EX-3.1 2 agncexhibit313311810-q.htm EXHIBIT 3.1 Exhibit


Exhibit 3.1
AMENDED AND RESTATED
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
OF
AGNC INVESTMENT CORP.
As amended and in effect through April 26, 2018
ARTICLE I
NAME
The name of the Corporation is AGNC Investment Corp.
ARTICLE II
ADDRESS OF REGISTERED OFFICE; NAME OF REGISTERED AGENT
The address of the registered office of the Corporation in the State of Delaware is 1209 Orange Street, in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle. The name of its registered agent at that address is The Corporation Trust Company.
ARTICLE III
PURPOSE AND POWER
The purpose of the Corporation is to engage in any lawful act or activity for which a corporation may be organized under the General Corporation Law.
ARTICLE IV
CAPITAL STOCK
Section 4.1.    Total Number of Shares of Capital Stock. The total number of shares of capital stock of all classes that the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 910,000,000 shares. The authorized stock is divided into 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with the par value of $0.01 each (the “Preferred Stock”), and 900,000,000 shares of common stock, with the par value of $0.01 each (the “Common Stock”). The Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “Board of Directors”) may classify any unissued shares of stock and reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of stock from time to time, in one or more classes or series of stock.
Section 4.2    Preferred Stock. Authority is hereby expressly granted to the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the "Board of Directors"), subject to the provisions of this Article IV and to the limitations prescribed by the General Corporation Law, to authorize the issue of one or more classes of Preferred Stock and, with respect to each such class, to fix by resolution or resolutions providing for the issue of such class the voting powers, full or limited, if any, of the shares of such class, the designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights, and qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof. The authority of the Board of Directors with respect to each class thereof shall include, but not be limited to, the determination or fixing of the following:
(a)    the designation of such class;
(b)    the number of shares to compose such class, which number the Board of Directors may thereafter (except where otherwise provided in a resolution designating a particular class) increase (but not above the total number of authorized shares of the class) or decrease (but not below the number of shares thereof then outstanding);
(c)    the dividend rate of such class, the conditions and dates upon which such dividends shall be payable, the relation which such dividends shall bear to the dividends payable on any other class or classes of capital stock of the Corporation and whether such dividends shall be cumulative or noncumulative;
(d)    whether the shares of such class shall be subject to redemption by the Corporation and, if made subject to such redemption, the times, prices and other terms and conditions of such redemption;





(e)    the terms and amount of any sinking fund provided for the purchase or redemption of the shares of such class;
(f)    whether the shares of such class shall be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of any other class or classes of any capital stock or any other securities of the Corporation, and, if provision is made for conversion or exchange, the times, prices, rates, adjustments and other terms and conditions of such conversion or exchange;
(g)    the extent, if any, to which the holders of shares of such class shall be entitled to vote with respect to the election of directors or otherwise;
(h)    the restrictions, if any, on the issue or reissue of any additional Preferred Stock;
(i)    the rights of the holders of the shares of such class upon the dissolution of, voluntary or involuntary liquidation, winding up or upon the distribution of assets of the Corporation; and
(j)    the manner in which any facts ascertainable outside the resolution or resolutions providing for the issue of such class shall operate upon the voting powers, designations, preferences, rights and qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such class.
Section 4.3    Common Stock. (a) Subject to all of the rights of the holders of Preferred Stock provided for by resolution or resolutions of the Board of Directors pursuant to this Article IV or by the General Corporation Law, each holder of Common Stock shall have one vote per share of Common Stock held by such holder on all matters on which holders of Common Stock are entitled to vote and shall have the right to receive notice of and to vote at all meetings of the stockholders of the Corporation.
(b) The holders of Common Stock shall have the right to receive dividends as and when declared by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, subject to any limitations on the declaring of dividends imposed by the General Corporation Law or the rights of holders of Preferred Stock provided for by resolution or resolutions of the Board of Directors pursuant to this Article IV.
(c) Stockholders shall not have preemptive rights to acquire additional shares of stock of any class which the Corporation may elect to issue or sell.
Section 4.4    Issuance of Rights to Purchase Securities and Other Property. Subject to all of the rights of the holders of Preferred Stock provided for by resolution or resolutions of the Board of Directors pursuant to this Article IV or by the General Corporation Law, the Board of Directors is hereby authorized to create and to authorize and direct the issuance (on either a pro rata or a non-pro rata basis) by the Corporation of rights, options and warrants for the purchase of shares of capital stock of the Corporation, other securities of the Corporation or shares or other securities of any successor in interest of the Corporation (a "Successor"), at such times, in such amounts, to such persons, for such consideration, with such form and content (including without limitation the consideration for which any shares of capital stock of the Corporation, other securities of the Corporation or shares or other securities of any Successor are to be issued) and upon such terms and conditions as it may from time to time determine, subject only to the restrictions, limitations, conditions and requirements imposed by the General Corporation Law, other applicable laws and this Certificate of Incorporation.
Section 4.5    Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws. All persons who shall acquire stock in the Corporation shall acquire the same subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation and the By-laws of the Corporation (the "By-laws").
ARTICLE V
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Section 5.1    Power of the Board of Directors. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of its Board of Directors. In furtherance, and not in limitation, of the powers conferred by the General Corporation Law, the Board of Directors is expressly authorized to:
(a) adopt, amend, alter, change or repeal the By-laws; provided, however, that no By-laws hereafter adopted shall invalidate any prior act of the directors that was valid at the time such action was taken;
(b) determine the rights, powers, duties, rules and procedures that affect the power of the Board of Directors to manage and direct the business and affairs of the Corporation, including the power to designate and empower committees of the Board of Directors to elect, appoint and empower the officers and other agents of the Corporation, and to determine the time and place of, and the notice requirements for, Board meetings, as well as quorum and voting requirements for, and the manner of taking, Board action; and





(c) exercise all such powers and do all such acts as may be exercised or done by the Corporation, subject to the provisions of the General Corporation Law, this Certificate of Incorporation and the By-laws.
Section 5.2    Number of Directors. The number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall be as specified in the By-laws of the Corporation.
Section 5.3    Classes, Election and Term. The directors shall be elected by the stockholders at each annual meeting of the stockholders for a one-year term. The term of all current directors will end at the 2009 annual meeting of stockholders. Commencing with the 2009 annual meeting of stockholders, each director shall hold office for a one-year term and until such director's successor shall have been duly elected and qualified.
Section 5.4    Vacancies. Any vacancies in the Board of Directors for any reason and any newly created directorships resulting by reason of any increase in the number of directors may be filled only by the Board of Directors, acting by a majority of the remaining directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director, and any directors so appointed shall hold office until the next annual election of directors and until their successors are duly elected and qualified.
Section 5.5    Removal of Directors. Except as may be provided in a resolution or resolutions providing for any class of Preferred Stock pursuant to Article IV hereof, with respect to any directors elected by the holders of such class, any director, or the entire Board of Directors, may be removed from office at any time with or without cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six percent (66%) of the voting power of all of the shares of capital stock of the Corporation then entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.
Section 5.6    REIT Qualification. If the Corporation elects to qualify for federal income tax treatment as a REIT (as defined in Article VIII hereof), the Board of Directors shall use its reasonable best efforts to take such actions as are necessary or appropriate to preserve the qualification of the Corporation as a REIT; however, if the Board of Directors determines that it is no longer in the best interests of the Corporation to continue to be qualified as a REIT, the Board of Directors may revoke or otherwise terminate the Corporation's REIT election pursuant to Section 856(g) of the Code (as defined in Article VIII hereof). The Board of Directors also may determine that compliance with any restriction or limitation on stock ownership and transfers set forth in Article VIII hereof is no longer required for REIT qualification.
ARTICLE VI
STOCKHOLDER ACTION
Except as may be provided in a resolution or resolutions providing for any class of Preferred Stock pursuant to Article IV hereof, any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of such holders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such holders. Meetings of stockholders may be held within or without the State of Delaware, as the By-laws may provide. Elections of directors need not be by written ballot, unless otherwise provided in the By-laws of the Corporation.
ARTICLE VII
INDEMNIFICATION
Section 7.1    Right to Indemnification. Each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (hereinafter a "proceeding"), by reason of the fact:
(a) that he or she is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or
(b) that he or she, being at the time a director or officer of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, trustee, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (collectively, "another enterprise" or "other enterprise"),
whether either in case (a) or in case (b) the basis of such proceeding is alleged action or inaction (x) in an official capacity as a director or officer of the Corporation, or as a director, trustee, officer, employee or agent of such other enterprise, or (y) in any other capacity related to the Corporation or such other enterprise while so serving as a director, trustee, officer, employee or agent, shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation to the fullest extent not prohibited by Section 145 of the General Corporation Law, (or any successor provision or provisions, respectively) as the same exists or may hereafter be amended, respectively (but, in the case of any amendment to Section 145 of the General Corporation Law, with respect to actions taken prior to such amendment, only to the extent that such amendment permits the Corporation to provide broader indemnification rights than permitted prior thereto), against all expense, liability and loss (including, without limitation,





attorneys' fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes or penalties and amounts paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by such person in connection therewith if such person satisfied the applicable level of care to permit such indemnification under the General Corporation Law; provided however, that nothing in this Article VII shall indemnify any person to the extent that such person has committed willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard involved in the conduct of such person's duties to or for the Corporation. The persons indemnified by this Article VII are hereinafter referred to as "indemnities." Such indemnification as to such alleged action or inaction shall continue as to an indemnitee who has after such alleged action or inaction ceased to be a director or officer of the Corporation, or director, officer, employee or agent of another enterprise; and shall inure to the benefit of the indemnitee's heirs, executors and administrators. The right to indemnification conferred in this Article VII: (i) shall be a contract right; (ii) shall not be affected adversely as to any indemnitee by any amendment of this Certificate with respect to any action or inaction occurring prior to such amendment; and (iii) shall, subject to any requirements imposed by law and the By-laws, include the right to be paid by the Corporation the expenses incurred in defending any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition.
Section 7.2.    Relationship to Other Rights and Provisions Concerning Indemnification. The rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses conferred in this Article VII shall not be exclusive of any other right which any person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, this Certificate, By-laws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise. The By-laws may contain such other provisions concerning indemnification, including provisions specifying reasonable procedures relating to and conditions to the receipt by indemnitees of indemnification, provided that such provisions are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Article VII.
Section 7.3    Agents and Employees. The Corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors, grant rights to indemnification, and to the advancement of expenses, to any agent of the Corporation (or any person serving at the Corporation's request as a director, trustee, officer, employee or agent of another enterprise) or to persons who are or were a director, officer, employee or agent of any of the Corporation's affiliates, predecessor or subsidiary corporations or of a constituent corporation absorbed by the Corporation in a consolidation or merger or who is or was serving at the request of such affiliate, predecessor or subsidiary corporation or of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another enterprise, in each case as determined by the Board of Directors to the fullest extent of the provisions of this Article VII in cases of the indemnification and advancement of expenses of directors and officers of the Corporation, or to any lesser extent (or greater extent, if permitted by law) determined by the Board of Directors.
ARTICLE VIII
RESTRICTION ON TRANSFER AND OWNERSHIP OF SHARES
Section 8.1    Definitions. For the purpose of this Article VIII, the following terms shall have the following meanings:
Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit. The term “Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit” shall mean not more than 9.8 percent (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock, subject to the Board of Directors' power under Section 8.2.8 hereof to increase or decrease such percentage. The value and number of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock shall be determined by the Board of Directors of the Corporation in good faith, which determination shall be conclusive for all purposes hereof. For the purposes of determining the percentage ownership of Capital Stock by any Person, shares of Capital Stock that may be acquired upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any securities of the Corporation directly or constructively held by such Person, but not Capital Stock issuable with respect to the conversion exchange or exercise of securities for the Corporation held by other Persons shall be deemed to be outstanding prior to conversion, exchange or exercise.
Beneficial Ownership. The term “Beneficial Ownership” shall mean ownership of Capital Stock by a Person, whether the interest in the shares of Capital Stock is held directly or indirectly (including by a nominee), and shall include interests that would be treated as owned through the application of Section 544 of the Code, as modified by Sections 856(h)(1)(B) and 856(h)(3) of the Code. The terms “Beneficial Owner,” “Beneficially Owns” and “Beneficially Owned” shall have the correlative meanings.
Business Day. The term “Business Day” shall mean any day, other than a Saturday or Sunday, that is neither a legal holiday nor a day on which banking institutions in New York City are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.
Capital Stock. The term “Capital Stock” shall mean all classes or series of stock of the Corporation, including, without limitation, Common Stock and Preferred Stock.
Charitable Beneficiary. The term “Charitable Beneficiary” shall mean one or more beneficiaries of the Trust as determined pursuant to Section 8.3.6, provided that each such organization must be described in Section 501(c)(3) of the





Code and contributions to each such organization must be eligible for deduction under each of Sections 170(b)(1)(A), 2055 and 2522 of the Code.
Certificate of Incorporation. The term “Certificate of Incorporation” shall mean the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation.
Code. The term “Code” shall mean the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time.
Common Stock Ownership Limit. The term “Common Stock Ownership Limit” shall mean not more than 9.8 percent (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of Common Stock, subject to the Board of Directors' power under Section 8.2.8 hereof to increase or decrease such percentage. The number and value of the outstanding shares of Common Stock of the Corporation shall be determined by the Board of Directors of the Corporation in good faith, which determination shall be conclusive for all purposes hereof. For purposes of determining the percentage ownership of Common Stock by any Person, shares of Common Stock that may be acquired upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any securities of the Corporation directly or constructively held by such Person, but not Common Stock issuable with respect to the conversion, exchange or exercise of securities for the Corporation held by other Persons, shall be deemed to be outstanding prior to conversion, exchange or exercise.
Constructive Ownership. The term “Constructive Ownership” shall mean ownership of Capital Stock by a Person, whether the interest in the shares of Capital Stock is held directly or indirectly (including by a nominee), and shall include interests that would be treated as owned actually or constructively through the application of Section 318(a) of the Code, as modified by Section 856(d)(5) of the Code. The terms “Constructive Owner,” “Constructively Owns” and “Constructively Owned” shall have the correlative meanings.
Excepted Holder. The term “Excepted Holder” shall mean a Person for whom an Excepted Holder Limit is created by the Certificate of Incorporation or by the Board of Directors pursuant to Section 8.2.7.
Excepted Holder Limit. The term “Excepted Holder Limit” shall mean, provided that the affected Excepted Holder agrees to comply with the requirements established by the Certificate of Incorporation or by the Board of Directors pursuant to Section 7.2.7 and subject to adjustment pursuant to Section 8.2.8, the percentage limit established for an Excepted Holder by the Board of Directors pursuant to Section 8.2.7.
Initial Date. The term “Initial Date” shall mean the date upon which the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation containing this Article VIII are filed with the Delaware Secretary of State.
Market Price. The term “Market Price” on any date shall mean, with respect to any class or series of outstanding shares of Capital Stock, the Closing Price for such Capital Stock on such date. The “Closing Price” on any date shall mean the last reported sale price for such Capital Stock, regular way, or, in case no such sale takes place on such day, the average of the closing bid and asked prices, regular way, for such Capital Stock, in either case as reported in the principal consolidated transaction reporting system with respect to securities listed or admitted to trading on Nasdaq or, if such Capital Stock is not listed or admitted to trading on Nasdaq, as reported on the principal consolidated transaction reporting system with respect to securities listed on the principal national securities exchange on which such Capital Stock is listed or admitted to trading or, if such Capital Stock is not listed or admitted to trading on any national securities exchange, the last quoted price, or, if not so quoted, the average of the high bid and low asked prices in the over-the-counter market, as reported by the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. Automated Quotation System or, if such system is no longer in use, the principal other automated quotation system that may then be in use or, if such Capital Stock is not quoted by any such organization, the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by a professional market maker making a market in such Capital Stock selected by the Board of Directors of the Corporation or, in the event that no trading price is available for such Capital Stock, the fair market value of the Capital Stock, as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors of the Corporation.
General Corporation Law. The term “General Corporation Law” shall mean the Delaware General Corporation Law, as amended from time to time.
Nasdaq. The term “Nasdaq” shall mean The NASDAQ Stock Market, Inc.
Person. The term “Person” shall mean an individual, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, estate, trust (including a trust qualified under Sections 401(a) or 501(c)(17) of the Code), a portion of a trust permanently set aside for or to be used exclusively for the purposes described in Section 642(c) of the Code, association, private foundation within the meaning of Section 509(a) of the Code, joint stock company or other entity and also includes a group as that term is used for purposes of Section 13(d)(3) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and a group to which an Excepted Holder Limit applies.
Prohibited Owner. The term “Prohibited Owner” shall mean, with respect to any purported Transfer (or other event), any Person who, but for the provisions of Section 8.2.1, would Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of





Capital Stock in violation of the provisions of 8.2.1(a) and, if appropriate in the context, shall also mean any Person who would have been the record owner of the shares of Capital Stock that the Prohibited Owner would have so owned.
REIT. The term “REIT” shall mean a real estate investment trust within the meaning of Section 856 of the Code.
Restriction Termination Date. The term “Restriction Termination Date” shall mean the first day after the Initial Date on which the Corporation determines pursuant to Section 5.6 of the Certificate of Incorporation that it is no longer in the best interests of the Corporation to attempt to, or continue to, qualify as a REIT or that compliance with the restrictions and limitations on Beneficial Ownership, Constructive Ownership and Transfers of shares of Capital Stock set forth herein is no longer required in order for the Corporation to qualify as a REIT.
Transfer. The term “Transfer” shall mean any issuance, sale, transfer, gift, assignment, devise or other disposition, as well as any other event that causes any Person to acquire Beneficial Ownership or Constructive Ownership, or any agreement to take any such actions or cause any such events, of Capital Stock or the right to vote or receive dividends on Capital Stock, including (a) the granting or exercise of any option (or any disposition of any option), (b) any disposition of any securities or rights convertible into or exchangeable for Capital Stock or any interest in Capital Stock or any exercise of any such conversion or exchange right and (c) Transfers of interests in other entities that result in changes in Beneficial or Constructive Ownership of Capital Stock; in each case, whether voluntary or involuntary, whether owned of record, Constructively Owned or Beneficially Owned and whether by operation of law or otherwise. The terms “Transferring” and “Transferred” shall have the correlative meanings.
Trust. The term “Trust” shall mean any trust provided for in Section 8.3.1.
Trustee. The term “Trustee” shall mean the Person unaffiliated with the Corporation and a Prohibited Owner, that is appointed by the Corporation to serve as trustee of the Trust.
Section 8.2    Capital Stock.
Section 8.2.1    Ownership Limitations. During the period commencing on the Initial Date and prior to the Restriction Termination Date:
(a) Basic Restrictions.
(i) (1) No Person, other than an Excepted Holder, shall Beneficially Own or Constructively Own either shares of Capital Stock in excess of the Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit or shares of Common Stock in excess of the Common Stock Ownership Limit and (2) no Excepted Holder shall Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock in excess of the Excepted Holder Limit for such Excepted Holder.
(ii) No Person shall Beneficially or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock to the extent that such Beneficial or Constructive Ownership of Capital Stock would result in the Corporation being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year), or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT (including, but not limited to, Beneficial or Constructive Ownership to the extent that such Beneficial or Constructive Ownership would result in the Corporation owning (actually or Constructively) a 9.9% interest in a tenant that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code (for this purpose, a tenant from whom the Corporation (or an entity owned or controlled by the Corporation) derives (and is expected to continue to derive) a sufficiently small amount of revenue such that, in the opinion of the Board of Directors of the Corporation, rent from such tenant would not adversely affect the Corporation’s ability to qualify as a REIT, shall not be treated as a tenant of the Corporation)).
(iii) Notwithstanding any other provisions contained herein, no Person shall Transfer of shares of Capital Stock (whether or not such Transfer is the result of a transaction entered into through the facilities of Nasdaq or any other national securities exchange or automated inter-dealer quotation system) that, if effective, would result in the Capital Stock being Beneficially Owned by less than 100 Persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code).
(b) Transfer in Trust. If any Transfer of shares of Capital Stock (whether or not such Transfer is the result of a transaction entered into through the facilities of Nasdaq or any other national securities exchange or automated inter-dealer quotation system) occurs which, if effective, would result in any Person Beneficially Owning or Constructively Owning shares of Capital Stock in violation of Section 8.2.1(a),
(i) then that number of shares of Capital Stock the Beneficial or Constructive Ownership of which otherwise would cause such Person to violate Section 8.2.1(a) (rounded up to the nearest whole share) shall be automatically transferred to a Trust for the benefit of a Charitable Beneficiary, as described in Section 8.3, effective as of the





close of business on the Business Day prior to the date of such Transfer (or other event), and such Person shall acquire no rights in such shares of Capital Stock; or
(ii) if the transfer to the Trust described in clause (i) of this sentence would not be effective for any reason to prevent the violation of Section 8.2.1(a), then the Transfer of that number of shares of Capital Stock that otherwise would cause any Person to violate Section 8.2.1(a) shall be void ab initio, and the intended transferee shall acquire no rights in such shares of Capital Stock.
(iii) In determining which shares of Capital Stock are to be transferred to a Trust in accordance with this Section 8.2.1(b) and Section 8.3 hereof, shares shall be so transferred to a Trust in such manner that minimizes the aggregate value of the shares that are transferred to the Trust (except to the extent that the Board of Directors determines that the shares transferred to the Trust shall be those directly or indirectly held or Beneficially Owned or Constructively Owned by a Person or Persons that caused or contributed to the application of this Section 8.2.1(b)), and to the extent not inconsistent therewith, on a pro rata basis.
(iv) To the extent that, upon a transfer of shares of Capital Stock pursuant to this Section 8.2.1(b), a violation of Section 8.2.1(a) would nonetheless be continuing, (for example where the ownership of shares of Capital Stock by a single Trust would result in the Capital Stock being beneficially owned (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code) by less than 100 persons), the shares of Capital Stock shall be transferred to that number of Trusts, each having a distinct Trustee and a Charitable Beneficiary or Beneficiaries that are distinct from those of each other Trust, such that there is no violation of Section 8.2.1(a).
Section 8.2.2    Remedies for Breach. If the Board of Directors of the Corporation or any duly authorized committee thereof (or other designees if permitted by the General Corporation Law) shall at any time determine in good faith that a Transfer or other event has taken place that results in a violation of Section 8.2.1(a) or that a Person intends to acquire or has attempted to acquire Beneficial Ownership or Constructive Ownership of any shares of Capital Stock in violation of Section 8.2.1(a) (whether or not such violation is intended), the Board of Directors or a committee thereof (or other designees if permitted by the General Corporation Law) shall take such action as it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such Transfer or other event, including, without limitation, causing the Corporation to redeem shares of Capital Stock, refusing to give effect to such Transfer on the books of the Corporation or instituting proceedings to enjoin such Transfer or other event; provided, however, that any Transfer or attempted Transfer or other event in violation of Section 8.2.1(a) shall automatically result in the transfer to the Trust described above and, where applicable, such Transfer (or other event) shall be void ab initio as provided above irrespective of any action (or non-action) by the Board of Directors or a committee thereof.
Section 8.2.3    Notice of Restricted Transfer. Any Person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire Beneficial Ownership or Constructive Ownership of shares of Capital Stock that will or may violate Section 8.2.1(a) or any Person who would have owned shares of Capital Stock that resulted in a transfer to the Trust pursuant to the provisions of Section 8.2.1(b) shall immediately give written notice to the Corporation of such event, or in the case of such a proposed or attempted transaction, give at least 15 days prior written notice, and shall provide to the Corporation such other information as the Corporation may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such Transfer on the Corporation’s qualification as a REIT.
Section 8.2.4    Owners Required to Provide Information. From the Initial Date and prior to the Restriction Termination Date:
(a) every owner of more than five percent (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder) in number or value of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, shall give written notice to the Corporation stating the name and address of such owner, the number of shares of Capital Stock and other shares of the Capital Stock Beneficially Owned and a description of the manner in which such shares are held. Each such owner shall provide to the Corporation such additional information as the Corporation may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such Beneficial Ownership on the Corporation’s qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit and the Common Stock Ownership Limit; and
(b) each Person who is a Beneficial or Constructive Owner of Capital Stock and each Person (including the stockholder of record) who is holding Capital Stock for a Beneficial or Constructive Owner shall provide to the Corporation such information as the Corporation may request, in good faith, in order to determine the Corporation’s qualification as a REIT and to comply with requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance and to ensure compliance with the Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit and the Common Stock Ownership Limit.
Section 8.2.5    Remedies Not Limited. Subject to Section 5.6 of the Certificate of Incorporation, nothing contained in this Section 8.2 shall limit the authority of the Board of Directors of the Corporation to take such other





action as it deems necessary or advisable to protect the Corporation and the interests of its stockholders in preserving the Corporation’s qualification as a REIT.    
Section 8.2.6    Ambiguity. In the case of an ambiguity in the application of any of the provisions of this Section 8.2, Section 8.3 or any definition contained in Section 8.1, the Board of Directors of the Corporation shall have the power to determine the application of the provisions of this Section 8.2 or Section 8.3 or any such definition with respect to any situation based on the facts known to it. In the event Section 8.2 or Section 8.3 requires an action by the Board of Directors and the Certificate of Incorporation fails to provide specific guidance with respect to such action, the Board of Directors shall have the power to determine the action to be taken so long as such action is not contrary to the provisions of Sections 8.1, 8.2 or 8.3. Absent a decision to the contrary by the Board of Directors (which the Board of Directors may make in its sole and absolute discretion), if a Person would have (but for the remedies set forth in Section 8.2.1) acquired Beneficial Ownership or Constructive Ownership of Capital Stock in violation of Section 8.2.1, such remedies (as applicable) shall apply first to the shares of Capital Stock that, but for such remedies, would have been actually owned by such Person, and second to shares of Capital Stock which, but for such remedies, would have been Beneficially Owned or Constructively Owned (but not actually owned) by such Person, pro rata among the Persons who actually own such shares of Capital Stock based upon the relative number of the shares of Capital Stock held by each such Person.
Section 8.2.7    Exceptions.
(a) Subject to Section 8.2.1, the Board of Directors of the Corporation, in its sole discretion, may exempt (prospectively or retroactively) a Person from the Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit, the Common Stock Ownership Limit, or both such limits and may establish or increase an Excepted Holder Limit for such Person if:
(i) the Board of Directors obtains such representations and undertakings from such Person as are reasonably necessary to ascertain that no individual’s Beneficial or Constructive Ownership of such shares of Capital Stock will violate Section 8.2.1(a)(ii);    
(ii) such Person does not and represents that it will not own, actually or Constructively, an interest in a tenant of the Corporation (or a tenant of any entity owned or controlled by the Corporation) that would cause the Corporation to own, actually or Constructively, more than a 9.9% interest (as set forth in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code) in such tenant and the Board of Directors obtains such representations and undertakings from such Person as are reasonably necessary to ascertain this fact; and     
(iii) such Person agrees that any violation or attempted violation of such representations or undertakings (or other action which is contrary to the restrictions contained in Sections 8.2.1 through 8.2.6) will result in such shares of Capital Stock being automatically transferred to a Trust in accordance with Sections 8.2.1(b) and 8.3.
(b) Prior to granting any exception pursuant to Section 8.2.7(a), the Board of Directors of the Corporation may require a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, or an opinion of counsel, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, as it may deem necessary or advisable in order to determine or ensure the Corporation’s qualification as a REIT. Notwithstanding the receipt of any ruling or opinion, the Board of Directors may impose such conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate in connection with granting such exception.
(c) Subject to Section 8.2.1(a)(ii), an underwriter or placement agent that participates in a public offering or a private placement of Capital Stock (or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Capital Stock) may Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock (or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Capital Stock) in excess of the Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit, the Common Stock Ownership Limit, or both such limits, but only to the extent necessary to facilitate such public offering or private placement.
(d) The Board of Directors may only reduce the Excepted Holder Limit for an Excepted Holder: (i) with the written consent of such Excepted Holder at any time, or (ii) pursuant to the terms and conditions of the agreements and undertakings entered into with such Excepted Holder in connection with the establishment of the Excepted Holder Limit for that Excepted Holder. No Excepted Holder Limit shall be reduced to a percentage that is less than the Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit or the Common Stock Ownership Limit, as the case may be.
Section 8.2.8    Change in Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit and Common Stock Ownership Limit. The Board of Directors may from time to time increase or decrease the Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit and Common Stock Ownership Limit; provided, however, that a decreased Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit or Common Stock Ownership Limit will not be effective for any Person whose percentage ownership of Capital Stock or Common Stock, as the case may be, is in excess of such decreased Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit or Common Stock Ownership Limit until such time as such Person's percentage of Capital Stock or Common Stock, as the case may be, equals or falls below the decreased Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit or Common Stock Ownership, but until such time as such Person's percentage of Capital Stock or Common Stock, as the case may be, falls below such decreased Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit or Common Stock Ownership Limit, any further acquisition of Capital Stock or Common Stock will be in violation of the Aggregate Stock





Ownership Limit or Common Stock Ownership Limit and, provided further, that the new Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit or Common Stock Ownership Limit would not allow five or fewer individuals (as defined in Section 542(a)(2) of the Code and taking into account all Excepted Holders) to Beneficially Own more than 49.9% in value of the outstanding Capital Stock. If the Board of Directors changes the Common Stock Ownership Limit and/or Aggregate Stock Ownership Limit, it will (i) notify each stockholder of record of any such change, and (ii) publicly announce any such change, in each case at least 30 days prior to the effective date of such change.
Section 8.2.9    Legend. Each certificate for shares of Capital Stock shall bear substantially the following legend:
“The shares of any class or series of the Corporation’s stock (the “Capital Stock”) represented by this certificate are subject to restrictions on Beneficial Ownership, Constructive Ownership and Transfer (as each such capitalized term is defined in the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, as the same may be amended from time to time (the "Certificate of Incorporation")) for the purpose of the Corporation's maintenance of its status as a real estate investment trust (a “REIT”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). Subject to certain further restrictions and except as expressly provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, (i) no Person (as defined in the Certificate of Incorporation) may Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of the Corporation’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”) in excess of 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the total outstanding shares of Common Stock unless such Person is an Excepted Holder (as defined in the Certificate of Incorporation), in which case the Excepted Holder Limit (as defined in the Certificate of Incorporation) shall be applicable; (ii) no Person may Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock in excess of 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the total outstanding shares of Capital Stock, unless such Person is an Excepted Holder, in which case the Excepted Holder Limit shall be applicable; (iii) no Person may Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock that would result in the Corporation being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise cause the Corporation to fail to qualify as a REIT; and (iv) no Person may Transfer shares of Capital Stock if such Transfer would result in the Capital Stock of the Corporation being owned by fewer than 100 Persons. Any Person who Beneficially Owns or Constructively Owns, or attempts to Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock which causes or will cause a Person to Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock in excess or in violation of the above limitations must immediately notify the Corporation. If any of the above restrictions on Beneficial Ownership, Constructive Ownership or Transfer are violated, the shares of Capital Stock represented hereby will be automatically transferred to a Trust (as defined in the Certificate of Incorporation) for the benefit of one or more Charitable Beneficiaries (as defined in the Certificate of Incorporation). In addition, the Board of Directors shall take such action as it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such Transfer or other event, including, without limitation, causing the Corporation to redeem shares of Capital Stock; provided, however, that any Transfer or attempted Transfer or other event in violation of the above restrictions on Beneficial Ownership, Constructive Ownership and Transfer shall automatically result in the above transfer to the Trust and, where applicable, such Transfer (or other event) shall be void ab initio as provided above irrespective of any action (or non-action) by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may, pursuant to Section 8.2.8 of the Certificate of Incorporation, increase or decrease the percentage of Common Stock or Capital Stock that a person may Beneficially Own or Constructively Own.
A copy of the Certificate of Incorporation, including the above restrictions on Beneficial Ownership, Constructive Ownership and Transfer, will be furnished to each holder of Capital Stock on request and without charge. Requests for such a copy may be directed to the Secretary of the Corporation at its principal office.”
Instead of the foregoing legend, the certificate may state that the Corporation will furnish a full statement about certain restrictions on transferability to a stockholder on request and without charge.
Section 8.3    Transfer of Capital Stock in Trust.
Section 8.3.1    Ownership in Trust. Upon any purported Transfer or other event described in Section 8.2.1(a) that would result in a transfer of shares of Capital Stock to a Trust, such shares of Capital Stock shall be deemed to have been transferred to the Trustee as trustee of a Trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more Charitable Beneficiaries. Such transfer to the Trustee shall be deemed to be effective as of the close of business on the Business Day prior to the purported Transfer or other event that results in the transfer to the Trust pursuant to Section 8.2.1(b). The Trustee shall be appointed by the Corporation and shall be a Person unaffiliated with the Corporation and any Prohibited Owner. Each Charitable Beneficiary shall be designated by the Corporation as provided in Section 8.3.6.
Section 8.3.2    Status of Shares Held by the Trustee. Shares of Capital Stock held by the Trustee shall continue to be issued and outstanding shares of Capital Stock of the Corporation. The Prohibited Owner shall have no rights in the shares of Capital Stock held by the Trustee. The Prohibited Owner shall not benefit economically from ownership of any shares held in trust by the Trustee, shall have no rights to dividends or other distributions and shall not possess any rights to vote or other rights attributable to the shares held in the Trust.





Section 8.3.3    Dividend and Voting Rights. The Trustee shall have all voting rights and rights to dividends or other distributions with respect to shares of Capital Stock held in the Trust, which rights shall be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the Charitable Beneficiary. Any dividend or other distribution paid to a Prohibited Owner prior to the discovery by the Corporation that the shares of Capital Stock have been transferred to the Trustee shall be paid with respect to such shares of Capital Stock by the Prohibited Owner to the Trustee upon demand and any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid shall be paid when due to the Trustee. Any dividend or distribution so paid to the Trustee shall be held in trust for the Charitable Beneficiary. The Prohibited Owner shall have no voting rights with respect to shares held in the Trust and, subject to the General Corporation Law, effective as of the date that the shares of Capital Stock have been transferred to the Trustee, the Trustee shall have the authority (at the Trustee’s sole discretion) (i) to rescind as void any vote cast by a Prohibited Owner prior to the discovery by the Corporation that the shares of Capital Stock have been transferred to the Trustee and (ii) to recast such vote in accordance with the desires of the Trustee acting for the benefit of the Charitable Beneficiary; provided, however, that if the Corporation has already taken irreversible corporate action, then the Trustee shall not have the authority to rescind and recast such vote. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Article VIII, until the Corporation has received notification that shares of Capital Stock have been transferred into a Trust, the Corporation shall be entitled to rely on its share transfer and other stockholder records for purposes of preparing lists of stockholders entitled to vote at meetings, determining the validity and authority of proxies and otherwise conducting votes of stockholders.
Section 8.3.4    Sale of Shares by Trustee. Within 20 days of receiving notice from the Corporation that shares of Capital Stock have been transferred to the Trust, the Trustee of the Trust shall sell the shares held in the Trust to a person, designated by the Trustee, whose ownership of the shares will not violate the ownership limitations set forth in Section 8.2.1(a). Upon such sale, the interest of the Charitable Beneficiary in the shares sold shall terminate and the Trustee shall distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the Prohibited Owner and to the Charitable Beneficiary as provided in this Section 8.3.4. The Prohibited Owner shall receive the lesser of (i) the price paid by the Prohibited Owner for the shares or, if the Prohibited Owner did not give value for the shares in connection with the event causing the shares to be held in the Trust (e.g., in the case of a gift, devise or other such transaction), the Market Price of the shares on the day of the event causing the shares to be held in the Trust and (ii) the price per share received by the Trustee (net of any commissions and other expenses of sale) from the sale or other disposition of the shares held in the Trust. The Trustee may reduce the amount payable to the Prohibited Owner by the amount of dividends and distributions paid to the Prohibited Owner and owned by the Prohibited Owner to the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.3.3 of this Article VIII. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the Prohibited Owner shall be immediately paid to the Charitable Beneficiary. If, prior to the discovery by the Corporation that shares of Capital Stock have been transferred to the Trustee, such shares are sold by a Prohibited Owner, then (a) such shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the Trust and (b) to the extent that the Prohibited Owner received an amount for such shares that exceeds the amount that such Prohibited Owner was entitled to receive pursuant to this Section 8.3.4, such excess shall be paid to the Trustee upon demand.
Section 8.3.5    Purchase Right in Stock Transferred to the Trustee. Shares of Capital Stock transferred to the Trustee shall be deemed to have been offered for sale to the Corporation, or its designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in such transfer to the Trust (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the Market Price at the time of such devise or gift) and (ii) the Market Price on the date the Corporation, or its designee, accepts such offer. The Corporation may reduce the amount payable to the Prohibited Owner by the amount of dividends and distributions paid to the Prohibited Owner and owed by the Prohibited Owner to the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.3.3 of this Article VIII. The Corporation may pay the amount of such reduction to the Trustee for the benefit of the Charitable Beneficiary. The Corporation shall have the right to accept such offer until the Trustee has sold the shares held in the Trust pursuant to Section 8.3.4. Upon such a sale to the Corporation, the interest of the Charitable Beneficiary in the shares sold shall terminate and the Trustee shall distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the Prohibited Owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the Trustee shall be paid to the Charitable Beneficiary.
Section 8.3.6    Designation of Charitable Beneficiaries. By written notice to the Trustee, the Corporation shall designate one or more nonprofit organizations to be the Charitable Beneficiary of the interest in the Trust such that (i) the shares of Capital Stock held in the Trust would not violate the restrictions set forth in Section 8.2.1(a) in the hands of such Charitable Beneficiary and (ii) each such organization must be described in Section 501(c)(3) of the Code and contributions to each such organization must be eligible for deduction under each of Sections 170(b)(1)(A), 2055 and 2522 of the Code.
Section 8.4    Nasdaq Transactions. Nothing in this Article VIII shall preclude the settlement of any transaction entered into through the facilities of Nasdaq or any other national securities exchange or automated inter-dealer quotation system. The fact that the settlement of any transaction occurs shall not negate the effect of any other provision of this Article VIII and any transferee in such a transaction shall be subject to all of the provisions and limitations set forth in this Article VIII.





Section 8.5    Enforcement. The Corporation is authorized specifically to seek equitable relief, including injunctive relief, to enforce the provisions of this Article VIII.
Section 8.6    Non-Waiver. No delay or failure on the part of the Corporation or the Board of Directors in exercising any right hereunder shall operate as a waiver of any right of the Corporation or the Board of Directors, as the case may be, except to the extent specifically waived in writing.
Section 8.7    Severability. If any provision of this Article VIII or any application of any such provision is determined to be invalid by any federal or state court having jurisdiction over the issues, the validity of the remaining provisions shall not be affected and other applications of such provisions shall be affected only to the extent necessary to comply with the determination of such court.
ARTICLE IX
LIMITATION ON LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS
A director of the Corporation shall, to the maximum extent now or hereafter permitted by Section 102(b)(7) of the General Corporation Law (or any successor provision or provisions), have no personal liability to the Corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except to the extent such director has committed willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of such director's duties involved in the conduct of the office of director.
ARTICLE X
COMPROMISE
Whenever a compromise or arrangement is proposed between this Corporation and its creditors or any class of them and/or between this Corporation and its stockholders or any class of them, any court of equitable jurisdiction within the State of Delaware may, on the application in a summary way of this Corporation or of any creditor or stockholder thereof or on the application of any receiver or receivers appointed for this Corporation under the provisions of Section 291 of the General Corporation Law, trustees in dissolution or of any receiver or receivers appointed for this Corporation under the provisions of Section 279 of the General Corporation Law, order a meeting of the creditors or class of creditors, and/or of the stockholders or class of stockholders of this Corporation, as the case may be, to be summoned in such manner as the said court directs. If a majority in number representing three fourths in value of the creditors or class of creditors, and/or of the stockholders or class of stockholders of this Corporation, as the case may be, agree to any compromise or arrangement and to any reorganization of this Corporation as consequence of such compromise or arrangement, the said compromise or arrangement and the said reorganization shall, if sanctioned by the court to which the said application has been made, be binding on all the creditors or class of creditors, and/or on all the stockholders or class of stockholders, of this Corporation, as the case may be, and also on this Corporation.
ARTICLE XI
AMENDMENT OF BY-LAWS
The Board of Directors shall have power to adopt, amend, alter, change and repeal any By-laws by a vote of the majority of the Board of Directors then in office. In addition to any requirements of the General Corporation Law (and notwithstanding the fact that a lesser percentage may be specified by the General Corporation Law), any adoption, amendment, alteration, change or repeal of any By-laws by the stockholders of the Corporation shall require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six percent (66%) of the combined voting power of all of the shares of all classes of capital stock of the Corporation then entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.
ARTICLE XII
AMENDMENT OF CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
The Corporation hereby reserves the right to amend, alter, change or repeal any provision contained in this Certificate of Incorporation. Except as may be provided in a resolution or resolutions providing for any class of Preferred Stock pursuant to Article IV hereof and which relate to such class of Preferred Stock and except as provided in Article IV hereof, any such amendment, alteration, change or repeal shall require the affirmative vote of both (a) a majority of the





members of the Board of Directors then in office and (b) a majority of the combined voting power of all of the shares of all classes of capital stock of the Corporation then entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.
By a vote of the majority of the Board of Directors then in office, the Board of Directors may adopt a resolution providing that at any time prior to the filing of the amendment with the Secretary of State, notwithstanding authorization of the proposed amendment by the stockholders, the Board of Directors may abandon such proposed amendment without further action by the stockholders.
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Certificate of Incorporation to the contrary, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six percent (66%) of the combined voting power of all of the shares of all classes of capital stock of the Corporation then entitled to vote shall be required to amend, repeal or adopt any provision inconsistent with Article V herein.
ARTICLE XIII
MISCELLANEOUS
Section 13.1    Books and Records. The books of the Corporation may be kept (subject to any provision contained in the General Corporation Law) outside the State of Delaware at such place or places as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors or in the By-laws of the Corporation.
Section 13.2    Section 203. The Corporation expressly elects not to be governed by Section 203 of the General Corporation Law.