10-K 1 crmd_10k.htm ANNUAL REPORT Blueprint
 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
_________________
FORM 10-K
 
☒ 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2017
OR
 
☐ 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from _________________ to ______________________
 
Commission file number: 001-34673
 
CORMEDIX INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
Delaware
 
20-5894890
(State or Other Jurisdiction ofIncorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. EmployerIdentification No.)
 
400 Connell Drive, Suite 5000, Berkeley Heights, NJ
 
07922
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (908) 517-9500
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.001 Par Value
 
NYSE American LLC
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: none
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ☐ No ☒
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes ☐ No ☒
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes ☒ No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes ☒ No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulations S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer ☐
 
 
Non-accelerated filer ☐
Smaller reporting company ☒
 
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any news or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes ☐ No ☒
 
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing price of the registrant’s common stock on the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was approximately $25.3 million. Solely for the purpose of this calculation, shares held by directors and executive officers of the registrant have been excluded.
 
The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock was 81,483,339 as of March 14, 2018.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Certain information to be included in the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by reference, as indicated in Part III.
 

 
 
 
CORMEDIX INC.
 
PART I
 

Item 1.
Business
1
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
16
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
33
Item 2.
Properties
33
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
33
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
35
Part II
 
 
Item 5.
Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
35
Item 6.
Selected Consolidated Financial Data
36
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
36
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
47
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
47
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
47
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
47
Item 9B.
Other Information
48
PART III
 
 
Item 10.
Directors and Executive Officers and Corporate Governance. 
48
Item 11.
Executive Compensation.
49
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
49
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence.
49
Item 14.
Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
49
Part IV
 
 
Item 15.
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
49
 
 
Neutrolin® is our registered trademark. All other trade names, trademarks and service marks appearing in this report are the property of their respective owners. We have assumed that the reader understands that all such terms are source-indicating. Accordingly, such terms, when first mentioned in this report, appear with the trade name, trademark or service mark notice and then throughout the remainder of this report without trade name, trademark or service mark notices for convenience only and should not be construed as being used in a descriptive or generic sense.
 
 
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PART I
 
Forward-Looking Statements
 
This report contains “forward-looking statements” that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. The statements contained in this report that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “will,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below in the section titled “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.
 
Item 1. 
Business
 
Overview
 
We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing therapeutic products for the prevention and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases.
 
Our primary focus is on the development of our lead product candidate, Neutrolin®, for potential commercialization in the United States, or U.S. and other key markets. We have in-licensed the worldwide rights to develop and commercialize Neutrolin. Neutrolin is a novel anti-infective solution (a formulation of taurolidine, citrate and heparin 1000 u/ml) for the reduction and prevention of catheter-related infections and thrombosis in patients requiring central venous catheters in clinical settings such as dialysis, critical/intensive care, and oncology. Infection and thrombosis represent key complications among dialysis, critical care/intensive care and cancer patients with central venous catheters. These complications can lead to treatment delays and increased costs to the healthcare system when they occur due to hospitalizations, need for IV antibiotic treatment, long-term anticoagulation therapy, removal/replacement of the central venous catheter, related treatment costs and increased mortality. We believe Neutrolin addresses a significant unmet medical need and a potential large market opportunity.
 
Neutrolin – United States
 
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, has designated Neutrolin as a Qualified Infectious Disease Product, or QIDP, for prevention of catheter related blood stream infections in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis through a central venous catheter. Catheter-related blood stream infections and clotting can be life-threatening. The QIDP designation provides five years of market exclusivity in addition to the five years granted for a New Chemical Entity. In addition, in January 2015, the FDA granted Fast Track designation to Neutrolin Catheter Lock Solution, pursuant to the Food and Drug Administration Safety Innovation Act, or FDASIA, highlighting the large unmet need to prevent infections in the U.S. healthcare system. The Fast Track designation of Neutrolin provides us with the opportunity to meet with the FDA on a more frequent basis during the development process, and also ensures eligibility to request priority review of the marketing application.
 
In late 2013, we met with the FDA to determine the pathway for U.S. marketing approval of Neutrolin. Based on those discussions, we determined to conduct two pivotal trials to demonstrate safety and effectiveness of Neutrolin to secure marketing approval in the U.S. We initiated a Phase 3 clinical trial in hemodialysis patients with a central venous catheter in December 2015 and are currently planning to initiate a Phase 3 trial in another indication in order to expand the indications in which Neutrolin may be used.
 
 
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We launched the Phase 3 clinical trial in hemodialysis catheters in the U.S. in December 2015. The clinical trial, named Catheter Lock Solution Investigational Trial, or LOCK-IT-100, is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active control trial which aims to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Neutrolin in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infections, or CRBSI, in subjects receiving hemodialysis therapy as treatment for end stage renal disease. The primary endpoint for the trial is time to CRBSI. The trial will evaluate whether Neutrolin is superior to the active control heparin by documenting the incidence of CRBSI and the time until the occurrence of CRBSI. Key secondary endpoints are catheter patency, which is defined as required use of tissue plasminogen activating factor (tPA), or removal of catheter for any reason. We now project to complete patient enrollment in mid-year 2018, and anticipate that we will accumulate the requisite number of CRBSI events around the end of 2018.
 
We established the Clinical Adjudication Committee, or CAC, to critically and independently assess CRBSI. As announced recently, the CAC reviewed potential cases of CRBSI in our LOCK-IT-100 study that occurred through early December 2017, and identified 28 such cases. As previously agreed with the FDA, an interim efficacy analysis will be performed when the first 28 CRBSIs case have been identified. The primary endpoint for the study is the reduction of CRBSI by Neutrolin in comparison to a heparin catheter lock solution.
 
Neutrolin – International
 
In July 2013, we received CE Mark approval for Neutrolin. In December 2013, we commercially launched Neutrolin in Germany for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections (“CRBSI”), and maintenance of catheter patency in hemodialysis patients using a tunneled, cuffed central venous catheter for vascular access.  To date, Neutrolin is registered and may be sold in certain European Union and Middle Eastern countries for such treatment.
 
In September 2014, the TUV-SUD and The Medicines Evaluation Board of the Netherlands granted a label expansion for Neutrolin for these same expanded indications for the European Union (“EU”). In December 2014, we received approval from the Hessian District President in Germany to expand the label to include use in oncology patients receiving chemotherapy, IV hydration and IV medications via central venous catheters. The expansion also adds patients receiving medication and IV fluids via central venous catheters in intensive or critical care units (cardiac care unit, surgical care unit, neonatal critical care unit, and urgent care centers). An indication for use in total parenteral nutrition was also approved. 
 
Additional Development Possibilities
 
We are evaluating opportunities for the possible expansion for taurolidine as a platform compound. Patent applications have been filed in wound closure, surgical meshes, wound management, and osteoarthritis, including visco-supplementation. We have had dialogue with the FDA on the regulatory pathway for these indications. The FDA has recently informed us that it regards taurolidine as a new chemical entity and therefore an unapproved drug. Consequently, there is no appropriate predicate device currently marketed in the U.S. on which a 510k approval process could be based. As a result, we will be required to submit a premarket approval application for marketing authorization for these indications. In the event that the New Drug Application for Neutrolin is approved by the FDA, the regulatory pathway can be revisited with the FDA.  Although there will presumably still be no appropriate predicate, de novo Class II designation can be proposed, based on a risk assessment and a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness. We believe taurolidine can also provide benefits not currently available in marketed antimicrobial medical devices, including devices for burn victims and use in less sterile environments.
 
We are also involved in a pre-clinical research collaboration for the use of taurolidine in combination with certain anti-cancer drugs as a possible treatment for rare orphan pediatric tumors. In February 2018, the FDA granted us orphan drug designation to taurolidine for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
 
Neutrolin
 
Market Opportunity
 
Central venous catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters ("Central Catheters") are an important and frequently used method for accessing the vasculature in hemodialysis (a form of dialysis where the patient’s blood is circulated through a dialysis filter), administering chemotherapy and basic fluids (total parenteral nutrition) in cancer patients and for cancer chemotherapy, long term antibiotic therapy, total parenteral nutrition (complete or partial dietary support via intravenous nutrients) and critical care/intensive care patients.
 
  According to the 2015 United States Renal Disease System, there were 660,000 patients on hemodialysis.  Hemodialysis National Kidney Foundation has reported that patients requiring Central Catheters represent over 63 million catheter/dialysis treatment days per year. In the United States, 5.7 million intensive care patients are admitted annually according to the Society of Critical Care Medicine, which is estimated to represent 28.5 million catheter days associated with Central Catheter use in the ICU alone.  As of 2014, there were over 14.5 million patients in the United States living with cancer, with an estimated 7.7 million having had long-term Central Catheters. When stages of disease and types of chemotherapy regime are considered, the number of catheter days per year in cancer patients reaches 90 million.
 
 
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One of the major and common complications for all patients requiring central venous catheters is catheter related blood stream infections, or CRBSIs, and the clinical complications associated with them. There are an estimated 250,000 CRBSIs each year.  The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stated in the Journal of American Medicine that the total annual cost in the United States of treating all CRBI episodes and their complications amounts to approximately $6 billion.
 
Biofilm build up is the pathogenesis of both infections and thrombotic complications in central venous catheters. Prevention of CRBIs and inflammatory complications requires both decontamination of the internal surface of the catheter to prevent the systemic dissemination of organisms contained within the biofilm as well as an anticoagulant to retain patency. Biofilm forms when bacteria adhere to surfaces in aqueous environments and begin to excrete a slimy, glue-like substance that can anchor them to various types of materials, including intravenous catheters. The presence of biofilm has many adverse effects, including the ability to release bacteria into the blood stream. The current standard of catheter care is to instill a heparin lock solution at a concentration of 1,000 u/mL into each catheter lumen immediately following treatment, in order to prevent clotting between dialysis treatments. However, a heparin lock solution provides no protection from the risk of infection.
 
Currently, there are no pharmacologic agents approved in the U.S. for the prevention of CRBIs in central venous catheters. As noted above, we received the CE Mark approval for Neutrolin from the Medical Evaluation Board, or MEB, at the EU in July 2013. We believe there is a significant need for prevention of CRBIs in the hemodialysis patient population as well as for other patient populations utilizing central venous catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters, such as oncology/chemotherapy, total parenteral nutrition and intensive care unit patients.
 
Neutrolin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial/antifungal and anticoagulant combination that is active against common microbes including antibiotic-resistant strains and in addition may prevent biofilm formation. We believe that using Neutrolin as an anti-infective solution will significantly reduce the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infections, thus reducing the need for local and systemic antibiotics while prolonging catheter life.
 
Initially, we expect to sell Neutrolin in the U.S. directly to hospitals and also to key dialysis center operators. We anticipate that Medicare reimbursement could be available for Neutrolin in other catheter indications in intensive care, oncology and total parenteral nutrition through relevant hospital inpatient diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) or outpatient ambulatory payment classifications (APCs), the End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System (ESRD PPS) base payment, or under the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) Fee Schedule, depending on the setting of care. We also plan to seek separate reimbursement as a drug, where available under Medicare, through mechanisms such as pass-through status under the Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System, the transitional drug add-on payment adjustment under the ESRD PPS, or reimbursement as a drug used with a DME infusion pump. We cannot fully anticipate changes in reimbursement requirements and mechanisms in the coming years, however, and we cannot be certain that Neutrolin will be granted separate reimbursement under any of these mechanisms.
 
Furthermore, we anticipate that the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), and private payers will increasingly demand that manufacturers demonstrate the cost effectiveness of their product as part of the reimbursement review and approval process. With this in mind, we have incorporated health economic evaluations into our ongoing clinical studies to support this review in the context of the prospective use of Neutrolin in dialysis, the ICU and oncology settings.  Our studies might not be sufficient to support coverage or reimbursement at levels that allow providers to use Neutrolin.
 
Competitive Landscape
 
The drug and medical device industries are highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change. Neutrolin’s current and future competitors include large as well as specialty pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and human resources than we do and significantly more experience in the development and commercialization of drugs and medical devices. Further, the development of new treatment methods could render Neutrolin non-competitive or obsolete.
 
We believe that the key competitive factors that will affect the development and commercial success of Neutrolin are efficacy and safety, as well as pricing and reimbursement.
 
 
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Drug:
 
To the best of our knowledge, the following product candidates have been recognized for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related blood stream infections in the U.S. or elsewhere.
 
TauroLock, manufactured by Tauro-Implant (Winsen, Germany). TauroLock has received a CE Mark and is distributed in 25 countries.  It has anti-microbial and anti-coagulant activity and contains a combination of citrate 4% with (cyclo)-taurolidine and heparin or urokinase  TauroLock has four formulations: TauroLock, Tauro_lock Heparin 100, TauroLock Heparin 500 and TauroLock Urokinase 2500IU.
Zuragen, being developed by Ash Access Technology (Lafayette,IN).  It has antimicrobial and anticoagulant activity and contains methylene blue, parabens and 7% citrate.
B-Lock, being developed by Great Lakes Pharmaceuticals Inc. (Cleveland, OH).  It has anti-microbial, anti-coagulant and anti-fungal activity and contains trimethoprim, EDTA and ethanol combinations. Initiated study in 2012 in Poland and Hungary to support CE Mark in European Union.
DuraLock-C, manufactured by Medical Components, Inc. (Harleysville,PA).  DuraLock-C received a CE Mark and is distributed in a number of European Union countries.  It has anti-microbial and anti-thrombosis activity and contains trisodium citrate in 46.7%, 30% and 4% concentrations.
IntraLock, manufactured by Fresenius Medical Care AG & Co. (Bad Homburg, Germany). IntraLock received a CE Mark and is distributed in a number of European Union countries. It is an anticoagulant solution to prevent thrombus formation in catheters. IntraLock contains citrate (4%) for anticoagulation and a small amount of polyhexanide for preservation.
TauroSept, manufactured by Geistlich Pharma (Wolhusen, Switzerland). TauroSept received Class 3 CE Mark and is distributed in a number of European Union countries. TauroSept contains 2% taurolidine solution, 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone and traces of HCl and NaOH to adjust pH. It contains no anticoagulant substances.
 
Medical Devices:
 
Tego® Needlefree Connector, manufactured by ICU Medical Inc. (California, USA) Tego Needlefree Connector received 510(k) clearance from the FDA. The Tego connector creates a mechanical and microbiology closed system when attached to the hub of the catheter and works with all hemodialysis CVC related applications.
Curos® (Luer-lock caps twist on, stay on) disinfecting port protectors designed specifically for Tego Needlefree Connectors, manufactured by Ivera Medical Corporation. Curos received 510 (k) clearance from the FDA. Curos for Tego Needlefree Connectors contains 70% isopropyl alcohol-saturated, sponge-like foam that disinfects ports in three minutes and keeps ports clean for seven days.
ClearGuard® HD End Caps for Hemodialysis Catheters, manufactured by Pursuit Vascular, Inc. ClearGuard HD End Caps received 510 (k) clearance from the FDA. The ClearGuard HD End Cap consists of 1) a copolyester polymer plug, which has a rod extending from the tier region that is coated with the antimicrobial agent chlorhexidine acetate (CHA) and 2) a nylon lock ring with threads that are also coated with CHA.
BioFlo DuraMax Dialysis Catheter with Endexo Technology, manufactured by AngioDynamics. The product received 510(k) clearance by the FDA. The BioFlo DuraMax chronic dialysis catheter features Endexo Technology, a catheter material more resistant to thrombus accumulation. Endexo technology is permanent, non-eluting polymer “blended” into the polyurethane from which the catheter is made.
 
Some device companies have launched antibiotic or antimicrobial-coated catheters as short-term prevention of catheter infection. We believe these are not effective for hemodialysis catheters due to the long term use and high blood flow associated with hemodialysis.
 
Manufacturing
 
All of our manufacturing processes currently are, and we expect them to continue to be, outsourced to third parties. We rely on third-party manufacturers to produce sufficient quantities of drug product for use both commercially and in clinical trials. We intend to continue this practice in the future.
 
 
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In April 2015, we entered into a Preliminary Services Agreement with [RC]2 Pharma Connect LLC (“RC2”), pursuant to which RC2 coordinates certain manufacturing services related to taurolidine, which is a key ingredient in Neutrolin. Specifically, RC2 undertook a critical parameters evaluation for our manufacturing needs and to coordinate the cGMP processes set forth in the agreement that we believe are necessary for the submission of our planned new drug application for Neutrolin to the FDA, as well as any foreign regulatory applications. The total cost for RC2’s services under the preliminary services agreement was approximately $1.7 million and the agreement was completed during the first quarter of 2017. The active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, produced under this agreement has been manufactured for future commercial sales in the EU and Middle East and used for the U.S. Phase 3 clinical trial.  
 
We are also working with RC2 under several service agreements for an aggregate amount of $8.9 million for the manufacture of clinical supplies to support our ongoing and planned Phase 3 clinical trials.  During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we recognized research and development expense of approximately $2.5 and $2.4 million, respectively, related to these agreements. We may terminate these agreements upon 30 days’ written notice and are only obligated for project costs and reasonable project shut down costs provided through the date of termination. 
 
We are confident that there exists a sufficient number of potential alternate sources for the drug substances required to produce our products, as well as third-party manufacturers, that we will be able to find alternate suppliers and third-party manufacturers in the event that our relationship with any supplier or third-party manufacturer deteriorates.
 
United States Government Regulation
 
The research, development, testing, manufacture, labeling, promotion, advertising, distribution, and marketing, among other things, of our products are extensively regulated by governmental authorities in the United States and other countries. Our products may be classified by the FDA as a drug or a medical device depending upon the indications for use or claims. Because certain of our product candidates are considered as medical devices and others are considered as drugs for regulatory purposes, we intend to submit applications to regulatory agencies for approval or clearance of both medical devices and pharmaceutical product candidates.
 
In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs and medical devices under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the agency’s implementing regulations. If we fail to comply with the applicable United States requirements at any time during the product development process, clinical testing, and the approval process or after approval, we may become subject to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include the FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, license suspension or revocation, withdrawal of an approval, warning letters, adverse publicity, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, civil penalties or criminal prosecution, among other actions. Any agency enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on us.
 
Drug Approval Process
 
The research, development, and approval process in the United States and elsewhere is intensive and rigorous and generally takes many years to complete. The typical process required by the FDA before a therapeutic drug may be marketed in the United States includes:
 
Pre-clinical laboratory and animal tests performed under the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practices, or GLP, regulations;
submission to the FDA of an investigational new drug application, or IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may commence;
human clinical studies to evaluate the drug’s safety and effectiveness for its intended uses;
FDA review of whether the facility in which the drug is manufactured, processed, packaged, or held meets standards designed to assure the product’s continued quality and FDA review of clinical trial sites to determine whether the clinical trials were conducted in accordance with Good Clinical Practices, or GCPs; and
submission of a new drug application, or NDA, to the FDA, and approval of the application by the FDA to allow sales of the drug.
 
During pre-clinical testing, studies are performed with respect to the chemical and physical properties of candidate formulations. These studies are subject to GLP requirements. Biological testing is typically done in animal models to demonstrate the activity of the compound against the targeted disease or condition and to assess the apparent effects of the new product candidate on various organ systems, as well as its relative therapeutic effectiveness and safety. An IND application must be submitted to the FDA and become effective before studies in humans may commence.
 
 
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Clinical trial programs in humans generally follow a three-phase process. Typically, Phase 1 studies are conducted in small numbers of healthy volunteers or, on occasion, in patients afflicted with the target disease. Phase 1 studies are conducted to determine the metabolic and pharmacological action of the product candidate in humans and the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence of effectiveness. In Phase 2, studies are generally conducted in larger groups of patients having the target disease or condition in order to validate clinical endpoints, and to obtain preliminary data on the effectiveness of the product candidate and optimal dosing. This phase also helps determine further the safety profile of the product candidate. In Phase 3, large-scale clinical trials are generally conducted in patients having the target disease or condition to provide sufficient data for the statistical proof of effectiveness and safety of the product candidate as required by United States and foreign regulatory agencies. Typically two Phase 3 trials are required for marketing approval.
 
In the case of products for certain serious or life-threatening diseases, the initial human testing may be done in patients with the disease rather than in healthy volunteers. Because these patients are already afflicted with the target disease or condition, it is possible that such studies will also provide results traditionally obtained in Phase 2 studies. These studies are often referred to as “Phase 1/2” studies. However, even if patients participate in initial human testing and a Phase 1/2 study is carried out, the sponsor is still responsible for obtaining all the data usually obtained in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies.
 
Before proceeding with a study, sponsors may seek a written agreement known as a Special Protocol Assessment, or SPA, from the FDA regarding the design, size, and conduct of a clinical trial. Among other things, SPAs can cover clinical studies for pivotal trials whose data will form the primary basis to establish a product’s efficacy. SPAs help establish up-front agreement with the FDA about the adequacy of a clinical trial design to support a regulatory approval, but the agreement is not binding on the FDA if new circumstances arise. An SPA may only be modified with the agreement of the FDA and the trial sponsor or if the director of the FDA reviewing division determines that a substantial scientific issue essential to determining the safety or efficacy of the drug was identified after the testing began. There is no guarantee that a study will ultimately be adequate to support an approval even if the study is subject to an SPA.
 
Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group regularly reviews accumulated data and advises the study sponsor regarding the continuing safety of trial subjects, and the continuing validity and scientific merit of the clinical trial. The data safety monitoring board receives special access to unblinded data during the clinical trial and may advise the sponsor to halt the clinical trial if it determined there is an unacceptable safety risk for subjects or on other grounds, such as no demonstration of efficacy.
 
The manufacture of investigational drugs for the conduct of human clinical trials is subject to current Good Manufacturing Practice, or cGMP, requirements. Investigational drugs and active pharmaceutical ingredients imported into the United States are also subject to regulation by the FDA relating to their labeling and distribution. Further, the export of investigational drug products outside of the United States is subject to regulatory requirements of the receiving country as well as U.S. export requirements under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA.
 
IND sponsors are required to submit a number of reports to the FDA during the course of a development program. For instance, sponsors are required to make annual reports to the FDA concerning the progress of their clinical trial programs as well as more frequent reports for certain serious adverse events. Sponsors must submit a protocol for each clinical trial, and any subsequent protocol amendments to the FDA. Investigators must also provide certain information to the clinical trial sponsors to allow the sponsors to make certain financial disclosures to the FDA. Information about certain clinical trials, including a description of the study and study results, must be submitted within specific timeframes to the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, for public dissemination on their clinicaltrials.gov website. Moreover, under the 21st Century Cures Act, manufacturers or distributors of investigational drugs for the diagnosis, monitoring, or treatment of one or more serious diseases or conditions must have a publicly available policy concerning expanded access to investigational drugs.
 
United States law requires that studies conducted to support approval for product marketing be “adequate and well controlled.” In general, this means that either a placebo or a product already approved for the treatment of the disease or condition under study must be used as a reference control. The recently passed 21st Century Cures Act, however, provides for FDA acceptance of new kinds of data such as such as patient experience data, real world evidence, and, for appropriate indications sought through supplemental marketing applications, data summaries. Studies must also be conducted in compliance with good clinical practice requirements, and informed consent must be obtained from all study subjects.
 
 
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In addition, under the Pediatric Research Equity Act, or PREA, an NDA or supplement to an NDA for a new active ingredient, indication, dosage form, dosage regimen, or route of administration must contain data that are adequate to assess the safety and effectiveness of the drug for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. The FDA may, on its own initiative or at the request of the applicant, grant deferrals for submission of some or all pediatric data until after approval of the product for use in adults, or full or partial waivers from the pediatric data requirements.
 
The FDA also may require submission of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, to ensure that the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks of the drug. The REMS plan could include medication guides, physician communication plans, and elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries, or other risk minimization tools. An assessment of the REMS must also be conducted at set intervals. Following product approval, a REMS may also be required by the FDA if new safety information is discovered and the FDA determines that a REMS is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks of the drug.
 
The clinical trial process for a new compound can take ten years or more to complete. The FDA may prevent clinical trials from beginning or may place clinical trials on hold at any point in this process if, among other reasons, it concludes that study subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Trials may also be prevented from beginning or may be terminated by institutional review boards, or IRBs, who must review and approve all research involving human subjects and amendments thereto. The IRB must continue to oversee the clinical trial while it is being conducted. This includes the IRBs receiving information concerning unanticipated problems involving risk to subjects. Side effects or adverse events that are reported during clinical trials can delay, impede, or prevent marketing authorization. Similarly, adverse events that are reported after marketing authorization can result in additional limitations being placed on a product’s use and, potentially, withdrawal of the product from the market.
 
Following the completion of a clinical trial, the data are analyzed by the sponsoring company to determine whether the trial successfully demonstrated safety and effectiveness and whether a product approval application may be submitted. In the United States, if the product is regulated as a new drug, an NDA must be submitted and approved before commercial marketing may begin. The NDA must include a substantial amount of data and other information concerning the safety and effectiveness of the compound from laboratory, animal, and human clinical testing, as well as data and information on manufacturing, product quality and stability, and proposed product labeling.
 
Each domestic and foreign manufacturing establishment, including any contract manufacturers that we may decide to use, must be listed in the NDA and must be registered with the FDA. The application generally will not be approved until the FDA conducts a manufacturing inspection, approves the applicable manufacturing process for the drug product, and determines that the facility is in compliance with current cGMP requirements. Moreover, FDA will also typically inspect one or more clinical trial sites to confirm that the applicable clinical trials were conducted in accordance with GCPs.
 
Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, as amended, the FDA receives fees for reviewing an NDA, as well as annual fees for commercial manufacturing establishments and for approved products. These fees can be significant. Fee waivers or reductions are available in certain circumstances. One basis for a waiver of the application user fee is if the applicant employs fewer than 500 employees, including employees of affiliates, the applicant does not have an approved marketing application for a product that has been introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce, and the applicant, including its affiliates, is submitting its first marketing application. Product candidates that are designated as orphan drugs, which are further described below, are also not subject to application user fees unless the application includes an indication other than the orphan indication. Under certain circumstances, orphan products may also be exempt from product and establishment fees.
 
Each NDA submitted for FDA approval is usually reviewed for administrative completeness and reviewability. Following this review, the FDA may request additional information rather than accept an NDA for filing. In this event, the application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing.
 
 
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Once accepted for filing, the FDA’s review of an application may involve review and recommendations by an independent FDA advisory committee. The FDA must refer applications for drugs that contain active ingredients, including any ester or salt of the active ingredients that have not previously been approved by the FDA to an advisory committee or provide in an action letter a summary for not referring it to an advisory committee. The FDA may also refer drugs to advisory committees when it is determined that an advisory committee’s expertise would be beneficial to the regulatory decision-making process, including the evaluation of novel products and the use of new technology. An advisory committee is typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, which review, evaluate, and make a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.
 
After evaluating the NDA and all related information, including the advisory committee recommendation, if any, and inspection reports regarding the manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites, the FDA may issue an approval letter, or, in some cases, a Complete Response Letter, or CRL. If a CRL is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the NDA, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter; withdraw the application; or request an opportunity for a hearing. A CRL indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete and the application is not ready for approval and describes all of the specific deficiencies that the FDA identified in the NDA. A CRL generally contains a statement of specific conditions that must be met in order to secure final approval of the NDA, and may require additional clinical or pre-clinical testing in order for the FDA to reconsider the application. The deficiencies identified may be minor, for example, requiring labeling changes; or major, for example, requiring additional clinical trials. Even with submission of this additional information, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval. If and when those conditions have been met to the FDA’s satisfaction, the FDA may issue an approval letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications.
 
Even if the FDA approves a product, it may limit the approved therapeutic uses for the product as described in the product labeling, require that warning statements be included in the product labeling, require that additional studies be conducted following approval as a condition of the approval, impose restrictions and conditions on product distribution, prescribing, or dispensing in the form of a REMS or otherwise limit the scope of any approval.
 
Special FDA Expedited Review and Approval Programs
 
The FDA has various programs, including Fast Track designation, priority review and breakthrough designation, that are intended to expedite or simplify the process for the development and FDA review of certain drug products that are intended for the treatment of serious or life threatening diseases or conditions, and demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs or present a significant improvement over existing therapy. The purpose of these programs is to provide important new drugs to patients earlier than under standard FDA review procedures.
 
To be eligible for a Fast Track designation, the FDA must determine, based on the request of a sponsor, that a product is intended to treat a serious or life threatening disease or condition and demonstrates the potential to address an unmet medical need. The FDA will determine that a product will fill an unmet medical need if the product will provide a therapy where none exists or provide a therapy that may be potentially superior to existing therapy based on efficacy, safety, or public health factors. If Fast Track designation is obtained, drug sponsors may be eligible for more frequent development meetings and correspondence with the FDA. In addition, the FDA may initiate review of sections of an NDA before the application is complete. This “rolling review” is available if the applicant provides and the FDA approves a schedule for the remaining information. A Fast Track product is also eligible to apply for accelerated approval and priority review.
 
The FDA may give a priority review designation to drugs that are intended to treat serious conditions and, if approved, would provide significant improvements in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis, or prevention of serious conditions. A priority review means that the goal for the FDA is to review an application within six months, rather than the standard review of ten months under current PDUFA guidelines, of the 60-day filing date for new molecular entities.
 
Moreover, under the provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, or FDASIA, enacted in 2012, a sponsor can request designation of a product candidate as a “breakthrough therapy.” A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. Drugs designated as breakthrough therapies are eligible for the Fast Track designation features as described above, intensive guidance on an efficient drug development program beginning as early as Phase 1 trials, and a commitment from the FDA to involve senior managers and experienced review staff in a proactive collaborative, cross-disciplinary review.
 
 
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Even if a product qualifies for one or more of these programs, the FDA may later decide that the product no longer meets the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.
 
A final new program to expedite the development of drug products is the limited population pathway for antibacterial and antifungal drugs, which was passed as part of the recent enacted 21st Century Cures Act. Under this program, a sponsor can request drug approval under this new pathway for an antibacterial or antifungal drug if the drug is intended to treat a serious or life-threatening infection in a limited population of patients with unmet needs. Under this program, the FDA’s determination of safety and effectiveness would reflect the risk-benefit profile of the drug in the intended limited population, taking into account the severity, rarity, or prevalence of the infection and the availability of alternative treatments in the limited population. The drug may be approved for the limited population notwithstanding a lack of evidence to fully establish a favorable benefit-risk profile in a broader population. Under this program, the FDA must provide prompt advice to sponsors seeking approval under this pathway to enable them to plan a development program. If approved under this pathway, certain post-marketing requirements would apply, such as required labeling and advertising statements and pre-distribution submission of promotional materials to FDA. If after approval for a limited population, a product receives a broader approval, the FDA may remove such post-marketing restrictions. While a drug may only be approved for a limited population under this program, the 21st Century Cures Act states that it is not intended to restrict the prescribing of antimicrobial drugs or other products by healthcare professionals.
 
Exclusivity
 
For approved drug products, market exclusivity provisions under the FDCA provide periods of regulatory exclusivity, which gives the holder of an approved NDA limited protection from new competition in the marketplace for the innovation represented by its approved drug.
 
Section 505 of the FDCA describes three types of marketing applications that may be submitted to the FDA to request marketing authorization for a new drug. A Section 505(b)(1) NDA is an application that contains full reports of investigations of safety and efficacy. A Section 505(b)(2) NDA is an application in which the applicant, in part, relies on investigations that were not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person by or for whom the investigations were conducted. Section 505(j) establishes an abbreviated approval process for a generic version of approved drug products through the submission of an Abbreviated New Drug Application, or ANDA. An ANDA provides for marketing of a generic drug product that has the same active ingredients, dosage form, strength, route of administration, labeling, performance characteristics, and intended use, among other things, to a previously approved product. Limited changes must be pre-approved by the FDA via a suitability petition.
 
Five years of exclusivity are available to New Chemical Entities, or NCEs. A NCE is a drug that contains no active moiety that has been approved by the FDA in any other NDA. An active moiety is the molecule or ion, excluding those appended portions of the molecule, that cause the drug to be an ester, salt, including a salt with hydrogen or coordination bonds, or other noncovalent derivatives, such as a complex, chelate, or clathrate, of the molecule, responsible for the therapeutic activity of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review and make an ANDA or a 505(b)(2) NDA approval effective for an application submitted by another company that contains the previously approved active moiety. An ANDA or 505(b)(2) application, however, may be submitted one year before NCE exclusivity expires if the applicant submits a certification stating that the patents listed by the NCE sponsor in FDA’s list of Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, or Orange Book, are invalid or will not be infringed by the manufacture, use, or sale of the drug product for which approval is sought. Five-year exclusivity will also not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA; however, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the pre-clinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and efficacy.
 
Pediatric exclusivity is another type of non-patent marketing exclusivity in the United States and, if granted, provides for the attachment of an additional six months of marketing protection to the term of any existing regulatory exclusivity, including the non-patent exclusivity period described above. This six-month exclusivity may be granted if an NDA sponsor submits pediatric data that fairly respond to a written request from the FDA for such data. The data do not need to show the product to be effective in the pediatric population studied; rather, if the clinical trial is deemed to fairly respond to the FDA’s request, the additional protection is granted. If reports of requested pediatric studies are submitted to and accepted by the FDA within the required time frames, whatever statutory or regulatory periods of exclusivity or Orange Book listed patent protection cover the drug are extended by six months. Moreover, pediatric exclusivity attaches to all formulations, dosage forms, and indications for products with existing marketing exclusivity or patent life that contain the same active moiety as that which was studied.
 
 
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The Orphan Drug Act also provides incentives for the development of drugs intended to treat rare diseases or conditions, which generally are diseases or conditions affecting fewer than 200,000 individuals annually in the United States, or affecting more than 200,000 in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making the drug available in the United States will be recovered from sales in the United States. Additionally, sponsors must present a plausible hypothesis for clinical superiority to obtain orphan designation if there is a drug already approved by the FDA that is intended for the same indication and that is considered by the FDA to be the same drug as the already approved drug. This hypothesis must be demonstrated to obtain orphan drug exclusivity. If granted, prior to product approval, Orphan Drug Designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical study costs, tax advantages, and user-fee waivers. In addition, if a product receives FDA approval for the indication for which it has orphan designation, the product is generally entitled to orphan drug exclusivity, which means the FDA may not approve any other application to market the same drug for the same indication for a period of seven years, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority over the product with orphan exclusivity.
 
For certain infectious disease products, the above discussed exclusivity periods may be further extended under the FDA’s qualified infectious disease product program. A qualified infections disease product, or QIDP, is an antibacterial or antifungal drug for human use intended to treat serious or life-threatening infections, including those caused by an antibacterial or antifungal resistant pathogen, including novel or emerging infectious pathogens; or qualifying pathogens designated by the FDA that has the potential to pose a serious threat to public health. If the FDA approves an NDA for a drug designated as a QIDP, the NCE exclusivity period is extended to ten years and the FDA may not accept applications for nine years. Moreover, if a product is designated as a QIDP and an orphan product, the orphan product exclusivity period is extended to twelve years. These extensions are in addition to any extension that an application may be entitled to under the pediatric exclusivity provisions. To receive a QIDP designation, the sponsor must request that the FDA designate the product as such prior to the submission of an NDA. This designation may not be withdrawn except if the FDA finds that the request for designation contained an untrue statement of material fact. QIDPs are also eligible for fast track status and priority review.
 
Post Approval Requirements
 
Significant legal and regulatory requirements also apply after FDA approval to market under an NDA. These include, among other things, requirements related to adverse event and other reporting, product tracking and tracing, suspect and illegitimate product investigations and notifications, product advertising and promotion and ongoing adherence to cGMPs, as well as the need to submit appropriate new or supplemental applications and obtain FDA approval for certain changes to the approved product, product labeling, or manufacturing process. The FDA also enforces the requirements of the Prescription Drug Marketing Act which, among other things, imposes various requirements in connection with the distribution of product samples to physicians. The FDA enforces these requirements through, among other ways, periodic announced and unannounced facility inspections.
 
The FDA also strictly regulates marketing, labeling, advertising, and promotion of products that are placed on the market. A company can make only those claims relating to safety and efficacy that are approved by the FDA. Physicians, in their independent professional medical judgment, may prescribe legally available products for unapproved indications that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those tested and approved by the FDA. Pharmaceutical companies, however, are allowed to promote their drug products only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability, including, but not limited to, criminal and civil penalties under the FDCA and the civil False Claims Act, or FCA, exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs, mandatory compliance programs under corporate integrity agreements, debarment, and refusal of government contracts.
 
The regulatory framework applicable to the production, distribution, marketing, and/or sale, of our products may change significantly from the current descriptions provided herein in the time that it may take for any of our products to reach a point at which a NDA is approved. Moreover, individual states may have laws and regulations that we must comply with, such as laws and regulations concerning licensing, promotion, sampling, distribution, and reporting.
 
Overall research, development, and approval times depend on a number of factors, including the period of review at the FDA, the number of questions posed by the FDA during review, how long it takes to respond to the FDA’s questions, the severity or life-threatening nature of the disease in question, the availability of alternative treatments, the availability of clinical investigators and eligible patients, the rate of enrollment of patients in clinical trials, and the risks and benefits demonstrated in the clinical trials.
 
 
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Fraud and Abuse, Data Privacy and Security, and Transparency Laws and Regulations
 
Our business activities, including but not limited to research, sales, promotion, distribution, medical education, and other activities following product approval, if any, will be subject to regulation by numerous federal and state regulatory and law enforcement authorities in the United States in addition to the FDA, including potentially the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services and its various divisions, including the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, and the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and state and local governments. Our business activities must comply with numerous healthcare laws, including but not limited to, anti-kickback and false claims laws and regulations as well as data privacy and security laws and regulations, which are described below.
 
The federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, any person or entity, from knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting, or receiving any remuneration, directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or in return for purchasing, leasing, ordering, or arranging for or recommending the purchase, lease, furnishing, or order of any item or service reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid, or other federal healthcare programs, in whole or in part. The term “remuneration” has been interpreted broadly to include anything of value. The Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on one hand and prescribers, purchasers, formulary managers, and beneficiaries on the other. There are certain statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution. The exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly, and practices that involve remuneration that may be alleged to be intended to induce prescribing, purchases, reimbursement, or recommendations may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exception or safe harbor. Failure to meet all of the requirements of a particular applicable statutory exception or regulatory safe harbor does not make the conduct per se illegal under the Anti-Kickback Statute. Instead, the legality of the arrangement will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis based on a cumulative review of all of its facts and circumstances. Several courts have interpreted the statute’s intent requirement to mean that if any one purpose of an arrangement involving remuneration is to induce referrals of federal healthcare covered business, the statute has been violated. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or ACA, of 2010, as amended, modified the intent requirement under the Anti-Kickback Statute, such that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. In addition, the ACA also provided that a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute is grounds for the government or a whistleblower to assert that a claim for payment of items or services resulting from such violation constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act, or FCA.
 
The federal FCA prohibits, among other things, any person or entity from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment to, or approval by, the federal government, knowingly making, using, or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to the federal government, or avoiding, decreasing, or concealing an obligation to pay money to the federal government. The FCA authorizes imposition of treble damages and a civil penalty for each false claim submitted. A claim includes “any request or demand” for money or property presented to the U.S. government, including an invoice. Accordingly, FCA penalties for high claim volume products like pharmaceuticals have frequently aggregated into millions of dollars. The FCA has been used to assert liability on the basis of kickbacks and other improper referrals, improperly reported government pricing metrics such as Best Price or Average Manufacturer Price, improper use of Medicare provider or supplier numbers when detailing a provider of services, improper promotion of off-label uses not expressly approved by the FDA in a drug’s label, and allegations as to misrepresentations with respect to product quality or services rendered. Several pharmaceutical and other healthcare companies have further been sued under these laws for allegedly providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal programs for the product. Intent to deceive is not required to establish liability under the FCA. Liability may be predicated on reckless disregard for the truth. FCA actions may be brought by the government or may be brought by private individuals on behalf of the government, called “qui tam” actions. If the government decides to intervene in a qui tam action and prevails in the lawsuit, the individual will share in the proceeds from any fines or settlement funds. If the government declines to intervene, the individual may pursue the case alone. Since 2004, these FCA lawsuits against pharmaceutical companies have increased significantly in volume and breadth, leading to substantial civil and criminal settlements regarding certain sales practices and promoting off label drug uses. Further, liability may be predicated on non-compliance with federal laws and regulations under the theory of implied certification. However, the Supreme Court imposed a materiality standard for liability under this theory – the non-compliance must be material to the government’s payment decision. FCA liability may also be imposed for Medicare or Medicaid overpayments, for example, overpayments caused by understated rebate amounts that are not refunded within 60 days of discovering the overpayment, even if the overpayment was not caused by a false or fraudulent act.
 
 
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The government may further prosecute conduct constituting a false claim under the criminal False Claims Act. The criminal False Claims Act prohibits the making or presenting of a claim to the government knowing such claim to be false, fictitious, or fraudulent and, unlike the civil False Claims Act, requires proof of intent to submit a false claim.
 
The civil monetary penalties statute is another potential statute under which biopharmaceutical companies may be subject to enforcement. Among other things, the civil monetary penalties statute imposes fines against any person who is determined to have presented, or caused to be presented, claims to a federal healthcare program that the person knows, or should know, is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent. In 2016, the Department of Justice doubled the amount of these penalties, which are specified in the civil FCA.
 
Many states have also adopted laws similar to each of the above federal laws, which may be broader in scope. Certain states also require implementation of commercial compliance programs and compliance with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the applicable compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, or otherwise restrict payments or the provision of other items of value that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; impose restrictions on marketing practices; or require drug manufacturers to track and report information related to payments, gifts, and other items of value to physicians and other healthcare providers. These laws may affect our future sales, marketing, and other promotional activities by imposing administrative and compliance burdens.
 
If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws or regulations described above or any other laws that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties or other enforcement actions, including criminal and significant civil monetary penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, corporate integrity agreements, debarment from receiving government contracts or refusal of new orders under existing contracts, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. Enforcement actions can be brought by federal or state governments, or as qui tam actions brought by individual whistleblowers in the name of the government under the civil False Claims Act if the violations are alleged to have caused the government to pay a false or fraudulent claim.
 
To the extent that any of our products are sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws and regulations, which may include, for instance, applicable post-marketing requirements, including safety surveillance, anti-fraud and abuse laws, and implementation of corporate compliance programs and reporting of payments or transfers of value to healthcare professionals.
 
Medical Device Approval Process
 
In addition to our lead product candidate Neutrolin, which is subject to regulation by the FDA as a drug, we are developing other products that may be regulated as medical devices in the United States. The FDA regulates the design, development, clinical testing, manufacture, labeling, distribution, import and export, sale and promotion of medical devices. Unless an exemption applies or a product is a Class I device, all medical devices must receive either 510(k) clearance or an approved pre-market application, or PMA, from the FDA before they may be commercially distributed in the U.S. In addition, certain modifications made to marketed devices also may require 510(k) clearance or approval of a PMA supplement.
 
To obtain a 510(k) clearance for a device, a pre-market notification to the FDA must be submitted demonstrating that the device is substantially equivalent to a legally marketed predicate device. The FDA attempts to respond to a 510(k) pre-market notification within 90 days of submission, but as a practical matter, pre-market clearance can take significantly longer, potentially up to one year or more. The PMA process is much more demanding and uncertain than the 510(k) pre-market notification process and must be supported by extensive clinical, technical and other information, including at least one adequate and well-controlled clinical investigation. The FDA has 180 days to review an accepted PMA, although the review generally occurs over a significantly longer period of time, and can take up to several years.
 
The FDA has recently informed us that it regards taurolidine as a new chemical entity and therefore an unapproved drug. Consequently, there is no appropriate predicate device currently marketed in the U.S. on which a 510k approval process could be based. As a result, we will be required to submit a premarket approval application for marketing authorization for these indications. In the event that the New Drug Application for Neutrolin is approved by the FDA, the regulatory pathway can be revisited with the FDA.  Although there will presumably still be no appropriate predicate, de novo Class II designation can be proposed, based on a risk assessment and a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness.
 
 
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After a device is placed on the market, numerous regulatory requirements apply, including:
 
Quality System Regulations, or QSRs, which require manufacturers to have a quality system for the design, manufacture, packaging, labeling, storage, installation, and servicing of finished medical devices;
labeling regulations, which govern product labels and labeling, prohibit the promotion of products for unapproved, or off-label, uses and impose other restrictions on labeling and promotional activities;
medical device listing and establishment registration;
post-approval restrictions or conditions, including post-approval study commitments;
post-market surveillance requirements;
medical device reporting, or MDR, regulations, which require that manufacturers evaluate and investigate potential adverse events and malfunctions, and report to the FDA if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if it were to recur;
regulations requiring the reporting of any device corrections or removals if the correction or removal was initiated to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or remedy a violation of the FDCA which may present a risk to health; and
the FDA’s recall authority, whereby it can ask, or under certain conditions order, device manufacturers to recall from the market a product that is a risk to health.
 
Our manufacturing facilities, as well as those of certain of our suppliers, are subject to periodic and for-cause inspections by the FDA and other governmental authorities to verify compliance with the QSR and other regulatory requirements.
 
Reimbursement and Pricing Controls
 
In many of the markets where we or our collaborative partners have targeted or will target Neutrolin for sale, laws control the prices charged to certain purchasers of pharmaceutical products and the prices paid by drug reimbursement programs through varying price control mechanisms. Public and private health care payors control costs and influence drug pricing through a variety of mechanisms, including through negotiating rebates with the manufacturers, limiting the reimbursement rate paid to providers, and using tiered formularies, co-payment structures that incentivize beneficiaries to request lower cost alternatives, and other mechanisms that provide preferential access to certain drugs over others within a therapeutic class. Federal and commercial payors use competition for health plan coverage and market share as leverage to obtain rebates on products they reimburse, which impacts the manufacturer’s net realization on the sale of the products. These rebates may be paid on drugs sold at a mandatory discount. Additionally, federal and commercial health plans may choose to reimburse dialysis providers for dialysis services and drugs used in the provision of those services through a single bundled payment rate, which tends to make cost a more important factor for providers when making drug purchase decisions than it would otherwise be if the providers were reimbursed for drugs on a stand-alone basis. Payors also set other criteria to govern the uses of a drug that will be deemed medically appropriate and therefore reimbursed or otherwise covered. In particular, many public and private health care payors limit reimbursement and coverage to the uses of a drug that are either approved by the FDA or that are supported by other appropriate evidence (for example, published medical literature) and appear in a recognized drug compendium. Drug compendia are publications that summarize the available medical evidence for particular drug products and identify which uses of a drug are supported or not supported by the available evidence, whether or not such uses have been approved by the FDA.
 
Foreign Regulatory Requirements
 
We and our collaborative partners may be subject to widely varying foreign regulations, which may be quite different from those of the FDA, governing clinical trials, manufacture, product registration and approval, and pharmaceutical sales. Whether or not FDA approval has been obtained, we or our collaboration partners must obtain a separate approval for a product by the comparable regulatory authorities of foreign countries prior to the commencement of product marketing in those countries. In certain countries, regulatory authorities also establish pricing and reimbursement criteria. The approval process varies from country to country, and the time may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA approval. In addition, under current United States law, there are restrictions on the export of products not approved by the FDA, depending on the country involved and the status of the product in that country.
 
 
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International sales of medical devices manufactured in the U.S. that are not approved by the FDA for use in the U.S., or are banned or deviate from lawful performance standards, are subject to FDA export requirements. Exported devices are subject to the regulatory requirements of each country to which the device is exported. Some countries do not have medical device regulations, but in most foreign countries, medical devices are regulated. Frequently, regulatory approval may first be obtained in a foreign country prior to application in the U.S. to take advantage of differing regulatory requirements. Most countries outside of the U.S. require that product approvals be recertified on a regular basis, generally every five years. The recertification process requires that we evaluate any device changes and any new regulations or standards relevant to the device and conduct appropriate testing to document continued compliance. Where recertification applications are required, they must be approved in order to continue selling our products in those countries.
 
In the European Union, in order for our product candidates to be marketed and sold, we are required to comply with the Medical Devices Directive and obtain CE Mark certification. The CE Mark certification encompasses an extensive review of our quality management system which is inspected by a notified body’s auditor as part of a Stage 1 and 2 International Organization for Standardization, or ISO, 13485:2003 audit, in accordance with worldwide recognized ISO standards and applicable European Medical Devices Directives for quality management systems for medical device manufacturers. Once the quality management system and design dossier has been successfully audited by a notified body and reviewed and approved by a competent authority, a CE certificate for the medical device will be issued. We are also required to comply with other foreign regulations such as the requirement that we obtain Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare approval before we can launch new products in Japan. The time required to obtain these foreign approvals to market our products may vary from U.S. approvals, and requirements for these approvals may differ from those required by the FDA.
 
Medical device laws and regulations are in effect in many of the countries in which we may do business outside the United States. These laws and regulations range from comprehensive device approval requirements for our medical device product to requests for product data or certifications. The number and scope of these requirements can be complex and could increase. We may not be able to obtain or maintain regulatory approvals in such countries and we may be required to incur significant costs in obtaining or maintaining our foreign regulatory approvals. In addition, the export of certain of our products which have not yet been cleared for domestic commercial distribution may be subject to FDA export restrictions. Any failure to obtain product approvals in a timely fashion or to comply with state or foreign medical device laws and regulations may have a serious adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
 
Intellectual Property
 
On January 30, 2008, we entered into a License and Assignment Agreement, or the NDP License Agreement, with ND Partners, LLC, or NDP. Pursuant to the NDP License Agreement, NDP granted us exclusive, worldwide licenses for certain antimicrobial catheter lock solutions, processes for treating and inhibiting infections, a biocidal lock system and a taurolidine delivery apparatus, and the corresponding United States and foreign patents and applications (the “NDP Technology”). We acquired such licenses and patents through our assignment and assumption of NDP’s rights under certain separate license agreements by and between NDP and Dr. Hans-Dietrich Polaschegg, Dr. Klaus Sodemann, and Dr. Johannes Reinmueller. NDP also granted us exclusive licenses, with the right to grant sublicenses, to use and display certain trademarks in connection with the NDP Technology. As consideration in part for the rights to the NDP Technology, we paid NDP an initial licensing fee of $325,000 and granted NDP an equity interest in our company consisting of 365,534 shares of common stock as of December 31, 2010. In addition, we are required to make payments to NDP upon the achievement of certain regulatory and sales-based milestones. Certain of the milestone payments are to be made in the form of shares of common stock currently held in escrow for NDP, and other milestone payments are to be paid in cash. The maximum aggregate number of shares issuable upon achievement of milestones and the number of shares held in escrow is 145,543 shares of common stock. The maximum aggregate amount of cash payments upon achievement of milestones is $3,000,000 with $2,500,000 remaining at December 31, 2017. Events that trigger milestone payments include but are not limited to the reaching of various stages of regulatory approval processes and certain worldwide net sales amounts.
 
On April 11, 2013, we entered into an amendment to the NDP License Agreement. Under Article 6 of the NDP License Agreement, we were obligated to make a milestone payment of $500,000 to NDP upon the first issuance of a CE Mark for a licensed product, which payment was payable to NDP within 30 days after such issuance. Pursuant to the terms of the amendment, we and NDP agreed to delay such milestone payment to a time, to be chosen by us, anytime within twelve months after the achievement of such issuance. As consideration for the amendment, we issued NDP a warrant to purchase 125,000 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $1.50 per share. The warrant is exercisable immediately upon issuance and has a term of five years. The warrant contains a cashless exercise feature and standard adjustment features in the event of a stock split, stock dividend, recapitalization or similar events.
 
 
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During the year ended December 31, 2013, a milestone payment of $500,000 was earned by NDP upon the first issuance of the CE Mark for Neutrolin, which was converted in January 2014 into 50,000 Series C-3 non-voting preferred stock and 250,000 warrants at an exercise price of $1.50 per share. During the year ended December 31, 2014, a certain milestone was achieved resulting in the release of 36,386 shares held in escrow. The number of shares held in escrow as of December 31, 2017 is 109,157 shares of common stock. There were no milestones achieved in 2016 or 2017.
 
The NDP License Agreement will expire on a country-by-country basis upon the earlier of (i) the expiration of the last patent claim under the NDP License Agreement in a given country, or (ii) the payment of all milestone payments and release of all shares of our common stock held in escrow under the NDP License Agreement. Upon the expiration of the NDP License Agreement in each country, we will have an irrevocable, perpetual, fully paid-up, royalty-free exclusive license to the NDP Technology in such country. The NDP License Agreement also may be terminated by NDP if we materially breach or default under the NDP License Agreement and that breach is not cured within 60 days following the delivery of written notice to us, or by us on a country-by-country basis upon 60 days prior written notice. If the NDP License Agreement is terminated by either party, our rights to the NDP Technology will revert back to NDP.
 
We believe that the patents and patent applications we have licensed pursuant to the NDP License Agreement cover effective solutions to the various problems discussed previously when using taurolidine in clinical applications, and specifically in hemodialysis applications. We intend to file additional patent applications to cover any additional related subject matter we develop. We currently have nine non-provisional patent applications, nine international (PCT) patent applications and five provisional patent applications pending which cover additional applications using taurolidine in, among others, sutures, hydrogels, meshes, transdermal and biofilm products.
 
Employees
 
As of March 10, 2018, we had fourteen full time employees, including our customer service representative and office manager in Germany. We also engage various consultants and contractors for project management and research and development, manufacturing and regulatory development, marketing, financing, sales and marketing and administrative activities.
 
Corporate Information
 
We were organized as a Delaware corporation on July 28, 2006 under the name “Picton Holding Company, Inc.” and we changed our corporate name to “CorMedix Inc.” on January 18, 2007. Our principal executive offices are located at 400 Connell Drive, Suite 5000, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey 07922. Our telephone number is (908) 517-9500.
 
We maintain a website at www.cormedix.com; however, the information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this report.  This report and all of our filings under the Exchange Act, including copies of annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports, are available free of charge through our website on the date we file those materials with, or furnish them to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC").  Such filings are also available to the public on the internet at the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.  The public may also read and copy any document that we file at the SEC's Public Reference Room located at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549 on official business days during the hours of 10 a.m. to 3 p.m.  For further information on the Public Reference Room, the public is instructed to call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0300.
 
 
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Item 1A. 
Risk Factors
 
Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital
 
We have a history of operating losses, expect to incur additional operating losses in the future and may never be profitable.
 
Our prospects must be considered in light of the uncertainties, risks, expenses, and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in the early stages of operation. We incurred net losses of approximately $33.0 million and $24.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. As of December 31, 2017, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $152.2 million. We expect to incur substantial additional operating expenses over the next several years as our research, development, pre-clinical testing, clinical trial and commercialization activities increase as we develop and commercialize Neutrolin. As a result, we expect to experience negative cash flow as we fund our operating losses and capital expenditures. The amount of future losses and when, if ever, we will achieve profitability are uncertain. Neutrolin was launched in December 2013 and is currently available for distribution in certain European Union and Middle East countries. We have not generated any significant commercial revenue and do not expect to generate substantial revenues from Neutrolin until it is approved by the FDA and launched in the U.S. market, and might never generate significant revenues from the sale of Neutrolin or any other products. Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability will depend on, among other things, the following: successfully marketing Neutrolin in Germany and other countries in which it is approved for sale; obtaining necessary regulatory approvals for Neutrolin from the other applicable European and Middle East agencies, other foreign agencies and the FDA and international regulatory agencies for any other products; establishing manufacturing, sales, and marketing arrangements, either alone or with third parties; and raising sufficient funds to finance our activities. We might not succeed at any of these undertakings. If we are unsuccessful at some or all of these undertakings, our business, prospects, and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
 
We have received a going concern opinion from our registered public accounting firm.
 
Our operations are subject to a number of factors that can affect our operating results and financial condition. Such factors include, but are not limited to: the results of clinical testing and trial activities of our product candidates; the ability to obtain regulatory approval to market our products; ability to manufacture successfully; competition from products manufactured and sold or being developed by other companies; the price of, and demand for, our products; our ability to negotiate favorable licensing or other manufacturing and marketing agreements for our products; and our ability to raise capital to support our operations.
 
To date, our commercial operations have not generated sufficient revenues to enable profitability. As of December 31, 2017 we had an accumulated deficit of $152.2 million, and incurred net losses from operations of $33.0 million for the year then ended. Based on the current development plans for Neutrolin in both the U.S. and foreign markets (including the ongoing hemodialysis Phase 3 clinical trial in the U.S.) and our other operating requirements, management believes that the existing cash at December 31, 2017 plus funding raised through March 9, 2018 and a proposed new $3 million backstop facility, for which a binding term sheet was recently signed by us and Elliott Management Corporation, will be sufficient to fund operations into the third quarter of 2018. If a definitive agreement can be negotiated and executed, the proposed backstop facility would be available for drawing between April 16, 2018 and July 31, 2018. These factors raise substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern. We will need additional funding to complete the ongoing hemodialysis clinical trial in the U.S. which commenced in December 2015 and to continue the Neutrolin development program through to NDA filing and marketing approval. 
 
As a result of the above matters, our independent auditors have indicated in their report on our December 31, 2017 financial statements that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. A “going concern” opinion indicates that the financial statements have been prepared assuming we will continue as a going concern and do not include any adjustments to reflect the possible future effects on the recoverability and classification of assets, or the amounts and classification of liabilities that may result if we do not continue as a going concern. Therefore, you should not rely on our consolidated balance sheet as an indication of the amount of proceeds that would be available to satisfy claims of our creditors, and potentially be available for distribution to our stockholders, in the event of liquidation.
 
Our continued operations will ultimately depend on our ability to raise additional capital through various potential sources, such as equity and/or debt financings, strategic relationships, or out-licensing of our products in order to complete our ongoing and planned Phase 3 clinical trials and until we achieve profitability, if ever. We can provide no assurances that such financing or strategic relationships will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Without this funding, we could be required to delay, scale back or eliminate some or all of our research and development programs which would likely have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
 
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We will need to finance our future cash needs through public or private equity offerings, debt financings or corporate collaboration and licensing arrangements. Any additional funds that we obtain may not be on terms favorable to us or our stockholders and may require us to relinquish valuable rights. 
 
We have launched Neutrolin in certain European Union and Middle East countries, but to date have no other approved product on the market and have not generated significant product revenue from Neutrolin to date. Unless and until we receive applicable regulatory approval for Neutrolin in the U.S., we cannot sell Neutrolin in the U.S. Therefore, for the foreseeable future, we will have to fund all of our operations and capital expenditures from Neutrolin sales in Europe and other foreign markets, if approved, cash on hand, additional financings, licensing fees and grants.
 
We believe that our cash resources as of December 31, 2017 plus funding raised through March 9, 2018 and a proposed new $3 million backstop facility, for which a binding term sheet was recently signed by us and Elliott Management Corporation, will be sufficient to fund operations into the third quarter of 2018. If a definitive agreement can be negotiated and executed, the proposed backstop facility would be available for drawing between April 16, 2018 and July 31, 2018. We will need additional funding thereafter to complete our ongoing and anticipated Phase 3 clinical trials in the U.S., and to continue the Neutrolin development program through to NDA filing and approval. If we are unable to raise additional funds when needed, we may not be able to complete our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial, to complete the Neutrolin development program through to NDA filing and marketing approval or commercialize Neutrolin and we could be required to delay, scale back or eliminate some or all of our research and development programs. We can provide no assurances that any financing or strategic relationships will be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. We expect to incur increases in our cash used in operations as we continue to conduct our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial and prepare for additional Phase 3 clinical trials, seek FDA approval of Neutrolin in the U.S., commercialize Neutrolin in Europe and other markets, pursue development of our medical devices and other business development activities, and incur additional legal costs to defend our intellectual property.
 
        To raise needed capital, we may sell additional equity or debt securities, obtain a bank credit facility, or enter into a corporate collaboration or licensing arrangement. The sale of additional equity or debt securities, if convertible, could result in dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in fixed obligations and could also result in covenants that would restrict our operations. Raising additional funds through collaboration or licensing arrangements with third parties may require us to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates, or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us or our stockholders.
 
Until the date that none of the shares of common stock or warrants that we issued to Elliott Associates, L.P. and Elliott International, L.P in November 2017 as part of the backstop financing are outstanding, we are prohibited from issuing or selling any securities convertible into common stock on terms more favorable than the backstop financing terms and with a conversion, exchange or exercise price that is based upon and/or varies with the trading prices of or quotations for the shares of our common stock or that is subject to being reset at some future date or upon the occurrence of specified or contingent events directly or indirectly related to our business (other than pursuant to a customary “weighted average” anti-dilution provision) or the market for our common stock or enter into any agreement to sell securities at a future determined price (other than standard and customary “preemptive” or “participation” rights and other than pursuant to an at-the-market offering through a registered broker-dealer). This restriction could make raising capital through the sale of equity securities very difficult and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.
 
 
Risks Related to the Development and Commercialization of Our Product Candidates 
 
If we are unable to successfully complete our Phase 3 LOCK-IT-100 clinical trial, or if such clinical trial takes longer to complete than we project, our ability to execute our current business strategy will be adversely affected. 
 
Whether or not and how quickly we complete the Phase 3 LOCK-IT-100 clinical trial is dependent in part upon the rate of enrollment of patients, the rate we collect, clean, lock and analyze the clinical trial database, and the frequency with which CRBSI events occur. Patient enrollment is a function of many factors, including the size of the patient population, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the eligibility criteria for the study, the existence of competitive clinical trials, and whether existing or new products are approved for the indication we are studying. In addition, the LOCK-IT-100 clinical trial is designed to continue until a pre-determined number of events have occurred in the patients enrolled. Event-driven trials such as LOCK-IT-100 are subject to delays and other risks stemming from patient withdrawal and from lower than expected event rates. A lower event rate will require that we enroll more patients than initially anticipated, which would require us to incur additional costs and extend the anticipated time for completion of the trial in order to achieve the desired number of events. If we experience delays in patient enrollment in our clinical trial, or if we experience other issues related to the number of events or other trial results, we may incur additional costs and delays in the trial, and may not be able to complete the clinical trial in a cost-effective or timely manner, which would have an adverse effect on our development program for Neutrolin as a treatment for catheter related bloodstream infections.
 
 
 
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Our only product Neutrolin is only approved in Europe and is still in development in the U. S. 
 
        Neutrolin currently and for at least the near future is our only current product as well as product candidate. Neutrolin has received CE Mark approval in Europe, and we launched it in Germany in December 2013. We also are pursuing development of Neutrolin in the U.S. Our product commercialization and development efforts may not lead to commercially viable products for any of several reasons. For example, our product candidates may fail to be proven safe and effective in clinical trials, or we may have inadequate financial or other resources to pursue development efforts for our product candidates. Even if approved, our products may not be accepted in the marketplace. Neutrolin will require significant additional development, clinical trials, regulatory clearances and/or investment by us or our collaborators as we continue its commercialization, as will any of our other products. Specifically, we plan to expand marketing of Neutrolin in other foreign countries and to develop Neutrolin for sale in the U.S., which will take time and capital.
 
In April 2017, we entered into a commercial collaboration with Hemotech SAS covering France and certain overseas territories. We have entered into agreements with a Saudi Arabian company to market and sell Neutrolin in Saudi Arabia, and with a South Korean company to market, sell and distribute Neutrolin in South Korea upon receipt of regulatory approval in that country. We also have a commercial presence in Germany and the United Arab Emirates. Consequently, we will be dependent on these companies and individuals for the success of sales in those countries and any other countries in which we receive regulatory approval and in which we contract with third parties for the marketing, sale and/or distribution of Neutrolin. If these companies or individuals do not perform for whatever reason, our business, prospects and results of operations will be materially adversely affected. Finding a suitable replacement organization or individual for these or any other companies or individuals with whom we might contract could be difficult, which would further harm our business, prospects and results of operations.
 
Successful development and commercialization of our products is uncertain.
 
Our development and commercialization of current and future product candidates is subject to the risks of failure and delay inherent in the development of new pharmaceutical products, including but not limited to the following:
 
inability to produce positive data in pre-clinical and clinical trials;
delays in product development, pre-clinical and clinical testing, or manufacturing;
unplanned expenditures in product development, clinical testing, or manufacturing;
failure to receive regulatory approvals;
emergence of superior or equivalent products;
inability to manufacture our product candidates on a commercial scale on our own, or in collaboration with third parties; and
failure to achieve market acceptance.
 
Because of these risks, our development efforts may not result in any commercially viable products. If a significant portion of these development efforts are not successfully completed, required regulatory approvals are not obtained or any approved products are not commercialized successfully, our business, financial condition, and results of operations will be materially harmed.
 
Clinical trials required for our product candidates are expensive and time-consuming, and their outcome is uncertain.
 
In order to obtain FDA or foreign approval to market a new drug or device product, we must demonstrate proof of safety and effectiveness in humans. Foreign regulations and requirements are similar to those of the FDA. To meet FDA requirements, we must conduct “adequate and well-controlled” clinical trials. Conducting clinical trials is a lengthy, time-consuming, and expensive process. The length of time may vary substantially according to the type, complexity, novelty, and intended use of the product candidate, and often can be several years or more per trial. Delays associated with products for which we are directly conducting clinical trials may cause us to incur additional operating expenses. The commencement and rate of completion of clinical trials may be delayed by many factors, including, for example:
 
inability to manufacture sufficient quantities of qualified materials under the FDA’s cGMP requirements for use in clinical trials;
slower than expected rates of patient recruitment;
failure to recruit a sufficient number of patients;
modification of clinical trial protocols;
changes in regulatory requirements for clinical trials;
 
 
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lack of effectiveness during clinical trials;
emergence of unforeseen safety issues;
delays, suspension, or termination of clinical trials due to the institutional review board responsible for overseeing the study at a particular study site; and
government or regulatory delays or “clinical holds” requiring suspension or termination of the trials.
 
The results from early pre-clinical and clinical trials are not necessarily predictive of results to be obtained in later clinical trials. Accordingly, even if we obtain positive results from early pre-clinical or clinical trials, we may not achieve the same success in later clinical trials.
 
Our clinical trials may be conducted in patients with serious or life-threatening diseases for whom conventional treatments have been unsuccessful or for whom no conventional treatment exists, and in some cases, our product is expected to be used in combination with approved therapies that themselves have significant adverse event profiles. During the course of treatment, these patients could suffer adverse medical events or die for reasons that may or may not be related to our products. We cannot ensure that safety issues will not arise with respect to our products in clinical development.
 
Clinical trials may not demonstrate statistically significant safety and effectiveness to obtain the requisite regulatory approvals for product candidates. The failure of clinical trials to demonstrate safety and effectiveness for the desired indications could harm the development of our product candidates. Such a failure could cause us to abandon a product candidate and could delay development of other product candidates. Any delay in, or termination of, our clinical trials would delay the filing of any NDA or any Premarket Approval Application, or PMA, with the FDA and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate product revenues. Any change in, or termination of, our clinical trials could materially harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
 
If we fail to comply with international regulatory requirements we could be subject to regulatory delays, fines or other penalties.
 
Regulatory requirements in foreign countries for international sales of medical devices often vary from country to country. The occurrence and related impact of the following factors would harm our business:
 
delays in receipt of, or failure to receive, foreign regulatory approvals or clearances;
the loss of previously obtained approvals or clearances; or
the failure to comply with existing or future regulatory requirements.
 
The CE Mark is a mandatory conformity mark for products to be sold in the European Economic Area. Currently, 28 countries in Europe require products to bear CE Marking. To market in Europe, a product must first obtain the certifications necessary to affix the CE Mark. The CE Mark is an international symbol of adherence to the Medical Device Directives and the manufacturer’s declaration that the product complies with essential requirements. Compliance with these requirements is ascertained within a certified Quality Management System (QMS) pursuant to ISO 13485. In order to obtain and to maintain a CE Mark, a product must be in compliance with the applicable quality assurance provisions of the aforementioned ISO and obtain certification of its quality assurance systems by a recognized European Union notified body. We received CE Mark approval for Neutrolin on July 5, 2013. However, certain individual countries within the European Union require further approval by their national regulatory agencies. Failure to receive or maintain these other requisite approvals could prohibit us from marketing and selling Neutrolin in the entire European Economic Area or elsewhere.
 
We do not have, and may never obtain, the regulatory approvals we need to market our product candidates outside of the European Union.
 
While we have received the CE Mark approval for Neutrolin in Europe, certain individual countries within the European Union require further approval by their national regulatory agencies. Failure to receive or maintain these other requisite approvals could prohibit us from marketing and selling Neutrolin in the entire European Economic Area. In addition, we will need regulatory approval to market and sell Neutrolin in foreign countries outside of Europe. We have received regulatory approval in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Bahrain.
 
 
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In the United States, we have no current application for, and have not received the regulatory approvals required for, the commercial sale of any of our products. We have not submitted an NDA, PMA or 510(K) to the FDA for any product. We have received approval from the FDA to proceed with our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial for Neutrolin in hemodialysis catheters as the first of our required two Phase 3 studies. The design of our required second Phase 3 clinical trial has not been determined. Financing will be required to complete our current Phase 3 trial and to begin and execute our anticipated second Phase 3 trial. However, we might not obtain any financing and may never start the second Phase 3 trial.  
 
The FDA recently informed us that it regards taurolidine as a new chemical entity and therefore an unapproved drug. Consequently, there is no appropriate predicate device currently marketed in the U.S. on which a 510k approval process could be based. As a result, we will be required to submit a premarket approval application for marketing authorization for these indications. In the event that the New Drug Application for Neutrolin is approved by the FDA, the regulatory pathway can be revisited with the FDA.  Although there will presumably still be no appropriate predicate, de novo Class II designation can be proposed, based on a risk assessment and a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness.
 
It is possible that Neutrolin will not receive any further approval or that any of our other product candidates will be approved for marketing. Failure to obtain regulatory approvals, or delays in obtaining regulatory approvals, would adversely affect the successful commercialization of Neutrolin or any other drugs or products that we or our partners develop, impose additional costs on us or our collaborators, diminish any competitive advantages that we or our partners may attain, and/or adversely affect our cash flow.
 
Even if approved, our products will be subject to extensive post-approval regulation. 
 
Once a product is approved, numerous post-approval requirements apply in the United States and abroad. Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet these post-approval requirements can result in criminal prosecution, fines, injunctions, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of pre-marketing product approvals, or refusal to allow us to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts. In addition, even if we comply with FDA, foreign and other requirements, new information regarding the safety or effectiveness of a product could lead the FDA or a foreign regulatory body to modify or withdraw product approval.
 
The successful commercialization of Neutrolin will depend on obtaining coverage and reimbursement for use of Neutrolin from third-party payors.
 
          Sales of pharmaceutical products largely depend on the reimbursement of patients’ medical expenses by government health care programs and/or private health insurers, both in the U.S. and abroad. Further, significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of newly approved health care products. We initially expect to sell Neutrolin directly to hospitals and key dialysis center operators, but also plan to expand its usage into intensive care, oncology and total parenteral nutrition patients needing catheters, including Medicare patients. All of these potential customers are healthcare providers who depend upon reimbursement by government and commercial insurance payors for dialysis and other treatments. Reimbursement is strictly governed by these insurance payors. We believe that Neutrolin would be eligible for coverage under various reimbursement programs, including hospital inpatient diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), outpatient ambulatory payment classification (APCs) and the End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System (ESRD PPS) or under the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies (DMEPOS) Fee Schedule, depending on the treatment setting. However, coverage by any of these reimbursement programs is not assured, and even if coverage is granted it could later be revoked or modified under future regulations. Further, the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), which administers Medicare and works with states to administer Medicaid, has adopted and will continue to adopt and/or amend rules governing reimbursement for specific treatments, including those we intend to address such as dialysis and ESRD PPS. We anticipate that CMS and private insurers will increasingly demand that manufacturers demonstrate the cost effectiveness of their products as part of the reimbursement review and approval process. Rising healthcare costs have also lead many European and other foreign countries to adopt healthcare reform proposals and medical cost containment measures. Any measures affecting the reimbursement programs of these governmental and private insurance payors, including any uncertainty in the medical community regarding their nature and effect on reimbursement programs, could have an adverse effect on purchasing decisions regarding Neutrolin, as well as limit the prices we may charge for Neutrolin. The failure to obtain or maintain reimbursement coverage for Neutrolin or any other products could materially harm our operations.
 
In anticipation that the CMS and private payers will demand that we demonstrate the cost effectiveness of Neutrolin as part of the reimbursement review and approval process, we have incorporated health economic evaluations into our ongoing clinical studies to support this review in the context of the prospective use of Neutrolin in dialysis, the ICU and oncology settings.  However, our studies might not be sufficient to support coverage or reimbursement at levels that allow providers to use Neutrolin.
 
 
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Physicians and patients may not accept and use our products.
 
Even with the CE Mark approval of Neutrolin, and even if we receive FDA or other foreign regulatory approval for Neutrolin or other product candidates, physicians and patients may not accept and use our products. Acceptance and use of our products will depend upon a number of factors including the following:
 
perceptions by members of the health care community, including physicians, about the safety and effectiveness of our drug or device product;
cost-effectiveness of our product relative to competing products;
availability of reimbursement for our product from government or other healthcare payors; and
effectiveness of marketing and distribution efforts by us and our licensees and distributors, if any.
 
Because we expect sales of Neutrolin to generate substantially all of our product revenues for the foreseeable future, the failure of Neutrolin to find market acceptance would harm our business and would require us to seek additional financing.  
 
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
 
Competition and technological change may make our product candidates and technologies less attractive or obsolete. 
 
We compete with established pharmaceutical and medical device companies that are pursuing other forms of prevention or treatment for the same indications we are pursuing and that have greater financial and other resources. Other companies may succeed in developing products earlier than we do, obtaining FDA or any other regulatory agency approval for products more rapidly, or developing products that are more effective than our product candidates. Research and development by others may render our technology or product candidates obsolete or noncompetitive, or result in processes, treatments or cures superior to any therapy we develop. We face competition from companies that internally develop competing technology or acquire competing technology from universities and other research institutions. As these companies develop their technologies, they may develop competitive positions that may prevent, make futile, or limit our product commercialization efforts, which would result in a decrease in the revenue we would be able to derive from the sale of any products.
 
There can be no assurance that Neutrolin or any other product candidate will be accepted by the marketplace as readily as these or other competing treatments. Furthermore, if our competitors’ products are approved before ours, it could be more difficult for us to obtain approval from the FDA or any other regulatory agency. Even if our products are successfully developed and approved for use by all governing regulatory bodies, there can be no assurance that physicians and patients will accept any of our products as a treatment of choice. 
 
Furthermore, the pharmaceutical and medical device industry is diverse, complex, and rapidly changing. By its nature, the business risks associated with the industry are numerous and significant. The effects of competition, intellectual property disputes, market acceptance, and FDA or other regulatory agency regulations preclude us from forecasting revenues or income with certainty or even confidence.
 
We face the risk of product liability claims and the amount of insurance coverage we hold now or in the future may not be adequate to cover all liabilities we might incur.
 
Our business exposes us to the risk of product liability claims that are inherent in the development of drugs. If the use of one or more of our or our collaborators’ drugs or devices harms people, we may be subject to costly and damaging product liability claims brought against us by clinical trial participants, consumers, health care providers, pharmaceutical companies or others selling our products.
 
We currently carry product liability insurance that covers our clinical trials. We cannot predict all of the possible harms or side effects that may result and, therefore, the amount of insurance coverage we hold may not be adequate to cover all liabilities we might incur. Our insurance covers bodily injury and property damage arising from our clinical trials, subject to industry-standard terms, conditions and exclusions. This coverage includes the sale of commercial products. We have expanded our insurance coverage to include the sale of commercial products due to the receipt of the CE Mark approval, but we may be unable to maintain such coverage or obtain commercially reasonable product liability insurance for any other products approved for marketing.
 
 
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If we are unable to obtain insurance at an acceptable cost or otherwise protect against potential product liability claims, we may be exposed to significant liabilities, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial position. If we are sued for any injury allegedly caused by our or our collaborators’ products and do not have sufficient insurance coverage, our liability could exceed our total assets and our ability to pay the liability. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us would decrease our cash and could cause the value of our capital stock to decrease.
 
We may be exposed to liability claims associated with the use of hazardous materials and chemicals.
 
Our research, development and manufacturing activities and/or those of our third-party contractors may involve the controlled use of hazardous materials and chemicals. Although we believe that our safety procedures for using, storing, handling and disposing of these materials comply with federal, state and local, as well as foreign, laws and regulations, we cannot completely eliminate the risk of accidental injury or contamination from these materials. In the event of such an accident, we could be held liable for any resulting damages and any liability could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the federal, state and local, as well as foreign, laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of hazardous or radioactive materials and waste products may require us to incur substantial compliance costs that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Healthcare policy changes, including reimbursement policies for drugs and medical devices, may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Market acceptance and sales of Neutrolin or any other product candidates that we develop will depend on reimbursement policies and may be affected by health care reform measures in the United States and abroad. Government authorities and other third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which drugs they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. We cannot be sure that reimbursement will be available for Neutrolin or any other product candidates that we develop. Also, we cannot be sure that the amount of reimbursement available, if any, will not reduce the demand for, or the price of, our products. If reimbursement is not available or is available only at limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize Neutrolin or any other product candidates that we develop.
 
In the United States, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to change the health care system in ways that could affect our ability to sell our products profitably. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively, the Healthcare Reform Act, substantially changes the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and significantly impacts the pharmaceutical industry. The Healthcare Reform Act contains a number of provisions, including those governing enrollment in federal healthcare programs, reimbursement changes and fraud and abuse, which will impact existing government healthcare programs and will result in the development of new programs, including Medicare payment for performance initiatives and improvements to the physician quality reporting system and feedback program. We anticipate that if we obtain approval for our products, some of our revenue may be derived from U.S. government healthcare programs, including Medicare.
 
Some of the provisions of the Healthcare Reform Act have yet to be implemented, and there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the Healthcare Reform Act. Since January 2017, President Trump has signed two Executive Orders and other directives designed to delay, circumvent or loosen the implementation of certain provisions requirements mandated by the Healthcare Reform Act or otherwise circumvent some of the requirements for health insurance mandated by the Healthcare Reform Act. Concurrently, Congress has considered legislation that would repeal or repeal and replace all or part of the Healthcare Reform Act. While Congress has not passed repeal legislation, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 includes a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the Healthcare Reform Act on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate.” Additionally, on January 23, 2018, President Trump signed a continuing resolution on appropriations for fiscal year 2018 that delayed the implementation of certain Healthcare Reform Act-mandated fees, including the so-called “Cadillac” tax on certain high cost employer-sponsored insurance plans. Congress may consider other legislation to repeal or replace elements of the Healthcare Reform Act.
 
 
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In addition to the Healthcare Reform Act, we expect that there will continue to be proposals by legislators at both the federal and state levels, regulators and third-party payors to keep healthcare costs down while expanding individual healthcare benefits. Certain of these changes could impose limitations on the prices we will be able to charge for any products that are approved or the amounts of reimbursement available for these products from governmental agencies or other third-party payors or may increase the tax requirements for life sciences companies such as ours. While it is too early to predict what effect the Healthcare Reform Act or any future legislation or regulation will have on us, such laws could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Health administration authorities in countries other than the United States may not provide reimbursement for Neutrolin or any of our other product candidates at rates sufficient for us to achieve profitability, or at all. Like the United States, these countries could adopt health care reform proposals and could materially alter their government-sponsored health care programs by reducing reimbursement rates.
 
Any reduction in reimbursement rates under Medicare or private insurers or foreign health care programs could negatively affect the pricing of our products. If we are not able to charge a sufficient amount for our products, then our margins and our profitability will be adversely affected.
 
If we lose key management or scientific personnel, cannot recruit qualified employees, directors, officers, or other personnel or experience increases in compensation costs, our business may materially suffer.
 
We are highly dependent on the principal members of our management and scientific staff, specifically, Khoso Baluch, a director and our Chief Executive Officer, Robert Cook, our Chief Financial Officer, and John Armstrong, our Executive Vice President for Technical Operations. Our future success will depend in part on our ability to identify, hire, and retain current and additional personnel. We experience intense competition for qualified personnel and may be unable to attract and retain the personnel necessary for the development of our business. Moreover, our work force is located in the New York metropolitan area, where competition for personnel with the scientific and technical skills that we seek is extremely high and is likely to remain high. Because of this competition, our compensation costs may increase significantly. In addition, we have only limited ability to prevent former employees from competing with us. 
 
If we are unable to hire additional qualified personnel, our ability to grow our business may be harmed.
 
Over time, we expect to hire additional qualified personnel with expertise in clinical testing, clinical research and testing, government regulation, formulation and manufacturing, and sales and marketing. We compete for qualified individuals with numerous pharmaceutical companies, universities and other research institutions. Competition for such individuals is intense, and we cannot be certain that our search for such personnel will be successful. Attracting and retaining such qualified personnel will be critical to our success.
 
We may not successfully manage our growth.
 
Our success will depend upon the expansion of our operations to commercialize Neutrolin and the effective management of any growth, which could place a significant strain on our management and our administrative, operational and financial resources. To manage this growth, we may need to expand our facilities, augment our operational, financial and management systems and hire and train additional qualified personnel. If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, our business may be materially harmed.
 
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
 
If we materially breach or default under any of our license agreements, the licensor party to such agreement will have the right to terminate the license agreement, which termination may materially harm our business.
 
Our commercial success will depend in part on the maintenance of our license agreements. Each of our license agreements provides the licensor with a right to terminate the license agreement for our material breach or default under the agreement, including the failure to make any required milestone or other payments. Should the licensor under any of our license agreements exercise such a termination right, we would lose our right to the intellectual property under the respective license agreement, which loss may materially harm our business.
 
 
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If we and our licensors do not obtain protection for and successfully defend our respective intellectual property rights, our competitors may be able to take advantage of our research and development efforts to develop competing products. 
 
Our commercial success will depend in part on obtaining further patent protection for our products and other technologies and successfully defending any patents that we currently have or will obtain against third-party challenges. The patents which we currently believe are most material to our business are as follows: 
 
U.S. Patent No. 8,541,393 (expiring in November 2024) (the “Prosl Patent”) - use of Neutrolin for preventing infection and maintenance of catheter patency in hemodialysis catheters;
U.S. Patent No. 6,166,007 (expiring May 2019) (the “Sodemann Patent”) - a method of inhibiting or preventing infection and blood coagulation at a medical prosthetic device; and
European Patent EP 1 814 562 B1 (expiring October 12, 2025) (the “Prosl European Patent”) - a low heparin catheter lock solution for maintaining and preventing infection in a hemodialysis catheter. 
 
We are currently seeking further patent protection for our compounds and methods of treating diseases. However, the patent process is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in protecting our products by obtaining and defending patents. These risks and uncertainties include the following: 
 
patents that may be issued or licensed may be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented, or otherwise may not provide any competitive advantage;
our competitors, many of which have substantially greater resources than we have and many of which have made significant investments in competing technologies, may seek, or may already have obtained, patents that will limit, interfere with, or eliminate our ability to make, use, and sell our potential products either in the United States or in international markets;
there may be significant pressure on the United States government and other international governmental bodies to limit the scope of patent protection both inside and outside the United States for treatments that prove successful as a matter of public policy regarding worldwide health concerns; and
countries other than the United States may have less restrictive patent laws than those upheld by United States courts, allowing foreign competitors the ability to exploit these laws to create, develop, and market competing products.
 
In addition, the United States Patent and Trademark Office, or PTO, and patent offices in other jurisdictions have often required that patent applications concerning pharmaceutical and/or biotechnology-related inventions be limited or narrowed substantially to cover only the specific innovations exemplified in the patent application, thereby limiting the scope of protection against competitive challenges. Thus, even if we or our licensors are able to obtain patents, the patents may be substantially narrower than anticipated. 
 
The above mentioned patents and patent applications are exclusively licensed to us. To support our patent strategy, we have engaged in a review of patentability and certain freedom to operate issues, including performing certain searches. However, patentability and certain freedom to operate issues are inherently complex, and we cannot provide assurances that a relevant patent office and/or relevant court will agree with our conclusions regarding patentability issues or with our conclusions regarding freedom to operate issues, which can involve subtle issues of claim interpretation and/or claim liability. Furthermore, we may not be aware of all patents, published applications or published literature that may affect our business either by blocking our ability to commercialize our product candidates, preventing the patentability of our product candidates to us or our licensors, or covering the same or similar technologies that may invalidate our patents, limit the scope of our future patent claims or adversely affect our ability to market our product candidates.  Additionally, it is also possible that prior art of which we are aware, but which we do not believe affects the validity or enforceability of a claim, may, nonetheless, ultimately be found by a court of law or an administration panel to affect the validity or enforceability of a claim. If a third party were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity and/or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our product candidates. Such loss of patent protection could have a material adverse impact on our business. 
 
In addition to patents, we also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how. Although we take measures to protect this information by entering into confidentiality and inventions agreements with our employees, and some but not all of our scientific advisors, consultants, and collaborators, we cannot provide any assurances that these agreements will not be breached, that we will be able to protect ourselves from the harmful effects of disclosure or dispute ownership if they are breached, or that our trade secrets will not otherwise become known or be independently discovered by competitors. If any of these events occurs, or we otherwise lose protection for our trade secrets or proprietary know-how, the value of our intellectual property may be greatly reduced.  
 
 
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Ongoing and future intellectual property disputes could require us to spend time and money to address such disputes and could limit our intellectual property rights. 
 
The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries have been characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights, and companies have employed intellectual property litigation to gain a competitive advantage. We may initiate or become subject to infringement claims or litigation arising out of patents and pending applications of our competitors, or we may become subject to proceedings initiated by our competitors or other third parties or the PTO or applicable foreign bodies to reexamine the patentability of our licensed or owned patents. In addition, litigation may be necessary to enforce our issued patents, to protect our trade secrets and know-how, or to determine the enforceability, scope, and validity of the proprietary rights of others.
 
We initiated court proceedings in Germany for patent infringement and unfair use of our proprietary information related to Neutrolin (as described below). We also have had opposition proceedings brought against the European Patent and the German utility model patent which are the basis of our infringement proceedings (as described below). The defense and prosecution of these ongoing and any future intellectual property suits, PTO or foreign proceedings, and related legal and administrative proceedings are costly and time-consuming to pursue, and their outcome is uncertain. An adverse determination in litigation or PTO or foreign proceedings to which we may become a party could subject us to significant liabilities, including damages, require us to obtain licenses from third parties, restrict or prevent us from selling our products in certain markets, or invalidate or render unenforceable our licensed or owned patents. Although patent and intellectual property disputes might be settled through licensing or similar arrangements, the costs associated with such arrangements may be substantial and could include our paying large fixed payments and ongoing royalties. Furthermore, the necessary licenses may not be available on satisfactory terms or at all.
 
On September 9, 2014, we filed in the District Court of Mannheim, Germany a patent infringement action against TauroPharm GmbH and Tauro-Implant GmbH as well as their respective CEOs (the “Defendants”) claiming infringement of our European Patent EP 1 814 562 B1, which was granted by the EPO on January 8, 2014 (the “Prosl European Patent”). The Prosl European Patent covers a low dose heparin catheter lock solution for maintaining patency and preventing infection in a hemodialysis catheter.  In this action, we claim that the Defendants infringe on the Prosl European Patent by manufacturing and distributing catheter locking solutions to the extent they are covered by the claims of the Prosl European Patent.  We believe that our patent is sound, and are seeking injunctive relief and raising claims for information, rendering of accounts, calling back, destruction and damages. Separately, TauroPharm has filed an opposition with the EPO against the Prosl European Patent alleging that it lacks novelty and inventive step.  We cannot predict what other defenses the Defendants may raise, or the ultimate outcome of either of these related matters.
 
In the same complaint against the same Defendants, we also alleged an infringement (requesting the same remedies) of NDP’s utility model DE 20 2005 022 124 U1 (the “Utility Model”), which we believe is fundamentally identical to the Prosl European Patent in its main aspects and claims. The Court separated the two proceedings and the Prosl European Patent and the Utility Model claims are now being tried separately.  TauroPharm has filed a cancellation action against the Utility Model before the German Patent and Trademark Office (the “German PTO”) based on the similar arguments as those in the opposition against the Prosl European Patent.
 
On March 27, 2015, the District Court held a hearing to evaluate whether the Utility Model has been infringed by TauroPharm in connection with the manufacture, sale and distribution of its TauroLock-HEP100TM and TauroLock-HEP500TM products. A hearing before the same court was held on January 30, 2015 on the separate, but related, question of infringement of the Prosl European Patent by TauroPharm.
 
The Court issued its decisions on May 8, 2015 staying both proceedings.  In its decisions, the Court found that the commercialization by TauroPharm in Germany of its TauroLock catheter lock solutions Hep100 and Hep500 infringes both the Prosl European Patent and the Utility Model and further that there is no prior use right that would allow TauroPharm to continue to make, use or sell its product in Germany. However, the Court declined to issue an injunction in favor of us that would preclude the continued commercialization by TauroPharm based upon its finding that there is a sufficient likelihood that the EPO, in the case of the Prosl European Patent, or the German PTO, in the case of the Utility Model, may find that such patent or utility model is invalid. Specifically, the Court noted the possible publication of certain instructions for product use that may be deemed to constitute prior art. As such, the District Court determined that it will defer any consideration of the request by us for injunctive and other relief until such time as the EPO or the German PTO has ruled on the underlying validity of the Prosl European Patent and the Utility Model.
 
 
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The opposition proceeding against the Prosl European Patent before the EPO is ongoing. In its preliminary consideration of the matter, the EPO (and the German PTO) regarded the patent as not inventive or novel due to publication of prior art.  Oral proceedings before the Opposition Division at the EPO were held on November 25, 2015, at which the three judge patent examiner panel considered arguments related to the validity of the Prosl European Patent. The hearing was adjourned due to the fact that the panel was of the view that Claus Herdeis, one of the managing directors of TauroPharm, has to be heard as a witness in a further hearing in order to close some gaps in the documentation presented by TauroPharm as regards the publication of prior art.
 
The German PTO held a hearing in the validity proceedings relating to the Utility Model on June 29, 2016, at which the panel affirmed its preliminary finding that the Utility Model was invalid based upon prior publication of a reference to the benefits that may be associated with adding heparin to a taurolidine based solution. The decision is subject to appeal and has only a declaratory effect, as the Utility Model had expired in November 2015. Furthermore, it has no bearing on the ongoing consideration of the validity and possible infringement of the Prosl Patent by the EPO. We filed an appeal against the ruling on September 7, 2016.
 
In October 2016, TauroPharm submitted a further writ to the EPO requesting a date for the hearing and bringing forward further arguments, in particular in view of the June 2016 decision of the German PTO on the invalidity of the utility model, which we have appealed. On November 22, 2017, the EPO in Munich, Germany held a further oral hearing in this matter. At the hearing, the panel held that the Prosl European Patent would be invalidated because it did not meet the requirements of novelty based on a technical aspect of the European intellectual property law. We disagree with this decision and plan to appeal. Our appeal will be based, in part, on the written opinion to be issued by the Opposition Division, which is expected by the first quarter 2018. We continue to believe that the Prosl European Patent is indeed novel and that its validity should be maintained. There can be no assurance that we will prevail in this matter with either the German PTO or the EPO. In addition, the ongoing Unfair Competition litigation against TauroPharm is not affected and will continue.
 
On January 16, 2015, we filed a complaint against TauroPharm GmbH and its managing directors in the District Court of Cologne, Germany. In the complaint, we allege violation of the German Unfair Competition Act by TauroPharm for the unauthorized use of its proprietary information obtained in confidence by TauroPharm. We allege that TauroPharm is improperly and unfairly using its proprietary information relating to the composition and manufacture of Neutrolin, in the manufacture and sale of TauroPharm’s products TauroLockTM, TauroLock-HEP100 and TauroLock-HEP500. We seek a cease and desist order against TauroPharm from continuing to manufacture and sell any product containing taurolidine (the active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) of Neutrolin) and citric acid in addition to possible other components, damages for any sales in the past and the removal of all such products from the market. An initial hearing in the District Court of Cologne, Germany was held on November 19, 2015 to consider our claims. The judge made no decision on the merits of our complaint. On January 14, 2016, the court issued an interim decision in the form of a court order outlining several issues of concern that relate primarily to court's interest in clarifying the facts and reviewing any and all available documentation, in particular with regard to the question which specific know-how was provided to TauroPharm by whom and when. We have prepared the requested reply and produced the respective documentation. TauroPharm has also filed another writ within the same deadline and both parties have filed further writs at the end of April setting out their respective argumentation in more detail. A further oral hearing in this matter was held on November 15, 2016. In this hearing, the court heard arguments from us and TauroPharm concerning the allegations of unfair competition. The court made no rulings from the bench, and indicated that it is prepared to further examine the underlying facts of our allegations. On March 7, 2017, the court issued another interim decision in the form of a court order outlining again several issues relating to the argumentation of both sides in the proceedings. In particular the court requested us to further specify our requests and to further substantiate in even more detail which know know-how was provided by Biolink to TauroPharm by whom and when. The court also raised the question whether the know-how provided at the time to TauroPharm could still be considered to be secret know-how or may have become public in the meantime. The court granted both sides the opportunity to reply to this court order and provide additional facts and evidence until May 15, 2017. Both parties have submitted further writs in this matter and the court had scheduled a further hearing for May 8, 2018. After having been rescheduled several times, the hearing is now scheduled to take place on November 20, 2018. We intend to continue to pursue this matter, and to provide additional supplemental documentary and other evidence as may be necessary to support its claims.
 
 
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If we infringe the rights of third parties we could be prevented from selling products and forced to pay damages and defend against litigation.
 
If our products, methods, processes and other technologies infringe the proprietary rights of other parties, we could incur substantial costs and we may have to do one or more of the following:
 
obtain licenses, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all;
abandon an infringing product candidate;
redesign our products or processes to avoid infringement;
stop using the subject matter claimed in the patents held by others;
pay damages; or
defend litigation or administrative proceedings, which may be costly whether we win or lose, and which could result in a substantial diversion of our financial and management resources.
 
Risks Related to Dependence on Third Parties
 
If we are not able to develop and maintain collaborative marketing relationships with licensees or partners, or create an effective sales, marketing, and distribution capability, we may be unable to market our products or market them successfully.
 
Our business strategy for Neutrolin relies on collaborating with larger firms with experience in marketing and selling medical devices and pharmaceutical products; for other products we may also rely on such marketing collaborations or out-licensing of our product candidates. Specifically, for Neutrolin, we have a distributor agreement with each of a Saudi Arabian, an Emirati, and a South Korean company for sales and marketing (upon receipt of approval to market in South Korea). In April 2017, we announced a commercial collaboration with Hemotech SAS covering France and certain overseas territories. Assuming we receive applicable regulatory approval for other markets, we plan to enter into distribution agreements with one or more third parties for the sale of Neutrolin in various European, Middle East and other markets. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully maintain those relationships or establish and maintain additional marketing, sales, or distribution relationships, nor can there be assurance that such relationships will be successful, or that we will be successful in gaining market acceptance for our products. To the extent that we enter into any marketing, sales, or distribution arrangements with third parties, our product revenues will be lower than if we marketed and sold our products directly, and any revenues we receive will depend upon the efforts of such third-parties.
 
If we are unable to establish and maintain such third-party sales and marketing relationships, or choose not to do so, we will have to establish our own in-house capabilities. We currently have no sales, marketing, or distribution infrastructure. To market any of our products directly, we would need to develop a marketing, sales, and distribution force that has both technical expertise and the ability to support a distribution capability. The establishment of a marketing, sales, and distribution capability would take time and significantly increase our costs, possibly requiring substantial additional capital. In addition, there is intense competition for proficient sales and marketing personnel, and we may not be able to attract individuals who have the qualifications necessary to market, sell, and distribute our products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to establish internal marketing, sales, or distribution capabilities. If we are unable to, or choose not to establish these capabilities, or if the capabilities we establish are not sufficient to meet our needs, we will be required to establish collaborative marketing, sales, or distribution relationships with third parties, which we might not be able to do on acceptable terms or at all.
   
We currently have no internal marketing and sales organization and currently rely and intend to continue to rely on third parties to market and sell Neutrolin. If we are unable to enter into or maintain agreements with third parties to market and sell Neutrolin or any other product after approval or are unable to establish our own marketing and sales capabilities, we may not be able to generate significant or any product revenues.
 
We do not have an internal sales organization. To date we have relied, and intend to continue to rely, on third parties for the marketing, sales and distribution of Neutrolin and any other product we might develop. However, we may not be able to maintain current and future arrangements or enter into new arrangements with third parties to sell Neutrolin or any other product on favorable terms or at all. In that event, we would have to develop our own marketing and sales force. The establishment and development of our own sales force would be expensive and time consuming and could delay any product launch, and we cannot be certain that we would be able to successfully develop this capability. In addition, the use of third parties to commercialize our approved products reduces the revenues that we would receive if we commercialized these products ourselves.
 
 
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We have entered into agreements with independent companies to market Neutrolin in Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and France, and, upon regulatory approval, South Korea. We may seek a sales partner in the U.S. if Neutrolin receives FDA approval. Consequently, we will be dependent on these firms and individuals for the success of sales in these and any other countries in which approval is granted. If these firms or individuals do not perform for whatever reason, our business, prospects and results of operations may be materially adversely affected. Finding a new or replacement organization for sales and marketing could be difficult, which would further harm our business, prospects and results of operations.
 
If we or our collaborators are unable to manufacture our products in sufficient quantities or are unable to obtain regulatory approvals for a manufacturing facility, we may be unable to meet demand for our products and we may lose potential revenues.
 
Completion of our clinical trials and commercialization of Neutrolin and any other product candidate require access to, or development of, facilities to manufacture a sufficient supply of our product candidates. All of our manufacturing processes currently are, and we expect them to continue to be, outsourced to third parties. Specifically, we will rely on one or more manufacturers to supply us and/or our distribution partners with commercial quantities of Neutrolin. If, for any reason, we become unable to rely on our current sources for the manufacture of Neutrolin or any other product candidates or for active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, either for clinical trials or for commercial quantities, then we would need to identify and contract with additional or replacement third-party manufacturers to manufacture compounds for pre-clinical, clinical, and commercial purposes. We may not be successful in identifying such additional or replacement third-party manufacturers, or in negotiating acceptable terms with any that we do identify. Such third-party manufacturers must receive FDA or applicable foreign approval before they can produce clinical material or commercial product, and any that are identified may not receive such approval or may fail to maintain such approval. In addition, we may be in competition with other companies for access to these manufacturers’ facilities and may be subject to delays in manufacturing if the manufacturers give other clients higher priority than they give to us. If we are unable to secure and maintain third-party manufacturing capacity, the development and sales of our products and our financial performance may be materially affected.
 
Before we could begin to commercially manufacture Neutrolin or any other product candidate on our own, we must obtain regulatory approval of the manufacturing facility and process. The manufacture of drugs for clinical and commercial purposes must comply with cGMP and applicable non-U.S. regulatory requirements. The cGMP requirements govern quality control and documentation policies and procedures. Complying with cGMP and non-U.S. regulatory requirements would require that we expend time, money, and effort in production, recordkeeping, and quality control to assure that the product meets applicable specifications and other requirements. We would also have to pass a pre-approval inspection prior to FDA or non-U.S. regulatory agency approval. Failure to pass a pre-approval inspection may significantly delay regulatory approval of our products. If we fail to comply with these requirements, we would be subject to possible regulatory action and may be limited in the jurisdictions in which we are permitted to sell our products. As a result, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. 
 
 Corporate and academic collaborators may take actions that delay, prevent, or undermine the success of our products.
 
Our operating and financial strategy for the development, clinical testing, manufacture, and commercialization of our product candidates is heavily dependent on our entering into collaborations with corporations, academic institutions, licensors, licensees, and other parties. Our current strategy assumes that we will successfully establish and maintain these collaborations or similar relationships. However, there can be no assurance that we will be successful establishing or maintaining such collaborations. Some of our existing collaborations, such as our licensing agreements, are, and future collaborations may be, terminable at the sole discretion of the collaborator in certain circumstances. Replacement collaborators might not be available on attractive terms, or at all.
 
In addition, the activities of any collaborator will not be within our control and may not be within our power to influence. There can be no assurance that any collaborator will perform its obligations to our satisfaction or at all, that we will derive any revenue or profits from such collaborations, or that any collaborator will not compete with us. If any collaboration is not pursued, we may require substantially greater capital to undertake on our own the development and marketing of our product candidates and may not be able to develop and market such products successfully, if at all. In addition, a lack of development and marketing collaborations may lead to significant delays in introducing product candidates into certain markets and/or reduced sales of products in such markets.
 
 
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Data provided by collaborators and others upon which we rely that has not been independently verified could turn out to be false, misleading, or incomplete.
 
We rely on third-party vendors, scientists, and collaborators to provide us with significant data and other information related to our projects, clinical trials, and business. If such third parties provide inaccurate, misleading, or incomplete data, our business, prospects, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
 
Risks Related to our Common Stock
 
Prior to fiscal 2015, we had identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, and our current internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent all possible errors that could occur.
 
In the several years prior to fiscal 2015, we had identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting that was related to our limited finance staff and the resulting ineffective management review over financial reporting, coupled with increasingly complex accounting treatments associated with our financing activities and European expansion. While we remediated this material weakness in 2015, we cannot be certain that material weaknesses will not arise again.
 
A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be satisfied. Internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures are designed to give a reasonable assurance that they are effective to achieve their objectives. We cannot provide absolute assurance that all of our possible future control issues will be detected. These inherent limitations include the possibility that judgments in our decision making can be faulty, and that isolated breakdowns can occur because of simple human error or mistake. The design of our system of controls is based in part upon assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed absolutely in achieving our stated goals under all potential future or unforeseeable conditions. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error could occur and not be detected. This and any future failures could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative impact on our financial condition and stock price.
 
Our common stock price has fluctuated considerably and is likely to remain volatile, in part due to the limited market for our common stock and you could lose all or a part of your investment.
 
During the period from the completion of our initial public offering, or IPO, on March 30, 2010 through February 28, 2018, the high and low sales prices for our common stock were $10.40 and $0.15, respectively. There is a limited public market for our common stock and we cannot provide assurances that an active trading market will develop or continue. As a result of low trading volume in our common stock, the purchase or sale of a relatively small number of shares could result in significant share price fluctuations.
 
Additionally, the market price of our common stock may continue to fluctuate significantly in response to a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including the following:
 
market acceptance of Neutrolin in those markets in which it is approved for sale;
our need for additional capital;
the receipt of or failure to obtain additional regulatory approvals for Neutrolin, including FDA approval in the U.S.;
results of clinical trials of our product candidates, including our ongoing and planned Phase 3 trials for Neutrolin in the U.S., or those of our competitors;
our entry into or the loss of a significant collaboration;
regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries, including changes in the healthcare payment systems;
changes in financial estimates or investment recommendations by securities analysts relating to our common stock;
announcements by our competitors of significant developments, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
changes in key personnel;
variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
 
 
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market conditions in the pharmaceutical and medical device sectors and issuance of new or changed securities analysts’ reports or recommendations;
general economic, industry and market conditions;
developments or disputes concerning patents or other proprietary rights;
future sales or anticipated sales of our securities by us or our stockholders; and
any other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.
 
In addition, the stock markets in general, and the stock of pharmaceutical and medical device companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance.
 
For these reasons and others, an investment in our securities is risky and invest only if you can withstand a significant loss and wide fluctuations in the value of your investment. 
 
A significant number of additional shares of our common stock may be issued at a later date, and their sale could depress the market price of our common stock.
 
As of December 31, 2017, we had outstanding the following securities that are convertible into or exercisable for shares of our common stock:
 
warrants for 227,273 shares of common stock issued in July 2013 with an exercise price of $1.50 that expire on July 30, 2018;
warrants for 500,000 shares of common stock issued in May 2013 with an exercise price of $0.65 per share that expire on May 30, 2019;
warrants for 125,000 shares issued to ND Partners in April 2013 in connection with the amendment to the license and assignment agreement with an exercise price of $1.50 per share that expire on April 11, 2018;
options to purchase an aggregate of 120,000 shares of our common stock issued to our officers, directors, employees and non-employee consultants under our Amended and Restated 2006 Stock Incentive Plan, or the 2006 Stock Plan, with a weighted average exercise price of $1.44 per share;
options to purchase an aggregate of 4,842,795 shares of our common stock issued to our officers, directors and non-employee consultants under our 2013 Stock Plan, with a weighted average exercise price of $2.05 per share;
a warrant to purchase 400,000 shares of our common stock issued on February 19, 2013 with an exercise price of $1.50 that expire on February 19, 2018;
warrants for 750,000 shares of common stock with an exercise price of $0.90 that expire on October 22, 2019;
warrants for 725,000 shares of common stock with an exercise price of $0.90 that expire on January 8, 2020;
Series C-2 Preferred Stock convertible into 1,500,000 shares of common;
Series C-3 Preferred Stock convertible into 1,040,000 shares of common stock;
Series D Preferred Stock convertible into 1,479,240 shares of common stock;
Series E Preferred Stock convertible into 1,959,759 shares of common stock;
Series F Preferred Stock convertible into 3,157,562 shares of common stock, subject to adjustment;
warrants for 682,500 shares of common stock issued in March 2014 with an exercise price of $2.50 per shares that expire on September 10, 2019;
warrants for 200,000 shares of common stock with an exercise price of $7.00 that expire on March 3, 2020;
warrants for 83,400 shares of common stock with an exercise price of $7.00 that expire on March 25, 2020;
Series A warrants for 4,078,226 shares of common stock with an exercise price of $0.75 that expire on September 10, 2018;
Series B warrants for 13,964,476 shares of common stock with an exercise price of $1.05 that expire on August 10, 2022;
underwriter warrants for 1,117,158 shares of common stock with an exercise price of $0.9375 that expire on August 10, 2022;
warrants for 564,858 shares of common stock with an exercise price of $0.001 that expire on November 16, 2020; and
restricted stock units for 66,414 shares of common stock with an average grant date fair value of $2.08 per share.
 
 
30
 
 
The possibility of the issuance of these shares, as well as the actual sale of such shares, could substantially reduce the market price for our common stock and impede our ability to obtain future financing. 
 
We will need additional financing to fund our activities in the future, which likely will dilute our stockholders.
 
 To date, our commercial operations have not generated sufficient revenues to enable profitability. As of December 31, 2017, we had an accumulated deficit of $152.2 million, and incurred net losses from operations of $33.0 million for the year then ended. Based on the current development plans for Neutrolin in both the U.S. and foreign markets (including the ongoing hemodialysis Phase 3 clinical trial in the U.S.) and our other operating requirements, management believes that the existing cash at December 31, 2017 plus funding raised through March 9, 2018 and a proposed new $3 million backstop facility, for which a binding term sheet was recently signed by us and Elliott Management Corporation, will be sufficient to fund operations into the third quarter of 2018. If a definitive agreement can be negotiated and executed, the proposed backstop facility would be available for drawing between April 16, 2018 and July 31, 2018. Further, we will need additional funding to complete the hemodialysis clinical trial in the U.S. which commenced in December 2015 and to continue the Neutrolin development program through the NDA filing and marketing approval. We anticipate that we will incur operating losses for the foreseeable future. Additionally, we will require substantial funds in the future to support our operations. We expect to seek equity or debt financings in the future to fund our operations. The issuance of additional equity securities, or convertible debt or other derivative securities, likely will dilute some if not all of our then existing stockholders, depending on the financing terms.
 
Future sales and issuances of our equity securities or rights to purchase our equity securities, including pursuant to equity incentive plans, would result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to fall.
 
To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution. We may, as we have in the past, sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in more than one transaction, investors may be further diluted by subsequent sales. Such sales may also result in material dilution to our existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights superior to existing stockholders.
 
Pursuant to our 2013 Stock Plan, our Board of Directors is authorized to award up to a total of 11,000,000 shares of common stock or options to purchase shares of common stock to our officers, directors, employees and non-employee consultants. As of December 31, 2017, options to purchase 120,000 shares of common stock issued under our 2006 Stock Plan at a weighted average exercise price of $1.44 per share, and options to purchase 4,842,495 shares of common stock issued under our 2013 Stock Plan at a weighted average exercise price of $2.05 per share were outstanding. In addition, at December 31, 2017, there were outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate of 23,417,891 shares of our common stock at prices ranging from $0.001 to $7.00, and shares of our outstanding Series C-2, C-3, D, E and F preferred stock convertible into an aggregate of 9,136,560 shares of our common stock. Stockholders will experience dilution in the event that additional shares of common stock are issued under our 2006 Stock Plan or 2013 Stock Plan, or options issued under our 2006 Stock Plan or 2013 Stock Plan are exercised, or any warrants are exercised for, or preferred stock shares are converted to, common stock.
 
Provisions in our corporate charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult.
 
Provisions in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, and our Amended and Restated Bylaws, as well as provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or DGCL, may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control of our company, even if such a change in control would be beneficial to our stockholders. These provisions include the following:
 
authorizing the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval;
prohibiting our stockholders from fixing the number of our directors; and
establishing advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals that can be acted on at stockholder meetings and nominations to our Board of Directors.
 
 
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These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, we are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with an interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless such transactions are approved by the board of directors. This provision could have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing someone from acquiring us or merging with us, whether or not it is desired by, or beneficial to, our stockholders. Any provision of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, or Amended and Restated Bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock. 
 
If we fail to comply with the continued listing standards of the NYSE American, it may result in a delisting of our common stock from the exchange. 
 
Our common stock is currently listed for trading on the NYSE American, and the continued listing of our common stock on the NYSE American is subject to our compliance with a number of listing standards. These listing standards include the requirement for avoiding sustained losses and maintaining a minimum level of stockholders’ equity.  In 2012 and 2014, we received notices from the NYSE American that we did not meet continued listing standards of the NYSE American as set forth in Part 10 of the Company Guide.  Specifically, we were not in compliance with Section 1003(a)(i) and Section 1003(a)(ii) of the Company Guide because we reported stockholders’ equity of less than the required amounts.  As a result, we became subject to the procedures and requirements of Section 1009 of the Company Guide and were subject to possible delisting. In March 2015, we regained compliance with the NYSE American listing requirements due to our market capitalization, pursuant to Section 1003(a) of the Company Guide. However, there can be no assurance that we will continue to meet the continued listing standards of the NYSE American.
 
If our common stock were no longer listed on the NYSE American, investors might only be able to trade on one of the over-the-counter markets, including the OTC Bulletin Board ® or in the Pink Sheets ® (a quotation medium operated by Pink Sheets LLC). This would impair the liquidity of our common stock not only in the number of shares that could be bought and sold at a given price, which might be depressed by the relative illiquidity, but also through delays in the timing of transactions and reduction in media coverage.
 
Because the average daily trading volume of our common stock has been low historically, the ability to sell our shares in the secondary trading market may be limited.
 
Because the average daily trading volume of our common stock on the NYSE American has been low historically, the liquidity of our common stock may be impaired. As a result, prices for shares of our common stock may be lower than might otherwise prevail if the average daily trading volume of our common stock was higher. The average daily trading volume of our common stock may be low relative to the stocks of other exchange-listed companies, which could limit investors’ ability to sell shares in the secondary trading market. 
 
Penny stock regulations may impose certain restrictions on marketability of our securities.  
 
The SEC has adopted regulations which generally define a “penny stock” to be any equity security that has a market price of less than $5.00 per share or an exercise price of less than $5.00 per share, subject to certain exceptions. A security listed on a national securities exchange is exempt from the definition of a penny stock. Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American and so is not considered a penny stock. However, if we fail to maintain our common stock’s listing on the NYSE American, our common stock would be considered a penny stock. In that event, our common stock would be subject to rules that impose additional sales practice requirements on broker-dealers who sell such securities to persons other than established customers and accredited investors (generally those with assets in excess of $1,000,000 or annual income exceeding $200,000, or $300,000 together with their spouse). For transactions covered by such rules, the broker-dealer must make a special suitability determination for the purchase of such securities and have received the purchaser’s written consent to the transaction prior to the purchase. Additionally, for any transaction involving a penny stock, unless exempt, the rules require the delivery, prior to the transaction, of a risk disclosure document mandated by the SEC relating to the penny stock market. The broker-dealer must also disclose the commission payable to both the broker-dealer and the registered representative, current quotations for the securities and, if the broker-dealer is the sole market maker, the broker-dealer must disclose this fact and the broker-dealer’s presumed control over the market. Finally, monthly statements must be sent disclosing recent price information for the penny stock held in the account and information on the limited market in penny stocks. Broker-dealers must wait two business days after providing buyers with disclosure materials regarding a security before effecting a transaction in such security. Consequently, the “penny stock” rules restrict the ability of broker-dealers to sell our securities and affect the ability of investors to sell our securities in the secondary market and the price at which such purchasers can sell any such securities, thereby affecting the liquidity of the market for our common stock.
 
 
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Stockholders should be aware that, according to the SEC, the market for penny stocks has suffered in recent years from patterns of fraud and abuse. Such patterns include: 
 
control of the market for the security by one or more broker-dealers that are often related to the promoter or issuer;
manipulation of prices through prearranged matching of purchases and sales and false and misleading press releases;
“boiler room” practices involving high pressure sales tactics and unrealistic price projections by inexperienced sales persons;
excessive and undisclosed bid-ask differentials and markups by selling broker-dealers; and
the wholesale dumping of the same securities by promoters and broker-dealers after prices have been manipulated to a desired level, along with the inevitable collapse of those prices with consequent investor losses.
 
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock so any returns on our common stock will be limited to the value of our common stock.
 
We have never declared dividends on our common stock, and currently do not plan to declare dividends on shares of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Pursuant to the terms of our Series D, E and F Non-Voting Convertible Preferred Stock, we may not declare or pay any dividends or make any distributions on any of our shares or other equity securities as long as any of those preferred shares remain outstanding. We currently expect to retain future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of our business. The payment of cash dividends in the future, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon such factors as earnings levels, capital requirements, our overall financial condition and any other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Any return to holders of our common stock will be limited to the value of their common stock.
 
Item 1B. 
Unresolved Staff Comments
 
None.
 
Item 2. 
Properties
 
Our principal executive offices are located in approximately 6,960 square feet of office space in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey. We sublease this office pursuant to a sublease agreement dated September 2017 which runs from September 15, 2017 to June 29, 2020. This sublease is rent-free to the Company.
 
Effective October 1, 2017, the Company terminated its sublease for the 4,700 square feet of office space in Bedminster, New Jersey with no further lease obligation for the remainder of the sublease. Rent was $5,000 per month plus occupancy costs such as utilities, maintenance and taxes.
 
Our subsidiary leases its offices in Fulda, Germany has a three-month lease agreement which commenced in June 2017, renewable every three months for a base monthly payment of €400.
 
We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current needs, and that suitable additional alternative spaces will be available in the future on commercially reasonable terms.
 
Item 3. 
Legal Proceedings
 
On September 9, 2014, we filed in the District Court of Mannheim, Germany a patent infringement action against TauroPharm GmbH and Tauro-Implant GmbH as well as their respective CEOs (the “Defendants”) claiming infringement of our European Patent EP 1 814 562 B1, which was granted by the EPO on January 8, 2014 (the “Prosl European Patent”). The Prosl European Patent covers a low dose heparin catheter lock solution for maintaining patency and preventing infection in a hemodialysis catheter. In this action, we claim that the Defendants infringe on the Prosl European Patent by manufacturing and distributing catheter locking solutions to the extent they are covered by the claims of the Prosl European Patent. We believe that our patent is sound, and are seeking injunctive relief and raising claims for information, rendering of accounts, calling back, destruction and damages. Separately, TauroPharm has filed an opposition with the EPO against the Prosl European Patent alleging that it lacks novelty and inventive step. We cannot predict what other defenses the Defendants may raise, or the ultimate outcome of either of these related matters.
 
 
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In the same complaint against the same Defendants, we also alleged an infringement (requesting the same remedies) of NDP’s utility model DE 20 2005 022 124 U1 (the “Utility Model”), which we believe is fundamentally identical to the Prosl European Patent in its main aspects and claims. The Court separated the two proceedings and the Prosl European Patent and the Utility Model claims are now being tried separately. TauroPharm has filed a cancellation action against the Utility Model before the German Patent and Trademark Office (the “German PTO”) based on the similar arguments as those in the opposition against the Prosl European Patent.
 
On March 27, 2015, the District Court held a hearing to evaluate whether the Utility Model has been infringed by TauroPharm in connection with the manufacture, sale and distribution of its TauroLock-HEP100TM and TauroLock-HEP500TM products. A hearing before the same court was held on January 30, 2015 on the separate, but related, question of infringement of the Prosl European Patent by TauroPharm.
 
The Court issued its decisions on May 8, 2015, staying both proceedings. In its decisions, the Court found that the commercialization by TauroPharm in Germany of its TauroLock catheter lock solutions Hep100 and Hep500 infringes both the Prosl European Patent and the Utility Model and further that there is no prior use right that would allow TauroPharm to continue to make, use or sell its product in Germany. However, the Court declined to issue an injunction in favor of us that would preclude the continued commercialization by TauroPharm based upon its finding that there is a sufficient likelihood that the EPO, in the case of the Prosl European Patent, or the German PTO, in the case of the Utility Model, may find that such patent or utility model is invalid. Specifically, the Court noted the possible publication of certain instructions for product use that may be deemed to constitute prior art. As such, the District Court determined that it will defer any consideration of the request by us for injunctive and other relief until such time as the EPO or the German PTO made a final decision on the underlying validity of the Prosl European Patent and the Utility Model.
 
The opposition proceeding against the Prosl European Patent before the EPO is ongoing. In its preliminary consideration of the matter, the EPO (and the German PTO) regarded the patent as not inventive or novel due to publication of prior art. Oral proceedings before the Opposition Division at the EPO were held on November 25, 2015, at which the three judge patent examiner panel considered arguments related to the validity of the Prosl European Patent. The hearing was adjourned due to the fact that the panel was of the view that Claus Herdeis, one of the managing directors of TauroPharm, has to be heard as a witness in a further hearing in order to close some gaps in the documentation presented by TauroPharm as regards the publication of prior art.
 
The German PTO held a hearing in the validity proceedings relating to the Utility Model on June 29, 2016, at which the panel affirmed its preliminary finding that the Utility Model was invalid based upon prior publication of a reference to the benefits that may be associated with adding heparin to a taurolidine based solution. The decision has only a declaratory effect, as the Utility Model had expired in November 2015. Furthermore, it has no bearing on the ongoing consideration by the EPO of the validity and possible infringement of the Prosl European Patent. We filed an appeal against the ruling on September 7, 2016.
 
In October 2016, TauroPharm submitted a further writ to the EPO requesting a date for the hearing and bringing forward further arguments, in particular in view of the June 2016 decision of the German PTO on the invalidity of the utility model, which we have appealed. On November 22, 2017, the EPO in Munich, Germany held a further oral hearing in this matter. At the hearing, the panel held that the Prosl European Patent would be invalidated because it did not meet the requirements of novelty based on a technical aspect of the European intellectual property law. We disagree with this decision and plan to appeal. Our appeal will be based, in part, on the written opinion to be issued by the Opposition Division, which is expected by the first quarter 2018. We continue to believe that the Prosl European Patent is indeed novel and that its validity should be maintained. There can be no assurance that we will prevail in this matter with either the German PTO or the EPO. In addition, the ongoing Unfair Competition litigation against TauroPharm is not affected and will continue.
 
 
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On January 16, 2015, we filed a complaint against TauroPharm GmbH and its managing directors in the District Court of Cologne, Germany. In the complaint, we allege violation of the German Unfair Competition Act by TauroPharm for the unauthorized use of its proprietary information obtained in confidence by TauroPharm. We allege that TauroPharm is improperly and unfairly using its proprietary information relating to the composition and manufacture of Neutrolin, in the manufacture and sale of TauroPharm’s products TauroLockTM, TauroLock-HEP100 and TauroLock-HEP500. We seek a cease and desist order against TauroPharm from continuing to manufacture and sell any product containing taurolidine (the active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) of Neutrolin) and citric acid in addition to possible other components, damages for any sales in the past and the removal of all such products from the market. An initial hearing in the District Court of Cologne, Germany was held on November 19, 2015 to consider our claims. The judge made no decision on the merits of our complaint. On January 14, 2016, the court issued an interim decision in the form of a court order outlining several issues of concern that relate primarily to court's interest in clarifying the facts and reviewing any and all available documentation, in particular with regard to the question which specific know-how was provided to TauroPharm by whom and when. We have prepared the requested reply and produced the respective documentation. TauroPharm has also filed another writ within the same deadline and both parties have filed further writs at the end of April setting out their respective argumentation in more detail. A further oral hearing in this matter was held on November 15, 2016. In this hearing, the court heard arguments from CorMedix and TauroPharm concerning the allegations of unfair competition. The court made no rulings from the bench, and indicated that it is prepared to further examine the underlying facts of our allegations. On March 7, 2017, the court issued another interim decision in the form of a court order outlining again several issues relating to the argumentation of both sides in the proceedings. In particular the court requested us to further specify our requests and to further substantiate in even more detail which know know-how was provided by Biolink to TauroPharm by whom and when. The court also raised the question whether the know-how provided at the time to TauroPharm could still be considered to be secret know-how or may have become public in the meantime. The court granted both sides the opportunity to reply to this court order and provide additional facts and evidence until May 15, 2017. Both parties have submitted further writs in this matter and the court had scheduled a further hearing for May 8, 2018. After having been rescheduled several times, the hearing is now scheduled to take place on November 20, 2018. The Company intends to continue to pursue this matter, and to provide additional supplemental documentary and other evidence as may be necessary to support its claims.
 
Item 4.     
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Not applicable.
 
PART II
 
Item 5. 
Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Market for Common Equity
 
Our common stock trades on the NYSE MKT under the symbol “CRMD.” The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices for our common stock for the periods indicated as reported by NYSE MKT:
 
 
 
2017
 
 
2016
 
 
 
High
 
 
Low
 
 
High
 
 
Low
 
First Quarter
 $2.48 
 $1.44 
 $2.88 
 $1.15 
Second Quarter
 $1.64 
 $0.36 
 $4.54 
 $1.83 
Third Quarter
 $0.54 
 $0.32 
 $3.12 
 $1.35 
Fourth Quarter
 $0.77 
 $0.45 
 $3.26 
 $1.46 
 
Based upon information furnished by our transfer agent, at March 15, 2018, we had approximately 61 holders of record of our common stock.
 
 
35
 
 
Dividend Policy
 
We have never declared dividends on our equity securities, and currently do not plan to declare dividends on shares of our common stock in the foreseeable future. We expect to retain our future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of our business. Further, pursuant to the terms of our Series D and Series E Non-Voting Convertible Preferred Stock, we may not declare or pay any dividends or make any distributions on any of our shares or other equity securities as long as any of those preferred shares remain outstanding. Subject to the foregoing, the payment of cash dividends in the future, if any, will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon such factors as earnings levels, capital requirements, our overall financial condition and any other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors.
 
Equity Compensation Plan Information
 
The following table provides information as of December 31, 2017 about our common stock that may be issued upon the exercise of options, warrants and rights under all of our existing equity compensation plans (including individual arrangements):
 
Plan Category
 
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights(a)
 
 
Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights(b)
 
 
Number ofsecurities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a) (c)
 
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders (1)
  4,962,795 
 $2.04 
  5,253,336 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders (2)
  125,000 
  1.50 
  -- 
Total 
  5,087,795  
 $2.02 
  5,253,336  
 
(1) 
Our Amended and Restated 2006 Stock Incentive Plan was approved by our stockholders on February 19, 2010. Our 2013 Stock Incentive Plan was approved by our stockholders on July 30, 2013.
 
(2)
Consists of 125,000 shares of common stock issuable pursuant to a warrant issued to ND Partners in April 2013 as consideration for the amendment of the ND Partners License Agreement.
 
Item 6. 
Selected Consolidated Financial Data
 
Not applicable.
 
Item 7. 
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
You should read the following discussion and analysis together with our audited financial statements and the accompanying notes. This discussion contains forward-looking statements, within the meaning of Section 27A of Securities Act, Section 21E of the Exchange Act, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including statements regarding our expected financial condition, business and financing plans. These statements involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from the results described in or implied by these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those discussed below and elsewhere in this report, particularly under the heading “Risk Factors.”
 
Overview
 
We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing therapeutic products for the prevention and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases.
 
 
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Our primary focus is to develop our lead product candidate, Neutrolin®, for potential commercialization in the U.S. and other key markets. We have in-licensed the worldwide rights to develop and commercialize Neutrolin, which is a novel anti-infective solution (a formulation of taurolidine, citrate and heparin 1000 u/ml) under development in the U.S. for the reduction and prevention of catheter-related infections and thrombosis in patients requiring central venous catheters in clinical settings such as dialysis, critical/intensive care, and oncology. Infection and thrombosis represent key complications among critical care/ intensive care and cancer patients with central venous catheters. These complications can lead to treatment delays and increased costs to the healthcare system when they occur due to hospitalizations, the need for IV antibiotic treatment, long-term anticoagulation therapy, removal/replacement of the central venous catheter, related treatment costs and increased mortality. We believe Neutrolin has the potential to address a significant unmet medical need and represents a significant market opportunity.
 
In July 2013, we received CE Mark approval for Neutrolin. In December 2013, we commercially launched Neutrolin in Germany for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections and maintenance of catheter patency in hemodialysis patients using a tunneled, cuffed central venous catheter for vascular access.  To date, Neutrolin is registered and may be sold in certain European Union and Middle Eastern countries for such treatment. In April 2017, we entered into a commercial collaboration with Hemotech SAS covering France and French overseas territories.
 
We initiated a Phase 3 clinical trial in hemodialysis patients with a central venous catheter (“LOCK-IT-100”) in December 2015 Two pivotal trials to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of Neutrolin are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) to secure marketing approval in the United States.
 
In April 2017, a safety review by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board, or DSMB was completed. The DSMB unanimously concluded that it is safe to continue the LOCK-IT-100 clinical trial as designed based on its evaluation of data from the first 279 patients randomized into the trial.
 
On August 2, 2017, we announced that the FDA had agreed to key changes to the LOCK-IT-100 clinical trial. We believe that the changes endorsed by the FDA will facilitate our ability to complete patient enrollment of our the ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial in hemodialysis patients with central venous catheters, as previously announced, in mid-year 2018, and to complete the trial once we have accumulated the requisite number of CRBSI events. We sought guidance from the FDA to address, in part, the apparent overall lower rate of catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) events from patients in the study, as announced in April 2017. Changes to the study included 1) the utilization of a Clinical Adjudication Committee (CAC) to assess suspected CRBSIs; 2) the use of the CAC to critically and independently assess suspected CRBSIs in a blinded fashion based on a single positive blood culture and supporting documentation, rather than two positive blood cultures as required per protocol; 3) the ability to capture cases occurring outside of dialysis centers to facilitate more complete capture of CRBSI events in the study, particularly when patients present with CRBSI events outside of the dialysis center setting e.g. emergency rooms or urgent care centers; and 4) a revision of the design of the study to detect a treatment effect of 55% or greater when comparing the Neutrolin and heparin control arms. The FDA agreed that cases adjudicated by the CAC to be CRBSI events and the per protocol definition of CRBSI events will be included in the primary analysis of the primary efficacy endpoint of the LOCK-IT-100 study. The amended study assumptions including a reduction in statistical power have resulted in a reduction in the total number of CRBSI events required from 161 events to 56 events to complete the study. 
 
We believe that these changes will allow the identification of more infections, enabling a single interim analysis, which is anticipated to occur in the second quarter of 2018.  Should the interim analysis show sufficient efficacy it may be possible to conclude the study earlier than projected.
 
We are sponsoring a pre-clinical research collaboration for the use of taurolidine as a possible combination treatment for rare orphan pediatric tumors. In February 2018, the FDA granted orphan drug designation to taurolidine for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
 
We are also evaluating opportunities for the possible expansion of taurolidine as a platform compound for use in certain medical devices. Patent applications have been filed in wound closure, surgical meshes, wound management, and osteoarthritis, including visco-supplementation. Based on initial feasibility work, we are advancing pre-clinical studies for taurolidine-infused surgical meshes, suture materials, and hydrogels. We will seek to establish development/commercial partnerships as these programs advance.
 
 
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In August 2017, the Company secured a research grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to expand the Company’s antimicrobial hydrogel medical device program.  In addition to our ongoing development of taurolidine-incorporated hydrogels to reduce infections in common burns, this funding will finance the development of an advanced hydrogel formulation that is designed to reduce the risk of potentially life-threatening infection and promote healing of more severe burn injuries, for which there is significant need.
 
The FDA recently informed us that it regards taurolidine as a new chemical entity and therefore an unapproved drug. Consequently, there is no appropriate predicate device currently marketed in the U.S. on which a 510k approval process could be based. As a result, we will be required to submit a premarket approval application for marketing authorization for these indications. In the event that the New Drug Application for Neutrolin is approved by the FDA, the regulatory pathway can be revisited with the FDA.  Although there will presumably still be no appropriate predicate, de novo Class II designation can be proposed, based on a risk assessment and a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness.
 
Since our inception, we have not generated sufficient revenue from product sales to be profitable.  Our operations to date have been primarily limited to conducting clinical trials and establishing manufacturing for our product candidates, licensing product candidates, business and financial planning, research and development, seeking regulatory approval for our products, initial commercialization activities for Neutrolin in the European Union and other foreign markets, and maintaining and improving our patent portfolio.  We have funded our operations primarily through debt and equity financings.  We have generated significant losses to date, and we expect to use substantial amounts of cash for our operations as we continue to conduct our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial in hemodialysis patients with catheters, plan a second Phase 3 clinical trial for Neutrolin, commercialize Neutrolin in the European Union and other foreign markets, pursue business development activities, incur additional legal costs to defend our intellectual property, and seek FDA approval of Neutrolin in the U.S.  As of December 31, 2017, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $152.2 million.  We are unable to predict the extent of any future losses or when we will become profitable, if ever.
 
Financial Operations Overview
 
Revenue
 
We have not generated substantial revenue since our inception. Through December 31, 2017, we have funded our operations primarily through debt and equity financings.
 
Research and Development Expense
 
Research and development, or R&D, expense consists of: (i) internal costs associated with our development activities; (ii) payments we make to third party contract research organizations, contract manufacturers, investigative sites, and consultants; (iii) technology and intellectual property license costs; (iv) manufacturing development costs; (v) personnel related expenses, including salaries, stock–based compensation expense, benefits, travel and related costs for the personnel involved in drug development; (vi) activities relating to regulatory filings and the advancement of our product candidates through pre-clinical studies and clinical trials; and (vii) facilities and other allocated expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent, facility maintenance, as well as laboratory and other supplies. All R&D is expensed as incurred.
 
Conducting a significant amount of development is central to our business model. Product candidates in later-stage clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of development, primarily due to the significantly increased size and duration of the clinical trials. We expect to incur higher R&D expenses for the foreseeable future in order to complete development of Neutrolin in the U.S., especially the ongoing LOCK-IT-100 clinical trial and an anticipated second Phase 3 trial.
 
The process of conducting pre-clinical studies and clinical trials necessary to obtain regulatory approval is costly and time consuming. The probability of success for each product candidate and clinical trial may be affected by a variety of factors, including, among others, the quality of the product candidate’s early clinical data, investment in the program, competition, manufacturing capabilities and commercial viability. As a result of the uncertainties associated with clinical trial enrollments and the risks inherent in the development process, we are unable to determine the duration and completion costs of current or future clinical stages of our product candidates or when, or to what extent, we will generate revenues from the commercialization and sale of any of our product candidates.
 
 
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Development timelines, probability of success and development costs vary widely. We are currently focused on clinical development in the U.S. and optimization of sales in foreign markets where Neutrolin is approved. In December 2015, we contracted with PPD Development, L.P. to help us conduct our multicenter, double-blind, randomized, active control Phase 3 clinical trial in hemodialysis patients with central venous catheters to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Neutrolin in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infections and blood clotting in subjects receiving hemodialysis therapy as treatment for end stage renal disease. In May 2017, we modified the contract to cover the costs associated with an extension of the estimated study timeline, incorporate several protocol amendments and take on several new tasks related to the enrollment sites. Given several recent changes to the study agreed with the FDA, we signed a second contract modification with PPD for another $6.3 million, to cover the continuation of trial enrollment which is anticipated to continue into the second quarter of 2018, increased length of time in which patients are enrolled and additional activities related to the collection of retrospective data outside the treatment centers. At December 31, 2017, the total cost of the contract had increased to $32.7 million from its original amount of $19.2 million, of which approximately $14.4 million has been expended through December 31, 2017.
 
We are pursuing additional opportunities to generate value based on taurolidine, an active component of Neutrolin. Based on initial feasibility work, we are advancing pre-clinical studies for taurolidine-infused surgical meshes, suture materials, and hydrogels, which will require a PMA regulatory pathway for approval. We are also involved in a pre-clinical research collaboration for the use of taurolidine as a possible treatment for rare orphan pediatric tumors. In February 2018, the FDA granted orphan drug designation to taurolidine for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
 
Selling, General and Administrative Expense
 
Selling, general and administrative, or SG&A, expense includes costs related to commercial personnel, medical education professionals, marketing and advertising, salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation expense, for persons serving in our executive, sales, finance and accounting functions. Other SG&A expense includes facility-related costs not included in R&D expense, promotional expenses, costs associated with industry and trade shows, and professional fees for legal services and accounting services.
 
Change in Fair Value of Derivative Liabilities
 
In November 2017, we entered into a backstop agreement with an existing long-term institutional investor to purchase additional Series F convertible preferred Stock at $1,000 per share, at our sole discretion, beginning January 15, 2018 through March 31, 2018. As consideration for the backstop agreement, we issued 564,858 warrants, exercisable for three years, to purchase shares of our common stock at a per share exercise price of $0.001. These warrants were initially classified as derivative liability as we had a conditional obligation to settle these warrants by issuing a variable number of shares with variations of the obligation based on inputs other than the fair value of our shares (i.e. the amount subject to the backstop agreement). In November 2017, we initially recorded a derivative liability of $270,592 and a corresponding reduction to additional paid in capital based on the initial Black Scholes valuation. In December 2017, the number of warrants issued was determined and, as a result, the derivative liability was reclassified to equity. Prior to the reclassification to equity, an expense of $56,487 for the change in fair value of derivative liability was recorded on our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss) during the fourth quarter of 2018.
 
As previously disclosed, at the time we issued the warrants in our May 2017 public offering, we did not have a sufficient number of authorized shares of common stock to cover the shares issuable upon exercise of the warrants and therefore recorded and classified the fair value of the warrants as a derivative liability at the issuance date and marked-to-market at each balance sheet date. The change in the fair value of derivative liability is the difference between the fair value of the warrants recorded on issuance date and the fair value of warrants at the balance sheet date, with any decrease or increase in the estimated fair value being recorded in other income (expense). On August 9, 2017, we amended our certificate of incorporation to increase our authorized shares and we, as of that date, have sufficient authorized shares to cover shares issuable upon the conversion of the warrants. The fair value of these warrants was re-measured on August 10, 2017, the date the warrants became exercisable, with any increase or decrease in value recorded as a loss or gain in the income statement and the fair value of the warrants at August 10, 2017 was reclassified from liability to equity.
 
 
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Foreign Currency Exchange Transaction Gain (Loss)
 
Foreign currency exchange transaction gain (loss) is the result of re-measuring transactions denominated in a currency other than our functional currency and is reported in the consolidated statement of operations as a separate line item within other income (expense). The intercompany loans outstanding are not expected to be repaid in the foreseeable future and the nature of the funding advanced is of a long-term investment nature. As such, unrealized foreign exchange movements related to long-term intercompany loans are recorded in other comprehensive income (loss).
 
Interest Income
 
Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments.
 
Interest Expense
 
Interest expense consists of interest incurred on financing of expenditures.
 
Results of Operations
 
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016
 
The following is a tabular presentation of our consolidated operating results for the years ended December 31 (in thousands):
 
 
 
2017
 
 
2016
 
 
% of Change
Increase (Decrease)
 
Revenue
 $329 
 $224 
  47%
Cost of sales
  (115)
  (367)
  (69)%
Gross profit (loss)
  214 
  (143)
  (250)%
Operating Expenses:
    
    
    
Research and development
  (24,486)
  (15,735)
  56%
Selling, general and administrative
  (8,652)
  (8,883)
  (3)%
Total operating expenses
  (33,138)
  (24,618)
  35%
Loss from operations
  (32,924)
  (24,761)
  33%
Interest income
  111 
  127 
  (13)%
Foreign exchange transaction loss
  (14)
  (8)
  75%
Change in fair value of derivative liabilities
  (177)
  - 
  - 
Interest expense
  (6)
  (1)
  329%
Total other income (expense)
  (86)
  118 
  (173)%
Net loss
  (33,010)
  (24,643)
  34%
Other comprehensive income gain (loss)
  17 
  19 
  (11)%
Comprehensive loss
 $(32,993)
 $(24,624)
  34%
 
Revenue. Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $329,000 as compared to $224,000 for the same period in 2016, an increase of $105,000. The increase occurred due to higher sales of Neutrolin in the European Union of $110,000, particularly in France under the distribution agreement with Hemotech.
 
Cost of Sales. Cost of sales for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $115,000 as compared to $367,000 for the same period in 2016, a decrease of $252,000. The decrease reflected a $327,000 reduction in inventory reserve during the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to an increase of $130,000 in the inventory reserve for the same period in 2016. The reduction of inventory reserve in 2017 was mainly due to higher sales in 2017 as compared to 2016, and longer shelf life of the products manufactured. The decrease was partially offset by a $148,000 increased cost of materials related to higher sales during the year ended December 31, 2017 and an increase in ongoing stability studies cost of $81,000.
 
 
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Research and Development Expense. R&D expense for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $24,486,000, an increase of $8,751,000 from $15,735,000 for the same period in 2016. The increase was primarily attributable to a $10,255,000 increase in expenses related to the ongoing LOCK-IT-100 clinical trial in the U.S. and increase in personnel expenses of $1,572,000, mainly due to the hiring of our chief medical officer and new staff supporting the LOCK-IT-100 trial, including several consultants who were converted to employee status; partially offset by reduced cost of new studies in 2016 related to wound closure, surgical meshes, wound management, and osteoarthritis, including visco-supplementation of $1,985,000; a decrease in costs related to manufacturing process development activities of $908,000; a decrease in non-cash stock-based compensation of $97,000; and a decrease in consulting fees of $95,000.
 
Selling, General and Administrative Expense. SG&A expense for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $8,652,000, a decrease of $231,000 from $8,883,000 for the same period in 2016. The decrease was primarily attributable to reductions in consulting fees of $701,000, mainly due to the termination of our interim chief financial officer’s consulting contract in 2017 and a reduction in legal fees of $520,000 attributable to the ongoing intellectual property litigation and the dismissed securities litigation. These decreases, among others of lesser significance, were partially offset by an increase in higher personnel expenses of $571,000, due to the hiring of new employees, including our chief financial officer; and an increase in non-cash charge for stock-based compensation expense of $421,000.
 
Interest Income. Interest income for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $111,000, a decrease of $16,000 from $127,000 for the same period in 2016. The decrease was attributable to lower average interest-bearing cash balances and short-term investments during 2017 as compared to the same period in 2016.
 
Foreign Exchange Transaction Gain (Loss). Foreign exchange transaction losses for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 of $14,000 and $8,000, respectively, were due to the foreign exchange rate fluctuations for the payment of invoices paid in foreign currency.
 
Change in Fair Value of Derivative Liabilities. The change in the value of derivative liabilities for the year ended December 31, 2017 of $177,000 represents the $121,000 net change in the fair value of the warrants issued at issuance date (May 3, 2017 public offering) of $3,733,000 and the estimated fair value of the warrants of $3,854,000 at August 10, 2017, the date that the warrants were reclassified from liability to equity; and the $56,000 increase in fair value of the warrants issued related to the backstop agreement at November 16, 2017 issuance date of $271,000 and the estimated fair value of the warrants of $327,000 at December 24, 2017, the date that the number of warrants to be issued was determined and were reclassified from liability to equity.
 
Interest Expense. Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $6,000 as compared to $1,000 for the same period in 2016, an increase of $5,000 due to fees incurred for financing of expenditures in 2017.
 
Other Comprehensive Income (Loss). Unrealized foreign exchange movements related to long-term intercompany loans and the translation of the foreign affiliate financial statements to U.S. dollars and unrealized movements related to short-term investment are recorded in other comprehensive income resulting in a $17,000 and $19,000 gains in 2017 and 2016, respectively.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Sources of Liquidity
 
As a result of our cost of sales, R&D and SG&A expenditures and the lack of substantial product sales revenue, we have not been profitable and have generated operating losses since we began operations. During the year ended December 31, 2017, we received net proceeds of $12,798,000 from the May 2017 public offering resulting from the issuance of an aggregate of 18,619,301 and 29,046,110 shares of common stock and warrants, respectively; $5,543,000 from the issuance of 8,925,504 shares of common stock under our at-the-market-issuance sales agreement; $1,877,000 from the issuance of 2,000 shares of our Series F convertible preferred stock; $300,000 from the sale of 624,246 shares of common stock to our directors and executive officers and to certain of our employees; and $6,800 from the exercise of 10,000 stock options.
 
 
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Net Cash Used in Operating Activities
 
Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $28,587,000 as compared to $22,265,000 in 2016, an increase in net cash use of $6,322,000. The increase was primarily attributable to an increase in net loss of $8,365,000 driven by increased research and development expenses. The net loss of $33,010,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017 was higher than cash used in operating activities by $4,423,000. The difference is primarily attributable to non-cash stock-based compensation of $1,659,000, change in fair value of derivative liabilities of $177,000, increases in accrued expenses and accounts payable of $2,023,000 and $158,000, respectively, and a decrease in prepaid expenses related to the LOCK-IT-100 trial of $869,000; offset by a decrease in inventory reserve of $327,000, and increases in inventory and trade receivables of $100,000 and $48,000, respectively.
 
Net Cash Provided by Investing Activities
 
Cash provided by investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $11,962,000 compared to $11,420,000 for the same period in 2016, attributable to the proceeds on the sale of short-term investments of $25,188,000, partially offset by the purchase of short-term investments of $13,074,000 and purchase of equipment of $152,000. In comparison to the same period in 2016, net cash provided by investing activities was attributable to the proceeds from the sale of short-term investments used to fund operations of $11,478,000.
 
Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities
 
Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $20,525,000 as compared to $7,092,000 for the same period in 2016. During 2017, we generated net proceeds of $12,798,000 from the May 2017 public offering of our common stock and warrants; $5,543,000 from the sale of our common stock in our at-the-market program; $1,877,000 from the sale of our Series F non-voting preferred stock, $300,000 from the sale of our common stock from our directors, executive officers and certain employees; and $7,000 from the exercise of stock options. In comparison to the same period in 2016, we generated $6,229,000 from the sale of our common stock in our at-the-market program, and $863,000 from the exercise of stock options.
 
Funding Requirements and Liquidity
 
Our total cash on hand and short-term investments as of December 31, 2017 was $12.0 million, excluding restricted cash of $0.2 million, compared with $20.2 million at December 31, 2016. In addition, at December 31, 2017 we have approximately $17.9 million available under our current at-the-market program.  At December 31, 2017, we also had approximately $26.0 million available under our current shelf registration for the issuance of equity, debt or equity-linked securities unrelated to the current ATM program which program will expire on April 16, 2018. On March 9, 2018, we entered into a new agreement with B. Riley FBR, Inc. for the sale of up to $14.1 million of our common stock, subject to the effectiveness of the registration statement for such offering, which we filed on March 9, 2018. The new ATM program is expected to become effective upon the expiration of the current ATM Program; in no event will the two ATM programs run concurrently. We may utilize our ATM program, if conditions allow, to support our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial for Neutrolin in hemodialysis catheters in the U.S.
 
Because our business has not currently generated positive operating cash flow, we will need to raise additional capital in order to continue to fund our research and development activities, as well as to fund operations generally, even after accounting for the sale of our common stock under our current and new ATM programs. Our continued operations and specifically the completion of our ongoing LOCK-IT-100 clinical trial for Neutrolin in the U.S., which was initiated in December 2015, will depend on our ability to raise sufficient additional funds through various potential sources, such as equity, debt financings, and/or strategic relationships. A second Phase 3 clinical trial is currently required for approval, for which funds in addition to the ongoing hemodialysis Phase 3 clinical trial will be required. We can provide no assurances that financing or strategic relationships will be available on acceptable terms, or at all, that may enable us to complete our Phase 3 clinical trial program.
 
 
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We expect to continue to fund operations from cash on hand and through capital raising sources as previously described, which may be dilutive to existing stockholders, through revenues from the licensing of our products, or through strategic alliances. We may continue to utilize our current at-the-market program, if conditions allow, to support our ongoing funding requirements. Additionally, we may seek to sell additional equity or debt securities through one or more discrete transactions, or enter into a strategic alliance arrangement, but can provide no assurances that any such financing or strategic alliance arrangement will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Moreover, the incurrence of indebtedness in connection with a debt financing would result in increased fixed obligations and could contain covenants that would restrict our operations. Raising additional funds through strategic alliance arrangements with third parties may require significant time to complete and could force us to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates, or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us or our stockholders. Our actual cash requirements may vary materially from those now planned due to a number of factors, including any change in the focus and direction of our research and development programs, any acquisition or pursuit of development of new product candidates, competitive and technical advances, the costs of commercializing any of our product candidates, and costs of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing any patent claims and any other intellectual property rights.
 
While we expect to grow product sales, we do not anticipate that we will generate significant product revenues in the foreseeable future. In the absence of such revenue, we are likely to continue generating operating cash flow deficits. We expect to incur increases in our cash used in operations as we continue our ongoing and planned Phase 3 clinical trials, pursue business development activities, incur additional legal costs to defend our intellectual property and seek FDA approval of Neutrolin in the U.S.
 
Based on our cash resources at December 31, 2017, the net proceeds we received from the sale of our common stock under our ATM program through March 9, 2018, and the expected timing and cost of the ongoing LOCK-IT-100 clinical trial in the U.S., we believe that our existing cash and short-term investments will fund our operations into the third quarter of 2018, after taking into consideration the proposed new $3 million backstop facility, for which a binding term sheet was recently signed by us and Elliott Management Corporation. If a definitive agreement can be negotiated and executed, the proposed backstop facility would be available for drawing between April 16, 2018 and July 31, 2018. If we are unable to raise additional funds when needed, we may be forced to slow or discontinue our ongoing LOCK-IT-100 clinical trial, and will be unable to commence the planned second Phase 3 clinical trial. We could also be required to delay, scale back or eliminate some or all of our research and development programs. Each of these alternatives would likely have a material adverse effect on our business. These factors raise substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern.
 
Contractual Obligations
 
In September 2017, we entered into a sublease agreement for approximately 6,960 square feet of office space in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, which sublease runs from September 15, 2017 to June 29, 2020. This sublease is rent-free.
 
Effective October 1, 2017, we terminated our sublease for the 4,700 square feet of office space in Bedminster, New Jersey with no further lease obligation for the remainder of the sublease. Rent was $5,000 per month plus occupancy costs such as utilities, maintenance and taxes.
 
As of December 31, 2017, we have no remaining lease obligation.
 
Critical Accounting Estimates
 
Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate these estimates and judgments, including those described below. We base our estimates on our historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. These estimates and assumptions form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results and experiences may differ materially from these estimates.
 
While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 3 to our financial statements included with this report, we believe that the following accounting policies are the most critical to aid you in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results and affect the more significant judgments and estimates that we use in the preparation of our financial statements.
 
 
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Stock-Based Compensation
 
We account for stock options according to the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) No. 718, “Compensation — Stock Compensation” (“ASC 718”).  Share-based compensation cost is measured at grant date, based on the estimated fair value of the award using a Black-Scholes option pricing model for options with service or performance based conditions and a Monte Carlo option pricing model for options with market vesting conditions. Stock-based compensation cost is recognized as expense, over the employee’s requisite service period on a straight-line basis.
 
We account for stock options granted to non-employees on a fair value basis using the Black-Scholes option pricing model in accordance with ASC 718 and ASC No. 505-50, “Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees” (“ASC 505”).  The non-cash charge to operations for non-employee options with time based vesting provisions is based on the fair value of the options remeasured each reporting period and amortized to expense over the related vesting period. The non-cash charge to operations for non-employee options with performance based vesting provisions is recorded when the achievement of the performance condition is probable and remeasured each reporting period until the performance condition is achieved.
 
Valuations incorporate several variables, including expected term, expected volatility, expected dividend yield and a risk-free interest rate.  We estimate the expected term of the options granted based on anticipated exercises in future periods. In 2016, the expected stock price volatility for our stock options was calculated based on the historical volatility since the initial public offering of our common stock in March 2010, weighted between the period pre and post CE Mark approval in the European Union. Beginning January 1, 2017, the expected stock price volatility for the Company’s stock options is calculated based on the historical volatility since the initial public offering of the Company’s common stock in March 2010. The expected dividend yield reflects our current and expected future policy for dividends on our common stock.  To determine the risk-free interest rate, we utilize the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant with a term consistent with the expected term of our awards which is 5 years for employees and 10 years for non-employees. 
 
Revenue Recognition
 
We recognize revenue in accordance with SEC SAB No. 101, “Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements” (“SAB 101”), as amended by SAB No. 104, “Revenue Recognition” (“SAB 104”) and FASB ASC 605, “Revenue Recognition” (“ASC 605”). Our product Neutrolin received its CE Mark in Europe in July 2013 and shipment of product to the dialysis centers began in December 2013. In accordance with SAB 101 and SAB 104, we recognize revenue from product sales when the following four revenue recognition criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the selling price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. We recognize revenue upon shipment of product to the dialysis centers because the four revenue recognition criteria are met at that time. For an upfront payment related to an exclusive distribution agreement, we record it as deferred revenue and recognize revenue on a straight-line basis over the contractual term of the agreement
 
In October 2015, we shipped product with less than 75% of its remaining shelf life to a customer and issued a guarantee that any product shipped with less than 75% of its shelf life remaining would be replaced by us if the customer was not able to sell the product before it expired. As a result of this warranty, we may have an additional performance obligation (i.e. accept returned product and deliver new product to the customer) if the customer is unable to sell the short-dated product. Due to limited sales experience with the customer, we were unable to estimate the amount of the warranty obligation that may be incurred as a result of this shipment. Therefore, we deferred the revenue and related cost of sales associated with the original shipment of this product. Since we will be unable to resell the expired product if returned by the customer, the deferred revenue and related cost of sales is presented net as “Deferred revenue” on the consolidated balance sheet.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2014, we entered into a distribution agreement with Wonik Corporation, a South Korean company, to market, sell and distribute Neutrolin for hemodialysis and oncolytic patients upon receipt of regulatory approval in Korea. Upon execution of the agreement, Wonik paid to us a non-refundable $50,000 payment and will pay an additional $50,000 upon receipt of the product registration necessary to sell Neutrolin in the Republic of Korea. Revenue associated with the non-refundable up-front payment under this arrangement is deferred and recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the contractual term of our agreement.
 
 
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Inventory Valuation
 
We engage third parties to manufacture and package inventory held for sale and warehouse such goods until packaged for final distribution and sale. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value with cost determined on a first-in, first-out basis. Inventories are reviewed periodically to identify slow-moving or obsolete inventory based on sales activity, both projected and historical, as well as product shelf-life. In evaluating the recoverability of our inventories, we consider the probability that revenue will be obtained from the future sale of the related inventory and, if required, will write down inventory quantities in excess of expected requirements. Expired inventory is disposed of and the related costs are recognized as cost of product sales in our consolidated statements of operations.
 
We analyze our inventory levels to identify inventory that may expire prior to sale, inventory that has a cost basis in excess of its estimated realizable value, or inventory in excess of expected sales requirements. Although the manufacturing of our products is subject to strict quality controls, certain batches or units of product may no longer meet quality specifications or may expire, which would require adjustments to our inventory values.
 
In the future, reduced demand, quality issues or excess supply beyond those anticipated by management may result in an adjustment to inventory levels, which would be recorded as an increase to cost of product sales. The determination of whether or not inventory costs will be realizable requires estimates by our management. A critical input in this determination is future expected inventory requirements based on our internal sales forecasts which we then compare to the expiry dates of inventory on hand. To the extent that inventory is expected to expire prior to being sold, we will write down the value of inventory. If actual results differ from those estimates, additional inventory write-offs may be required.
 
Short-Term Investments
 
We determine the appropriate classification of marketable securities at the time of purchase and reevaluate such designation as of each balance sheet date. Investments in marketable debt and equity securities classified as available-for-sale are reported at fair value. Fair values of our investments are determined using quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities or quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities. Our marketable securities are highly liquid and consist of U.S. government agency securities, high-grade corporate obligations and commercial paper with maturities of more than 90 days but less than 12 months. Changes in fair value that are considered temporary are reported net of tax in other comprehensive income (loss). Realized gains and losses, amortization of premiums and discounts and interest and dividends earned are included in income (expense) on the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). The cost of investments for purposes of computing realized and unrealized gains and losses is based on the specific identification method. Investments with maturities beyond one year, if any, are classified as short-term based on management’s intent to fund current operations with these securities or to make them available for current operations. For declines, if any, in the fair value of equity securities that are considered other-than-temporary, impairment losses are charged to other (income) expense, net. We consider available evidence in evaluating potential impairments of our investments, including the duration and extent to which fair value is less than cost and, for equity securities, our ability and intent to hold the investments.
 
Fair Value Measurements
 
We categorize our financial instruments into a three-level fair value hierarchy that prioritize the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). If the inputs used to measure fair value fall within different levels of the hierarchy, the category level is based on the lowest priority level input that is significant to the fair value measurement of the instrument. Financial assets recorded at fair value on our condensed consolidated balance sheets are categorized as follows:
 
●       
Level 1 inputs—Observable inputs that reflect quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
 
●       
Level 2 inputs— Significant other observable inputs (e.g., quoted prices for similar items in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar items in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable such as interest rate and yield curves, and market-corroborated inputs).
 
●     
Level 3 inputs—Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability, which are supported by little or no market activity and are valued based on management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
 
 
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Derivative Liabilities:
 
We do not use derivative instruments to hedge exposures to cash flow, market or foreign currency risks; however, we have certain financial instruments that qualify as derivatives and are classified as liabilities on the balance sheet. We evaluate all our financial instruments to determine if those instruments or any potential embedded components of those instruments qualify as derivatives that need to be separately accounted for in accordance with FASB ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging”.  Derivatives satisfying certain criteria are recorded at fair value at issuance and marked-to-market at each balance sheet date with the change in the fair value recorded as income or expense.  In addition, upon the occurrence of an event that requires the derivative liability to be reclassified to equity, the derivative liability is revalued to fair value at that date and any change in value since the last re-measurement date is recorded as income or expense.  
 
We account for stock warrants as either equity instruments or derivative liabilities depending on the specific terms of the warrant agreement.  Stock warrants are classified as derivative liabilities if they can be cash settled or if there are insufficient authorized and unissued shares available to settle the contract after considering all other commitments that may require the issuance of stock during the maximum period the warrant could remain outstanding.  Liability classified warrants are adjusted to their estimated fair values at each reporting period, with any decrease or increase in the estimated fair value being recorded in other income (expense).
 
Recent Authoritative Pronouncements:
 
In May 2014, the FASB issued new guidance related to how an entity should recognize revenue. The guidance specifies that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services. In addition, the guidance expands the required disclosures related to revenue and cash flows from contracts with customers. In April 2016 and May 2016, the FASB issued updates in order to provide improvements and clarifications to the revenue recognition guidance.  We will adopt the new revenue recognition standard as of January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method, which requires the cumulative effect of adoption, if any, to be recognized as an adjustment to opening retained earnings in the period of adoption. The majority of our revenue relates to the sale of finished products to various customers, and the adoption will not have any impact on revenue recognized from these transactions. We analyzed the impact on certain less significant transactions where we have deferred revenue for certain product sales as a result of the ability of the customer to return the product under certain conditions. As a result of our analysis, we will accelerate the remaining deferred revenue under these agreements as a cumulative effect adjustment to opening retained earnings as of January 1, 2018 and at that time will assess the need to adjust the reserve for returns and allowances.
 
In January 2016, the FASB issued a new standard that modifies certain aspects of the recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. The accounting standard update is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017, and early adoption is permitted. We will adopt this guidance on January 1, 2018 and is not expected to have an impact on our consolidated financial statements.
 
In February 2016, the FASB issued new guidance related to how an entity should lease assets and lease liabilities. The guidance specifies that an entity who is a lessee under lease agreements should recognize lease assets and lease liabilities for those leases classified as operating leases under previous FASB guidance. Accounting for leases by lessors is largely unchanged under the new guidance. The guidance is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2019. Early adoption is permitted. In transition, lessees and lessors are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. We are evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
 
In June 2016, the FASB issued new guidance which replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology in current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. The guidance is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2020. Early adoption is permitted beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2019. We are evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
 
In August 2016, the FASB issued new guidance which clarifies how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows in order to reduce diversity in practice. The guidance is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We will adopt this guidance on January 1, 2018 and it is not expected to have an impact on our consolidated financial statements.
 
 
46
 
 
In November 2016, the FASB issued new guidance which clarifies how restricted cash is presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The guidance is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We will adopt this guidance on January 1, 2018 and it is not expected to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
 
In January 2017, the FASB issued new guidance which clarifies the definition of a business in a business combination. The guidance is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We will adopt this guidance on January 1, 2018 and it is not expected to have an impact on our consolidated financial statements.
 
In May 2017, the FASB issued new guidance which clarifies the application of stock based accounting guidance when a change is made to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. The guidance is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We will adopt this guidance on January 1, 2018 and it is not expected to have an impact on our consolidated financial statements.
 
 In July 2017, the FASB issued new guidance which changes the classification analysis of certain equity-linked financial instruments (or embedded features) with down round features and recharacterizes the indefinite deferral of certain provisions within the guidance for distinguishing liabilities from equity. The guidance is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2019. Early adoption is permitted. We are evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
 
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements.
 
Item 7A. 
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
Not applicable.
 
Item 8. 
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
See the financial statements included at the end of this report beginning on page F-1.
 
Item 9. 
Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 
Not applicable.
 
Item 9A. 
Controls and Procedures
 
As of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in the Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) (the “Exchange Act”). Based on the foregoing evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.
 
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
 
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during our fourth quarter ended December 31, 2017, or in other factors that could significantly affect these controls, that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
 
 
47
 
 
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting
 
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting and for the assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. As defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission, internal control over financial reporting is a process designed by, or under the supervision of, our principal executive and principal financial officers and effected by our Board of Directors, management and other personnel, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
 
Our internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect our transactions and dispositions of our assets; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
In connection with the preparation of our annual consolidated financial statements, management, including, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, have undertaken an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016, based on the criterial established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Management’s assessment included an evaluation of the design of our internal control over financial reporting and testing of the operational effectiveness of those controls.
 
Based on this evaluation, management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2017.
 
This annual report does not include an attestation report of our independent registered public accounting firm regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting because we are a smaller reporting company.
 
Item 9B. 
Other Information
 
In an effort to preserve our current cash and to further align the interests of our executive officers with those of our stockholders, on March 15, 2018, our executive officers agreed to modify their cash bonuses for 2017 by subjecting those bonuses to forfeiture unless additional performance criteria are achieved, and subject to the officer’s continued employment through the date such performance criteria are to be achieved. Pursuant to their respective employment agreements, Khoso Baluch, Robert Cook and John Armstrong are each eligible for an annual bonus, which may equal up to 80%, 30% and 35%, respectively, of his base salary. For 2017, the annual non-equity incentive bonus for our executive officers was based on the achievement of company objectives in 2017 related to clinical studies, raising capital, technical operations, budgetary and expense matters, and regulatory matters, all of which goals were established in February 2017. For 2017, Mr. Baluch, Mr. Cook and Mr. Armstrong were entitled to cash bonuses in an aggregate amount of $306,601. As a result of the modifications, in the event that we complete our interim efficacy analysis review by the Data and Safety Monitoring Board on or before June 30, 2018, Mr. Baluch, Mr. Cook and Mr. Armstrong would each receive a cash bonus equal to 110% of their unmodified 2017 bonuses. Further, in the event that the second milestone is met, then Mr. Baluch, Mr. Cook and Mr. Armstrong would each receive a cash bonus of either 130%, 140% or 150% of their unmodified 2017 bonuses, depending on the amount of those savings. If the first milestone is not achieved then no bonuses will be awarded for 2017 at all, even if the second milestone is achieved. Any bonuses that are awarded are to be paid promptly after September 30, 2018. We will report the awarding of any of these bonuses if and when they are achieved. The modified agreements will be filed as exhibits to our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ending March 31, 2018. At the time of filing, we will request confidential treatment for certain portions of the agreements.
 
PART III
 
Item 10. 
Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance
 
We have adopted a written Code of Conduct and Ethics that applies to our directors, executive officers and all employees. We intend to disclose any amendments to, or waivers from, our code of ethics and business conduct that are required to be publicly disclosed pursuant to rules of the SEC by filing such amendment or waiver with the SEC. This code of ethics and business conduct can be found in the “Investors - Corporate Governance” section of our website, www.cormedix.com.
 
The other information required by this Item concerning our directors and executive officers is incorporated by reference to the section captioned “Proposal No. 1—Election of Directors” and “Corporate Governance” to be contained in our proxy statement related to the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”), which information will be filed with the SEC within 120 days of the end of our fiscal year pursuant to General Instruction G(3) of Form 10-K. The information required by this Item concerning compliance with Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act by our directors, executive officers and persons who own more than 10% of our outstanding common stock is incorporated by reference from the section captioned “Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance” to be contained in the Proxy Statement.
 
 
48
 
 
Item 11.       Executive Compensation
 
The information required by this Item concerning directors and executive compensation is incorporated by reference from the section captioned “Director Compensation,” “Executive Compensation – Summary Compensation Table” “Executive Compensation – Compensation Discussion and Analysis,” “Executive Compensation – Grants of Plan Based Awards,” “Executive Compensation – Option Exercises and Stock Vested,” “Executive Compensation – Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year End 2017” “Executive Compensation – Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation,” and “Executive Compensation – Compensation Committee Report” to be contained in the Proxy Statement.
 
Item 12. 
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
The information regarding our equity compensation plans required by this Item is found in Item 5 of this report. The other information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to the information under the section captioned “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” to be contained in the Proxy Statement.
 
Item 13. 
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence
 
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to the information under the section captioned “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions” and “Proposal No. 1—Election of Directors” to be contained in the Proxy Statement.
 
Item 14. 
Principal Accountant Fees and Services
 
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference to the information under the section captioned “Auditor and Audit Committee Matters” to be contained in the Proxy Statement.
 
PART IV
 
Item 15. 
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
 
(a)  
List of documents filed as part of this report:
 
1.            
Financial Statements:
 
The financial statements of the Company and the related reports of the Company’s independent registered public accounting firms thereon have been filed under Item 8 hereof.
 
2.            
Financial Statement Schedules:
 
None.
 
3.            
Exhibit Index
 
The following is a list of exhibits filed as part of this Form 10-K:
 
 
49
 
 
Exhibit
Number
 
Description of Document
 
Registrant’s
Form
 
Dated
 
Exhibit Number
 
Filed Herewith
 
At-the-Market Issuance Sales Agreement, dated April 8, 2015, between CorMedix Inc. and MLV.
 
    S-3 
 
4/09/2015
 
    1.2 
 
 
 
Amendment No. 1, dated December 8, 2017, to At-the-Market Issuance Sales Agreement, dated April 8, 2015, between CorMedix Inc. and B. Riley FBR, Inc.
 
    8-K 
 
12/08/2017
 
    1.1 
 
 
 
Underwriting Agreement, dated April 28, 2017 by and among CorMedix Inc. and H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC.
 
    8-K 
 
5/03/2017
 
    1.1 
 
 
 
At Market Issuance Sales Agreement, dated March 9, 2018, between CorMedix Inc. and B. Riley FBR, Inc.
 
    S-3 
 
3/09/2018
 
    1.1 
 
 
 
Form of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
 
    S-1/A 
 
3/01/2010
 
    3.3 
 
 
 
Certificate of Amendment to Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, dated February 24, 2010.
 
    S-1/A 
 
3/19/2010
 
    3.5 
 
 
 
Form of Amended and Restated Bylaws as amended April 19, 2016.
 
    10-Q 
 
5/10/2016
 
    3.1 
 
 
3.4 
 
Certificate of Amendment to Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, dated December 3, 2012.
 
    10-K 
 
3/27/2013
 
    3.3 
 
 
 
Certificate of Amendment to Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, dated August 9, 2017.
 
    8-K 
 
8/10/2017
 
    3.1 
 
 
 
Certificate of Designation of Series A Non-Voting Convertible Preferred Stock of CorMedix Inc., filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on February 18, 2013, as corrected on February 19, 2013.
 
    8-K 
 
2/19/2013
 
    3.3 
 
 
 
Certificate of Designation of Series B Non-Voting Convertible Preferred Stock of CorMedix Inc., filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on July 26, 2013.
 
    8-K 
 
7/26/2013
 
    3.4 
 
 
 
Certificate of Designation of Series C-1 Non-Voting Convertible Preferred Stock of CorMedix Inc., filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on October 21, 2013.
 
    8-K 
 
10/23/2013
 
    3.5 
 
 
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Designation of Series C-2 Non-Voting Convertible Preferred Stock of CorMedix Inc., filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on September 15, 2014.
 
    8-K 
 
9/16/2014
 
    3.15 
 
 
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Designation of Series C-3 Non-Voting Convertible Preferred Stock of CorMedix Inc., filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on September 15, 2014.
 
    8-K 
 
9/16/2014
 
    3.16 
 
 
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Designation of Series D Non-Voting Convertible Preferred Stock of CorMedix Inc., filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on September 15, 2014.
 
    8-K 
 
9/16/2014
 
    3.17 
 
 
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Designation of Series E Non-Voting Convertible Preferred Stock of CorMedix Inc., filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on September 15, 2014.
 
    8-K 
 
9/16/2014
 
    3.18 
 
 
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Designation of Series F Non-Voting Convertible Preferred Stock of CorMedix Inc., filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on December 11, 2017.
 
    8-K 
 
12/11/2017
 
    3.1 
 
 
 
Specimen of Common Stock Certificate.
 
    S-1/A 
 
3/19/2010
 
    4.1 
 
 
 
Form of Warrant issued on February 19, 2013.
 
    8-K 
 
2/19/2013
 
    4.13 
 
 
 
Form of Warrant issued to ND Partners on April 11, 2013.
 
    10-Q
 
5/15/2013
 
    4.18 
 
 
 
Form of Warrant issued on July 30, 2013.
 
    8-K 
 
7/26/2013
 
    4.21 
 
 
 
Form of Warrant issued on October 22, 2013.
 
    8-K 
 
10/18/2013
 
    4.22 
 
 
4.6 
 
Form of Warrant issued on January 8, 2014.
 
    8-K 
 
1/09/2014
 
    4.23 
 
 
 
Form of Warrant issued on March 10, 2014
 
    8-K 
 
03/05/2014
 
    4.24 
 
 
 
 
51
 
 
 
Exhibit
Number
 
 
Description of Document
 
Registrant’s
Form
 
  Dated
 
Exhibit Number
 
Filed Herewith
 
Warrant issued March 3, 2015.
 
    8-K 
 
03/04/2015
 
    4.1 
 
 
 
Amended and Restated Warrant originally issued March 24, 2010.
 
    8-K 
 
03/04/2015
 
    4.3 
 
 
 
Amended and Restated Warrant originally issued May 30, 2013.
 
    8-K 
 
03/04/2015
 
    4.2 
 
 
 
Registration Rights Agreement, dated March 3, 2015, by and between CorMedix Inc. and Manchester Securities Corp.
 
    8-K 
 
03/04/2015
 
    4.5 
 
 
 
Form of Series A Warrant to Purchase Common Stock of CorMedix Inc. issued on May 3, 2017.
 
    8-K 
 
5/03/2017
 
    4.1 
 
 
 
Form of Series B Warrant to Purchase Common Stock of CorMedix Inc. issued on May 3, 2017.
 
    8-K 
 
5/03/2017
 
    4.2 
 
 
 
Form of Underwriter’s Warrant to Purchase Common Stock of CorMedix Inc., issued May 3, 2017.
 
    8-K 
 
5/03/2017
 
    4.3 
 
 
 
Form of Warrant issued on November 16, 2017.
 
    8-K 
 
11/13/2017
 
    4.15 
 
 
 
License and Assignment Agreement, dated as of January 30, 2008, between the Company and ND Partners LLC.
 
    S-1/A 
 
12/31/2009
 
    10.5 
 
 
 
Escrow Agreement, dated as of January 30, 2008, among the Company, ND Partners LLC and the Secretary of the Company, as Escrow Agent.
 
    S-1 
 
11/25/2009
 
    10.6 
 
 
 
Consulting Agreement, dated as of January 30, 2008, between the Company and Frank Prosl.
 
    S-1 
 
11/25/2009
 
    10.12 
 
 
 
Amended and Restated 2006 Stock Incentive Plan.
 
    S-1/A 
 
3/01/2010
 
    10.8 
 
 
 
Form of Indemnification Agreement between the Company and each of its directors and executive officers.
 
    S-1/A 
 
3/01/2010
 
    10.17 
 
 
 
Agreement for Work on Pharmaceutical Advertising dated January 10, 2013 by and between MKM Co-Pharma GmbH and CorMedix Inc.
 
    8-K 
 
1/16/2013
 
    10.22 
 
 
 
2013 Stock Incentive Plan
 
    10-K 
 
3/27/2013
 
    10.27 
 
 
 
Form of Securities Purchase Agreement, dated January 7, 2014, between CorMedix Inc. and the investors named therein.
 
    8-K 
 
1/09/2014
 
    10.36 
 
 
 
Preliminary Services Agreement dated April 8, 2015, between CorMedix Inc. and [RC]2 Pharma Connect LLC.
 
    10-Q 
 
8/06/2015
 
    10.1 
 
 
 
Release of Claims and Severance Modification, dated July 17, 2015, between Randy Milby and CorMedix Inc.
 
    10-K 
 
3/15/2016
 
    10.16 
 
 
 
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 27, 2016 and effective as of October 3, 2016, between CorMedix, Inc. and Khoso Baluch
 
    8-K 
 
10/03/2016
 
    10.1 
 
 
 
Employment Agreement, effective February 1, 2017, between CorMedix Inc. and Robert Cook.
 
    10-K 
 
3/16/2017
 
    10.12 
 
 
 
Employment Agreement, effective February 1, 2017, between CorMedix Inc. and Judith Abrams.
 
    10-K 
 
3/16/2017
 
    10.13 
 
 
 
Employment Agreement, effective March 1, 2017, between CorMedix Inc. and John Armstrong.
 
    10-K 
 
3/16/2017
 
    10.14 
 
 
 
Form of Securities Purchase Agreement, dated November 17, 2017, between CorMedix Inc. and the investors signatory thereto.
 
    8-K 
 
11/13/2017
 
    10.1 
 
 
 
Backstop Agreement, dated November 9, 2017, between CorMedix Inc. and the investor named therein.
 
    8-K 
 
11/13/2017
 
    10.2 
 
 
 
Form of Registration Rights Agreement, dated November 9, 2017, by and between CorMedix Inc. and the investor named therein.
 
    8-K 
 
11/13/2017
 
    10.3 
 
 
 
Amendment No. 1, dated as of December 11, 2017, to Registration Rights Agreement, dated November 9, 2017, by and between CorMedix Inc. and the investor named therein.
 
    8-K 
 
12/11/2017
 
    10.1 
 
 

 
52
 
 
Exhibit
Number
 
 
Description of Document
 
Registrant’s
Form
 
  Dated
 
Exhibit Number
 
Filed Herewith
 
List of Subsidiaries
 
10-K 
 
3/27/2013
 
    21.1 
 
 
 
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.
 
       
 
 
 
       
 
    X 
 
Certification of Principal Executive Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
       
 
 
 
       
 
    X 
 
Certification of Principal Financial Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
       
 
 
 
       
 
    X 
 
Certification of Principal Executive Officer pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
       
 
 
 
       
 
    X 
 
Certification of Principal Financial Officer pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
       
 
 
 
       
 
    X 
101 
 
The following materials from CorMedix Inc. Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, formatted in Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL): (i) Balance Sheets at December 31, 2017 and 2016, (ii) Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, (iii) Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, (iv) Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 and (v) Notes to the Financial Statements.**
 
       
 
 
 
       
 
    X 
_____________
*
Confidential treatment has been granted for portions of this document. The omitted portions of this document have been filed separately with the SEC.
 
**
Pursuant to Rule 406T of Regulation S-T, the Interactive Data Files in Exhibit 101 hereto are deemed not filed or part of a registration statement or prospectus for purposes of Sections 11 or 12 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, are deemed not filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and otherwise are not subject to liability under those sections.
 
 
53
 
 
SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
 
 
CORMEDIX INC.
 
 
 
 
 
March 19, 2018
By:  
/s/ Khoso Baluch
 
 
 
Khoso Baluch 
 
 
 
Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
March 19, 2018
By:  
/s/ Robert Cook
 
 
 
Robert Cook 
 
 
 
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
 
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated:
 
Signature
 
Title
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Khoso Baluch
 
Chief Executive Officer and Director
 
March 19, 2018
Khoso Baluch
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Robert Cook
 
Chief Financial Officer
 
March 19, 2018
Robert Cook
 
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Myron Kaplan
 
Chairman of the Board and Director
 
March 19, 2018
Myron Kaplan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Janet Dillione
 
Director
 
March 19, 2018
Janet Dillione
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Gary Gelbfish
 
Director
 
March 19, 2018
Gary Gelbfish
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Mehmood Khan
 
Director
 
March 19, 2018
Mehmood Khan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Steven Lefkowitz
 
Director
 
March 19, 2018
Steven Lefkowitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
54
 
 
CORMEDIX INC. AND SUBSIDIARY
 
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
Financial Statements Index
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 
    F-2 
 
       
Consolidated Balance Sheets December 31, 2017 and 2016 
    F-3 
 
       
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016
    F-4 
 
       
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016
    F-5 
 
       
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016
    F-6 

       
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements 
    F-7
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
F-1
 
 
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
 
To the Board of Directors and
Stockholders of CorMedix, Inc.
 
Opinion on the Financial Statements
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of CorMedix, Inc. and Subsidiary (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2017, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2017, and 2016, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2017, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
 
Basis for Opinion
 
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
 
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
Emphasis of Matter – Going Concern
 
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 2 to the financial statements, the Company has an accumulated deficit of $152.2 million as of December 31, 2017, has recurring losses and negative cash flows from operations. These conditions, among others raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 2. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. If the Company is unable to obtain financing, there could be a material adverse effect on the Company.
 
/s/ Friedman LLP
 
 
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2014.
East Hanover, New Jersey
March 19, 2018
 
 
 
F-2
 
 
CORMEDIX INC. AND SUBSIDIARY
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
December 31, 2017 and 2016
 
 
 
December 31,
 
 
 
2017
 
 
2016
 
ASSETS
 
 
 
 
 
 
Current assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 $10,379,729 
 $8,064,490 
Restricted cash
  171,553 
  171,553 
Short-term investments
  1,604,198 
  12,100,920 
Trade receivables
  64,148 
  12,014 
Inventories, net
  594,194 
  166,733 
Prepaid research and development expenses
  86,652 
  943,924 
Other prepaid expenses and current assets
  367,177 
  372,057 
Total current assets
  13,267,651 
  21,831,691 
Property and equipment, net
  186,282 
  69,695 
Other assets
  - 
  5,000 
TOTAL ASSETS
 $13,453,933 
 $21,906,386 
 
    
    
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
    
    
Current liabilities
    
    
Accounts payable
 $1,808,311 
 $1,645,298 
Accrued expenses
  4,363,867 
  2,342,352 
Deferred revenue
  88,404 
  104,210 
                    Total current liabilities
  6,260,582 
  4,091,860 
TOTAL LIABILITIES
  6,260,582 
  4,091,860 
 
    
    
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (Note 6)
    
    
 
    
    
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
    
    
Preferred stock - $0.001 par value: 2,000,000 shares authorized; 419,585 and 450,085 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively
  420 
  450 
Common stock - $0.001 par value: 160,000,000 and 80,000,000 shares authorized at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively; 71,413,790 and 40,432,339 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively
  71,414 
  40,433 
Accumulated other comprehensive gain
  98,433 
  81,186 
Additional paid-in capital
  159,197,950 
  136,857,409 
Accumulated deficit
  (152,174,866)
  (119,164,952)
TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
  7,193,351 
  17,814,526 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 $13,453,933 
 $21,906,386 
 
The accompanying notes are integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
 
 
F-3
 
 
CORMEDIX INC. AND SUBSIDIARY
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016
 
 
 
December 31,
 
 
 
2017
 
 
2016
 
Revenue
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Net sales
 $329,327 
 $224,105 
    Cost of sales
  (114,964)
  (366,673)
Gross profit (loss)
  214,363 
  (142,568)
Operating Expenses
    
    
Research and development
  (24,486,122)
  (15,735,300)
Selling, general and administrative
  (8,652,351)
  (8,883,050)
Total operating expenses
  (33,138,473)
  (24,618,350)
Loss From Operations
  (32,924,110)
  (24,760,918)
Other Income (Expense)
    
    
Interest income
  110,714 
  126,774 
Foreign exchange transaction loss
  (13,758)
  (8,172)
Change in fair value of derivative liabilities
  (177,141)
  - 
Interest expense
  (5,619)
  (1,311)
Total income (expense)
  (85,804)
  117,291 
Net Loss
  (33,009,914)
  (24,643,627)
Other Comprehensive Income Gain (Loss)
    
    
Unrealized gain from investments
  13,103 
  11,027 
Foreign currency translation gain
  4,144 
  8,029 
Total other comprehensive income
  17,247 
  19,056 
Comprehensive Loss
 $(32,992,667)
 $(24,624,571)
Net Loss Per Common Share – Basic and Diluted
 $(0.60)
 $(0.65)
Weighted Average Common Shares Outstanding – Basic and Diluted
  55,141,133 
  37,967,373 
 
The accompanying notes are integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
 
 
F-4

 
 
CORMEDIX INC. AND SUBSIDIARY
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016

 
 
Common Stock
 
 
Non-Voting Preferred Stock – Series C-2, C-3, Series D, Series E and Series F
 
 
Accumulated Other Comprehen-sive Gain (Loss)
 
 
AdditionalPaid-inCapital
 
 
Accumulated Deficit
 
 
Total Stockholders’ Equity
 
 
 
Shares
 
 
Amount
 
 
Shares
 
 
Amount
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance at December 31, 2015
  35,963,348 
 $35,964 
  450,085 
 $450 
 $62,130 
 $128,304,539 
 $(94,391,595)
 $34,011,488 
Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle (Note 7)
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  129,730 
  (129,730)
  - 
Stock issued in connection with sale of common stock, net
  3,360,037 
  3,360 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  6,225,991 
  - 
  6,229,351 
Stock issued in connection with warrants cashless exercised
  21,454 
  21 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (21)
  - 
  - 
Stock issued in connection with stock options exercised
  1,087,500 
  1,088 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  862,013 
  - 
  863,101 
Stock-based compensation
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  1,335,157 
  - 
  1,335,157 
Other comprehensive gain
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  19,056 
  - 
  - 
  19,056 
Net loss
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (24,643,627)
  (24,643,627)
Balance at December 31, 2016
  40,432,339 
  40,433 
  450,085 
  450 
  81,186 
  136,857,409 
  (119,164,952)
  17,814,526 
Stock issued in connection with ATM sale of common stock, net
  8,925,504 
  8,925 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  5,534,131 
  - 
  5,543,056 
Stock issued in connection with public offering, net
  18,619,301 
  18,619 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  12,779,706 
  - 
  12,798,325 
Stock issued in connection with sale of common stock
  624,246 
  624 
    
    
    
  299,016 
    
  299,640 
Conversion of Series C-3 non-voting preferred stock to common stock
  325,000 
  325 
  (32,500)
  (32)
  - 
  (293)
  - 
  - 
Stock issued in connection with warrants cashless exercised
  970 
  1 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (1)
  - 
  - 
Stock issued in connection with stock options exercised
  10,000 
  10 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  6,790 
  - 
  6,800 
Issuance of Series F non-voting preferred stock, net
  - 
  - 
  2,000 
  2 
  - 
  1,877,174 
  - 
  1,877,176 
Stock issued for payment of deferred fees
  4,869 
  5 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  10,213 
  - 
  10,218 
Conversion of Series A warrants to common stock
  2,471,561 
  2,472 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (2,472)
  - 
  - 
Reclassification of derivative liability to equity
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  3,910,682 
  - 
  3,910,682 
Warrants issued in connection with public offering
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (3,733,542)
  - 
  (3,733,542)
Stock-based compensation
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  1,659,137 
  - 
  1,659,137 
Other comprehensive gain
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  17,247 
  -