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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to            
Commission file number: 001-34028
AMERICAN WATER WORKS COMPANY, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware51-0063696
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1 Water Street, Camden, NJ 08102-1658
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(856) 955-4001
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.01 per shareAWKNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.     Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer 
  Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
Common Stock, $0.01 par value—$25,487,300,000 as of June 30, 2022 (solely for purposes of calculating this aggregate market value, American Water has defined its affiliates to include (i) those persons who were, as of June 30, 2022, its executive officers, directors or known beneficial owners of more than 10% of its common stock, and (ii) such other persons who were deemed, as of June 30, 2022, to be controlled by, or under common control with, American Water or any such persons in clause (i) above).
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock as of the latest practicable date: Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share—181,858,619 shares as of January 31, 2023.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the American Water Works Company, Inc. definitive proxy statement for the 2023 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2022 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.



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  Page
  
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
  
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
  
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
  
Item 15.
Item 16.



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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Statements included in Item 1—Business, Item 1A—Risk Factors, and Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and in other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or incorporated by reference therein, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by words with prospective meanings such as “intend,” “plan,” “estimate,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “predict,” “project,” “propose,” “assume,” “forecast,” “likely,” “uncertain,” “outlook,” “future,” “pending,” “goal,” “objective,” “potential,” “continue,” “seek to,” “may,” “can,” “should,” “will” and “could” or the negative of such terms or other variations or similar expressions. Forward-looking statements may relate to, among other things: the Company’s future financial performance, liquidity and cash flows; the timing and amount of rate and revenue adjustments, including through general rate case filings, filings for infrastructure surcharges and other governmental agency authorizations and proceedings, and filings to address regulatory lag; the Company’s growth and portfolio optimization strategies, including the timing and outcome of pending or future acquisition activity; the ability of the Company’s California subsidiary to obtain adequate alternative water supplies in lieu of diversions from the Carmel River; the amount and allocation of projected capital expenditures and related funding requirements; the Company’s ability to repay or refinance debt; the future impacts of increased or increasing financing costs, inflation and interest rates; the Company’s ability to execute its current and long-term business, operational and capital expenditures strategies; the Company’s ability to finance current operations, capital expenditures and growth initiatives by accessing the debt and equity capital markets; the outcome and impact on the Company of governmental and regulatory proceedings and related potential fines, penalties and other sanctions; the ability to meet or exceed the Company’s stated environmental and sustainability goals, including its greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emission reduction, water delivery efficiency and water system resiliency goals; the ability to complete, and the timing and efficacy of, the design, development, implementation and improvement of technology and other strategic initiatives; the impacts to the Company of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; the ability to capitalize on existing or future utility privatization opportunities; trends in the water and wastewater industries in which the Company operates, including macro trends with respect to the Company’s efforts related to customer, technology and work execution; regulatory, legislative, tax policy or legal developments; and impacts that future significant tax legislation may have on the Company and on its business, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Forward-looking statements are predictions based on the Company’s current expectations and assumptions regarding future events. They are not guarantees or assurances of any outcomes, financial results, levels of activity, performance or achievements, and readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance upon them. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of estimates, assumptions, known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors. The Company’s actual results may vary materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements included herein as a result of the factors discussed under Item 1A—Risk Factors, and the following important factors:
the decisions of governmental and regulatory bodies, including decisions to raise or lower customer rates;
the timeliness and outcome of regulatory commissions’ and other authorities’ actions concerning rates, capital structure, authorized return on equity, capital investment, system acquisitions and dispositions, taxes, permitting, water supply and management, and other decisions;
changes in customer demand for, and patterns of use of, water and energy, such as may result from conservation efforts, or otherwise;
limitations on the availability of the Company’s water supplies or sources of water, or restrictions on its use thereof, resulting from allocation rights, governmental or regulatory requirements and restrictions, drought, overuse or other factors;
a loss of one or more large industrial or commercial customers due to adverse economic conditions, or other factors;
changes in laws, governmental regulations and policies, including with respect to environmental, health and safety, data and consumer privacy, security and protection, water quality and water quality accountability, contaminants of emerging concern, public utility and tax regulations and policies, and impacts resulting from U.S., state and local elections and changes in federal, state and local executive administrations;
the Company’s ability to collect, distribute, use, secure and store consumer data in compliance with current or future governmental laws, regulations and policies with respect to data and consumer privacy, security and protection;
weather conditions and events, climate variability patterns, and natural disasters, including drought or abnormally high rainfall, prolonged and abnormal ice or freezing conditions, strong winds, coastal and intercoastal flooding, pandemics (including COVID-19) and epidemics, earthquakes, landslides, hurricanes, tornadoes, wildfires, electrical storms, sinkholes and solar flares;
the outcome of litigation and similar governmental and regulatory proceedings, investigations or actions;


1

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the risks associated with the Company’s aging infrastructure, and its ability to appropriately improve the resiliency of or maintain and replace, current or future infrastructure and systems, including its technology and other assets, and manage the expansion of its businesses;
exposure or infiltration of the Company’s technology and critical infrastructure systems, including the disclosure of sensitive, personal or confidential information contained therein, through physical or cyber attacks or other means;
the Company’s ability to obtain permits and other approvals for projects and construction of various water and wastewater facilities;
changes in the Company’s capital requirements;
the Company’s ability to control operating expenses and to achieve operating efficiencies;
the intentional or unintentional actions of a third party, including contamination of the Company’s water supplies or the water provided to its customers;
the Company’s ability to obtain and have delivered adequate and cost-effective supplies of pipe, equipment (including personal protective equipment), chemicals, power and other fuel, water and other raw materials, and to address or mitigate supply chain constraints that may result in delays or shortages in, as well as increased costs of, supplies, products and materials that are critical to or used in the Company’s business operations;
the Company’s ability to successfully meet its operational growth projections, either individually or in the aggregate, and capitalize on growth opportunities, including, among other things, with respect to:
acquiring, closing and successfully integrating regulated operations;
the Company’s Military Services Group (“MSG”) entering into new military installation contracts, price redeterminations, and other agreements and contracts, with the U.S. government; and
realizing anticipated benefits and synergies from new acquisitions;
risks and uncertainties following the completion of the sale of the Company’s Homeowner Services Group (“HOS”), including:
the Company’s ability to receive any contingent consideration provided for in the HOS sale, as well as amounts due, payable and owing to the Company under the seller note when due; and
the ability of the Company to redeploy successfully and timely the net proceeds of this transaction into the Company’s Regulated Businesses;
risks and uncertainties associated with contracting with the U.S. government, including ongoing compliance with applicable government procurement and security regulations;
cost overruns relating to improvements in or the expansion of the Company’s operations;
the Company’s ability to successfully develop and implement new technologies and to protect related intellectual property;
the Company’s ability to maintain safe work sites;
the Company’s exposure to liabilities related to environmental laws and similar matters resulting from, among other things, water and wastewater service provided to customers;
the ability of energy providers, state governments and other third parties to achieve or fulfill their GHG emission reduction goals, including without limitation through stated renewable portfolio standards and carbon transition plans;
changes in general economic, political, business and financial market conditions;
access to sufficient debt and/or equity capital on satisfactory terms and as needed to support operations and capital expenditures;
fluctuations in inflation or interest rates, and the Company’s ability to address or mitigate the impacts thereof;
the ability to comply with affirmative or negative covenants in the current or future indebtedness of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or the issuance of new or modified credit ratings or outlooks by credit rating agencies with respect to the Company or any of its subsidiaries (or any current or future indebtedness thereof), which could increase financing costs or funding requirements and affect the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ ability to issue, repay or redeem debt, pay dividends or make distributions;
fluctuations in the value of, or assumptions and estimates related to, its benefit plan assets and liabilities, including with respect to its pension and other post-retirement benefit plans, that could increase expenses and plan funding


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requirements;
changes in federal or state general, income and other tax laws, including (i) future significant tax legislation, and (ii) the availability of, or the Company’s compliance with, the terms of applicable tax credits and tax abatement programs;
migration of customers into or out of the Company’s service territories and changes in water and energy consumption resulting therefrom;
the use by municipalities of the power of eminent domain or other authority to condemn the systems of one or more of the Company’s utility subsidiaries, or the assertion by private landowners of similar rights against such utility subsidiaries;
any difficulty or inability to obtain insurance for the Company, its inability to obtain insurance at acceptable rates and on acceptable terms and conditions, or its inability to obtain reimbursement under existing or future insurance programs and coverages for any losses sustained;
the incurrence of impairment charges, changes in fair value and other adjustments related to the Company’s goodwill or the value of its other assets;
labor actions, including work stoppages and strikes;
the Company’s ability to retain and attract highly qualified and skilled employees and/or diverse talent;
civil disturbances or unrest, or terrorist threats or acts, or public apprehension about future disturbances, unrest, or terrorist threats or acts; and
the impact of new, and changes to existing, accounting standards.
These forward-looking statements are qualified by, and should be read together with, the risks and uncertainties set forth above and the risk factors included in Item 1A—Risk Factors and other statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and readers should refer to such risks, uncertainties and risk factors in evaluating such forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statements the Company makes shall speak only as of the date this Annual Report on Form 10-K was filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Except as required by the federal securities laws, the Company does not have any obligation, and it specifically disclaims any undertaking or intention, to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for the Company to predict all such factors. Furthermore, it may not be possible to assess the impact of any such factor on the Company’s businesses, either viewed independently or together, or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement. The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive.


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PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
The Company
With a history dating back to 1886, American Water is the largest and most geographically diverse, publicly-traded water and wastewater utility company in the United States, as measured by both operating revenues and population served. A holding company originally incorporated in Delaware in 1936, the Company employs approximately 6,500 professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to over 14 million people in 24 states. The Company conducts the majority of its business through regulated utilities that provide water and wastewater services, collectively presented as the “Regulated Businesses.” The Company also operates other market-based businesses that provide water and wastewater services to the U.S. government on military installations, as well as municipalities. Individually, these market-based businesses do not meet the criteria of a reportable segment in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”), and are collectively presented throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K within “Other,” which is consistent with how management assesses the results of these businesses.
On December 9, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), the Company sold all of the equity interests of the HOS subsidiaries. See Item 1—Business—Other—Sale of Homeowner Services Group below and Note 5—Acquisitions and Divestitures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
On January 1, 2022, the Company completed the sale of its New York subsidiary, see Item 1—Business—Regulated Businesses—Sale of New York American Water Company, Inc. below and Note 5—Acquisitions and Divestitures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” and “American Water” mean American Water Works Company, Inc. and its subsidiaries, taken together as a whole. References to “parent company” mean American Water Works Company, Inc., without its subsidiaries.
Regulated Businesses
The Company’s primary business involves the ownership of utilities that provide water and wastewater services to residential, commercial, industrial, public authority, fire service and sale for resale customers. The Company’s utilities operate in approximately 1,600 communities in 14 states in the United States, with 3.4 million active customers in its water and wastewater networks. Services provided by the Company’s utilities are subject to regulation by multiple state utility commissions or other entities engaged in utility regulation, collectively referred to as public utility commissions (“PUCs”). Federal, state and local governments also regulate environmental, health and safety, and water quality and water accountability matters. The Company reports the results of the services provided by its utilities in the Regulated Businesses segment. Operating revenues for the Regulated Businesses were $3,505 million for 2022, $3,384 million for 2021 and $3,255 million for 2020, accounting for 92%, 86% and 86%, respectively, of the Company’s total operating revenues for the same periods.
Presented in the table below is a geographic summary of the Regulated Businesses’ operating revenues and the number of customers the Company serves, by type of service, for and as of the year ended December 31, 2022:
Operating Revenues (in millions)Number of Customers (in thousands)
 Water (a)WastewaterTotal% of TotalWaterWastewaterTotal% of Total
New Jersey$858 $51 $909 25.9 %663 59 722 20.9 %
Pennsylvania714 105 819 23.4 %679 97 776 22.5 %
Missouri367 16 383 10.9 %480 22 502 14.6 %
Illinois310 39 349 10.0 %297 71 368 10.7 %
California281 285 8.1 %189 192 5.6 %
Total—Top Five States (b)
2,530 215 2,745 78.3 %2,308 252 2,560 74.2 %
Other (c)
733 27 760 21.7 %853 36 889 25.8 %
Total Regulated Businesses$3,263 $242 $3,505 100.0 %3,161 288 3,449 100.0 %
(a)Includes other operating revenues consisting primarily of miscellaneous utility charges, fees and rents.
(b)The Company’s “Top Five States” are determined based upon operating revenues.
(c)Includes the Company’s utility operations in the following states: Georgia, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia and other revenue attributable collectively to the Regulated Businesses. The Company completed the sale of its New York subsidiary on January 1, 2022 and the sale of its Michigan subsidiary on February 4, 2022.


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Customers
The Company’s Regulated Businesses have a large and geographically diverse customer base. A customer is defined as a person, business, municipality or any other entity that purchases the Company’s water or wastewater services as of the last business day of a reporting period. One single customer may purchase the Company’s services for use by multiple individuals or businesses. Examples of these customers are homes, apartment complexes, businesses and governmental entities.
The vast majority of the Company’s regulated water customers are metered, which allows the Company to measure and bill for its customers’ water usage, typically on a monthly basis. The Company employs a variety of methods of customer meter reading to monitor consumption. These methods range from meters with mechanical registers where consumption is manually recorded by meter readers, to meters with electronic registers capable of transmitting consumption data to proximity devices or via radio frequency to mobile or fixed network data collectors. The Company’s wastewater customers are billed either a flat rate or based upon their water consumption.
Residential customers make up a substantial portion of the Company’s customer base in all of the states in which it operates. The Company also serves (i) commercial customers, such as food and beverage providers, commercial property developers and proprietors, and energy suppliers, (ii) fire service customers, where the Company supplies water through its distribution systems to public fire hydrants for firefighting purposes and to private fire customers for use in fire suppression systems in office buildings and other facilities, (iii) industrial customers, such as large-scale manufacturers, mining and production operations, (iv) public authorities, such as government buildings and other public sector facilities, including schools and universities, and (v) other utilities and community water and wastewater systems in the form of bulk contracts for the supply of water or the treatment of wastewater for their own customers.
The following chart depicts the allocation of the Company’s Regulated Businesses’ operating revenue of $3,505 million by type, including a breakout of the total water services revenues by class of customer, for the year ended December 31, 2022:
awk-20221231_g1.jpg
(a)Includes water revenues from public authorities and other utilities and community water systems under bulk contracts.
(b)Includes other operating revenues consisting primarily of miscellaneous utility charges, fees and rents.


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Presented in the table below is the number of water and wastewater customers the Company served by class as of December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, which represents approximately 14 million people served as of December 31, 2022:
 202220212020
(In thousands)WaterWastewaterWaterWastewaterWaterWastewater
Residential 2,870 270 2,972 245 2,948 236 
Commercial219 17 225 15 225 15 
Fire service51 — 52 — 50 — 
Industrial— — — 
Public and other (a)
17 16 17 
Total (b)3,161 288 3,269 261 3,244 252 
(a)    Includes public authorities and other utilities and community water and wastewater systems under bulk contracts. Bulk contracts, which are accounted for as a single customer in the table above, generally result in service to multiple customers.
(b)The Company completed the sale of its New York subsidiary on January 1, 2022 and the sale of its Michigan subsidiary on February 4, 2022.
Customer growth in the Company’s Regulated Businesses is primarily from (i) adding new customers to its customer base through acquisitions of water and/or wastewater utility systems, (ii) population growth in its authorized service areas, and (iii) sale of water to other water utilities and community water systems.
Capital Investment
The Company plans to invest between $30 billion and $34 billion over the next 10 years for capital improvements, including acquisitions, to its Regulated Businesses’ water and wastewater infrastructure, largely for pipe replacement and upgrading aging water and wastewater treatment facilities. The Company has proactively improved its pipe renewal rate from a 250-year replacement cycle in 2009 to an expected 110-year replacement cycle by 2027, which it anticipates will enable the Company to replace nearly 2,100 miles of mains and collection pipes between 2023 and 2027. In addition, from 2023 to 2027, the Company’s capital investment in treatment plants, storage tanks and other key, above-ground facilities is expected to increase, further seeking to address infrastructure renewal, resiliency, water quality, operational efficiency, technology and innovation, and emerging regulatory compliance needs. Additionally, the Company continues to invest significantly in resiliency projects to address the impacts of climate and weather variability by hardening its assets.
Regulation and Rate Making
The operations of the Company’s Regulated Businesses are generally subject to regulation by PUCs in the states in which they operate, with the primary responsibility of the PUCs being the promotion of the overall public interest by balancing the interest of customers and utility investors. Specific authority might differ from state to state, but in most states, PUCs review and approve rates charged to customers, accounting treatments, long-term financing programs and cost of capital, operation and maintenance (“O&M”) expenses, capital expenditures, taxes, affiliated transactions and relationships, reorganizations, mergers and acquisitions, and dispositions, along with imposing certain penalties or granting certain incentives. Regulatory policies vary from state to state and can change over time. These policies will affect the timing, as well as the extent, of recovery of expenses and the realized return on invested capital.
Periodic changes in customer rates generally occur through the filing of a rate case by the utility with the PUC. The timing of rate case filings is typically determined by either periodic requirements in the regulatory jurisdiction or by the utility’s need to increase its revenue requirement to recover capital investment costs, changes in operating revenues, operating costs or other market conditions. The Company attempts to minimize “regulatory lag,” which is the time between the occurrence of an event that triggers a change in the utility’s revenue requirement and the recognition in rates of that change.


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The Company’s Regulated Businesses support regulatory practices at the PUCs and state legislatures that mitigate the adverse impact of regulatory lag. Presented in the table below are examples of approved regulatory practices:
Regulatory PracticesDescriptionStates Allowed
Infrastructure replacement surcharge mechanismsAllows rates to change periodically, outside a general rate case proceeding, to reflect recovery of capital investments made to replace infrastructure necessary to sustain safe and reliable services for the Company’s customers. These mechanisms typically involve periodic filings and reviews to ensure transparency.IA, IL, IN, KY, MO, NJ, PA, TN, VA, WV
Future test yearA “test year” is a period used for setting rates, and a future test year describes the first 12 months that new rates are proposed to be effective. The use of a future test year allows current or projected revenues, expenses and capital investments to be collected on a more timely basis.CA, HI, IA, IL, IN, KY, PA, TN, VA
Hybrid test yearA historical test year sets rates using data from a 12-month period that ends prior to a general rate case filing. A hybrid test year allows an update to historical data for “known and measurable” changes that occur subsequent to the historical test year.MD, MO, NJ, WV
Utility plant recovery mechanismsAllows recovery of the full return on utility plant costs during the construction period, instead of capitalizing an allowance for funds used during construction (“AFUDC”). In addition, some states allow the utility to seek pre-approval of certain capital projects and associated costs. In this pre-approval process, the PUC may assess the prudency of such projects.CA, IL, KY, PA, TN, VA
Expense mechanismsAllows changes in certain operating expenses, which may fluctuate based on conditions beyond the utility’s control, to be recovered outside of a general rate case proceeding or deferred until the next general rate case proceeding.CA, HI, IL, IN, MD, MO, NJ, PA, TN, VA
Revenue stability mechanismsAdjusts rates periodically to ensure that a utility recovers the revenues authorized in its general rate case, regardless of sales volume, including recognition of declining sales resulting from reduced consumption, while providing an incentive for customers to use water more efficiently.CA, IL
Consolidated tariffsUse of a unified rate structure for water systems owned and operated by a single utility, which may or may not be physically interconnected. The consolidated tariff pricing structure may be used fully or partially in a state, and is generally used to moderate the price impact of periodic fluctuations in local costs, while lowering administrative costs for customers. Pennsylvania and West Virginia also permit a blending of water and wastewater revenue requirements.CA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MO, NJ, PA, VA, WV
Deferred accountingA regulator’s willingness to defer recognition of financial impacts when setting rates for utilities.All
The Company pursues enhancements to these regulatory practices to facilitate efficient recovery of its costs and capital investments and to continue to provide safe, clean, reliable and affordable services to its customers. The ability to seek regulatory treatment using the regulatory practices described above does not guarantee that the PUCs will accept the Company’s proposal in the context of a particular rate case, and these regulatory practices may reduce, but not eliminate, regulatory lag associated with traditional rate making processes. It is also the Company’s strategy to expand the use of these mechanisms in areas where they may not currently apply and enhance certain mechanisms where they already exist.
Acquisitions and Strategic Growth
The U.S. water and wastewater industries include investor-owned systems as well as municipal systems that are owned and operated by local governments or governmental subdivisions. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), as of 2017, approximately 84% of the water market is served by municipal systems and approximately 98% of the country’s wastewater systems are government owned. The EPA also estimates, as of 2017, that there are over 50,000 community water systems and over 15,000 community wastewater systems in the United States, with approximately 80% of the community water systems serving a population of 3,000 or less.
A fundamental aspect of the Company’s growth strategy is to pursue acquisitions of water and/or wastewater systems in geographic proximity to areas where the Company operates its Regulated Businesses, see Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for additional information. The proximity of acquisition opportunities to the Company’s regulated footprint allows it to integrate and manage the acquired systems and operations primarily using the Company’s existing management (although the Company typically retains the majority, if not all, of the employees of the acquired systems) and to achieve operational efficiencies and prioritize capital investment needs. The Company’s current customer mix of 92% water and 8% wastewater also presents strategic opportunities for wastewater growth and consolidation, allowing the Company to add wastewater customers where it already serves water customers. The Company intends to continue to expand its regulated footprint geographically by acquiring water and wastewater systems in its existing markets and, if appropriate, pursuing acquisition opportunities in certain domestic markets where the Company does not currently operate its Regulated Businesses. Before entering new regulated markets, the Company will evaluate the business and regulatory climates to ensure that it will have the opportunity to achieve an appropriate rate of return on its investment while maintaining its high standards for providing safe, reliable and affordable services to its customers. The Company will also evaluate whether there is a line of sight to grow to sufficient scale in a new regulated market so that it can attain efficiencies after entering a new domestic market.
Increasingly stringent environmental, health and safety, cybersecurity and water quality and water accountability regulations, the amount of infrastructure in need of significant capital investment, financial challenges and industry legislation are several elements, among others, that may drive more municipalities to consider selling their water and wastewater assets.


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Sale of New York American Water Company, Inc.
On January 1, 2022, the Company completed the sale of its New York subsidiary to Liberty Utilities (Eastern Water Holdings) Corp. (“Liberty”), an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of Algonquin Power & Utilities Corp. Under the terms of the Stock Purchase Agreement, dated November 20, 2019, as amended, by and among the Company, the Company’s New York subsidiary and Liberty (the “Stock Purchase Agreement”), Liberty purchased from the Company all of the capital stock of the Company’s New York subsidiary for a purchase price of $608 million in cash. The sale was approved by the New York State Department of Public Service on December 16, 2021. The Company’s regulated New York operations had approximately 127,000 customers in the State of New York. See Note 5—Acquisitions and Divestitures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Industry Legislation
On November 15, 2021, the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (the “IIJA”) was signed into law and provides for up to $55 billion to aid in improving the country’s ailing water infrastructure, including $23.4 billion for drinking water and wastewater, $15 billion for lead service line replacement (through the drinking water state revolving fund), and $10 billion for the treatment of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (“PFAS”) and other contaminants of emerging concern. The IIJA also included a low-income assistance program, in which eligible low-income customers who receive their water from public and private entities may participate. The Company has leveraged these funds throughout its service areas to benefit its customers.
In December 2020, Congress passed, and the President signed into law, a $900 billion COVID-19 relief and $1.4 trillion U.S. government appropriations package for 2021, which included $638 million for a low-income water assistance program and $2.8 billion for capitalization grants under the Clean Water and Drinking Water state revolving funds.
In 2017, New Jersey enacted the Water Quality Accountability Act (the “WQAA”), which sets operational standards for all water utilities in New Jersey, including municipal and investor-owned utilities with more than 500 service connections. This law imposes requirements in areas such as asset management, water quality reporting, remediation of notices of violation, and hydrant and valve maintenance. The WQAA requires the most senior water manager, or either the executive director for municipal utility authorities or the mayor or chief executive officer for municipally owned public water systems, to certify that the system meets the requirements under the WQAA. Enhanced WQAA legislation includes additional enforcement requirements for disclosure of results, requires the sale of systems for prolonged violations and imposes new cybersecurity requirements and asset management plans. The new amendments, which provide for both civil and criminal penalties for falsification of documents, were signed by the Governor with an effective date of November 8, 2021.
In 2018, Indiana passed a law to set minimum operational expectations for all water and wastewater utilities in the state, including municipal and investor-owned utilities. The law requires water and wastewater utilities to conduct rate analyses, develop capital asset management plans and conduct cybersecurity and water loss audits.
In 2020, Missouri enacted the Water Safety and Security Act, which requires small and medium-sized water providers to create cybersecurity, valve inspection and hydrant inspection programs.
The Company’s regulated subsidiaries in California, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia have access to utility valuation legislation and regulation for private sector investment in public sector water and wastewater systems. The Company supports full optionality for municipalities, including state legislation that enables the consolidation of the largely fragmented water and wastewater industries through third-party fair market valuations of purchased property. Fair market value assessment of water and wastewater systems is an alternative to the traditional depreciated original cost method of valuation, which allows the Company to offer municipalities a purchase price for their system assets that is reflective of the assets’ fair market value, while providing the Company with increased opportunity to recover the purchase price over the life of the purchased system assets, subject to PUC approval. In 2021, the Tennessee Public Utility Commission implemented acquisition valuation rules that include a methodology to value water and wastewater assets based upon the new replacement cost of the assets less the depreciation, in addition to other valuation methodology options.
Consolidated tariffs use a unified rate structure for systems owned and operated by a single utility, which may or may not be physically interconnected. Consolidated tariff pricing moderates the impact of periodic fluctuations in local costs and promotes a more universal water infrastructure investment in a jurisdiction. As a result, consolidated tariffs can make it easier to incorporate new systems into an existing utility, support economies of scale for even the smallest of systems and prioritize capital needs across the jurisdiction. Overall, the Company believes that consolidated tariffs bring cost-effective, high-quality services to a larger number of customers. Eleven of the Company’s regulated jurisdictions currently have some form of consolidated tariff pricing, including California, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia.


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Competition
The Company’s Regulated Businesses generally do not face direct competition in their existing markets because (i) the Company operates in those markets pursuant to franchises, charters, certificates of public convenience and necessity or similar authorizations (collectively, “CPCNs”) issued by state PUCs or other authorities, and (ii) the high cost of constructing a new water and wastewater system in an existing market creates a significant barrier to market entry. However, the Company’s Regulated Businesses do face competition from governmental agencies, other investor-owned utilities, large industrial customers with the ability to provide their own water supply/treatment process and strategic buyers that are entering new markets and/or making strategic acquisitions. When pursuing acquisitions, the Company’s largest investor-owned competitors, based on a comparison of operating revenues and population served, include Essential Utilities, Inc., American States Water Company and California Water Service Group. From time to time, the Company also faces competition from infrastructure funds, multi-utility companies and others, such as Algonquin Power and Utilities Corp., Eversource Energy, SouthWest Water Company and Corix Infrastructure, Inc.
Condemnation and Eminent Domain
All or portions of the Regulated Businesses’ utility assets could be acquired by state, municipal or other government entities through one or more of the following methods: (i) eminent domain (also known as condemnation); (ii) the right of purchase given or reserved by a municipality or political subdivision when the original CPCN was granted; and (iii) the right of purchase given or reserved under the law of the state in which the utility subsidiary was incorporated or from which it received its CPCN. The acquisition consideration related to such a proceeding initiated by a local government may be determined consistent with applicable eminent domain law, or may be negotiated or fixed by appraisers as prescribed by the law of the state or the jurisdiction of the particular CPCN.
As such, the Regulated Businesses are periodically subject to condemnation proceedings in the ordinary course of business. For example, the Monterey water service system assets (the “Monterey system assets”) of the Company’s California subsidiary (“Cal Am”) are the subject of a potential condemnation action by the Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (the “MPWMD”) stemming from a November 2018 public ballot initiative. In 2019, the MPWMD issued a preliminary valuation and cost of service analysis report, finding in part that (1) an estimate of the Monterey system assets’ total value plus adjustments would be approximately $513 million, (2) the cost of service modeling results indicate significant annual reductions in revenue requirements and projected monthly water bills, and (3) the acquisition of the Monterey system assets by the MPWMD would be economically feasible. In 2020, the MPWMD certified a final environmental impact report, analyzing the environmental impacts of the MPWMD’s project to (1) acquire the Monterey system assets through the power of eminent domain, if necessary, and (2) expand its geographic boundaries to include all parts of this system.
In February 2021, the MPWMD filed an application with the Local Agency Formation Commission of Monterey County (“LAFCO”) seeking approval to become a retail water provider and annex approximately 58 parcels of land into the MPWMD’s boundaries. In June 2021, LAFCO’s commissioners voted to require a third-party independent financial study as to the feasibility of an acquisition by the MPWMD of the Monterey system assets. In December 2021, LAFCO’s commissioners denied the MPWMD’s application to become a retail water provider, determining that the MPWMD does not have the authority to proceed with a condemnation of the Monterey system assets. On April 1, 2022, the MPWMD filed a lawsuit against LAFCO challenging its decision to deny the MPWMD’s application seeking approval to become a retail water provider. For more information on the lawsuit against LAFCO, see Item 3—Legal Proceedings—Proposed Acquisition of Monterey System Assets — Local Area Formation Commission Litigation. By letter dated October 3, 2022, the MPWMD notified Cal Am of a decision to appraise the Monterey system assets and requesting access to a number of Cal Am’s properties and documents to assist the MPWMD with such an appraisal. Cal Am responded by letter on October 24, 2022, denying the request for access, stating that the MPWMD does not have the right to appraise Cal Am’s system without LAFCO approval to become a retail water provider.
Also, five municipalities in the Chicago, Illinois area (approximately 30,300 customers in total) formed a water agency and filed an eminent domain lawsuit against the Company in January 2013, seeking to condemn the water pipeline that serves those five municipalities. During a valuation trial held in January 2023, the parties settled the lawsuit and the water agency dismissed the eminent domain case, and as a result the Company will retain the pipeline. As part of the dismissal, the Company’s Illinois subsidiary and another subsidiary entered into a settlement agreement with the water agency agreeing to, among other things, maintain through December 31, 2027 the utility-specific wholesale water rate passed through to customers of the pipeline, such that the rate, exclusive of other pass-through charges, remains no higher than the current rate.


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Furthermore, the law in certain jurisdictions in which the Regulated Businesses operate provides for eminent domain rights allowing private property owners to file a lawsuit to seek just compensation against a public utility, if a public utility’s infrastructure has been determined to be a substantial cause of damage to that property. In these actions, the plaintiff would not have to prove that the public utility acted negligently. In California, for example, lawsuits have been filed in connection with large-scale natural events such as wildfires. Some of these lawsuits have included allegations that infrastructure of certain utilities triggered the natural event that resulted in damage to the property. In some cases, the PUC has allowed certain costs or losses incurred by the utility to be recovered from customers in rates, but in other cases such recovery in rates has been disallowed. Also, the utility may have obtained insurance that could respond to some or all of such losses, although the utility would be at risk for any losses not ultimately subject to rate or insurance recovery or losses that exceed the limits of such insurance.
Water Supply and Wastewater Services
The Company’s Regulated Businesses generally own the physical assets used to store, pump, treat and deliver water to its customers and collect, treat, transport and recycle wastewater. Typically, the Company does not own the water, which is held in public trust and is allocated to the Company through contracts, permits and allocation rights granted by federal and state or multi-state agencies or through the ownership of water rights pursuant to local law. The Company is dependent on defined sources of water supply and obtains its water supply from surface water sources such as reservoirs, lakes, rivers and streams; from groundwater sources, such as wells and aquifers; and water purchased from third-party water suppliers. The level of water treatment the Company applies varies significantly depending upon the quality of the water source and customer stipulations. Surface water sources typically require significant treatment, while groundwater sources often require chemical treatment only.
Presented in the chart below are the Company’s sources of water supply as of December 31, 2022:
awk-20221231_g2.jpg
Presented in the table below are the percentages of water supply by source type for the Company’s Top Five States for the year ended December 31, 2022:
 Surface WaterGround WaterPurchased Water
New Jersey74%22%4%
Pennsylvania91%7%2%
Missouri78%21%1%
Illinois54%35%11%
California68%32%


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The Company’s ability to meet the existing and future water demands of its customers depends on an adequate water supply. Drought, governmental restrictions, overuse of sources of water, the protection of threatened species or habitats, contamination or other factors may limit the availability of ground and surface water. The Company employs a variety of measures in an effort to obtain adequate sources of water supply, both in the short-term and over the long-term. The geographic diversity of the Company’s service areas may mitigate some of the economic effects on the water supply associated with weather extremes the Company might encounter in any particular service territory. For example, in any given summer, some areas may experience drier than average weather, which may reduce the amount of source water available, while other areas the Company serves may experience wetter than average weather.
The Company evaluates quality, quantity, growth needs and alternate sources of water supply as well as transmission and distribution capacity to provide water service to its customers. Water supply is seasonal in nature and weather conditions can have a pronounced effect on supply. In order to ensure that the Company has adequate water supply, it uses long-term planning processes and maintains contingency plans to minimize the potential impact on service caused by climate variability and a wide range of weather fluctuations. The Company reviews current climate science and global models related to temperature, precipitation and sea level rise on an ongoing basis. Where actionable forecasts are available, the Company will use this information in its comprehensive planning studies and asset management plans. These studies and plans, which are used by the Company to develop its asset management and system reliability strategies, assess the climate risk and resiliency of the Company’s water and wastewater systems over short-, medium- and long-term time horizons, and include evaluations of the availability of water supplies and system capacity against a number of different factors, projections and estimates.
In connection with supply planning for most surface or groundwater sources, the Company employs models to determine safe yields under different rainfall and drought conditions. Surface and ground water levels are routinely monitored so that supply capacity deficits may, to the extent possible, be predicted and mitigated through demand management and additional supply development. In California, where the state has been experiencing a multi-year drought, the Company utilizes multiple water supply options including numerous ground water wells in multiple aquifers as well as various long-term purchase water agreements with regional water suppliers to optimize supplies while assuring resiliency during dry years. An example of the Company’s use of long-term planning to ensure that it has adequate water supply is its involvement in the Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project (the “Water Supply Project”) in California. The Water Supply Project includes the construction of a desalination plant, to be owned by the Company’s California subsidiary, and the construction of wells that would supply water to the desalination plant. In addition, the Water Supply Project also includes the California subsidiary’s purchase of water from a groundwater replenishment project (the “GWR Project”) between Monterey One Water (formerly known as the Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency) and the MPWMD. The Water Supply Project is intended, among other things, to fulfill obligations of the California subsidiary to eliminate unauthorized diversions from the Carmel River as required under orders of the California State Water Resources Control Board (the “SWRCB”). For more information, see Item 3—Legal Proceedings—Alternative Water Supply in Lieu of Carmel River Diversions and Note 16—Commitments and Contingencies—Contingencies—Alternative Water Supply in Lieu of Carmel River Diversions, in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Wastewater services involve the collection of wastewater from customers’ premises through sewer lines. The wastewater is then transported through a sewer network to a treatment facility, where it is treated to meet required regulatory standards for wastewater before being returned to the environment. The solid waste by-product of the treatment process is disposed of or recycled in accordance with applicable standards and regulations.
Seasonality
Customer demand for the Company’s water service is affected by weather and tends to vary with temperature and amount and frequency of rainfall. Customer demand is generally greater during the warmer months, primarily due to increased water usage for irrigation systems and other outdoor water use. As such, the Company typically expects its operating revenues to be the highest in the third quarter of each year. Weather that is hotter and/or drier than average generally increases operating revenues, whereas, weather that is cooler and/or wetter than average generally suppresses customer water demand and can reduce water operating revenues. Two of the Company’s jurisdictions, California and Illinois, have adopted revenue stability mechanisms which permit the Company to collect state PUC-authorized revenue for a given period that is not tied to the volume of water sold during that period, thereby lessening the impact of weather variability. See —Regulation and Rate Making for additional information regarding revenue stability mechanisms.


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Other
Other primarily includes the MSG business, which enters into long-term contracts with the U.S. government to provide water and wastewater services on various military installations. The Company also has four contracts with municipal customers to operate and manage water and wastewater facilities and provide other related services through its Contract Services Group (“CSG”). Other also includes CSG, corporate costs that are not allocated to the Company’s Regulated Businesses, interest income related to the seller promissory note and income from the revenue share agreement from the sale of HOS, eliminations of inter-segment transactions and fair value adjustments related to acquisitions that have not been allocated to the Regulated Businesses segment. Previously, the Company provided home services primarily to residential and smaller commercial customers through its former HOS business, which was sold on the Closing Date. As a result of the sale of HOS, the categories which were previously shown as “Market-Based Businesses” and “Other” have been combined and are shown as Other. The businesses included within Other are not subject to regulation by state PUCs and the services provided generally do not require significant capital investment. Operating revenues for Other were $287 million for 2022, $546 million for 2021 and $522 million for 2020, accounting for 8%, 14% and 14%, respectively, of the Company’s total operating revenues for the same periods.
Military Services Group
MSG operates on 18 military installations under 50-year contracts with the U.S. government as part of its Utilities Privatization Program. The scope of these contracts generally includes the operation and maintenance of the installation’s water and wastewater systems and a capital program focused on asset replacement and, in certain instances, systems expansion. The replacement of assets assumed when a contract is awarded to MSG is completed either through a discrete set of projects executed in the first five years of the contract or through the long-term recapitalization program performed over the life of the contract. Traditionally, both of these programs are funded from the contract fee. At times, new assets are required to support the installation’s mission, and the construction of these assets is funded by the U.S. government as separate modifications or amendments to the contract. The capital for these assets historically has not been funded through the Company’s debt or equity issuances; rather, the Company has used limited working capital for short-term needs under these contracts. In April 2018, the U.S. Army instituted a requirement that a bidder must offer financing in its proposal for these new capital projects under existing contracts, but the U.S. Army’s implementation of this requirement on existing contracts has limited the need for such financing. However, recent U.S. Army and Navy Utilities Privatization solicitations have included requirements for the successful bidder to finance discrete initial capital projects over either a five- or ten-year period after project completion. Four of MSG’s current contracts require such capital project financing, which the Company is currently addressing through internal sources of liquidity.
The contract price for four of MSG’s contracts with the U.S. government is subject to redetermination two years after commencement of operations, and every three years thereafter. Price redetermination is a contract mechanism to periodically adjust the service fee in the next period, to reflect changes in contract obligations and anticipated market conditions. The remaining 14 contracts with the U.S. government are subject to annual price adjustments under a mechanism called “Economic Price Adjustment.” All 18 contracts could be terminated, in whole or in part, prior to the end of the 50-year term for convenience of the U.S. government, or as a result of default or non-performance by the MSG subsidiary performing the contract. In either event, pursuant to termination provisions applicable to all of these contracts, MSG would be entitled to recover allowable costs that it may have incurred under the contract, plus the contract profit margin on incurred costs. MSG’s backlog of revenue associated with its contracts with the U.S. government is approximately $6.9 billion, with an average remaining contract term of 40 years.
Sale of Homeowner Services Group
Prior to the Closing Date, the Company provided various warranty protection programs and other home services primarily to residential and smaller commercial customers through its HOS operations. On the Closing Date, the Company sold all of the equity interests in its HOS subsidiaries to an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of funds advised by Apax Partners LLP, a global private equity advisory firm (the “Buyer”), for total consideration of approximately $1.275 billion. See Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 5—Acquisitions and Divestitures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Competition
MSG faces competition from a number of service providers, including American States Water Company and Veolia Environnement S.A.


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Environmental, Health and Safety, Water Quality and Other Regulation
The Company’s water and wastewater operations, including the services provided by its Regulated Businesses, MSG and CSG, are subject to extensive federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the protection of the environment, health and safety, the provision of water and wastewater services, particularly with respect to the quality of water the Company delivers to its customers, and the manner in which it collects, treats, discharges, recycles and disposes of wastewater. In the United States, these regulations are developed under federal legislation including the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act, and under a variety of applicable state laws. Environmental, health and safety, and water quality regulations are complex and may vary from state to state in those instances where a state has adopted a standard that is more stringent than the federal standard. For example, while the EPA has announced the intention to propose drinking water regulations for two PFAS compounds (perfluorooctanoic acid, or PFOA, and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, or PFOS) and issued non-enforceable lifetime Health Advisory Levels for PFOA, PFOS and two other PFAS compounds, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection has already established enforceable drinking water standards for three PFAS compounds (PFOA, PFOS, and perfluorononanoic acid, or PFNA) and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection also recently announced enforceable drinking water standards for PFOA and PFOS in advance of the federal EPA proposed regulations. The Company is also subject to various federal, state, and local laws and regulations governing the storage of hazardous materials, the management and disposal of hazardous and solid wastes, discharges to air and water, the cleanup of contaminated sites, dam safety and other matters relating to the protection of the environment and health and safety. PUCs also set conditions and standards for the water and wastewater services the Company delivers.
The Company maintains an environmental program that includes responsible business practices focused on compliance with environmental laws and regulations and the effective use of natural resources, recognizing that drinking water standards have generally, over time, increased in number and become increasingly more stringent. As newer or stricter standards are introduced, the Company’s capital and operating costs needed to comply with them will likely increase. The Company incurs substantial costs associated with compliance with the environmental, health and safety, and water quality standards to which its operations are subject and the Company invests in technology solutions for enhanced detection and monitoring of water quality issues. The Company estimates that it will make capital expenditures of approximately $800 million over the next five years, and $195 million in 2023 for environmental control facilities, which the Company defines for this purpose as any project (or portion thereof) that involves the preservation of air, water or land. The Company believes that its operations are materially in compliance with, and in many cases surpass, minimum standards required by applicable environmental laws and regulations.
The Company’s operations also involve the use, storage and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes. For example, the Company’s water and wastewater treatment facilities store and use chlorine and other chemicals that generate wastes that require proper handling and disposal under applicable environmental requirements. The Company also could incur remedial costs in connection with any contamination relating to its operations or facilities or its off-site disposal of waste. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (“CERCLA”), authorizes the EPA, and comparable state laws authorize state environmental authorities, to issue orders and bring enforcement actions to compel responsible parties to investigate and take remedial actions at any site that is determined to present an actual or potential threat to human health or the environment because of an actual or threatened release of one or more hazardous substances. Parties that generated or transported hazardous substances to such sites, as well as current and former owners and operators of such sites, may be deemed liable, without regard to fault, under CERCLA or comparable state laws. Although the Company is not aware of any material cleanup or decontamination obligations, the discovery of contamination or the imposition of such obligations in the future could result in additional costs to the Company. The Company’s facilities and operations are also subject to requirements under the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act and inspections thereunder.
Safe Drinking Water Act
The Safe Drinking Water Act and related regulations establish national quality standards for drinking water. The EPA has issued rules governing the levels of numerous, naturally occurring and manufactured chemical and microbial contaminants and radionuclides allowable in drinking water, and continues to propose new rules. These rules also prescribe testing requirements for detecting regulated contaminants, the treatment systems that may be used for removing those contaminants, and other requirements. To date, the EPA has set standards for over 90 contaminants and water quality indicators for drinking water, and there is a process in place to make a regulatory determination on at least five additional compounds every five years.
The process of developing new drinking water standards is long and complex, but the Company actively participates with the EPA and other water industry groups by sharing research and water quality operational knowledge. See —Research and Development—Contaminants of Emerging Concern for additional information.


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The Company is within the EPA’s time frame for compliance with standards and rules developed under the regulation of the Safe Drinking Water Act, which includes sample collection, data analysis, and, in some instances engineering planning and implementation of treatment enhancements. Further, the EPA is actively considering regulations for a number of contaminants, including strontium, hexavalent chromium, fluoride, nitrosamines, some pharmaceuticals and certain volatile organic compounds. The Company does not anticipate that any such regulations, if enacted, will require implementation in 2023.
Although it is difficult to project the ultimate costs of complying with the above or other pending or future requirements, the Company expects current cost requirements under the Safe Drinking Water Act and other similar laws to be recoverable through the regulatory process and therefore compliance costs are not expected to have a material impact on its operations or financial condition. In addition, capital expenditures and operating costs to comply with environmental mandates have been traditionally recognized by PUCs as appropriate for inclusion in establishing rates. As a result, the Company expects to recover the operating and capital costs resulting from these pending or future requirements.
Lead and Copper Rule and Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act
In 1991, the EPA published the Lead and Copper Rule (“LCR”) to control lead and copper in drinking water and, since that time, has issued minor revisions in 2000, 2004 and 2007, enhancing monitoring, reporting and public education requirements. In 2011, Congress enacted the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act regarding the use and introduction into commerce of lead pipes, plumbing fittings for fixtures, solder and flux. While these advances have made an impact in reducing lead exposure in drinking water, legacy lead plumbing materials, primarily in building plumbing, still remain in many communities. The failure of certain water systems in the United States to comply with the requirements of the LCR has received recent media attention and scrutiny, and in certain cases, has led to a number of investigations and the imposition of significant penalties and sanctions against the operators of those systems and others. As part of its ongoing water main replacement and service line renewal projects, the Company has started to replace lead service lines (“LSLs”) in accordance with current scientific guidance. Also, the Company utilizes appropriate corrosion control techniques as necessary to comply with current water quality regulatory requirements. On December 21, 2021, the EPA announced next steps to strengthen the regulatory framework on lead in drinking water, including implementing the Lead and Copper Rule Revisions (“LCRR”) and indicated their intent to finalize a forthcoming Lead and Copper Rule Improvements (“LCRI”) prior to October 16, 2024, the initial compliance date in the LCRR. The Company is executing an implementation strategy to comply with the initial LCRR requirement to complete a lead service line inventory. Capital expenditures and operating costs associated with the LCRI will be determined once the EPA finalizes the rule, but as previously noted, costs associated with compliance with federal water quality regulations have been traditionally recognized by PUCs as appropriate for inclusion in establishing rates.
The Company currently estimates that less than 5% of the service lines within its regulated service territories contain lead on either the Company or customer portion of the service line. The Company is replacing LSLs as part of its ongoing water main replacement and service line renewal projects. The Company’s goal is to work with the communities it currently serves to replace a significant majority of presently known LSLs in most of its service areas by the end of 2030, at an estimated additional investment range of $600 million to $1.2 billion. The Company believes this will be attainable for most of its service areas where public policy is supportive of this goal. The IIJA was signed into law in November 2021 and provides for up to $15 billion for lead service line replacement through drinking water state revolving funds. The Company is awaiting further guidance on eligibility, the application process and the distribution of these funds. With regard to future acquisitions, the Company will work with those communities as part of the acquisition process to set LSL removal goals appropriate for those systems. The prioritization of LSL removal is dependent on several factors, including the Company’s planned water main and service line renewal projects, adjacent projects by municipalities or other utilities, LCR compliance monitoring results, and cooperation with its customers with respect to replacing the customer-owned portion of the LSL as necessary. In certain cases, these and other factors may result in a shorter or longer time frame for replacement. Because replacing the external LSL in its entirety is advised by several water industry organizations including the U.S. National Drinking Water Advisory Council, the Lead Service Line Replacement Collaborative, and the American Water Works Association, the Company’s preferred approach is to replace the entire external LSL if lead is found on either the Company or customer portion of the service line; full LSL replacement is also consistent with the LCRR. The Lead Service Line Replacement Collaborative is a diverse group of public health, water utility, environmental, labor, consumer and housing organizations from across the country working together to encourage communities to accelerate the full replacement of LSLs through collaborative efforts at the local level.


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Clean Water Act
The Clean Water Act regulates discharges from drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities into lakes, rivers, streams and groundwater. In addition to requirements applicable to the Company’s wastewater collection systems, its operations require discharge permits under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (“NPDES”) permit program established under the Clean Water Act, which must be renewed every five years. Pursuant to the NPDES permit program, the EPA and implementing states set maximum discharge limits for wastewater effluents and overflows from wastewater collection systems. Discharges that exceed the limits specified under NPDES permits can lead to the imposition of fines and penalties, and persistent non-compliance could lead to significant fines and penalties and other compliance costs. In addition, the difficulty of obtaining and complying with NPDES permits, and renewing expiring permits, may impose time and cost burdens on the Company’s operations. From time to time, discharge violations occur at the Company’s facilities, some of which result in fines. The Company does not expect any such violations or fines to have a material impact on its results of operations or financial condition. The EPA has identified leveraging wastewater discharge permitting and application of biosolids, or sewage sludge, containing PFAS as areas of focus in its PFAS Strategic Roadmap. Individual states may also take action in these areas. As indicated previously, capital expenditures and operating costs to comply with environmental mandates have been traditionally recognized by PUCs as appropriate for inclusion in establishing rates. As a result, the Company expects to recover the operating and capital costs resulting from any new requirements in these areas.
Research and Development
The Company’s Research and Development Program
The Company maintains an industry-leading research and development (“R&D”) program that is designed to enhance its services, support its compliance activities, improve service quality and operational effectiveness, and provide environmental leadership. For more than three decades from its inception, American Water’s R&D program has evolved into an industry-leading effort and has achieved numerous advancements in the science of drinking water, wastewater, and desalination. Through laboratory and industry resources and the team’s expertise, efforts are focused on contaminants of emerging concern, including but not limited to COVID-19, PFAS, Legionella, cyanotoxin-forming algal blooms, a variety of pathogens (for example, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, enteric viruses, and various bacteria), microbial indicators and disinfection byproducts. The Company’s R&D personnel are located at the Company’s corporate headquarters and at two laboratory testing facilities in New Jersey and Illinois, the latter housing its quality control and testing laboratory, which supports the Company’s R&D activities through testing and analysis.
The Company continues to leverage its expertise and collaborates with the EPA and state agencies to help establish effective environmental, health and safety, and water quality standards and regulations. This relationship includes the sharing of the Company’s research, such as its treatment and distribution system optimization research and its national water quality monitoring data. The Company’s engagement with the EPA provides it with early insight into emerging regulatory issues and initiatives, thereby allowing the Company to anticipate and to accommodate its future compliance requirements. The Company also frequently engages with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, other state environmental agencies, and national and international water research foundations. The Company believes that continued R&D activities are critical for providing safe, reliable and affordable services, as well as maintaining its leadership position in the industry, which provides the Company with a competitive advantage as it seeks business and operational growth.
Contaminants of Emerging Concern
Contaminants of emerging concern include numerous chemicals such as PFAS, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, herbicides, antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistant genes (ARG), endocrine disrupting compounds, microplastics and industrial chemicals, as well as certain naturally occurring microbes, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites, which have been detected in drinking water supplies, for which the risk to the public’s health is not fully understood and/or has not been assessed. Technological advances have only recently made it possible to detect many of these contaminants at trace levels. The ability to detect contaminants, even at trace levels, has invited discussion about these contaminants among regulators and government agencies, which in turn shapes the public’s perception of drinking water quality.
The Chemicals Abstract Service Registry contains over 203 million registered chemicals, with an estimated 1,400 species of disease-causing microbes that can affect humans. The Company is continually investigating new substances and contaminants, employing a team of scientists, engineers and public health professionals to identify threats to its water supply, to act on emerging regulations and new health advisories, and to evaluate the benefits of alternative or advanced treatment technologies. The Company utilizes water quality testing equipment and implements new and emerging technologies to help detect potential water supply contamination issues. Examples of the Company’s efforts include:
monitoring impacts of environmental pathogen loads and removal through wastewater systems;
characterizing factors that contribute to the formation of potentially carcinogenic disinfection by-products to define best practices for their mitigation;


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advancing the science on holistic management strategies to improve distribution system water quality further;
using its research findings to communicate information to its customers regarding potential actions to limit occurrences of Legionella in their buildings; in this regard, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics indicate that water-associated disease from Legionella is on the rise, with exposure typically associated with customer-owned plumbing systems in large buildings;
defining a framework to support management or possible future regulation of opportunistic pathogens;
developing expanded monitoring methods for short-chain and fluorinated replacement PFAS and piloting treatment techniques;
systematically investigating PFAS removal by treatment processes in a wide range of water matrices;
leading a PFAS risk communication strategy for the water sector;
using innovative technologies to detect and manage algal blooms to help prevent taste and odor events and cyanotoxins before they get to the water treatment plant;
monitoring of taste and odor issues that impact customer satisfaction using expanded analytical methods to detect compounds, and evaluating and recommending treatment practices;
implementing water source assessment tools, including sensors and data analytics, to evaluate and track chemical storage and aid in the identification of source water contamination events;
developing methodology and advanced measurement techniques for contaminants of emerging concern to investigate transport, occurrence and treatment; and
implementing activated carbon, biofiltration and ion exchange treatment to seek to control contaminants of emerging concern.
Service Company and Security
American Water Works Service Company, Inc. (“Service Company”) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company that provides support and operational services to the Company and its affiliates. These services are predominantly provided to the Company’s Regulated Businesses under contracts that have been approved by PUCs, where necessary, and are also provided to the MSG and CSG businesses as requested or may otherwise be necessary. Services provided by Service Company may include accounting and finance, administration, business development, communications, compliance, education and training, engineering, health and safety, human resources, information systems, internal audit, investor relations, legal and governance, operations, procurement, R&D, rates and regulatory support, security, risk management and insurance, treasury, and water quality. Service Company also provides customer support to the Company’s Regulated Businesses, which includes call handling, billing, a major accounts program and other related services. Services are provided by Service Company at cost, enabling the Company’s operating subsidiaries to fulfill their responsibilities in a cost-effective manner, while providing them access to in-depth, functional expertise.
The Company’s security team provides oversight and policy guidance on physical, cyber and information security, as well as business continuity, throughout its operations. It is responsible for designing, implementing, monitoring and supporting effective physical and technical security controls for the Company’s physical assets, business systems and operational technologies. Risk assessments are conducted periodically to evaluate the effectiveness of existing security controls and serve as the basis for additional safeguards, security controls and measures. Operational and technical security controls are deployed and integrated as safeguards against unauthorized access to the Company’s information systems. These controls are aimed at (i) assuring the continuity of business processes that are dependent upon automation, (ii) maintaining the integrity of the Company’s data, (iii) supporting regulatory and legislative compliance requirements, and (iv) maintaining safe and reliable service to the Company’s customers. The Company engages in partnerships with U.S. federal, state and local law enforcement agencies to coordinate and improve the security of its water delivery systems and to safeguard its water supply and operations.
Environmental, Social Responsibility and Governance
The Company considers environmental, social responsibility and governance (“ESG”) principles fundamental to its corporate strategy and values. Integration of these principles into the Company’s daily operations emphasizes its belief that “how” a company operates is just as important as “what” a company does.
Delivering a reliable supply of safe, clean and affordable water to customers and treating wastewater has been fundamental to the Company’s business for decades. Within every community in which the Company operates, there is an opportunity to make a sustainable positive impact on the community, reflect the communities served with diverse and skilled employees, and maintain the governance and diligence to meet or exceed service expectations for decades to come.


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Key Highlights
Demonstrated ESG Leadership
The Company’s values and actions have achieved prestigious recognition by many leading firms devoted to recognizing companies that demonstrate ESG leadership.
The Company was ranked fifth in the Energy and Utilities industry category within Newsweek’s 2023 list of America’s Most Responsible Companies and ranked 19th within Barron’s list of the 100 Most Sustainable Companies in 2022.
The Company was included in the Bloomberg Gender Equality Index for the fifth consecutive year, was recognized as a top-scoring company, for the fourth consecutive year, on the Disability Equality Index (DEI)®, as well as a Military Friendly Employer and Supplier.
The Company earned the U.S. Department of Homeland Security SAFETY Act Designation for its internal enterprise security program, which includes risk management processes, personnel training and emergency exercises, and security oversight activities. The Company was the first U.S. water and wastewater company and third utility to earn this designation.
Environmental and Sustainability
Emissions for the Company’s Regulated Businesses
The Company established medium- and long-term goals that are science-based and aligned with the Paris Agreement, for scope 1 (direct) and scope 2 (indirect, derived from the Company’s purchase of power) greenhouse gas emissions reductions.
The goals aim to reduce absolute scope 1 and 2 emissions by 50% by 2035 (from a 2020 baseline year) and achieve net zero scope 1 and scope 2 emissions by 2050.
These goals complement the Company’s existing short-term goal of reducing absolute scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions by more than 40% by 2025 (from a 2007 baseline year).
The Company has also estimated certain of its scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions, including Categories 1 (Purchased Goods and Services), 2 (Capital Goods), 3 (Fuel and Energy Related Activities) and 6 (Business Travel).
Water Quality & Wastewater
The Company employs a team of R&D scientists dedicated to partnering with water research organizations on water quality and technology-based source water monitoring.
The Company received 11 drinking water Notices of Violation (“NOVs”) in 2022, two of which were related to water quality and maximum contaminant level exceedances. These metrics are determined by counting the overall number of drinking water NOVs and drinking water NOVs related to maximum contaminant level exceedances received by the Company in accordance with internally established procedures, which may exclude NOVs related to newly-acquired systems and associated with third-party violations, among others.
The Company invested approximately $2.3 billion in renewing and improving assets of the Regulated Businesses in 2022 and expects to invest between $12.5 billion to $13 billion over the next five years. Nearly 70% of the Company’s capital plan is dedicated to infrastructure renewal and improvement, 10% to 12% is allocated to resiliency, and the balance is invested in water quality, operational efficiency, system expansion and other categories.
Policy Leadership
The Company collaborates and partners with federal and state agencies to support effective environmental, health and safety, and water quality and affordability standards and regulations.
The Company participates in many industry organizations at the local, state and national level, including: The National Association of Water Companies (NAWC), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Edison Electric Institute (EEI).


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Social Responsibility
Customers
The Company’s average monthly residential water bills were approximately $57 in 2022, or 0.77% of the median household income, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey. The Company is focused on keeping customer bills affordable compared to income, driving a culture of continuous improvement, diligent cost management, and technology enhancements that help drive affordability.
The Company supports low-income customer assistance programs across 12 states: California, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia.
To better reflect the customers that the Company serves, the Company increased spend with diverse suppliers and small businesses in 2022 by more than 35% compared to last year.
For 2022, the Company achieved an aggregate residential customer satisfaction rating in the top half among the Company’s industry peer group. We measure performance on Customer Experience through our performance on the J.D. Power U.S. Water Utility Residential Customer Satisfaction Study. The study measures the satisfaction of residential water customers of the 90 largest water utilities in the United States and considers six factors to score companies on a 1,000-point scale: quality and reliability; price; conservation; billing and payment; communications; and customer service.
Employees
During 2022, over 117,000 hours of safety training, including physical security and cybersecurity training, were completed by the Company’s employees, as well as a mandatory Code of Ethics training requirement.
The Company has made significant progress toward its zero injuries goal, reducing workplace injuries by 52% since 2017. Through year-end 2022, the Company has further reduced its OSHA recordable injury rate (“ORIR”) to 0.85, the lowest in the Company’s recorded history, which is approximately two times better than the water industry average.
During 2022, approximately 83% of the Company’s job requisitions had a diverse candidate pool, with approximately 46% of transfers or promotions filled by diverse individuals.
Communities
More than $900,000 was donated in 2022 by the Company’s employees and the American Water Charitable Foundation (AWCF), a 501(c)(3) private foundation established by American Water in 2010, of which over $430,000 was provided by employees through workplace giving campaigns including the United Way, Water For People and other volunteering giving campaigns that supported more than 1,600 public charities nationwide. These efforts were in addition to the $2.3 million given by the AWCF through the Keep Communities Flowing Grant Program - more than $3 million combined.
Stakeholder Engagement
In 2022, the Company completed a materiality assessment to align ESG efforts with stakeholder priorities. Participants included, among others, regulators, investors, customers, employees, and a member of the Company’s Board of Directors. The results of the assessment will be included in the Company’s 2021-2022 Sustainability Report, which will be published in 2023.
Governance
Board and Committees
The Board of Directors and each of its standing committees are led by an independent, non-executive chair.
The Board of Directors met 15 times in 2022.
The Board of Directors’ Safety, Environmental, Technology and Operations (SETO) Committee, which oversees several key ESG matters, met four times in 2022.
The Board of Directors reflects gender, racial and experiential diversity. As of December 31, 2022, approximately 64% of the Company’s directors voluntarily self-identified as diverse based on gender, race, disability and military veteran status.
The Company’s average director tenure was approximately 7 years as of December 31, 2022.


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The members of the Company’s Board of Directors have demonstrated expertise, including, among others, experience in utility operations, regulatory matters, sustainability, customer service, cybersecurity, the military, financial services and capital markets, service as a public company CEO, CFO and/or board member, and management of global operations.
ESG-Related Disclosures and Transparency
The Company issued its annual ESG Data Summary on its website, covering sustainability performance for key metrics within the 2022 calendar year.
In addition, the Company issued its second annual Inclusion, Diversity & Equity Report and launched a new diversity website, which describes the Company’s inclusion and diversity strategies, practices, policies and programs from across the business. New disclosures include:
EEO-1 data for 2020 and 2021;
Summary of results and conclusions from the Company’s third-party pay equity studies and internal labor market analyses; and
Two new people-related goals in the 2022 Annual Performance Plan (“APP”) meant to increase representation of women and increase ethnic and racial diversity among employees at American Water, adding to existing APP sustainability goals.
The Company discloses on its website its Political Contributions Policy, and, on an annual basis, information related to its political contributions, payments to tax-exempt organizations and trade associations, and lobbying expenditures.
Human Capital Resources
Overview
The Company’s people are a critical part of its business, and the Company’s investment in its people begins with the recruitment of qualified and diverse talent and continues throughout employment. The Company’s employee value proposition, called weCARE, is a central part of the Company’s human capital resources mission and focuses on employee experience as an influencer of an employee’s opinions and emotional response about the Company as an employer.
Additionally, the Company believes that representing the communities in which it serves plays a key role in its ability to serve its customers and improves its talent. To support this proposition, the Company promotes an inclusive culture where its employees are given the opportunity to develop to their fullest potential and understand that they directly contribute to the Company’s ability to operate, grow, and serve its customers. The Company also believes that investing in the safety, health and well-being of its employees is a key component of its people and culture goals, and that these investments allow employees to generate great ideas, provide quality customer service and make a difference in the lives of the Company’s customers.
Employee Health and Safety
A longstanding value and strategy of the Company is safety. In this regard, the Company continues to focus on the safety of its employees and contractors so that they may return home from work in the same, or better, condition than when they arrived. The Company strives for all employees to feel emotionally safe, live a healthy lifestyle and be physically safe at work and at home. The Company assesses occupational health and safety to measure performance across the entire organization, with the ultimate goal of achieving zero incidents, injuries and fatalities for the Company’s employees and contractors.
To uphold the Company’s commitment to safety, the Company’s employees completed over 117,000 hours of employee safety training, including physical security and cybersecurity training, during 2022. Additionally, through frequent labor-management meetings, the Company encourages open exchanges to explore new ways to further enhance safety on the job. All employees are empowered to demonstrate safety leadership by taking the time they need to complete a task safely and to use “Stop Work Authority” — the power to stop working immediately whenever they believe a task is unsafe — to personally mitigate the hazard or issue or collaborate with management to create a safe situation. The Company believes that this Stop Work Authority is so important that it is stated on the back of every employee’s identification badge.
For 2022, the Company had its lowest ORIR injury rate in its recorded history, achieving an 18.8% reduction in injuries compared to 2021, taking into account a 7% decrease in labor hours due to the sales of HOS and the Company’s New York subsidiary. Also, the number of Days Away Restricted or Transferred (“DART”) injuries decreased by 36.1% compared to 2021. This decrease shows a significant improvement in those injuries that have a higher severity. For 2022, the Company’s ORIR was 0.85 (52 injuries) and its DART rate was 0.37 (23 injuries), compared to an ORIR of 0.97 (64 injuries) and a DART rate of 0.54 (36 injuries) in 2021.


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In 2022, American Water teams led by promoting safety leading indicator activities, including pre-job safety briefings and near miss reporting, and by achieving internal Certified Safe Worker designations. Near miss reports, where employees report potential hazards or incidents in a safe and secure manner, increased by 20% in 2022 over 2021, and 97% of near miss incident corrective actions were completed, with nearly 90% completed within 30 days. The Company utilizes near miss reporting and timely corrective actions as key measurements of employee engagement and safety performance.
The commitment to safety as a strategic imperative also includes building a culture of well-being where all employees can feel emotionally safe and live a healthy lifestyle. Through well-being education, the Company is able to encourage employees to take preventative actions and increase participation in annual well-care exams and cancer screenings, which increased by over 4% during 2022, compared to 2021.
Employee and Workplace Reintegration
As an essential business that provides water and wastewater services, during 2022, the Company continued to focus on the care and safety of its employees, contractors, vendors and others who work at or visit the Company’s worksites. The Company launched its employee and workplace reintegration plan to bring its employees safely back to the workplace and in its field operations in the wake of easing of COVID-19-related restrictions by federal, state and local governmental and health authorities. The Company instituted greater workplace flexibility, including hybrid work opportunities, where feasible. The Company supported these reintegration efforts by keeping employees’ safety, health and emotional well-being as a top priority and by continuing to follow guidance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as federal, state and local health authorities. The Company also continued to provide employees with temporary medical and emotional health benefits as needed during 2022. To keep employees informed on the changing conditions during reintegration and to support their emotional well-being, the Company held several all-employee podcasts featuring medical and emotional health speakers who discussed the status of the pandemic, provided updates on vaccine and booster activity, and led sessions focused on workforce and personal change management related to reintegration.
Inclusion, Diversity and Equity
During 2022, the Company continued to focus on creating a culture through its promotion of inclusion, diversity and equity. At all levels, the Company strives to understand, respect, value and provide equal opportunity to each employee, and to foster an environment where employees’ differences are embraced and celebrated. The Company holds as an essential concept the right of employees to proudly share their ideas and unique perspectives in an environment built on mutual respect, equity and inclusion. The Company is committed to diversity among its workforce, executive and senior management leadership teams, by reflecting the diversity of the communities in which the Company serves. The Company expects all leaders to lead with inclusion, diversity and equity.
In 2022, the Company included in its APP new workforce diversity performance goals designed to increase the representation of women and ethnic and racial diversity in the Company’s workplace. The goals measure the percentage of female and racial/ethnic diversity among the Company’s workforce based on voluntary self-identification. In addition, the Company continues to hold its leaders accountable for developing a diverse workforce by maintaining management level representation goals.
In addition, in 2022, the Company introduced its DiversityatAW.com website to provide transparency and communicate progress on the Company’s workforce diversity initiatives. This web site currently includes, among other information, the Company’s ID&E report, its EEO-1 data for 2021, key employee diversity metrics (which are updated quarterly), and a discussion of the Company’s pay equity study and internal labor market analysis.
During 2022, 83.1% of the Company’s hiring candidate pools were diverse. Additionally, for 2022, approximately 46.4% of the Company’s internal employee transfers and promotions were filled with a diverse individual, reflecting the Company’s commitment to employee development and career growth as well as the Company’s focus on diversity, inclusion and equity. For purposes of these metrics, diversity refers to gender, race, ethnicity, disability, veteran/military spouse status, and LGBTQ+ status, all based on voluntary, self-identified employee information.
The Company maintains active memberships with groups such as Hiring our Heroes, Military Spouse Employment Partnership, American Corporate Partners, CEO Action for Diversity and Inclusion, Disability: IN, Paradigm for Parity, and Out and Equal, to further enhance its ability to recruit and retain diverse employees. Among this year’s recognitions, the Company was designated as a 2022 Military Friendly® Silver Employer and recognized by Military Times for its industry-leading efforts on hiring and supporting U.S. military veterans.
The Company was also a top scorer in the 2022 Disability Equality Index for the fourth consecutive year and was recognized by U.S. Veterans Magazine as a veteran-friendly company and as an organization with a veteran-friendly supplier diversity program. The Company also received the 2022 DiversityInc Top Utility recognition for 2022.


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In keeping with the Company’s values, the Company does not tolerate discrimination, harassment or retaliation by or toward any employee, vendor, customer or other person in its workplace. All employees are required to complete anti-harassment, workplace respect and dignity, unconscious bias and inclusion and diversity training. In addition, annual Code of Ethics training is provided to all employees, which includes instructions on using the Company’s anonymous hotline for reporting potential Code of Ethics violations.
The Company’s four Employee Business Resource Groups (“EBRGs”), which represent diverse employee demographics (Women, African American/Black, LGBTQ+ and Disabilities/Caregivers), strive to create measurable and long-lasting positive impacts on employees’ careers, as well as the Company’s culture and communities in which it serves. EBRG members participate in community events throughout the year, which highlight the importance of supporting community partnerships. For example, employees participated in the annual Juneteenth Unity Walk that supported the National Alliance on Mental Illness, an organization that provides advocacy, education, and support for, and public awareness of, mental illness.
Total Rewards
American Water’s health and well-being programs are approached holistically by offering the following benefits, among others: medical, prescription, dental, vision, disability, a retirement savings plan, and life insurance coverage, as well as a health and wellness program and a menu of additional voluntary benefits. The Company’s Total Rewards programs are designed to reflect many aspects of employee health and well-being, cultivate an inclusive workforce, and motivate, attract and retain talent to seek to achieve the Company’s strategic business priorities.
As part of Total Rewards, the Company provides a comprehensive compensation and benefit program designed to recognize the vital roles the Company’s employees play. Further, all the Company’s employees, including those who are union-represented, participate in the APP, to promote alignment between performance-based compensation and the Company’s short-term performance goals. As part of its commitment to providing an inclusive and equitable culture for all employees, the Company regularly reviews pay equity to make sure pay decisions are based on the responsibilities, talents and skills of our employees, rather than, factors such as gender, race or ethnicity.
All employees who average 30 hours or more per week receive full-time benefits. Approximately 90% of all benefit eligible employees are enrolled in the Company’s healthcare benefits. Full-time employees pay approximately 16% of the total cost of medical, dental and vision coverage. Additional medical benefits include coverage for applied behavior analysis, autism treatment, transgender services and hearing aids, as well as a fertility assistance benefit. The Company also offers additional employment benefits, including holiday, vacation and sick time, which are at levels generally greater than or equal to those offered by other companies in the utility industry.
Every five years, the Company negotiates national health and welfare benefits with its union-represented employees. On November 30, 2022, a five-year extension of the Company’s national benefits agreement with its union-represented employees was reached and ratified, effective through July 2028. See —Workforce Data below for more information. The extension agreement includes, among other things, a revised benefit cost sharing allocation, six weeks of paid family leave, an increase in the target payout under the APP for covered employees, and coverage for infertility treatment beginning in plan year 2025.
Talent Development
The Company partners with business leaders to understand the key behaviors and competencies required to operate safely and effectively, and to foster professional growth with the goal to create and deploy programs designed to attract, motivate, develop and retain talented employees, and foster a learning culture. The Company also requires every employee, including its union-represented employees, to complete a minimum of 25 hours of training each year. Approximately 96.7% of active full-time employees hired before October 1, 2022, met this requirement for 2022, with over 302,000 hours of total training completed during the year. In addition to required role-based training, managers assist employees to identify professional development opportunities, utilizing a framework of on-the-job learning, social learning, and formal learning, to help them reach their full potential and grow their careers.
Developing talent to provide a pathway to executive leadership is a critical priority for the Company. During 2022, the Company engaged in succession planning activities for the Company’s business-critical and business-impact positions. These succession plans aid in providing continued leadership for the growth and future of the Company’s business, while also seeking to promote diversity, retention and development. In addition to succession of executive and senior leadership roles, in 2022, the Company initiated talent reviews, which served to identify critical skills and competency areas as well as top and emerging talent with a focus on diversity, and supported a discussion of strengths, gaps and development plans. Talent reviews were conducted for a select group of employees, including employees who are being assessed for senior leadership or other critical roles.


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Employee Experience
The Company has established its weCARE employee value proposition that focuses on employee experience as an influencer of an employee’s opinions and emotional response about the Company as an employer. weCARE is composed of five elements: deeper connections; personal growth; shared purpose; flexibility; and well-being. weCARE represents the Company’s commitment to value its employees and build a safe, healthy and inclusive culture where every employee knows their value and is appreciated for their talents and commitment to supporting the Company’s success. The Company offers employees programs covering each of the five components of weCARE. The Company is committed to improving the employee experience by listening to employees through focus group discussions and employee surveys, among other tools. To that end, the Company captures employee feedback, which helps the Company understand how employees are feeling and permits appropriate refinement of the Company’s employee programs, benefits and support.
In early 2022, the Company introduced a new development role of Culture Champion. Each Culture Champion is responsible for partnering with their local leadership and managing and communicating local activities and actions that seek to advance the Company’s culture.
Workforce Data
As of December 31, 2022, the Company had approximately 6,500 employees. For 2022, the Company’s employee turnover rate, which the Company defines as the ratio of the number of separated employees to the 12-month average headcount during 2022, was 12.3%, down from 13.1% in 2021. American Water seeks to reduce regrettable employee turnover by assessing the effectiveness of weCARE and through its efforts to foster the Company’s employee experience.
As of December 31, 2022, approximately 47% of the Company’s workforce was represented by unions, which include 75 collective bargaining agreements with 14 different unions. In 2022, the Company entered into three new collective bargaining agreements that cover approximately 215 employees, and renegotiated all 21 collective bargaining agreements that were set to expire during the year. During 2023, 18 of the Company’s collective bargaining agreements will expire in accordance with their terms and the Company expects to be able to negotiate these agreements during the year. In addition, on November 30, 2022, a five-year extension of the Company’s national benefits agreement was ratified through July 31, 2028. This agreement covers approximately 3,000 of the Company’s union-represented employees and their families and provides them with healthcare and other benefits. The Company also collaborates with union leadership on topics such as safety, customer, technology and employee benefits in forums such as the Joint Healthcare Committee, National Labor Management Committee and the annual Labor Management Conference.
Board Oversight
The Executive Development and Compensation Committee (ED&CC) of the Board of Directors establishes and reviews the Company’s overall compensation philosophy and oversees the compensation and benefits plans and programs for its executive officers. The ED&CC oversees the process of planning for executive officer succession. It also provides oversight of the Company’s inclusion, diversity and equity programs and initiatives. Further, the ED&CC is responsible for reviewing and assessing, at least annually, the Company’s culture and related culture engagement, its organizational and leadership development plans and programs, and its programs designed to identify, attract and retain high-potential employees.


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Information About Our Executive Officers
Presented in the table below are the name, age, offices held and business experience for each of the Company’s executive officers, as of February 15, 2023:
NameAgeOffice and Experience
M. Susan Hardwick60
President and Chief Executive Officer. Ms. Hardwick has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company since February 2, 2022. She joined the Company in June 2019 as the Company's Executive Vice President—Finance and served as the Company's Chief Financial Officer from July 2019 until May 16, 2022. From December 7, 2021 until January 31, 2022, Ms. Hardwick also served as Interim Chief Executive Officer. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Hardwick served as the Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Vectren Corporation, which was sold to CenterPoint Energy, Inc., an electric and natural gas utility, on February 1, 2019. Ms. Hardwick joined Vectren Corporation in January 2000 and served in a variety of positions, including: Vice President, Controller and Assistant Treasurer; Senior Vice President, Finance; Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer; and Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Prior to joining Vectren, Ms. Hardwick was Assistant Corporate Comptroller at Cinergy Corp. She began her career with Arthur Andersen & Co. Ms. Hardwick is a Certified Public Accountant. Since September 2020, Ms. Hardwick has served on the Board of Directors of New Jersey Resources Corporation, a diversified energy services company, where she is currently serving a three-year term expiring in 2024, and since January 1, 2021, she has served as a member of its Audit Committee.
James H. Gallegos62
Executive Vice President and General Counsel. Mr. Gallegos joined the Company on April 1, 2022 as its Executive Vice President and General Counsel. Prior to joining the Company, since February 2020, Mr. Gallegos served as the Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Alliant Energy Corporation, a regulated, investor-owned public utility holding company, and its two utility subsidiaries (collectively, “Alliant Energy”). From February 2015 to February 2020, Mr. Gallegos served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Alliant Energy. Prior to that, Mr. Gallegos served in various positions with U S WEST, Inc., which merged with Qwest Communications International Inc. in 2000.
John C. Griffith 56
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Griffith joined the Company on May 16, 2022 as its Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Prior to joining the Company, since 2014, Mr. Griffith served as Managing Director, Mergers and Acquisitions, for Bank of America Securities’ Global Regulated Utilities and Renewable Energy practice. Prior to joining Bank of America Securities, from 2008 to 2014, Mr. Griffith served as the Chief Executive Officer of HighWave Energy, a renewable fuels start-up company, and from 1995 to 2008, he served in various capacities of increasing responsibility with Merrill Lynch & Co.
Melanie M. Kennedy49
Executive Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer. Ms. Kennedy has served as the Company’s Executive Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer since December 2021, and as Senior Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer from December 2020 to December 2021. Prior to that, she served as the Company’s Senior Vice President, Human Resources from March 2017 to December 2020. From August 2014 through February 2017, Ms. Kennedy served as the Company's Vice President, Human Resources, and from August 2012 to August 2014, she served as Director, Human Resources in the Company’s Northeast Division. Ms. Kennedy initially joined the Company in 2007, and before that time, she practiced law for nine years.
Cheryl Norton58
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer. Ms. Norton has over 30 years of employment with the Company serving in various roles, including operational leadership, environmental stewardship, laboratory management and research. She has been serving as the Company’s Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer since March 2021 and served as its Senior Vice President, Chief Environmental Officer from March 2020 to March 2021. She was also the Company’s Senior Vice President, Eastern Division and President of its New Jersey subsidiary from March 2019 to March 2021. Prior to that, Ms. Norton served as President of the Company’s Missouri subsidiary from November 2015 to March 2019, and President of its Kentucky subsidiary from January 2011 until November 2015. In addition, Ms. Norton also serves as a member of the Board of Directors of the Water Research Foundation.
Each executive officer is elected annually by the Board of Directors and serves until their respective successor has been elected and qualified or their earlier death, resignation or removal.


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Available Information
The Company is subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. The Company files or furnishes annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Readers may obtain a copy of the Company’s Annual Reports on Form 10-K, its Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or its Current Reports on Form 8-K, or any amendments to them, that are filed with or furnished to the SEC, free of charge, from the Investor Relations section of the Company’s website, https://ir.amwater.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company files or furnishes the information to the SEC.
The Company maintains a website at https://amwater.com. Information contained on the Company’s website, including its Sustainability Report, its Inclusion, Diversity & Equity Annual Report, and other reports or documents, including the information and data on the Company’s diversity website https://Diversityataw.com, shall not be deemed incorporated into, or to be a part of, this report, and any website references included herein are not intended to be made through active hyperlinks. The Company recognizes its website as a key channel of distribution to reach public investors and as a means of disclosing information to comply with SEC Regulation FD.
The American Water corporate governance guidelines and the charters for each of the standing committees of the Board of Directors, together with the American Water Code of Ethics and additional information regarding the Company’s corporate governance, are available on its Investor Relations website, https://ir.amwater.com, and will be made available, without charge, in print to any shareholder who requests such documents from its Investor Relations Department, American Water Works Company, Inc., 1 Water Street, Camden, NJ, 08102.


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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
We operate in a market and regulatory environment that involves significant risks, many of which are beyond our control. In addition to the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the following material factors should be considered in evaluating our business and future prospects. Any of the following risks, either alone or taken together, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial position, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Risks Related to Our Industry and Business Operations
Our Regulated Businesses are subject to extensive regulation by state PUCs and other regulatory agencies, which significantly affects our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Our Regulated Businesses also may be subject to fines, penalties and other sanctions for an inability to meet these regulatory requirements.

Our Regulated Businesses provide water and wastewater services to our customers through subsidiaries that are subject to regulation by state PUCs. This regulation affects the rates we charge our customers and has a significant impact on our business and operations. Generally, the state PUCs authorize us to charge rates that they determine are sufficient to recover our prudently incurred operating expenses, including, but not limited to, operating and maintenance costs, depreciation, financing costs and taxes, and provide us with the opportunity to earn an appropriate rate of return on invested capital.
Our ability to successfully implement our business plan and strategy depends on the rates authorized by the various state PUCs. We periodically file rate increase applications with state PUCs. The ensuing administrative process may be lengthy and costly. Our rate increase requests may or may not be approved, or may be partially approved, and any approval may not occur in a timely manner. Moreover, a PUC may not approve a rate request in an amount that is sufficient to:
cover our cost of operations, including: purchased water; chemicals; and fuel, power and other commodities used in our operations;
cover our operational labor and labor-related expenses, including without limitation costs and expenses associated with our pension and other post-employment benefits;
enable us to recover our investment; and
provide us with an opportunity to earn an appropriate rate of return on our investment.
Approval by the PUCs is also required in connection with other aspects of our Regulated Businesses, which are required to have numerous permits, approvals and certificates from the PUCs that regulate their businesses and authorize acquisitions, dispositions, debt and/or equity financing, and, in certain cases, affiliated transactions. Some state PUCs are empowered to impose financial penalties, fines and other sanctions for non-compliance with applicable rules and regulations. Although we believe that each utility subsidiary has obtained or sought renewal of the material permits, approvals and certificates necessary for its existing operations, we are unable to predict the impact that future regulatory activities may have on our business.
In any of these cases, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity may be adversely affected. Even if the rates approved are sufficient, we face the risk that we will not achieve the rates of return on our invested capital to the extent permitted by state PUCs. This could occur if certain conditions exist, including, but not limited to, (i) water usage is less than the level anticipated in establishing rates, (ii) customers increase their conservation efforts, (iii) we experience unusual or emergent situations, events or conditions (including with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic), or (iv) our investments or expenses prove to be higher than the levels estimated in establishing rates. It may be difficult to predict the outcome or impact of these events on us or the actions that may be taken by the PUCs or other governmental authorities in response thereto.
Our operations and the quality of water we supply are subject to extensive and increasingly stringent environmental, water quality and health and safety laws and regulations, including with respect to contaminants of emerging concern, compliance with which could impact both our operating costs and capital expenditures, and violations of which could subject us to substantial liabilities and costs, as well as damage to our reputation.
Our water and wastewater operations are subject to extensive federal, state and local laws and regulations. These requirements include, among others, CERCLA, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the LCRR and other federal and state requirements. For example, state PUCs and environmental regulators set conditions and standards for the water and wastewater services we deliver. If we deliver water or wastewater services to our customers that do not comply with regulatory standards, or otherwise violate environmental laws, regulations or permits, or other health and safety and water quality regulations, we could incur substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions or costs, as well as damage to our reputation. In the most serious cases, regulators could reduce requested rate increases or force us to discontinue operations and sell our operating assets to another utility or to a municipality. Given the nature of our business which, in part, involves providing water service for human consumption, any potential non-compliance with, or violation of, environmental, water quality and health and safety laws or regulations would likely pose a more


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significant risk to us than to a company not similarly involved in the water and wastewater industry.
In addition, CERCLA authorizes the EPA to issue orders and bring enforcement actions to compel responsible parties to investigate and take remedial actions with respect to actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances, and can impose joint and several liability, without regard to fault, on responsible parties for the costs thereof. We are also required to obtain various environmental permits from regulatory agencies for our operations.
We incur substantial operating and capital costs on an ongoing basis to comply with environmental, water quality and health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations and their enforcement, have become more stringent over time, and new or stricter requirements could increase our costs. Although we may seek to recover ongoing compliance costs in our Regulated Businesses through customer rates, there can be no guarantee that the various state PUCs or similar regulatory bodies that govern our Regulated Businesses would approve rate increases that would enable us to recover such costs or that such costs will not materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We may also incur liabilities if, under environmental laws and regulations, we are required to investigate and clean up environmental contamination, including potential releases of hazardous chemicals, such as chlorine, which we use to treat water, or at off-site locations where we have disposed of residual waste or caused an adverse environmental impact. The discovery of previously unknown conditions, or the imposition of cleanup obligations in the future, could result in significant costs and could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. Such remediation costs may not be covered by insurance and may make it difficult for us to secure insurance at acceptable rates in the future.
Attention is being given to contaminants of emerging concern, including, without limitation, chemicals and other substances that currently do not have any regulatory standard in drinking water or have been recently created or discovered (including by means of scientific achievements in the analysis and detection of trace amounts of substances). Examples of sources of contaminants include, but are not limited to, newly created chemical compounds (including, for example, manufactured nanomaterials); human and veterinary products; perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds; bacteria, microbes, viruses (including COVID-19), amoebae and other pathogens; and residual by-products of disinfection. We rely upon governmental agencies to set appropriate regulatory standards to protect the public from these and other contaminants, and our role is to provide service that meets these standards, if any. In some of our states, PUCs may disapprove of cost recovery, in whole or in part, for implementation of treatment infrastructure for a contaminant in the absence of a regulatory standard. Furthermore, given the rapid pace at which these contaminants are being created and/or discovered, we may not be able to detect and/or mitigate all such substances in our drinking water system or supplies, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and reputation. In addition, we believe these contaminants may form the basis for additional or increased federal or state regulatory initiatives and requirements in the future, which could significantly increase the cost of our operations.
Limitations on availability of water supplies or restrictions on our use of water supplies because of government regulation or action may adversely affect our access to sources of water, our ability to supply water to customers or the demand for our water services.
Our ability to meet the existing and future demand of our customers depends on the availability of an adequate supply of water. As a general rule, sources of public water supply, including rivers, lakes, streams, groundwater aquifers and recycled water sources, are held in the public trust and are not generally owned by private interests. As a result, we typically do not own the source water that we use in our operations, and the availability of our water supply is established through allocation rights (determined by legislation or court decisions) and passing-flow requirements set by governmental entities or by entering into water purchase agreements. These requirements, which can change from time to time, and vary by state or region, may adversely impact our water supply. Supply issues, such as drought, overuse of sources of water, the protection of threatened species or habitats, contamination or other factors may limit the availability of ground and surface water. If we are unable to secure available or alternative sources of water, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
For example, in our Monterey County, California operations, we are seeking to augment our sources of water supply, principally to comply with the cease and desist orders issued by the SWRCB in July 1995 and October 2009 (the “1995 Order,” the “2009 Order” and, as amended in July 2016, the “2016 Order” and, collectively, the “Orders”) that require Cal Am to significantly decrease its diversions from the Carmel River in accordance with a reduction schedule that terminated on December 31, 2021. See Item 3—Legal Proceedings—Alternative Water Supply in Lieu of Carmel River Diversions, which includes additional information regarding this matter. We are also required to augment our Monterey County sources of water supply to comply with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act. For 2022, Cal Am complied with the diversion limitations contained in the 2016 Order, but continued compliance with these limitations in 2023 and future years may be impacted by a number of factors, including without limitation continued drought conditions in California and the exhaustion of water supply reserves, and will require successful development of alternate water supply sources sufficient to meet customer demand. While the Company cannot currently predict the likelihood or result of any adverse outcome associated with these matters, further attempts to comply with the Orders may result in material


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additional costs or obligations, including fines and penalties against Cal Am in the event of noncompliance with the Orders, which could have a material adverse effect upon us and our business, results of operations and cash flows.
Service disruptions caused by severe weather conditions, climate variability patterns or natural or other disasters may disrupt our operations or reduce the demand for our water services, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Service interruptions due to severe weather, climate variability patterns and natural or other events are possible across all our businesses. These include, among other things, storms, freezing conditions, high wind conditions, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, landslides, drought, wildfires, coastal and intercoastal floods or high water conditions, including those in or near designated flood plains, pandemics (including COVID-19) and epidemics, severe electrical storms, sinkholes and solar flares. Weather and other natural events such as these may affect the condition or operability of our facilities, limiting or preventing us from delivering water or wastewater services to our customers, or requiring us to make substantial capital expenditures to repair any damage. Tariffs in place or cost recovery proceedings with respect to our Regulated Businesses may not provide reimbursement to us, in whole or in part, for any of these impacts.
Government restrictions on water use may also result in decreased use of water services, even if our water supplies are sufficient to serve our customers, which may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Seasonal and other drought conditions, including, for example, those currently being experienced in California, that may impact our water services are possible across all of our service areas. Governmental restrictions imposed in response to a drought may apply to all systems within a region independent of the supply adequacy of any individual system. Responses may range from voluntary to mandatory water use restrictions, rationing restrictions, water conservation regulations, and requirements to minimize water system leaks. While expenses incurred in implementing water conservation and rationing plans may generally be recoverable provided the relevant PUC determines they were reasonable and prudent, we cannot be certain that any such expenses incurred will, in fact, be fully recovered. Moreover, reductions in water consumption, including those resulting from installation of equipment or changed consumer behavior, may persist even after a drought has ended and restrictions are lifted, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Climate variability may cause increased volatility in weather and may impact water usage and related revenue or require additional expenditures, all of which may not be fully recoverable in rates or otherwise.
The issue of climate variability is receiving increasing attention nationally and worldwide. There is consensus among climate scientists that there will be worsening of weather volatility in the future associated with climate variability. Many climate variability predictions present several potential challenges to water and wastewater utilities, including us, such as:
increased frequency and duration of droughts;
increased precipitation and flooding;
increased frequency and severity of storms and other weather events;
challenges associated with changes in temperature or increases in ocean levels;
potential degradation of water quality;
decreases in available water supply and changes in water usage patterns;
increases in disruptions in service;
increased costs to repair damaged facilities; or
increased costs to reduce risks associated with the increasing frequency and severity of natural events, including to improve the resiliency and reliability of our water and wastewater treatment and conveyance facilities and systems.
Because of the uncertainty of weather volatility related to climate variability, we cannot predict its potential impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. Furthermore, laws and regulations have been enacted or proposed that seek to reduce or limit greenhouse gas emissions and require or would require additional reporting and monitoring, and these regulations may become more pervasive or stringent in light of changing governmental agendas and priorities, although the exact nature and timing of these changes is uncertain. Although some or all potential expenditures and costs associated with the impact of climate variability and related laws and regulations on our Regulated Businesses could be recovered through rates, infrastructure replacement surcharges or other regulatory mechanisms, there can be no assurance that state PUCs would authorize rate increases to enable us to recover such expenditures and costs, in whole or in part.


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The current regulatory rate setting process may result in a significant delay, also known as “regulatory lag,” from the time that we invest in infrastructure improvements, incur increased operating expenses as a result of inflation or other factors, incur increased cost of capital, including as a result of increasing short- and long-term rates, or experience declining water usage, to the time at which we can seek to address these events in rate case applications; our inability to mitigate or minimize regulatory lag could adversely affect our business.
There is typically a delay, known as “regulatory lag,” between the time our Regulated Businesses make a capital investment or incur an operating expense increase and the time when those costs are reflected in rates. In addition, billings permitted by state PUCs typically are, to a considerable extent, based on the volume of water usage in addition to a minimum base rate. Thus, we may experience regulatory lag between the time our revenues are affected by declining usage and the time we are able to adjust the rate per gallon of usage to address declining usage. Our inability to mitigate or reduce regulatory lag could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We endeavor to mitigate or reduce regulatory lag by pursuing constructive regulatory practices. For example, two of our states have approved revenue stability mechanisms that adjust rates periodically to ensure that a utility’s revenue will be sufficient to cover its costs regardless of sales volume, including recognition of declining sales resulting from reduced consumption, while providing an incentive for customers to use water more efficiently. In addition, 10 of our state PUCs permit rates to be adjusted outside of the general rate case application process through surcharges that address certain capital investments, such as replacement of aging infrastructure. These surcharges are adjusted periodically based on factors such as project completion or future budgeted expenditures, and specific surcharges are eliminated once the related capital investment is incorporated in new PUC approved rates. Furthermore, in setting rates, nine of our state PUCs allow us to use future test years, which extend beyond the date a rate request is filed to allow for current or projected revenues, expenses and investments to be reflected in rates on a more timely basis. Other examples of such regulatory practices include expense mechanisms that allow us to increase rates for certain cost increases that are beyond our control, such as purchased water costs, property or other taxes, or power, conservation, chemical or other expenditures. These mechanisms enable us to adjust rates in less time after costs have been incurred than would be the case under a general rate case application process without the mechanisms.
While these mechanisms have mitigated or reduced regulatory lag in several of our regulated states, we continue to seek approval of regulatory practices to mitigate or reduce regulatory lag in those jurisdictions that have not approved them. Furthermore, PUCs may fail to adopt new surcharges and existing mechanisms may not continue in their current form, or at all, or we may be unable or become ineligible to continue to utilize certain of these mechanisms in the future. Although we intend to continue our efforts to seek state PUC approval of constructive regulatory practices to mitigate or reduce regulatory lag, our efforts may not be successful, or even if partially successful, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity may be materially and adversely affected.
Changes in laws and regulations can significantly and materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
The impact of any future revisions or changes in interpretations of existing regulations or the adoption of new laws and regulations applicable to our Regulated Businesses is uncertain. Changes in laws or regulations, the imposition of additional laws and regulations, changes in enforcement practices of regulators, government policies or court decisions can materially affect our operations, results of operations and cash flows. Certain of the individuals who serve as regulators are elected or political appointees. Therefore, elections which result in a change of political administration or new appointments may also result in changes of the individuals who serve as regulators and changes in the policies of the regulatory agencies that they serve. New laws or regulations, new interpretations of existing laws or regulations, changes in agency policy, including those made in response to shifts in public opinion, or conditions imposed during the regulatory hearing process could have the following consequences, among others:
making it more difficult for us to increase our rates and, as a consequence, to recover our costs or earn our expected rates of return;
changing the determination of the costs, or the amount of costs, that would be considered recoverable in rate cases and other regulatory proceedings;
restricting our ability to terminate our services to customers who owe us money for services previously provided or limiting our bill collection efforts;
requiring us to provide water or wastewater services at reduced rates to certain customers;
limiting or restricting our ability to acquire water or wastewater systems, purchase or dispose of assets, or issue long-term debt or equity, or making it less cost-effective for us to do so;
negatively impacting, among other things: (i) tax rates or positions or the deductibility of expenses under federal or state tax laws, (ii) the availability or amount of, or our ability to comply with the terms and conditions of, tax credits or tax


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abatement benefit, (iii) the amount of taxes owed, (iv) the timing of tax effects on rates or (v) the ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards;
changing regulations that affect the benefits we expected to receive when we began offering services in a particular area;
increasing the associated costs of, or difficulty complying with, environmental, health, safety, consumer privacy, water quality, and water quality accountability laws and regulations to which our operations are subject;
changing or placing additional limitations on change in control requirements relating to any concentration of ownership of our common stock;
making it easier for governmental entities to convert our assets to public ownership via condemnation, eminent domain or other similar process, or for governmental agencies or private plaintiffs to assess liability against us for damages under these or similar processes;
increasing the costs or difficulty of complying with proposed changes to federal contractor affirmative action audits;
placing limitations, prohibitions or other requirements with respect to the sharing of information and participation in transactions by or between a regulated subsidiary and us or our other affiliates, including Service Company and any of our other subsidiaries;
restricting or prohibiting our extraction of water from rivers, streams, reservoirs or aquifers; and
revoking or altering the terms of a CPCN issued to us by a state PUC or other governmental authority.
Regulatory and environmental risks associated with the collection, treatment and disposal of wastewater may impose significant costs and liabilities.
The wastewater collection, treatment and disposal operations of our subsidiaries are subject to substantial regulation and involve environmental risks. If collection, treatment or disposal systems fail, overflow, or do not operate properly, untreated or inadequately treated wastewater or other contaminants could spill onto nearby properties or into nearby streams and rivers, causing damage to persons or property, injury to aquatic life and economic damages. This risk is most acute during periods of substantial rainfall or flooding, which are the main causes of sewer overflow and system failure. Liabilities resulting from such damage could adversely and materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Certain of our wastewater systems have commercial and industrial customers that are subject to specific limitations on the type, character and strength of the wastewater they are permitted to discharge into our systems. The failure by these commercial and industrial customers to comply with their respective discharge requirements could, in turn, negatively impact our operations, damage our facilities or cause us to exceed applicable discharge limitations and requirements. Liabilities resulting from such exceedance events could adversely and materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
A loss of one or more large industrial or commercial customers could have a material adverse impact upon the results of operations of one or more of our Regulated Businesses.
Adverse economic conditions may cause our customers, particularly industrial and large commercial customers, to curtail operations. A curtailment of operations by such a customer typically results in reduced water usage by that customer. In more severe circumstances, the decline in usage could be permanent. Any decrease in demand resulting from difficult economic conditions affecting these customers could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Tariffs in place with respect to our Regulated Businesses may not reimburse us, in whole or in part, for any of these impacts.

Our Regulated Businesses require significant capital expenditures and may suffer if we fail to secure appropriate funding to make investments, experience increases in short- and long-term interest rates or if we experience delays in completing major capital expenditure projects.
The water and wastewater utility business is capital intensive. We invest significant amounts of capital to add, replace and maintain property, plant and equipment, and to improve aging infrastructure. In 2022, we invested $2.3 billion in net Company-funded capital improvements. The level of capital expenditures necessary to maintain the integrity of our systems will continue into the future and, we believe, will increase. We expect to fund capital improvement projects using cash generated from operations (including, among other things, a portion of the net proceeds from the sale of HOS) borrowings under our revolving credit facility and commercial paper programs and issuances of long-term debt and equity. We may not be able to access our revolving credit facility or the commercial paper, long-term debt and equity capital markets, when necessary or desirable to fund capital improvements on favorable terms or at all. If we are not able to obtain sufficient financing, we may be unable to maintain our existing property, plant and equipment, fund our capital investment strategies or expand our rate base to enable us to meet our growth targets. Even with adequate financial resources to make required capital expenditures, we face the additional risk that we will not complete our major capital projects on time, as a result of supply chain interruptions, construction delays, permitting delays, labor shortages or other disruptions, environmental restrictions, legal and regulatory challenges, or other obstacles. Each of these outcomes could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.


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Aging infrastructure may lead to service disruptions, property damage and increased capital expenditures and O&M expenses and other costs, all of which could negatively impact our financial results.
We have risks associated with aging infrastructure, including water and sewer mains, pumping stations and water and wastewater treatment facilities. Additionally, we may have limited information regarding buried and newly acquired assets, which could challenge our ability to conduct efficient asset management and maintenance practices. Assets that have aged beyond their expected useful lives may experience a higher rate of failure. Failure of aging infrastructure could result in increased capital expenditures and O&M expenses and other costs, and negatively impact our future O&M efficiency ratio. In addition, failure of aging infrastructure may result in property damage, and in safety, environmental and public health impacts. To the extent that any increased costs or expenditures are not fully recovered in rates, our results of operations, liquidity and cash flows could be negatively impacted.
Seasonality could adversely affect the volume of water sold and our revenues.
The volume of water we sell during the warmer months, typically in the summer, is generally greater than during other months, due primarily to increased water usage for irrigation systems, swimming pools, cooling systems and other applications. Throughout the year, and particularly during typically warmer months, the volume of water sold tends to vary with temperature, rainfall levels and rainfall frequency. In the event that temperatures during the typically warmer months are cooler than normal, or if there is more rainfall than normal, the amount of water we sell may decrease and adversely affect our revenues.
Two of our jurisdictions, California and Illinois, currently have revenue stability mechanisms that permit us to recover the revenues authorized in a general rate case, regardless of sales volume. Revenue stability mechanisms are designed to recognize declining sales resulting from reduced consumption, while providing an incentive for customers to use water more efficiently. In those jurisdictions that have not adopted a revenue stability mechanism, our operating results could continue to be affected by seasonality.
Contamination of water supplies or our water service provided to our customers could result in service limitations and interruptions and exposure to substances not typically found in potable water supplies, and could subject us and our subsidiaries to reductions in usage and other responsive obligations, government enforcement actions, damage to our reputation and private litigation.
The water supplies that flow into our treatment plants or are delivered through our distribution system, or the water service that is provided to our customers, may be subject to contamination, including, among other items, contamination from naturally-occurring compounds, chemicals in groundwater systems, pollution resulting from manufactured sources (such as perchlorate, perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds, methyl tertiary butyl ether, 1,4-dioxane, lead and other materials, or chemical spills or other incidents that result in contaminants entering the water source), and possible terrorist attacks or other similar incidents. In addition, new categories of contaminants continue to emerge in the water industry. If one of our water supplies or the water service provided to our customers is contaminated, depending on the nature of the contamination, we may have to take responsive actions that could include, among other things (1) limiting use of the water supply under a “Do Not Use” protective order that enables continuation of basic sanitation and essential fire protection, or (2) interrupting the use of that water supply, in whole or in part, potentially impacting basic sanitation and fire protection needs. If service is disrupted, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, liquidity and reputation may be adversely affected. In addition, we may incur significant costs in order to treat the contaminated source through the expansion of our current treatment facilities or the development of new sources of supply or new treatment methods. We may be unable to recover costs associated with treating or decontaminating water supplies through insurance, customer rates, tariffs or contract terms, and any recovery of these costs that we are able to obtain through regulatory proceedings or otherwise may not occur in a timely manner. Moreover, we could be subject to claims for damages arising from government enforcement actions or toxic tort or other lawsuits arising out of an interruption of service or human exposure to hazardous substances in our drinking water and water supplies. See Item 3—Legal Proceedings for information on certain pending lawsuits related to interruptions of water service.
Since we are engaged in the business of providing water service to our customers, contamination of the water supply, or the water service provided to our customers, could result in substantial injury or damage to our customers, employees or others and we could be exposed to substantial claims and litigation. Such claims could relate to, among other things, personal injury, loss of life, business interruption, property damage, pollution, and environmental damage and may be brought by our customers or third parties. Litigation and regulatory proceedings are subject to inherent uncertainties and unfavorable rulings can and do occur. We may not be protected from these claims or negative impacts of these claims in whole or in part by tariffs or other contract terms. Negative impacts to our reputation may occur even if we are not liable for any contamination or other environmental damage or the consequences arising out of human exposure to contamination or hazardous substances within the water supply or distributed finished drinking water. In addition, insurance coverage may not cover all or a portion of these losses, and are subject to deductibles and other limitations. Pending or future claims against us could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.


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We are subject to adverse publicity and reputational risks, which make us vulnerable to negative customer perception and could lead to increased regulatory oversight or sanctions.
Our business and operations have a large direct and indirect customer base and, as a result, we are exposed to public criticism regarding, among other things, the reliability of water service, wastewater and related or ancillary services, the quality of water provided, and the amount, timeliness, content, accuracy and format of bills that are provided for such services. Adverse publicity and negative consumer sentiment arising out of our operations may render legislatures and other governing bodies, state PUCs and other regulatory authorities, and government officials less likely to view us in a favorable light, and may cause us to be susceptible to less favorable legislative, regulatory and economic outcomes, as well as increased regulatory or other oversight and more stringent regulatory or economic requirements. Unfavorable regulatory and economic outcomes may include the enactment of more stringent laws and regulations governing our operations and less favorable economic terms in our agreements related to MSG, as well as fines, penalties or other sanctions or requirements. The imposition of any of the foregoing could have a material negative impact on us and our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The failure of, or the requirement to repair, upgrade or dismantle, any of our dams may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
The properties of our Regulated Businesses segment include 73 dams, the majority of which are earthen dams. The failure of any of these dams could result in personal injury and property damage, including without limitation downstream property damage, for which we may be liable. The failure of a dam would also adversely affect our ability to supply water in sufficient quantities to our customers and could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Any losses or liabilities incurred due to a failure of one of our dams might not be covered by insurance policies or be recoverable in rates, and such losses may make it difficult for us to secure insurance at acceptable rates in the future.
We also are required from time to time to decommission, repair or upgrade the dams that we own. The cost of such repairs or upgrades can be and has been material. The federal and state agencies that regulate our operations may adopt rules and regulations requiring us to dismantle our dams, which also could entail material costs. Although in most cases the PUC has permitted recovery of expenses and capital investment related to dam rehabilitation, we might not be able to recover costs of repairs, upgrades or dismantling through rates in the future. The inability to recover these costs or delayed recovery of the costs as a result of regulatory lag can affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Any failure of our network of water and wastewater pipes, water mains and water reservoirs could result in losses and damages that may affect our financial condition and reputation.
Our operating subsidiaries distribute water and collect wastewater through an extensive network of pipes, water mains and storage systems located across the United States. A failure of major pipes, mains or reservoirs could result in injuries, property and other damage for which we may be liable. The failure of major pipes, mains and reservoirs may also result in the need to shut down some facilities or parts of our network in order to conduct repairs. Such failures and shutdowns may limit our ability to supply water in sufficient quantities to our customers and to meet the water and wastewater delivery requirements prescribed by government regulators, including state PUCs with jurisdiction over our operations, and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, liquidity and reputation. Any business interruption or other losses might not be covered by insurance policies or be recoverable in rates, and such losses may make it difficult for us to secure insurance at acceptable rates in the future. Moreover, to the extent such business interruptions or other losses are not covered by insurance, they may not be recovered through rate adjustments.
An important part of our growth strategy is the acquisition of water and wastewater systems, which involves risks, including competition for acquisition opportunities from other regulated utilities, governmental entities and other buyers, which may hinder or limit our ability to grow our business.
An important element of our growth strategy is the acquisition and optimization of water and wastewater systems in order to broaden our current, and move into new, service areas. We may not be able to acquire other systems or businesses if we cannot identify suitable acquisition opportunities or reach mutually agreeable terms with acquisition candidates, and whether or not any particular acquisition is successfully completed, these activities are expensive and time consuming and are subject to the availability of capital and personnel resources to complete such acquisitions.
Further, competition for acquisition opportunities from other regulated utilities, governmental entities and other strategic and financial buyers may hinder our ability to expand our business. As consolidation activity increases in the water and wastewater industries and competition for acquisitions continues to increase, the prices for suitable acquisition candidates may increase and limit our ability to expand through acquisitions.
The negotiation and execution of potential acquisitions as well as the integration of acquired systems or businesses with our existing operations could require us to incur significant costs, cause diversion of our management’s time and resources and have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. Future acquisitions by us could result in, among other things:


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unanticipated capital expenditures;
unanticipated acquisition-related expenses;
incurrence or assumption of debt, contingent liabilities and environmental liabilities and obligations, including liabilities that were unknown or undisclosed at the time of acquisition;
failure to recover acquisition adjustments or premiums due to unfavorable decisions by PUCs and other governmental authorities;
failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting;
recording goodwill and other intangible assets at values that ultimately may be subject to impairment charges;
fluctuations in quarterly and/or annual results;
failure to realize anticipated benefits and synergies, such as cost savings and revenue enhancements; and
difficulties in integrating or assimilating acquired systems’ operations, personnel, benefits, services and systems and water quality, cybersecurity and infrastructure protection measures.
Some or all of these items could have a material adverse effect on our business. The systems and businesses we acquire in the future may not achieve anticipated revenue, return on equity or profitability, or other perceived synergies, and any difficulties we encounter in the integration process could interfere with our operations, reduce our net income and profitability or adversely affect our internal control over financial reporting.
Our Regulated Businesses are subject to condemnation and other proceedings through eminent domain or other similar authorized process, which could materially and adversely affect their results of operations and financial condition.
Municipalities and other government subdivisions have historically been involved in the provision of water and wastewater services in the United States, and organized efforts may arise from time to time in one or more of the service areas in which our Regulated Businesses operate to convert our assets to public ownership and operation through exercise of the governmental power of eminent domain, or another similar authorized process. A municipality, other government subdivision or a citizen group may seek to acquire our assets through eminent domain or such other process, either directly or indirectly as a result of a citizen petition.
For example, in November 2018, Monterey, California ballot Measure J, which was added by a citizens group, was certified as having been approved by a public vote, requiring the MPWMD to conduct a study and submit a written plan concerning the feasibility of a potential purchase of the Monterey system assets without an additional public vote. The public vote led to the issuance by the MPWMD of (i) a preliminary report finding, among other things, that the acquisition of the Monterey system assets by the MPWMD would be economically feasible, and (ii) a final environmental impact report analyzing the environmental impacts of such an acquisition through the power of eminent domain. See Item 1—Business—Regulated Businesses—Condemnation and Eminent Domain and Item 3—Legal Proceedings—Proposed Acquisition of Monterey System Assets — Local Area Formation Commission Litigation, which includes additional information regarding these matters.
Furthermore, the law in certain jurisdictions in which our Regulated Businesses operate provides for eminent domain rights allowing private property owners to file a lawsuit to seek just compensation against a public utility, if the public utility’s infrastructure has been determined to be a substantial cause of damage to that property. In these actions, the plaintiff would not have to prove that the public utility acted negligently. In California, lawsuits have been filed in connection with large-scale natural events such as wildfires. Some of these lawsuits have included allegations that infrastructure of certain utilities triggered the natural event that resulted in damage to the property. In some cases, the PUC has disallowed recovery in rates of losses incurred by these utilities as a result of such lawsuits.
Contesting an exercise of condemnation, eminent domain or other similar process, or responding to a citizen petition, may result in costly legal proceedings and may divert the attention of management. Moreover, our efforts to resist the condemnation, eminent domain or other process may not be successful, which may require us to sell the operations at issue in a condemnation proceeding or to pay a private property owner compensation for the property damage suffered. If a municipality or other government subdivision succeeds in acquiring the assets of one or more of our Regulated Businesses through eminent domain or other process, there is a risk that we will not receive adequate compensation for the business, that we will not be able to keep the compensation, or that we will not be able to divest the business without incurring significant charges. Any of these outcomes may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and liquidity.
We may be subject to physical and cyber attacks.
As operators of critical infrastructure, we may face a heightened risk of physical and cyber attacks from internal or external sources. Our water and wastewater systems may be vulnerable to disability or failures as a result of physical or cyber attacks, acts of


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war or terrorism, vandalism or other causes. Our operational and technology systems throughout our businesses may be vulnerable to unauthorized external or internal access, due to hacking, viruses, acts of violence, war or terrorism, and other causes. Unauthorized access to confidential information located or stored on these systems could negatively and materially impact our reputation, customers, employees, suppliers and other third parties. Further, third parties, including vendors, suppliers and contractors, who perform certain services for us or administer and maintain our sensitive information, could also be targets of cyber attacks and unauthorized access to their operational or technology systems. While we have instituted safeguards to protect our operational and technology systems, those safeguards may not always be effective due to the evolving nature of cyber attacks and cyber vulnerabilities. We cannot guarantee that such protections will be completely successful in the event of a cyber attack.
If, despite our security measures, a significant physical attack or cyber breach occurred, our operations could be disrupted, property damaged, and customer and other confidential information lost or stolen; we could experience substantial loss of revenues, response costs and other financial loss; we could suffer a loss of management time, attention and resources from our regular business operations; we may be subject to increased regulatory requirements; and we may experience litigation and damage to our reputation, any of which could have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and cash flows. Experiencing a physical or cyber security incident could also cause us to be non-compliant with applicable laws and regulations or contracts that require us to report cybersecurity incidents or breaches or securely maintain confidential data, causing us to incur costs related to legal claims or proceedings and regulatory fines or penalties. These types of events, either impacting our facilities or the industry in general, could also cause us to incur additional security and insurance related costs. In addition, in the ordinary course of business, we collect and retain sensitive information, including personally identifiable information, about our customers and employees. In many cases, we outsource administration of certain functions to vendors that have been and will continue to be targets of cyber attacks. Any theft, loss or fraudulent use of customer, employee or proprietary data as a result of a cyber attack on us or a vendor could also subject us to significant litigation, liability and costs, as well as adversely impact our reputation with customers and regulators, among others.
We have obtained insurance to provide coverage for a portion of the losses and damages that may result from a physical attack, cyber attack or a security breach, but such insurance is subject to a number of exclusions and may not cover the total loss or damage caused by an attack or a breach. Furthermore, the market for cybersecurity insurance is relatively new and coverage available for cybersecurity events will likely evolve as the industry matures. In the future, adequate insurance may not be available at rates that we believe are reasonable, and the costs of responding to and recovering from a physical attack, cyber attack or security breach incident may not be covered by insurance or recoverable in rates.
Our business is subject to complex and evolving federal, state and local laws and regulations regarding consumer privacy and the protection or transfer of data relating to individuals, which could result in, among other things, public disclosure of incidents, private or governmental claims or litigation against us, changes to our business practices, monetary penalties, reputational harm and increased cost of operations.

Laws and regulations are changing and increasing rapidly with respect to data and consumer privacy, security and protection. We are subject to an increasing number of complex and continually evolving data and consumer privacy, security and protection laws and regulations administered by various federal, state and local governments, including, for example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, together with its amendments and implementing regulations, the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act and the Cyber Incident Reporting for Critical Infrastructure Act of 2022. New laws and regulations may require us to disclose incidents to authorities, regulators and/or the public, when we otherwise may not have been required to disclose such incidents under previous laws and regulations, and such disclosures could negatively and materially impact our reputation, customers, employees, suppliers and other third parties. Federal and state governments have also adopted or are proposing other limitations on, or requirements regarding, the collection, distribution, use, security and storage of personally identifiable information. In addition, the Federal Trade Commission and state attorneys general are applying federal and state consumer protection laws to impose standards on the collection, use and dissemination of data. Moreover, we expect that current laws, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection and information security in the United States will continue to evolve and increase, and we cannot determine the impact that compliance with such future laws, regulations or standards will have on us or on our business. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with current or future federal, state, or local data or consumer privacy or security laws, regulations, policies, guidance, industry standards, or legal obligations, or any incident resulting in unauthorized access to, or the acquisition, release, or transfer of, personally identifiable information or other data relating to our customers, employees and others, may result in private or governmental enforcement actions, litigation or other claims against us, fines and penalties, or adverse perception or publicity about us and our businesses, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and business and could result in us incurring substantial costs. These events could also require us to change our business practices, and the events or such changes may result in significant diversions of resources, distract management and divert the focus and attention of our security and technical personnel from other critical activities. Any of the foregoing consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial


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condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We may sustain losses that exceed or are excluded from our insurance coverage or for which we are self-insured.
We maintain insurance coverage, some of which may be self-insured, as part of our overall legal and risk management strategy to minimize potential liabilities arising from our Regulated Businesses, as well as the operations of MSG and CSG. Our insurance programs have varying coverage limits, exclusions and maximums, and insurance companies may seek to deny claims we might make. Generally, our insurance policies cover property damage, worker’s compensation, employer’s liability, general liability, cybersecurity, terrorism risks and automobile liability. Each policy includes deductibles or self-insured retentions and policy limits for covered claims. As a result, we may sustain losses that exceed or that are excluded from our insurance coverage, or for which we are self-insured and must therefore utilize our own financial resources to cover such losses. Although in the past we have been generally able to obtain insurance coverage related to our business, there can be no assurance that we can secure all necessary or appropriate insurance in the future, or that such insurance can be economically secured. For example, catastrophic events can result in decreased coverage limits, more limited coverage, increased premium costs or deductibles.
We rely on technology to facilitate the management of our business as well as our customer and supplier relationships, and a failure or disruption of implemented technology could materially and adversely affect our business.
Technology is an integral part of our business and operations, and any failure or disruption of the technology or related systems we implement could significantly limit our ability to manage and operate our business effectively and efficiently, which, in turn, could cause our business and competitive position to suffer and adversely affect our results of operations. We use technology systems to, among other things, bill customers, process orders, provide customer service, manage certain plant operations and construction projects, create and manage our financial records and other operational data, track assets, remotely monitor our plants and facilities, and manage human resources, supply chain, inventory, and accounts receivable collections. As a specific example, we depend on water meters to record and communicate the amount of water our customers use, which information in turn is used to generate customer bills, and in recent years, we have experienced greater than expected performance failures with certain water meters used in the Regulated Businesses. When failures occur, we work with meter manufacturers to determine and address the cause of such failures. While these and other failures that we have experienced have not to date had a material adverse effect on our operations, there can be no assurance that efforts to address performance failures or other issues we may experience with water meters or other implemented technology will be successful in the future and that these or future failures of water meters or other technological issues will not have a material adverse effect on us.
Although we do not believe that the technology we have implemented or may in the future implement is at a materially greater risk of failure than that used by other similar organizations, our technology and operations that use or rely on technology remain vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among other things: failure or interruption of the technology or its related systems; loss or failure of power, internet, telecommunications or data network systems; and operator error or improper operation by, the negligent or improper supervision of, or the intentional acts of, employees, contractors and other third parties. Any or all of these events could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
An inability to successfully develop and implement new technologies poses substantial risks to our business and operational excellence strategies, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
A significant part of our long-term strategic plan focuses on safety, operational excellence, cost and expense efficiency (including O&M expense efficiency), water quality and affordability, asset and capital management and the customer experience. For example, we have made and plan to continue to make significant investments in developing, deploying, integrating and maintaining customer-facing technologies, applications to support field service and customer service operations, water source sensor and evaluation technologies, meter data management and analytics, and intelligent automation technologies. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in designing, developing, deploying, integrating or maintaining these new technologies. Because these efforts can be long-term in nature, these new technologies may be more costly or time-consuming than expected to design, develop, integrate and complete and may not ultimately deliver the expected or desired benefits upon completion. While we have and will continue to seek to recover costs and earn a return on capital expenditures with respect to the costs and expenses of development and deployment of these new technologies in our Regulated Businesses, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so in every instance or at all, and our inability to do so may adversely affect our ability to achieve intended cost and expense, including O&M expense, efficiencies or other key performance results and, ultimately, could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our inability to efficiently upgrade and improve our operational and technology systems, or implement new systems, could result in higher than expected costs or otherwise adversely impact our internal controls environment, operations and profitability.
Upgrades and improvements to computer systems and networks, or the implementation of new systems, may require substantial amounts of management’s time and financial resources to complete, and may also result in system or network defects or operational errors due to multiple factors, including employees’ ability to effectively use the new or upgraded system. We continue to implement technology to improve our business processes and customer interactions, and have installed new, and upgraded existing, technology


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systems. Any technical or other difficulties in upgrading and improving existing or implementing new technology systems may increase costs beyond those anticipated and have an adverse or disruptive effect on our operations and reporting processes, including our internal control over financial reporting. We may also experience difficulties integrating current systems with new or upgraded systems, which may impact our ability to serve our customers effectively or efficiently. Although we make efforts to minimize any adverse impact on our controls, business and operations, we cannot assure that all such impacts have been or will be mitigated, and any such impacts could harm our business (individually or collectively) and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Disruptions in our supply chain related to goods, such as pipe, chemicals, power and other fuel, equipment, water and other raw materials, and services, could adversely impact our operations and our ability to serve our customers, as well as our financial results.
Our ability to serve our customers and operate our business in compliance with regulatory requirements is dependent upon purchasing or securing necessary goods and services from our suppliers and vendors. These items include but are not limited to contracted services, chemicals, pipe, valves, hydrants, fittings, equipment (including personal protective equipment), water, and power and other fuel. Examples of supply chain disruptions include reduced quantities of goods available in the marketplace, delays in manufacturing or shipping goods, labor shortages at our suppliers or vendors, natural or other disasters and operational impacts to some of our suppliers or vendors. Disruptions in our supply chain related to goods and services have occurred and we anticipate will continue to occur into the foreseeable future. For example, a recent fire at a plant owned by the sole supplier of permanganate in the Western Hemisphere has severely limited the U.S. supply of potassium and sodium permanganate, two chemicals used by water utilities to treat water. The Company is seeking to utilize alternative methods of treatment and to manage its existing supplies of permanganate, but any inability to source sufficient quantities of these chemicals or utilize alternative chemicals may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to comply with applicable environmental and regulatory requirements.

Supply chain disruptions may cause us to be unable to purchase or otherwise obtain needed goods or services at a reasonable price or at all, and may significantly increase the price of goods and services we may obtain from suppliers and vendors. This, in turn, may adversely impact our operations and our ability to serve our customers in compliance with regulatory requirements, as well as our associated results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. While we attempt to plan for and have contingencies in place to address supply chain disruptions, our mitigation efforts may not be successful or may have further negative impacts on us.

Our business has inherently dangerous work sites. If we fail to maintain safe work sites, we may experience workforce or customer injuries or loss of life, and be exposed to financial losses, including penalties and other liabilities.
Safety is a core value and a strategy at American Water. Our safety performance and progress to our ultimate desired goal of zero injuries are critical to our ability to carry out our operations effectively and to serve our customers, and thereby, to support our reputation. We maintain health and safety practices to protect our employees, customers, contractors, vendors and the public. Eliminating all hazards all of the time is extremely challenging, but through strict adherence to our health and safety practices, and empowering employees to be safety leaders who are instructed to and expected to stop work if deemed “unsafe,” we believe we can achieve an injury-free workplace.
At our business sites, including construction and maintenance sites, our employees, contractors and others are often in close proximity to large mechanical operating equipment, moving vehicles, pressurized water, electric and gas utility lines, below grade trenches and vaults, electrical and pneumatic hazards, fall from height hazards, suspended loads, hazardous chemicals and other regulated materials. On many sites, we are responsible for safety and, accordingly, must implement important safety procedures and practices above governmental regulatory requirements. As an essential business that provides water and wastewater services, we are focused on the health and safety of our employees, contractors, vendors, customers and others who work at or visit our worksites. If the procedures we implement are ineffective or are not followed by our employees or others, or we fail to implement procedures, our employees, contractors and others may experience illness, or minor, serious or fatal injuries. Unsafe work sites have the potential to increase employee turnover, expose us to litigation and raise our operating costs. Any of the foregoing could result in financial losses, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, our operations can involve the delivery, handling, storage, use and disposal of hazardous chemicals, which, if improperly delivered, handled, stored, used or disposed of, could result in serious injury, death, environmental damage or property damage, and could subject us to penalties or other liabilities. We are also subject to various environmental, transportation and occupational health and safety regulations. Although we maintain functional employee groups whose primary purpose is to implement effective environmental health and safety work procedures and practices throughout our organization, including construction sites and operating facilities, the failure to comply with these regulations or procedures could subject us to liability.
Work stoppages and other labor relations matters could adversely affect our results of operations and the ability to serve our customers.


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As of December 31, 2022, approximately 47% of our workforce was represented by unions, and we had 75 collective bargaining agreements in place with 14 different unions representing our unionized employees. These collective bargaining agreements, 18 of which will expire during 2023, are subject to periodic renewal and renegotiation. We may not be able to successfully renew or renegotiate these labor contracts, or enter into new agreements, on terms that are acceptable to us. Any negotiations or dispute resolution processes undertaken in connection with our labor contracts could be delayed or affected by labor actions or work stoppages. Labor actions, work stoppages or the threat of work stoppages, and our failure to obtain favorable labor contract terms during renegotiations, may disrupt our operations, negatively impact the ability to serve our customers, and result in higher labor costs, which could adversely affect our reputation, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. While we have developed contingency plans to be implemented as necessary if a work stoppage or strike does occur, a strike or work stoppage may have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Financial, Economic and Market-Related Risks
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our business and limit our ability to plan for or respond to changes in our business, and we may be unable to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our liquidity needs.
As of December 31, 2022, our aggregate long-term and short-term debt balance (including preferred stock with mandatory redemption requirements) was $12.4 billion, and our working capital (defined as current assets less current liabilities) was in a deficit position. Our indebtedness could have important consequences, including:
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital requirements or capital expenditures;
exposing us to interest rate risk with respect to the portion of our indebtedness that bears interest at variable rates;
limiting our ability to pay dividends on our common stock or make payments in connection with our other obligations;
impairing our access to the capital markets for debt and equity;
requiring that an increasing portion of our cash flows from operations be dedicated to the payment of the principal and interest on our debt, thereby reducing funds available for future operations, dividends on our common stock or capital expenditures;
limiting our ability to take advantage of significant business opportunities, such as acquisition opportunities, and to react to changes in market or industry conditions; and
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to those of our competitors that have less debt.
During 2022, we utilized existing sources of liquidity, such as our current cash balances, cash flows from operations and borrowings under our commercial paper program, to meet our short-term liquidity requirements. We believe that existing sources of liquidity will be sufficient to meet our cash requirements for the foreseeable future. In order to meet our capital expenditure and other operational needs, however, we may be required to borrow additional funds under the revolving credit facility. In the event of a sustained market deterioration, we may need to obtain additional sources of liquidity, which would require us to evaluate available alternatives and take appropriate actions. Moreover, additional borrowings may be required to repay or refinance outstanding indebtedness. Debt maturities and sinking fund payments in 2023, 2024 and 2025 will be $281 million, $476 million and $598 million, respectively. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to access the debt or equity capital markets on favorable terms, if at all, to repay or refinance this debt. Moreover, as new debt is added to our current debt levels, the related risks we now face could intensify, limiting our ability to repay or refinance existing debt on favorable terms.
We have in the past entered into, and in the future may enter into, financial derivative instruments, including without limitation, interest rate swaps, forward starting swaps and U.S. Treasury lock agreements. See Item 7A—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk. However, these efforts may not be effective to fully mitigate interest rate risk, and may expose us to other risks and uncertainties, including quarterly “mark to market” valuation risk associated with these instruments, that could negatively and materially affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our ability to pay our expenses and satisfy our debt service obligations depends in significant part on our future performance, which will be affected by the financial, business, economic, competitive, legislative (including tax initiatives and reforms, and other similar legislation or regulation), regulatory and other risk factors described in this section, many of which are beyond our control. If we do not have sufficient cash flows to pay the principal and interest on our outstanding debt, we may be required to refinance all or part of our existing debt, reduce capital investments, sell assets, borrow additional funds or sell additional equity. In addition, if our business does not generate sufficient cash flows from operations, or if we are unable to incur indebtedness sufficient to enable us to fund our liquidity needs, we may be unable to plan for or respond to changes in our business, which could cause our financial condition, operating results and prospects to be affected materially and adversely.


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Our inability to access the debt or equity capital or financial markets or other events could affect our ability to meet our long-term commitments or liquidity needs at reasonable cost, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to cash from operations, during 2022, we relied primarily on a revolving credit facility, which was increased from $2.25 billion to $2.75 billion in October 2022, a commercial paper program, which was increased from $2.10 billion to $2.60 billion in October 2022, and the debt capital markets, to satisfy our liquidity needs. The revolving credit facility currently expires in accordance with its terms in October 2027. Historically, we have regularly used our commercial paper program rather than the revolving credit facility as a principal source of short-term borrowing due to the generally more attractive rates we generally could obtain in the commercial paper market. As of December 31, 2022, there were no outstanding borrowings under the revolving credit facility, $1,177 million of commercial paper outstanding and $78 million in outstanding letters of credit. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to access this commercial paper program or revolving credit facility, when, as and if desired, or that the amount of capital available thereunder will be sufficient to meet all of our liquidity needs at a reasonable, or any, cost.
Our ability to comply with covenants in our revolving credit facility and our other consolidated indebtedness is subject to various risks and uncertainties, including events beyond our control. For example, under the terms of the revolving credit facility, our consolidated debt cannot exceed 70% of our consolidated capitalization, as determined under the terms of the facility. If our equity were to decline or debt were to increase to a level that causes us to exceed this limit, lenders under the facility would be entitled to refuse any further extension of credit and to declare all of the outstanding debt thereunder immediately due and payable. Events that could cause a reduction in equity include, without limitation, a significant write-down of our goodwill. To avoid such a default, a waiver or renegotiation of this covenant would be required, which would likely increase funding costs and could result in additional covenants that would restrict our operational and financing flexibility. Even if we are able to comply with this or other covenants, the limitations on our operational and financial flexibility could harm our business by, among other things, limiting our ability to incur indebtedness or reduce equity in connection with financings or other corporate opportunities that we may believe would be in our best interests or the interests of our shareholders to complete.
In order to meet our capital expenditure needs, we intend to issue a combination of short-term and long-term debt securities and/or additional equity shares of common stock. Disruptions in the debt or equity capital markets or changes in our credit ratings or other events could limit our ability to access capital on terms favorable to us or at all. While the lending banks that participate in the revolving credit facility have to date honored their commitments under those facilities, disruptions in the credit markets, changes in our credit ratings, or deterioration of the banking industry’s financial condition could discourage or prevent lenders from meeting their existing lending commitments, extending the terms of such commitments, or agreeing to new commitments. In such a case, we may not be able to access the commercial paper, debt or equity capital markets, or other sources of potential liquidity, in the future on terms acceptable to us or at all. Furthermore, our inability to maintain, renew or replace commitments under our revolving credit facility could materially increase our cost of capital and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Short- or long-term disruptions or volatility in the debt or equity capital and credit markets as a result of economic, legislative, political or other uncertainties, including as a result of changes in U.S. tax and other laws, reduced financing alternatives, or failures of significant financial institutions could adversely affect our access to the capital necessary to provide adequate liquidity for our business. Significant volatility or disruptions in the debt or equity capital or credit markets, or financial institution failures, could require us to take measures to conserve cash until the market stabilizes or until alternative financing can be arranged. Such measures could include delaying or deferring capital expenditures, reducing or suspending dividend payments, and reducing other discretionary expenditures. Finally, even absent significant volatility or disruptions in the capital markets, there can be no assurance that we will be able to access markets to obtain capital or financing when necessary or desirable and on terms that are reasonable or acceptable to us.
The occurrence of any of these circumstances could expose us to increased interest or other expense, require us to institute cash or liquidity conservation measures or otherwise adversely and materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity, which may limit or impair our ability to achieve our strategic, business and operational goals and objectives.
Parent company may be unable to meet its ongoing and future financial obligations and to pay dividends on its common stock if its subsidiaries are unable to pay upstream dividends or repay funds.
Parent company is a holding company and, as such, it has no substantive operations of its own. Substantially all of our consolidated assets are held by subsidiaries. Parent company’s ability to meet its financial obligations and to pay dividends on its common stock is primarily dependent on the net income and cash flows of its subsidiaries and their ability to pay upstream dividends or repay indebtedness to parent company. Prior to paying dividends to parent company, our regulated subsidiaries must comply with applicable regulatory restrictions and financial obligations, including, for example, debt service and preferred and preference stock dividends, as well as applicable corporate, tax and other laws and regulations and agreements, and our covenants and other agreements. Our subsidiaries are separate legal entities and have no obligation to pay or upstream dividends to parent company. A failure or inability of any of these subsidiaries to pay such dividends or repay intercompany obligations could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity and parent company’s ability to pay dividends on its common stock and meet its other obligations.


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We have a significant amount of goodwill and intangible and other assets, and we may be required to record impairments or changes in fair value to these assets, which may negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our assets as of December 31, 2022 included $1.1 billion of goodwill and $347 million of total assets measured and recorded at fair value on a recurring basis. The goodwill is primarily associated with the acquisition of American Water by an affiliate of our previous owner in 2003. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price the purchaser paid over the fair value of the net tangible and other intangible assets acquired. Goodwill is recorded at fair value on the date of an acquisition and is reviewed annually or more frequently if changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. As required by the applicable accounting rules, in the past, we have taken significant non-cash charges to operating results for impairments to goodwill or other intangible assets, and have recorded changes in fair value of financial instruments and other assets. We may be required to recognize in the future an impairment of goodwill or a change in fair value of financial instruments or certain other assets due to market conditions, other factors related to our performance or the performance of an acquired business, or other circumstances that may impact the fair value of a financial instrument or the other asset. See Note 18—Fair Value of Financial Information in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information on the fair value of financial and other assets. These market conditions could include a decline over a period of time of our stock price, a decline over a period of time in valuation multiples of comparable water utilities, market price performance of our common stock that compares unfavorably to our peer companies, decreases in control premiums, or other circumstances. A decline in the results forecasted in our business plan due to events such as changes in rate case results, capital investment budgets or interest rates, could also result in an impairment charge. Recognition of impairments of goodwill and changes in fair value of certain of our other assets would result in a charge to income in the period in which the impairment or change occurred, which may negatively affect our financial condition, results of operations and total capitalization. The effects of any such impairment or change could be material and could make it more difficult to maintain our credit ratings, secure financing on attractive terms, maintain compliance with debt covenants and meet the expectations of our regulators.
Market volatility and other conditions may impact the value of benefit plan assets and liabilities, as well as assumptions related to the benefit plans, which may require us to provide significant additional funding.
The performance of the capital markets affects the values of the assets that are held in trust to satisfy significant future obligations under our pension and postretirement benefit plans. The value of these assets is subject to market fluctuations and volatility, which may cause investment returns to fall below our projected return rates. A decline in the market value of our pension and postretirement benefit plan assets as of the measurement date or a change in the projection of the future return on plan assets can increase the funding requirements under our pension and postretirement benefit plans. Additionally, our pension and postretirement benefit plan liabilities are sensitive to changes in interest rates. Interest rates have experienced volatility and are subject to potential further adjustments based on the actions of the U.S. Federal Reserve, and others. If interest rates are lower at the current measurement date than the prior measurement date, our liabilities would increase, potentially increasing benefit expense and funding requirements. Further, changes in assumptions, such as increases in life expectancy assumptions and increasing trends in health care costs may also increase our funding requirements. Future increases in pension and other postretirement costs as a result of reduced plan assets may not be fully recoverable in rates, in which case our results of operations and financial position could be negatively affected. In addition, market factors can affect assumptions we use in determining funding requirements with respect to our pension and postretirement plans. For example, a relatively modest change in our assumptions regarding discount rates can materially affect our calculation of funding requirements. To the extent that the discount rate used in our assumptions is reduced, our benefit obligations could be materially increased, which could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Additional Risks Related to Other Businesses
Parent company provides performance guarantees with respect to certain of the obligations of our Other businesses, including financial guarantees or deposits, which may adversely affect parent company if the guarantees are successfully enforced.
Under the terms of certain agreements under which our Other businesses, primarily MSG, provide water and wastewater services to municipalities and federal governmental entities, parent company provides guarantees of specified performance obligations, including financial guarantees or deposits. In the event these obligations are not performed, the entity holding the guarantees may seek to enforce the performance commitments against parent company or proceed against the deposit. In that event, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and liquidity could be adversely affected. At December 31, 2022, we had remaining performance commitments, as measured by remaining contract revenue, totaling approximately $6.9 billion related to MSG’s contracts, and this amount is likely to increase if the number of military bases served by MSG increases. The presence of these commitments may adversely affect our financial condition and make it more difficult for us to secure financing on attractive terms.
MSG’s operations are subject to various risks associated with doing business with the U.S. government.
MSG enters into contracts with the U.S. government for the operation and maintenance of water and wastewater systems, which contracts may be terminated, in whole or in part, prior to the end of the 50-year term for convenience of the U.S. government or as a result of default or non-performance by the subsidiary performing the contract. In addition, the contract price for each of these military contracts is typically subject to either an annual economic price adjustment, or a price redetermination two years after commencement


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of operations and every three years thereafter. Annual economic price adjustment is an inflation index-based contract price increase mechanism. Price redetermination is a contract mechanism to periodically adjust the service fee in the next period to reflect changes in contract obligations and market conditions. Any early contract termination or unfavorable annual economic price adjustment or price redetermination could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Moreover, entering into contracts with the U.S. government subjects us to a number of operational and compliance risks, including dependence on the level of government spending and compliance with and changes in governmental procurement and security regulations. We are subject to potential government investigations of our business practices and compliance with government procurement and security regulations, which are complex, and compliance with these regulations can be expensive and burdensome. If we were charged with wrongdoing as a result of an investigation, we could be suspended or debarred from bidding on or receiving awards of new contracts with the U.S. government or our existing contracts could be terminated, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.
General Risk Factors
New accounting standards or changes to existing accounting standards could materially impact how we report our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The SEC, the Financial Accounting Standards Board or other authoritative bodies or governmental entities may issue new pronouncements or new interpretations of existing accounting standards that may require us to change our accounting policies or critical accounting estimates. These changes are beyond our control, can be difficult to predict and could materially impact how we report our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. We could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, which could also adversely affect our previously reported results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Undetected errors in internal controls and information reporting could result in the disallowance of cost recovery and noncompliant disclosure.
Our internal controls, accounting policies and practices and internal information systems are designed to enable us to capture and process transactions and information in a timely and accurate manner in compliance with GAAP, taxation requirements, federal securities laws and regulations and other laws and regulations applicable to us. We have also implemented corporate governance, internal control and accounting policies and procedures in connection with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and relevant SEC rules, as well as other applicable regulations. Such internal controls and policies have been and continue to be closely monitored by our management and Board of Directors to ensure continued compliance with these laws, rules and regulations. Management is also responsible for establishing and maintaining internal control over financial reporting and is required to assess annually the effectiveness of these controls. While we believe these controls, policies, practices and systems are adequate to verify data integrity, unanticipated or unauthorized actions of employees or temporary lapses in internal controls due to shortfalls in oversight or resource constraints could lead to undetected errors that could result in the disallowance of cost recovery and non-compliant disclosure and reporting. The consequences of these events could have a negative impact on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. The inability of management to certify as to the effectiveness of these controls due to the identification of one or more material weaknesses in these controls could also harm our reputation, increase financing costs or adversely affect our ability to access the capital markets.
Our continued success is dependent upon our ability to attract, hire and retain highly qualified, skilled and/or diverse talent.
The success of our business is dependent upon our ability to attract, hire and retain highly qualified, skilled and/or diverse talent, including engineers, licensed operators, water quality and management professionals who have the desired experience and expertise. Similar to other organizations, the Company may have challenges implementing its human capital management and employee succession plans to attract and retain such talent based on a number of factors including, among others, market conditions, retirements and geography. If we are unable to meet these human capital resource challenges, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially and adversely impacted.
Our business may be adversely affected by the intentional misconduct of our employees and contractors.
Our Code of Ethics requires employees and contractors to make decisions ethically and in compliance with applicable law and regulatory requirements, and our Code of Ethics and its underlying policies, practices and procedures. All employees are required to complete training on and review the Code of Ethics on an annual basis, and violations of the Code of Ethics could result in disciplinary actions up to, and including, termination. Despite these efforts to prevent misconduct, it is possible for employees or contractors to engage in intentional misconduct and violate laws and regulations through, among other things, theft, fraud, misappropriation, bribery, corruption and engaging in conflicts of interest or related person transactions, or otherwise committing serious breaches of our Code of Ethics and our policies, practices and procedures. Intentional misconduct by employees or contractors could result in substantial liability, higher costs, increased regulatory scrutiny and significant reputational harm, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.


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ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
The Company’s properties consist primarily of (i) water and wastewater treatment plants, (ii) mains and pipes used for transmission, distribution and collection of water and wastewater, (iii) wells and other sources of water supply, such as reservoirs, (iv) water and wastewater pumping stations, (v) meters and fire hydrants, (vi) general structures, including buildings, dams and treated water storage facilities, (vii) land and easements, (viii) vehicles, (ix) software rights, and (x) other equipment and facilities, the majority of which are used directly in the operation of its systems. Substantially all of the Company’s properties are owned by its subsidiaries, with a large percentage subject to liens of its mortgage bonds. A wholly owned subsidiary of parent company owns the Company’s corporate headquarters, located in Camden, New Jersey, and the Company and its operating subsidiaries lease office space, equipment and furniture from certain of the Company’s wholly owned subsidiaries. These properties are utilized by the Company’s directors, officers and staff in the conduct of the business.
The properties of the Company’s Regulated Businesses consist mainly of approximately:
80 surface water treatment plants;
490 groundwater treatment plants;
175 wastewater treatment plants;
53,500 miles of transmission, distribution and collection mains and pipes;
1,100 groundwater wells;
1,700 water and wastewater pumping stations;
1,100 treated water storage facilities; and
73 dams.
The Company has ongoing infrastructure renewal programs in all states in which its Regulated Businesses operate. These programs consist of both the rehabilitation of existing mains and equipment, and the replacement of mains and equipment that have been damaged or have reached, or are near, the end of their useful service lives. The properties within Other consist mainly of office furniture and IT equipment. Approximately 51% of all properties that the Company owns are located in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
The Company maintains property insurance against loss or damage to its properties by fire or other perils, subject to certain exceptions. For insured losses, the Company is self-insured to the extent that any losses are within the policy deductible or exceed the amount of insurance maintained.
The Company believes that its properties are generally maintained in good operating condition and in accordance with current standards of good water and wastewater industry practice.
ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Set forth below is information related to the Company’s material pending legal proceedings as of February 15, 2023, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, required to be disclosed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The information below should be read together with Note 16—Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. In accordance with the SEC’s disclosure rules, the Company has elected to disclose environmental proceedings involving the Company and a governmental authority if the amount of potential monetary sanctions, exclusive of interest and costs, that the Company reasonably believes will result from such proceeding is $1 million or more.
Alternative Water Supply in Lieu of Carmel River Diversions
Compliance with SWRCB Orders to Reduce Carmel River Diversions
Under the 2009 Order, Cal Am is required, among other things, to decrease significantly its yearly diversions of water from the Carmel River according to a set reduction schedule. See Item 1—Business—Regulated Businesses—Water Supply and Wastewater Services and Item 1A—Risk Factors. The 2009 Order responded to claims that Cal Am had not sufficiently implemented actions to terminate its unpermitted diversions of water from the Carmel River as required by the 1995 Order issued by the SWRCB. In July 2016, at the request of Cal Am and several Monterey County government agencies, the SWRCB issued the 2016 Order approving a deadline of December 31, 2021 for Cal Am’s compliance with the 2009 Order.


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The 2009 Order includes a condition prohibiting Cal Am from diverting water from the Carmel River for new service connections or for any increased use of water at existing service addresses resulting from a change in zoning or use. In 2011, the California Public Utilities Commission (the “CPUC”) issued a decision directing modifications in Cal Am’s tariffs to recognize the moratorium mandated by the 2009 Order, and directing Cal Am to seek written guidance from the SWRCB with respect to any unresolved issues of interpretation or implementation of this condition. In 2012, the Deputy Director of the SWRCB sent a letter to Cal Am providing an interpretation as to the calculation of a baseline to determine increases in use of water at existing service addresses. In March 2018, the MPWMD adopted a resolution directing Cal Am to interpret the baseline in a manner that conflicts with the SWRCB’s written interpretation. In May 2018, Cal Am notified the MPWMD and the SWRCB that it intends to seek declaratory relief concerning the conflicting regulatory interpretations under the 2009 Order. In an attempt to resolve these conflicting interpretations prior to seeking judicial intervention, Cal Am has met with the MPWMD and the SWRCB several times. The SWRCB agreed to circulate revisions to its 2012 interpretive letter, which would be subject to a public comment period. Any failure to follow the MPWMD’s resolution or the SWRCB’s written interpretation, despite these conflicting interpretations, could potentially result in fines, penalties and other actions against Cal Am.
Following issuance by the Coastal Commission in November 2022 of a coastal development permit, as described below, Cal Am continues to work constructively with all appropriate agencies to obtain the remaining required permits for the Water Supply Project. However, there can be no assurance that the Water Supply Project in its current configuration will be completed on a timely basis, if ever. For the year ended December 31, 2022, Cal Am has complied with the diversion limitations contained in the 2016 Order. Continued compliance with the diversion limitations in 2023 and future years may be impacted by a number of factors, including without limitation continued drought conditions in California and the exhaustion of water supply reserves, and will require successful development of alternate water supply sources sufficient to meet customer demand. The 2009 Order and the 2016 Order remain in effect until Cal Am certifies to the SWRCB, and the SWRCB concurs, that Cal Am has obtained a permanent supply of water to substitute for past unauthorized Carmel River diversions. While the Company cannot currently predict the likelihood or result of any adverse outcome associated with these matters, further attempts to comply with the 2009 Order and the 2016 Order in the future may result in material additional costs and obligations to Cal Am, including fines and penalties against Cal Am in the event of noncompliance with the 2009 Order and the 2016 Order.
Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project
CPUC Final Approval of Water Supply Project
Cal Am’s ability to move forward on the Water Supply Project is and has been subject to extensive administrative review by the CPUC and other government agencies, obtaining necessary permits, and intervention from other parties. In 2016, the CPUC unanimously approved a final decision to authorize Cal Am to enter into a water purchase agreement for the GWR Project and to construct a pipeline and pump station facilities and recover up to the incurred $50 million in associated costs plus AFUDC, subject to meeting certain criteria.
In 2018, the CPUC unanimously approved another final decision finding that the Water Supply Project meets the CPUC’s requirements for a CPCN and an additional procedural phase was not necessary to consider alternative projects. The CPUC’s 2018 decision concludes that the Water Supply Project is the best project to address estimated future water demands in Monterey, and, in addition to the cost recovery approved in its 2016 decision, adopts Cal Am’s cost estimates for the Water Supply Project, which amounted to an aggregate of $279 million plus AFUDC at a rate representative of Cal Am’s actual financing costs. The 2018 final decision specifies the procedures for recovery of all of Cal Am’s prudently incurred costs associated with the Water Supply Project upon its completion, subject to the frameworks included in the final decision related to cost caps, O&M costs, financing, ratemaking and contingency matters. The reasonableness of the Water Supply Project costs will be reviewed by the CPUC when Cal Am seeks cost recovery for the Water Supply Project. Cal Am is also required to implement mitigation measures to avoid, minimize or offset significant environmental impacts from the construction and operation of the Water Supply Project and comply with a mitigation monitoring and reporting program, a reimbursement agreement for CPUC costs associated with that program, and reporting requirements on plant operations following placement of the Water Supply Project in service. Cal Am has incurred $206 million in aggregate costs as of December 31, 2022, related to the Water Supply Project, which includes $51 million in AFUDC.
In September 2021, Cal Am, Monterey One Water and the MPWMD reached an agreement on Cal Am’s purchase of additional water from an expansion to the GWR Project, which is not expected to produce additional water until 2024 at the earliest. The amended and restated water purchase agreement for the GWR Project expansion is subject to review and approval of the CPUC, and in November 2021, Cal Am filed an application with the CPUC that sought review and approval of the amended and restated water purchase agreement. Cal Am also requested rate base treatment of the additional capital investment for certain Cal Am facilities required to maximize the water supply from the expansion to the GWR Project and a related Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project, totaling approximately $81 million. This requested amount was in addition to, and consistent in regulatory treatment with, the prior $50 million of cost recovery for facilities associated with the original water purchase agreement, which was approved by the CPUC in its unanimous 2016 final decision.


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On December 5, 2022, the CPUC issued a final decision that authorizes Cal Am to enter into the amended water purchase agreement, and specifically to increase pumping capacity and reliability of groundwater extraction from the Seaside Groundwater Basin. The final decision sets the cost cap for the proposed facilities at approximately $62 million. Cal Am may seek recovery of amounts above the cost cap in a subsequent rate filing or general rate case. Additionally, the final decision authorizes AFUDC at Cal Am’s actual weighted average cost of debt for most of the facilities.
On December 30, 2022, Cal Am filed with the CPUC an application for rehearing of the CPUC’s December 5, 2022 final decision. Cal Am is requesting inclusion in the cost cap all infrastructure costs for the GWR Project expansion that were not included in the final decision. Cal Am believes that the December 5, 2022 final decision is contrary to the CPUC’s precedent and that obtaining recovery of these infrastructure costs is a key component of the GWR Project expansion and Cal Am’s ability to meet the future water supply needs of its customers in Monterey. This application remains pending.
While Cal Am believes that its expenditures to date have been prudent and necessary to comply with the 2009 Order and the 2016 Order, as well as the CPUC’s 2016 and 2018 final decisions, Cal Am cannot currently predict its ability to recover all of its costs and expenses associated with the Water Supply Project and there can be no assurance that Cal Am will be able to recover all of such costs and expenses in excess of the $112 million in aggregate construction costs, plus applicable AFUDC, previously approved by the CPUC in its 2016 and December 2022 final decisions. See Note 16—Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
Coastal Development Permit Application
In 2018, Cal Am submitted a coastal development permit application (the “Marina Application”) to the City of Marina (the “City”) for those project components of the Water Supply Project located within the City’s coastal zone. Members of the City’s Planning Commission, as well as City councilpersons, have publicly expressed opposition to the Water Supply Project. In May 2019, the City issued a notice of final local action based upon the denial by the Planning Commission of the Marina Application. Thereafter, Cal Am appealed this decision to the Coastal Commission, as permitted under the City’s code and the California Coastal Act. At the same time, Cal Am submitted an application (the “Original Jurisdiction Application”) to the Coastal Commission for a coastal development permit for those project components located within the Coastal Commission’s original jurisdiction. After Coastal Commission staff issued reports recommending denial of the Original Jurisdiction Application, noting potential impacts on environmentally sensitive habitat areas and wetlands and possible disproportionate impacts to communities of concern, in September 2020, Cal Am withdrew the Original Jurisdiction Application in order to address the staff’s environmental justice concerns. The withdrawal of the Original Jurisdiction Application did not impact Cal Am’s appeal of the City’s denial of the Marina Application, which remains pending before the Coastal Commission. In November 2020, Cal Am refiled the Original Jurisdiction Application.
On October 5, 2022, Cal Am announced a phasing plan for the proposed desalination plant component of the Water Supply Project. The desalination plant and slant wells originally approved by the CPUC would produce up to 6.4 million gallons of desalinated water per day. Under the phased approach, the facilities would initially be constructed to produce up to 4.8 million gallons per day of desalinated water, enough to meet anticipated demand through about 2030, and would limit the number of slant wells initially constructed. As demand increases in the future, desalination facilities would be expanded to meet the additional demand. The phased approach seeks to meet near-term demand by allowing for additional supply as it becomes needed, while also providing an opportunity for regional future public participation and was developed by Cal Am based on feedback received from the community.
On November 18, 2022, the Coastal Commission approved the Marina Application and the Original Jurisdiction Application with respect to the phased development of the proposed desalination plant, subject to compliance with a number of conditions, all of which Cal Am expects to satisfy. Cal Am continues to seek the remaining permits necessary to construct the Water Supply Project.
On December 29, 2022, the City, Marina Coast Water District (“MCWD”), MCWD’s groundwater sustainability agency (“GSA”), and the MPWMD jointly filed a petition for writ of mandate in Monterey County Superior Court against the Coastal Commission, alleging that the Coastal Commission violated the California Coastal Act and the California Environmental Quality Act in issuing a coastal development permit to Cal Am for construction of the MPWSP slant wells. Cal Am is named as a real party in interest. This matter remains pending.
Subject to the impact or resolution of this litigation, construction of the desalination plant is expected to begin in 2024 and the desalination plant is estimated to be in-service by the end of 2027.
Desalination Plant Development Permit
The proposed desalination plant for the Water Supply Project is to be located in an unincorporated portion of Monterey County, California, on a site owned by CEMEX, Inc. (“CEMEX”), and requires a combined development permit from Monterey County prior to commencement of construction. In April 2019, Monterey County’s Planning Commission voted to approve the permit. In July 2019, the Board of Supervisors heard appeals filed by MCWD and a public advocacy group, at which time it denied the appeals and


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approved the permit. In August 2019, MCWD filed a petition in Monterey County Superior Court challenging Monterey County’s approval of Cal Am’s combined development permit application and seeking injunctive relief to enjoin Monterey County and Cal Am from commencing construction of the desalination plant. In October 2019, after a hearing, the court denied, without prejudice, MCWD’s motion for a preliminary injunction, but issued a stay of Monterey County’s approval of the combined development permit, precluding commencement of physical construction of the desalination plant, but allowing Cal Am to continue to obtain permits needed for the desalination plant’s construction. In January 2021, the court issued its decision granting in part and denying in part MCWD’s petition. The court found that Monterey County did not completely comply with all of the requirements necessary to approve the combined development permit and set aside its approval so that Monterey County could come into compliance. The court denied all of MCWD’s other claims. The court also lifted its stay on physical construction at the plant site.
In May 2021, Cal Am filed a notice of appeal as to the Monterey County Superior Court’s January 2021 decision, seeking to challenge the court’s decision on Monterey County’s statement of overriding considerations. Monterey County filed a notice of appeal as to the same issue in May 2021. In June 2021, MCWD filed cross-appeals on its claims that had been denied by the court. These appeals remain pending.
Proposed Zoning Changes at CEMEX Site for Slant Wells
In August 2018, the City circulated a public review draft of proposed amendments to its local coastal program and zoning ordinance, and placed the matter for consideration on the Planning Commission’s agenda for its September 2018 meeting. The proposed amendments would change zoning at the CEMEX site to open space and restrict future uses, including with respect to Cal Am’s planned use of the site for the slant wells for the Water Supply Project. Any change to the City’s local coastal program must ultimately be approved by the Coastal Commission. Cal Am, CEMEX and the Coastal Commission each submitted letters opposing the proposed amendments. At its November 2018 meeting, the Planning Commission adopted a resolution recommending that the Marina City Council consider approving the amendments.
In December 2018, the Marina City Council considered the proposed amendments. Cal Am, CEMEX and the Coastal Commission again submitted letters opposing the proposed changes, but the City Council unanimously adopted a resolution amending its local coastal plan and a draft amendment to its zoning ordinance. Changes to the ordinance require a second reading before becoming final, which occurred at the City’s December 2018 meeting. The changes to the local coastal plan must be submitted to the Coastal Commission for approval and are not effective until such approval is obtained.
Test Slant Well Permitting
A preliminary step to building the Water Supply Project desalination plant is the construction and operation of a test slant well to confirm the suitability of the property on which intake wells will be located to draw water from under Monterey Bay. In November 2014, the Coastal Commission approved coastal development permits for the test slant well, enabling Cal Am to construct and operate the test slant well. Effective February 28, 2018, test slant well pumping ceased, except for minimal maintenance pumping activities, in accordance with Cal Am’s coastal development permits. Because Cal Am may use the test slant well as one of the slant wells for the Water Supply Project, Cal Am sought and obtained from the Coastal Commission permit amendments to allow the test slant well to remain in place and be maintained until February 28, 2024. A required lease obtained from the California State Lands Commission, as amended, expired on December 16, 2022. Cal Am has filed an applications for extension of the State Lands Commission lease. This application remains pending.
Water Supply Project Land Acquisition and Slant Well Site Use
In July 2017, the Coastal Commission adopted a consent agreement and cease and desist order requiring sand mining operations on the property owned by CEMEX on which intake wells for the Water Supply Project will be located, to cease by the end of 2020 and the property to be sold to either a non-profit or governmental entity. The consent agreement strictly limits future use of the property but preserves Cal Am’s existing property rights and allows uses consistent with existing easements and other rights of record. A permanent easement granted by CEMEX to Cal Am was recorded in June 2018 to allow Cal Am access to the property and to construct, operate and maintain the Water Supply Project intake wells. in November 2019, the City notified CEMEX that, based on this permanent easement and Cal Am’s proposed use of the site for the intake wells, CEMEX has breached or will soon breach a prior 1996 annexation agreement (to which Cal Am was not a party). The City states that it intends to seek declaratory relief from CEMEX and Cal Am ordering that Cal Am’s extraction is limited to 500 acre-feet per year of groundwater, that Cal Am cannot export extracted water out of the basin, and that the permanent easement granted by CEMEX to Cal Am is void. CEMEX has denied the City’s claims and requested indemnification from Cal Am under the terms of the permanent easement. Cal Am and CEMEX believe that there is no valid limitation under the annexation agreement on Cal Am’s right to pump brackish groundwater and seawater at the site for desalination and use by Cal Am’s customers.
In May 2020, the City filed a lawsuit in Monterey County Superior Court, naming Cal Am and CEMEX as defendants, and MCWRA and MCWD as real parties in interest. The lawsuit, as amended, alleges a claim for breach of contract against CEMEX and seeks declaratory relief to void the permanent easement and prohibiting extraction of water by Cal Am’s slant wells at the CEMEX


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site in excess of 500 acre-feet per year and the export of such water outside the groundwater basin. In November 2020, Cal Am, CEMEX and MCWRA filed demurrers, which were overruled by the court at a hearing held in February 2021.
In August 2020, MCWD filed a cross-complaint in the May 2020 lawsuit against Cal Am, CEMEX and MCWRA, alleging claims for specific performance of certain provisions of the 1996 annexation agreement related to the property owned by CEMEX on which intake wells for the Water Supply Project will be located, as well as claims of water rights, nuisance and unreasonable water use, and seeking additional declaratory relief. Following various rulings on demurrers filed by Cal Am, CEMEX and MCWRA, in February 2021, the court sustained, without leave to amend, the demurrer to MCWD’s nuisance claim and overruled the remainder of the demurrers. In October 2021, the court granted a motion filed by Cal Am related to MCWD’s cross-complaint, which motion requested a referral of certain issues related to MCWD’s water rights and unreasonable use claims to the SWRCB for its expert advisory opinion. The SWRCB has scheduled hearings on the referred issues before its Administrative Hearing Officer, which took place in the fourth quarter of 2022 and are set to continue into early 2023. The Monterey County Superior Court has set a trial date of October 23, 2023, for the City’s lawsuit.
Challenges Related to Compliance with California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act
Under California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (“SGMA”) enacted in 2015, groundwater basins designated by the state as critically overdrafted must be managed by a GSA by 2020 in accordance with an approved groundwater sustainability plan (“GSP”) designed to achieve sustainability by 2040. Under the SGMA, GSAs have broad powers to achieve sustainability including, but not limited to, regulating groundwater extraction by imposing fees on groundwater extractions and controlling groundwater extractions by regulating, limiting or suspending extractions from wells. The 400-acre CEMEX site overlies a small portion of the 180/400 Subbasin of the Salinas Valley Groundwater Basin; the 84,000-acre 180/400 Subbasin has been designated by the state as critically overdrafted, mainly due to seawater intrusion into the subbasin.
In late 2016, the Salinas Valley Basin Groundwater Sustainability Agency (the “SVBGSA”) was formed as a joint powers authority to become the GSA for the Salinas Valley Groundwater Basin and prepare a GSP. In April 2018, the City filed a notice to become the GSA for the CEMEX site, creating an overlap with the SVBGSA’s filing for the 180/400 Subbasin. In 2016, the SVBGSA commenced preparation of a GSP covering the entire 180/400 subbasin, including the CEMEX site, but in August 2019 the City filed a notice that it intends to prepare its own GSP for the CEMEX site with the intent to severely limit or prohibit groundwater pumping at that site. The State Department of Water Resources (“SDWR”) has taken the position that until the overlap is resolved, it will not accept the GSP from either agency, placing the subbasin at risk of being placed in a probationary status and subject to state management. In December 2019, the County of Monterey filed its own notice to become the exclusive GSA at the CEMEX site in order to resolve the overlap, which is permitted under SGMA. SDWR accepted Monterey County’s filing in December 2019, and now lists Monterey County as the exclusive GSA for the site.
In December 2019, the City filed a lawsuit in Monterey County Superior Court challenging Monterey County’s filing, and SDWR’s acceptance of the filing, as the exclusive GSA for the CEMEX site. The City has named Monterey County and its Board of Supervisors, its GSA, and SDWR and its director as defendants, and the SVBGSA and its Board of Directors as real parties. The City seeks to invalidate Monterey County’s filing, as well as injunctive relief to preserve the City’s status as a GSA for the site. To protect its interest in the matter, Cal Am filed an application to intervene in this lawsuit, which was granted. Monterey County filed cross-claims against the City and SDWR. After a hearing, in August 2021, the court denied the claims brought by the City and granted Monterey County’s cross-claims, finding that the City’s GSA notice was untimely, the Monterey County GSA was the exclusive GSA for the CEMEX site, and the SVBGSA’s GSP was properly adopted for the entire 180/400 subbasin, including the CEMEX site. In November 2021, the City appealed this decision, and in December 2021, Monterey County appealed the court’s decision as to the finding that the City’s action creating a GSA was not void.
In September 2020, Cal Am filed a separate but related complaint in Monterey County Superior Court challenging the validity of actions taken by the City and its GSA in adopting a groundwater sustainability plan for the CEMEX site, and the validity of the provisions of such plan. Due to the overlap of issues in the City’s lawsuit with those in the validation action, the parties stipulated to a stay of the validation action pending determination of the claims in the City’s action, which was approved by the court in December 2020.
In February 2021, the City filed a separate but related in rem reverse validation complaint challenging the adoption by Monterey County of a GSP for the CEMEX site. This complaint remains pending. Currently, both validation actions remain stayed during the pendency of the City’s appeals.
Proposed Acquisition of Monterey System Assets — Local Area Formation Commission Litigation
In November 2018, voters in Monterey, California passed “Measure J,” which decided that the MPWMD should conduct a feasibility study concerning the potential purchase of Cal Am’s Monterey system assets, and, if feasible, to proceed with a purchase of


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those assets without an additional public vote. This service territory represents approximately 40,000 customers. See Item 1—Business—Regulated Businesses—Condemnation and Eminent Domain for more information on this matter.
In February 2021, the MPWMD filed an application with LAFCO seeking approval to become a retail water provider and annex approximately 58 parcels of land into the MPWMD’s boundaries. In December 2021, LAFCO’s commissioners denied the MPWMD’s application to become a retail water provider, determining that the MPWMD does not have the authority to operate the Monterey system assets, a result that precludes the MPWMD from proceeding with a condemnation thereof. On April 1, 2022, the MPWMD filed a lawsuit against LAFCO challenging its denial. On June 17, 2022, the court granted, with conditions, a motion by Cal Am to intervene in the MPWMD’s lawsuit against LAFCO. On December 13, 2022, the court sustained in part, and denied in part, demurrers that had been filed by LAFCO seeking to dismiss the MPWMD’s lawsuit. This matter remains pending.
West Virginia Elk River Freedom Industries Chemical Spill
See Note 16—Commitments and Contingencies—Contingencies—West Virginia Elk River Freedom Industries Chemical Spill in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding the final court approval of the global settlement with respect to the January 2014 Freedom Industries, Inc. chemical spill.
Dunbar, West Virginia Water Main Break Class Action Litigation
On the evening of June 23, 2015, a 36-inch pre-stressed concrete transmission water main, installed in the early 1970s, failed. The water main is part of the West Relay pumping station located in the City of Dunbar, West Virginia and owned by West Virginia-American Water Company, the Company’s West Virginia subsidiary (“WVAWC”). The failure of the main caused water outages and low pressure for up to approximately 25,000 WVAWC customers. In the early morning hours of June 25, 2015, crews completed a repair, but that same day, the repair developed a leak. On June 26, 2015, a second repair was completed and service was restored that day to approximately 80% of the impacted customers, and to the remaining approximately 20% by the next morning. The second repair showed signs of leaking but the water main was usable until June 29, 2015, to allow tanks to refill. The system was reconfigured to maintain service to all but approximately 3,000 customers while a final repair was being completed safely on June 30, 2015. Water service was fully restored on July 1, 2015, to all customers affected by this event.
On June 2, 2017, a complaint captioned Jeffries, et al. v. West Virginia-American Water Company was filed in West Virginia Circuit Court in Kanawha County on behalf of an alleged class of residents and business owners who lost water service or pressure as a result of the Dunbar main break. The complaint alleges breach of contract by WVAWC for failure to supply water, violation of West Virginia law regarding the sufficiency of WVAWC’s facilities and negligence by WVAWC in the design, maintenance and operation of the water system. The Jeffries plaintiffs seek unspecified alleged damages on behalf of the class for lost profits, annoyance and inconvenience, and loss of use, as well as punitive damages for willful, reckless and wanton behavior in not addressing the risk of pipe failure and a large outage.
In February 2020, the Jeffries plaintiffs filed a motion seeking class certification on the issues of breach of contract and negligence, and to determine the applicability of punitive damages and a multiplier for those damages if imposed. In July 2020, the Circuit Court entered an order granting the Jeffries plaintiffs’ motion for certification of a class regarding certain liability issues but denying certification of a class to determine a punitive damages multiplier. In August 2020, WVAWC filed a Petition for Writ of Prohibition in the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia seeking to vacate or remand the Circuit Court’s order certifying the issues class. In January 2021, the Supreme Court of Appeals remanded the case back to the Circuit Court for further consideration in light of a decision issued in another case relating to the class certification issues raised on appeal. On July 5, 2022, the Circuit Court entered an order again certifying a class to address at trial certain liability issues but not to consider damages. On August 26, 2022, WVAWC filed another Petition for Writ of Prohibition in the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia challenging the West Virginia Circuit Court’s July 5, 2022 order. The Writ Petition has been supported by an amicus brief filed by certain water and utility industry trade groups. On February 9, 2023, the Supreme Court of Appeals accepted the Writ Petition by issuing a Rule to Show Cause and scheduling oral argument for April 26, 2023.
The Company and WVAWC believe that WVAWC has meritorious defenses to the claims raised in this class action complaint and WVAWC will continue to vigorously defend itself against these allegations.
Chattanooga, Tennessee Class Action Litigation
On September 12, 2019, Tennessee-American Water Company, the Company’s Tennessee subsidiary (“TAWC”), experienced a leak in a 36-inch water transmission main, which caused service fluctuations or interruptions to TAWC customers and the issuance of a boil water notice. TAWC repaired the main by early morning on September 14, 2019, and restored full water service by the afternoon of September 15, 2019, with the boil water notice lifted for all customers on September 16, 2019.


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On September 17, 2019, a complaint captioned Bruce, et al. v. American Water Works Company, Inc., et al. was filed in the Circuit Court of Hamilton County, Tennessee against TAWC, the Company and Service Company (collectively, the “Tennessee-American Water Defendants”), on behalf of a proposed class of individuals or entities who lost water service or suffered monetary losses as a result of the Chattanooga incident (the “Tennessee Plaintiffs”). The complaint alleged breach of contract and negligence against the Tennessee-American Water Defendants, as well as an equitable remedy of piercing the corporate veil. In the complaint as originally filed, the Tennessee Plaintiffs were seeking an award of unspecified alleged damages for wage losses, business and economic losses, out-of-pocket expenses, loss of use and enjoyment of property and annoyance and inconvenience, as well as punitive damages, attorneys’ fees and pre- and post-judgment interest. In September 2020, the court dismissed all of the Tennessee Plaintiffs’ claims in their complaint, except for the breach of contract claims against TAWC, which remain pending. In October 2020, TAWC answered the complaint, and the parties have been engaging in discovery. On January 12, 2023, after hearing oral argument, the court issued an oral ruling denying the Tennessee Plaintiffs’ motion for class certification. On February 9, 2023, the Tennessee Plaintiffs sought reconsideration of the ruling by the court, and any final ruling is appealable to the Tennessee Court of Appeals, as allowed under Tennessee law.
TAWC and the Company believe that TAWC has meritorious defenses to the claims raised in this class action complaint, and TAWC is vigorously defending itself against these allegations.
Other Matters
In April 2021, American Water Resources, LLC (“AWR”), which, prior to the December 9, 2021 sale of the Company’s former HOS business was one of the indirect, wholly owned subsidiaries comprising that business, received a grand jury subpoena in connection with an investigation by the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of New York (the “EDNY”). The subpoena seeks documents regarding AWR’s operations and its contractor network in the New York City metropolitan area. On September 9, 2022, a former employee of AWR pled guilty in U.S. District Court to two felony counts in connection with the matters being investigated by the EDNY. The Company has been fully cooperating with the EDNY investigation and continues to do so, and continues to believe that the investigation is not focused on the Company.
In connection with the sale of the HOS operations (including all of the Company’s equity interests in AWR), in December 2021, the Company and AWR entered into an agreement with the buyer of the HOS operations, which facilitates a common defense for, and the sharing of information concerning, the EDNY investigation and any legal or regulatory inquiries or proceedings related to or resulting from it or the subject matter in the subpoena (collectively, the “Covered Matters”). The Company, on behalf of AWR, is required to defend any Covered Matter, using commercially reasonable efforts to resolve it on a reasonably expedient basis. Further, the Company is required to consult with the buyer in specified circumstances and obtain its prior written consent (which consent may not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed) before entering into any resolution of any Covered Matter that imposes non-monetary provisions or undertakings or any other terms for which there will be no indemnification under this agreement. In addition, until March 9, 2025, the Company is required to indemnify the buyer for any monetary losses or out-of-pocket damages (as described in the agreement) incurred by the buyer or certain of the HOS subsidiaries to the extent directly arising in connection with, or directly resulting from, any Covered Matter.
While it is not possible at this time to predict the outcome of the investigation or determine the amount, if any, of fines, penalties or other liabilities that may be incurred in connection with it, the Company does not currently believe that the investigation will have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
General
Periodically, the Company is involved in other proceedings or litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. Other than those proceedings described in this Item 3—Legal Proceedings, the Company does not believe that the ultimate resolution of these matters will materially affect its financial position or results of operations. However, litigation and other proceedings are subject to many uncertainties, and the outcome of individual matters is not predictable with assurance. It is possible that some litigation and other proceedings could be decided unfavorably to the Company, and that any such unfavorable decisions could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.


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PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Since April 23, 2008, the Company’s common stock has traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “AWK.” As of January 31, 2023, there were 181,858,619 shares of common stock outstanding held by approximately 2,234 record holders. Holders of the Company’s common stock are entitled to receive dividends when they are declared by its Board of Directors. See Note 9—Shareholders’ Equity in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the Company’s dividends.
In February 2015, the Board of Directors authorized an anti-dilutive stock repurchase program to mitigate the dilutive effect of shares issued through the Company’s dividend reinvestment, employee stock purchase and executive compensation activities. The program allows the Company to purchase up to 10 million shares of its outstanding common stock over an unrestricted period of time in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions. The program is conducted in accordance with Rule 10b-18 of the Exchange Act, and, to facilitate these repurchases, the Company enters into Rule 10b5-1 stock repurchase plans with a third-party broker, which allow the Company to repurchase shares of its common stock at times when it otherwise might be prevented from doing so under insider trading laws or because of self-imposed trading blackout periods. Subject to applicable regulations, the Company may elect to amend or cancel the program or the stock repurchase parameters at its discretion to manage dilution.
From April 1, 2015, the date repurchases under the anti-dilutive stock repurchase program commenced, through December 31, 2022, the Company repurchased an aggregate of 4,860,000 shares of its common stock under the program, leaving an aggregate of 5,140,000 shares available for repurchase under this program. There were no repurchases of common stock in 2022.
ITEM 6.    [RESERVED]


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ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion should be read together with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that are based on management’s current expectations, estimates and projections about the Company’s business, operations and financial performance. The cautionary statements made in this Form 10-K should be read as applying to all related forward-looking statements whenever they appear in this Form 10-K. The Company’s actual results may differ materially from those currently anticipated and expressed in such forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including those that are discussed under “Forward-Looking Statements,” Item 1A—Risk Factors and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The Company has a disclosure committee consisting of members of senior management and other key employees involved in the preparation of the Company’s SEC reports. The disclosure committee is actively involved in the review and discussion of the Company’s SEC filings. For a discussion and analysis of the Company’s financial statements for fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020, please refer to Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 16, 2022.
Overview
American Water is the largest and most geographically diverse, publicly-traded water and wastewater utility company in the United States, as measured by both operating revenues and population served. The Company employs approximately 6,500 professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to over 14 million people in 24 states. The Company’s primary business involves the ownership of utilities that provide water and wastewater services to residential, commercial, industrial, public authority, fire service and sale for resale customers, collectively presented as the “Regulated Businesses.” The Company’s utilities operate in approximately 1,600 communities in 14 states in the United States, with 3.4 million active customers with services provided by its water and wastewater networks. Services provided by the Company’s utilities are subject to regulation by PUCs. The Company also operates other businesses not subject to economic regulation by state PUCs that provide water and wastewater services to the U.S. government on military installations, as well as municipalities, collectively presented throughout this Form 10-K within “Other.” See Item 1—Business for additional information.
Selected Financial Data
This selected financial data below should be read in conjunction with the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as well as the remainder of this Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 For the Years Ended December 31,
(In millions, except per share data)20222021202020192018
Statement of Operations data:     
Operating revenues$3,792 $3,930 $3,777 $3,610 $3,440 
Net income attributable to common shareholders820 1,263 709 621 567 
Net income attributable to common shareholders per basic common share4.51 6.96 3.91 3.44