly Biosciences, Inc., formerly known as Ventrus BioSciences, Inc., was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on October 7, 2005, originally under the name South Island BioSciences, Inc. Our executive offices are located at 11711 N. Meridian Street, Suite 310, Carmel, IN 46032 and our telephone number is (833) 509-4583. Our corporate website address is www.assemblybio.com. We do not incorporate the information contained on, or accessible through, our website into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

We own various U.S. federal and foreign trademark applications, and unregistered trademarks, including our corporate name and our corporate logo. GEMICEL® is our trademark. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may also contain trademarks and trade names that are the property of their respective owners.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

                 shares

 

Pre-funded warrants offered by us

Pre-funded warrants to purchase up to             shares of our common stock. The purchase price of each pre-funded warrant will equal the price per share that shares of common stock are being sold to the public in this offering, minus $0.001, and the exercise price of each pre-funded warrant will be $0.001 per share. Pre-funded warrants are being offered to a certain existing investor, in lieu of the shares of our common stock. This prospectus also relates to the offering of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of these pre-funded warrants.

 

Option to purchase additional shares

We have granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional                  shares of common stock at the public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

                 shares (or                  shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares), in each case excluding any shares issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants.

 

Use of proceeds

We expect to receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $            million, or $            million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund clinical trials, nonclinical studies, research and development and for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Risk factors

Investing in our securities involves risks. See “Risk Factors” for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our securities.

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol

“ASMB”

Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement relating to the number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 25,872,723 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019, and excludes the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants being offered by us in this offering, as well as:

 

   

5,462,773 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2019 with a weighted-average exercise price of  $15.52 per share, of which 4,996,534 were granted under our equity incentive plans and 466,239 are outstanding under standalone nonqualified stock option agreements;

 

   

668,515 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units (RSUs) as of September 30, 2019;



 

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15,296 shares of common stock underlying warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2019, at a weighted-average exercise price of  $30.00 per share;

 

   

341,713 shares of common stock subject to purchase under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of September 30, 2019; and

 

   

1,973,110 shares of common stock available for future issuance under equity incentive plans as of September 30, 2019.

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement assumes:

 

   

no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares and no exercise of the pre-funded warrants we are offering to a certain existing investor; and

 

   

no exercise or forfeiture of the outstanding options or warrants, no grant of equity awards and no vesting and settlement of the outstanding RSUs described above.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described below and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended September 30, 2019 incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, any amendment or update thereto reflected in our subsequent filings with the SEC, and all of the other information into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If any of these risks is realized, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition and could result in a complete loss of your investment.

Risks Related to This Offering and Our Securities

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and our existing cash and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section titled “Use of Proceeds,” as well as our existing cash, and you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding such application. You will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. Our management might not apply the net proceeds or our existing cash in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering or our existing cash in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected results, which could cause our stock price to decline. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term U.S. Treasury securities with insignificant rates of return. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.

If you purchase our securities in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of your shares.

Investors purchasing shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants in this offering will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds the as adjusted book value per share of our tangible assets as of September 30, 2019 after subtracting our liabilities. Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019 was approximately $114.8 million, or $4.44 per share of our common stock, based upon 25,872,723 shares of common stock outstanding on September 30, 2019. After giving effect to the sale of our common stock and pre-funded warrants at an offering price of $             per share of common stock and $             per pre-funded warrant (which equals the public offering price of the common stock less the $0.001 per share exercise price of each such pre-funded warrant) (and excluding shares of common stock issued and any proceeds received upon exercise of the warrants or any resulting accounting associated with the warrants), after deducting estimated offering commissions and expenses payable by us, our pro forma net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019 would have been approximately $             million, or $             per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the pro forma net tangible book value of $             per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate and substantial dilution in as-adjusted net tangible book value of $             per share to new investors who purchase our common stock in the offering.

This dilution is due to the substantially lower price paid by some of our investors who purchased shares prior to this offering as compared to the price offered to the public in this offering and the exercise of stock options granted to our employees, directors and consultants. In addition, we have a significant number of stock options, warrants and RSUs outstanding. The exercise of any of these outstanding options and warrants and the vesting and settlement of any of these RSUs would result in additional dilution. As a result of the dilution to investors purchasing shares in this offering, investors may receive significantly less than the purchase price paid in this offering, if anything, in the event of our liquidation. Further, because we expect we will need to raise additional capital to fund our future activities, we may in the future sell substantial amounts of common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for common stock.

 

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Future issuances of common stock or common stock-related securities including the pre-funded warrants offered hereby, together with the exercise of outstanding options and warrants and the vesting and settlement of outstanding RSUs, if any, may result in further dilution. Furthermore, in connection with the filing of the registration statement in December 2017 (which was declared effective in January 2018), we entered into a sales agreement under which we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75.0 million under this registration statement through “at the market offerings.” Any sales under this agreement may result in further dilution to our stockholders and may cause the market price of our stock to decline. For a further description of the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see the section titled “Dilution.”

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market or the perception that these sales might occur could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that sales may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock. In addition, the sale of substantial amounts of our common stock could adversely impact its price. As of September 30, 2019, we had outstanding 25,872,723 shares of our common stock, options to purchase 5,462,773 shares of our common stock, 668,515 shares of our common stock underlying RSUs, 341,713 shares of common stock subject to purchase under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan and warrants to purchase 15,296 shares of our common stock. The sale or the availability for sale of a large number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause the price of our common stock to decline.

We, along with our directors and executive officers, have agreed that for a period of 90 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, subject to specified exceptions, we or they will not offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for any shares of our common stock. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, these lock-up agreements affect approximately 998,942 shares of our common stock currently outstanding. Sales of stock by any of our directors and executive officers could have a material adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.

There is no public market for the pre-funded warrants being offered in this offering.

There is no established public trading market for the pre-funded warrants being offered in this offering, and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply to list the pre-funded warrants on any securities exchange or nationally recognized trading system, including the Nasdaq Global Select Market. Without an active market, the liquidity of the pre-funded warrants will be limited.

Holders of pre-funded warrants purchased in this offering will have no rights as common stockholders until such holders exercise their pre-funded warrants and acquire shares of our common stock.

Until holders of the pre-funded warrants being offered in this offering acquire shares of our common stock upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants, such holders will have no rights with respect to the shares of our common stock underlying the pre-funded warrants. Upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants, the holders will be entitled to exercise the rights of a common stockholder only as to matters for which the record date occurs after the exercise date.

Because we have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.

We intend to retain future earnings, if any, for future operations and expansion of our business and have no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. The declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends on shares of common stock will be at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors may take into account general and economic conditions, our financial condition and results of operations, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax and regulatory restrictions, implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries to us and such other factors as our Board of Directors may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants in connection with any indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in our common stock unless you sell our common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.

 

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Our ability to use our net operating loss and credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

As of December 31, 2018, we had potentially utilizable gross Federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $209.2 million, State net operating loss carry-forwards of approximately $209.0 million, and Federal and California research and development credit carryforwards of approximately $3.6 million and $2.4 million, respectively, all of which (other than any Federal net operating loss carryforwards arising in taxable years ending after December 31, 2017) expire between 2027 and 2038. Our ability to utilize our net operating loss and credit carryforwards is dependent upon our ability to generate taxable income in future periods and may be limited due to restrictions imposed on utilization of net operating loss and credit carryforwards under federal and state laws upon a change in ownership.

Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change,” is subject to annual limitations on its ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards (NOLs) and other pre-change tax attributes (such as research tax credits) to offset its post-change income or taxes. For these purposes, an ownership change generally occurs where the equity ownership of one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who owns at least 5% of a corporation’s stock increases its ownership by more than 50 percentage points over its lowest ownership percentage within a three-year period (calculated on a rolling basis). We have determined that an ownership change occurred in each of December 2010, January 2013 and October 2014. The result of these ownership changes is that approximately $40.0 million of our approximately $209.2 million of net operating losses will not be available to us to offset future taxable income. In addition, we may experience ownership changes in the future, some of which are outside our control. Accordingly, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our net operating losses or credits. Limitations on our ability to utilize our net operating losses to offset U.S. federal taxable income could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us. In addition, at the state level, there may be periods during which the use of net operating losses is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed.

Because U.S. federal net operating losses incurred in taxable periods ending before January 1, 2018 may be carried forward for up to 20 years, the annual limitation may effectively provide a cap on the cumulative amount of pre-ownership change losses, including certain recognized built-in losses, that may be utilized. Such pre-ownership change losses in excess of the cap may be lost. In addition, if an ownership change were to occur, it is possible that the limitations imposed on our ability to use pre-ownership change losses and certain recognized built-in losses could cause a net increase in our U.S. federal income tax liability and require U.S. federal income taxes to be paid earlier than otherwise would be paid if such limitations were not in effect. Further, if for financial reporting purposes the amount or value of the deferred tax assets associated with these tax attributes is reduced, such reduction would have a negative impact on the book value of our common stock.

In addition, under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the Tax Act), the amount of U.S. federal net operating losses generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017, that we are permitted to deduct in any taxable year is limited to 80% of our taxable income in such year, where taxable income is determined without regard to the NOL deduction itself. The Tax Act generally eliminates the ability to carry back any post-2017 NOL to prior taxable years, while allowing unused post-2017 NOLs to be carried forward indefinitely. There is a risk that due to ownership changes, changes in law or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities.

 

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information and documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “continue,” and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions, risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, and in particular those factors referenced in the sections titled “Risk Factors.”

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information and documents incorporated by reference herein and therein contain forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the initiation, timing, progress and results of nonclinical studies and clinical studies, and our research and development programs;

 

   

the clinical and therapeutic potential of our product candidates;

 

   

our unproven approach to therapeutic intervention;

 

   

the potential benefits of our existing collaborations and our ability to establish and maintain collaborations, including with Allergan Pharmaceuticals International Limited;

 

   

our ability to obtain additional funding;

 

   

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals for our product candidates;

 

   

the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business, product candidates and technology;

 

   

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance for our product candidates, if approved, and their clinical utility;

 

   

our plans to develop and commercialize our product candidates;

 

   

our ability to retain and recruit key personnel;

 

   

our ability to manage growth;

 

   

our competitive position;

 

   

our intellectual property position;

 

   

developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry; and

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing.

These forward-looking statements are neither promises nor guarantees of future performance due to a variety of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by these forward-looking statements, including, without limitation the risk factors and cautionary statements described in other documents that we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically under “Item 1A: Risk Factors” and elsewhere in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2019 and the section of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus titled “Risk Factors.”

 

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The forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference represent our views as of their respective dates. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we assume no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the dates on which they were made.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, will be approximately $        million (or approximately $        million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full).

We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to fund clinical trials, nonclinical studies, research and development and for general corporate purposes. The expected use of the net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions, which could change in the future as our plans and business conditions evolve. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our nonclinical development efforts, the ongoing status of and results from our clinical trials and other studies and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in applying the net proceeds from this offering. Although we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering for the licensing or acquisition of, or the development of, additional product candidates, technologies, compounds, other assets or complementary businesses, we have no current understandings, agreements or commitments to do so. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we expect to invest the net proceeds in short- or long-term securities.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our common stock in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

As of September 30, 2019, we had net tangible book value of approximately $114.8 million, or $4.44 per share of our common stock, based upon 25,872,723 shares of our common stock outstanding as of that date. Historical net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, divided by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock. Dilution in net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

After giving effect to the sale of                  shares of common stock in this offering at the public offering price of $            per share, and pre-funded warrants to purchase up to              shares of common stock in this offering at the public offering price of $             per share of our common stock and $             per pre-funded warrant (which equals the public offering price of the common stock less the $0.001 per share exercise price of each such pre-funded warrant) (and excluding shares of common stock issued and any proceeds received upon exercise of the warrants or any resulting accounting associated with the warrants) and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and excluding the proceeds, if any, from the exercise of the pre-funded warrants issued pursuant to this offering, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019 would have been approximately $            million, or approximately $            per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in as adjusted net tangible book value of $            per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $            per share to new investors purchasing common stock and pre-funded warrants in this offering.

The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis to new investors

 

 

 

Public offering price per share

      $                

Historical net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2019

   $ 4.44     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares and pre-funded warrants in this offering

     

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

         

Dilution per share to investors in this offering

      $                

 

 

If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase                  additional shares of common stock at the public offering price of $            per share, the as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering would be $            per share, representing an increase in net tangible book value of $            per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $            per share to investors in this offering at the public offering price.

Assuming the pre-funded warrants were immediately exercised, this would result in an as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering and warrant exercise of $            , which represents a dilution per share to new investors of $             and an increase in net tangible book value per share to existing shareholders of $            .

Except for the discussion on dilution resulting upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants in the immediately preceding paragraph, the table and discussion above is based on 25,872,723 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019 and excludes the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants being offered by us in this offering, as well as:

 

   

5,462,773 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2019 with a weighted-average exercise price of $15.52 per share, of which 4,996,534 were granted under our equity incentive plans and 466,239 are outstanding under standalone nonqualified stock option agreements;

 

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668,515 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting of RSUs as of September 30, 2019;

 

   

15,296 shares of common stock underlying warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2019, at a weighted-average exercise price of $30.00 per share;

 

   

341,713 shares of common stock subject to purchase under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of September 30, 2019; and

 

   

1,973,110 shares of common stock available for future issuance under equity incentive plans as of September 30, 2019.

To the extent that any options or warrants are exercised, including the prefunded warrants, any RSUs vest and are settled, new equity awards are issued under our equity incentive plans, or we otherwise issue additional shares of common stock in the future (including shares issued in connection with strategic and other transactions), there will be further dilution to new investors.

In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

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MARKET FOR OUR COMMON STOCK

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ASMB.” On December 9, 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $16.63 per share. As of December 9, 2019, there were approximately 82 record holders of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid dividends on our capital stock. We do not anticipate paying any dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. Any future determination to declare dividends will be subject to the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on various factors, including applicable laws, our results of operations, financial condition, future prospects and any other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Investors should not purchase our securities with the expectation of receiving cash dividends.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PRE-FUNDED WARRANTS

The following is a brief summary of certain terms and conditions of the pre-funded warrants being offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement. The following description is subject in all respects to the provisions contained in the pre-funded warrants.

Form. The pre-funded warrants will be issued as individual warrant agreements to the investors. The form of pre-funded warrant will be filed as an exhibit to our Current Report on Form 8-K that we expect to file with the SEC.

Exercisability. The pre-funded warrants are exercisable at any time after their original issuance. The pre-funded warrants will be exercisable, at the option of each holder, in whole or in part by delivering to us a duly executed exercise notice and by payment in full in immediately available funds for the number of shares of common stock purchased upon such exercise. As an alternative to payment in immediately available funds, the holder may, in its sole discretion, elect to exercise the pre-funded warrant through a cashless exercise, in which case the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of shares of common stock determined according to the formula set forth in the pre-funded warrant. No fractional shares of common stock will be issued in connection with the exercise of a pre-funded warrant. In lieu of fractional shares, we will pay the holder an amount in cash equal to the fractional amount multiplied by the fair market value of any such fractional shares.

Exercise Limitations. Under the pre-funded warrants, neither we nor the holder may effect the exercise of any pre-funded warrant, and a holder will not be entitled to exercise any portion of any pre-funded warrant, which, upon giving effect to such exercise, would cause (i) the aggregate number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the holder (together with its affiliates) to exceed 4.99% of the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, or (ii) the combined voting power of our securities beneficially owned by the holder (together with its affiliates) to exceed 4.99% of the combined voting power of all of our securities then outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, as such percentage ownership is determined in accordance with the terms of the pre-funded warrants. However, any holder may increase or decrease such percentage, but not in excess of 19.99%, upon at least 61 days’ prior notice from the holder to us.

Exercise Price. The exercise price per whole share of our common stock purchasable upon the exercise of the pre-funded warrants is $0.001 per share of common stock. The exercise price of the pre-funded warrants is subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of certain stock dividends and distributions, stock splits, stock combinations, reclassifications or similar events affecting our common stock and also upon any distributions of assets, including cash, stock or other property to our stockholders.

Transferability. Subject to applicable laws, the pre-funded warrants may be offered for sale, sold, transferred or assigned without our consent.

Exchange Listing. We do not plan on applying to list the pre-funded warrants on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, any other national securities exchange or any other nationally recognized trading system.

Fundamental Transactions. In the event of a fundamental transaction, as described in the pre-funded warrants and generally including any reorganization, recapitalization or reclassification of our common stock, the sale, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of our properties or assets, our consolidation or merger with or into another person, the acquisition of more than 50% of our outstanding common stock, or any person or group becoming the beneficial owner of 50% of the voting power represented by our outstanding common stock, the holders of the pre-funded warrants will be entitled to receive upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants the kind and amount of securities, cash or other property that the holders would have received had they exercised the pre-funded warrants immediately prior to such fundamental transaction without regard to any limitations on exercised contained in the pre-funded warrants.

No Rights as a Stockholder. Except by virtue of such holder’s ownership of shares of our common stock, the holder of a pre-funded warrant does not have the rights or privileges of a holder of our common stock, including any voting rights, until the holder exercises the pre-funded warrant.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

The following is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of our common stock or pre-funded warrants to non-U.S. holders, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all the potential tax considerations relating thereto. This summary is based upon the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code), Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder, administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as of the date hereof. These authorities may be changed or subject to differing interpretations, possibly with retroactive effect, so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those set forth below. We have not sought any ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the IRS) with respect to the statements made and the conclusions reached in the following summary, and there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with such statements and conclusions.

This summary also does not address the tax considerations arising under the laws of any U.S. state or local or any non-U.S. jurisdiction, U.S. federal estate or gift tax laws, the Medicare tax on net investment income or any alternative minimum tax consequences. In addition, this discussion does not address tax considerations applicable to an investor’s particular circumstances or to investors that may be subject to special tax rules, including, without limitation:

 

   

banks, insurance companies or other financial institutions;

 

   

tax-exempt organizations;

 

   

dealers in securities or currencies;

 

   

traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings;

 

   

persons that own, or are deemed to own, more than five percent of our capital stock;

 

   

certain former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

   

persons who hold our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants as a position in a hedging transaction, “straddle,” “conversion transaction” or other risk reduction transaction;

 

   

persons who do not hold our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, for investment purposes);

 

   

partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes (or investors in any such entities);

 

   

persons deemed to sell our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants under the constructive sale provisions of the Code;

 

   

regulated investment companies or real estate investment trusts;

 

   

pension plans;

 

   

controlled foreign corporations;

 

   

passive foreign investment companies; or

 

   

persons that acquire our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants as compensation for services.

In addition, if a partnership, including any entity or arrangement classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, holds our common stock or pre-funded warrants, the tax treatment of a partner generally will depend on the status of the partner and upon the activities of the partnership. Accordingly, partnerships that hold our common stock or pre-funded warrants, and partners in such partnerships, should consult their tax advisors.

You are urged to consult your tax advisor with respect to the application of the U.S. federal income tax laws to your particular situation, as well as any tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock or pre-funded warrants arising under the U.S. federal estate or gift tax rules or under the laws of any U.S. state or local or any non-U.S. or other taxing jurisdiction or under any applicable tax treaty.

Non-U.S. Holder Defined

For purposes of this discussion, you are a non-U.S. holder if you are a beneficial owner of our common stock or pre-funded warrants that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes (i) a foreign corporation or any other foreign organization classified as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (ii) a nonresident alien individual, or (iii) a foreign estate or trust that in either case is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net-income basis on income from, or gain on sale of, a share of common stock or pre-funded warrants.

 

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Pre-funded Warrants

Although the law in this area is not completely settled, the pre-funded warrants are generally expected to be treated as outstanding stock for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If you are a non-U.S. holder that is contemplating the acquisition of pre-funded warrants, you should discuss with your personal tax advisor the consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of the pre-funded warrants, as well as the exercise of the pre-funded warrants into our common stock.

Distributions on our Common Stock

As discussed under “Dividend Policy,” above, we do not anticipate paying any dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. If we were to make distributions on our common stock, those payments will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. To the extent those distributions exceed both our current and our accumulated earnings and profits, they will constitute a return of capital and will first reduce your basis in our common stock, but not below zero, and then will be treated as gain from the sale of stock, subject to the tax treatment described in the discussion below regarding taxable dispositions of our common stock. Any such distributions would also be subject to the discussions below regarding backup withholding and FATCA.

Subject to the discussion below regarding a dividend received by you that is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business, a dividend paid to you generally will be subject to U.S. withholding tax either at a rate of 30% of the gross amount of the dividend or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty. In order to receive a reduced treaty rate, you must provide us with an IRS Form W-8BEN (generally including a U.S. taxpayer identification number), IRS Form W-8BEN-E or another appropriate version of IRS Form W-8 (or a successor form), in each case, certifying qualification for the reduced rate.

Dividends received by you that are effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, are attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by you in the United States) generally are exempt from such withholding tax. In order to obtain this exemption, you must provide us with an IRS Form W-8ECI or successor form or other applicable IRS Form W-8 properly certifying such exemption. Such effectively connected dividends, although not subject to withholding tax, are taxed at the same graduated rates applicable to U.S. persons, net of certain deductions and credits, subject to an applicable income tax treaty providing otherwise. In addition, if you are a corporate non-U.S. holder, you may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty on such effectively connected dividends.

If you are eligible for a reduced rate of withholding tax pursuant to a tax treaty, you may be able to obtain a refund of any excess amounts currently withheld if you file an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS.

The pre-funded warrants are not entitled to any distributions until such warrant is exercised.

Gain on Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Common Stock and/or Pre-Funded Warrants

Subject to the discussion below regarding backup withholding and FATCA, a non-U.S. holder generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the gain is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by you in the U.S.), in which case you will be required to pay tax on the net gain derived from the sale under regular graduated U.S. federal income tax rates, and for a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation, such non-U.S. holder may be subject to the branch profits tax on any earnings and profits attributable to such gains at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty;

 

   

you are an individual who is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the calendar year in which the sale or disposition occurs and certain other conditions are met, in which case you will be required to pay a flat 30% tax on the gain derived from the sale, which tax may be offset by U.S. source capital losses in the taxable year of disposition (even though you are not considered a resident of the United States) (subject to applicable income tax or other treaties); or

 

   

our common stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest by reason of our status as a “U.S. real property holding corporation” (a USRPHC) for U.S. federal income tax purposes at any time within the shorter of the five-

 

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year period preceding the disposition or your holding period for our common stock. We believe that we are not currently and will not become a USRPHC. However, because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends on the fair market value of our U.S. real property relative to the fair market value of our other business assets, there can be no assurance that we will not become a USRPHC in the future. Even if we become a USRPHC, however, as long as our common stock, is regularly traded on an established securities market (as determined under the Code), such common stock will be treated as U.S. real property interests only if you actually or constructively hold more than five percent of such regularly traded common stock at any time during the applicable period that is specified in the Code. Our pre-funded warrants are expected to constitute a class of stock for purposes of the rules described above. However, we do not expect our pre-funded warrants to be regularly traded on an established securities market for purposes of such rules.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

Generally, we must report annually to the IRS the amount of dividends paid to you, your name and address, and the amount of tax withheld, if any. A similar report will generally be sent to you. Pursuant to applicable income tax treaties or other agreements, the IRS may make these reports available to tax authorities in your country of residence.

Payments of dividends or of proceeds on the disposition of our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants made to you may be subject to additional information reporting and backup withholding at the then applicable rate unless you establish an exemption, for example by properly certifying your non-U.S. status on an IRS Form W-8BEN, IRS Form W-8BEN-E or another appropriate version of IRS Form W-8 (or a successor form). Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding and information reporting may apply if either we or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that you are a U.S. person.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax; rather, the U.S. federal income tax liability of persons subject to backup withholding will be reduced by the amount of tax withheld. If withholding results in an overpayment of taxes, a refund or credit may generally be obtained from the IRS, provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS in a timely manner.

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA)

Provisions commonly referred to as “FATCA” may impose withholding tax on certain types of payments made to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities. The legislation imposes a 30% withholding tax on dividends on our common stock paid to a foreign financial institution or to certain non-financial foreign entities, unless (i) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence, reporting and withholding obligations, (ii) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner and such entity meets certain other specified requirements, or (iii) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. Such withholding may also apply to gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock and/or pre-funded warrants, although under recently proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, no withholding would apply to such gross proceeds. The preamble to the proposed regulations specifies that taxpayers (including withholding agents) are permitted to rely on the proposed regulations pending finalization. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the requirements in (i) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain U.S. persons or U.S.-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent it from complying with these reporting and other requirements. If the country in which a payee is resident has entered into an “intergovernmental agreement” with the United States regarding FATCA, that agreement may permit the payee to report to that country rather than to the U.S. Treasury. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding FATCA.

The preceding discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations is for general information only. It is not tax advice. Each prospective investor should consult its own tax advisor regarding the particular U.S. federal, state and local and non-U.S. tax consequences of purchasing, holding and disposing of our common stock, including the consequences of any proposed change in applicable laws.

 

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UNDERWRITING

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement among us and Jefferies LLC, SVB Leerink LLC and William Blair & Company, L.L.C., as the representatives of the underwriters named below, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each of the underwriters has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the respective number of shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants shown opposite its name below:

 

 

 

Underwriter    NUMBER OF SHARES      NUMBER OF
PRE-FUNDED
WARRANTS
 

Jefferies LLC

                                                       

SVB Leerink LLC

     

William Blair & Company, L.L.C.

     
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the several underwriters are subject to certain conditions precedent such as the receipt by the underwriters of officers’ certificates and legal opinions and approval of certain legal matters by their counsel. The underwriting agreement provides that the underwriters will purchase all of the shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants if any of them are purchased. If an underwriter defaults, the underwriting agreement provides that the purchase commitments of the nondefaulting underwriters may be increased or the underwriting agreement may be terminated. We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters and certain of their controlling persons against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and to contribute to payments that the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

The underwriters have advised us that, following the completion of this offering, they currently intend to make a market in the common stock as permitted by applicable laws and regulations. However, the underwriters are not obligated to do so, and the underwriters may discontinue any market-making activities at any time without notice in their sole discretion. Accordingly, no assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for the common stock, that you will be able to sell any of the common stock held by you at a particular time or that the prices that you receive when you sell will be favorable. There is no established public trading market for the pre-funded warrants. The pre-funded warrants will not be listed on any national securities exchange or any other nationally recognized trading system.

The underwriters are offering the shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants subject to their acceptance of the shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants from us and subject to prior sale. The underwriters reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part.

Commission and Expenses

The underwriters have advised us that they propose to offer the shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. The underwriters may offer the shares of common stock to certain dealers, which may include the underwriters, at that price less a concession not in excess of  $        per share of common stock. After the offering, the public offering price, concession and reallowance to dealers may be reduced by the representatives. No such reduction will change the amount of proceeds to be received by us as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus.

 

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The following table shows the public offering price, the underwriting discounts and commissions that we are to pay the underwriters and the proceeds, before expenses, to us in connection with this offering. Such amounts are shown assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.

 

 

 

          PER SHARE     TOTAL  
    PER PRE-
FUNDED
WARRANT
    WITHOUT
OPTION TO
PURCHASE
ADDITIONAL
SHARES
    WITH OPTION TO
PURCHASE
ADDITIONAL
SHARES
    WITHOUT
OPTION TO
PURCHASE
ADDITIONAL
SHARES
    WITH OPTION TO
PURCHASE
ADDITIONAL
SHARES
 

Public offering price

  $                   $                   $                   $               $                

Underwriting discounts and commissions paid by us

  $                   $       $       $       $    

Proceeds to us, before expenses

  $                   $       $       $       $    

 

 

We estimate expenses payable by us in connection with this offering, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions referred to above, will be approximately $        . We have also agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain of their expenses relating to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority in an amount up to $2,500.

Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “ASMB”. The pre-funded warrants will not be listed on any national securities exchange or any other nationally recognized trading system.

Stamp Taxes

If you purchase shares of common stock offered in this prospectus, you may be required to pay stamp taxes and other charges under the laws and practices of the country of purchase, in addition to the offering price listed on the cover page of this prospectus.

Option to Purchase Additional Shares

We have granted to the underwriters an option, exercisable for 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase, from time to time, in whole or in part, up to an aggregate of                  shares from us at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, less underwriting discounts and commissions. If the underwriters exercise this option, each underwriter will be obligated, subject to specified conditions, to purchase a number of additional shares proportionate to that underwriter’s initial purchase commitment as indicated in the table above.

No Sales of Similar Securities

We, our executive officers and our directors have agreed, subject to specified exceptions, not to directly or indirectly:

 

   

lend, offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our common stock,

 

   

enter into any swap or other agreement that transfers, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of our common stock or such other securities,

 

   

or make any demand for or exercise any right with respect to the registration of any shares of our common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our common stock for a period of 90 days after the date of this prospectus without the prior written consent of Jefferies LLC, SVB Leerink LLC and William Blair & Company, L.L.C.

This restriction terminates after the close of trading of the common stock on and including the 90th day after the date of this prospectus.

Jefferies LLC, SVB Leerink LLC and William Blair & Company, L.L.C. may, in their sole discretion and at any time or from time to time before the termination of the 90-day period release all or any portion of the securities subject to lock-up agreements.

 

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Stabilization

The underwriters have advised us that they, pursuant to Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and certain persons participating in the offering may engage in short sale transactions, stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions or the imposition of penalty bids in connection with this offering. These activities may have the effect of stabilizing or maintaining the market price of the common stock at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. Establishing short sales positions may involve either “covered” short sales or “naked” short sales.

“Covered” short sales are sales made in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of our common stock in this offering. The underwriters may close out any covered short position by either exercising their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock or purchasing shares of our common stock in the open market. In determining the source of shares to close out the covered short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the option to purchase additional shares.

“Naked” short sales are sales in excess of the option to purchase additional shares of our common stock. The underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the shares of our common stock in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering.

A stabilizing bid is a bid for the purchase of shares of common stock on behalf of the underwriters for the purpose of fixing or maintaining the price of the common stock. A syndicate covering transaction is the bid for or the purchase of shares of common stock on behalf of the underwriters to reduce a short position incurred by the underwriters in connection with the offering. Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriter’s purchases to cover the syndicate short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our common stock. As a result, the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. A penalty bid is an arrangement permitting the underwriters to reclaim the selling concession otherwise accruing to a syndicate member in connection with the offering if the common stock originally sold by such syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction and therefore have not been effectively placed by such syndicate member.

Neither we, nor any of the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. The underwriters are not obligated to engage in these activities and, if commenced, any of the activities may be discontinued at any time.

Electronic Distribution

A prospectus in electronic format may be made available by e-mail or through online services maintained by one or more of the underwriters or their affiliates. In those cases, prospective investors may view offering terms online and may be allowed to place orders online. The underwriters may agree with us to allocate a specific number of shares of common stock for sale to online brokerage account holders. Any such allocation for online distributions will be made by the underwriters on the same basis as other allocations. Other than the prospectus in electronic format, the information on the underwriters’ web sites and any information contained in any other web site maintained by any of the underwriters is not part of this prospectus, has not been approved and/or endorsed by us or the underwriters and should not be relied upon by investors.

Other Activities and Relationships

The underwriters and certain of their affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. The underwriters and certain of their affiliates have, from time to time, performed, and may in the future perform, various commercial and investment banking and financial advisory services for us and our affiliates, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses.

 

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In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and certain of their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investment and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments issued by us and our affiliates. If the underwriters or their respective affiliates have a lending relationship with us, they routinely hedge their credit exposure to us consistent with their customary risk management policies. The underwriters and their respective affiliates may hedge such exposure by entering into transactions which consist of either the purchase of credit default swaps or the creation of short positions in our securities or the securities of our affiliates, including potentially the common stock offered hereby. Any such short positions could adversely affect future trading prices of the common stock offered hereby. The underwriters and certain of their respective affiliates may also communicate independent investment recommendations, market color or trading ideas and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

Selling Restrictions

Notice to Canadian Residents

Resale Restrictions

The distribution of the securities in Canada is being made only in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and British Columbia on a private placement basis exempt from the requirement that we prepare and file a prospectus with the securities regulatory authorities in each province where trades of these securities are made. Any resale of the securities in Canada must be made under applicable securities laws which may vary depending on the relevant jurisdiction, and which may require resales to be made under available statutory exemptions or under a discretionary exemption granted by the applicable Canadian securities regulatory authority. Purchasers are advised to seek legal advice prior to any resale of the securities.

Representations of Canadian Purchasers

By purchasing the securities in Canada and accepting delivery of a purchase confirmation, a purchaser is representing to us and the dealer from whom the purchase confirmation is received that:

 

   

the purchaser is entitled under applicable provincial securities laws to purchase the securities without the benefit of a prospectus qualified under those securities laws as it is an “accredited investor” as defined under National Instrument 45-106—Prospectus Exemptions,

 

   

the purchaser is a “permitted client” as defined in National Instrument 31-103—Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations,

 

   

where required by law, the purchaser is purchasing as principal and not as agent, and

 

   

the purchaser has reviewed the text above under Resale Restrictions.

Conflicts of Interest

Canadian purchasers are hereby notified that the underwriter is relying on the exemption set out in section 3A.3 or 3A.4, if applicable, of National Instrument 33-105—Underwriting Conflicts from having to provide certain conflict of interest disclosure in this document.

Statutory Rights of Action

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if the offering memorandum (including any amendment thereto) such as this document contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser of these securities in Canada should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Enforcement of Legal Rights

All of our directors and officers as well as the experts named herein may be located outside of Canada and, as a result, it may not be possible for Canadian purchasers to effect service of process within Canada upon us or those persons. All or a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of those persons may be located outside of Canada and, as a result, it may not be possible to satisfy a judgment against us or those persons in Canada or to enforce a judgment obtained in Canadian courts against us or those persons outside of Canada.

 

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Taxation and Eligibility for Investment

Canadian purchasers of the securities should consult their own legal and tax advisors with respect to the tax consequences of an investment in the securities in their particular circumstances and about the eligibility of the securities for investment by the purchaser under relevant Canadian legislation.

Notice to Investors in the European Economic Area

European Economic Area

In relation to each member state of the European Economic Area (each, an “EEA Member State”), an offer to the public of any securities which are the subject of the offering contemplated by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may not be made in that EEA Member State except that an offer to the public in that EEA Member State of any securities may be made at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Regulation:

 

  (a)

to any legal entity which is a “qualified investor” as defined in the Prospectus Regulation;

 

  (b)

to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Regulation), as permitted under the Prospectus Regulation, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the underwriters or the underwriters nominated by us for any such offer; or

 

  (c)

in any other circumstances falling within Article 1(4) of the Prospectus Regulation,

provided that no such offer of securities shall require us or any of the underwriters to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Regulation or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the Prospectus Regulation.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression “offer to the public” in relation to any securities in any EEA Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the securities to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe the securities, and the expression “Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129.

Notice to Investors in the United Kingdom

This prospectus is only being distributed to, and is only directed at, persons in the United Kingdom that are qualified investors within the meaning of Article 2(1)(e) of the Prospectus Directive that are also (i) investment professionals falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the “Order”) and/or (ii) high net worth entities falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order and other persons to whom it may lawfully be communicated (each such person being referred to as a “relevant person”).

This prospectus and its contents are confidential and should not be distributed, published or reproduced (in whole or in part) or disclosed by recipients to any other persons in the United Kingdom. Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this document or any of its contents.

Notice to Investors in Switzerland

The securities may not be publicly offered in Switzerland and will not be listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange (“SIX”) or on any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. This prospectus has been prepared without regard to the disclosure standards for issuance prospectuses under art. 652a or art. 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations or the disclosure standards for listing prospectuses under art. 27 ff. of the SIX Listing Rules or the listing rules of any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. Neither this prospectus nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the securities or the offering may be publicly distributed or otherwise made publicly available in Switzerland.

Neither this prospectus nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the offering, the Company or the securities have been or will be filed with or approved by any Swiss regulatory authority. In particular, this prospectus will not be filed with, and the offer of securities will not be supervised by, the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority FINMA, and the offer of securities has not been and will not be authorized under the Swiss Federal Act on Collective Investment Schemes (“CISA”). The investor protection afforded to acquirers of interests in collective investment schemes under the CISA does not extend to acquirers of securities.

 

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Notice to Investors in Australia

This prospectus is not a disclosure document for the purposes of Australia’s Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) of Australia, or Corporations Act, has not been lodged with the Australian Securities & Investments Commission and is only directed to the categories of exempt persons set out below. Accordingly, if you receive this prospectus in Australia:

You confirm and warrant that you are either:

 

   

a “sophisticated investor” under section 708(8)(a) or (b) of the Corporations Act;

 

   

a “sophisticated investor” under section 708(8)(c) or (d) of the Corporations Act and that you have provided an accountant’s certificate to the Company which complies with the requirements of section 708(8)(c)(i) or (ii) of the Corporations Act and related regulations before the offer has been made;

 

   

a person associated with the Company under Section 708(12) of the Corporations Act; or

 

   

a “professional investor” within the meaning of section 708(11)(a) or (b) of the Corporations Act.

To the extent that you are unable to confirm or warrant that you are an exempt sophisticated investor, associated person or professional investor under the Corporations Act any offer made to you under this prospectus is void and incapable of acceptance.

You warrant and agree that you will not offer any of the securities issued to you pursuant to this prospectus for resale in Australia within 12 months of those securities being issued unless any such resale offer is exempt from the requirement to issue a disclosure document under section 708 of the Corporations Act.

Notice to Investors in Hong Kong

No securities have been offered or sold, and no securities may be offered or sold, in Hong Kong, by means of any document, other than to persons whose ordinary business is to buy or sell shares or debentures, whether as principal or agent; or to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong (“SFO”) and any rules made under that Ordinance; or in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong (“CO”) or which do not constitute an offer or invitation to the public for the purpose of the CO or the SFO. No document, invitation or advertisement relating to the securities has been issued or may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to securities which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the SFO and any rules made under that Ordinance.

This prospectus has not been registered with the Registrar of Companies in Hong Kong. Accordingly, this prospectus may not be issued, circulated or distributed in Hong Kong, and the securities may not be offered for subscription to members of the public in Hong Kong. Each person acquiring the securities will be required, and is deemed by the acquisition of the securities, to confirm that he is aware of the restriction on offers of the securities described in this prospectus and the relevant offering documents and that he is not acquiring, and has not been offered any securities in circumstances that contravene any such restrictions.

Notice to Investors in Singapore

This prospectus has not been and will not be lodged or registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the securities may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the securities be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore (the “SFA”), (ii) to a relevant person pursuant to Section 275(1), or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A), and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275, of the SFA, or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA.

Where the securities are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is:

 

   

a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or

 

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a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor,

securities (as defined in Section 239(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (however described) in that trust shall not be transferred within six months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the shares pursuant to an offer made under Section 275 of the SFA except:

to an institutional investor or to a relevant person defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA, or to any person arising from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) or Section 276(4)(i)(B) of the SFA;

 

   

where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer;

 

   

where the transfer is by operation of law;

 

   

as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA; or

 

   

as specified in Regulation 32 of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Shares and Debentures) Regulations 2005 of Singapore.

Notice to Investors in Japan

The offering has not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law of Japan (Law No. 25 of 1948 of Japan, as amended), or FIEL, and the underwriters will not offer or sell any securities, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, any resident of Japan (which term as used herein means any person resident in Japan, including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan), or to others for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, any resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of, and otherwise in compliance with, the FIEL and any other applicable laws, regulations and ministerial guidelines of Japan.

Notice to Investors in Israel

This document does not constitute a prospectus under the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, or the Securities Law, and has not been filed with or approved by the Israel Securities Authority. In Israel, this prospectus is being distributed only to, and is directed only at, and any offer of the securities is directed only at, (i) a limited number of persons in accordance with the Israeli Securities Law and (ii) investors listed in the first addendum, or the Addendum, to the Israeli Securities Law, consisting primarily of joint investment in trust funds, provident funds, insurance companies, banks, portfolio managers, investment advisors, members of the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, underwriters, venture capital funds, entities with equity in excess of NIS 50 million and “qualified individuals,” each as defined in the Addendum (as it may be amended from time to time), collectively referred to as qualified investors (in each case, purchasing for their own account or, where permitted under the Addendum, for the accounts of their clients who are investors listed in the Addendum). Qualified investors are required to submit written confirmation that they fall within the scope of the Addendum, are aware of the meaning of same and agree to it.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus supplement will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, MA. Certain legal matters will be passed upon for the underwriters by Latham & Watkins LLP, Chicago, IL.

 

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EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our consolidated financial statements and related notes are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement, filed as part of the registration statement, does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement and its exhibits and schedules, portions of which have been omitted as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. For further information about us, we refer you to the registration statement and to its exhibits and schedules.

Statements contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus concerning the contents of any contract or any other document are not necessarily complete. If a contract or document has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, we refer you to the copy of the contract or document that has been filed. Each statement in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus relating to a contract or document filed as an exhibit is qualified in all respects by the filed exhibit. The reports and other information we file with the SEC can be read and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington D.C. 20549. You may obtain information regarding the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling 1(800) SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a web site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers like us that file electronically with the SEC.

We are subject to the reporting and information requirements of the Exchange Act and, as a result, we file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These periodic reports, proxy statements and other information will be available for inspection and copying at the SEC’s public reference room and the web site of the SEC referred to above. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.assemblybio.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus and, therefore, is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including all filings made after the date of the filing of this prospectus supplement, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions, after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of this offering:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on February 28, 2019;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on May 9, 2019;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2019 filed with the SEC on August 5, 2019;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended September 30, 2019 filed with the SEC on November 7, 2019;

 

   

The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A (other than information furnished rather than filed), filed with the SEC on April 4, 2019;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 22, 2019, May 2, 2019, May  21, 2019, August  9, 2019, October  28, 2019 and November 12, 2019; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A (Registration No. 001-350005) filed with the SEC on December 10, 2010, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

We incorporate by reference any future filings made with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act between the date of this prospectus supplement and the termination of the offering.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless specifically stated to the contrary, information that we furnish (and that is not deemed “filed” with the SEC) under Items 2.02 and 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K, including the related exhibits under Item 9.01, is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are a part.

Any statement contained in a document that is incorporated by reference will be modified or superseded for all purposes to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, or in any other document that is subsequently filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, modifies or is contrary to that previous statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, except as so modified or superseded. Since information that we later file with the SEC will update and supersede previously incorporated information, you should look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any documents previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded.

Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost by writing or telephoning us at the following address: Elizabeth H. Lacy, Corporate Secretary, Assembly Biosciences, Inc., 11711 N. Meridian Street, Suite 310, Carmel, Indiana 46032 or (833) 509-4583.

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into this registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.

 

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PROSPECTUS

$250,000,000

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

 

We may from time to time issue, in one or more series or classes, up to $250,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units. We may offer these securities separately or together in units. We will specify the terms of the securities being offered in one or more prospectus supplements, which may also supplement, update or amend information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

We may sell these securities to or through underwriters and also to other purchasers or through agents. We will set forth the names of any underwriters or agents, and any fees, conversions, or discount arrangements, in a prospectus supplement. We may not sell any securities under this prospectus without delivery of the applicable prospectus supplement.

You should read this document and any prospectus supplement or amendment, as well as the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, carefully before you invest in our securities.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ASMB.” On December 27, 2017, the closing price for our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Capital Market, was $45.03 per share. Our principal executive offices are located at 11711 N. Meridian St., Suite 310, Carmel, Indiana 46032.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus and under similar headings in any applicable prospectus supplement and in the other documents that are incorporated by reference herein and therein.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this Prospectus is January 10, 2018.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

About this Prospectus

     1  

Risk Factors

     2  

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     3  

Our Company

     5  

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     6  

Use of Proceeds

     6  

Securities We May Offer

     7  

Description of Capital Stock

     8  

Description of Debt Securities

     12  

Description of Warrants

     27  

Description of Units

     28  

Plan of Distribution

     32  

Legal Matters

     35  

Experts

     35  

Where You Can Find More Information

     35  

Incorporation by Reference

     36  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate offering price of up to $250,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also supplement, update or change information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 35 of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any jurisdiction in which such offer or solicitation is not permitted. The information contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein is accurate only as of their respective dates, regardless of the time of delivery of any such document or the time of any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “Assembly,” “we,” “our,” “us” and “the Company” refer, collectively, to Assembly Biosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement (including our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q), as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. The risks described in those documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.

 

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference herein and therein contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus, and in particular those factors referenced in the section “Risk Factors.”

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the initiation, timing, progress and results of clinical trials and nonclinical studies, and our research and development programs;

 

   

the clinical and therapeutic potential of our product candidates;

 

   

our unproven approach to therapeutic intervention;

 

   

our plans to develop and commercialize our product candidates;

 

   

the potential benefits of our existing collaborations and our ability to establish and maintain collaborations, including with Allergan Pharmaceuticals International Limited;

 

   

our ability to obtain additional funding;

 

   

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals for our product candidates;

 

   

the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business, product candidates and technology;

 

   

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our products;

 

   

our ability to retain and recruit key personnel;

 

   

our ability to manage growth;

 

   

our competitive position;

 

   

our intellectual property position;

 

   

developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry; and

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing.

These forward-looking statements are neither promises nor guarantees of future performance. Due to a variety of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, our actual results could differ materially

 

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from those indicated by these forward-looking statements, including, without limitation the risk factors and cautionary statements described in other documents that we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically under “Item 1A: Risk Factors” and elsewhere in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 and in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended September 30, 2017 and the section of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement titled “Risk Factors.”

The forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference represent our views as of their respective dates. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we assume no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements except to the extent required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States and rules and regulations of the SEC. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the dates on which they were made.

 

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OUR COMPANY

We are a clinical stage biotechnology company advancing two innovative platform programs: a new class of oral therapeutic candidates for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and a novel class of oral synthetic live biotherapeutic candidates, which are designed to treat disorders associated with the microbiome.

Over 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HBV. Our HBV-cure program is pursuing multiple drug candidates that inhibit the HBV lifecycle and block the generation of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), with the aim of increasing the current low cure rate for patients with HBV. We have discovered several novel Core protein Allosteric Modifiers (CpAMs), which are small molecules that directly target and allosterically modulate the HBV core (HBc) protein.

Our Microbiome program consists of a fully integrated platform that includes a disease targeted strain identification and selection process, methods for strain isolation and growth under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) conditions, and a patent pending delivery system that we call GEMICEL®, which is designed to allow for targeted oral delivery of live biologic and conventional therapies to the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Using our microbiome platform, we are developing product candidates for various disease indications, including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), immune-oncology and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), which we will develop either internally or in collaboration with partners.

We currently have corporate and administrative offices in Carmel, Indiana and research facilities in Groton, Connecticut and San Francisco, California.

Assembly Biosciences, Inc., formerly known as Ventrus BioSciences, Inc., was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on October 7, 2005, originally under the name South Island BioSciences, Inc. On July 11, 2014, we merged with Assembly Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a private company (the “Merger”). In connection with the Merger, we changed our name from Ventrus Biosciences, Inc. to Assembly Biosciences, Inc. Our executive offices are located at 11711 N. Meridian Street, Suite 310, Carmel, Indiana 46032 and our telephone number is (317) 210-9311. Our corporate website address is www.assemblybio.com. We do not incorporate the information contained on, or accessible through, our website into this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus.

We own various U.S. federal and foreign trademark applications, and unregistered trademarks, including our corporate name and our corporate logo. GEMICEL® is our trademark. This prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein may also contain trademarks and trade names that are the property of their respective owners.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

Our ratio of earnings to fixed charges for each of the five most recently completed fiscal years and any required interim periods will each be specified in a prospectus supplement or in a document that we file with the SEC and incorporate by reference pertaining to the issuance, if any, by us of debt securities or preference securities in the future.

USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, services or technologies, repayment and refinancing of debt, working capital and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 

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SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the securities we may offer from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our common stock and preferred stock, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the common stock and preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus. The following description of our capital stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, our Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended (our “Certificate of Incorporation”) and our amended and restated bylaws (our “Bylaws”), which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and by applicable law (including Delaware law).

Authorized Capital Stock

Our authorized capital stock consists of 50,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of December 27, 2017, we had 20,130,724 shares of common stock outstanding and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.

Common Stock

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted on by the stockholders, and there are no cumulative voting rights.

The holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratable dividends, if any, payable in cash, in stock or otherwise if, as and when declared from time to time by our board of directors out of funds legally available therefor, subject to any preferential rights that may be applicable to any outstanding preferred stock. In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, after payment in full of all outstanding debts and other liabilities, the holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in all remaining assets, subject to prior distribution rights of preferred stock, if any, then outstanding. No shares of common stock have preemptive rights or other subscription rights to purchase additional shares of common stock. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. All outstanding shares of our common stock are fully paid and nonassessable, and the shares of common stock included in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part will be fully paid and nonassessable upon issuance. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock will be subject to, and might be adversely affected by, the rights of holders of any preferred stock that we may issue in the future.

Listing

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ASMB.” On December 27, 2017, the closing price for our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Capital Market, was $45.03 per share.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is VStock Transfer, LLC, Inc. The transfer agent’s address is 18 Lafayette Place, Woodmere, New York 11598 and its telephone number is (212) 828-8436.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors may determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

 

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The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock in one or more series and determine the number of shares in the series and its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. Examples of rights and preferences that the board of directors may fix are:

 

   

dividend rights;

 

   

dividend rates;

 

   

conversion rights;

 

   

voting rights;

 

   

terms of redemption; and

 

   

liquidation preferences.

The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of us or our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer, stockholder or stockholder group. The rights of holders of our common stock described above will be subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of any preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

We will incorporate by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. This description and the applicable prospectus supplement will include:

 

   

the title and stated value;

 

   

the number of shares authorized;

 

   

the liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the purchase price;

 

   

the dividend rate, period and payment date, and method of calculation for dividends;

 

   

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

 

   

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

 

   

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

   

voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

 

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preemptive rights, if any;

 

   

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

 

   

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

   

a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

   

any limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

When we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and nonassessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.

Provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Anti-Takeover Law

Certain provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), our Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are expected to discourage certain types of coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and, as a consequence, they might also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions are also designed in part to encourage anyone seeking to acquire control of us or considering unsolicited tender offers or other unilateral takeover proposals to first negotiate with our board of directors rather than pursue non-negotiated takeover attempts. These provisions might also have the effect of preventing changes in our management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. However, we believe that the advantages gained by protecting our ability to negotiate with any unsolicited and potentially unfriendly acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging such proposals, including those priced above the then-current market value of our common stock, because, among other reasons, the negotiation of such proposals could improve their terms.

Delaware Anti-Takeover Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL (“Section 203”). In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger, asset or stock sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with such person’s affiliates and associates, owns, or did own within three years prior to such determination, 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock. Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions:

 

   

before the stockholder became interested, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding, for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and employee stock plans, in some instances; or

 

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at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Charter Documents

Our Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws include a number of provisions that may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying or preventing changes in control or management of our company. First, our Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws provide that all stockholder action must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders and not by a consent in writing. Further, our Bylaws limit who may call special meetings of the stockholders. Our Certificate of Incorporation does not include a provision for cumulative voting for directors. Under cumulative voting, a minority stockholder holding a sufficient percentage of a class of shares may be able to ensure the election of one or more directors. Our Bylaws provide that the number of directors on our board, which may range from three to nine directors, shall be exclusively fixed by our board, which has set the number of directors at eight. Newly created directorships resulting from any increase in our authorized number of directors and any vacancies in our board resulting from death, resignation, retirement, disqualification or other cause (including removal from office by a vote of the shareholders) will be filled by a majority of our board then in office. Finally, our Bylaws establish procedures, including advance notice procedures, with regard to the nomination of candidates for election as directors and stockholder proposals. These and other provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation, our Bylaws and Delaware law could discourage potential acquisition proposals and could delay or prevent a change in control or management of our company.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The paragraphs below describe the general terms and provisions of the debt securities we may issue. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of such series, including any additional covenants or changes to existing covenants relating to such series, in a prospectus supplement. The prospectus supplement will also indicate whether the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read any prospectus supplement related to any series of debt securities we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the actual indenture containing the terms of the debt securities.

We may offer senior or subordinated debt securities. Each series of debt securities may have different terms. The senior debt securities will be issued under one or more senior indentures, dated as of a date prior to such issuance, between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement, as amended or supplemented from time to time. We will refer to any such indenture throughout this prospectus as the “senior indenture.” Any subordinated debt securities will be issued under one or more indentures, dated as of a date prior to such issuance, between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement, as amended or supplemented from time to time. We will refer to any such indenture throughout this prospectus as the “subordinated indenture.” We will refer to the trustee under the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture as the “trustee.” The senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are sometimes collectively referred to in this prospectus as the “indentures.” The indentures will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). We have included copies of the forms of the indentures as exhibits to our registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

If we issue debt securities at a discount from their principal amount, then, for purposes of calculating the aggregate offering price of the offered securities issued under this prospectus, we will include only the offering price of the debt securities and not the principal amount of the debt securities.

We have summarized below the material provisions of the indentures and the debt securities, or indicated which material provisions will be described in a prospectus supplement. The prospectus supplement relating to any particular securities offered will describe the specific terms of the securities, which may be in addition to or different from the general terms summarized in this prospectus. Because the summary in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement does not contain all of the information that you may find useful, you should read the documents relating to the securities that are described in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information” to find out how you can obtain a copy of those documents. Except as otherwise indicated, the terms of the indentures are identical. As used under this caption, the term “debt securities” includes the debt securities being offered by this prospectus and all other debt securities issued by us under the indentures.

General

The indentures:

 

   

do not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue;

 

   

allow us to issue debt securities in one or more series;

 

   

do not require us to issue all of the debt securities of a series at the same time;

 

   

allow us to reopen a series to issue additional debt securities without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series; and

 

   

provide that the debt securities will be unsecured, except as may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless we give you different information in the applicable prospectus supplement, the senior debt securities will be unsubordinated obligations and will rank equally with all of our other unsecured and unsubordinated

 

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indebtedness. Payments on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as described under “—Subordination” and in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each indenture provides that we may, but need not, designate more than one trustee under an indenture. Any trustee under an indenture may resign or be removed and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to the series of debt securities administered by the resigning or removed trustee. If two or more persons are acting as trustee with respect to different series of debt securities, each trustee shall be a trustee of a trust under the applicable indenture separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee. Except as otherwise indicated in this prospectus, any action described in this prospectus to be taken by each trustee may be taken by each trustee with respect to, and only with respect to, the one or more series of debt securities for which it is trustee under the applicable indenture.

The prospectus supplement for each offering will provide the following terms, where applicable:

 

   

the title of the debt securities and whether they are senior or subordinated;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities outstanding as of the most recent practicable date and any limit on their aggregate principal amount, including the aggregate principal amount of debt securities authorized;

 

   

the price at which the debt securities will be issued, expressed as a percentage of the principal, and, if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof or, if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into common stock or other securities of ours or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

   

if convertible, the terms on which such debt securities are convertible, including the initial conversion price or rate and the conversion period and any applicable limitations on the ownership or transferability of common stock or other securities of ours received on conversion;

 

   

the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, on which the principal of the debt securities will be payable;

 

   

the fixed or variable interest rate or rates of the debt securities, or the method by which the interest rate or rates is determined;

 

   

the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, from which interest will accrue;

 

   

the dates on which interest will be payable;

 

   

the record dates for interest payment dates, or the method by which such dates will be determined;

 

   

the persons to whom interest will be payable;

 

   

the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

   

any make-whole amount, which is the amount in addition to principal and interest that is required to be paid to the holder of the debt security as a result of any optional redemption or accelerated payment of such debt security, or the method for determining the make-whole amount;

 

   

the place or places where the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, the debt securities will be payable;

 

   

where the debt securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or conversion or exchange;

 

   

where notices or demands to or upon us in respect of the debt securities and the applicable indenture may be served;

 

   

the times, prices and other terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

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any obligation we have to redeem, repay or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provision or at the option of holders of such securities, and the times and prices at which we must redeem, repay or purchase such securities as a result of such obligation;

 

   

the currency or currencies in which the debt securities are denominated and payable if other than U.S. dollars, which may be a foreign currency or units of two or more foreign currencies or a composite currency or currencies and the terms and conditions relating thereto, and the manner of determining the equivalent of such foreign currency in United States dollars;

 

   

whether the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, the debt securities are to be payable, at our election or at the election of a holder, in a currency or currencies other than that in which such securities are denominated or stated to be payable, and other related terms and conditions;

 

   

whether the amount of payments of principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, the debt securities may be determined according to an index, formula or other method and how such amounts will be determined;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be in registered form, bearer form, or both, and (i) if in registered form, the person to whom any interest shall be payable, if other than the person in whose name such security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest, or (ii) if in bearer form, the manner in which, or the person to whom, any interest on such security shall be payable if otherwise than upon presentation and surrender upon maturity;

 

   

any restrictions applicable to the offer, sale or delivery of debt securities in bearer form and the terms upon which such securities may be exchanged for securities in registered form and vice versa, if permitted by applicable laws and regulations;

 

   

whether the debt securities are to be issuable initially in temporary global form and whether such securities are to be issuable in permanent global form with or without coupons and, if so, whether beneficial owners of interests in any such permanent global security may, or shall be required to, exchange their interests for other debt securities, and the manner in which interest shall be paid;

 

   

the identity of the depositary for debt securities in registered form, if such series are to be issuable as a global security;

 

   

the date as of which the debt securities in bearer form or in temporary global form shall be dated if other than the original issuance date of the first such security to be issued;

 

   

the applicability, if any, of the defeasance and covenant defeasance provisions described in this prospectus or in the applicable indenture;

 

   

whether and under what circumstances we will pay any additional amounts on the debt securities in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem such securities in lieu of making such a payment;

 

   

whether and under what circumstances the debt securities being offered are convertible into common stock or other securities of ours, as the case may be, including the conversion price or rate and the manner or calculation thereof;

 

   

the circumstances, if any, specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, under which beneficial owners of interests in the global security may obtain definitive debt securities and the manner in which payments on a permanent global debt security will be made if any debt securities are issuable in temporary or permanent global form;

 

   

any provisions granting special rights to holders of the debt securities upon the occurrence of such events as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement;

 

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if the debt securities are to be issuable in definitive form only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and/or terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

   

the name of the applicable trustee and the nature of any material relationship with us or any of our affiliates, and the percentage of the debt securities necessary to require the trustee to take action;

 

   

any deletions from, modifications of or additions to our events of default or covenants with regard to the debt securities and any change in the right of any trustee or any of the holders to declare the principal amount of any of such securities due and payable;

 

   

applicable CUSIP numbers; and

 

   

any other terms of the debt securities not inconsistent with the provisions of the applicable indenture.

We may issue debt securities that provide for less than the entire principal amount thereof to be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities. We refer to any such debt securities throughout this prospectus as “original issue discount securities.” The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the U.S. federal income tax consequences and other relevant considerations applicable to original issue discount securities.

We also may issue indexed debt securities. Payments of principal of, and premium and interest on, indexed debt securities are determined with reference to the rate of exchange between the currency or currency unit in which the debt security is denominated and any other currency or currency unit specified by us, to the relationship between two or more currencies or currency units or by other similar methods or formulas specified in the prospectus supplement.

Except as described under “—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets” or as may be set forth in any prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that would (i) limit our ability to incur indebtedness or (ii) afford holders of debt securities protection in the event of (a) a highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us or (b) a change of control or reorganization, restructuring, merger or similar transaction involving us that may adversely affect the holders of the debt securities. In the future, we may enter into transactions, such as the sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a merger or consolidation, that may have an adverse effect on our ability to service our indebtedness, including the debt securities, by, among other things, substantially reducing or eliminating our assets.

Our governing instruments do not define the term “substantially all” as it relates to the sale of assets. Additionally, Delaware case law interpreting the term “substantially all” relies upon the facts and circumstances of each particular case. Consequently, to determine whether a sale of “substantially all” of our assets has occurred, a holder of debt securities must review the financial and other information that we have disclosed to the public.

We will provide you with more information in the applicable prospectus supplement regarding any deletions, modifications or additions to the events of default or covenants that are described below, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection.

Payment

Unless we give you different information in the applicable prospectus supplement, the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, any series of the debt securities will be payable at the corporate trust office of the trustee. We will provide you with the address of the trustee in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may also pay interest by mailing a check to the address of the person entitled to it as it appears in the applicable register for the debt securities or by wire transfer of funds to that person at an account maintained within the United States.

 

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All monies that we pay to a paying agent or a trustee for the payment of the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, any debt security will be repaid to us if unclaimed at the end of two years after the obligation underlying payment becomes due and payable. After funds have been returned to us, the holder of the debt security may look only to us for payment, without payment of interest for the period which we hold the funds.

Denomination, Interest, Registration and Transfer

Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities of any series will be issuable in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000.

Subject to the limitations imposed upon debt securities that are evidenced by a computerized entry in the records of a depository company rather than by physical delivery of a note, a holder of debt securities of any series may:

 

   

exchange such debt securities for any authorized denomination of other debt securities of the same series and of a like aggregate principal amount and kind upon surrender of such debt securities at the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee or at the office of any transfer agent that we designate for such purpose; and

 

   

surrender such debt securities for registration of transfer or exchange at the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee or at the office of any transfer agent that we designate for such purpose.

Every debt security surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange must be duly endorsed or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer satisfactory to the applicable trustee or transfer agent. Payment of a service charge will not be required for any registration of transfer or exchange of any debt securities, but we or the trustee may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith. If in addition to the applicable trustee, the applicable prospectus supplement refers to any transfer agent initially designated by us for any series of debt securities, we may at any time rescind the designation of any such transfer agent or approve a change in the location through which any such transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for such series. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents for any series of debt securities.

Neither we, nor any trustee, will be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of or exchange debt securities of any series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day that the notice of redemption of any debt securities selected for redemption is mailed and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing;

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt security, or portion thereof, so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt security being redeemed in part; or

 

   

issue, register the transfer of or exchange any debt security that has been surrendered for repayment at the option of the holder, except the portion, if any, of such debt security not to be so repaid.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets

The indentures provide that we may, without the consent of the holders of any outstanding debt securities, (i) consolidate with, (ii) sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our assets to or (iii) merge with or into any other entity, provided that:

 

   

either we are the continuing entity, or the successor entity, if other than us, assumes the obligations to (a) pay the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, all of the debt securities and (b) duly perform and observe all of the covenants and conditions contained in each indenture;

 

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after giving effect to the transaction, there is no event of default under the indentures and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become such an event of default, occurs and continues; and

 

   

an officers’ certificate and legal opinion covering such conditions are delivered to each applicable trustee.

Covenants

Existence. Except as described under “—Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets,” the indentures require us to do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect our existence, rights and franchises. However, the indentures do not require us to preserve any right or franchise if we determine that any right or franchise is no longer desirable in the conduct of our business.

Payment of taxes and other claims. The indentures require us to pay, discharge or cause to be paid or discharged, before they become delinquent, (i) all taxes, assessments and governmental charges levied or imposed on us and (ii) all lawful claims for labor, materials and supplies which, if unpaid, might by law become a lien upon our property. However, we will not be required to pay, discharge or cause to be paid or discharged any such tax, assessment, charge or claim whose amount, applicability or validity is being contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings.

Provision of financial information. The indentures require us to (i) within 15 days of each of the respective dates by which we are required to file our annual reports, quarterly reports and other documents with the SEC, file with the trustee copies of the annual report, quarterly report and other documents that we file with the SEC under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, (ii) file with the trustee and the SEC any additional information, documents and reports regarding compliance by us with the conditions and covenants of the indentures, as required, (iii) within 30 days after the filing with the trustee, mail to all holders of debt securities, as their names and addresses appear in the applicable register for such debt securities, without cost to such holders, summaries of any documents and reports required to be filed by us pursuant to (i) and (ii) above, and (iv) supply, promptly upon written request and payment of the reasonable cost of duplication and delivery, copies of such documents to any prospective holder of debt securities.

Additional covenants. The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth any of our additional covenants relating to any series of debt securities.

Events of Default, Notice and Waiver

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, when we refer to “events of default” as defined in the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities, we mean:

 

   

default in the payment of any installment of interest on such debt security continuing for 30 days;

 

   

default in the payment of principal of, or any premium or make-whole amount on, such debt security at its stated maturity;

 

   

default in making any sinking fund payment as required for such debt security;

 

   

default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty in such debt security or in the indenture by us continuing for 60 days after written notice to us by the trustee or to us and the trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the applicable indenture, but not of a covenant added to the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities issued thereunder other than such series;

 

   

a default under any bond, debenture, note, mortgage, indenture or instrument instrument under which there may be issued or by which there may be secured or evidenced any indebtedness for money

 

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borrowed by us (or by any subsidiary, the repayment of which we have guaranteed or for which we are directly responsible or liable as obligor or guarantor) having an aggregate principal amount of at least $30,000,000, which default shall have resulted in such indebtedness becoming or being declared due and payable prior to the date on which it would otherwise have become due and payable, without such indebtedness having been discharged, or such acceleration having been rescinded or annulled, within 30 days after notice specifying such default. Such notice shall be given to us by the trustee, or to us and the trustee by the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series. The written notice shall specify such default and require us to cause such indebtedness to be discharged or cause such acceleration to be rescinded or annulled and shall state that such notice is a “Notice of Default” under such indenture;

 

   

bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of us; and

 

   

any other event of default provided with respect to a particular series of debt securities.

If an event of default occurs and is continuing with respect to debt securities of any series outstanding, then the applicable trustee or the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the debt securities of that series will have the right to declare the principal amount of all the debt securities of that series to be due and payable. If the debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities or indexed securities, then the applicable trustee or the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the debt securities of that series will have the right to declare the portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms thereof to be due and payable. However, at any time after such a declaration of acceleration has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the applicable trustee, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:

 

   

we have deposited with the applicable trustee all required payments of the principal, any premium or make-whole amount, interest and, to the extent permitted by law, interest on overdue installment of interest, plus applicable fees, expenses, disbursements and advances of the applicable trustee; and

 

   

all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, or a specified portion thereof, and any premium or make-whole amount, have been cured or waived.

The indentures also provide that the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture may, on behalf of all holders, waive any past default with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default:

 

   

in the payment of the principal, any premium or make-whole amount, or interest;

 

   

in respect of a covenant or provision contained in the applicable indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of the outstanding debt security that is affected by the default; or

 

   

in respect of a covenant or provision for the benefit or protection of the trustee, without its express written consent.

The indentures require each trustee to give notice to the holders of debt securities within 90 days of a default unless such default has been cured or waived. However, the trustee may withhold notice if specified persons of such trustee consider such withholding to be in the interest of the holders of debt securities. The trustee may not withhold notice of a default in the payment of principal, any premium or interest on any debt security of such series or in the payment of any sinking fund installment in respect of any debt security of such series.

The indentures provide that holders of debt securities of any series may not institute any proceedings, judicial or otherwise, with respect to such indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless the trustee

 

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fails to act for a period of 60 days after the trustee has received a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an event of default from the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, as well as an offer of indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee. However, this provision will not prevent any holder of debt securities from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt securities at the respective due dates thereof.

The indentures provide that, subject to provisions in each indenture relating to its duties in the case of a default, a trustee has no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers at the request or direction of any holders of any series of debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, unless the holders have offered to the trustee reasonable security or indemnity. The holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series or of all debt securities then outstanding under an indenture shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the applicable trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon such trustee. However, a trustee may refuse to follow any direction which:

 

   

is in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture;

 

   

may involve the trustee in personal liability; or

 

   

may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of debt securities of the series not joining the proceeding.

Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, we will be required to deliver to each trustee a certificate, signed by one of our several specified officers, stating whether or not such officer has knowledge of any default under the applicable indenture. If the officer has knowledge of any default, the notice must specify the nature and status of the default.

Modification of the Indentures

The indentures provide that modifications and amendments may be made only with the consent of the affected holders of a majority in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities issued under that indenture. However, no such modification or amendment may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities affected by the modification or amendment:

 

   

change the stated maturity of the principal of, or any premium or make-whole amount on, or any installment of principal of or interest on, any such debt security;

 

   

reduce the principal amount of, the rate or amount of interest on, or any premium or make-whole amount payable on redemption of, any such debt security;

 

   

reduce the amount of principal of an original issue discount security that would be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof or would be provable in bankruptcy, or adversely affect any right of repayment of the holder of any such debt security;

 

   

change the place of payment or the coin or currency for payment of principal of, or any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, any such debt security;

 

   

impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to any such debt security on or after the stated maturity date or redemption date, if applicable;

 

   

adversely affect the right to convert any such debt security, if convertible;

 

   

reduce the percentage in principal amount of any outstanding debt securities necessary to modify or amend the applicable indenture with respect to any such debt security, to waive compliance with particular provisions thereof or defaults and consequences thereunder or to reduce the quorum or voting requirements set forth in the applicable indenture; and

 

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modify any of the foregoing provisions or any of the provisions relating to the waiver of particular past defaults or covenants, except to increase the required percentage to effect such action or to provide that some of the other provisions may not be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of any such debt security.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series may, on behalf of all holders of debt securities of that series, waive, insofar as that series is concerned, our compliance with material restrictive covenants of the applicable indenture.

We and the respective trustee may make modifications and amendments of an indenture without the consent of any holder of debt securities for any of the following purposes:

 

   

to evidence the succession of another person to us as obligor under such indenture as permitted under an indenture;

 

   

to add to our covenants for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in such indenture;

 

   

to add events of default for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities;

 

   

to add or change any provisions of an indenture (i) to change or eliminate restrictions on the payment of principal of, or premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, debt securities in bearer form or (ii) to permit or facilitate the issuance of debt securities in uncertificated form, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

   

to change or eliminate any provisions of an indenture, provided that any such change or elimination shall become effective only when there are no debt securities outstanding of any series created prior thereto that are entitled to the benefit of such provision;

 

   

to secure the debt securities;

 

   

to establish the form or terms of debt securities of any series;

 

   

to provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under an indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in an indenture, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of holders of debt securities of any series issued under such indenture;

 

   

to supplement any of the provisions of an indenture to the extent necessary to permit or facilitate defeasance and discharge of any series of such debt securities, provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the outstanding debt securities of any series; and

 

   

to make provisions with respect to a holder’s rights of conversion with respect to any series of debt securities that is convertible pursuant an indenture.

Voting

The indentures provide that in determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding debt securities of a series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver under the indentures or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of holders of debt securities:

 

   

the principal amount of an original issue discount security that shall be deemed to be outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

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the principal amount of any debt security denominated in a foreign currency that shall be deemed outstanding shall be the U.S. dollar equivalent, determined on the issue date for such debt security, of the principal amount or, in the case of an original issue discount security, the U.S. dollar equivalent on the issue date of such debt security of the amount determined as provided in the preceding bullet point;

 

   

the principal amount of an indexed security that shall be deemed outstanding shall be the principal face amount of such indexed security at original issuance, unless otherwise provided for such indexed security under such indenture; and

 

   

debt securities owned by us or any other obligor upon the debt securities or by any affiliate of ours or of such other obligor shall be disregarded.

The indentures contain provisions for convening meetings of the holders of debt securities of a series. A meeting will be permitted to be called at any time by the applicable trustee, and also, upon request, by us or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, in any such case upon notice given as provided in such indenture. Except for any consent that must be given by the holder of each debt security affected by the modifications and amendments of an indenture described above, any resolution presented at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present may be adopted by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series represented at such meeting.

Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, except as referred to above, any resolution relating to a request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage, which is less than a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series, may be adopted at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of such specified percentage.

Any resolution passed or decision taken at any properly held meeting of holders of debt securities of any series will be binding on all holders of such series. The quorum at any meeting called to adopt a resolution, and at any reconvened meeting, will be persons holding or representing a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series. However, if any action is to be taken relating to a consent or waiver which may be given by the holders of at least a specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series, the persons holding such percentage will constitute a quorum.

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, the indentures provide that if any action is to be taken at a meeting with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that such indenture expressly provides may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities affected by such action, or of the holders of such series and one or more additional series:

 

   

there shall be no minimum quorum requirement for such meeting; and

 

   

the principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series that vote in favor of such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action shall be taken account in determining whether such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action has been made, given or taken under such indenture.

Subordination

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, subordinated debt securities will be subject to the following subordination provisions.

Upon any distribution to our creditors in a liquidation, dissolution or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on any subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the

 

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applicable indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all senior debt. However, our obligation to make payments of the principal of and interest on such subordinated debt securities otherwise will not be affected. No payment of principal or interest will be permitted to be made on subordinated debt securities at any time if a default on senior debt exists that permits the holders of such senior debt to accelerate its maturity and the default is the subject of judicial proceedings or we receive notice of the default. After all senior debt is paid in full and until the subordinated debt securities are paid in full, holders of subordinated debt securities will be subrogated to the rights of holders of senior debt to the extent that distributions otherwise payable to holders of subordinated debt securities have been applied to the payment of senior debt. The subordinated indenture will not restrict the amount of senior debt or other indebtedness of ours. As a result of these subordination provisions, in the event of a distribution of assets upon insolvency, holders of subordinated debt securities may recover less, ratably, than our general creditors.

The term “senior debt” will be defined in the applicable indenture as the principal of and interest on, or substantially similar payments to be made by us in respect of, other outstanding indebtedness, whether outstanding at the date of execution of the applicable indenture or subsequently incurred, created or assumed. The prospectus supplement may include a description of additional terms implementing the subordination feature.

No restrictions will be included in any indenture relating to subordinated debt securities upon the creation of additional senior debt.

If this prospectus is being delivered in connection with the offering of a series of subordinated debt securities, the accompanying prospectus supplement or the information incorporated herein by reference will set forth the approximate amount of senior debt outstanding as of the end of our most recent fiscal quarter.

Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indentures allow us to discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities issued under any indenture when:

 

   

either (i) all securities of such series have already been delivered to the applicable trustee for cancellation; or (ii) all securities of such series have not already been delivered to the applicable trustee for cancellation but (a) have become due and payable, (b) will become due and payable within one year or (c) if redeemable at our option, are to be redeemed within one year, and we have irrevocably deposited with the applicable trustee, in trust, funds in such currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such debt securities are payable, an amount sufficient to pay the entire indebtedness on such debt securities in respect of principal and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest to the date of such deposit if such debt securities have become due and payable or, if they have not, to the stated maturity or redemption date;

 

   

we have paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable; and

 

   

an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel stating the conditions to discharging the debt securities have been satisfied have been delivered to the trustee.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indentures provide that, upon our irrevocable deposit with the applicable trustee, in trust, of an amount, in such currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such debt securities are payable at stated maturity, or government obligations, or both, applicable to such debt securities, which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt securities, and any mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments thereon, on the scheduled due dates therefor, the issuing company may elect either:

 

   

to defease and be discharged from any and all obligations with respect to such debt securities; or

 

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to be released from its obligations with respect to such debt securities under the applicable indenture or, if provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, its obligations with respect to any other covenant, and any omission to comply with such obligations shall not constitute an event of default with respect to such debt securities.

Notwithstanding the above, we may not elect to defease and be discharged from the obligation to pay any additional amounts upon the occurrence of particular events of tax, assessment or governmental charge with respect to payments on such debt securities and the obligations to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities, to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities, to maintain an office or agency in respect of such debt securities, or to hold monies for payment in trust.

The indentures only permit us to establish the trust described in the paragraph above if, among other things, we have delivered to the applicable trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of such debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of such defeasance or covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such defeasance or covenant defeasance had not occurred. Such opinion of counsel, in the case of defeasance, will be required to refer to and be based upon a ruling received from or published by the Internal Revenue Service or a change in applicable U.S. federal income tax law occurring after the date of the indenture. In the event of such defeasance, the holders of such debt securities would be able to look only to such trust fund for payment of principal, any premium or make-whole amount, and interest.

When we use the term “government obligations,” we mean securities that are:

 

   

direct obligations of the United States or the government that issued the foreign currency in which the debt securities of a particular series are payable, for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged; or

 

   

obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States or other government that issued the foreign currency in which the debt securities of such series are payable, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States or such other government, which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such government obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such government obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt. However, except as required by law, such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the government obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of the government obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, if after we have deposited funds and/or government obligations to effect defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to debt securities of any series, (i) the holder of a debt security of such series is entitled to, and does, elect under the terms of the applicable indenture or the terms of such debt security to receive payment in a currency, currency unit or composite currency other than that in which such deposit has been made in respect of such debt security or (ii) a conversion event occurs in respect of the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such deposit has been made, the indebtedness represented by such debt security will be deemed to have been, and will be, fully discharged and satisfied through the payment of the principal of, and premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt security as they become due out of the proceeds yielded by converting the amount so deposited in respect of such debt security into the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such debt security becomes payable as a result of such election or such cessation of usage based on the applicable market exchange rate.

 

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When we use the term “conversion event,” we mean the cessation of use of:

 

   

a currency, currency unit or composite currency both by the government of the country that issued such currency and for the settlement of transactions by a central bank or other public institutions of or within the international banking community;

 

   

the European Currency Unit both within the European Monetary System and for the settlement of transactions by public institutions of or within the European Communities; or

 

   

any currency unit or composite currency other than the European Currency Unit for the purposes for which it was established.

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, all payments of principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, any debt security that is payable in a foreign currency that ceases to be used by its government of issuance shall be made in U.S. dollars.

In the event that (i) we effect covenant defeasance with respect to any debt securities and (ii) those debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any event of default, the amount in the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such debt securities are payable, and government obligations on deposit with the applicable trustee, will be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of the acceleration resulting from such event of default. However, the issuing company would remain liable to make payments of any amounts due at the time of acceleration.

The applicable prospectus supplement may further describe the provisions, if any, permitting such defeasance or covenant defeasance, including any modifications to the provisions described above, with respect to the debt securities of or within a particular series.

Conversion Rights

The terms and conditions, if any, upon which the debt securities are convertible into common stock or other securities of ours will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include whether the debt securities are convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of ours, the conversion price, or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the issuing company’s option or the option of the holders, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of the debt securities and any restrictions on conversion.

Global Securities

The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depository identified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such series. Global securities, if any, issued in the United States are expected to be deposited with The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) as depository. We may issue global securities in either registered or bearer form and in either temporary or permanent form. We will describe the specific terms of the depository arrangement with respect to a series of debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such series. We expect that unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following provisions will apply to depository arrangements.

Once a global security is issued, the depository for such global security or its nominee will credit on its book-entry registration and transfer system the respective principal amounts of the individual debt securities represented by such global security to the accounts of participants that have accounts with such depository. Such accounts shall be designated by the underwriters, dealers or agents with respect to such debt securities or by us if we offer such debt securities directly. Ownership of beneficial interests in such global security will be limited to participants with the depository or persons that may hold interests through those participants.

 

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We expect that, under procedures established by DTC, ownership of beneficial interests in any global security for which DTC is the depository will be shown on, and the transfer of that ownership will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC or its nominee, with respect to beneficial interests of participants with the depository, and records of participants, with respect to beneficial interests of persons who hold through participants with the depository. Neither we nor the trustee will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records of DTC or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records of DTC or any of its participants relating to beneficial ownership interests in the debt securities. The laws of some states require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such limits and laws may impair the ability to own, pledge or transfer beneficial interest in a global security.

So long as the depository for a global security or its nominee is the registered owner of such global security, such depository or such nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture. Except as described below or in the applicable prospectus supplement, owners of beneficial interest in a global security will not be entitled to have any of the individual debt securities represented by such global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of any such debt securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the applicable indenture. Beneficial owners of debt securities evidenced by a global security will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the applicable indenture for any purpose, including with respect to the giving of any direction, instructions or approvals to the trustee under the indenture. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security with respect to which DTC is the depository must rely on the procedures of DTC and, if such person is not a participant with the depository, on the procedures of the participant through which such person owns its interests, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture. We understand that, under existing industry practice, if DTC requests any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action which a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, DTC would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interest to give or take such action, and such participants would authorize beneficial owners through such participants to give or take such actions or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Payments of principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, individual debt securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depository or its nominee will be made to or at the direction of the depository or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security under the applicable indenture. Under the terms of the applicable indenture, we and the trustee may treat the persons in whose name debt securities, including a global security, are registered as the owners thereof for the purpose of receiving such payments. Consequently, neither we nor the trustee have or will have any responsibility or liability for the payment of such amounts to beneficial owners of debt securities including principal, any premium or make-whole amount, or interest. We believe, however, that it is currently the policy of DTC to immediately credit the accounts of relevant participants with such payments, in amounts proportionate to their respective holdings of beneficial interests in the relevant global security as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in such global security held through such participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in street name, and will be the responsibility of such participants. Redemption notices with respect to any debt securities represented by a global security will be sent to the depository or its nominee. If less than all of the debt securities of any series are to be redeemed, we expect the depository to determine the amount of the interest of each participant in such debt securities to be redeemed to be determined by lot. Neither we, the trustee, any paying agent nor the security registrar for such debt securities will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security for such debt securities or for maintaining any records with respect thereto.

Neither we nor the trustee will be liable for any delay by the holders of a global security or the depository in identifying the beneficial owners of debt securities, and we and the trustee may conclusively rely on, and will be

 

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protected in relying on, instructions from the holder of a global security or the depository for all purposes. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

If a depository for any debt securities is at any time unwilling, unable or ineligible to continue as depository and we do not appoint a successor depository within 90 days, we will issue individual debt securities in exchange for the global security representing such debt securities. In addition, we may at any time and at our sole discretion, subject to any limitations described in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities, determine not to have any of such debt securities represented by one or more global securities and in such event will issue individual debt securities in exchange for the global security or securities representing such debt securities. Individual debt securities so issued will be issued in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000.

The debt securities of a series may also be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more bearer global securities that will be deposited with a depository, or with a nominee for such depository, identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any such bearer global securities may be issued in temporary or permanent form. The specific terms and procedures, including the specific terms of the depositary arrangement, with respect to any portion of a series of debt securities to be represented by one or more bearer global securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

No Recourse

There is no recourse under any obligation, covenant or agreement in the applicable indenture or with respect to any security against any of our or our successor’s past, present or future stockholders, employees, officers or directors.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus and the related warrant agreements and warrant certificates. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in a prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the prospectus supplement, the terms of any warrants offered under that prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

General

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities.

We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue under a separate warrant agreement. We will enter into the warrant agreement with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants, including:

 

   

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

   

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

   

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the periods during which, and places at which, the warrants are exercisable;

 

   

the manner of exercise;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

the manner in which the warrant agreement and warrants may be modified;

 

   

the applicable U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

   

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities and warrants in any combination. We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section outlines certain provisions of the units that we may issue. If we issue units, they will be issued under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. The information described in this section may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the unit agreement with respect to the units of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of units offered will be described in a prospectus supplement. If so described in a particular supplement, the specific terms of any series of units may differ from the general description of terms presented below. We urge you to read any prospectus supplement related to any series of units we may offer, as well as the complete unit agreement and unit certificate that contain the terms of the units. If we issue units, forms of unit agreements and unit certificates relating to such units will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Each unit that we may issue will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date. The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:

 

   

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

any provisions of the governing unit agreement;

 

   

the price or prices at which such units will be issued;

 

   

the applicable U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the units;

 

   

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units.

The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Capital Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities” and “Description of Warrants” will apply to the securities included in each unit, to the extent relevant and as may be updated in any prospectus supplements.

Issuance in Series

We may issue units in such amounts and in any number of distinct series. This section summarizes terms of the units that apply generally to all series. Most of the financial and other specific terms of a particular series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unit Agreements

We will issue the units under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. We may add, replace or terminate unit agents from time to time. We will identify the unit agreement under which each series of units will be issued and the unit agent under that agreement in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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The following provisions will generally apply to all unit agreements unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement:

Modification without Consent

We and the applicable unit agent may amend any unit or unit agreement without the consent of any holder:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, including modifying any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below;

 

   

to correct or supplement any defective or inconsistent provision; or

 

   

to make any other change that we believe is necessary or desirable and will not adversely affect the interests of the affected holders in any material respect.

We do not need any approval to make changes that affect only units to be issued after the changes take effect. We may also make changes that do not adversely affect a particular unit in any material respect, even if they adversely affect other units in a material respect. In those cases, we do not need to obtain the approval of the holder of the unaffected unit; we need only obtain any required approvals from the holders of the affected units.

Modification with Consent

We may not amend any particular unit or a unit agreement with respect to any particular unit unless we obtain the consent of the holder of that unit, if the amendment would:

 

   

impair any right of the holder to exercise or enforce any right under a security included in the unit if the terms of that security require the consent of the holder to any changes that would impair the exercise or enforcement of that right; or

 

   

reduce the percentage of outstanding units or any series or class the consent of whose holders is required to amend that series or class, or the applicable unit agreement with respect to that series or class, as described below.

Any other change to a particular unit agreement and the units issued under that agreement would require the following approval:

 

   

If the change affects only the units of a particular series issued under that agreement, the change must be approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding units of that series; or

 

   

If the change affects the units of more than one series issued under that agreement, it must be approved by the holders of a majority of all outstanding units of all series affected by the change, with the units of all the affected series voting together as one class for this purpose.

These provisions regarding changes with majority approval also apply to changes affecting any securities issued under a unit agreement, as the governing document.

In each case, the required approval must be given by written consent.

Unit Agreements Will Not Be Qualified under Trust Indenture Act

No unit agreement will be qualified as an indenture, and no unit agent will be required to qualify as a trustee, under the Trust Indenture Act. Therefore, holders of units issued under unit agreements will not have the protections of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to their units.

Mergers and Similar Transactions Permitted; No Restrictive Covenants or Events of Default

The unit agreements will not restrict our ability to merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets to, another corporation or other entity or to engage in any other transactions. If at any time we merge or consolidate with, or

 

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sell our assets substantially as an entirety to, another corporation or other entity, the successor entity will succeed to and assume our obligations under the unit agreements. We will then be relieved of any further obligation under these agreements.

The unit agreements will not include any restrictions on our ability to put liens on our assets, nor will they restrict our ability to sell our assets. The unit agreements also will not provide for any events of default or remedies upon the occurrence of any events of default.

Governing Law

The unit agreements and the units will be governed by Delaware law.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

Unless the accompanying prospectus supplement states otherwise, we will issue each unit in global form (i.e., book-entry) only. Units in book-entry form will be represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary, which will be the holder of all the units represented by the global security. Those who own beneficial interests in a unit will do so through participants in the depositary’s system, and the rights of these indirect owners will be governed solely by the applicable procedures of the depositary and its participants. We will describe book-entry securities, and other terms regarding the issuance and registration of the units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless the accompanying prospectus supplement states otherwise, each unit and all securities comprising the unit will be issued in the same form.

If we issue any units in registered, non-global form, the following will apply to them.

The units will be issued in the denominations stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Holders may exchange their units for units of smaller denominations or combined into fewer units of larger denominations, as long as the total amount is not changed.

 

   

Holders may exchange or transfer their units at the office of the unit agent. Holders may also replace lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated units at that office. We may appoint another entity to perform these functions or perform them ourselves.

 

   

Holders will not be required to pay a service charge to transfer or exchange their units, but they may be required to pay for any tax or other governmental charge associated with the transfer or exchange. The transfer or exchange, and any replacement, will be made only if our transfer agent is satisfied with the holder’s proof of legal ownership. The transfer agent may also require an indemnity before replacing any units.

 

   

If we have the right to redeem, accelerate or settle any units before their maturity, and we exercise our right as to less than all those units or other securities, we may block the exchange or transfer of those units during the period beginning 15 days before the day we mail the notice of exercise and ending on the day of that mailing, in order to freeze the list of holders to prepare the mailing. We may also refuse to register transfers of or exchange any unit selected for early settlement, except that we will continue to permit transfers and exchanges of the unsettled portion of any unit being partially settled. We may also block the transfer or exchange of any unit in this manner if the unit includes securities that are or may be selected for early settlement.

Only the depositary will be entitled to transfer or exchange a unit in global form, since it will be the sole holder of the unit.

 

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Payments and Notices

In making payments and giving notices with respect to our units, we will follow the procedures as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

   

through underwriters;

 

   

through dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods or any other method permitted by law.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing securityholders.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. In the prospectus supplement relating to an offering, we will name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay to any such agent. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are used in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement, sales agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

In connection with the offering of securities, we may grant to the underwriters an option to purchase additional securities with an additional underwriting commission, as may be set forth in the accompanying prospectus supplement. If we grant any such option, the terms of such option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for such securities.

 

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If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer, who may be deemed to be an “underwriter” as that term is defined in the Securities Act, may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing securityholders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements that they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with their remarketing of offered securities.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates, may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities

 

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may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”), the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Any underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

The anticipated date of delivery of offered securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to each offer.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with this offering, including the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Assembly Biosciences, Inc. incorporated by reference in Assembly Biosciences, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 and the effectiveness of Assembly Biosciences, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

The consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows of Assembly Biosciences, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2014 have been audited by EisnerAmper LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report thereon which is incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance on the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room. These documents also may be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system (EDGAR) via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov).

We have the authority to designate and issue more than one class or series of stock having various preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, and terms and conditions of redemption. See “Description of Capital Stock.” We will furnish a full statement of the relative rights and preferences of each class or series of our stock which has been so designated and any restrictions on the ownership or transfer of our stock to any stockholder upon request and without charge. Written requests for such copies should be directed to Assembly Biosciences, Inc., 11711 N. Meridian St., Suite 310, Carmel, Indiana 46032, Attention: Corporate Secretary, or by telephone request to (317) 210-9311. Our website is located at www.assemblybio.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus and, therefore, is not part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including all filings made after the date of the filing and the date of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions, until we sell all of the securities:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on March 2, 2017;

 

   

The information specifically incorporated by reference in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A (except for information contained therein that is furnished rather than filed), filed with the SEC on April 21, 2017;

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2017, June 30, 2017 and September 30, 2017, filed with the SEC on May  8, 2017, August  9, 2017 and November 1, 2017, respectively;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January  10, 2017 (except for information contained therein that is furnished rather than filed), June  2, 2017 (as amended on June  14, 2017), October  12, 2017, November  6, 2017, December  12, 2017 and December 18, 2017; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A (Registration No. 001-35005), filed with the SEC on December 10, 2010, including any amendments thereto or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

Assembly Biosciences, Inc.

11711 N. Meridian St.

Suite 310, Carmel, Indiana 46032

Attention: Corporate Secretary

(317) 210-9311.

You may also access these documents, free of charge on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov or on our website at www.assemblybio.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed from, our website as part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into the registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.

 

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                    Shares of Common Stock

Pre-Funded Warrants to Purchase             Shares of Common Stock

 

 

LOGO

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

Joint Book-Running Managers

Jefferies

SVB Leerink

William Blair

                    , 2019