10-K 1 sync12311210k.htm 10-K SYNC 12.31.12 10K
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_______________________________________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 001-33843
_______________________________________________
Synacor, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware

16-1542712
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
40 La Riviere Drive, Suite 300
Buffalo, New York

14202
(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)
(716) 853-1362
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
(Title of each class)

(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Common Stock, $0.01 par value

The NASDAQ Global Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
(Title of Class)
_______________________________________________
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer.” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer

o
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer

x  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
    




The aggregate market value of shares of common stock held by non-affiliates as of June 29, 2012, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, computed by reference to the closing sale price of $13.70 per share on The NASDAQ Global Market on June 29, 2012, was approximately $222,146,843. For purposes of this disclosure, shares of common stock held by persons who held more than 10% of the outstanding shares of common stock at such time and shares held by executive officers and directors of the registrant have been excluded because such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of executive officer or affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

As of March 21,2013, there were 27,296,894 shares of the registrant's common stock issued and outstanding. All share and per share amounts in this Annual Report on Form 10-K reflect the 1-for-2 reverse stock split of the registrant's common stock which took effect immediately prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement for the registrant's initial public offering.
_______________________________________________ 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain portions of the definitive Proxy Statement to be used in connection with the registrant’s 2013 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K to the extent stated. That Proxy Statement will be filed within 120 days of registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2012.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
Item 15.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements that reflect our current views with respect to future events or our future financial performance, are based on information currently available to us, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements, including statements containing the words “believes,” “can,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “objective,” “plans,” “possibly,” “potential,” “predicts,” “targets,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “would,” “should,” “could,” and similar expressions or phrases (including the negative of such expressions or phrases). We intend all such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements in the sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K titled "Trends Affecting Our Business" and "Key Initiatives" as well as statements about:
our expected future financial performance;
our expectations regarding our operating expenses;
our strategies and business plan;
our ability to maintain or broaden relationships with existing customers and develop relationships with new customers;
our success in anticipating market needs or developing new or enhanced services and products to meet those needs;
our expectations regarding market acceptance of our services and products;
our ability to recruit and retain qualified technical and other key personnel;
our competitive position in our industry, as well as innovations by our competitors;
our success in managing growth;
our plans to expand into international markets, including our recently announced joint venture in the People's Republic of China;
our success in identifying and managing potential acquisitions;
our capacity to protect our confidential information and intellectual property rights;
our need to obtain additional funding and our ability to obtain funding in the future on acceptable terms; and
anticipated trends and challenges in our business and the markets in which we operate.
Any forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based upon our historical performance and our current plans, estimates and expectations. The inclusion of this forward-looking information should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that the future plans, estimates or expectations contemplated by us will be achieved. All forward-looking statements involve risks, assumptions and uncertainties. Given these risks, assumptions and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. The occurrence of the events described, and the achievement of the expected results, depend on many factors, some or all of which are not predictable or within our control.
Actual results may differ materially from expected results. See “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a more complete discussion of these risks, assumptions and uncertainties and for other risks, assumptions and uncertainties. These risks, assumptions and uncertainties are not necessarily all of the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any of our forward-looking statements.
Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could harm our results. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K might not occur, and we therefore qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. Any forward-looking statement made by us in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speaks only as of the date on which it is made. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

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PART I
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
Our Business
Synacor, Inc. (“we,” “Synacor” or the “Company”) is a leading provider of startpages, TV Everywhere solutions, Identity Management (IDM) and various cloud-based services across multiple devices for cable, satellite, telecom and consumer electronics companies. We are also a leading provider of authentication and aggregation solutions for delivery of online content. Our technology allows our customers to package a wide array of online content and cloud-based services with their high-speed Internet, communications, television and other offerings. Our customers offer our services under their own brands on Internet-enabled devices such as PCs, tablets, smartphones and connected TVs.
Our technology provides single sign-on capability, enabling consumers to seamlessly sign in and consume packaged online content and services from numerous programmers and content providers. These services include, but are not limited to, e-mail, security, online games, music and authentication of TV Everywhere, a technology enabling consumers with applicable rights to access on-demand television online via multiple devices including PCs, tablets, smartphones and connected TVs. We offer consumers access to these services on demand through a user-friendly, customer-branded online solution and, increasingly, across multiple devices. We enable our customers to sell a menu of content and services to their consumers either on a pay-per-view basis or as a new service tier added to their existing subscription relationship.
Our technology offers our customers a comprehensive solution by providing consumers access to a broad range of online products and services. Following initial integration with our technology, our customers gain access to a wide range of programmers and content and service providers with whom we have licensing and distribution agreements. In addition, we may integrate into our technology content and services that form part of our customers’ existing offerings. Our flexible architecture integrates with our customers’ billing and subscriber management systems, as well as with third-party content and services.
Our customers direct consumers to their branded websites, referred to as our startpages, which comprise the consumer-facing components of our technology, where consumers have access to the online content and services available to them at their respective subscription levels. This enhanced Internet experience helps connect us and our customers to their large and engaged consumer base. We monetize the online traffic generated by these consumers through search and display advertising. We also charge fees for value added services delivered through our startpages. Search queries, advertising impressions and use of our services have historically grown as we have added new customers and as our existing customers continue to further adopt our service offerings. Our business model creates deep customer relationships: as we monetize our customers’ online traffic, we share a portion of this revenue with our customers, resulting in a mutually beneficial partnership.
Recent Developments
On March 11, 2013, we entered into a Joint Venture Agreement, or JV Agreement, with Maxit Technology Incorporated, a company incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands, or Maxit, and Synacor China, Ltd., a company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, or the JV Company, pursuant to which Synacor and Maxit will each initially own 50% of the JV Company. Subject to the completion of customary regulatory requirements, the JV Company will, through a wholly foreign-owned subsidiary, or WFOE, in the People's Republic of China, or the PRC, supply authentication and aggregation solutions for the delivery of online content and services to customers in the PRC.
Our Strategy
We intend to:
add new customers, and expand on our offerings with current customers, to increase our consumer reach;
continue to expand our offerings of, and invest in, cloud-based services such as e-mail and TV Everywhere and increase the number of customers using our TV Everywhere authentication technology;
enhance our direct advertising sales effort to increase the CPMs derived from advertising;
extend the availability of our existing and new products and services to additional devices including tablets and smartphones;
expand our presence into international markets; and
invest in and acquire new technologies and products.

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Services and Products
We provide a proprietary technology solution that enables our customers to drive consumer engagement and generate new revenue streams through an array of online content and services such as video, search, advertising and value added services. Our customers use our technology to develop personalized startpages that serve as their consumers’ respective online hubs for communication services, entertainment offerings and support services.
Our startpages enable our customers to combine entertainment, such as television shows, multi-player games and streaming music based on a subscriber’s access rights and preferences with communications offerings such as voicemail, e-mail, and third party messaging services like Yahoo Mail, Google Gmail, MSN Hotmail, Facebook, and Twitter. Our technology further allows our customers to deliver appropriate account tools, support, bill pay services and sell promotions to their consumers, all without leaving the applicable customer’s startpage.
We generate revenue from consumer traffic on our startpages through search and display advertising revenue, which we collect from our search partner, Google, our advertising network providers and directly from advertisers. We typically share a portion of this search and display advertising revenue with our customers. We also generate recurring revenues in the form of subscriber-based fees for the use of our technology, value added services and paid content, which we collect from our customers.
Our Startpages
The key features of our startpages include the following:
Startpage Design and Development. Using our technology, we create, design and develop branded startpages for our customers. Our startpages are designed to be the initial online destination for our customers’ consumers and typically aggregate a broad array of resources, including free-to-subscriber content and service offerings, value added services, applications, or apps, online content and search, all in one location.
Unified Registration and Login (Single Sign-On). Our technology gives subscribers access to all of the value added services and paid content, including subscription television programming they have the right to consume, using a single user ID and password, which are typically the same credentials that they use for e-mail. Single sign-on for subscribers is accomplished by integrating with both our customers and our content and value added service partners. Because our single sign-on technology was built to accommodate many authentication mechanisms, we are able to integrate with a wide range of partners. We also allow subscribers to sign on utilizing credentials from social media services such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+.
Billing Integration. Our technology allows our customers to integrate billing for value added services and paid content purchases with other services and products provided to their subscribers, including television and telephony service. A customer may collect transaction fees via credit card or on the subscriber’s service provider bill, and it may bill transactions each time they occur or on a monthly basis using monthly summary totals. Our technology also enables online bill review, providing subscribers with access to a detailed transaction account.
Personalization. Our technology enables the consumer to personalize his or her online experience through customization and localization. Consumers may add, delete, move, and otherwise customize the content displayed on our startpages, such as by setting preferred television stations in our TV-at-a-glance module. Localization allows consumers to set a startpage to a “favorite” zip code to gain access to radio stations, weather, movies, and events, all in the local area. Among other things, our technology allows consumers to comment on online articles and to create shortcuts to their favorite content using an online “personal assistant” on the personalized startpage. Consumers are able to manage access to services and products available to each member of the household, define a budget limit for purchases for each member of the household and set the payment method (service provider bill vs. credit card) for access to paid offerings.
Video Delivery Capability. Our video delivery capability includes two primary components: a video player and a video discovery and delivery system. The video player contains video controls such as play, pause, fast forward and rewind and full-screen viewing and can be configured to play within or on top of a page. Our video discovery and delivery system is database-driven, supports multiple video hosting methods and enables transcoding from a number of video formats to formats that are playable on a variety of devices. The system contains a number of access control mechanisms, including the ability to restrict access based on IP address, location, consumer type or household management settings. The system also permits consumers to search videos and browse by channel, genre or content type.

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Content Management System. Our proprietary content management system enables our customers and us to create dynamic, customizable online experiences containing content from various sources. Content is distributed via web services in an architecture that is easily portable to multiple devices and platforms. Our system is comprised of administrative interfaces, a scalable content storage system and a system to distribute content to our startpages. The interface is easy to use and displays a preview of page or component designs prior to approval and publishing. Our system can also automatically publish content from outside sources or assign publishing rights, by site section, to outside vendors.
Household Management. Our household management system puts parents in control of the content their children are allowed to purchase or consume through our startpages. Among other things, this system allows the head of household to specify the range of products their “child accounts” may access and utilize and to establish preset spending limits for content purchases such as music.
Toolbar. We offer our customers the ability to create branded toolbars that can be personalized by their consumers. The toolbar can be updated automatically as new features become available and may be configured with search, weather, television and movie listings as well as value added services and paid content packages, enabling consumers to access their favorite features of our technology even when they leave our startpages. The toolbars can also integrate internal services such as instant messaging, customer support and e-mail.
Television Listings. Our technology provides television listings and corresponding television channels, which enables consumers to search and browse local television programming.
Search and Display Advertising
We use search and display advertising to generate revenue from consumer online traffic generated on our startpages.
Search Advertising. We have a revenue-sharing relationship with Google, pursuant to which we include a Google-branded search tool on our startpages. When a consumer makes a search query using this tool, we deliver it to Google, and Google returns search results that include advertiser-sponsored links to us, which we pass on to the consumer. If the consumer clicks on a sponsored link, Google receives payment from the sponsor of that link and shares a portion of that payment with us, which we in turn share with the applicable customer. We receive a monthly payment from Google within 30 days following the end of the month in which the revenue from the Google search advertising was earned; in turn we make revenue-share payments to our customers, subject to varying payment terms requiring payment from 30 days to 45 days following either the end of the month or quarter in which the revenue share was generated.
Display Advertising. We generate advertising revenue when consumers view or click on a text, graphic or video advertisement that is delivered on a Synacor-operated startpage. We sell some of our advertising inventory directly to advertisers using our team of direct advertising sales employees and independent advertising sales representatives. Our advertisers pay us a fee when a subscriber views or clicks the advertisement we place on their behalf on our startpages. We sell the rest of our advertising inventory through arrangements we have entered into with several advertising networks, including DoubleClick (a division of Google) and advertising.com (a division of AOL), among others. Advertisers pay these networks a fee to place their advertisements on various websites. When the networks place an advertisement on one of our startpages, the network will pay us a portion of that fee. We typically share a portion of the payments from advertisers or advertising networks with the applicable customer. We have varying payment terms from advertisers and advertising networks ranging from 30 days to 65 days following the end of the month in which the revenue from the advertiser was earned; in turn we make revenue-share payments to our customers, subject to varying payment terms requiring payment from 30 days to 45 days following either the end of the month or quarter in which the revenue share was generated.
As we hire additional advertising salespeople and retain additional independent advertising sales representatives, we will target more advertisers directly as opposed to through advertising networks to fill our advertising inventory, which we expect will result in higher cost-per-thousand impressions (referred to as cost per mille, or CPMs) and, consequently, higher revenue.
Subscriber-Based Services
Using our proprietary technology, we provide our customers a flexible solution, enabling them to deliver a wide range of online content and value added services from multiple sources in a single, customizable online location. Our customers use our technology to provide their subscribers with access to free-to-subscriber content and service offerings, including television programming, news, sports, entertainment and weather, as well as paid content and other value added services, all from one location and with one login. Our technology employs a scalable and flexible architecture that allows us, and our customers, to

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add or change features and applications regularly, enabling subscribers to access them across a wide range of Internet-enabled devices, such as PCs, tablets, smartphones and connected TVs.
We offer both free-to-subscriber content and service offerings and paid content and value added services, which are paid for by our customers or their subscribers, individually or in bundled packages. The packages are accessed via our single sign-on capability according to access rules established by our customers and the content or service providers. These are available on our startpages as well as the websites of the content and service providers. The following are illustrative examples of some of these packages, which we allow our customers to modify if they desire:
E-mail and Calendar. We provide e-mail and calendar solutions to our customers using a suite of messaging products provided by a third party. We integrate these products into our technology to deliver e-mail and family calendars to subscribers via their startpages. The system enables us to highlight customer-related and community events on subscribers’ calendars and insert advertising into e-mail interfaces. Additionally, we have developed voicemail and VOIP functionality for e-mail that allows subscribers to access voicemail from their e-mail.
Security. Our security offering typically includes anti-virus, firewall and intrusion detection, pop-up blocker, parental controls and automatic updates all powered by security suites, such as F-Secure.
TV Everywhere. Our technology enables subscribers to watch free television online or utilize our authentication functionality to authorize them to watch premium television online, on-demand using an approved Internet-connected device. We have developed a combined television/video solution with an information architecture that improves usability and serves as a destination point for all platforms, including linear, video on demand, or VOD, and other online content.
Variety Package. Our variety package combines content from several Internet subscription and entertainment products into a single package. These packages may include any combination of games (such as Shockwave Unlimited), greeting card services (such as American Greetings), weather services (such as weather.com), educational elements (such as Nick Jr. Boost or Clever Island) and sports elements (such as MLB.com, NASCAR.com Raceview, NHL Premium Videos or Fox Sports Video).
Sports Plus Package. The sports plus package combines access to multiple sports-related content providers that could otherwise require separate subscriptions into a single package. The package includes access to MLB.com, NASCAR.com Trackpass, NHL.com and Fox Sports.
Portable and Non-Portable Music. Our music offering includes download-to-own, download-to-rent, and streaming music from our content providers’ libraries. Non-portable subscriptions allow subscribers to play music on their PCs, while portable subscriptions allow the subscribers to listen to music on a mobile device. Our music services are provided through contractual relationships with MediaNet and Rdio, Inc.
Games and GamesSomnia. Our games offering includes a partnership with Zynga whereby we make game currency available to consumers through bundled packages, thus allowing easy access to Zynga games through our startpages. Our GamesSomnia package includes subscriptions to popular online gaming services and gaming-related news sources, which may include offerings from Atari Classic Games, LEGO PC Games, Yummy Arcade, Shockwave Unlimited and IGN Prime.
Learning Edge. Our Learning Edge package combines a number of educational products that appeal to families with young children, which may include offerings from Nick Jr. Boost, Boston Test Prep, Clever Island, Hoopah and IKnowThat.com.
We invoice our customers on a monthly basis with varying payment terms ranging from 30 days to 45 days following the end of the month in which the revenue was earned. Our content provider payment terms range from prepayment to 30 days or 45 days following the end of the month in which the content was provided.
Technology and Operations
Technology Architecture
Our technology has been designed and built to support reliability and scalability. To route traffic through our network in the most efficient manner, we use load-balancing products, which spread work among multiple servers, and link controllers, which monitor availability and performance of multiple connections. Our technology is fault tolerant and scalable through the addition of more servers as usage grows.

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Data Center Facilities
We currently operate and maintain five data centers in regionally diverse locations and have a network operations center which is staffed 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Our four primary data centers are located in shared facilities in Atlanta, Georgia; Lewis Center, Ohio; Denver, Colorado and Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We also maintain a secondary data center in a shared facility in Buffalo, New York. All systems are fully monitored for reporting continuity and fault isolation. The Atlanta, Lewis Center, Buffalo, Denver and Amsterdam data centers are each in a physically secure facility using monitoring, environmental alarms, closed circuit television and redundant power sources. Our network operations center is located in a secure facility.
Customers
Our customers principally consist of high-speed Internet service providers, such as Charter Communications Inc., or Charter, and CenturyLink, Inc., or CenturyLink, as well as consumer electronics manufacturers, such as Toshiba America Information Systems, Inc., or Toshiba. Our customer contracts typically have an initial term of two to three years from the deployment of our startpages and frequently provide for one or more automatic renewal terms of one to two years each. Our customer contracts typically contain service level agreements which call for specific system “up times” and 24 hours per day, seven days per week support. As of December 31, 2012, we had agreements with over 45 customers.
Content and Service Providers
We license the content which we provide to our customers, including free and paid content offerings and value added services, from numerous third-party content and service providers. Our content and service partners provide a variety of content, including news and information, entertainment, sports, music, video, games, shopping, travel, autos, careers and finance. To obtain this content, we enter into a variety of licensing arrangements with our content providers. These arrangements are typically one to three years in duration with payment terms that may be based on traffic, advertising revenue share, number of subscribers, flat fee payments over time, or some combination thereof. We use licensed content to populate our startpages, as well as to provide value added services and paid content that subscribers may purchase for additional fees. As of December 31, 2012, we had arrangements with over 50 content providers such as MLB Advanced Media, L.P., or MLB Advanced Media, CNN, The Associated Press, FOX News Network, LLC, NASCAR, Tribune Media Services, Inc. and Bankrate.
Sales and Marketing
Our sales and marketing efforts focus on five primary areas: customer acquisitions, client services, account management, marketing and advertising sales. Our customer acquisition team consists of direct sales personnel who call upon prospective customers, typically large and mid-sized high-speed Internet service providers and consumer electronics manufacturers. A significant amount of time and effort is devoted to researching and analyzing the requirements and objectives of each prospective customer. Each bid is specifically customized for the prospective customer, and often requires many months of interaction and negotiation before an agreement is reached.
Once an agreement is reached, our client services team, working closely with the customer acquisitions team, assumes responsibility for managing the customer relationship during the time of the initial deployment and integration period, which is usually three to six months. During this period, the customer’s technology is assessed and, if required, modifications are proposed to make it compatible with our technology. The client services team is responsible for the quality of the client deployment, customer relationship management during the time of deployment and integration and project management associated with upgrades and enhancements.
After deployment, our account management team takes over management of the customer relationship, analyzing the ways in which a customer could further benefit from increased use of our products and services. The account management team is responsible for ongoing customer relationship management, upgrades and enhancements to the available products and services, as well as tracking the financial elements and performance of the customer relationship.
Our marketing team works closely with our account management team to deliver marketing programs that support our customers’ sales efforts as well as their consumers’ interaction with these products and services. We assist our customers in developing marketing materials, advertising and cross-channel commercials that can be accessed by consumers through different media outlets, including the Internet, print, television, and radio. We also assist our customers in training their customer service representatives to introduce and sell value added services and our paid content offerings to new and existing customers.

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Our advertising sales team sells display advertising inventory directly to advertisers, frequently through the advertising agencies representing those advertisers. These advertisers may be small companies with the advertising locally or regionally focused on the startpage of one customer, or large companies with nationwide advertising on the startpages of many customers. We have a team of direct advertising sales employees and independent advertising sales representatives focused on this effort and will continue to develop this team and attempt to grow the amount of display advertising revenue generated with our customers. As of December 31, 2012, we had arrangements with over 50 advertising partners such as DoubleClick, Casale Media, Admeld, Univeral McCann and Comcast Spotlight.
Government Regulation
We generally are not regulated other than under international, federal, state and local laws applicable to the Internet or e-commerce or to businesses in general. Some regulatory authorities have enacted or proposed specific laws and regulations governing the Internet and online entertainment. These laws and regulations cover issues such as taxation, pricing, content, distribution, quality and delivery of services and products, electronic contracts, intellectual property rights, user privacy and information security.
Federal laws regarding the Internet that could have an impact on our business include the following: the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, which is intended to reduce the liability of online service providers of third-party content, including content that may infringe copyrights or rights of others; the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, which imposes additional restrictions on the ability of online services to collect user information from minors; and the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act, which requires online service providers to report evidence of violations of federal child pornography laws under certain circumstances.
Laws and regulations regarding user privacy and information security impact our business because we collect and use personal information through our technology. We use this information to deliver more relevant content and services and provide consumers with a personalized online experience. We share this information on an aggregate basis with our customers and content providers and, subject to confidentiality agreements, to prospective customers and content providers. Laws such as the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 or other user privacy or security laws could restrict our and our customers’ ability to market products to their consumers, create uncertainty in Internet usage and reduce the demand for our services and products or require us to redesign our startpages.
Intellectual Property
We believe that the protection of our intellectual property is critical to our success. We rely on copyright and service mark enforcement, contractual restrictions and trade secret laws to protect our proprietary rights. We have entered into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and contractors, and nondisclosure agreements with certain parties with whom we conduct business in order to limit access to and disclosure of our proprietary information. Our registered service mark in the United States is Synacor®.
We endeavor to protect our internally developed systems and maintain our trademarks and service marks. We generally control access to and use of our proprietary software and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers and partners, and our software is protected by United States and international copyright laws.
In addition to legal protections, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, new product developments, frequent product enhancements and reliable product support and services are essential to establishing and maintaining a technology leadership position.
Competition
The market for Internet-based services and products in which we operate is highly competitive and involves rapidly-changing technologies and customer and consumer requirements, as well as evolving industry standards and frequent product introductions. While we believe that our technology offers considerable value and flexibility to our customers by helping them to extend their consumer relationships to a wide variety of Internet-based services, we face competition at three levels:
When one of our prospective or existing customers considers another supplier, including one of our partners, for elements of the services or products which we provide.
When consumers choose to rely on other vendors for similar products and services.
When content and service providers prefer to establish direct relationships with one or more of our customers.

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Our technology competes primarily with high-speed Internet service providers that have internal information technology staff capable of developing similar solutions in-house. In addition, we compete with companies such as Facebook, Inc., Yahoo! Inc., or Yahoo!, Google, AOL LLC, or AOL, Hulu, Netflix, Amazon, and MSN, a division of Microsoft Corporation, or Microsoft, which have destination websites of their own or are capable of delivering content and service offerings similar to ours.
We also compete with providers of paid content and services over the Internet, especially companies with the capability of bundling paid content and value added services in much the same manner that we do. These companies include ESPN3, F-Secure Corporation or F-Secure, Exent Technologies Ltd. or Exent, Zynga Inc., MLB Advanced Media, Symantec Corporation, McAfee, Inc., Activision Blizzard, Inc. and Electronic Arts Inc. In some cases we have performed software integrations with these companies on behalf of our customers or, as in the case of Zynga and F-Secure, we have partnered with them in order to offer their services more broadly to all our customers.
We believe the principal competitive factors in our markets include a company’s ability to:
reinforce the brand of the high-speed Internet service provider;
produce products that are flexible and easy to use;
offer competitive fees for startpage development and operation;
generate additional revenue for high-speed Internet service providers;
enable high-speed Internet service providers to be involved in designing the “look and feel” of their online presence;
offer services and products that meet the changing needs of high-speed Internet service providers and their subscribers, including emerging technologies and standards;
provide high-quality product support to assist the customer’s service representatives; and
aggregate content to deliver more compelling bundled packages of paid content.
We believe that we distinguish ourselves from potential competitors in three principal ways. First, we provide a white-label solution that, unlike the co-branded approach of most of our competitors, creates a consumer experience that reinforces our customers’ and partners’ brands. Second, we give customers control over the sign-on process and billing function for a wide range of Internet services and content by integrating with their internal systems (where applicable) thereby allowing our customers to “own the consumer.” Finally, our solution is flexible, meaning that we allow each customer to fashion startpages that are specifically tailored to their desired “look and feel.”
Employees
As of December 31, 2012, we had 315 employees in the United States, 12 in Canada and 1 employee in the United Kingdom. None of our employees is represented by a labor union, and we consider current employee relations to be good.
Corporate Information
Synacor's predecessor company was originally formed as a New York corporation, and in November 2002, Synacor re-incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Our headquarters are located at 40 LaRiviere Drive, Buffalo, New York 14202, and our telephone number is (716) 853-1362.
We have determined that we have a single reporting segment. A summary of our financial information by geographic location is found in Note 6, “Information About Segment and Geographic Areas,” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Our international operations and sales subject us to a variety of risks; see Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” for further discussion.
Available Information
Our Internet website address is http://www.synacor.com. We provide free access to various reports that we file with or furnish to the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, through our website, as soon as reasonably practicable after they have been filed or furnished. These reports include, but are not limited to, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports. Our SEC reports can be accessed through the investor relations section of our website, or through http://www.sec.gov. Information on our website does not constitute part

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of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other report we file or furnish with the SEC. Stockholders may request copies of these documents from:
Synacor, Inc.
Investor Relations Department
40 La Riviere Dr.
Suite 300
Buffalo, New York 14202
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
Our business and financial results are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those described below, which could adversely and materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. You should carefully consider these risks and uncertainties, including the following risk factors and all other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, together with any other documents we file with the SEC. Risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may in the future materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our search advertising partner, Google, accounts for a significant portion of our revenue, and any loss of, or diminution in, our business relationship with Google would materially and adversely affect our financial performance.
We rely on traffic on our startpages to generate search and display advertising revenue, a substantial portion of which is derived from text-based links to advertisers’ websites as a result of Internet searches. We have a revenue-sharing relationship with Google under which we include a Google-branded search tool on our startpages. When a consumer makes a search request using this tool, we deliver it to Google, and Google returns search results to us that include advertiser-sponsored links. If the consumer clicks on a sponsored link, Google receives payment from the sponsor of that link and shares a portion of that payment with us. We then typically share a portion of that payment with the applicable customer. Our Google-related search advertising revenue attributable to our customers, which consists of the portion of the payment from the sponsor that Google shares with us, accounted for approximately 49%, 57%, and 56% of our revenue in 2010, 2011, and 2012, or $32.6 million, $51.5 million, and $68.5 million, respectively. Our agreement with Google expires in February 2014 unless we and Google mutually elect to renew it. Additionally, Google may terminate our agreement if we experience a change in control or enter into an agreement providing for a change in control or if we do not maintain certain search and display advertising revenue levels. If advertisers were to discontinue their advertising via Internet searches, if Google’s revenue from search-based advertising were to decrease, if Google’s share of the search revenue were to be increased or if our agreement with Google were to be terminated for any reason or renewed on less favorable terms, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected. Moreover, consumers’ increased use of search tools other than the Google-branded search tool we provide would have similar effects.
A loss of any significant customer could negatively affect our financial performance.
We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from a small number of customers. For example, revenue attributable to two customers, Charter and CenturyLink (including our revenue attributable to Qwest Communications International, Inc., or Qwest, which merged with CenturyLink in April 2011), together accounted for approximately 60% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2010, or $39.8 million. Revenue attributable to each of these customers accounted for 20% or more of our revenue in 2010. Revenue attributable to Charter, CenturyLink (including our revenue attributable to Qwest) and Toshiba together accounted for approximately 62% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2011, or $56.9 million, with revenue attributable to one of these customers accounting for 20% or more in such period and revenue attributable to each of the other two customers accounting for more than 10% in such period. Revenue attributable to Charter, CenturyLink (including revenue attributable to Qwest), Toshiba and Verizon Corporate Services Group, Inc., or Verizon, together accounted for approximately 73% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012, or $88.4 million, with revenue attributable to one of these customers accounting for 20% or more in such period and revenue attributable to each of the other three customers accounting for more than 10% in such period. Revenue attributable to these customers includes the subscriber-based revenue earned directly from them, as well as the search and display advertising revenue earned through our relationships with our advertising partners, such as Google, based on traffic generated from our startpages.
Our contracts with our customers generally have an initial term of approximately two to three years from the launch of their startpages and frequently provide for one or more automatic renewal terms of one to two years each. If any one of these key contracts is not renewed or is otherwise terminated, or if revenue from these significant customers declines because of

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competitive or other reasons, our revenue would decline and our ability to achieve or sustain profitability would be impaired. In addition to the loss of subscriber-based revenue, including startpage and paid content sales, we would also lose significant revenue from the related search and display advertising services that we provide. In addition to the decline of revenue, we may have to impair our long-lived assets, to the extent that such assets are used exclusively to support these customers, which would adversely impact our results of operations and financial position.
We have a history of significant net losses and may not be profitable in future periods.
We have incurred significant losses in each year of operation other than 2009, 2011, and 2012, including a net loss of $5.8 million in 2008 and a net loss of $3.6 million in 2010. Our net income in 2009, 2011, and 2012 was $0.3 million, $9.9 million, and $3.8 million, respectively. We expect that our expenses will increase in future periods as we implement initiatives designed to grow our business including, among other things, the development and marketing of new services and products, licensing of content, expansion of our infrastructure, international expansion and general and administrative expenses associated with being a public company. If our revenue does not sufficiently increase to offset these expected increases in operating expenses, we may incur significant losses and may not be profitable. Our revenue growth in recent periods may not be indicative of our future performance. In fact, in future periods, our revenue could decline. Accordingly, we may not be able to maintain profitability in the future. Any failure to maintain profitability may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Many individuals are using devices other than personal computers and software applications other than Internet browsers to access the Internet. If users of these devices and software applications do not widely adopt the applications and other solutions we develop for them, our business could be adversely affected.
The number of people who access the Internet through devices other than PCs, including tablets, smartphones and connected TVs, has increased dramatically in the past few years and is projected to continue to increase. Similarly, individuals are increasingly accessing the Internet through apps other than Internet browsers, such as those available for download through Apple Inc.’s App Store and the Android Market. If consumers increasingly access the Internet on devices other than PCs, and if we are unable to successfully implement monetization strategies for such devices, our financial results could be negatively affected. While we are developing solutions to these alternative means of accessing the Internet, including through our acquisition of mobile device software and technology from Carbyn, Inc., or Carbyn, in January 2012, we do not currently offer our customers and their subscribers a wide variety of apps and other non-browser solutions. Additionally, as new devices and new apps are continually being released, it is difficult to predict the problems we may encounter in developing new versions of our apps and other solutions for use on these alternative devices and apps, and we may need to devote significant resources to the creation, support and maintenance of such apps and solutions. If users of these devices and apps do not widely adopt the apps and other solutions we develop, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Consumer tastes continually change and are unpredictable, and our sales may decline if we fail to enhance our service and content offerings to achieve continued subscriber acceptance.
Our business depends on aggregating and providing services and content that our customers will place on our startpages, including television programming, news, entertainment, sports and other content that their subscribers find engaging, and value added services and paid content that their subscribers will buy. Accordingly, we must continue to invest significant resources in licensing efforts, research and development and marketing to enhance our service and content offerings, and we must make decisions about these matters well in advance of product releases to implement them in a timely manner. Our success depends, in part, on unpredictable and volatile factors beyond our control, including consumer preferences, competing content providers and websites and the availability of other news, entertainment, sports and other services and content. While we work with our customers to have their consumers' homepages set to our startpages upon the installation of our customer's services or the sale of our customer's product, a consumer may easily change that setting, which would likely decrease the use of our startpages. Similarly, consumers that change their device's operating system or Internet browser may no longer have our startpage set as their default homepage, and unless they change it back to our startpage, their usage of our startpages would likely decline and our results of operations could be negatively impacted. Consumers that acquire new consumer electronics devices will no longer have our startpage initially set as their default homepage, and unless they change the default to our startpage, their usage of our startpages would likely decline and our results of operations could be negatively impacted.

If our services are not responsive to the requirements of our customers or the preferences of their consumers, or the services are not brought to market in a timely and effective manner, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be harmed. Even if our services and content are successfully introduced and initially adopted, a subsequent shift in the preferences of our customers or their consumers could cause a decline in the popularity of our services and content that could materially reduce our revenue and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Our sales growth will be adversely affected if we are unable to expand the breadth of our services and products or to introduce new services and products on a timely basis.
To retain our existing customers, attract new customers and increase revenue, we must continue to develop and introduce new services and products on a timely basis and continue to develop additional features to our existing product base. If our existing and prospective customers do not perceive that we will deliver our services and products on schedule, and if they do not perceive our services and products to be of sufficient value and quality, we may lose the confidence of our existing customers and fail to increase sales to these existing customers, and we may not be able to attract new customers, each of which would adversely affect our operating results.
Our sales cycles and the contracting process with new customers are long and unpredictable and may require us to incur expenses before executing a customer agreement, which makes it difficult to project when, if at all, we will obtain new customers and when we will generate additional revenue and cash flows from those customers.
We market our services and products directly to high-speed Internet service providers and consumer electronics manufacturers. New customer relationships typically take time to obtain and finalize. Due to operating procedures in many organizations, a significant time period may pass between selection of our services and products by key decision-makers and the signing of a contract. The length of time between the initial customer sales call and the realization of significant sales is difficult to predict and can range from several months to several years. As a result, it is difficult to predict when we will obtain new customers and when we will begin to generate revenue and cash flows from these potential new customers.
As part of our sales cycle, we may incur significant expenses in the form of compensation and related expenses and equipment acquisition before executing a definitive agreement with a prospective customer so that we may be ready to launch shortly following execution of a definitive agreement. If conditions in the marketplace generally or with a specific prospective customer change negatively, it is possible that no definitive agreement will be executed, and we will be unable to recover any expenses incurred before a definitive agreement is executed, which would in turn have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Most of our customers are high-speed Internet service providers, and consolidation within the cable and telecommunications industries could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our revenue from high-speed Internet service providers, including our search and display advertising revenue generated by online consumer traffic on our startpages, accounted for more than 95% of our revenue in 2010, 86% in 2011 and 80% in 2012. The cable and telecommunications industries have experienced consolidation over the past several years, and we expect that this trend will continue. As a result of consolidation, some of our customers may be acquired by companies with which we do not have existing relationships and which may have relationships with one of our competitors or may have the in-house capacity to perform the services we provide. As a result, such acquisitions could cause us to lose customers and the associated subscriber-based and search and display advertising revenue. Under our agreements with some of our customers, including Charter, Verizon and CenturyLink, they have the right to terminate the agreement if we are acquired by one of their competitors.
Consolidation may also require us to renegotiate our agreements with our customers as a result of enhanced customer leverage. We may not be able to offset the effects of any such renegotiations, and we may not be able to attract new customers to counter any revenue declines resulting from the loss of customers or their subscribers.
As technology continues to evolve, the use of our products by our current and prospective consumer electronics manufacturer customers may decrease and our business could be adversely affected.
The consumer electronics industry is subject to rapid change, and our contract with Toshiba is not exclusive. As consumer electronics manufacturers continue to develop new technologies and introduce new models and devices, there can be no assurance that we will be able to develop solutions that will persuade consumer electronics manufacturers that are our customers at such time to utilize our technology for those new devices. If our current and prospective consumer electronics manufacturer customers elect not to integrate our solutions into their new products, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We invest in features and functionality designed to increase consumer engagement with our startpages; however, these investments may not lead to increased revenue.
Our future growth and profitability will depend in large part on the effectiveness and efficiency of our efforts to provide a compelling consumer experience that increases consumer engagement with our startpages. We have made and will continue to make substantial investments in features and functionality for our technology that are designed to drive consumer

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engagement. Not all of these activities directly generate revenue, and we cannot assure you that we will reap sufficient rewards from these investments to make them worthwhile. If the expenses that we incur in connection with these activities do not result in increased consumer engagement that in turn results in revenue increases that exceed these expenses, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.
Our services and products may become less competitive or even obsolete if we fail to respond to technological developments.
Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to modify or enhance our services and products to meet customer and consumer needs, to add functionality and to address technological advancements that would improve their performance. For example, if our services and products do not adapt to the increasing video usage on the Internet or to take into account evolving developments in social networking, then they could begin to appear obsolete. Similarly, if we fail to develop new ways to deliver content and services through apps other than traditional Internet browsers, consumers could seek alternative means of accessing content and services.
To remain competitive, we will need to develop new services and products and adapt our existing ones to address these and other evolving technologies and standards. However, we may be unsuccessful in identifying new opportunities or in developing or marketing new services and products in a timely or cost-effective manner. In addition, our product innovations may not achieve the market penetration or price levels necessary for profitability. If we are unable to develop enhancements to, and new features for, our existing services and products or if we are unable to develop new services and products that keep pace with rapid technological developments or changing industry standards, our services and products may become obsolete, less marketable and less competitive, and our business will be harmed.
We depend on third parties for content that is critical to our business, and our business could suffer if we do not continue to obtain high-quality content at a reasonable cost.
We license the content that we aggregate on our startpages from numerous third-party content providers, and our future success is highly dependent upon our ability to maintain and enter into new relationships with these and other content providers. In the future, some of our content providers may not give us access to high-quality content, may fail to adapt to changes in consumer tastes or may increase the royalties, fees or percentages that they charge us for their content, any of which could have a material negative effect on our operating results. Our rights to the content that we offer to our customers and their consumers are not exclusive, and the content providers could license their content to our competitors. Our content providers could even grant our competitors exclusive licenses. In addition, our customers are not prohibited from entering into content deals directly with our content providers. Any failure to enter into or maintain satisfactory arrangements with content providers would adversely affect our ability to provide a variety of attractive services and products to our customers. Our reputation and operating results could suffer as a result, and it may be more difficult for us to develop new relationships with potential customers. Our costs as a percentage of revenue may also increase due to price competition.
Our revenue and operating results may fluctuate, which makes our results difficult to predict and could cause our results to fall short of expectations.
As a result of the rapidly changing nature of the markets in which we compete, our quarterly and annual revenue and operating results are likely to fluctuate from period to period. These fluctuations may be caused by a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including but not limited to the various factors set forth in this "Risk Factors" section, as well as:
any failure to maintain strong relationships and favorable revenue-sharing arrangements with our search and display advertising partners, in particular Google, including a reduction in the quantity or pricing of sponsored links that consumers click on or a reduction in the pricing of display advertisements by advertisers;
any failure of significant customers to renew their agreements with us;
our ability to attract new customers;
our ability to increase sales of value added services and paid content to existing subscribers;
the timing and success of new service and product introductions by us, our customers or our competitors;
variations in the demand for our services and products and the implementation cycles of our services and products by our customers;
changes to Internet browser technology that renders our startpages less competitive;

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changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors;
changes in the prices our customers charge for value added services and paid content;
service outages, other technical difficulties or security breaches;
limitations relating to the capacity of our networks, systems and processes;
our failure to accurately estimate or control costs, including costs related to the initial launch of new customers;
maintaining appropriate staffing levels and capabilities relative to projected growth;
the timing of costs related to the development or acquisition of technologies, services or businesses to support our existing customers and potential growth opportunities; and
general economic, industry and market conditions and those conditions specific to Internet usage and online businesses.
For these reasons and because the market for our services and products is relatively new and rapidly changing, it is difficult to predict our future financial results.
Expansion into international markets, which is an important part of our strategy, but where we have limited experience, will subject us to risks associated with international operations.
We plan to expand our product offerings internationally, particularly in Asia, Latin America and Europe. For example, we recently announced that we entered into a joint venture with Maxit to supply authentication and aggregation solutions for the delivery of online content and services to customers in the People's Republic of China, or the PRC. We have limited experience in marketing and operating our services and products in international markets, and we may not be able to successfully develop our business in these markets. Our success in these markets will be directly linked to the success of relationships with potential customers, content partners and other third parties.
As the international markets in which we plan to operate continue to grow, we expect that competition in these markets will intensify. Local companies may have a substantial competitive advantage because of their greater understanding of, and focus on, the local markets. Some of our domestic competitors who have substantially greater resources than we do may be able to more quickly and comprehensively develop and grow in international markets. International expansion may also require significant financial investment including, among other things, the expense of developing localized products, the costs of acquiring foreign companies and the integration of such companies with our operations, expenditure of resources in developing customer and content relationships and the increased costs of supporting remote operations.
Other risks of doing business in international markets include the increased risks and burdens of complying with different legal and regulatory standards, difficulties in managing and staffing foreign operations, recruiting and retaining talented direct sales personnel, limitations on the repatriation of funds and fluctuations of foreign exchange rates, varying levels of Internet technology adoption and infrastructure, and our ability to enforce contracts and our intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. In addition, our success in international expansion could be limited by barriers to international expansion such as tariffs, adverse tax consequences and technology export controls. If we cannot manage these risks effectively, the costs of doing business in some international markets may be prohibitive or our costs may increase disproportionately to our revenue. Some of our business partners also have international operations and are subject to the risks described above. Even if we are able to successfully manage the risks of international operations, our business may be adversely affected if our business partners are not able to successfully manage these risks.
Our agreements with some of our customers and content providers require fixed payments, which could adversely affect our financial performance.
Certain of our agreements with customers and content providers require us to make fixed payments to them. The aggregate amount of such fixed payments for the years ending December 31, 2013, 2014, 2015, and the two years thereafter are approximately $4.6 million, $1.4 million, $1.1 million, and $1.4 million, respectively. We are required to make these fixed payments regardless of the achievement of any revenue objectives or subscriber or usage levels. If we do not achieve our financial objectives, these contractual commitments would constitute a greater percentage of our revenue than originally anticipated and would adversely affect our profitability.
Our agreements with some of our customers and content providers contain penalties for non-performance, which could adversely affect our financial performance.

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We have entered into service level agreements with most of our customers. These agreements generally call for specific system “up times” and 24 hours per day, seven days per week support and include penalties for non-performance. We may be unable to fulfill these commitments due to circumstances beyond our control, which could subject us to substantial penalties under those agreements, harm our reputation and result in a reduction of revenue or the loss of customers, which would in turn have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. To date, we have never incurred any material penalties.
System failures or capacity constraints could harm our business and financial performance.
The provision of our services and products depends on the continuing operation of our information technology and communications systems. Any damage to or failure of our systems could result in interruptions in our service. Such interruptions could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations, and our reputation could be damaged if people believe our systems are unreliable. Our systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from snow storms, terrorist attacks, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures, security breaches, computer malware, computer hacking attacks, computer viruses, computer denial of service attacks or other attempts to, or events that, harm our systems. Our data center is also subject to break-ins, sabotage and intentional acts of vandalism and to potential disruptions if the operators of the facility have financial difficulties. Although we maintain insurance to cover a variety of risks, the scope and amount of our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover our losses resulting from system failures or other disruptions to our online operations. For example, the limit on our business interruption insurance is approximately $26.1 million. Any system failure or disruption and any resulting losses that are not recoverable under our insurance policies may materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. To date, we have never experienced any material losses.
Although we regularly back-up our systems and store the system back-ups in Atlanta, Georgia, Lewis Center, Ohio, and Buffalo, New York, we do not have full second-site redundancy. If we were forced to relocate to an alternate site and to rely on our system back-ups to restore the systems, we would experience significant delays in restoring the functionality of our platform and could experience loss of data, which could materially harm our business and our operating results.
Security breaches, computer viruses and computer hacking attacks could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Security breaches, computer malware and computer hacking attacks are prevalent in the technology industry. Any security breach caused by hacking, which involves efforts to gain unauthorized access to information or systems, or to cause intentional malfunctions or loss or corruption of data, software, hardware or other computer equipment, and the inadvertent transmission of computer viruses could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. We have previously experienced hacking attacks on our systems, and may in the future experience hacking attacks. Though it is difficult to determine what harm may directly result from any specific interruption or breach, any failure to maintain performance, reliability, security and availability of our technology infrastructure to the satisfaction of our customers and their consumers may harm our reputation and our ability to retain existing customers and attract new customers.
We may not maintain acceptable website performance for our customers, which may negatively impact our relationships with our customers and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A key element to our continued growth is the ability of our customers’ consumers in all geographies to access our startpages within acceptable load times. We refer to this as website performance. We may in the future experience platform disruptions, outages and other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, capacity constraints due to an overwhelming number of users accessing our technology simultaneously, and denial of service or fraud or security attacks. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these website performance problems within an acceptable period of time. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve website performance, especially during peak usage times, and as our solutions become more complex and our user traffic increases. If our startpages are unavailable when consumers attempt to access them or do not load as quickly as they expect, consumers may seek other alternatives to obtain the information for which they are looking, and may not return to our startpages as often in the future, or at all. This would negatively impact our relationships with our customers. We expect to continue to make significant investments to maintain and improve website performance. To the extent that we do not effectively address capacity constraints, upgrade our systems as needed and continually develop our technology and network architecture to accommodate actual and anticipated changes in technology, our business and operating results may be harmed.
We rely on our management team and need additional personnel to expand our business, and the loss of key officers or an inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We depend on the continued contributions of our senior management and other key personnel, especially Ronald N. Frankel, our Chief Executive Officer, George G. Chamoun, our Executive Vice President of Sales and Marketing, Scott A. Bailey, our Chief Operating Officer, and William J. Stuart, our Chief Financial Officer. The loss of the services of any of our executive officers or other key employees could harm our business and our prospects. All of our executive officers and key employees are at-will employees, which means they may terminate their employment relationship with us at any time.
Our future success also depends on our ability to identify, attract and retain highly skilled technical, managerial, finance, marketing and creative personnel. For example, we will need to hire personnel outside the United States to pursue an international expansion strategy, and we will need to hire additional advertising salespeople to sell more advertisements directly. We face intense competition for qualified individuals from numerous technology, marketing and media companies, and we may incur significant costs to attract them. We may be unable to attract and retain suitably qualified individuals, or we may be required to pay increased compensation in order to do so. If we were to be unable to attract and retain the qualified personnel we need to succeed, our business could suffer.
Volatility or lack of performance in the trading price of our common stock may also affect our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel. Many of our senior management personnel and other key employees have become, or will become, vested in a substantial amount of stock or stock options. Employees may be more likely to leave us if the shares they own or the shares underlying their options have significantly appreciated in value relative to the original purchase prices of the shares or the exercise prices of the options or if the exercise prices of the options that they hold are significantly above the trading price of our common stock. If we are unable to retain our employees, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be harmed.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.
Following the merger of our predecessor companies, Chek, Inc., or Chek, and MyPersonal.com, Inc., or MyPersonal, to form Synacor, we have expanded our business primarily through organic growth. We expect to continue to grow organically, and we may choose to grow through strategic acquisitions in the future. This growth has placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management and our operational and financial infrastructure. Our ability to manage our growth effectively and to integrate new technologies and acquisitions into our existing business will require us to continue to expand our operational, financial and management information systems and to continue to retain, attract, train, motivate and manage key employees. Continued growth could strain our ability to:
develop and improve our operational, financial and management controls;
enhance our reporting systems and procedures;
recruit, train and retain highly skilled personnel;
maintain our quality standards; and
maintain customer and content owner satisfaction.
Managing our growth will require significant expenditures and allocation of valuable management resources. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as it grows, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be harmed.
We may expand our business through acquisitions of, or investments in, other companies or new technologies, or joint ventures or other strategic alliances with other companies, which may divert our management’s attention or prove not to be successful.
In January 2012, we completed an acquisition of certain mobile device software and technology from Carbyn, and in March 2013, we entered into a Joint Venture Agreement with Maxit Technology Incorporated to form Synacor China, Ltd., a joint venture in China. We may decide to pursue other acquisitions of, investments in, or joint ventures involving other technologies and businesses in the future. Such transactions could divert our management’s time and focus from operating our business.
Our ability as an organization to integrate acquisitions is unproven. Integrating an acquired company, business or technology is risky and may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures, including, among other things, with respect to:
incorporating new technologies into our existing business infrastructure;

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consolidating corporate and administrative functions;
coordinating our sales and marketing functions to incorporate the new business or technology;
maintaining morale, retaining and integrating key employees to support the new business or technology and managing our expansion in capacity; and
maintaining standards, controls, procedures and policies (including effective internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures).
In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we may acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our earnings based on this impairment assessment process, which could harm our operating results.
Future acquisitions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, including our common stock, or the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, amortization expenses or acquired in-process research and development expenses, any of which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Future acquisitions may also require us to obtain additional financing, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all.
We face many risks in connection with our joint venture, including, among other things, with respect to:
The JV Company not being able to obtain the approvals required from the PRC government for the establishment of a wholly foreign-owned subsidiary of the JV Company in the People's Republic of China, or the WFOE;
Increasing competition in the industry and the WFOE's ability to compete in the Chinese market;
The impact of regulatory changes in the industry;
Potential difficulties associated with operating the joint venture and the WFOE;
The joint venture's ability to obtain additional financing;
The WFOE's ability to offer competitive services in the Chinese market at a favorable margin;
General business and economic conditions, including seasonality of the industry and growth trends in the industry;
Our ability to successfully enter the Chinese market and operate internationally;
Potential delays, including obtaining permits, licenses and other governmental approvals;
Trade barriers and potential duties; and
Our and the joint venture's ability to protect intellectual property.
If we and the JV Company are not able to successfully manage these and other risks related to the joint venture, it could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may require additional capital to grow our business, and this capital may not be available on acceptable terms or at all.
The operation of our business and our growth strategy may require significant additional capital, especially if we were to accelerate our expansion and acquisition plans. If the cash generated from operations and otherwise available to us are not sufficient to meet our capital requirements, we will need to seek additional capital, potentially through debt or equity financings, to fund our growth. We may not be able to raise needed capital on terms acceptable to us or at all. Financings, if available, may be on terms that are dilutive or potentially dilutive to our stockholders, and the prices at which new investors would be willing to purchase our securities may cause our existing stockholders to suffer substantial dilution. The holders of new securities may also receive rights, preferences or privileges that are senior to those of existing holders of our common stock. Any debt financing obtained by us in the future could contain restrictive covenants that may potentially restrict our operations, and if we do not effectively manage our business to comply with those covenants, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. If new sources of financing are required but are insufficient or

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unavailable, we could be required to delay, abandon or otherwise modify our growth and operating plans to the extent of available funding, which would harm our ability to grow our business.
Our business depends, in part, on our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights.
The protection of our intellectual property is critical to our success. We rely on copyright and service mark enforcement, contractual restrictions and trade secret laws to protect our proprietary rights. We have entered into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and contractors, and nondisclosure agreements with certain parties with whom we conduct business to limit access to and disclosure of our proprietary information. However, if we are unable to adequately protect our intellectual property, our business may suffer from the piracy of our technology and the associated loss in revenue.
Protecting against the unauthorized use of our intellectual property and other proprietary rights is expensive, difficult and, in some cases, impossible. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Such litigation could be costly and divert management resources, either of which could harm our business. Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property.
We are not currently involved in any legal proceedings with respect to protecting our intellectual property; however, we may from time to time become a party to various legal proceedings with respect to protecting our intellectual property arising in the ordinary course of our business.
Any claims from a third party that we are infringing upon its intellectual property, whether valid or not, could subject us to costly and time-consuming litigation or expensive licenses or force us to curtail some services or products.
Companies in the Internet and technology industries tend to own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. We have been subject to claims that the presentation of certain licensed content on our startpages infringes certain patents of a third party, none of which have resulted in direct settlement or payments by us or any determination of infringement by us, and as we face increasing competition, the possibility of further intellectual property rights claims against us grows. Our technologies may not be able to withstand any third party claims or rights against their use. Any intellectual property claims, with or without merit, could be time-consuming, expensive to litigate or settle and could divert management resources and attention. An adverse determination also could prevent us from offering our services and products to others and may require that we procure substitute products or services for our customers.
In the case of any intellectual property rights claim, we may have to pay damages or stop using technology found to be in violation of a third party’s rights. We may have to seek a license for the technology, which may not be available to us on reasonable terms and may significantly increase our operating expenses. The technology also may not be available for license to us at all. As a result, we may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, which could require significant effort and expense. If we cannot license or develop technology for the infringing aspects of our business, we may be forced to limit our service and product offerings and may be unable to compete effectively. Any of these consequences could harm our operating results.
In addition, we typically have contractual obligations to our customers to indemnify and defend them with respect to third-party intellectual property infringement claims that arise from our customers’ use of our products or services. Such claims, whether valid or not, could harm our relationships with our customers, have resulted and could result in the future in us or our customers having to enter into licenses with the claimants and have caused and could cause us in the future to incur additional costs or reduced revenues. To date, neither the increase in our costs nor any reductions in our revenue resulting from such claims have been material. Such claims could also subject us to costly and time-consuming litigation as well as diverting management attention and resources. Satisfying our contractual indemnification obligations could also give rise to significant liability, and thus harm our business and our operating results.
We are not currently subject to any material legal proceedings with respect to third party claims that we or our customers’ use of our products and services are infringing upon their intellectual property; however, we may from time to time become a party to various legal proceedings with respect to such claims arising in the ordinary course of our business.
Any unauthorized disclosure or theft of personal information we gather could harm our reputation and subject us to claims or litigation.

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We collect, and have access to, personal information of subscribers, including names, addresses, account numbers, credit card numbers and e-mail addresses. Unauthorized disclosure of personal information regarding website visitors, whether through breach of our systems by an unauthorized party, employee theft or misuse, or otherwise, could harm our business. If there were an inadvertent disclosure of personal information, or if a third party were to gain unauthorized access to the personal information we possess, our operations could be seriously disrupted and we could be subject to claims or litigation arising from damages suffered by subscribers or our customers. In addition, we could incur significant costs in complying with the multitude of state, federal and foreign laws regarding the unauthorized disclosure of personal information. Finally, any perceived or actual unauthorized disclosure of the information we collect could harm our reputation, substantially impair our ability to attract and retain customers and have an adverse impact on our business.
We collect and may access personal information and other data, which subjects us to governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to privacy, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business.
We collect, and have access to, personal information of subscribers, including names, addresses, account numbers, credit card numbers and e-mail addresses. There are numerous federal, state and local laws around the world regarding privacy and the storing, sharing, use, processing, disclosure and protection of personal information and other subscriber data, the scope of which are changing, subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent between countries or conflict with other rules. We generally comply with industry standards and are subject to the terms of our privacy policies and privacy-related obligations to third parties (including voluntary third-party certification bodies such as TRUSTe). We strive to comply with all applicable laws, policies, legal obligations and industry codes of conduct relating to privacy and data protection to the extent possible. However, it is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or our practices. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy policies, our privacy-related obligations to users or other third parties, or our privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personal information or other subscriber data, may result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation or public statements against us by consumer advocacy groups or others and could cause our customers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our business. Additionally, if third parties we work with, such as customers, vendors or developers, violate applicable laws or our policies, such violations may also put subscriber information at risk and could in turn have an adverse effect on our business.
Any failure to convince advertisers of the benefits of advertising with us would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have derived and expect to continue to derive a substantial portion of our revenue from display advertising on our startpages. Such advertising accounted for approximately 20%, 23%, and 27% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. Our ability to attract and retain advertisers and, ultimately, to generate advertising revenue depends on a number of factors, including:
increasing the numbers of consumers using our startpages;
maintaining consumer engagement on those startpages;
competing effectively for advertising spending with other online and offline advertising providers; and
continuing to grow our direct advertising sales force and develop and diversify our advertising capabilities.
If we are unable to provide high-quality advertising opportunities and convince advertisers and agencies of our value proposition, we may not be able to retain existing advertisers or attract new ones, which would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Migration of high-speed Internet service providers’ subscribers from one high-speed Internet service provider to another could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our high-speed Internet service provider customers’ subscribers may become dissatisfied with their current high-speed Internet service provider and may switch to another provider. In the event that there is substantial subscriber migration from our existing customers to service providers with which we do not have relationships, the fees that we receive on a per-subscriber basis, and the related search and display advertising revenue, could decline.

Our business and the trading price of our common stock may be adversely affected if our internal controls over financial reporting are found by management or by our independent registered public accounting firm not to be adequate.

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Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. In addition, Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, requires our management to evaluate and report on our internal control over financial reporting. This report contains, among other matters, an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of the end of our fiscal year, including a statement as to whether or not our internal control over financial reporting is effective. This assessment must include disclosure of any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting identified by management. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting beginning with the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year in which we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating.

While we have determined that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2012, as indicated in our Management Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting included in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K, we must continue to monitor and assess our internal control over financial reporting. If our management identifies one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and such weakness remains uncorrected at fiscal year-end, we will be unable to assert such internal control is effective at fiscal year-end. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective at fiscal year-end, or if our independent registered public accounting firm, when required, is unable to express an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal controls or concludes that we have a material weakness in our internal controls, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which would likely have an adverse effect on our business and stock price.

Even if we conclude our internal control over financial reporting provides reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP, because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect fraud or misstatements. Failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations.
In addition, a delay in compliance with the auditor attestation provisions of Section 404, when applicable to us, could subject us to a variety of administrative sanctions, including ineligibility for short-form resale registration, action by the SEC, the suspension or delisting of our common stock and the inability of registered broker-dealers to make a market in our common stock, which would further reduce the trading price of our common stock and could harm our business.

We are an “emerging growth company” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.
    
We are an "emerging growth company," as defined in the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not "emerging growth companies" including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
As of December 31, 2012, we had substantial federal and state net operating loss carryforwards. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards to offset its post-change income and taxes may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” generally occurs if there is a cumulative change in our ownership by “five-percent stockholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. For these purposes, a five-percent stockholder is generally any person or group of persons that at any time during the applicable testing period has owned 5% or more of our outstanding stock. In addition, persons who own less than 5% of the outstanding stock are grouped together as one or more “public groups,” which are also treated as five-percent stockholders. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of future transactions in our stock, some of which may be outside our control. As a result, our ability to use our pre-change net operating loss carryforwards to offset United States federal and state taxable income and taxes may be subject to limitations.

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Our joint venture's business prospects in China are dependent on government telecommunications infrastructure and budgetary policies, particularly the allocation of funds to sustain the growth of the telecommunications industry in China.
Our joint venture's business prospects in China include telecommunication service operators, and telecommunication service operators in China are directly or indirectly owned or controlled by the government of China. Accordingly, our joint venture's business prospects in China will also be heavily dependent on these government policies. Insufficient future funding allocated to China's telecommunications industry by the government could directly reduce the market for our joint venture's software and services in China. Chinese government initiatives directed at the market could also significantly affect the market conditions for our joint venture's Chinese customers and influence their level of spending on the services we offer. While some of these initiatives may increase market competition and generate more demand for our services, the anticipated increase in demand may not materialize. Our joint venture's prospective customers may not adapt well to the market conditions under the evolving regulatory environment and their demand for our joint venture's software and services may decrease as a result. The telecommunications industry in China may also become less competitive over time, either as a result of market propelled consolidations or as a result of government efforts to curtail competition. A less competitive market may create fewer incentives for spending on technology innovations and upgrades, which may directly affect our joint venture's business prospects in China.
Our proprietary rights may be inadequately protected and there is a risk of poor enforcement of intellectual property rights in China.
Our success and ability to compete depend substantially upon our intellectual property, which we protect through a combination of confidentiality arrangements and trademark registrations. We have registered several marks and filed many other trademark applications in the U.S. We have not applied for copyright protection in any jurisdiction, including in the U.S. We enter into confidentiality agreements with most of our employees and consultants, and control access to, and distribution of, our documentation and other licensed information, including information licensed to the JV Company. Despite these precautions, it may be possible for a third party to copy or otherwise obtain and use our technology without authorization, or to develop similar technology independently. Since the Chinese legal system in general and the intellectual property regime in particular, are relatively weak, it is often difficult to enforce intellectual property rights in China.
Policing unauthorized use of our licensed technology is difficult and the steps we take may not prevent misappropriation or infringement of our proprietary rights. In addition, litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources.
Failure to comply with the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.
We are subject to the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which generally prohibits U.S. companies from engaging in bribery or other prohibited payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Corruption, extortion, bribery, pay-offs, theft and other fraudulent practices may occur with respect to our expansion into international markets. Our employees or other agents may engage in such conduct for which we might be held responsible. If our employees or other agents are found to have engaged in such practices, we could suffer severe penalties and other consequences, including adverse publicity and damage to our reputation that may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Industry
The growth of the market for our services and products depends on the continued growth of the Internet as a medium for content, advertising, commerce and communications.
Expansion in the sales of our services and products depends on the continued acceptance of the Internet as a platform for content, advertising, commerce and communications. The acceptance of the Internet as a medium for such uses could be adversely impacted by delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of Internet activity, security, privacy protection, reliability, cost, ease of use, accessibility and quality of service. The performance of the Internet and its acceptance as such a medium has been harmed by viruses, worms, and similar malicious programs, and the Internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damage to portions of its infrastructure. If for any reason the Internet does not remain a medium for widespread content, advertising, commerce and communications, the demand for our services and products would be significantly reduced, which would harm our business.

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The growth of the market for our services and products depends on the development and maintenance of the Internet infrastructure.
Our business strategy depends on continued Internet and high-speed Internet access growth. Any downturn in the use or growth rate of the Internet or high-speed Internet access would be detrimental to our business. If the Internet continues to experience significant growth in number of users, frequency of use and amount of data transmitted, the Internet infrastructure might not be able to support the demands placed on it and the performance or reliability of the Internet may be adversely affected. The success of our business therefore depends on the development and maintenance of a sound Internet infrastructure. This includes maintenance of a reliable network backbone with the necessary speed, data capacity and security, as well as timely development of complementary products, such as routers, for providing reliable Internet access and services. Consequently, as Internet usage increases, the growth of the market for our products depends upon improvements made to the Internet as well as to individual customers’ networking infrastructures to alleviate overloading and congestion. In addition, any delays in the adoption of new standards and protocols required to govern increased levels of Internet activity or increased governmental regulation may have a detrimental effect on the Internet infrastructure.
A substantial majority of our revenue is derived from search and display advertising; our revenue would decline if advertisers do not continue their usage of the Internet as an advertising medium.
We have derived and expect to continue to derive a substantial majority of our revenue from search and display advertising on our startpages. Such search and display advertising revenue accounted for approximately 69%, 79%, and 83% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011, and 2012, or $45.9 million, $72.1 million, and $101.6 million, respectively. However, the prospects for continued demand and market acceptance for Internet advertising are uncertain. If advertisers do not continue to increase their usage of the Internet as an advertising medium, our revenue would decline. Advertisers that have traditionally relied on other advertising media may not advertise on the Internet. Most advertising agencies and potential advertisers, particularly local advertisers, have only limited experience advertising on the Internet and devote only a small portion of their advertising expenditures to online advertising. As the Internet evolves, advertisers may find online advertising to be a less attractive or less effective means of promoting their services and products than traditional methods of advertising and may not continue to allocate funds for Internet advertising. Many historical predictions by industry analysts and others concerning the growth of the Internet as a commercial medium have overstated the growth of the Internet and you should not rely upon them. This growth may not occur or may occur more slowly than estimated.
Most of our search revenue is based on the number of paid “clicks” on sponsored links that are included in search results generated from our startpages. Generally, each time a consumer clicks on a sponsored link, the search provider that provided the commercial search result receives a fee from the advertiser who paid for such commercial click and the search provider pays us a portion of that fee. We, in turn, typically share a portion of the fee we receive with our customer. If an advertiser receives what it perceives to be a large number of clicks for which it needs to pay, but that do not result in a desired activity or an increase in sales, the advertiser may reduce or eliminate its advertisements through the search provider that provided the commercial search result to us. This reaction would lead to a loss of revenue to our search providers and consequently to lesser fees paid to us, which would have a material negative effect on our financial results.
Market prices for online advertising may decrease due to competitive or other factors. In addition, if a large number of Internet users use filtering software programs that limit or remove advertising from the users’ view, advertisers may perceive that Internet advertising is not effective and may choose not to advertise on the Internet.
The market for Internet-based services and products in which we operate is highly competitive, and if we cannot compete effectively, our sales may decline and our business may be harmed.
Competition in the market for Internet-based services and products in which we operate is intense and involves rapidly changing technologies and customer and subscriber requirements, as well as evolving industry standards and frequent product introductions. Our competitors may develop solutions that are similar or superior to our technology. Our primary competitors include high-speed Internet service providers with internal information technology staff capable of developing solutions similar to our technology. Other competitors include Yahoo!, Google, AOL and MSN, a division of Microsoft. Advantages some of our existing and potential competitors hold over us include the following:
significantly greater revenue and financial resources;
stronger brand and consumer recognition;
the capacity to leverage their marketing expenditures across a broader portfolio of services and products;

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more extensive proprietary intellectual property from which they can develop or aggregate content without having to pay fees or paying significantly lower fees than we do;
pre-existing relationships with content providers that afford them access to content while blocking the access of competitors to that same content;
pre-existing relationships with high-speed Internet service providers that afford them the opportunity to convert such providers to competing services and products;
lower labor and development costs; and
broader global distribution and presence.
If we are unable to compete effectively or we are not as successful as our competitors in our target markets, our sales could decline, our margins could decline and we could lose market share, any of which would materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Government regulation of the Internet continues to evolve, and new laws and regulations could significantly harm our financial performance.
Today, there are relatively few laws specifically directed towards conducting business over the Internet. We expect more stringent laws and regulations relating to the Internet to be enacted. The adoption or modification of laws related to the Internet could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations by, among other things, increasing our costs and administrative burdens. Due to the increasing popularity and use of the Internet, many laws and regulations relating to the Internet are being debated at the international, federal and state levels, which are likely to address a variety of issues such as:
user privacy and expression;
ability to collect and/or share necessary information that allows us to conduct business on the Internet;
export compliance;
pricing and taxation;
fraud;
advertising;
intellectual property rights;
consumer protection;
protection of minors;
content regulation;
information security; and
quality of services and products.
Several federal laws that could have an impact on our business have been adopted. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 reduces the liability of online service providers of third-party content, including content that may infringe copyrights or rights of others. The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act imposes additional restrictions on the ability of online services to collect user information from minors. In addition, the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act requires online service providers to report evidence of violations of federal child pornography laws under certain circumstances.
It could be costly for us to comply with existing and potential laws and regulations, and they could harm our marketing efforts and our attractiveness to advertisers by, among other things, restricting our ability to collect demographic and personal information from consumers or to use or disclose that information in certain ways. If we were to violate these laws or regulations, or if it were alleged that we had, we could face private lawsuits, fines, penalties and injunctions and our business could be harmed.

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Finally, the applicability to the Internet and other online services of existing laws in various jurisdictions governing issues such as property ownership, sales and other taxes, libel and personal privacy is uncertain. Any new legislation or regulation, the application of laws and regulations from jurisdictions whose laws do not currently apply to our business, or the application of existing laws and regulations to the Internet and other online services could also increase our costs of doing business, discourage Internet communications, reduce demand for our services and expose us to substantial liability.
Public scrutiny of Internet privacy issues may result in increased regulation and different industry standards, which could deter or prevent us from providing our current products and solutions to our customers, thereby harming our business.
The regulatory framework for privacy issues worldwide is currently in flux and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. Practices regarding the collection, use, storage, transmission and security of personal information by companies operating over the Internet have recently come under increased public scrutiny. The United States government, including the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Commerce, has announced that it is reviewing the need for greater regulation for the collection of information concerning consumer behavior on the Internet, including regulation aimed at restricting certain targeted advertising practices. In addition, the European Union is in the process of proposing reforms to its existing data protection legal framework, which may result in a greater compliance burden for companies with users in Europe. Various government and consumer agencies have also called for new regulation and changes in industry practices.
Our business, including our ability to operate and expand internationally, could be adversely affected if legislation or regulations are adopted, interpreted or implemented in a manner that is inconsistent with our current business practices and that require changes to these practices, our services or our privacy policies.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Concentration of ownership among our directors, officers, large stockholders and their respective affiliates could limit our other stockholders’ ability to influence the outcome of key corporate decisions, such as an acquisition of our company.
Our directors, executive officers and holders of more than 5% of our common stock, together with their affiliates, beneficially own or control, directly or indirectly, as of December 31, 2012 over 30% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, these stockholders, if they act together, would have the ability to influence significantly the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, these stockholders, if they act together, would have the ability to influence significantly the management and affairs of our company. Accordingly, this concentration of ownership might harm the trading price of our common stock by:
delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control;
impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us; or
discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.
Future sales of our common stock may cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.
As of February 15, 2012, the closing date of our initial public offering, stockholders holding some 17,666,204 shares of our common stock had demand and piggyback rights to require us to register such shares with the SEC. If we register any of these shares of common stock, the stockholders would be able to sell those shares freely in the public market.
In addition, the shares that are either subject to outstanding options or that may be granted in the future under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting agreements and Rules 144 and 701 under the Securities Act.
As of February 22, 2012, we registered the shares of our common stock that we may issue under our equity plans. These shares can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to any vesting.
If a substantial number of any of these additional shares described are sold, or if it is perceived that a substantial number of such shares will be sold, in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline.
Some provisions of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and Delaware law may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition or prevent the removal of our current board of directors and management.

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Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition or prevent the removal of our current board of directors and management. We have a number of anti-takeover devices in place that will hinder takeover attempts, including:
our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms;
our directors may only be removed for cause, and only with the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting interest of stockholders entitled to vote;
only our board of directors and not our stockholders will be able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;
only our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or a majority of our board of directors, and not our stockholders, are authorized to call a special meeting of stockholders;
our stockholders will be able to take action only at a meeting of stockholders and not by written consent;
our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval; and
advance notice procedures apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders.
These provisions and other provisions in our charter documents could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in our control. Any delay or prevention of a change in control transaction could cause stockholders to lose a substantial premium over the then-current trading price of their shares. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and could make it more difficult for our stockholders to elect directors of their choosing or to cause us to take other corporate actions such stockholders desire.
In addition, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which, subject to some exceptions, prohibits “business combinations” between a Delaware corporation and an “interested stockholder,” which is generally defined as a stockholder who becomes a beneficial owner of 15% or more of a Delaware corporation’s voting stock, for a three-year period following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder. Section 203 could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control that our stockholders might consider to be in their best interests.
We have not paid cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not expect to do so in the foreseeable future.
We have not historically paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We anticipate that we will retain all future earnings and cash resources for the future operation and development of our business, and as a result, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends to holders of our capital stock for the foreseeable future. Any future determination regarding the payment of any dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board may deem relevant. Consequently, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment.
The trading price and volume of our common stock has been and will likely continue to be volatile, and the value of an investment in our common stock may decline.
The trading price of our common stock has been, and is likely to continue to be, volatile and could decline substantially within a short period of time. For example, since shares of our common stock were sold in our initial public offering in February 2012 at a price of $5.00 per share through the close of business on March 1, 2013, our trading price has ranged from $2.72 to $18.00. The trading price of our common stock may be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control, including but not limited to the various factors set forth in this "Risk Factors" section, as well as:
variations in our financial performance;
announcements of technological innovations, new services and products, strategic alliances or significant agreements by us or by our competitors;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
changes in the estimates of our operating results or changes in recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage by securities analysts;

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market conditions in our industry, the industries of our customers and the economy as a whole; and
adoption or modification of laws, regulations, policies, procedures or programs applicable to our business or announcements relating to these matters.
In addition, if the market for technology stocks or the stock market in general experiences loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition or results of operations. The trading price of our common stock might also decline in reaction to events that affect other companies in our industry even if these events do not directly affect us. Some companies that have had volatile market prices for their securities have had securities class actions filed against them. Such a suit filed against us, regardless of its merits or outcome, could cause us to incur substantial costs and could divert management’s attention.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our company, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.
The requirements of being a public company, including increased costs and demands upon management as a result of complying with federal securities laws and regulations applicable to public companies, may adversely affect our financial performance and our ability to attract and retain directors.
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, and the rules and regulations of The NASDAQ Global Market. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and NASDAQ, impose additional requirements on public companies, including enhanced corporate governance practices. For example, the NASDAQ listing requirements require that listed companies satisfy certain corporate governance requirements relating to independent directors, audit committees, distribution of annual and interim reports, stockholder meetings, stockholder approvals, solicitation of proxies, conflicts of interest, stockholder voting rights and codes of business conduct. Our management team has limited experience managing a publicly-traded company or complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. In addition, most of our current directors have limited experience serving on the boards of public companies.
The requirements of these rules and regulations have increased and will continue to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly and may also place undue strain on our personnel, systems and resources. Our management and other personnel must devote a substantial amount of time to these requirements. These rules and regulations will also make it more difficult and more expensive for us to maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to maintain coverage. If we are unable to maintain adequate directors’ and officers’ insurance, our ability to recruit and retain qualified directors, especially those directors who may be considered independent for purposes of NASDAQ rules, and officers may be significantly curtailed.
ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters are located at 40 LaRiviere Drive, Buffalo, New York 14202. We lease approximately 31,000 square feet of office space at this address pursuant to a sublease agreement that expires in March 2016. The sublease agreement grants us a right of first offer over approximately 63,000 additional square feet in the same building.
We also maintain administrative and product development offices in New York, New York, Los Angeles, California and Ontario, Canada and have data centers in Atlanta, Georgia; Lewis Center, Ohio; Buffalo, New York; Denver, Colorado; and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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We believe that our facilities are adequate to meet our current needs and that suitable additional or substitute space will be available as needed.
ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not presently involved in any legal proceedings, the outcome of which, if determined adversely to us, would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

26


PART II
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our common stock has been listed on The NASDAQ Global Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “SYNC” since February 10, 2012.

The following table sets forth, for the indicated periods, the high and low sales prices per share by quarter for our common stock as reported by NASDAQ.

Fiscal Year 2012 Quarters Ended:
High
 
Low
March 31, 2012 (1)
$
8.10

 
$
4.75

June 30, 2012
15.00

 
6.36

September 30, 2012
18.00

 
7.35

December 31, 2012
7.98

 
4.44


Notes:
(1)
There was no public market for our common stock prior to February 10, 2012.
Holders of Record
As of March 21, 2013, there were 110 holders of record of our common stock. The number of holders of record of our common stock does not reflect the number of beneficial holders whose shares are held by depositors, brokers or other nominees.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. It is our policy to retain earnings to finance the growth and development of our business and, therefore, we do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, applicable Delaware law, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our amended and restated loan and security agreement restricts our ability to pay any dividends. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

The information required to be disclosed by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K regarding our equity securities authorized for issuance under our equity incentive plans is incorporated herein by reference to the section entitled “Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans” in our definitive Proxy Statement for our Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Commission within 120 days after the end of fiscal year 2012 pursuant to Regulation 14A.

Stock Performance Graph

Notwithstanding any statement to the contrary in any of our previous or future filings with the SEC, the following information relating to the price performance of our common stock shall not be deemed to be “filed” with the SEC or to be “soliciting material” under the Exchange Act, and it shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.

The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return of our common stock with that of the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Internet Index from February 13, 2012 (the date on which our common stock commenced trading on the NASDAQ Global Market) through December 31, 2012. The graph assumes that $100 was invested in shares of our common stock, the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Internet Index at the close of market on February 13, 2012, and that dividends, if any, were reinvested. The comparisons in this graph are based on historical data and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of future performance of our common stock.

27


Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Use of Proceeds
In February 2012, we completed the initial public offering of shares of our common stock, in which we issued and sold 5,454,545 shares of common stock at a price to the public of $5.00 per share, for aggregate gross proceeds to the Company of $27.3 million, in each case excluding shares of common stock sold by selling stockholders in the offering. The offer and sale of all of the shares in the IPO were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-178049), which was declared effective by the SEC on February 9, 2012.
There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our initial public offering as described in our final prospectus filed with the SEC on February 10, 2012 pursuant to Rule 424(b).
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
No shares of our common stock were repurchased during the three months ended December 31, 2012.


28


ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
You should read the following selected consolidated historical financial data below in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the financial statements, related notes and other financial information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected consolidated financial data in this section is not intended to replace the financial statements and is qualified in its entirety by the financial statements and related notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We derived the selected consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012 and as of December 31, 2011 and 2012 from our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes, which are included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We derived the selected consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2009 and as of December 31, 2008, 2009 and 2010 from our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes, which are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2008
 
2009
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands except share and per share data)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
52,571

 
$
60,798

 
$
66,232

 
$
91,060

 
$
121,981

Costs and operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue (1)
28,575

 
34,074

 
36,703

 
48,661

 
66,620

Research and development (1)(2)
12,783

 
13,627

 
18,494

 
20,228

 
25,603

Sales and marketing (2)
5,732

 
5,591

 
6,211

 
8,582

 
9,120

General and administrative (1)(2)
4,997

 
4,966

 
5,656

 
6,879

 
11,011

Withdrawn initial public offering expenses
3,405

 

 

 

 

Depreciation
1,574

 
2,005

 
2,506

 
2,667

 
3,779

Other operating expenses
1,121

 

 

 

 
 
Total costs and operating expenses
58,187

 
60,263

 
69,570

 
87,017

 
116,133

(Loss) income from operations
(5,616
)
 
535

 
(3,338
)
 
4,043

 
5,848

Other income (expense)
156

 
69

 
(2
)
 
(17
)
 
1

Interest expense
(294
)
 
(285
)
 
(240
)
 
(109
)
 
(270
)
(Loss) income before income taxes
(5,754
)
 
319

 
(3,580
)
 
3,917

 
5,579

Provision (benefit) for income taxes
10

 
15

 
11

 
(6,015
)
 
1,764

Net (loss) income
(5,764
)
 
304

 
(3,591
)
 
9,932

 
3,815

Undistributed earnings allocated to preferred stockholders

 
279

 

 
8,583

 

Net (loss) income attributable to common stockholders
$
(5,764
)
 
$
25

 
$
(3,591
)
 
$
1,349

 
$
3,815

Net (loss) income per share attributable to common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(3.41
)
 
$
0.01

 
$
(1.93
)
 
$
0.59

 
$
0.16

Diluted
$
(3.41
)
 
$
0.01

 
$
(1.93
)
 
$
0.45

 
$
0.14

Weighted average shares used to compute net (loss) income per share attributable to common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
1,690,458

 
1,814,029

 
1,865,294

 
2,303,443

 
24,411,194

Diluted
1,690,458

 
22,293,068

 
1,865,294

 
21,974,403

 
28,097,313

Other Financial Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA (3)
$
(3,374
)
 
$
3,441

 
$
36

 
$
7,630

 
$
11,626


29


 Notes:
(1)
Exclusive of depreciation shown separately.
(2)
Includes stock-based compensation as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2008
 
2009
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Research and development
$
221

 
$
252

 
$
398

 
$
295

 
$
523

Sales and marketing
142

 
189

 
202

 
203

 
404

General and administrative
305

 
460

 
268

 
422

 
1,072

(3)
We define adjusted EBITDA as net (loss) income, plus: provision (benefit) for income taxes, interest expense, other (income) expense, depreciation, and stock-based compensation. Please see “Adjusted EBITDA” below for more information and for a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to net (loss) income, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.
 
As of December 31,
 
2008
 
2009
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
8,830

 
$
10,462

 
$
5,412

 
$
10,925

 
$
41,944

Trade receivables, net
7,162

 
7,773

 
9,654

 
14,336

 
15,624

Property and equipment, net
7,707

 
6,631

 
7,110

 
8,301

 
11,043

Total assets
25,945

 
26,004

 
24,327

 
43,382

 
76,330

Long-term bank financing and capital lease obligations
2,914

 
1,247

 
1,203

 
2,098

 
1,712

Total stockholders’ equity
12,211

 
13,053

 
10,156

 
21,380

 
50,811

Adjusted EBITDA
To provide investors with additional information regarding our financial results, we have disclosed within this Annual Report on Form 10-K adjusted EBITDA, a non-GAAP financial measure. We have provided a reconciliation below of adjusted EBITDA to net income (loss), the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.
We have included adjusted EBITDA in this Annual Report on Form 10-K because it is a key measure used by our management and board of directors to understand and evaluate our core operating performance and trends, to prepare and approve our annual budget and to develop short- and long-term operational plans. In particular, the exclusion of certain expenses in calculating adjusted EBITDA can provide a useful measure for period-to-period comparisons of our core business. Additionally, adjusted EBITDA is a key financial measure used by the compensation committee of our board of directors in connection with the payment of bonuses to our executive officers. Accordingly, we believe that adjusted EBITDA provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results in the same manner as our management and board of directors.
Our use of adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
although depreciation is a non-cash charge, the assets being depreciated may have to be replaced in the future, and adjusted EBITDA does not reflect capital expenditure requirements for such replacements or for new capital expenditure requirements;
adjusted EBITDA does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
adjusted EBITDA does not consider the potentially dilutive impact of equity-based compensation;
adjusted EBITDA does not reflect tax payments that may represent a reduction in cash available to us; and
other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate adjusted EBITDA differently, which reduces its usefulness as a comparative measure.

30


Because of these limitations, you should consider adjusted EBITDA alongside other financial performance measures, including various cash flow metrics, net (loss) income and our other GAAP results. The following table presents a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to net (loss) income for each of the periods indicated: 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2008
 
2009
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net (loss) income
$
(5,764
)
 
$
304

 
$
(3,591
)
 
$
9,932

 
$
3,815

Provision (benefit) for income taxes
10

 
15

 
11

 
(6,015
)
 
1,764

Interest expense
294

 
285

 
240

 
109

 
270

Other (income) expense (1)
(156
)
 
(69
)
 
2

 
17

 
(1
)
Depreciation
1,574

 
2,005

 
2,506

 
2,667

 
3,779

Stock-based compensation
668

 
901

 
868

 
920

 
1,999

Adjusted EBITDA
$
(3,374
)
 
$
3,441

 
$
36

 
$
7,630

 
$
11,626

     Note:
(1)
Other (income) expense consists primarily of interest income earned and foreign exchange gains and losses.

31


ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion of our results of operations and financial condition should be read in conjunction with the information set forth in “Selected Financial Data” and our financial statements and the notes thereto included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon our current expectations, estimates and projections that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements due to, among other considerations, the matters discussed under “Risk Factors” and “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Overview
We are a leading provider of startpages, TV Everywhere solutions, Identity Management (IDM) and various cloud-based services across multiple devices for cable, satellite, telecom and consumer electronics companies. We are also a leading provider of authentication and aggregation solutions for delivery of online content. Our technology allows our customers to package a wide array of online content and cloud-based services with their high-speed Internet, communications, television and other offerings. Our customers offer our services under their own brands on Internet-enabled devices such as PCs, tablets, smartphones and connected TVs.
We generate revenue from search and display advertising and by charging subscriber-based fees for services and products delivered through our startpages. Our results are driven primarily by our customer mix, the product and service mix preferences of those customers and the pricing of those products and services. We generate the majority of our revenue from search and display advertising on our startpages, which comprise consumer-facing components of our technology. Adding new customers with large consumer bases and expansion of our relationships with existing customers have resulted in an increasing shift in our revenue mix towards search and display advertising revenue. In addition, as new customers adopt our solutions, and as their respective consumers’ use of our startpages ramps up as described below, our growth is increasingly driven by search and display advertising revenue. These increases are largely driven by our model of sharing a portion of this search and advertising revenue with our customers. As we expand our value added services offerings, we expect to generate increased subscriber-based revenue from our customers.
Growth in search and display advertising revenue is driven largely by increasing consumer use of our startpages. As more consumers use our startpages and as consumers spend more time on these startpages, we have a greater number of opportunities to deliver advertisements. During the year ended December 31, 2012, search and display advertising revenue was $101.6 million, a growth of 41% over $72.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. Over the same period, our unique visitors increased by 40%, our search queries increased by 29% and our advertising impressions increased by 52%. We expect future growth in consumer engagement as our customers deliver more services through our cross-device, touchscreen-enabled startpages.
Our subscriber-based revenue consists of fees charged for the use of our proprietary technology and for the use of, or access to, services, such as e-mail, security, TV Everywhere, online games, music and other value added services and paid content. During the year ended December 31, 2012, subscriber-based revenue was $20.4 million, an increase of 8% from $19.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2011. We believe there are opportunities to generate new sources of subscriber-based revenue, such as the introduction of new value added services, including those delivered on cross-device, touchscreen-enabled devices. We believe that the variety of value added services and the introduction of new value added services will also drive increased search and display advertising revenue.
As new customers introduce our startpages to their consumers, usage of our solutions and our revenue from our startpages tends to increase over time. There are a variety of reasons for this ramp-up period. For example, a new customer may migrate its consumers from its existing technology to our technology over a period of time. Moreover, a new customer may initially launch a selection of our services and products, rather than our entire suite of offerings, and subsequently broaden their service and product offerings over time. When a customer launches a new service or product, marketing and promotional activities may be required to generate awareness and interest among consumers. Search and display advertising revenue typically grows significantly during the first one to three years after a customer launch, although there can be notable variances from customer to customer. Thereafter, changes in revenue tend to mirror changes in the consumer base of the applicable customer.
For the year ended December 31, 2012, we derived revenue from over 45 customers, with revenue attributable to four customers, CenturyLink (including revenue attributable to Qwest), Charter, Verizon and Toshiba, together accounting for approximately 73% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012, or $88.4 million. One of these customers accounted

32


for 20% or more of revenue in such period, and revenue attributable to each of the other three customers accounted for more than 10% in such period.
Revenue attributable to our customers includes the subscriber-based revenue earned directly from them, as well as the search and display advertising revenue generated through our relationships with our search and display advertising partners (such as Google for search advertising and advertising networks, advertising agencies and advertisers for display advertising). This revenue is attributable to our customers because it is produced from the traffic on our startpages. These partners provide us with advertisements that we then deliver with search results and other content on our startpages. Since our search advertising partner, Google, and our advertising network partners generate their revenue by selling those advertisements, we create a revenue stream for these partners. In the year ended December 31, 2012, search advertising through our relationship with Google generated approximately 56% of our revenue, or $68.5 million (all of which was attributable to our customers).
We have experienced and expect in the future to experience growth in our business as we acquire new customers, as our existing customers acquire new consumers, as we roll out new products and services and as we expand our presence into international markets. We expect to continue to make capital expenditures in 2013 related to both the customer supporting activities and our internal information technology infrastructure. We expect in 2013 that our research and development headcount and associated expenses will be relatively consistent with the run rate of the fourth quarter of 2012,  as we continue to develop our technology, deliver new products and services, and make those and existing products and services available across different devices.
Although we experienced net losses in 2010 (as well as in prior years), we believe that the revenue opportunities afforded us by the growth in search and display advertising across our customers have enhanced our ability to achieve profitability in the future. Our costs of revenue, as a percentage of revenue, are expected to remain relatively consistent as most of these costs are associated with the sharing of revenue with our customers. We expect our operating expenses, as a percentage of revenue, in 2013 to be consistent with 2012.
The initiatives described below under “Key Initiatives” are expected to contribute to our ability to maintain and grow profitability via increases in advertising revenue, increases in customers and our consumer reach, and increases in availability of products across more devices. We expect the period in which we experience a return on future investments in each of these initiatives to differ. For example, more direct advertising at higher CPMs would be expected to have an immediate and direct impact on profitability while expansion into international markets may require an investment that involves a longer term return. We expect that some of the net proceeds of our initial public offering will be utilized with a goal of enhancing our technology and our systems capabilities to more efficiently support our customers, develop new products and features and report upon, analyze and manage the financial performance of the business in order to improve our ability to achieve consistent profitability in the future. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we have not yet determined the specific uses of the net proceeds of our initial public offering.
Trends Affecting Our Business
Our customers, who are predominantly high-speed Internet service providers that also offer television services, are facing increasing competition from companies that deliver video content over the Internet, more commonly referred to as “over-the-top,” or OTT. These new competitors include a number of large and growing companies, such as Google, Netflix, Inc., or Netflix, Hulu, LLC, or Hulu, and Amazon.com Inc., or Amazon. With the increased availability of high-speed Internet access and over-the-top programming, consumers’ video content consumption preferences may shift away from current viewing habits. As a result, many of our customers and potential customers are compelled to find new ways to deliver services and content to their consumers via the Internet. We expect this pressure to become even greater as more video content becomes available online. We expect to continue to benefit from this trend as customers adopt our solutions to package and deliver video programming and other related authentication services on our startpages.
Another trend affecting our customers and our business is the proliferation of Internet-connected devices, especially mobile devices. Smartphones, tablets and connected TVs have made it more convenient for consumers to access services and content online, including television programming. To remain competitive, our customers and potential customers must have the capability to deliver their services and products to consumers on these new devices. Our technology enables them to extend their presence beyond traditional personal computers, and we expect that some portion of our revenue growth will come from traffic on these devices.
Our business is also affected by growth in advertising on the Internet, of which proliferation of high-speed Internet access and Internet-connected devices will be the principal drivers. We believe such search advertising will continue to attract advertising spending to the Internet and will benefit our results of operations. Also, we expect our results of operations will benefit from the growth in the number of mobile Internet users as our customers adopt our cross-device, touchscreen-enabled startpages.

33



The launch of the Microsoft Windows 8 operating system in October 2012 has had an impact on our business.  As it relates to our business with consumer electronics customers that have the Windows 8 operating system pre-installed on their laptop or desktop computers, our startpages are now placed on a second tab when the Internet browser is launched. This has caused us to reduce our revenue expectations from our consumer electronics customers.
Key Initiatives
We are focused on several key initiatives to drive our business:
add new, and expand our existing offerings with current, cable, telecom, satellite and consumer electronics customers to increase our consumer reach;
continue to expand our offerings of, and invest in, cloud-based services such as e-mail and TV Everywhere and increase the number of customers using our TV Everywhere technology;
enhance our direct advertising sales effort to increase the CPMs derived from advertising;
extend the availability of our existing and new products and services to additional devices including tablets and smartphones;
expand our presence into international markets; and
invest in and acquire new technologies and products.
Key Business Metrics
In addition to the line items in our financial statements, we regularly review a number of business metrics related to Internet traffic and search and display advertising to evaluate our business, determine the allocation of resources and make decisions regarding business strategies. We believe disclosing these metrics is useful for investors and analysts to understand the underlying trends in our business. The following table summarizes our key business metrics, which are unaudited, for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
Key Business Metrics:
 
 
 
 
 
Unique Visitors (1)
8,235,583

 
14,619,254

 
20,440,169

Search Queries (2)
453,687,989

 
748,576,869

 
968,233,560

Advertising Impressions (3)
18,832,969,669

 
27,749,105,979

 
42,170,186,571

     Notes:
(1)
Reflects the number of unique visitors to our startpages computed on an average monthly basis during the applicable period.
(2)
Reflects the total number of search queries during the applicable period.
(3)
Reflects the total number of advertising impressions during the applicable period.
Unique Visitors
We define unique visitors as consumers who have visited one of our startpages at least once during a particular time period. We rely on comScore to provide this data. comScore estimates this data based on the U.S. portion of the Internet activity of its worldwide panel of consumers and its proprietary data collection method.
Search Queries
We define search queries as the number of instances in which a consumer entered a query into a search bar on our startpages during a particular time period. We rely on reports from our search partner, Google, to measure the number of such instances.



34


Advertising Impressions
We define advertising impressions as graphical, textual or video paid advertisements displayed to consumers on our startpages during a particular time period. We rely on reports from technology and advertising partners, including DoubleClick (a division of Google), to measure the number of advertising impressions delivered on our platform.
Components of our Results of Operations
Revenue
We derive our revenue from two categories: revenue generated from search and display advertising activities and subscriber-based revenue, each of which is described below. We record our search and display advertising revenue on a gross basis, which includes the net amount received from Google under our agreement with them. The following table shows the revenue in each category, both in amount and as a percentage of revenue, for 2010, 2011 and 2012.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
Search and display advertising
$
45,859

 
$
72,084

 
$
101,559

Subscriber-based
20,373

 
18,976

 
20,422

Total revenue
$
66,232

 
$
91,060

 
$
121,981

Percentage of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
Search and display advertising
69
%
 
79
%
 
83
%
Subscriber-based
31

 
21

 
17

Total revenue
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%
Search and Display Advertising Revenue
We use Internet search and display advertising to generate revenue from the traffic on our startpages.
In the case of search advertising, we have a revenue-sharing relationship with Google, pursuant to which we include a Google-branded search tool on our startpages. When a consumer makes a search query using this tool, we deliver the query to Google and they return search results to consumers that include advertiser-sponsored links. If the consumer clicks on a sponsored link, Google receives payment from the sponsor of that link and shares a portion of that payment with us, which we in turn share with the applicable customer. The net payment we receive from Google is recognized as revenue.
We generate display advertising revenue when consumers view or click on a text, graphic or video advertisement that was delivered on a Synacor-operated startpage. We fill our advertising inventory with advertisements sourced by our direct salesforce, independent advertising sales representatives and advertising network partners. Revenue may be calculated differently depending on our agreements with our advertisers or the agreements between our advertising network partners and their advertisers. It may be calculated on a cost per impression basis, which means the advertiser pays based on the number of times its advertisements appear, or a cost per action basis, which means that an advertiser pays when a consumer performs an action after engaging one of its advertisements. Historically only a small percentage of our display advertising revenue has been calculated on a cost per action basis.
Subscriber-Based Revenue
We define subscriber-based revenue as subscription fees and other fees that we receive from our customers for the use of our proprietary technology and the use of, or access to, e-mail, security, TV Everywhere, games and other services, including value added services and paid content. Monthly subscriber levels typically form the basis for calculating and generating subscriber-based revenue. They are generally determined by multiplying a per-subscriber per-month fee by the number of subscribers using the particular services being offered or consumed. In other cases, the fee is fixed. We recognize revenue from our customers as the service is delivered.


35


Costs and Expenses
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists of revenue sharing, content acquisition costs and co-location facility costs. Revenue sharing consists of amounts accrued and paid to our customers for the traffic on our startpage resulting in the generation of search and display advertising revenue. The revenue-sharing agreements with our customers are primarily variable payments based on a percentage of the search and display advertising revenue. Content acquisition agreements may be based on a fixed payment schedule, on the number of subscribers per month, or a combination of both. Fixed-payment agreements are expensed over the term defined in the agreement. Agreements based on the number of subscribers are expensed on a monthly basis. Co-location facility costs consist of rent and operating costs for our data center facilities.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses consist primarily of compensation-related expenses incurred for the development of, enhancements to, and maintenance and operation of our technology and related infrastructure.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of compensation-related expenses to our direct sales and marketing personnel, as well as costs related to advertising, industry conferences, promotional materials, and other sales and marketing programs. Advertising cost is expensed as incurred.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation related expenses for executive management, finance, accounting, human resources and other administrative functions.
Depreciation
Depreciation includes depreciation of our computer hardware and software, furniture and fixtures, leasehold improvements, and other property, and depreciation on capital leased assets.
Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) consists primarily of interest income earned and foreign exchange gains and losses.
Interest Expense
Interest expense primarily consists of expenses associated with our long-term debt, capital leases, and amortization of debt issuance costs.
Provision for Income Taxes
Income tax expense consists of federal and state income taxes in the United States and taxes in certain foreign jurisdictions.
Critical Accounting Policies
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts and classifications of assets and liabilities, revenue and expenses, and the related disclosures of contingent liabilities in the financial statements and accompanying notes. The SEC has defined a company’s critical accounting policies as the ones that are most important to the portrayal of the company’s financial condition and results of operations, and which require the company to make its most difficult and subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain. Based on this definition, we have identified the following critical accounting policies and estimates addressed below. We also have other key accounting policies, which involve the use of estimates, judgments, and assumptions that are significant to understanding our results. See Note 1, The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of Notes to the Financial Statements. Although we believe that our estimates, assumptions, and judgments are reasonable, they are based upon information available at the time. Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates under different assumptions, judgments, or conditions.



36


Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue when the following criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; delivery has occurred; the selling price is fixed or determinable; and collectability is reasonably assured.
The terms of our arrangements with our customers, Google and our advertising network partners are specified in written agreements. These written agreements constitute the persuasive evidence of the arrangements with our customers that are a pre-condition to the recognition of revenue. The evidence used to document that delivery or performance has occurred generally consists of communication of either numbers of subscribers or the revenue generated in a reporting period from customers, advertising partners, vendors and our own internally-generated reports. Occasionally, a customer will notify us of subsequent adjustments to previously reported subscriber data. These adjustments, once accepted by us, will result in adjustments to revenue and cost of revenue. The historical occurrences of such adjustments, and the amounts involved, have not been significant.
Although prices used in our revenue recognition formulas are generally fixed pursuant to the written arrangements with our customers, Google and our advertising network partners, the number of subscribers or the amount of search and display advertising revenue that are subject to our pricing arrangements are not known until the reporting period has ended. Although this data is, in most cases, available prior to the completion of our periodic financial statements, this data may need to be estimated. When made, these estimates are based upon our historical experience with the relevant party. Adjustments to these estimates have historically not been significant. The receipt of this volume data also serves to verify that we have appropriately satisfied our obligation to our customers for that reporting period. Adjustments are recorded in the period in which the data is received.
Pursuant to the terms of our customer contracts, we recognize revenue in each period for our services once the contract has been signed, its terms reviewed and understood, the service, content or both have been made available to the customer and reliable active subscriber information is made available to us.
We undertake an evaluation of the creditworthiness of both new and, on a periodic basis, existing customers. Based on these reviews we determine whether collection of our prospective revenue is probable.
Revenue Sharing
We pay our customers a portion of the revenue generated from search and display advertising. The portion paid to our customers depends on, among other things, the consumer base of the customer and their expected ability to drive consumer traffic to our startpages. This revenue consists of the consideration we receive from Google and our display advertising partners in connection with traffic supplied by the applicable customer.
Gross Versus Net Presentation of Revenue for Revenue Sharing
We evaluate our relationship between our search and display advertising partners and our customers in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 605-45, Principal Agent Considerations. We have determined that the revenue derived from traffic supplied by our customers is reported on a gross basis because we are the primary obligor (we are responsible to our customers for fulfilling search and display advertising services and value added and other services), are involved in the service specifications, perform part of the service, have discretion in supplier selection, have latitude in establishing price and bear credit risk.
Stock-Based Compensation
We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with the authoritative guidance on stock compensation. Under the fair value recognition provisions of this guidance, stock-based compensation is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the respective award. As a result, we are required to estimate the amount of stock-based compensation we expect to be forfeited based on our historical experience. If actual forfeitures differ significantly from our estimates, stock-based compensation expense and our results of operations could be materially impacted.

Determining the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires judgment. We use the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options. The determination of the grant date fair value of options using an option-pricing model is affected by our estimated common stock fair value as well as assumptions regarding a number of other complex and subjective variables. These variables include the fair value of our common stock, our expected stock price volatility over the expected term of the options, stock option exercise and cancellation behaviors, risk-free interest rates, and expected dividends, which are estimated as follows:

37


Fair Value of Our Common Stock. Because our stock was not publicly traded prior to our initial public offering, the fair value of our common stock underlying our stock options was determined by our board of directors based on valuations prepared by an independent valuation specialist. The board of directors intended all options granted to be exercisable at a price per share not less than the per share fair value of our common stock underlying those options on the date of grant. Following the completion of our initial public offering in February 2012, our common stock has been valued by reference to its publicly traded price.
Expected Term. The expected term was estimated using the simplified method allowed under SEC guidance. As we develop more experience, our estimate of the life of awards may change.
    
Volatility. As we do not have a significant trading history for our common stock, the expected stock price volatility for our common stock was estimated by taking the average historic price volatility for industry peers based on daily price observations over a period equivalent to the expected term of the stock option grants. Industry peers consist of several public companies in the technology industry similar in size, stage of life cycle and financial leverage. We did not rely on implied volatilities of traded options in our industry peers' common stock because the volume of activity was relatively low. We intend to continue to consistently apply this process using the same or similar public companies until a sufficient amount of historical information regarding the volatility of our own common stock share price becomes available, or unless circumstances change such that the identified companies are no longer similar to us, in which case, more suitable companies whose share prices are publicly available would be utilized in the calculation.

Risk-free Rate. The risk-free interest rate is based on the yields of U.S. Treasury securities with maturities similar to the expected term of the options for each option group.

Dividend Yield. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends and do not presently plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, we used an expected dividend yield of zero.
Income Taxes
We record income taxes using the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. In estimating future tax consequences, generally all expected future events other than enactments or changes in the tax law or rates are considered. Valuation allowances are provided when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
We also provide reserves as necessary for uncertain tax positions taken on our tax filings. First, we determine if a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon audit solely based on technical merits, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. Second, based on the largest amount of benefit, which is more likely than not to be realized on ultimate settlement we recognize any such differences as a liability. In the event that any unrecognized tax benefits are recognized, the effective tax rate will be affected. Although we believe our estimates are reasonable, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome of these matters will be the same as these estimates. These estimates are updated quarterly based on factors such as change in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, new audit activity, and effectively settled issues.
We follow specific and detailed guidelines in each tax jurisdiction regarding the recoverability of any tax assets recorded on the balance sheet and provide necessary valuation allowances as required. Future realization of deferred tax assets ultimately depends on the existence of sufficient taxable income of the appropriate character (for example, ordinary income or capital gain) within the carryback or carryforward periods available under the tax law. We regularly review our deferred tax assets for recoverability based on historical taxable income, projected future taxable income, the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences and tax planning strategies. Our judgments regarding future profitability may change due to many factors, including future market conditions and our ability to successfully execute our business plans and/or tax planning strategies. Should there be a change in our ability to recover our deferred tax assets, our tax provision would increase or decrease in the period in which the assessment is changed.






38


Results of Operations
The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented in amount and as a percentage of revenue for those periods. The period to period comparison of financial results is not necessarily indicative of future results.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Revenue
$
66,232

 
$
91,060

 
$
121,981

Costs and operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue (1)
36,703

 
48,661

 
66,620

Research and development (1)(2)
18,494

 
20,228

 
25,603

Sales and marketing (2)
6,211

 
8,582

 
9,120

General and administrative (1)(2)
5,656

 
6,879

 
11,011

Depreciation
2,506

 
2,667

 
3,779

Total costs and operating expenses
69,570

 
87,017

 
116,133

(Loss) income from operations
(3,338
)
 
4,043

 
5,848

Other (expense) income
(2
)
 
(17
)
 
1

Interest expense
(240
)
 
(109
)
 
(270
)
(Loss) income before income taxes
(3,580
)
 
3,917

 
5,579

Provision (benefit) for income taxes
11

 
(6,015
)
 
1,764

Net (loss) income
$
(3,591
)
 
$
9,932

 
$
3,815

Notes:
(1)
Exclusive of depreciation shown separately.
(2)
Includes stock-based compensation as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Research and development
$
398

 
$
295

 
$
523

Sales and marketing
202

 
203

 
404

General and administrative
268

 
422

 
1,072

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
Revenue
100
 %
 
100
 %
 
100
 %
Costs and operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue (1)
55

 
53

 
55

Research and development (1)
28

 
22

 
21

Sales and marketing
9

 
9

 
7

General and administrative (1)
9

 
8

 
9

Depreciation
4

 
3

 
3

Total costs and operating expenses
105

 
96

 
95

(Loss) income from operations
(5
)
 
4

 
5

Other income (expense)

 

 

Interest expense

 

 

(Loss) income before income taxes
(5
)
 
4

 
5

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

 
(7
)
 
1

Net (loss) income
(5
)%
 
11
 %
 
3
 %
Note:
(1)
Exclusive of depreciation shown separately.

39


Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012
Revenue

Year Ended December 31,
 
2010 to
2011%
Change
 
2011 to
2012%
Change

2010
 
2011
 
2012
 

(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Search and display advertising
$
45,859

 
$
72,084

 
$
101,559

 
57
 %
 
41
%
Subscriber-based
20,373

 
18,976

 
20,422

 
(7
)%
 
8
%
Total revenue
$
66,232

 
$
91,060

 
$
121,981

 
37
 %
 
34
%
Percentage of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Search and display advertising
69
%
 
79
%
 
83
%
 
 
 
 
Subscriber-based
31

 
21

 
17

 
 
 
 
Total revenue
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
 
 
 
In 2012 our revenue increased by $30.9 million, or 34%, compared to 2011. Search and display advertising revenue increased by $29.5 million, or 41% as a result of increased search queries and advertising impressions on our startpages, driven in part by the launch and subsequent ramping of significant new customers in September 2010 and July 2011. The total number of search queries increased by 29% in 2012, and the total number of advertising impressions increased by 52% in 2012 as compared with 2011. The increase in search queries accounted for approximately 58% of the increase in search and display advertising revenue in 2012, while the increase in advertising impressions accounted for approximately 42%. Subscriber-based revenue increased $1.4 million, or 8% due to increases in TV Everywhere and e-mail revenue, partially offset by a decrease in value added services revenue. The increases in TV Everywhere and email revenue were driven by adding new customers and increased consumer usage. The decrease in value-added services revenue is a result of decreased demand of our value-added service offerings by consumers.
In 2011 our revenue increased by $24.8 million, or 37%, compared to 2010. Search and display advertising revenue increased by $26.2 million, or 57% as a result of increased search queries and advertising impressions on our startpages, driven in part by the launch and subsequent ramping of significant new customers in September 2010 and July 2011. The total number of search queries increased by 65% in 2011, and the total number of advertising impressions increased by 47% in 2011 as compared with 2010. The increase in search queries accounted for approximately 73% of the increase in search and display advertising revenue in 2011, while the increase in advertising impressions accounted for approximately 27%. Subscriber-based revenue decreased $1.4 million, or 7% due to pricing adjustments in the subscriber-based fees we charge in order to participate in greater search and display advertising revenue resulting from the increases in search queries and advertising impressions.
Cost of Revenue
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010 to
2011%
Change
 
2011 to
2012%
Change
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue
$
36,703

 
$
48,661

 
$
66,620

 
33
%
 
37
%
Percentage of revenue
55
%
 
53
%
 
55
%
 
 
 
 
Our cost of revenue increased by $18.0 million, or 37%, in 2012 compared to 2011. The increase in our cost of revenue was mainly driven by additional revenue-sharing costs from increased search and display advertising. Cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue increased to 55% of revenue in 2012 from 53% of revenue in 2011 because of changes in search and display advertising revenue attributable to the mix of customers with revenue-sharing arrangements.
Our cost of revenue increased by $12.0 million, or 33%, in 2011 compared to 2010. The increase in our cost of revenue was driven by additional revenue-sharing costs from increased search and display advertising. Cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue declined to 53% of revenue in 2011 from 55% of revenue in 2010 because of changes in search and display advertising revenue attributable to the mix of customers with revenue-sharing arrangements.


40


Research and Development Expenses
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010 to
2011%
Change
 
2011 to
2012%
Change
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
Research and development
$
18,494

 
$
20,228

 
$
25,603

 
9
%
 
27
%
Percentage of revenue
28
%
 
22
%
 
21
%
 
 
 
 
Research and development expenses increased by $5.4 million, or 27%, in 2012 compared to 2011. The increase was primarily due to a $4.1 million increase in employee-related costs as a result of the increase in headcount to support new product initiatives and customer deployments. The remaining increase includes a $0.5 million increase for reporting tools and a $0.3 million increase for contractors.
Research and development expenses increased by $1.7 million, or 9%, in 2011 compared to 2010. The increase was primarily due to a $1.5 million increase in employee-related costs as a result of the increase in headcount to support new product initiatives and customer deployments and an increase in bonus payout. In addition, there was a $0.8 million increase in expenses for contractors. These increases were partially offset by a $0.7 million decrease in spending on computer supplies and travel related expenses.
Sales and Marketing Expenses
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010 to
2011%
Change
 
2011 to
2012%
Change
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
$
6,211

 
$
8,582

 
$
9,120

 
38
%
 
6
%
Percentage of revenue
9
%
 
9
%
 
7
%
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing expenses increased by $0.5 million, or 6%, in 2012 compared to 2011. The increase was primarily due to a $0.9 million increase in employee-related costs as a result of the increase in headcount as we hired salespeople in our advertising department. The offsetting decrease of $0.4 million includes decreases for legal fees and reporting services.
Sales and marketing expenses increased by $2.4 million, or 38%, in 2011 compared to 2010. The increase was primarily due to a $0.9 million increase in employee-related costs as a result of the increase in headcount as we hired salespeople in our advertising department. The remaining increase of $1.5 million includes increases for sales commissions, legal fees, reporting services and public relations costs.
General and Administrative Expenses
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010 to
2011%
Change
 
2011 to
2012%
Change
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
General and administrative
$
5,656

 
$
6,879

 
$
11,011

 
22
%
 
60
%
Percentage of revenue
9
%
 
8
%
 
9
%
 
 
 
 
General and administrative expenses increased by $4.1 million, or 60%, in 2012 compared to 2011. The increase was primarily due to a $2.0 million increase in spending on administrative expenses associated with being a public company and a $0.5 million increase in employee-related costs as a result of hiring in our finance department. The remainder of the increase includes $0.6 million for stock-based compensation partially driven by the accelerated vesting of stock options upon retirement of service of our former board members upon our initial public offering and $0.4 million increase in rent and other facility-related costs.
General and administrative expenses increased by $1.2 million, or 22%, in 2011 compared to 2010. The increase was primarily due to a $0.6 million increase in employee-related costs as a result of hiring in our executive management and finance departments as well as an increase in bonus payout. The remainder of the increase includes $0.3 million for independent contractors to support our growth.

41



Depreciation
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010 to
2011%
Change
 
2011 to
2012%
Change
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
Depreciation
$
2,506

 
$
2,667

 
$
3,779

 
6
%
 
42
%
Percentage of revenue
4
%
 
3
%
 
3
%
 
 
 
 
Depreciation increased by $1.1 million, or 42%, in 2012 compared to 2011. This increase was primarily driven by the purchase of assets to support the addition of new customers.
Depreciation increased by $0.2 million, or 6%, in 2011 compared to 2010. This increase was driven by the purchase of assets to support the addition of new customers.
Other (Expense) Income
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Other (expense) income
$
(2
)
 
$
(17
)
 
$
1

For each of 2010, 2011 and 2012, other (expense) income consisted primarily of interest income coupled with foreign currency transaction losses related to our operations in the United Kingdom.
Interest Expense
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Interest expense
$
240

 
$
109

 
$
270

Interest expense increased in 2012 compared to 2011 as a result of higher average capital lease balances. The interest rates applied to those balances remained substantially the same.
Interest expense decreased in 2011 compared to 2010 as a result of lower average capital lease and bank financing balances. The interest rates applied to those balances remained substantially the same year-over-year.
Provision (benefit) for Income Taxes
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes
$
11

 
$
(6,015
)
 
$
1,764

We had historically incurred operating losses generating net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) which are available to offset taxable income. Due to the uncertainty at December 31, 2010 to generate sufficient taxable income in the future and utilize the NOLs before they expire, we had recorded a valuation allowance to reduce our net deferred tax asset to zero. Consequently, we did not record any material income tax expense in 2010.
In the fourth quarter of 2011, as a result of weighing the positive and negative evidence we determined that we would more likely than not be able to generate sufficient taxable income in the future and would be able to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards. As a result, we recognized a $6.1 million income tax benefit related to the reduction of our deferred tax asset valuation allowance.
In 2012 our income tax provision included $2.9 million of deferred income tax expense, partially offset by a tax benefit of $1.1 million relating to a research and development credit.

42


Unaudited Quarterly Results of Operations and Other Data
The following tables present our unaudited quarterly results of operations and other data for the eight quarters ended December 31, 2012. This unaudited quarterly information has been prepared on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, the statement of operations data includes all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of the results of operations for these periods. You should read this table in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes located elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The results of operations for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations for any future periods.
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
2011

 
June 30,
2011

 
September 30,
2011

 
December 31,
2011

 
March 31,
2012

 
June 30,
2012

 
September 30,
2012

 
December 31,
2012

 
(in thousands, except per-share data)
Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
18,694

 
$
19,467

 
$
23,954

 
$
28,945

 
$
30,670

 
$
30,807

 
$
28,326

 
$
32,178

Costs and operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue (1)
9,980

 
10,078

 
12,814

 
15,789

 
16,764

 
16,876

 
15,792

 
17,188

Research and development (1)
4,602

 
4,718

 
4,950

 
5,958

 
6,288

 
6,123

 
6,218

 
6,974

Sales and marketing
1,796

 
1,888

 
2,127

 
2,771

 
2,377

 
2,399

 
2,000

 
2,344

General and administrative (1)
1,551

 
1,512

 
1,824

 
1,992

 
2,840

 
2,868

 
2,676

 
2,627

Depreciation
620

 
657

 
673

 
717

 
781

 
934

 
981

 
1,083

Total costs and operating expenses
18,549

 
18,853

 
22,388

 
27,227

 
29,050

 
29,200

 
27,667

 
30,216

Income from operations
145

 
614

 
1,566

 
1,718

 
1,620

 
1,607

 
659

 
1,962

Net income
111

 
592

 
1,485

 
7,744

 
1,174

 
1,199

 
652

 
790

Undistributed earnings allocated to preferred stockholders
101

 
541

 
1,292

 
6,692

 

 

 

 

Net income attributable to common stockholders
$
10

 
$
51

 
$
193

 
$
1,052

 
$
1,174

 
$
1,199

 
$
652

 
$
790

Net income per share attributable to common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.01

 
$
0.03

 
$
0.08

 
$
0.35

 
$
0.07

 
$
0.04

 
$
0.02

 
$
0.03

Diluted
$

 
$
0.03

 
$
0.07

 
$
0.34

 
$
0.04

 
$
0.04

 
$
0.02

 
$
0.03

Note:
(1)
Exclusive of depreciation shown separately
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary liquidity and capital resource requirements are for financing working capital, investing in capital expenditures such as computer hardware and software, supporting research and development efforts, introducing new technology, enhancing existing technology, and marketing our services and products to new and existing customers. To the extent that existing cash and cash equivalents, cash from operations, cash from short-term borrowings and the net proceeds from our initial public offering are insufficient to fund our future activities, we may need to raise additional funds through public or private equity offerings or debt financings.
In connection with our initial public offering in February 2012, we received aggregate gross proceeds of $27.3 million. The net proceeds to Synacor from the offering were approximately $22.4 million after deducting underwriting discounts of $1.9 million and offering costs of $3.0 million.
In July 2011 we entered into an amended and restated loan and security agreement with a commercial bank. As of December 31, 2012, there was no outstanding principal amount of term loan debt.
The amended and restated loan and security agreement also provides us with a revolving credit line of $6.0 million, which we can draw on at any time before July 2013, subject to a borrowing base calculation. Borrowings under the revolving credit line accrue interest at a per annum rate equal to the bank’s prime rate plus 0.25%, subject to a minimum rate of 4.0% per annum, and must be repaid by July 2013. As of December 31, 2012, $6.0 million was fully available under the revolving credit line, with no outstanding borrowings.

43


The amended and restated loan and security agreement contains provisions that allow the bank to accelerate repayment of the new term loan, if any, and the revolving credit line upon a material adverse change, as defined in the agreement, as well as other events of default. Our obligations under the agreement are secured by a blanket lien on all of our assets in favor of the bank. The agreement contains certain financial performance, reporting and other covenants, including restrictions on paying dividends and making distributions to our stockholder. As of December 31, 2012, we were in compliance with the covenants.
As of December 31, 2012, we had approximately $41.9 million of cash and cash equivalents and money market funds. We did not have any short-term or long-term investments. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, along with cash flows from operations and availability under our revolving credit line, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated working capital and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months.
Cash Flows
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
 
(in thousands)
Statements of Cash Flows Data:
 
Cash flows (used in) provided by operating activities
$
(1,333
)
 
$
8,678

 
$
14,657

Cash flows used in investing activities
(1,558
)
 
(1,848
)
 
(4,869
)
Cash flows (used in) provided by financing activities
(2,159
)
 
(1,317
)
 
21,237

Cash (Used in) Provided by Operating Activities
Operating activities provided $14.7 million of cash in 2012. The cash flow from operating activities primarily resulted from our net income, adjusted for non-cash items, and changes in our operating assets and liabilities. We had net income of $3.8 million, which included a non-cash benefit from deferred income taxes of $1.6 million, non-cash depreciation of $3.8 million and non-cash stock-based compensation of $2.0 million. Changes in our operating assets and liabilities provided $3.5 million of cash, primarily due to an increase of our accounts payable of $2.3 million and an increase of our accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $1.7 million, partially offset by increases in our accounts receivable of $1.3 million. The increase in our accounts payable was attributable to a $1.4 million increase due to the timing of, and a change in payment terms with, a customer for their revenue share payment. The remaining increase of $0.9 million was primarily driven by increased spending due to the growth of our revenue-share payments associated with our revenue growth. The increase in our accrued expenses and other liabilities of $1.7 million was primarily driven by a $1.0 million increase for operating related expenses and components of our cost of revenue and a $0.5 million increase in our bonus accrual. The increase in our accounts receivable was primarily due to our revenue growth in 2012.
Operating activities provided $8.7 million of cash in 2011. The cash flow from operating activities primarily resulted from our net income, adjusted for non-cash items, and changes in our operating assets and liabilities. We had net income in 2011 of $9.9 million, which included a non-cash benefit from deferred income taxes of $6.1 million, non-cash depreciation of $2.7 million and non-cash stock-based compensation of $0.9 million. Changes in our operating assets and liabilities provided $1.2 million of cash in 2011, primarily due to an increase of $4.1 million in our accounts payable and an increase of $1.7 million of other accrued expenses partially offset by increases in our accounts receivable of $4.7 million. The increase in accounts payable was the result of increased spending due to the growth of our revenue-share payments associated with our revenue growth and the timing of payments to customers for revenue-sharing agreements and to content providers. The increase in other accrued expenses was mainly due to an increase in our bonus accrual. The increase in our accounts receivable was primarily due to our revenue growth in 2011.
Operating activities used $1.3 million of cash in 2010. The cash flow from operating activities primarily resulted from our net loss, adjusted for non-cash items, and changes in our operating assets and liabilities. We had a net loss in 2010 of $3.6 million, which included non-cash depreciation of $2.5 million and non-cash stock-based compensation of $0.9 million. Changes in our operating assets and liabilities used $1.1 million of cash in 2010, primarily due to an increase of $1.9 million in our accounts receivable partially offset by an increase of $1.0 million in our accounts payable. The increase in our accounts receivable was primarily due to our revenue growth in 2010. The increase in accounts payable was the result of increased spending due to the growth of our revenue-share payments associated with our revenue growth and the timing of payments to customers for revenue-sharing agreements.



44


Cash Used in Investing Activities
Cash used in investing activities in 2012 was $4.9 million consisting of $4.3 million of purchases of property, equipment and software to build out our data centers and $0.6 million paid for the acquisition of Carbyn.
Cash used in investing activities in 2011 was $1.8 million consisting principally of purchases of property, equipment and software to build out our data centers.
Cash used in investing activities in 2010 was $1.6 million consisting principally of purchases of property, equipment and software to build out our data centers.
Cash (Used in) Provided by Financing Activities
For the year ended 2012, net cash provided by financing activities was $21.2 million, consisting of $25.4 million of proceeds from issuance of common stock in our public offering, partially offset by cash paid for issuance costs of $2.8 million, and $1.2 million of proceeds from the exercise of common stock options, partially offset by $2.6 million for repayments on our capital lease obligations and bank financing.
For the year ended December 31, 2011, net cash used in financing activities was approximately $1.3 million primarily for repayments of $2.2 million on our capital lease obligations and bank financing partially offset by $0.8 million of proceeds from a sale/leaseback transaction relating to computer equipment.
For the year ended December 31, 2010, net cash used in financing activities was approximately $2.2 million primarily for repayments of $2.6 million on our capital lease obligations and bank financing and $0.2 million used for the repurchase of our common stock from our chief executive officer partially offset by proceeds of $0.6 million from borrowings on bank financing.
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Comprehensive Income
In June 2011, the FASB issued new authoritative guidance on comprehensive income that eliminates the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of shareholders’ equity. Instead, we must report comprehensive income in either a single continuous statement of comprehensive income which contains two sections, net income and other comprehensive income, or in two separate but consecutive statements. In December 2011, the requirement regarding the presentation of reclassification adjustments out of accumulated other comprehensive income was deferred indefinitely. We adopted this authoritative guidance in our interim period ending March 31, 2012.
Testing Goodwill for Impairment
In September 2011, the FASB issued new authoritative guidance that gives companies the option to make a qualitative evaluation about the likelihood of goodwill impairment. Companies will be required to perform the two-step impairment test only if it concludes that the fair value of a reporting unit is more likely than not, less than its carrying value. The accounting update is effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011, with early adoption permitted. We adopted this new authoritative guidance for our goodwill impairment test performed during the first quarter of 2012.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
At December 31, 2012, we did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K promulgated by the SEC, that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in our financial condition, revenues, or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures, or capital resources that is material to investors.
Contractual Obligations
We lease office space and data center space under operating lease agreements and certain equipment under capital lease agreements. We are also obligated to make payments under various contracts with vendors and customers, principally for revenue-sharing and content arrangements.
    

    

45


The following table sets forth our future contractual obligations as of December 31, 2012:
 
Payments due by period
 
Total
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capital lease obligations
$
4,053

 
$
2,280

 
$
1,640

 
$
133

 
$

 
$

Operating lease obligations
3,137

 
1,339

 
1,041

 
639

 
118

 

Contract commitments
8,587

 
4,648

 
1,419

 
1,080

 
1,080

 
360

Total
$
15,777

 
$
8,267

 
$
4,100

 
$
1,852

 
$
1,198

 
$
360

The contract commitments shown in the foregoing table represent fixed payment obligations to some of our customers and content providers. Agreements with certain customers and certain content providers require us to make fixed payments to them.
ITEM 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We have operations both within the United States and internationally, and we are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These primarily include interest rate and inflation risk.
Interest Rate Risk
Our cash and cash equivalents primarily consist of cash and money market funds. We currently have no investments of any type. Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates is limited because nearly all of our cash and cash equivalents have a short-term maturity and are used primarily for working capital purposes.
Inflation Risk
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. If our costs were to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
ITEM 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Our financial statements are submitted on pages F-1 through F-20 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 9.
CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.
ITEM 9A.
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure and Control Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2012. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information require to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Based upon the evaluation as of December 31, 2012, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures.
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

46


Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act. Under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, our management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based upon the framework in “Internal Control - Integrated Framework” issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on that evaluation, management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2012. This Annual Report on Form 10-K does not include an attestation report of the Company's registered public accounting firm due to a transition period established by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or JOBS Act, for emerging growth companies.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in management’s evaluation pursuant to Rules 13a-15(d) or 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act during the quarter ended December 31, 2012 that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
ITEM 9B.
OTHER INFORMATION
None.

47


PART III
ITEM 10.
DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the information in our proxy statement for our 2013 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year ended December 31, 2012.
Our board of directors has adopted a Code of Business Conduct and a Code of Ethics applicable to all officers, directors and employees, which is available on our website (http://www.synacor.com) under “Investors—Corporate Governance.” We will provide a copy of these documents to any person, without charge, upon request, by writing to us at Synacor, Inc., Investor Relations Department, 40 La Riviere Dr., Suite 300, Buffalo, New York 14202. We intend to satisfy the disclosure requirement under Item 5.05 of Form 8-K regarding an amendment to, or waiver from, a provision of our Code of Business Conduct or Code of Ethics by posting such information on our website at the address and the location specified above.
ITEM 11.
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the information in our proxy statement for our 2013 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year ended December 31, 2012.
ITEM 12.
SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the information in our proxy statement for our 2013 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year ended December 31, 2012.
ITEM 13.
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the information in our proxy statement for our 2013 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year ended December 31, 2012.
ITEM 14.
PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to the information in our proxy statement for our 2013 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the SEC within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year ended December 31, 2012.

48


PART IV
ITEM 15.
EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
(a)
Financial Statements: See Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Part II, Item 8.
(b)
Financial Statement Schedules: Financial Statement Schedules have been omitted either because they are not required or because the information required is included in the notes to the financial statements.
(c)
Exhibits: See the Exhibit Index immediately following the signature page of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this Annual Report on Form 10-K to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
SYNACOR, INC.
By:
 
/S/ RONALD N. FRANKEL
 
 
Ronald N. Frankel
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
Dated: March 26, 2013
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Ronald N. Frankel and William J. Stuart, and each of them, his true and lawful attorneys-in-fact, each with full power of substitution, for him in any and all capacities, to sign any amendments to this Annual Report on Form 10-K and to file the same, with exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that each of said attorneys-in-fact or their substitute or substitutes may do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this Annual Report on Form 10-K has been signed by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated:
 
Signature
Title
Date
 
 
 
/S/ RONALD N. FRANKEL
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)
March 26, 2013
Ronald N. Frankel
 
 
/S/ WILLIAM J. STUART
Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
March 26, 2013
William J. Stuart
 
 
/S/ MARWAN FAWAZ
Director
March 26, 2013
Marwan Fawaz
 
 
/S/ GARY L. GINSBERG
Director
March 26, 2013
Gary L. Ginsberg
 
 
/S/ ANDREW KAU
Director
March 26, 2013
Andrew Kau
 
 
/S/ JORDAN LEVY
Director
March 26, 2013
Jordan Levy
 
 
/S/ MICHAEL J. MONTGOMERY
Director
March 26, 2013
Michael J. Montgomery
 
 


49


EXHIBITS
The following exhibits are incorporated by reference herein or filed here within:
Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
Incorporated by Reference
 
Filed
Herewith
Form
 
File No.
 
Date of
Filing
 
Exhibit
Number
 
3.1
 
Fifth Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation
 
S-1/A
 
333-178049
 
1/30/2012
 
3.2
 
 
3.2
 
Amended and Restated Bylaws
 
S-1/A
 
333-178049
 
1/30/2012
 
3.4
 
 
10.1
 
Form of Indemnification Agreement between the Registrant and each of its directors and executive officers and certain key employees
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.1
 
 
10.2.1*
 
2000 Stock Plan
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.2.1
 
 
10.2.2*
 
Amendment to 2000 Stock Plan, adopted September 30, 2004
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.2.2
 
 
10.2.3*
 
Amendment to 2000 Stock Plan, adopted June 9, 2006
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.2.3
 
 
10.2.4*
 
Amendment to 2000 Stock Plan, adopted October 19, 2006
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.2.4
 
 
10.2.5*
 
Amendment to 2000 Stock Plan, adopted July 31, 2008
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.2.5
 
 
10.2.6*
 
Form of Stock Option Agreement under 2000 Stock Plan
 
S-1/A
 
333-178049
 
1/30/2012
 
10.2.6
 
 
10.2.7*
 
Stock Option Agreement under 2000 Stock Plan with Ronald N. Frankel
 
S-1/A
 
333-178049
 
1/30/2012
 
10.2.7
 
 
10.3.1*
 
2006 Stock Plan
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.3.1
 
 
10.3.2*
 
Amendment No. 1 to 2006 Stock Plan
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.3.2
 
 
10.3.3*
 
Amendment No. 2 to 2006 Stock Plan
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.3.3
 
 
10.3.4*
 
Amendment No. 3 to 2006 Stock Plan
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.3.4
 
 
10.3.5*
 
Amendment No. 4 to 2006 Stock Plan
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.3.5
 
 
10.3.6*
 
Amendment No. 5 to 2006 Stock Plan
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.3.6
 
 
10.3.7*
 
Amendment No. 6 to 2006 Stock Plan
 
S-1
 
333-178049
 
11/18/2011
 
10.3.7
 
 
10.3.8*
 
Amendment No. 7 to 2006 Stock Plan
 
S-1/A
 
333-178049
 
1/18/2012
 
10.3.8
 
 
10.3.9*
 
Form of Stock Option Agreement under 2006 Stock Plan with Jordan Levy
 
S-1/A
 
333-178049
 
1/30/2012
 
10.3.9
 
 

50


Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
Incorporated by Reference
 
Filed
Herewith
Form
 
File No.