20-F 1 a2227377z20-f.htm FORM 20-F

Use these links to rapidly review the document
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 29, 2016

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F


o

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ý

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934


for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

OR

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

o

 

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number 001-33632

BROOKFIELD INFRASTRUCTURE PARTNERS L.P.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Bermuda
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

73 Front Street
Hamilton, HM 12, Bermuda

(Address of principal executive offices)

Jane Sheere
73 Front Street
Hamilton, HM 12, Bermuda
+1-441-294-3309
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Limited Partnership Units   New York Stock Exchange; Toronto Stock Exchange

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

162,163,205 Limited Partnership Units as of December 31, 2015

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.        Yes ý No o

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.        Yes o No ý

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.        Yes ý No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).        Yes o No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of "accelerated filer and large accelerated filer" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check one):

Large accelerated filer ý   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer o

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

o U.S. GAAP   ý International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the
International Accounting Standards Board
  o Other

If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.        Item 17 o Item 18 o

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).        Yes o No ý

   


Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
   
   
  PAGE  

INTRODUCTION AND USE OF CERTAIN TERMS

    1  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

    3  

PART I

    7  

Item 1.

  IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS     7  

Item 2.

  OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE     7  

Item 3.

  KEY INFORMATION     7  

  3.A   SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA     7  

  3.B   CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS     8  

  3.C   REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS     8  

  3.D   RISK FACTORS     8  

Item 4.

  INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY     48  

  4.A   HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF BROOKFIELD INFRASTRUCTURE     48  

  4.B   BUSINESS OVERVIEW     60  

  4.C   ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE     77  

  4.D   PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT     79  

Item 4A.

  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS     79  

Item 5.

  MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS     80  

Item 6.

  DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT     114  

  6.A   DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT     114  

  6.B   COMPENSATION     122  

  6.C   BOARD PRACTICES     123  

  6.D   EMPLOYEES     127  

  6.E   SHARE OWNERSHIP     127  

Item 7.

  MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS     128  

  7.A   MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS     128  

  7.B   RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS     129  

  7.C   INTEREST OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL     139  

Item 8.

  FINANCIAL INFORMATION     139  

  8.A   CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION     139  

  8.B   SIGNIFICANT CHANGES     139  

Item 9.

  THE OFFER AND LISTING     139  

  9.A   PRICING HISTORY     139  

  9.B   PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION     141  

  9.C   MARKET     141  

  9.D   SELLING SHAREHOLDERS     141  

  9.E   DILUTION     141  

  9.F   EXPENSES OF THE ISSUE     141  

Item 10.

  ADDITIONAL INFORMATION     141  

  10.A   SHARE CAPITAL     141  

  10.B   MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION     141  

  10.C   MATERIAL CONTRACTS     169  

  10.D   EXCHANGE CONTROLS     170  

  10.E   TAXATION     170  

  10.F   DIVIDENDS AND PAYING AGENTS     206  

  10.G   STATEMENT BY EXPERTS     206  

i


Table of Contents

 
   
   
  PAGE  

  10.H   DOCUMENTS ON DISPLAY     206  

  10.I   SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION     206  

Item 11.

  QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT NON-PRODUCT RELATED MARKET RISK     207  

Item 12.

  DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES     207  

PART II

    208  

Item 13.

  DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES     208  

Item 14.

  MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS     208  

Item 15.

  CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES     208  

Item 16A.

  AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT     209  

Item 16B.

  CODE OF ETHICS     209  

Item 16C.

  PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES     209  

Item 16D.

  EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEE     210  

Item 16E.

  PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASER     210  

Item 16F.

  CHANGE IN REGISTRANT'S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT     211  

Item 16G.

  CORPORATE GOVERNANCE     211  

Item 16H.

  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES     211  

PART III

    212  

Item 17.

  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS     212  

Item 18.

  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS     212  

Item 19.

  EXHIBITS     212  

ii


Table of Contents


INTRODUCTION AND USE OF CERTAIN TERMS

        Unless otherwise specified, information provided in this annual report on Form 20-F is as of December 31, 2015.

        Unless the context requires otherwise, when used in this annual report on Form 20-F, the terms "Brookfield Infrastructure", "we", "us" and "our" refer to Brookfield Infrastructure Partners L.P., collectively with its subsidiary entities and the operating entities (as defined below). All dollar amounts contained in this annual report on Form 20-F are expressed in U.S. dollars and references to "dollars", "$", "US$" or "USD" are to U.S. dollars, all references to "C$" or "CAD" are to Canadian dollars, all references to "A$" or "AUD" are to Australian dollars, all references to "CLP" are to Chilean pesos, all references to "COP" are to Colombian pesos, all references to "reais", "BRL" or "R$" are to Brazilian reais, all references to "rupees", "INR" or "I$" are to Indian rupees, and all references to "UF" are to Unidad de Fomento which is an inflation indexed Chilean peso monetary unit that is set daily, on the basis of the prior month's inflation rate. In addition, all references to "£" or "GBP" are to pound sterling, all references to "NZD" are to New Zealand dollars, all references to "€" or "EUR" are to Euros, and unless the context suggests otherwise, references to:

    an "affiliate" of any person are to any other person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by or is under common control with such person;

    "Asciano Acquisition" means the proposed transaction whereby our partnership and its institutional partners may acquire shares in, or individual assets from, Asciano Limited ("Asciano");

    "Brookfield" are to Brookfield Asset Management and any affiliate of Brookfield Asset Management, other than us;

    "Brookfield Asset Management" are to Brookfield Asset Management Inc.;

    our "current operations" are to the businesses in which we hold an interest as set out in Item 4.B "Business Overview";

    our "communications infrastructure operations" are to our interest in French communication tower infrastructure operations, as described in Item 4.B "Business Overview—Current Operations—Communications Infrastructure Operations—Overview";

    our "energy operations" are to our interest in North American gas transmission operations in the U.S., European energy distribution operations in the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, North American natural gas storage operations in the U.S. and Canada, North American district energy operations in the U.S. and Canada and Australian energy distribution operations, as described in Item 4.B "Business Overview—Current Operations—Energy Operations—Overview";

    "Gammon Acquisition" means the transaction pursuant to which our partnership and its institutional partners have entered into agreements to acquire a portfolio of six toll roads located in India from Gammon Infrastructure Project Limited ("Gammon"), which is expected to complete during the first quarter of 2016, subject to satisfaction of customary closing conditions.

    our "General Partner" are to Brookfield Infrastructure Partners Limited, which serves as our partnership's general partner;

    "Holding Entities" are to certain subsidiaries of the Holding LP, from time-to-time, through which we hold all of our interests in the operating entities;

    the "Holding LP" are to Brookfield Infrastructure L.P.;

Brookfield Infrastructure 1


Table of Contents

    the "Infrastructure General Partner" are to Brookfield Infrastructure Special GP Limited, which serves as the general partner of the Infrastructure Special LP;

    the "Infrastructure Special LP" are to Brookfield Infrastructure Special L.P., which is a special limited partner of the Holding LP;

    "Licensing Agreements" are to the licensing agreements described in Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Licensing Agreements";

    our "Limited Partnership Agreement" are to the amended and restated limited partnership agreement of our partnership, as amended from time to time;

    the "managing general partner" are to our partnership in its capacity as managing general partner of the Holding LP;

    "Master Services Agreement" are to the amended and restated master services agreement dated as of March 13, 2015, among the Service Recipients, Brookfield Asset Management, the Service Provider and others, as described in Item 6.A "Directors and Senior Management—Our Master Services Agreement";

    "Merger Transaction" are to our acquisition of the ownership interests in Prime that were not already held by us, which was completed on December 8, 2010;

    "operating entities" are to the entities which directly or indirectly hold our current operations and assets that we may acquire in the future, including any assets held through joint ventures, partnerships and consortium arrangements;

    our "partnership" are to Brookfield Infrastructure Partners L.P.;

    "Prime" are to Prime Infrastructure, known collectively as Babcock & Brown Infrastructure Limited and Babcock & Brown Infrastructure Trust, or BBI, prior to its recapitalization on November 20, 2009;

    "rate base" are to a regulated or notionally stipulated asset base;

    the "Redemption-Exchange Mechanism" are to the mechanism by which Brookfield may request redemption of its limited partnership interests in the Holding LP in whole or in part in exchange for cash, subject to the right of our partnership to acquire such interests (in lieu of such redemption) in exchange for units of our partnership, as more fully set forth in Item 10.B "Memorandum and Articles of Association—Description of the Holding LP's Limited Partnership Agreement—Redemption-Exchange Mechanism";

    "Redeemable Partnership Unit" is a unit of the Holding LP that has the rights of the Redemption-Exchange Mechanism. See Item 10.B "Memorandum and Articles of Association—Description of the Holding LP's Limited Partnership Agreement—Units";

    "Relationship Agreement" are to the amended and restated relationship agreement dated as of March 28, 2014, as amended from time to time, by and among our partnership, the Holding LP, the Holding Entities, the Service Provider and Brookfield Asset Management, as described in Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Relationship Agreement";

    the "Service Provider" are to Brookfield Infrastructure Group L.P., Brookfield Asset Management Private Institutional Capital Adviser (Canada), LP, Brookfield Asset Management Barbados Inc., Brookfield Global Infrastructure Advisor Limited, Brookfield Infrastructure Group (Australia) Pty Limited and, unless the context otherwise requires, includes any other affiliate of Brookfield Asset Management that provides services to us pursuant to the Master Services Agreement or any other service agreement or arrangement;

2 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

    "Service Recipients" are to our partnership, the Holding LP and certain of the Holding Entities;

    "spin-off" are to the issuance of the special dividend by Brookfield Asset Management to its shareholders of 23,344,508 of our units on January 31, 2008;

    our "transport operations" are to our interests in Australian rail operations, port operations in the U.S., the UK, and in Europe, toll road operations in Chile, Brazil and, subject to completion of the Gammon Acquisition, India, and Brazilian rail operations, as described in Item 4.B "Business Overview—Our Operations—Transport—Overview";

    our "units" are to the limited partnership units in our partnership other than the preferred units, references to our "preferred units" are to preferred limited partnership units in our partnership and references to our "unitholders" and "preferred unitholders" are to the holders of our units and preferred units, respectively;

    "Class A Preferred Units", "Series 1 Preferred Units", "Series 2 Preferred Units", "Series 3 Preferred Units" and "Series 4 Preferred Units" are to cumulative class A preferred limited partnership units, cumulative class A preferred limited partnership units, series 1, cumulative class A preferred limited partnership units, series 2, cumulative class A preferred limited partnership units, series 3 and cumulative class A preferred limited partnership units, series 4, in our partnership, respectively;

    our "utilities operations" refer to our interests in Australian regulated terminal operation, South American electricity transmission operation in Chile and distribution operation in Colombia, North American electricity transmission operations in Canada, Australian energy distribution operation, and European energy distribution operation in the UK, as described in Item 4.B "Business Overview—Current Operations—Utilities—Overview"; and

    "Voting Agreements" are to the voting arrangements described in Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Voting Agreements".


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This annual report on Form 20-F contains certain forward-looking statements and information concerning our business and operations. The forward-looking statements and information also relate to, among other things, our objectives, goals, strategies, intentions, plans, beliefs, expectations and estimates and anticipated events or trends. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as "anticipate," "believe," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "plan," "potential," "should," "objective," "will" and "would" or the negative of those terms or other comparable terminology.

        Although we believe that our anticipated future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements and information are based on reasonable assumptions and expectations, the reader should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements and information because they involve assumptions, known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from anticipated future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements and information.

        The following factors could cause our actual results to differ materially from our forward looking statements and information:

    our assets are or may become highly leveraged and we intend to incur indebtedness above the asset level;

Brookfield Infrastructure 3


Table of Contents

    our partnership is a holding entity that relies on its subsidiaries to provide the funds necessary to pay our distributions and meet our financial obligations;

    future sales and issuances of our units or preferred units, or the perception of such sales or issuances, could depress the trading price of our units or preferred units;

    acquisitions may subject us to additional risks and the expected benefits of our acquisitions may not materialize;

    foreign currency risk and risk management activities;

    our partnership may become regulated as an investment company under the U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940 ("Investment Company Act"), as amended;

    we are exempt from certain requirements of Canadian securities laws and we are not subject to the same disclosure requirements as a U.S. domestic issuer;

    we may be subject to the risks commonly associated with a separation of economic interest from control or the incurrence of debt at multiple levels within an organizational structure;

    effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting;

    general economic conditions and risks relating to the economy;

    commodity risks;

    availability and cost of credit;

    government policy and legislation changes;

    exposure to uninsurable losses and force majeure events;

    infrastructure operations may require substantial capital expenditures;

    labour disruptions and economically unfavourable collective bargaining agreements;

    exposure to occupational health and safety related accidents;

    exposure to increased economic regulation and adverse regulatory decisions;

    exposure to environmental risks, including increasing environmental legislation and the broader impacts of climate change;

    high levels of regulation upon many of our operating entities;

    First Nations claims to land, adverse claims or governmental claims may adversely affect our infrastructure operations;

    the competitive market for acquisition opportunities and the inability to identify and complete acquisitions as planned;

    our ability to renew existing contracts and win additional contracts with existing or potential customers;

    timing and price for the completion of unfinished projects;

    some of our current operations are held in the form of joint ventures or partnerships or through consortium arrangements;

    our infrastructure business is at risk of becoming involved in disputes and possible litigation;

    some of our businesses operate in jurisdictions with less developed legal systems and could experience difficulties in obtaining effective legal redress and create uncertainties;

4 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

    actions taken by national, state, or provincial governments, including nationalization, or the imposition of new taxes, could materially impact the financial performance or value of our assets;

    reliance on technology;

    customers may default on their obligations;

    reliance on tolling and revenue collection systems;

    our ability to finance our operations due to the status of the capital markets;

    changes in our credit ratings;

    our operations may suffer a loss from fraud, bribery, corruption or other illegal acts;

    Brookfield's influence over our partnership and our partnership's dependence on the Service Provider;

    the lack of an obligation of Brookfield to source acquisition opportunities for us;

    our dependence on Brookfield and its professionals;

    interests in our General Partner may be transferred to a third party without unitholder or preferred unitholder consent;

    Brookfield may increase its ownership of our partnership;

    our Master Services Agreement and our other arrangements with Brookfield do not impose on Brookfield any fiduciary duties to act in the best interests of unitholders or preferred unitholders;

    conflicts of interest between our partnership, our preferred unitholders and our unitholders, on the one hand, and Brookfield, on the other hand;

    our arrangements with Brookfield may contain terms that are less favourable than those which otherwise might have been obtained from unrelated parties;

    our General Partner may be unable or unwilling to terminate the Master Services Agreement;

    the limited liability of, and our indemnification of, the Service Provider;

    our unitholders and preferred unitholders do not have a right to vote on partnership matters or to take part in the management of our partnership;

    market price of our units and preferred units may be volatile;

    dilution of existing unitholders;

    adverse changes in currency exchange rates;

    investors may find it difficult to enforce service of process and enforcement of judgments against us;

    we may not be able to continue paying comparable or growing cash distributions to unitholders in the future;

    changes in tax law and practice; and

    other factors described in this annual report on Form 20-F, including, but not limited to, those described under Item 3.D "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F.

Brookfield Infrastructure 5


Table of Contents

        In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the events described by our forward-looking statements and information might not occur. We qualify any and all of our forward-looking statements and information by these cautionary factors. Please keep this cautionary note in mind as you read this annual report on Form 20-F. We disclaim any obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements or information, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING THE USE OF NON-IFRS ACCOUNTING MEASURES

FFO

        To measure performance, among other measures, we focus on net income as well as funds from operations ("FFO").

        We define FFO as net income excluding the impact of depreciation and amortization, deferred income taxes, breakage and transaction costs, non-cash valuation gains or losses and other items. FFO is a measure of operating performance that is not calculated in accordance with, and does not have any standardized meaning prescribed by, International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS") as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ("IASB"). FFO is therefore unlikely to be comparable to similar measures presented by other issuers. FFO has limitations as an analytical tool. See Item 5 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Reconciliation of Non-IFRS Financial Measures" for more information on this measure, including a reconciliation to the most directly comparable IFRS measure.

AFFO

        In addition, we use adjusted funds from operations ("AFFO") as a measure of long-term sustainable cash flow.

        We define AFFO as FFO less maintenance capital expenditures. AFFO is a measure of operating performance that is not calculated in accordance with, and does not have any standardized meaning prescribed by, IFRS. AFFO is therefore unlikely to be comparable to similar measures presented by other issuers. AFFO has limitations as an analytical tool. See Item 5 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Reconciliation of Non-IFRS Financial Measures" for more information on this measure, including a reconciliation to the most directly comparable IFRS measure.

Adjusted EBITDA

        In addition to FFO and AFFO, we focus on "adjusted EBITDA", which we define as FFO excluding the impact of interest expense, cash taxes and other cash income or expenses. Like FFO, adjusted EBITDA is a measure of operating performance that is not calculated in accordance with, and does not have any standardized meaning prescribed by, IFRS. Adjusted EBITDA is therefore unlikely to be comparable to similar measures presented by other issuers. Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool. See Item 5 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Reconciliation of Non-IFRS Financial Measures" for more information on this measure, including a reconciliation to the most directly comparable IFRS measure.

6 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents


PART I

ITEM 1.    IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

        Not applicable.

ITEM 2.    OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

        Not applicable.

ITEM 3.    KEY INFORMATION

3.A    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

        The following table presents financial data for Brookfield Infrastructure as of and for the periods indicated:

 
  For the Year Ended December 31,  
MILLIONS
  2015   2014   2013   2012   2011  
Statements of Operating Results—Key Metrics
 

Revenue

  $ 1,855   $ 1,924   $ 1,826   $ 1,524   $ 1,115  

Direct operating costs

    (798 )   (846 )   (823 )   (766 )   (561 )

General and administrative expenses

    (134 )   (115 )   (110 )   (95 )   (61 )

Depreciation and amortization expense

    (375 )   (380 )   (329 )   (230 )   (126 )

Interest expense

    (367 )   (362 )   (362 )   (322 )   (253 )

Share of earnings (losses) from investments in associates and joint ventures

    69     50     (217 )   1     76  

Mark-to-market on hedging items

    83     38     19     (49 )   (35 )

Gain on sale of associates

            53          

Other income (expenses)

    54     (1 )   (35 )   8     10  

Income before income tax

    387     308     22     71     165  

Current income tax expense

    (22 )   (30 )   (3 )   (12 )   (2 )

Deferred income tax recovery (expense)

    26     (49 )   1     42     (12 )

Net income from continuing operations

    391     229     20     101     151  

Income from discontinued operations, net of income tax(1)

            45     190     289  

Net income

    391     229     65     291     440  

Net income (loss) attributable to partnership(2)

    298     184     (58 )   106     187  

Net income (loss) per limited partnership unit

    1.04     0.67     (0.43 )   0.47     1.13  

Funds from operations (FFO)(3)

    808     724     682     462     392  

Per unit FFO(4)

    3.59     3.45     3.30     2.41     2.41  

Per unit distributions

    2.12     1.92     1.72     1.50     1.32  

(1)
The timber segment was reported as part of continuing operations until the second quarter of 2013 and has since been classified as discontinued operations for the comparative periods. Our Canadian and U.S. freehold timberlands were disposed of in the second and third quarter of 2013, respectively.

(2)
Net income (loss) attributable to partnership includes net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests—Redeemable Partnership Units held by Brookfield, general partner and limited partners.

(3)
FFO is defined as net income excluding the impact of depreciation and amortization, deferred income taxes, breakage and transaction costs, non-cash valuation gains or losses and other items. FFO is a measure of operating performance that is not calculated in accordance with, and does not have any standardized meaning prescribed by IFRS. Please see Item 5 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Reconciliation of Non-IFRS Financial Measures" for a discussion of FFO and its limitations as a measure of our operating performance.

(4)
During 2015, on average there were 224.9 million units outstanding (2014: 210.1 million, 2013: 206.7 million, 2012: 191.5 million, 2011: 162.5 million).

Brookfield Infrastructure 7


Table of Contents


 
  As of December 31,  
MILLIONS
  2015   2014   2013   2012   2011  
Statements of Financial Position Key Metrics
 

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 199   $ 189   $ 538   $ 263   $ 153  

Total assets

    17,735     16,495     15,682     19,718     13,269  

Corporate borrowings

    1,380     588     377     946      

Non-recourse borrowings

    5,852     6,221     5,790     6,993     4,885  

Partnership capital—attributable to limited partners

    3,838     3,533     3,751     3,632     3,049  

Non-controlling interest—Redeemable Partnership Units held by Brookfield

    1,518     1,321     1,408     1,365     1,133  

Non-controlling interest—in operating subsidiaries

    1,608     1,444     1,419     2,784     1,683  

Partnership capital—attributable to general partner

    23     24     27     27     24  

Partnership capital—attributable to preferred unitholders

    189                  

        The following table reconciles FFO, a non-IFRS financial metric, to the most directly comparable IFRS measure, which is net income (loss) attributable to partnership(2):

 
  For the Year Ended December 31  
MILLIONS, EXCEPT PER UNIT AMOUNTS(1)
  2015
  2014
  2013
  2012
  2011
 

Net income (loss) attributable to partnership(2)

  $ 298   $ 184   $ (58 ) $ 106   $ 187  

Add back or deduct the following:

                               

Depreciation and amortization

    506     481     400     300     203  

Impairment charge

            275     16      

Deferred income taxes

    (53 )   (2 )   65     (37 )   73  

Gain on sale of associate

            (53 )        

Mark-to-market on hedging items

    (63 )   (39 )   (7 )   50     26  

Valuation losses (gains) and other

    120     100     60     27     (97 )
                       

FFO

  $ 808   $ 724   $ 682   $ 462   $ 392  
                       

(1)
Please see Item 5 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Reconciliation of Non-IFRS Financial Measures" for a detailed reconciliation of Brookfield Infrastructure's proportionate results to our partnership's consolidated statements of operating results.

(2)
Net income (loss) attributable to partnership includes net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest—Redeemable Partnership Units held by Brookfield, general partner and limited partners.

3.B   CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

        Not applicable.

3.C    REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

        Not applicable.

3.D    RISK FACTORS

        You should carefully consider the following factors in addition to the other information set forth in this annual report on Form 20-F. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations and the value of our units and preferred units would likely suffer.

8 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Risks Relating to Us and Our Partnership

         Brookfield Infrastructure and our operating entities use leverage and such indebtedness may result in Brookfield Infrastructure or our operating entities being subject to certain covenants which restrict our ability to engage in certain types of activities or to make distributions to equity.

        The Holding LP and many of our Holding Entities and operating entities have entered into credit facilities or have incurred other forms of debt, including for the purposes of acquisitions and investments as well as for general corporate purposes. The total quantum of exposure to debt within Brookfield Infrastructure is significant, and we may become more highly leveraged in the future. Some facilities are fully drawn, while some have amounts of principal which are undrawn.

        Highly leveraged assets are inherently more sensitive to declines in revenues, increases in expenses and interest rates and adverse economic, market and industry developments. A leveraged company's income and net assets also tend to increase or decrease at a greater rate than would otherwise be the case if money had not been borrowed. As a result, the risk of loss associated with a leveraged company, all other things being equal, is generally greater than for companies with comparatively less debt. In addition, the use of indebtedness in connection with an acquisition may give rise to negative tax consequences to certain investors. Leverage may also result in a requirement for short-term liquidity, which may force the sale of assets at times of low demand and/or prices for such assets. This may mean that we are unable to realize fair value for the assets in a sale.

        Our credit facilities also contain covenants applicable to the relevant borrower and events of default. Covenants can relate to matters including limitations on financial indebtedness, dividends, investments, or minimum amounts for interest coverage, adjusted EBITDA, cash flow or net worth. If an event of default occurs, or minimum covenant requirements are not satisfied, this can result in a requirement to immediately repay any drawn amounts or the imposition of other restrictions including a prohibition on the payment of distributions to equity.

        Our credit facilities or other debt or debt-like instruments may or may not be rated. Should such debt or debt-like instruments be rated, a credit downgrade may have an adverse impact on the cost of such debt.

         Our partnership is a holding entity and currently we rely on the Holding LP and, indirectly, the Holding Entities and our operating entities to provide us with the funds necessary to pay distributions and meet our financial obligations.

        Our partnership is a holding entity and its sole material asset is its managing general partnership interest and preferred limited partnership interest in the Holding LP, which owns all of the common shares of the Holding Entities, through which we hold all of our interests in the operating entities. Our partnership has no independent means of generating revenue. As a result, we depend on distributions and other payments from the Holding LP and, indirectly, the Holding Entities and our operating entities to provide us with the funds necessary to pay distributions on our units and preferred units and to meet our financial obligations. The Holding LP, the Holding Entities and our operating entities are legally distinct from us and some of them are or may become restricted in their ability to pay dividends and distributions or otherwise make funds available to us pursuant to local law, regulatory requirements and their contractual agreements, including agreements governing their financing arrangements, such as the Holding LP's credit facilities and other indebtedness incurred by the Holding Entities and operating entities. Any other entities through which we may conduct operations in the future will also be legally distinct from us and may be similarly restricted in their ability to pay dividends and distributions or otherwise make funds available to us under certain conditions. The Holding LP, the Holding Entities and our operating entities will generally be required to service their debt obligations before making distributions to us or their parent entities, as applicable, thereby reducing the amount of our cash flow available to pay distributions, fund working capital and satisfy other needs.

Brookfield Infrastructure 9


Table of Contents

        Our partnership anticipates that the only distributions that it will receive in respect of our partnership's managing general partnership interest in the Holding LP will consist of amounts that are intended to assist our partnership in making distributions to our unitholders in accordance with our partnership's distribution policy and to allow our partnership to pay expenses as they become due. Distributions received in respect of our partnership's preferred limited partnership interest in the Holding LP will consist of amounts that are intended to assist our partnership in making distributions to our preferred unitholders in accordance with the terms of our preferred units. The declaration and payment of cash distributions by our partnership is at the discretion of our General Partner. Our partnership is not required to make such distributions and neither our partnership nor our General Partner can assure you that our partnership will make such distributions as intended.

        While we plan to review our partnership's distributions to our unitholders periodically, there is no guarantee that we will be able to increase, or even maintain the level of distributions that are paid. Historically, as a result of this review, we decided to increase distributions in February 2011, February 2012, February 2013, February 2014, February 2015 and February 2016, respectively. However, such historical increases in distribution payments may not be reflective of any future increases in distribution payments which will be subject to review by the board of directors of our General Partner taking into account prevailing circumstances at the relevant time. Although we intend to make distributions on our units in accordance with our distribution policy, our partnership is not required to pay distributions on our units and neither our partnership nor our General Partner can assure you that our partnership will be able to increase or even maintain the level of distributions on our units that are made in the future.

         Future sales or issuances of our units or preferred units in the public markets, or the perception of such sales or issuances, could depress the trading price of our units and/or preferred units.

        The sale or issuance of a substantial number of our units, preferred units or other equity related securities of our partnership in the public markets, or the perception that such sales or issuances could occur, could depress the market price of our units or preferred units and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional units or preferred units. We cannot predict the effect that future sales or issuances of our units, preferred units or other equity-related securities would have on the market price of our units or preferred units.

         Acquisitions may subject us to additional risks and the expected benefits of our acquisitions may not materialize.

        A key part of Brookfield Infrastructure's strategy involves seeking acquisition opportunities. Acquisitions may increase the scale, scope and diversity of our operations. We depend on the diligence and skill of Brookfield's professionals to manage us, including integrating all of the acquired business' operations with our existing operations. These individuals may have difficulty managing the additional operations and may have other responsibilities within Brookfield's asset management business. If Brookfield does not effectively manage the additional operations, our existing business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

10 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Acquisitions will likely involve some or all of the following risks, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations: the difficulty of integrating the acquired operations and personnel into our current operations; the ability to achieve potential synergies; potential disruption of our current operations; diversion of resources, including Brookfield's time and attention; the difficulty of managing the growth of a larger organization; the risk of entering markets in which we have little experience; the risk of becoming involved in labour, commercial or regulatory disputes or litigation related to the new enterprise; the risk of environmental or other liabilities associated with the acquired business; and the risk of a change of control resulting from an acquisition triggering rights of third parties or government agencies under contracts with, or authorizations held by the operating business being acquired. While it is our practice to conduct extensive due diligence investigations into businesses being acquired, it is possible that due diligence may fail to uncover all material risks in the business being acquired, or to identify a change of control trigger in a material contract or authorization, or that a contractual counterparty or government agency may take a different view on the interpretation of such a provision to that taken by us, thereby resulting in a dispute. The discovery of any material liabilities subsequent to an acquisition, as well as the failure of an acquisition to perform according to expectations, could have a material adverse effect on Brookfield Infrastructure's business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if returns are lower than anticipated from acquisitions, we may not be able to achieve growth in our distributions in line with our stated goals and the market value of our units may decline.

         We are subject to foreign currency risk and our risk management activities may adversely affect the performance of our operations.

        A significant portion of our current operations are in countries where the U.S. dollar is not the functional currency. These operations pay distributions in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, which we must convert to U.S. dollars prior to making distributions, and certain of our operations have revenues denominated in currencies different from our expense structure, thus exposing us to currency risk. Fluctuations in currency exchange rates could reduce the value of cash flows generated by our operating entities or could make it more expensive for our customers to purchase our services and consequently reduce the demand for our services. In addition, a significant depreciation in the value of such foreign currencies may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        When managing our exposure to such market risks, we may use forward contracts, options, swaps, caps, collars and floors or pursue other strategies or use other forms of derivative instruments. The success of any hedging or other derivative transactions that we enter into generally will depend on our ability to structure contracts that appropriately offset our risk position. As a result, while we may enter into such transactions in order to reduce our exposure to market risks, unanticipated market changes may result in poorer overall investment performance than if the derivative transaction had not been executed. Such transactions may also limit the opportunity for gain if the value of a hedged position increases.

Brookfield Infrastructure 11


Table of Contents

         Our partnership is not, and does not intend to become, regulated as an investment company under the Investment Company Act (and similar legislation in other jurisdictions) and if our partnership was deemed an "investment company" under the Investment Company Act, applicable restrictions could make it impractical for us to operate as contemplated.

        The Investment Company Act (and similar legislation in other jurisdictions) provide certain protections to investors and impose certain restrictions on companies that are required to be regulated as investment companies. Among other things, such rules limit or prohibit transactions with affiliates, impose limitations on the issuance of debt and equity securities and impose certain governance requirements. Our partnership has not been and does not intend to become regulated as an investment company and our partnership intends to conduct its activities so it will not be deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act (and similar legislation in other jurisdictions). In order to ensure that we are not deemed to be an investment company, we may be required to materially restrict or limit the scope of our operations or plans. We will be limited in the types of acquisitions that we may make, and we may need to modify our organizational structure or dispose of assets of which we would not otherwise dispose. Moreover, if anything were to happen which causes our partnership to be deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act, it would be impractical for us to operate as contemplated. Agreements and arrangements between and among us and Brookfield would be impaired, the type and amount of acquisitions that we would be able to make as a principal would be limited and our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected. Accordingly, we would be required to take extraordinary steps to address the situation, such as the amendment or termination of the Master Services Agreement, the restructuring of our partnership and the Holding Entities, the amendment of our Limited Partnership Agreement or the termination of our partnership, any of which could materially adversely affect the value of our units and preferred units. In addition, if our partnership were deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act, it would be taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and such treatment could materially adversely affect the value of our units and preferred units.

         Our partnership is an "SEC foreign issuer" under Canadian securities regulations and is exempt from certain requirements of Canadian securities laws and a "foreign private issuer" under U.S. securities laws and as a result is subject to disclosure obligations different from requirements applicable to U.S. domestic registrants listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE").

        Although our partnership is a reporting issuer in Canada, it is an "SEC foreign issuer" and is exempt from certain Canadian securities laws relating to disclosure obligations and proxy solicitation, subject to certain conditions. Therefore, there may be less publicly available information in Canada about our partnership than would be available if we were a typical Canadian reporting issuer.

        Although our partnership is subject to the periodic reporting requirement of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder ("Exchange Act"), the periodic disclosure required of foreign private issuers under the Exchange Act is different from periodic disclosure required of U.S. domestic registrants. Therefore, there may be less publicly available information about our partnership than is regularly published by or about other public limited partnerships in the U.S. Our partnership is exempt from certain other sections of the Exchange Act to which U.S. domestic issuers are subject, including the requirement to provide our unitholders with information statements or proxy statements that comply with the Exchange Act. In addition, insiders and large unitholders of our partnership are not obligated to file reports under Section 16 of the Exchange Act, and certain corporate governance rules imposed by the NYSE are inapplicable to our partnership.

12 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         We may be subject to the risks commonly associated with a separation of economic interest from control or the incurrence of debt at multiple levels within an organizational structure.

        Our ownership and organizational structure is similar to structures whereby one company controls another company which in turn holds controlling interests in other companies; thereby, the company at the top of the chain may control the company at the bottom of the chain even if its effective equity position in the bottom company is less than a controlling interest. Brookfield is the sole shareholder of our General Partner and, as a result of such ownership of our General Partner, Brookfield is able to control the appointment and removal of our General Partner's directors and, accordingly, exercises substantial influence over us. In turn, we often have a majority controlling interest or a significant influence in our investments. Even though Brookfield currently has an effective economic interest in our business of approximately 29.3% as a result of ownership of our units and the Redeemable Partnership Units, over time Brookfield may reduce this economic interest while still maintaining its controlling interest, and, therefore, Brookfield may use its control rights in a manner that conflicts with the economic interests of our other unitholders and preferred unitholders. For example, despite the fact that we have a conflicts protocol in place, which addresses the requirement for independent approval and other requirements for transactions in which there is greater potential for a conflict of interest to arise, including transactions with affiliates of Brookfield, because Brookfield will be able to exert substantial influence over us, and, in turn, over our investments, there is a greater risk of transfer of assets of our investments at non-arm's length values to Brookfield and its affiliates. In addition, debt incurred at multiple levels within the chain of control could exacerbate the separation of economic interest from controlling interest at such levels, thereby creating an incentive to leverage us and our investments. Any such increase in debt would also make us more sensitive to declines in revenues, increases in expenses and interest rates, and adverse market conditions. The servicing of any such debt would also reduce the amount of funds available to pay distributions to us and ultimately to our unitholders and preferred unitholders.

         Our failure to maintain effective internal controls could have a material adverse effect on our business in the future and the price of our units and preferred units.

        Any failure to maintain adequate internal controls over financial reporting or to implement required, new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could cause us to report material weaknesses or other deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting and could result in errors or misstatements in our consolidated financial statements that could be material. If we or our independent registered public accounting firm were to conclude that our internal controls over financial reporting were not effective, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information and the price of our units and preferred units could decline. Our failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls could have a material adverse effect on our business in the future, our access to the capital markets and investors' perception of us. In addition, material weaknesses in our internal controls could require significant expense and management time to remediate.

Brookfield Infrastructure 13


Table of Contents

Risks Relating to Our Operations and the Infrastructure Industry

         All of our operating entities are subject to general economic conditions and risks relating to the economy.

        Many industries, including the industries in which we operate, are impacted by adverse events in financial markets, which may have a profound effect on global or local economies. Some key impacts of general financial market turmoil include contraction in credit markets resulting in a widening of credit spreads, devaluations and enhanced volatility in global equity, commodity and foreign exchange markets and a general lack of market liquidity. A slowdown in the financial markets or other key measures of the global economy or the local economies of the regions in which we operate, including, but not limited to, new home construction, employment rates, business conditions, inflation, fuel and energy costs, commodity prices, lack of available credit, the state of the financial markets, interest rates and tax rates may adversely affect our growth and profitability.

        The demand for services provided by our operating entities are, in part, dependent upon and correlated to general economic conditions and economic growth of the regions applicable to the relevant asset. Poor economic conditions or lower economic growth in a region or regions may, either directly or indirectly, reduce demand for the services provided by an asset.

        For example, a credit/liquidity crisis, such as the global crisis experienced in 2008/2009, could materially impact the cost and availability of financing and overall liquidity; the volatility of commodity output prices and currency exchange markets could materially impact revenues, profits and cash flow; volatile energy, commodity input and consumables prices and currency exchange rates could materially impact production costs; poor local or regional economic conditions could materially impact the level of traffic on our toll roads or volume of commodities transported on our rail network and/or shipped through our ports; our UK regulated distribution business earns connection revenues that would be negatively impacted by an economic recession and a reduction of housing starts in the UK; and the devaluation and volatility of global stock markets could materially impact the valuation of our units and preferred units. Any one of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If such increased levels of volatility and market turmoil were to continue, our operations and the trading price of our units and preferred units may be further adversely impacted.

         Some of our operations depend on continued strong demand for commodities, such as natural gas or minerals, for their financial performance. Material reduction in demand for these key commodities can potentially result in reduced value for assets, or in extreme cases, a stranded asset.

        Some of our operations are critically linked to the transport or production of key commodities. For example, our Australian regulated terminal operation relies on demand for coal exports, our Australian rail operation relies on demand for iron ore for steel production and our North American gas transmission operation relies on demand for natural gas and benefits from higher gas prices. While we endeavor to protect against short to medium term commodity demand risk wherever possible by structuring our contracts in a way that minimizes volume risk (e.g. minimum guaranteed volumes and 'take-or-pay' arrangements), these contract terms are finite and in some cases contracts contain termination or suspension rights for the benefit of the customer. Accordingly, a long-term and sustained downturn in the demand for or price of a key commodity linked to one of our operations may result in termination, suspension or default under a key contract, or otherwise have a material adverse impact on the financial performance or growth prospects of that particular operation, notwithstanding our efforts to maximize contractual protections.

        If a critical upstream or downstream business ceased to operate, this could materially impact our financial performance or the value of one or more of our operating businesses. In extreme cases, our infrastructure could become redundant, resulting in an inability to recover a return on or of capital and potentially triggering covenants and other terms and conditions under associated debt facilities.

14 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         General economic and business conditions that impact the debt or equity markets could impact Brookfield Infrastructure's ability to access credit markets.

        General economic and business conditions that impact the debt or equity markets could impact the availability of credit to, and cost of credit for, Brookfield Infrastructure. Brookfield Infrastructure has revolving credit facilities and other short-term borrowings. The amount of interest charged on these will fluctuate based on changes in short-term interest rates. Any economic event that affects interest rates or the ability to refinance borrowings could materially adversely impact Brookfield Infrastructure's financial condition. Movements in interest rates could also affect the discount rates used to value Brookfield Infrastructure's assets, which in turn could cause their valuations calculated under IFRS to be reduced resulting in a material reduction in Brookfield Infrastructure's equity value.

        In addition, some of our operations either currently have a credit rating or may have a credit rating in the future. A credit rating downgrade may result in an increase in the cost of debt for the relevant businesses and reduced access to debt markets.

        Some assets in our portfolio have a requirement for significant capital expenditure. For other assets, cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments combined with cash flow generated from operations are believed to be sufficient for it to make the foreseeable required level of capital investment. However, no assurance can be given that additional capital investments will not be required in these businesses. If Brookfield Infrastructure is unable to generate enough cash to finance necessary capital expenditures through operating cash flow, then Brookfield Infrastructure may be required to issue additional equity or incur additional indebtedness. The issue of additional equity would be dilutive to existing unitholders at the time. Any additional indebtedness would increase the leverage and debt payment obligations of Brookfield Infrastructure, and may negatively impact its business, financial condition and results of operations.

        Our business relies on continued access to capital to fund new investments and capital projects. While we aim to prudently manage our capital requirements and ensure access to capital is always available, it is possible we may overcommit ourselves or misjudge the requirement for capital or the availability of liquidity. Such a misjudgment may require capital to be raised quickly and the inability to do so could result in negative financial consequences or in extreme cases bankruptcy.

         All of our operating entities are subject to changes in government policy and legislation.

        Our financial condition and results of operations could also be affected by changes in economic or other government policies or other political or economic developments in each country or region, as well as regulatory changes or administrative practices over which we have no control such as: the regulatory environment related to our business operations, concession agreements and periodic regulatory resets; interest rates; currency fluctuations; exchange controls and restrictions; inflation; liquidity of domestic financial and capital markets; policies relating to climate change or policies relating to tax; and other political, social, economic, and environmental and occupational health and safety developments that may occur in or affect the countries in which our operating entities are located or conduct business or the countries in which the customers of our operating entities are located or conduct business or both.

Brookfield Infrastructure 15


Table of Contents

        In addition, operating costs can be influenced by a wide range of factors, many of which may not be under the control of the owner/operator, including the need to comply with the directives of central and local government authorities. For example, in the case of our utility, transport and energy operations, we cannot predict the impact of future economic conditions, energy conservation measures, alternative fuel requirements, or governmental regulation all of which could reduce the demand for or availability of commodities our transport and energy operations rely upon, most notably coal and natural gas. It is difficult to predict government policies and what form of laws and regulations will be adopted or how they will be construed by the relevant courts, or to the extent which any changes may adversely affect us.

         We may be exposed to natural disasters, weather events, uninsurable losses and force majeure events.

        Force majeure is the term generally used to refer to an event beyond the control of the party claiming that the event has occurred, including but not limited to acts of God, fires, floods, earthquakes, wars and labour strikes. The assets of our infrastructure businesses are exposed to unplanned interruptions caused by significant catastrophic events such as cyclones, landslides, explosions, terrorist attacks, war, floods, earthquakes, fires, major plant breakdowns, pipeline or electricity line ruptures, accidents, extreme weather events or other disasters. Operational disruption, as well as supply disruption, could adversely affect the cash flow available from these assets. In addition, the cost of repairing or replacing damaged assets could be considerable and could give rise to third-party claims. In some cases, project agreements can be terminated if the force majeure event is so catastrophic as to render it incapable of remedy within a reasonable time period. Repeated or prolonged interruption may result in a permanent loss of customers, substantial litigation, damage, or penalties for regulatory or contractual non-compliance. Moreover, any loss from such events may not be recoverable in whole or in part under relevant insurance policies. Business interruption insurance is not always available, or available on reasonable economic terms to protect the business from these risks.

        Given the nature of the assets operated by our operating entities, we may be more exposed to risks in the insurance market that lead to limitations on coverage and/or increases in premium. For example, many components of our South American electricity transmission operations and toll roads are not insured or not fully insured against losses from earthquakes and our North American gas transmission operation, our Australian distribution operations and our European regulated distribution operations self-insure the majority of their line and pipe assets. Therefore, the occurrence of a major or uninsurable event could have a material adverse effect on financial performance. Even if such insurance were available, the cost may be prohibitive. The ability of the operating entities to obtain the required insurance coverage at a competitive price may have an impact on the returns generated by them and accordingly the returns we receive.

        For example, our regulated energy distribution businesses generate revenue based on the volume transmitted through their systems. Weather that deviates materially from normal conditions could impact these businesses. A number of our businesses may be adversely impacted by extreme weather. Our Australian rail operation transports grain on its system, for which it is contracted on a volume basis. A drought could have a material negative impact on revenue from grain transportation.

         All of our infrastructure operations may require substantial capital expenditures in the future.

        Our utilities, transport and energy operations are capital intensive and require substantial ongoing expenditures for, among other things, additions and improvements, and maintenance and repair of plant and equipment related to our operations. Any failure to make necessary capital expenditures to maintain our operations in the future could impair the ability of our operations to serve existing customers or accommodate increased volumes. In addition, we may not be able to recover such investments based upon the rates our operations are able to charge.

16 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        In some of the jurisdictions in which we have utilities, transport or energy operations, certain maintenance capital expenditures may not be covered by the regulatory framework. If our operations in these jurisdictions require significant capital expenditures to maintain our asset base, we may not be able to recover such costs through the regulatory framework. In addition, we may be exposed to disallowance risk in other jurisdictions to the extent that capital expenditures and other costs are not fully recovered through the regulatory framework.

         Performance of our operating entities may be harmed by future labour disruptions and economically unfavourable collective bargaining agreements.

        Several of our current operations or other business operations have workforces that are unionized or that in the future may become unionized and, as a result, are required to negotiate the wages, benefits and other terms with many of their employees collectively. If an operating entity were unable to negotiate acceptable contracts with any of its unions as existing agreements expire, it could experience a significant disruption of its operations, higher ongoing labour costs and restrictions on its ability to maximize the efficiency of its operations, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.

        In addition, in some jurisdictions where we have operations, labour forces have a legal right to strike which may have an impact on our operations, either directly or indirectly, for example if a critical upstream or downstream counterparty was itself subject to a labour disruption which impacted our ability to operate.

         Our operations are exposed to occupational health and safety and accident risks.

        Infrastructure projects and operational assets are highly exposed to the risk of accidents that may give rise to personal injury, loss of life, disruption to service and economic loss. Some of the tasks undertaken by employees and contractors are inherently dangerous and have the potential to result in serious injury or death.

        Our operating entities are subject to laws and regulations governing health and safety matters, protecting both members of the public and their employees and contractors. Occupational health and safety legislation and regulations differ in each jurisdiction. Any breach of these obligations, or serious accidents involving our employees, contractors or members of the public could expose them to adverse regulatory consequences, including the forfeit or suspension of operating licenses, potential litigation, claims for material financial compensation, reputational damage, fines or other legislative sanction, all of which have the potential to impact the results of our operating entities and our ability to make distributions. Furthermore, where we do not control a business, we have a limited ability to influence health and safety practices and outcomes.

Brookfield Infrastructure 17


Table of Contents

         Many of our operations are subject to economic regulation and may be exposed to adverse regulatory decisions.

        Due to the essential nature of some of the services provided by our assets and the fact that some of these services are provided on a monopoly or near monopoly basis, many of our operations are subject to forms of economic regulation. This regulation can involve different forms of price control and can involve ongoing commitments to economic regulators and other governmental agencies. The terms upon which access to our facilities is provided, including price, can be determined or amended by a regulator periodically. Future terms to apply, including access charges that our operations are entitled to charge, cannot be determined with any certainty, as we do not have discretion as to the amount that can be charged. New legislation, regulatory determinations or changes in regulatory approaches may result in regulation of previously unregulated businesses or material changes to the revenue or profitability of our operations. In addition, a decision by a government or regulator to regulate non-regulated assets may significantly and negatively change the economics of these businesses and the value or financial performance of Brookfield Infrastructure. For example, in 2010 regulatory action taken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") saw a significant reduction in annual cashflow expectations of our North American gas transmission operations.

         Our operating entities are exposed to the risk of environmental damage.

        Many of Brookfield Infrastructure's assets are involved in using, handling or transporting substances that are toxic, combustible or otherwise hazardous to the environment. Furthermore, some of our assets have operations in or in close proximity to environmentally sensitive areas or densely populated communities. There is a risk of a leak, spillage or other environmental emission at one of these assets, which could cause regulatory infractions, damage to the environment, injury or loss of life. Such an incident if it occurred could result in fines or penalties imposed by regulatory authorities, revocation of licenses or permits required to operate the business or the imposition of more stringent conditions in those licenses or permits, or legal claims for compensation (including punitive damages) by affected stakeholders. In addition, some of our assets may be subject to regulations or rulings made by environmental agencies that conflict with existing obligations we have under concession or other permitting agreements. Resolution of such conflicts may lead to uncertainty and increased risk of delays or cost over-runs on projects. All of these have the potential to significantly impact the value or financial performance of Brookfield Infrastructure.

         Our operating entities are exposed to the risk of increasing environmental legislation and the broader impacts of climate change.

        With an increasing global focus and public sensitivity to environmental sustainability and environmental regulation becoming more stringent, Brookfield Infrastructure's assets could be subject to increasing environmental responsibility and liability. For example, many jurisdictions in which Brookfield Infrastructure operates are considering implementing, or have implemented, schemes relating to the regulation of carbon emissions. As a result, there is a risk that the consumer demand for some of the energy sources supplied by Brookfield Infrastructure will be reduced. For example, the United Kingdom's phasing out of analog meters and use of gas as a source of heating for residential customers could lead to a reduction in revenue and growth at our UK utility business. The nature and extent of future regulation in the various jurisdictions in which Brookfield Infrastructure's operations are situated is uncertain, but is expected to become more complex and stringent.

18 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        It is difficult to assess the impact of any such changes on Brookfield Infrastructure. These schemes may result in increased costs to our operations that may not be able to be passed onto our customers and may have an adverse impact on prospects for growth of some businesses. To the extent such regimes (such as carbon emissions schemes or other carbon emissions regulations) become applicable to the operations of Brookfield Infrastructure (and the costs of such regulations are not able to be fully passed on to consumers), its financial performance may be impacted due to costs applied to carbon emissions and increased compliance costs.

        Our operating entities are also subject to laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment and pollution. Standards are set by these laws and regulations regarding certain aspects of environmental quality and reporting, provide for penalties and other liabilities for the violation of such standards, and establish, in certain circumstances, obligations to remediate and rehabilitate current and former facilities and locations where our operations are, or were, conducted. These laws and regulations may have a detrimental impact on the financial performance of our infrastructure operations and projects through increased compliance costs or otherwise. Any breach of these obligations, or even incidents relating to the environment that do not amount to a breach, could adversely affect the results of our operating entities and their reputations and expose them to claims for financial compensation or adverse regulatory consequences.

        Our operations may also be exposed directly or indirectly to the broader impacts of climate change, including extreme weather events, export constraints on commodities, increased resource prices and restrictions on energy and water usage.

         Our operating entities may be exposed to higher levels of regulation than in other sectors and breaches of such regulations could expose our operating entities to claims for financial compensation and adverse regulatory consequences.

        In many instances, our ownership and operation of infrastructure assets involves an ongoing commitment to a governmental agency. The nature of these commitments exposes the owners of infrastructure assets to a higher level of regulatory control than typically imposed on other businesses. For example, several of our utilities, transport and energy operations are subject to government safety and reliability regulations that are specific to their industries. The risk that a governmental agency will repeal, amend, enact or promulgate a new law or regulation or that a governmental authority will issue a new interpretation of the law or regulations, could affect our operating entities substantially.

        Sometimes commitments to governmental agencies, for example, under toll road concession arrangements, involve the posting of financial security for performance of obligations. If obligations are breached these financial securities may be called upon by the relevant agency.

        There is also the risk that our operating entities do not have, might not obtain, or may lose permits necessary for their operations. Permits or special rulings may be required on taxation, financial and regulatory related issues. Even though most permits and licenses are obtained before the commencement of operations, many of these licenses and permits have to be renewed or maintained over the life of the business. The conditions and costs of these permits, licenses and consents may be changed on any renewal, or, in some cases, may not be renewed due to unforeseen circumstances or a subsequent change in regulations. In any event, the renewal or non-renewal could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        The risk that a government will repeal, amend, enact or promulgate a new law or regulation or that a regulator or other government agency will issue a new interpretation of the law or regulations, may affect our operations or a project substantially. This may also be due to court decisions and actions of government agencies that affect these operations or a project's performance or the demand for its services. For example, a government policy decision may result in adverse financial outcomes for us through directions to spend money to improve security, safety, reliability or quality of service.

Brookfield Infrastructure 19


Table of Contents

         The lands used for our infrastructure assets may be subject to adverse claims or governmental or First Nations rights.

        Our operations require large areas of land on which to be constructed and operated. The rights to use the land can be obtained through freehold title, leases and other rights of use. Although we believe that we have valid rights to all material easements, licenses and rights of way for our infrastructure operations, not all of our easements, licenses and rights of way are registered against the lands to which they relate and may not bind subsequent owners. Additionally, different jurisdictions have adopted different systems of land title and in some jurisdictions it may not be possible to ascertain definitively who has the legal right to enter into land tenure arrangements with the asset owner. In some jurisdictions where we have operations, it is possible to claim indigenous or aboriginal rights to land and the existence or declaration of native title may affect the existing or future activities of our utilities, transport or energy operations and impact on their business, financial condition and results of operations.

        In addition, a government, court, regulator, or indigenous or aboriginal group may make a decision or take action that affects an asset or project's performance or the demand for its services. In particular, a regulator may restrict our access to an asset, or may require us to provide third parties with access, or may affect the pricing structure so as to lower our revenues and earnings. In Australia, native title legislation provides for a series of procedures that may need to be complied with if native title is declared on relevant land. In Canada, for example, courts have recognized that First Nations peoples may possess rights at law in respect of land used or occupied by their ancestors where treaties have not been concluded to deal with these rights. In either case, the claims of a First Nations group may affect the existing or future activities of our operations, impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, or require that compensation be paid.

20 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         We operate in a highly competitive market for acquisition opportunities and we may be unable to identify and complete acquisitions as planned.

        Our acquisition strategy is dependent to a significant extent on the ability of Brookfield to identify acquisition opportunities that are suitable for us. We face competition for acquisitions primarily from investment funds, operating companies acting as strategic buyers, construction companies, commercial and investment banks, and commercial finance companies. Many of these competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than are available to us. Some of these competitors may also have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of acquisitions and to offer terms that we are unable or unwilling to match. Due to the capital intensive nature of infrastructure acquisitions, in order to finance acquisitions we will need to compete for equity capital from institutional investors and other equity providers, including Brookfield, and our ability to consummate acquisitions will be dependent on such capital continuing to be available. Increases in interest rates could also make it more difficult to consummate acquisitions because our competitors may have a lower cost of capital which may enable them to bid higher prices for assets. Further, our acquisitions are subject to a number of closing conditions, including, as applicable, securityholder approval, regulatory approval (including competition authorities) and other third party consents and approvals that are beyond our control and may not be satisfied. Consents and approvals may not be obtained, may be obtained subject to conditions which adversely affect anticipated returns, and/or may be delayed and delay the completion of acquisitions. If all or some of our acquisitions are unable to be completed on the terms agreed, we may need to modify or delay certain acquisitions or terminate these acquisitions altogether, the market value of our units may significantly decline and we may not be able to achieve the expected benefits of the acquisitions. In addition, because of our affiliation with Brookfield, there is a higher risk that when we participate with Brookfield and others in joint ventures, partnerships and consortiums on acquisitions we may become subject to antitrust or competition laws that we would not be subject to if we were acting alone. These factors may create competitive disadvantages for us with respect to acquisition opportunities.

        We cannot provide any assurance that the competitive pressures we face will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations or that Brookfield will be able to identify and make acquisitions on our behalf that are consistent with our objectives or that generate attractive returns for our unitholders. We may lose acquisition opportunities if we do not match prices, structures and terms offered by competitors, if we are unable to access sources of equity or obtain indebtedness at attractive rates or if we become subject to antitrust or competition laws. Alternatively, we may experience decreased rates of return and increased risks of loss if we match prices, structures and terms offered by competitors.

         Infrastructure assets may be subject to competition risk.

        Some assets may be affected by the existence of other competing assets owned and operated by other parties. There can be no assurance that our businesses can renew all their existing contracts or win additional contracts with their existing or potential customers. The ability of our businesses to maintain or improve their revenue is dependent on price, availability and customer service as well as on the availability of access to alternative infrastructure. In the case where the relevant business is unable to retain customers and/or unable to win additional customers to replace those customers it is unable to retain, the revenue from such assets will be reduced.

Brookfield Infrastructure 21


Table of Contents

         Investments in infrastructure projects prior to or during a construction or expansion phase are likely to be subject to increased risk.

        A key part of Brookfield Infrastructure's growth strategy involves identifying and taking advantage of organic growth opportunities within our existing businesses. These opportunities typically involve development and construction of new infrastructure or expansion or upgrades to existing infrastructure. Investments in new infrastructure projects during a development or construction phase are likely to be subject to additional risk that the project will not receive all required approvals, will not be completed within budget, within the agreed timeframe and to the agreed specifications and, where applicable, will not be successfully integrated into the existing assets. During the construction phase, major risks include: (i) a delay in the projected completion of the project, which can result in an increase in total project construction costs through higher capitalized interest charges and additional labour, material expenses, and a resultant delay in the commencement of cash flow; (ii) the insolvency of the head contractor, a major subcontractor and/or a key equipment supplier; (iii) construction costs exceeding estimates for various reasons, including inaccurate engineering and planning, labour and building material costs in excess of expectations and unanticipated problems with project start-up; and (iv) defects in design, engineering or construction (including, without limitation, latent defects that do not materialize during an applicable warranty or limitation periods. Such unexpected increases may result in increased debt service costs, operations phase debt service costs, operations and maintenance expenses and damage payments for late delivery. This may result in the inability of project owners to meet the higher interest and principal repayments arising from the additional debt required.

        Finally, construction projects may be exposed to significant liquidated damages to the extent that commercial operations are delayed beyond prescribed dates or that performance levels do not meet guaranteed levels. For example, a liquidated damages regime applies in respect of some of the expansion of works at our Brazilian toll road business.

         Some of our transactions and current operations are structured as joint ventures, partnerships and consortium arrangements, and we intend to continue to operate in this manner in the future, which may reduce Brookfield's and our influence over our operations and may subject us to additional obligations.

        Some of our transactions and current operations are structured as joint ventures, partnerships and consortium arrangements. An integral part of our strategy is to participate with institutional investors in Brookfield sponsored or co-sponsored consortiums for single asset acquisitions and as a partner in or alongside Brookfield sponsored or co-sponsored partnerships that target acquisitions that suit our profile. These arrangements are driven by the magnitude of capital required to complete acquisitions of infrastructure assets and other industry-wide trends that we believe will continue. Such arrangements involve risks not present where a third party is not involved, including the possibility that partners or co-venturers might become bankrupt or otherwise fail to fund their share of required capital contributions. Additionally, partners or co-venturers might at any time have economic or other business interests or goals different from us and Brookfield.

22 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Joint ventures, partnerships and consortium investments may provide for a reduced level of influence over an acquired company because governance rights are shared with others. Accordingly, decisions relating to the underlying operations, including decisions relating to the management and operation and the timing and nature of any exit, will be made by a majority or supermajority vote of the investors or by separate agreements that are reached with respect to individual decisions. For example, when we participate with institutional investors in Brookfield sponsored or co-sponsored consortiums for asset acquisitions and as a partner in or alongside Brookfield sponsored or co-sponsored partnerships, there is often a finite term to the investment or a date after which partners are granted liquidity rights, which could lead to the investment being sold prior to the date we would otherwise choose. In addition, such operations may be subject to the risk that the company may make business, financial or management decisions with which we do not agree or the management of the company may take risks or otherwise act in a manner that does not serve our interests. Because we may have a reduced level of influence over such operations, we may not be able to realize some or all of the benefits that we believe will be created from our and Brookfield's involvement. If any of the foregoing were to occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer as a result.

        In addition, because some of our transactions and current operations are structured as joint ventures, partnerships or consortium arrangements, the sale or transfer of interests in some of our operations are or may be subject to rights of first refusal or first offer, tag along rights or drag along rights and some agreements provide for buy-sell or similar arrangements. For example, some of our investments are subject to a shareholder agreement which allows for the sale of the assets without our consent. Such rights may be triggered at a time when we may not want them to be exercised and such rights may inhibit our ability to sell our interest in an entity within our desired time frame or on any other desired basis.

         Our infrastructure business is at risk of becoming involved in disputes and possible litigation.

        Our infrastructure business is at risk of becoming involved in disputes and possible litigation, the extent of which cannot be ascertained. Any material or costly dispute or litigation could adversely affect the value of the assets or future financial performance of Brookfield Infrastructure. In addition, as a result of the actions of the Holding Entities or the operating entities, Brookfield Infrastructure could be subject to various legal proceedings concerning disputes of a commercial nature, or to claims in the event of bodily injury or material damage. The final outcome of any proceeding could have a negative impact on the business, financial condition or results of operations of Brookfield Infrastructure during a given quarter or financial year.

         Some of our businesses operate in jurisdictions with less developed legal systems and could experience potential difficulties in obtaining effective legal redress and create uncertainties.

        Some of our businesses operate in jurisdictions with less developed legal systems than those in more established economies. In these jurisdictions, Brookfield Infrastructure could be faced with potential difficulties in obtaining effective legal redress; a higher degree of discretion on the part of governmental authorities; a lack of judicial or administrative guidance on interpreting applicable rules and regulations; inconsistencies or conflicts between and within various laws, regulations, decrees, orders and resolutions; and relative inexperience of the judiciary and courts in such matters.

Brookfield Infrastructure 23


Table of Contents

        In addition, in certain jurisdictions, Brookfield Infrastructure may find that the commitment of local business people, government officials and agencies and the judicial system to abide by legal requirements and negotiated agreements could be uncertain, creating particular concerns with respect to permits, approvals and licenses required or desirable for, or agreements entered into in connection with, the Brookfield Infrastructure business in any such jurisdiction. These may be susceptible to revision or cancellation and legal redress may be uncertain or delayed. There can be no assurance that joint ventures, licenses, permits or approvals (or applications for licenses, permits or approvals) or other legal arrangements will not be adversely affected by the actions of government authorities or others and the effectiveness of and enforcement of such arrangements in these jurisdictions cannot be assured.

         Action taken by national, state or provincial governments, including nationalization or the imposition of new taxes, could materially impact the financial performance or value of our assets.

        Our assets are located in many different jurisdictions, each with its own government and legal system. Different levels of political risk exist in each jurisdiction and it is possible that action taken by a national, state or provincial government, including the nationalization of a business or the imposition of new taxes, could materially impact our financial performance or in extreme cases deprive Brookfield Infrastructure of one or more of its businesses without adequate compensation.

         Our business relies on the use of technology.

        Our business places significant reliance on information and other technology. This technology includes our computer systems used for information, processing, administrative and commercial operations and the operating plant and equipment used by our assets, including that on our toll roads, in our electricity transmission systems, coal terminal operations, ports, rail networks, and by our electricity and gas distribution companies. In addition, our business also relies upon telecommunication services to interface with its widely distributed business network and customers. The information and embedded systems of key business partners and regulatory agencies are also important to our operations. Our business relies on this technology functioning as intended.

        Our computer systems may be subject to cybersecurity risks or other breaches of information technology security, noting the increasing frequency and severity of these kinds of incidents. Further, the operating equipment used by our assets may not continue to perform as it has in the past, and there is a risk of equipment failure due to wear and tear, latent defect, design or operator errors or early obsolescence, among other things.

        A breach of our cyber/data security measures, the failure of any such computerized system or of the operating equipment used by our assets for a significant time period could have a material adverse effect on our business prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.

        Furthermore, our communications infrastructure operations rely for their continued viability on the ongoing demand for tower infrastructure, which is uncertain and could be subject to bypass risk or obsolescence as a result of new or developing technologies.

24 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         Many of our operations depend on relevant contractual arrangements.

        Many of our operations rely on revenue from customers under contracts. There is a risk that customers will default under these contracts. We cannot provide assurance that one or more customers will not default on their obligations to us or that such a default or defaults will not have a material adverse effect on our operations, financial position, future results of operations, or future cash flows. Furthermore, the bankruptcy of one or more of our customers, or some other similar proceeding or liquidity constraint, might make it unlikely that we would be able to collect all or a significant portion of amounts owed by the distressed entity or entities. In addition, such events might force such customers to reduce or curtail their future use of our products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, we have a single customer which represented a majority of contractual and regulated revenues of our South American electricity transmission operations in 2014. As this accounts for a majority of its cash flow, our South American electricity transmission operations could be materially adversely affected by any material change in the financial condition of that customer. Similarly, our rail business is party to several commercial track access agreements to provide access to our rail network for the haulage of iron ore. The largest of these contracts currently accounts for a significant portion of forecast adjusted EBITDA within the rail business and an event of default under this contract could have a materially adverse effect on that business.

        We endeavor to minimize risk wherever possible by structuring our contracts in a way that minimizes volume risk (e.g. minimum guaranteed volumes and 'take-or-pay' arrangements), however it is possible that the take-or-pay arrangements may not be fully effective. In addition, the contract terms are finite and in some cases the contracts contain termination or suspension rights for the benefit of the customer.

        Certain of our assets with revenues contracted under contracts will be subject to re-contracting risk in the future. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to re-negotiate these contracts once their terms expire, or that even if we are able to do so, that we will be able to obtain the same prices or terms we currently receive. If we are unable to renegotiate these contracts, or unable to receive prices at least equal to the current prices we receive, our business, financial condition, results of operation and prospects could be adversely affected.

         We rely on tolling and revenue collection systems.

        Revenues at some of our assets depend on reliable and efficient tolling, metering or other revenue collection systems. There is a risk that, if one or more of our businesses are not able to operate and maintain these tolling, metering or other revenue collection systems in the manner expected, or if the cost of operation and maintenance is greater than expected, our assets, business, financial condition, and risks of operations could be materially adversely affected. Users of our facilities who do not pay tolls or other charges may be subject to either direct legal action from the relevant business, or in some cases may be referred to the state for enforcement action. We bear the ultimate risk if enforcement actions against defaulting customers are not successful or if enforcement actions are more costly or take more time than expected.

Brookfield Infrastructure 25


Table of Contents

         Our ability to finance our operations is subject to various risks relating to the state of the capital markets.

        We have corporate debt and limited recourse project level debt, the majority of which is non-recourse that will need to be replaced from time to time. Our financings may contain conditions that limit our ability to repay indebtedness prior to maturity without incurring penalties, which may limit our capital markets flexibility. Refinancing risk includes, among other factors, dependence on continued operating performance of our assets, future electricity market prices, future capital markets conditions, the level of future interest rates and investors' assessment of our credit risk at such time. In addition, certain of our financings are, and future financings may be exposed to floating interest rate risks, and if interest rates increase, an increased proportion of our cash flow may be required to service indebtedness. Future acquisitions, development and construction of new facilities and other capital expenditures will be financed out of cash generated from our operations, borrowings and possible future sales of equity. Our ability to obtain financing to finance our growth is dependent on, among other factors, the overall state of the capital markets, continued operating performance of our assets, future electricity market prices, the level of future interest rates and investors' assessment of our credit risk at such time, and investor appetite for investments in renewable energy and infrastructure assets in general and in our securities in particular. To the extent that external sources of capital become limited or unavailable or available on onerous terms, our ability to make necessary capital investments to construct new or maintain existing facilities will be impaired, and as a result, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially adversely affected.

         Changes in our credit ratings may have an adverse effect on our financial position and ability to raise capital.

        We cannot assure you that any credit rating assigned to us or any of our subsidiaries' debt securities will remain in effect for any given period of time or that any rating will not be lowered or withdrawn entirely by the relevant rating agency. A lowering or withdrawal of such ratings may have an adverse effect on our financial position and ability to raise capital.

         We may suffer a significant loss resulting from fraud, bribery, corruption other illegal acts, inadequate or failed internal processes or systems, or from external events.

        We may suffer a significant loss resulting from fraud, bribery, corruption, other illegal acts by our employees or those of Brookfield, inadequate or failed internal processes or systems, or from external events, such as security threats affecting our ability to operate. Both Brookfield and our partnership operate in different markets and rely on our employees to follow our policies and processes as well as applicable laws in their activities. Risk of illegal acts or failed systems is managed through our infrastructure, controls, systems and people, complemented by a focus on enterprise-wide management of specific operational risks such as fraud, bribery and corruption, as well as personnel and systems risks. Specific programs, policies, standards and methodologies have been developed to support the management of these risks, however these cannot guarantee that such conduct does not occur and if it does, it can result in direct or indirect financial loss, reputational impact or regulatory consequences.

26 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Risks Relating to Our Relationship with Brookfield

         Brookfield exercises substantial influence over our partnership and we are highly dependent on the Service Provider.

        Brookfield is the sole shareholder of our General Partner. As a result of its ownership of our General Partner, Brookfield is able to control the appointment and removal of our General Partner's directors and, accordingly, exercise substantial influence over our partnership and over the Holding LP, for which our partnership is the managing general partner. Our partnership and the Holding LP do not have any employees and depend on the management and administration services provided by the Service Provider. Brookfield personnel and support staff that provide services to us are not required to have as their primary responsibility the management and administration of our partnership or the Holding LP or to act exclusively for either of us. Any failure to effectively manage our current operations or to implement our strategy could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

         Brookfield has no obligation to source acquisition opportunities for us and we may not have access to all infrastructure acquisitions that Brookfield identifies.

        Our ability to grow depends on Brookfield's ability to identify and present us with acquisition opportunities. Brookfield established our partnership to own and operate certain infrastructure assets on a global basis. However, Brookfield has no obligation to source acquisition opportunities for us. In addition, Brookfield has not agreed to commit to us any minimum level of dedicated resources for the pursuit of infrastructure-related acquisitions. There are a number of factors which could materially and adversely impact the extent to which suitable acquisition opportunities are made available from Brookfield, for example:

    there is no accepted industry standard for what constitutes an infrastructure asset. For example, Brookfield may consider certain assets that have both real-estate related characteristics and infrastructure related characteristics to be real estate and not infrastructure;

    it is an integral part of Brookfield's (and our) strategy to pursue the acquisition of infrastructure assets through consortium arrangements with institutional investors, strategic partners or financial sponsors and to form partnerships to pursue such acquisitions on a specialized or global basis. Although Brookfield has agreed with us that it will not enter any such arrangements that are suitable for us without giving us an opportunity to participate in them, there is no minimum level of participation to which we will be entitled;

    the same professionals within Brookfield's organization that are involved in acquisitions that are suitable for us are responsible for the consortiums and partnerships referred to above, as well as having other responsibilities within Brookfield's broader asset management business. Limits on the availability of such individuals will likewise result in a limitation on the availability of acquisition opportunities for us;

    Brookfield will only recommend acquisition opportunities that it believes are suitable for us. Our focus is on assets where we believe that our operations-oriented approach can be deployed to create value. Accordingly, opportunities where Brookfield cannot play an active role in influencing the underlying operating company or managing the underlying assets may not be suitable for us, even though they may be attractive from a purely financial perspective. Legal, regulatory, tax and other commercial considerations will likewise be an important consideration in determining whether an opportunity is suitable and will limit our ability to participate in these more passive investments and may limit our ability to have more than 50% of our assets concentrated in a single jurisdiction; and

Brookfield Infrastructure 27


Table of Contents

    in addition to structural limitations, the question of whether a particular acquisition is suitable is highly subjective and is dependent on a number of factors including our liquidity position at the time, the risk profile of the opportunity, its fit with the balance of our then current operations and other factors. If Brookfield determines that an opportunity is not suitable for us, it may still pursue such opportunity on its own behalf, or on behalf of a Brookfield sponsored partnership or consortium.

        In making these determinations, Brookfield may be influenced by factors that result in a misalignment or conflict of interest. See Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Conflicts of Interest and Fiduciary Duties."

         The departure of some or all of Brookfield's professionals could prevent us from achieving our objectives.

        We depend on the diligence, skill and business contacts of Brookfield's professionals and the information and opportunities they generate during the normal course of their activities. Our future success will depend on the continued service of these individuals, who are not obligated to remain employed with Brookfield. Brookfield has experienced departures of key professionals in the past and may do so in the future, and we cannot predict the impact that any such departures will have on our ability to achieve our objectives. The departure of a significant number of Brookfield's professionals for any reason, or the failure to appoint qualified or effective successors in the event of such departures, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to achieve our objectives. Our Limited Partnership Agreement and our Master Services Agreement do not require Brookfield to maintain the employment of any of its professionals or to cause any particular professionals to provide services to us or on our behalf.

         The control of our General Partner may be transferred to a third party without unitholder or preferred unitholder consent.

        Our General Partner may transfer its general partnership interest to a third party in a merger or consolidation or in a transfer of all or substantially all of its assets without the consent of our unitholders or preferred unitholders. Furthermore, at any time, the shareholder of our General Partner may sell or transfer all or part of its shares in our General Partner without the approval of our unitholders or preferred unitholders. If a new owner were to acquire ownership of our General Partner and to appoint new directors or officers of its own choosing, it would be able to exercise substantial influence over our partnership's policies and procedures and exercise substantial influence over our management and the types of acquisitions that we make. Such changes could result in our partnership's capital being used to make acquisitions in which Brookfield has no involvement or in making acquisitions that are substantially different from our targeted acquisitions. Additionally, our partnership cannot predict with any certainty the effect that any transfer in the ownership of our General Partner would have on the trading price of our units and preferred units or our partnership's ability to raise capital or make investments in the future, because such matters would depend to a large extent on the identity of the new owner and the new owner's intentions with regard to our partnership. As a result, the future of our partnership would be uncertain and our partnership's business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.

28 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         Brookfield may increase its ownership of our partnership and the Holding LP relative to other unitholders.

        Brookfield holds approximately 29.5% of the issued and outstanding interests in the Holding LP through a 0.5% special limited partnership interest and a 29% redeemable limited partnership interest. The redeemable limited partnership interests held by Brookfield are redeemable for cash or exchangeable for our units in accordance with the Redemption-Exchange Mechanism, which could result in Brookfield eventually owning approximately 29.3% of our issued and outstanding units (including other issued and outstanding units that Brookfield currently also owns). See Item 10.B "Memorandum and Articles of Association—Description of the Holding LP's Limited Partnership Agreement—Redemption-Exchange Mechanism". Brookfield currently owns approximately 0.1% of our issued and outstanding units.

        Our Infrastructure Special LP may also reinvest incentive distributions in exchange for units of the Holding LP. See Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Incentive Distributions." In addition, Brookfield has advised our partnership that it may from time-to-time reinvest distributions it receives from the Holding LP in the Holding LP's distribution reinvestment plan, with the result that Brookfield will receive additional units of the Holding LP. Additional units of the Holding LP acquired, directly or indirectly, by Brookfield are redeemable for cash or exchangeable for our units in accordance with the Redemption-Exchange Mechanism. See Item 10.B "Memorandum and Articles of Association—Description of the Holding LP's Limited Partnership Agreement—Redemption-Exchange Mechanism". Brookfield may also purchase additional units of our partnership in the market. Any of these events may result in Brookfield increasing its ownership of our partnership and the Holding LP above 50%.

         Our Master Services Agreement and our other arrangements with Brookfield do not impose on Brookfield any fiduciary duties to act in the best interests of our unitholders or preferred unitholders.

        Our Master Services Agreement and our other arrangements with Brookfield do not impose on Brookfield any duty (statutory or otherwise) to act in the best interests of the Service Recipients, nor do they impose other duties that are fiduciary in nature. As a result, our General Partner, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Brookfield Asset Management, in its capacity as our General Partner, has sole authority to enforce the terms of such agreements and to consent to any waiver, modification or amendment of their provisions, subject to approval by a majority of our independent directors in accordance with our conflicts protocol.

        In addition, the Bermuda Limited Partnership Act of 1883 ("Bermuda Limited Partnership Act"), under which our partnership and the Holding LP were established, does not impose statutory fiduciary duties on a general partner of a limited partnership in the same manner that certain corporate statutes, such as the Canada Business Corporations Act ("Canada Business Corporations Act"), impose fiduciary duties on directors of a corporation. In general, under applicable Bermudian legislation, a general partner has certain limited duties to its limited partners, such as the duty to render accounts, account for private profits and not compete with the partnership in business. In addition, Bermudian common law recognizes that a general partner owes a duty of utmost good faith to its limited partners. These duties are, in most respects, similar to duties imposed on a general partner of a limited partnership under U.S. and Canadian law. However, to the extent that our General Partner owes any such fiduciary duties to our partnership, our preferred unitholders and unitholders, these duties have been modified pursuant to our Limited Partnership Agreement as a matter of contract law. We have been advised by Bermudian counsel that such modifications are not prohibited under Bermudian law, subject to typical qualifications as to enforceability of contractual provisions, such as the application of general equitable principles. This is similar to Delaware law which expressly permits modifications to the fiduciary duties owed to partners, other than an implied contractual covenant of good faith and fair dealing.

Brookfield Infrastructure 29


Table of Contents

        Our Limited Partnership Agreement contains various provisions that modify the fiduciary duties that might otherwise be owed to our partnership, our preferred unitholders and unitholders, including when conflicts of interest arise. Specifically, our Limited Partnership Agreement states that no breach of our Limited Partnership Agreement or a breach of any duty, including fiduciary duties, may be found for any matter that has been approved by a majority of the independent directors of our General Partner. In addition, when resolving conflicts of interest, our Limited Partnership Agreement does not impose any limitations on the discretion of the independent directors or the factors which they may consider in resolving any such conflicts. The independent directors of our General Partner can therefore take into account the interests of third parties, including Brookfield, when resolving conflicts of interest. Additionally, any fiduciary duty that is imposed under any applicable law or agreement is modified, waived or limited to the extent required to permit our General Partner to undertake any affirmative conduct or to make any decisions, so long as such action is reasonably believed to be in, or not inconsistent with, the best interests of our partnership.

        In addition, our Limited Partnership Agreement provides that our General Partner and its affiliates do not have any obligation under our Limited Partnership Agreement, or as a result of any duties stated or implied by law or equity, including fiduciary duties, to present business or investment opportunities to our partnership, the Holding LP, any Holding Entity or any other holding entity established by us. They also allow affiliates of our General Partner to engage in activities that may compete with us or our activities. Additionally, any failure by our General Partner to consent to any merger, consolidation or combination will not result in a breach of our Limited Partnership Agreement or any other provision of law. Our Limited Partnership Agreement prohibits our limited partners from advancing claims that otherwise might raise issues as to compliance with fiduciary duties or applicable law. These modifications to the fiduciary duties are detrimental to our unitholders and preferred unitholders because they restrict the remedies available for actions that might otherwise constitute a breach of fiduciary duty and permit conflicts of interest to be resolved in a manner that is not in the best interests of our partnership or the best interests of our unitholders and preferred unitholders. See Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Conflicts of Interest and Fiduciary Duties".

         Our organizational and ownership structure may create significant conflicts of interest that may be resolved in a manner that is not in the best interests of our partnership or the best interests of our unitholders and preferred unitholders.

        Our organizational and ownership structure involves a number of relationships that may give rise to conflicts of interest between our partnership, our unitholders and preferred unitholders, on the one hand, and Brookfield, on the other hand. In certain instances, the interests of Brookfield may differ from the interests of our partnership, our preferred unitholders and our unitholders, including with respect to the types of acquisitions made, the timing and amount of distributions by our partnership, the reinvestment of returns generated by our operations, the use of leverage when making acquisitions and the appointment of outside advisors and service providers, including as a result of the reasons described under Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions".

30 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        In addition, the Service Provider, an affiliate of Brookfield, provides management services to us pursuant to our Master Services Agreement. Pursuant to our Master Services Agreement, on a quarterly basis, we pay a base management fee to the Service Provider equal to 0.3125% (1.25% annually) of the market value of our partnership. For purposes of calculating the base management fee, the market value of our partnership is equal to the aggregate value of all our outstanding units (assuming full conversion of Brookfield's limited partnership interests in Brookfield Infrastructure into units), preferred units and securities of the other Service Recipients that are not held by Brookfield Infrastructure, plus all outstanding third party debt with recourse to a Service Recipient, less all cash held by such entities. Infrastructure Special LP will also receive incentive distributions based on the amount by which quarterly distributions on the limited partnership units of the Holding LP exceed specified target levels as set forth in the Holding LP's limited partnership agreement. For a further explanation of the base management fee and incentive distributions, see Item 6.A "Directors and Senior Management—Management Fee" and Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Incentive Distributions". This relationship may give rise to conflicts of interest between us, our unitholders and preferred unitholders, on the one hand, and Brookfield, on the other, as Brookfield's interests may differ from the interests of Brookfield Infrastructure, our unitholders and preferred unitholders.

        Our General Partner, the sole shareholder of which is Brookfield, has sole authority to determine whether we will make distributions and the amount of distributions on our units and timing of these distributions. The arrangements we have with Brookfield may create an incentive for Brookfield to take actions which would have the effect of increasing distributions and fees payable to it, which may be to the detriment of us, our unitholders and preferred unitholders. For example, because the base management fee is calculated based on the market value of our partnership, it may create an incentive for Brookfield to increase or maintain the market value of our partnership over the near-term when other actions may be more favourable to us or our unitholders and preferred unitholders. Similarly, Brookfield may take actions to increase distributions on our units in order to ensure Brookfield is paid incentive distributions in the near-term when other investments or actions may be more favourable to us or our unitholders and preferred unitholders. Also, through Brookfield's ownership of our units and the Redeemable Partnership Units, it has an effective economic interest in our business of approximately 29.3% and therefore may be incentivized to increase distributions payable to our unitholders and thereby to Brookfield.

         Our arrangements with Brookfield were negotiated in the context of an affiliated relationship and may contain terms that are less favourable than those which otherwise might have been obtained from unrelated parties.

        The terms of our arrangements with Brookfield were effectively determined by Brookfield in the context of the spin-off. While our General Partner's independent directors are aware of the terms of these arrangements and have approved the arrangements on our behalf, they did not negotiate the terms. These terms, including terms relating to compensation, contractual or fiduciary duties, conflicts of interest and Brookfield's ability to engage in outside activities, including activities that compete with us, our activities and limitations on liability and indemnification, may be less favourable than otherwise might have resulted if the negotiations had involved unrelated parties. Under our Limited Partnership Agreement, persons who acquire our units or preferred units and their transferees will be deemed to have agreed that none of those arrangements constitutes a breach of any duty that may be owed to them under our Limited Partnership Agreement or any duty stated or implied by law or equity.

Brookfield Infrastructure 31


Table of Contents

         Our General Partner may be unable or unwilling to terminate the Master Services Agreement.

        The Master Services Agreement provides that the Service Recipients may terminate the agreement only if: the Service Provider defaults in the performance or observance of any material term, condition or covenant contained in the agreement in a manner that results in material harm to us and the default continues unremedied for a period of 30 days after written notice of the breach is given to the Service Provider; the Service Provider engages in any act of fraud, misappropriation of funds or embezzlement against any Service Recipient that results in material harm to us; the Service Provider is grossly negligent in the performance of its duties under the agreement and such negligence results in material harm to the Service Recipients; or upon the happening of certain events relating to the bankruptcy or insolvency of the Service Provider. Our General Partner cannot terminate the agreement for any other reason, including if the Service Provider or Brookfield experiences a change of control, and there is no fixed term to the agreement. In addition, because our General Partner is an affiliate of Brookfield, it may be unwilling to terminate the Master Services Agreement, even in the case of a default. If the Service Provider's performance does not meet the expectations of investors, and our General Partner is unable or unwilling to terminate the Master Services Agreement, the market price of our units or preferred units could suffer. Furthermore, the termination of the Master Services Agreement would terminate our partnership's rights under the Relationship Agreement and our Licensing Agreements. See Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Relationship Agreement" and Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Licensing Agreements".

         The liability of the Service Provider is limited under our arrangements with it and we have agreed to indemnify the Service Provider against claims that it may face in connection with such arrangements, which may lead it to assume greater risks when making decisions relating to us than it otherwise would if acting solely for its own account.

        Under the Master Services Agreement, the Service Provider has not assumed any responsibility other than to provide or arrange for the provision of the services described in the Master Services Agreement in good faith and will not be responsible for any action that our General Partner takes in following or declining to follow its advice or recommendations. In addition, under our Limited Partnership Agreement, the liability of our General Partner and its affiliates, including the Service Provider, is limited to the fullest extent permitted by law to conduct involving bad faith, fraud or willful misconduct or, in the case of a criminal matter, action that was known to have been unlawful. The liability of the Service Provider under the Master Services Agreement is similarly limited, except that the Service Provider is also liable for liabilities arising from gross negligence. In addition, our partnership has agreed to indemnify the Service Provider to the fullest extent permitted by law from and against any claims, liabilities, losses, damages, costs or expenses incurred by an indemnified person or threatened in connection with our operations, investments and activities or in respect of or arising from the Master Services Agreement or the services provided by the Service Provider, except to the extent that the claims, liabilities, losses, damages, costs or expenses are determined to have resulted from the conduct in respect of which such persons have liability as described above. These protections may result in the Service Provider tolerating greater risks when making decisions than otherwise would be the case, including when determining whether to use leverage in connection with acquisitions. The indemnification arrangements to which the Service Provider is a party may also give rise to legal claims for indemnification that are adverse to our partnership, our unitholders and preferred unitholders.

32 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Risks Relating to Our Units and Preferred Units

         Our unitholders and preferred unitholders do not have a right to vote on partnership matters or to take part in the management of our partnership.

        Under our Limited Partnership Agreement, our unitholders and preferred unitholders are not entitled to vote on matters relating to our partnership, such as acquisitions, dispositions or financing, or to participate in the management or control of our partnership. In particular, our unitholders and preferred unitholders do not have the right to remove our General Partner, to cause our General Partner to withdraw from our partnership, to cause a new general partner to be admitted to our partnership, to appoint new directors to our General Partner's board of directors, to remove existing directors from our General Partner's board of directors or to prevent a change of control of our General Partner. In addition, except for certain fundamental matters and as prescribed by applicable laws, our unitholders' and preferred unitholders consent rights apply only with respect to certain amendments to our Limited Partnership Agreement. As a result, unlike holders of common stock of a corporation, our unitholders are not able to influence the direction of our partnership, including its policies and procedures, or to cause a change in its management, even if they are unsatisfied with the performance of our partnership. Consequently, our unitholders may be deprived of an opportunity to receive a premium for their units in the future through a sale of our partnership and the trading price of our units may be adversely affected by the absence or a reduction of a takeover premium in the trading price. Unitholders and preferred unitholders only have a right to vote under limited circumstances as described in Item 10.B "Memorandum and Articles of Association—Description of Our Units, Preferred Units and Our Limited Partnership Agreement."

         The market price of our units and preferred units may be volatile.

        The market price of our units and preferred units may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations. Some of the factors that could negatively affect the price of our units and preferred units include: general market and economic conditions, including disruptions, downgrades, credit events and perceived problems in the credit markets; actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results or distributions on our units; actual or anticipated variations or trends in market interest rates; changes in our investments or asset composition; write-downs or perceived credit or liquidity issues affecting our assets; market perception of our partnership, our business and our assets; our level of indebtedness and/or adverse market reaction to any indebtedness we incur in the future; our ability to raise capital on favourable terms or at all; loss of any major funding source; the termination of our Master Services Agreement or additions or departures of our or Brookfield's key personnel; changes in market valuations of similar infrastructure companies; speculation in the press or investment community regarding us or Brookfield; and changes in U.S. tax laws that make it impractical or impossible for our partnership to continue to be taxable as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Securities markets in general have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies or partnerships. Any broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our units and preferred units.

Brookfield Infrastructure 33


Table of Contents

         We may need additional funds in the future and we may issue additional units or preferred units in lieu of incurring indebtedness which may dilute existing holders of our units or we may issue securities that have rights and privileges that are more favourable than the rights and privileges accorded to our unitholders and preferred unitholders.

        Under our Limited Partnership Agreement subject to the terms of any preferred units then outstanding, we may issue additional partnership securities, including units, preferred units and options, rights, warrants and appreciation rights relating to partnership securities for any purpose and for such consideration and on such terms and conditions as our General Partner may determine. Subject to the terms of any preferred units outstanding, our General Partner's board of directors will be able to determine the class, designations, preferences, rights, powers and duties of any additional partnership securities, including any rights to share in our profits, losses and distributions, any rights to receive partnership assets upon our dissolution or liquidation and any redemption, conversion and exchange rights. Subject to the terms of any preferred units outstanding, our General Partner may use such authority to issue additional units or preferred units, which could dilute holders of our units, or to issue securities with rights and privileges that are more favourable than those of our units or preferred units. Subject to the terms of any preferred units then outstanding, holders of units and preferred units will not have any pre-emptive right or any right to consent to or otherwise approve the issuance of any such securities or the terms on which any such securities may be issued.

         Non-U.S. unitholders will be subject to foreign currency risk associated with Brookfield Infrastructure's distributions.

        A significant number of our unitholders will reside in countries where the U.S. dollar is not the functional currency. Our distributions are denominated in U.S. dollars but are settled in the local currency of the unitholder receiving the distribution. For each non-U.S. unitholder, the value received in the local currency from the distribution will be determined based on the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the applicable local currency at the time of payment. As such, if the U.S. dollar depreciates significantly against the local currency of the non-U.S. unitholder, the value received by such unitholder in its local currency will be adversely affected.

         U.S. investors in our units and preferred units may find it difficult or impossible to enforce service of process and enforcement of judgments against us and directors and officers of our General Partner and the Service Provider.

        We were established under the laws of Bermuda, and most of our subsidiaries are organized in jurisdictions outside of the United States. In addition, our executive officers and the experts identified in this annual report on Form 20-F are located outside of the United States. Certain of the directors and officers of our General Partner and the Service Provider reside outside of the United States. A substantial portion of our assets are, and the assets of the directors and officers of our General Partner and the Service Provider and the experts identified in this annual report on Form 20-F may be, located outside of the United States. It may not be possible for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon the directors and officers of our General Partner and the Service Provider. It may also not be possible to enforce against us, the experts identified in this annual report on Form 20-F, or the directors and officers of our General Partner and the Service Provider judgments obtained in U.S. courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of applicable securities law in the United States.

34 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         Canadian investors in our units and preferred units may find it difficult or impossible to enforce service of process and enforcement of judgments against us and the directors and officers of our General Partner and the Service Provider.

        We were established under the laws of Bermuda, and most of our subsidiaries are organized in jurisdictions outside of Canada. Certain of the directors and officers of our General Partner and the Service Provider reside outside of Canada. A substantial portion of our assets are, and the assets of the directors and officers of our General Partner and the Service Provider and the experts identified in this annual report on Form 20-F may be, located outside of Canada. It may not be possible for investors to effect service of process within Canada upon the directors and officers of our General Partner and the Service Provider. It may also not be possible to enforce against us, the experts identified in this annual report on Form 20-F, or the directors and officers of our General Partner and the Service Provider judgments obtained in Canadian courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of applicable securities laws in Canada.

         We may not be able to continue paying comparable or growing cash distributions to our unitholders in the future.

        The amount of cash we can distribute to our unitholders depends upon the amount of cash we receive from the Holding LP and, indirectly, the Holding Entities and the operating entities. The amount of cash the Holding LP, the Holding Entities and the operating entities generate will fluctuate from quarter to quarter and will depend upon, among other things: the weather in the jurisdictions in which they operate; the level of their operating costs; and prevailing economic conditions. In addition, the actual amount of cash we will have available for distribution will also depend on other factors, such as: the level of costs related to litigation and regulatory compliance matters; the cost of acquisitions, if any; our debt service requirements; fluctuations in our working capital needs; our ability to borrow under our credit facilities; our ability to access capital markets; restrictions on distributions contained in our debt agreements; and the amount, if any, of cash reserves established by our General Partner in its discretion for the proper conduct of our business. As a result of all these factors, we cannot guarantee that we will have sufficient available cash to pay a specific level of cash distributions to our unitholders. Furthermore, unitholders should be aware that the amount of cash we have available for distribution depends primarily upon the cash flow of the Holding LP, the Holding Entities and the operating entities, and is not solely a function of profitability, which is affected by non-cash items. As a result, we may declare and/or pay cash distributions on our units during periods when we record net losses.

Risks Related to Taxation

General

         Changes in tax law and practice may have a material adverse effect on the operations of our partnership, the Holding Entities, and the operating entities and, as a consequence, the value of our assets and the net amount of distributions payable to our unitholders.

        Our structure, including the structure of the Holding Entities and the operating entities, is based on prevailing taxation law and practice in the local jurisdictions in which we operate. Any change in tax legislation (including in relation to taxation rates) and practice in these jurisdictions could adversely affect these entities, as well as the net amount of distributions payable to our unitholders. Taxes and other constraints that would apply to our operating entities in such jurisdictions may not apply to local institutions or other parties, and such parties may therefore have a significantly lower effective cost of capital and a corresponding competitive advantage in pursuing such acquisitions.

Brookfield Infrastructure 35


Table of Contents

         Our partnership's ability to make distributions depends on it receiving sufficient cash distributions from its underlying operations, and we cannot assure our unitholders that our partnership will be able to make cash distributions to them in amounts that are sufficient to fund their tax liabilities.

        Our Holding Entities and operating entities may be subject to local taxes in each of the relevant territories and jurisdictions in which they operate, including taxes on income, profits or gains and withholding taxes. As a result, our partnership's cash available for distribution is indirectly reduced by such taxes, and the post-tax return to our unitholders is similarly reduced by such taxes. We intend for future acquisitions to be assessed on a case-by-case basis and, where possible and commercially viable, structured so as to minimize any adverse tax consequences to our unitholders as a result of making such acquisitions.

        In general, a unitholder that is subject to income tax in Canada or the United States must include in income its allocable share of our partnership's items of income, gain, loss and deduction (including, so long as it is treated as a partnership for tax purposes, our partnership's allocable share of those items of the Holding LP) for each of our partnership's fiscal years ending with or within such unitholder's tax year. See Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations" and "Taxation—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations". However, the cash distributed to a unitholder may not be sufficient to pay the full amount of such unitholder's tax liability in respect of its investment in our partnership, because each unitholder's tax liability depends on such unitholder's particular tax situation and the tax treatment of the underlying activities or assets of our partnership. If our partnership is unable to distribute cash in amounts that are sufficient to fund our unitholders' tax liabilities, each of our unitholders will still be required to pay income taxes on its share of our partnership's taxable income.

         As a result of holding our units, our unitholders may be subject to U.S. federal, state, local or non-U.S. taxes and return filing obligations in jurisdictions in which they are not resident for tax purposes or otherwise not subject to tax.

        Our unitholders may be subject to U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. taxes, including unincorporated business taxes and estate, inheritance or intangible taxes that are imposed by the various jurisdictions in which our partnership entities do business or own property now or in the future, even if our unitholders do not reside in any of those jurisdictions. Our unitholders may be required to file income tax returns and pay income taxes in some or all of these jurisdictions. Further, our unitholders may be subject to penalties for failure to comply with these requirements. Although our partnership will attempt, to the extent reasonably practicable, to structure our partnership operations and investments so as to minimize income tax filing obligations by our unitholders in such jurisdictions, there may be circumstances in which our partnership is unable to do so. It is the responsibility of each unitholder to file all U.S. federal, state, local, and non-U.S. tax returns that may be required of such unitholder.

    Our unitholders may be exposed to transfer pricing risks.

        To the extent that our partnership, the Holding LP, the Holding Entities or the operating entities enter into transactions or arrangements with parties with whom they do not deal at arm's length, including Brookfield, the relevant tax authorities may seek to adjust the quantum or nature of the amounts received or paid by such entities if they consider that the terms and conditions of such transactions or arrangements differ from those that would have been made between persons dealing at arm's length. This could result in more tax (and penalties and interest) being paid by such entities, and therefore the return to investors could be reduced. For Canadian tax purposes, a transfer pricing adjustment may in certain circumstances result in additional income being allocated to a unitholder with no corresponding cash distribution or in a dividend being deemed to be paid by a Canadian-resident to a non-arm's length non-resident, which is subject to Canadian withholding tax.

36 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Our General Partner believes that the base management fee and any other amount that is paid to the Service Provider will be commensurate with the value of the services being provided by the Service Provider and comparable to the fees or other amounts that would be agreed to in an arm's-length arrangement. However, no assurance can be given in this regard.

        If the relevant tax authority were to assert that an adjustment should be made under the transfer pricing rules to an amount that is relevant to the computation of the income of the Holding LP or our partnership, such assertion could result in adjustments to amounts of income (or loss) allocated to our unitholders by our partnership for tax purposes. In addition, we might also be liable for transfer pricing penalties in respect of transfer pricing adjustments unless reasonable efforts were made to determine, and use, arm's-length transfer prices. Generally, reasonable efforts in this regard are only considered to be made if contemporaneous documentation has been prepared in respect of such transactions or arrangements that support the transfer pricing methodology.

        For Canadian tax purposes, the general tax risks described above are equally relevant to preferred unitholders in respect of their preferred units.

         The U.S. Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") or Canada Revenue Agency ("CRA") may not agree with certain assumptions and conventions that our partnership uses in order to comply with applicable U.S. and Canadian federal income tax laws or that our partnership uses to report income, gain, loss, deduction, and credit to our unitholders.

        Our partnership will apply certain assumptions and conventions in order to comply with applicable tax laws and to report income, gain, deduction, loss, and credit to a unitholder in a manner that reflects such unitholder's beneficial ownership of partnership items, taking into account variation in ownership interests during each taxable year because of trading activity. However, these assumptions and conventions may not be in compliance with all aspects of the applicable tax requirements. A successful IRS or CRA challenge to such assumptions or conventions could adversely affect the amount of tax benefits available to our unitholders and could require that items of income, gain, deduction, loss, or credit, including interest deductions, be adjusted, reallocated or disallowed in a manner that adversely affects our unitholders. See Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations" and "Taxation—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations".

United States

         If our partnership or the Holding LP were to be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the value of our units might be adversely affected.

        The value of our units to unitholders will depend in part on the treatment of our partnership and the Holding LP as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, in order for our partnership to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, under present law, 90% or more of our partnership's gross income for every taxable year must consist of qualifying income, as defined in Section 7704 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended ("U.S. Internal Revenue Code"), and our partnership must not be required to register, if it were a U.S. corporation, as an investment company under the Investment Company Act and related rules. Although our General Partner intends to manage our partnership's affairs so that our partnership will not need to be registered as an investment company if it were a U.S. corporation and so that it will meet the 90% test described above in each taxable year, our partnership may not meet these requirements, or current law may change so as to cause, in either event, our partnership to be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If our partnership (or the Holding LP) were treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could result for our unitholders and our partnership (or the Holding LP, as applicable), as described in greater detail in Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Partnership Status of Our Partnership and the Holding LP".

Brookfield Infrastructure 37


Table of Contents

         We may be subject to U.S. backup withholding tax or other U.S. withholding taxes if any unitholder fails to comply with U.S. tax reporting rules or if the U.S. Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") or other applicable state or local taxing authority does not accept our withholding methodology, and such excess withholding tax cost will be an expense borne by our partnership and, therefore, by all of our unitholders on a pro rata basis.

        We may become subject to U.S. "backup" withholding tax or other U.S. withholding taxes with respect to any unitholder who fails to timely provide our partnership (or the applicable clearing agent or other intermediary) with an IRS Form W-9 or IRS Form W-8, as the case may be, or if the withholding methodology we use is not accepted by the IRS or other applicable state or local taxing authority. See Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Administrative Matters—Withholding and Backup Withholding". To the extent that any unitholder fails to timely provide the applicable form (or such form is not properly completed), or should the IRS or other applicable state or local taxing authority not accept our withholding methodology, our partnership might treat such U.S. backup withholding taxes or other U.S. withholding taxes as an expense, which would be borne indirectly by all of our unitholders on a pro rata basis. As a result, our unitholders that fully comply with their U.S. tax reporting obligations may bear a share of such burden created by other unitholders that do not comply with the U.S. tax reporting rules.

         Tax-exempt organizations may face certain adverse U.S. tax consequences from owning our units.

        Our General Partner intends to use commercially reasonable efforts to structure the activities of our partnership and the Holding LP, respectively, to avoid generating income connected with the conduct of a trade or business (which income generally would constitute "unrelated business taxable income" ("UBTI") to the extent allocated to a tax-exempt organization). However, neither our partnership nor the Holding LP is prohibited from incurring indebtedness, and no assurance can be provided that neither our partnership nor the Holding LP will generate UBTI attributable to debt-financed property in the future. In particular, UBTI includes income attributable to debt-financed property, and neither our partnership nor the Holding LP is prohibited from financing the acquisition of property with debt. The potential for income to be characterized as UBTI could make our units an unsuitable investment for a tax-exempt organization. Each tax-exempt organization should consult its own tax adviser to determine the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our units.

         If our partnership were engaged in a U.S. trade or business, non-U.S. persons would face certain adverse U.S. tax consequences from owning our units.

        Our General Partner intends to use commercially reasonable efforts to structure the activities of our partnership and the Holding LP to avoid generating income treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, including effectively connected income attributable to the sale of a "United States real property interest", as defined in the U.S. Internal Revenue Code. If our partnership were deemed to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business, or to realize gain from the sale or other disposition of a U.S. real property interest, Non-U.S. Holders (as defined in Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations") generally would be required to file U.S. federal income tax returns and could be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at the highest marginal U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to ordinary income. See Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders".

38 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         To meet U.S. federal income tax and other objectives, our partnership and the Holding LP may invest through U.S. and non-U.S. Holding Entities that are treated as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and such Holding Entities may be subject to corporate income tax.

        To meet U.S. federal income tax and other objectives, our partnership and the Holding LP may invest through U.S. and non-U.S. Holding Entities that are treated as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and such Holding Entities may be subject to corporate income tax. Consequently, items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit realized in the first instance by the operating entities will not flow, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, directly to the Holding LP, our partnership, or our unitholders, and any such income or gain may be subject to a corporate income tax, in the United States or other jurisdictions, at the level of the Holding Entity. Any such additional taxes may adversely affect our partnership's ability to maximize its cash flow.

         Our unitholders taxable in the United States may be viewed as holding an indirect interest in an entity classified as a "passive foreign investment company" for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

        U.S. Holders may face adverse U.S. tax consequences arising from the ownership of a direct or indirect interest in a "passive foreign investment company" ("PFIC"). In general, gains realized by U.S. Holders from the sale of stock of a PFIC is subject to tax at ordinary income rates, and an interest charge generally applies. Alternatively, U.S. Holders making certain elections with respect to their direct or indirect interest in a PFIC may be required to recognize taxable income prior to the receipt of cash relating to such income. See Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Consequences to U.S. Holders—Passive Foreign Investment Companies". Based on our organizational structure, as well as our expected income and assets, our General Partner currently believes that a U.S. Holder is unlikely to be regarded as owning an interest in a PFIC solely by reason of owning our units for the taxable year ending December 31, 2016. However, our General Partner believes that some of our operating entities may have been PFICs in prior taxable years. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that a future entity in which our partnership acquires an interest will not be classified as a PFIC with respect to a U.S. Holder, because PFIC status is a factual determination that depends on the assets and income of a given entity and must be made on an annual basis. Each U.S. Holder should consult its own tax adviser regarding the implication of the PFIC rules for an investment in our units.

         Tax gain or loss from the disposition of our units could be more or less than expected.

        If a sale of our units by a unitholder is taxable in the United States, the unitholder will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes equal to the difference between the amount realized and the unitholder's adjusted tax basis in such units. Prior distributions to a unitholder in excess of the total net taxable income allocated to such unitholder will have decreased such unitholder's tax basis in our units. Therefore, such excess distributions will increase a unitholder's taxable gain or decrease such unitholder's taxable loss when our units are sold, and may result in a taxable gain even if the sale price is less than the original cost. A portion of the amount realized, whether or not representing gain, could be ordinary income to such unitholder.

Brookfield Infrastructure 39


Table of Contents

         Our partnership structure involves complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. The tax characterization of our partnership structure is also subject to potential legislative, judicial, or administrative change and differing interpretations, possibly on a retroactive basis.

        The U.S. federal income tax treatment of our unitholders depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. Unitholders should be aware that the U.S. federal income tax rules, particularly those applicable to partnerships, are constantly under review by the Congressional tax-writing committees and other persons involved in the legislative process, the IRS, the Treasury Department and the courts, frequently resulting in changes which could adversely affect the value of our units or cause our partnership to change the way it conducts its activities. For example, changes to the U.S. federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could make it more difficult or impossible for our partnership to be treated as a partnership that is not taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, change the character or treatment of portions of our partnership's income, reduce the net amount of distributions available to our unitholders, or otherwise affect the tax considerations of owning our units. In addition, our partnership's organizational documents and agreements permit our General Partner to modify our Limited Partnership Agreement, without the consent of our unitholders, to address such changes. These modifications could have a material adverse impact on our unitholders. See Item 10.E "—Taxation—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Administrative Matters—New Legislation or Administrative or Judicial Action".

         Our partnership's delivery of required tax information for a taxable year may be subject to delay, which could require a unitholder who is a U.S. taxpayer to request an extension of the due date for such unitholder's income tax return.

        Our partnership has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to provide U.S. tax information (including IRS Schedule K-1 information needed to determine a unitholder's allocable share of our partnership's income, gain, losses, and deductions) no later than 90 days after the close of each calendar year. However, providing this U.S. tax information to our unitholders will be subject to delay in the event of, among other reasons, the late receipt of any necessary tax information from lower-tier entities. It is therefore possible that, in any taxable year, a unitholder will need to apply for an extension of time to file such unitholder's tax returns. In addition, unitholders that do not ordinarily have U.S. federal tax filing requirements will not receive a Schedule K-1 and related information unless such unitholders request it within 60 days after the close of each calendar year. See Item 10.E "Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Administrative Matters—Information Returns and Audit Procedures".

         The sale or exchange of 50% or more of our units will result in the constructive termination of our partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

        Our partnership will be considered to have been terminated for U.S. federal income tax purposes if there is a sale or exchange of 50% or more of our units within a 12-month period. A constructive termination of our partnership would, among other things; result in the closing of its taxable year for U.S. federal income tax purposes for all of our unitholders and could result in the possible acceleration of income to certain of our unitholders and certain other consequences that could adversely affect the value of our units. However, our General Partner does not expect a constructive termination, should it occur, to have a material impact on the computation of the future taxable income generated by our partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. See Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Administrative Matters—Constructive Termination".

40 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         If the IRS makes an audit adjustment to our income tax returns for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, it may assess and collect any taxes (including penalties and interest) resulting from such audit adjustment directly from us, in which case cash available for distribution to our unitholders might be substantially reduced.

        Under the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, if the IRS makes an audit adjustment to our income tax returns, it may assess and collect any taxes (including penalties and interest) resulting from such audit adjustment directly from our partnership instead of unitholders (as under prior law). We may be permitted to elect to have our General Partner and our unitholders take such audit adjustment into account in accordance with their interests in us during the taxable year under audit. However, there can be no assurance that we will choose to make such election or that it will be available in all circumstances, and the manner in which the election is made and implemented has yet to be determined. If we do not make the election, and we pay taxes, penalties, or interest as a result of an audit adjustment, then cash available for distribution to our unitholders might be substantially reduced. As a result, our current unitholders might bear some or all of the cost of the tax liability resulting from such audit adjustment, even if our current unitholders did not own our units during the taxable year under audit. Moreover, the calculation of such tax liability might not take into account a unitholder's tax status, such as the status of a current or former unitholder as tax-exempt. The foregoing considerations also apply with respect to our partnership's interest in the Holding LP. These rules do not apply to our partnership or the Holding LP for taxable years beginning on or before December 31, 2017.

         Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance provisions of the Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act of 2010 ("FATCA"), certain payments made or received by our partnership may be subject to a 30% federal withholding tax, unless certain requirements are met.

        Under FATCA, a 30% withholding tax may apply to certain payments of U.S.-source income made to our partnership, the Holding LP, the Holding Entities, or the operating entities, or by our partnership to a unitholder, unless certain requirements are met, as described in greater detail in Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Administrative Matters—Foreign Account Tax Compliance". The 30% withholding tax may also apply to certain payments made on or after January 1, 2019 that are attributable to U.S.-source income or that constitute gross proceeds from the disposition of property that could produce U.S.-source dividends or interest. To ensure compliance with FATCA, information regarding certain unitholders' ownership of our units may be reported to the IRS or to a non-U.S. governmental authority. Unitholders should consult their own tax advisers regarding the consequences under FATCA of an investment in our units.

Canada

        For purposes of the following Canadian tax risks, references to our "units" are to the limited partnership units in our partnership, including the preferred units, and references to our "unitholders" are to the holders of our units and preferred units.

Brookfield Infrastructure 41


Table of Contents

         If the subsidiaries that are corporations ("Non-Resident Subsidiaries") and that are not resident or deemed to be resident in Canada for purposes of the Income Tax Act (Canada) (together with the regulations thereunder, "Tax Act") and that are "controlled foreign affiliates" (as defined in the Tax Act and referred to herein as "CFAs") in which the Holding LP directly invests earn income that is "foreign accrual property income" (as defined in the Tax Act and referred to herein as "FAPI"), our unitholders may be required to include amounts allocated from our partnership in computing their income for Canadian federal income tax purposes even though there may be no corresponding cash distribution.

        Certain of the Non-Resident Subsidiaries in which the Holding LP directly invests are expected to be CFAs of the Holding LP. If any CFA of the Holding LP or any direct or indirect subsidiary thereof that is itself a CFA of the Holding LP ("Indirect CFA"), earns income that is characterized as FAPI in a particular taxation year of the CFA or Indirect CFA, the FAPI allocable to the Holding LP must be included in computing the income of the Holding LP for Canadian federal income tax purposes for the fiscal period of the Holding LP in which the taxation year of that CFA or Indirect CFA ends, whether or not the Holding LP actually receives a distribution of that FAPI. Our partnership will include its share of such FAPI of the Holding LP in computing its income for Canadian federal income tax purposes and our unitholders will be required to include their proportionate share of such FAPI allocated from our partnership in computing their income for Canadian federal income tax purposes. As a result, our unitholders may be required to include amounts in their income for Canadian federal income tax purposes even though they have not and may not receive an actual cash distribution of such amounts. The Tax Act contains anti-avoidance rules to address certain foreign tax credit generator transactions ("Foreign Tax Credit Generator Rules"). Under the Foreign Tax Credit Generator Rules, the "foreign accrual tax" (as defined in the Tax Act) applicable to a particular amount of FAPI included in the Holding LP's income in respect of a particular "foreign affiliate" (as defined in the Tax Act) of the Holding LP may be limited in certain specified circumstances. See Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations".

         Unitholders may be required to include imputed amounts in their income for Canadian federal income tax purposes in accordance with section 94.1 of the Tax Act.

        Section 94.1 of the Tax Act contains rules relating to investments in entities that are not resident or deemed to be resident in Canada for purposes of the Tax Act or not situated in Canada, other than a CFA of the taxpayer ("Non-Resident Entities"), that could in certain circumstances cause income to be imputed to unitholders for Canadian federal income tax purposes, either directly or by way of allocation of such income imputed to our partnership or to the Holding LP. See Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations".

         Unitholders' foreign tax credits for Canadian federal income tax purposes will be limited if the Foreign Tax Credit Generator Rules apply in respect of the foreign "business-income tax" or "non-business-income tax" (each as defined in the Tax Act) paid by our partnership or the Holding LP to a foreign country.

        Under the Foreign Tax Credit Generator Rules, the foreign "business-income tax" or "non-business-income tax" for Canadian federal income tax purposes for any taxation year may be limited in certain circumstances. If the Foreign Tax Credit Generator Rules apply, the allocation to a unitholder of foreign "business-income tax" or "non-business-income tax" paid by our partnership or the Holding LP, and therefore, such unitholder's foreign tax credits for Canadian federal income tax purposes, will be limited. See Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations".

42 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         Unitholders who are not and are not deemed to be resident in Canada for purposes of the Tax Act and who do not use or hold, and are not deemed to use or hold, their units of our partnership in connection with a business carried on in Canada ("non-Canadian limited partners"), may be subject to Canadian federal income tax with respect to any Canadian source business income earned by our partnership or the Holding LP if our partnership or the Holding LP were considered to carry on business in Canada.

        If our partnership or the Holding LP were considered to carry on a business in Canada for purposes of the Tax Act, non-Canadian limited partners would be subject to Canadian federal income tax on their proportionate share of any Canadian source business income earned or considered to be earned by our partnership, subject to the potential application of the safe harbor rule in section 115.2 of the Tax Act and any relief that may be provided by any relevant income tax treaty or convention.

        Our General Partner intends to manage the affairs of our partnership and the Holding LP, to the extent possible, so that they do not carry on business in Canada and are not considered or deemed to carry on business in Canada for purposes of the Tax Act. Nevertheless, because the determination of whether our partnership or the Holding LP is carrying on business and, if so, whether that business is carried on in Canada, is a question of fact that is dependent upon the surrounding circumstances, the CRA might contend successfully that either or both of our partnership and the Holding LP carries on business in Canada for purposes of the Tax Act.

        If our partnership or the Holding LP is considered to carry on business in Canada or is deemed to carry on business in Canada for the purposes of the Tax Act, non-Canadian limited partners that are corporations would be required to file a Canadian federal income tax return for each taxation year in which they are a non-Canadian limited partner regardless of whether relief from Canadian taxation is available under an applicable income tax treaty or convention. Non-Canadian limited partners who are individuals would only be required to file a Canadian federal income tax return for any taxation year in which they are allocated income from our partnership from carrying on business in Canada that is not exempt from Canadian taxation under the terms of an applicable income tax treaty or convention.

Brookfield Infrastructure 43


Table of Contents

         Non-Canadian limited partners may be subject to Canadian federal income tax on capital gains realized by our partnership or the Holding LP on dispositions of "taxable Canadian property" (as defined in the Tax Act).

        A non-Canadian limited partner will be subject to Canadian federal income tax on its proportionate share of capital gains realized by our partnership or the Holding LP on the disposition of "taxable Canadian property" other than "treaty-protected property" (as defined in the Tax Act). "Taxable Canadian property" includes, but is not limited to, property that is used or held in a business carried on in Canada and shares of corporations that are not listed on a "designated stock exchange" (as defined in the Tax Act) if more than 50% of the fair market value of the shares is derived from certain Canadian properties during the 60-month period immediately preceding the particular time. Property of our partnership and the Holding LP generally will be "treaty-protected property" to a non-Canadian limited partner if the gain from the disposition of the property would, because of an applicable income tax treaty or convention, be exempt from tax under the Tax Act. Our General Partner does not expect our partnership or the Holding LP to realize capital gains or losses from dispositions of "taxable Canadian property". However, no assurance can be given in this regard. Non-Canadian limited partners will be required to file a Canadian federal income tax return in respect of a disposition of "taxable Canadian property" by our partnership or the Holding LP unless the disposition is an "excluded disposition" for the purposes of section 150 of the Tax Act. However, non-Canadian limited partners that are corporations will still be required to file a Canadian federal income tax return in respect of a disposition of "taxable Canadian property" that is an "excluded disposition" for purposes of section 150 of the Tax Act if tax would otherwise be payable under Part I of the Tax Act by the non-Canadian limited partners in respect of the disposition but is not because of an applicable income tax treaty or convention (otherwise than in respect of a disposition of "taxable Canadian property" that is "treaty-protected property" of the corporation). In general, an "excluded disposition" is a disposition of property by a taxpayer in a taxation year where (a) the taxpayer is a non-resident of Canada at the time of the disposition; (b) no tax is payable by the taxpayer under Part I of the Tax Act for the taxation year; (c) the taxpayer is not liable to pay any amounts under the Tax Act in respect of any previous taxation year (other than certain amounts for which the CRA holds adequate security); and (d) each "taxable Canadian property" disposed of by the taxpayer in the taxation year is either (i) "excluded property" (as defined in subsection 116(6) of the Tax Act) or (ii) property in respect of the disposition of which a certificate under subsection 116(2), (4) or (5.2) of the Tax Act has been issued by the CRA. Non-Canadian limited partners should consult their own tax advisors with respect to the requirements to file a Canadian federal income tax return in respect of a disposition of "taxable Canadian property" by our partnership or the Holding LP.

44 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         Non-Canadian limited partners may be subject to Canadian federal income tax on capital gains realized on the disposition of our units if our units are "taxable Canadian property".

        Any capital gain arising from the disposition or deemed disposition of our units by a non-Canadian limited partner will be subject to taxation in Canada, if, at the time of the disposition or deemed disposition, our units are "taxable Canadian property" of the non-Canadian limited partner, unless our units are "treaty-protected property" to such non-Canadian limited partner. In general, our units will not constitute "taxable Canadian property" of any non-Canadian limited partner at the time of disposition or deemed disposition, unless (a) at any time in the 60-month period immediately preceding the disposition or deemed disposition, more than 50% of the fair market value of our units was derived, directly or indirectly (excluding through a corporation, partnership or trust, the shares or interests in which were not themselves "taxable Canadian property"), from one or any combination of (i) real or immovable property situated in Canada, (ii) "Canadian resource property" (as defined in the Tax Act), (iii) "timber resource property" (as defined in the Tax Act), and (iv) options in respect of, or interests in, or for civil law rights in, such property, whether or not such property exists, or (b) our units are otherwise deemed to be "taxable Canadian property". Since our partnership's assets will consist principally of units of the Holding LP, our units would generally be "taxable Canadian property" at a particular time if the units of the Holding LP held by our partnership derived, directly or indirectly (excluding through a corporation, partnership or trust, the shares or interests in which were not themselves "taxable Canadian property") more than 50% of their fair market value from properties described in (i) to (iv) above, at any time in the 60-month period preceding the particular time. Units of our partnership will be "treaty-protected property" if the gain on the disposition of our units is exempt from tax under the Tax Act under the terms of an applicable income tax treaty or convention. Our General Partner does not expect our units to be "taxable Canadian property" of any non-Canadian limited partner at any time but no assurance can be given in this regard. See Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations." Even if our units constitute "taxable Canadian property", our units will be "treaty-protected property" if the gain on the disposition of our units is exempt from tax under the Tax Act under the terms of an applicable income tax treaty or convention. If our units constitute "taxable Canadian property", non-Canadian limited partners will be required to file a Canadian federal income tax return in respect of a disposition of our units unless the disposition is an "excluded disposition" (as discussed above). If our units constitute "taxable Canadian property", non-Canadian limited partners should consult their own tax advisors with respect to the requirement to file a Canadian federal income tax return in respect of a disposition of our units.

         Non-Canadian limited partners may be subject to Canadian federal income tax reporting and withholding tax requirements on the disposition of "taxable Canadian property".

        Non-Canadian limited partners who dispose of "taxable Canadian property", other than "excluded property" and certain other property described in subsection 116(5.2) of the Tax Act, (or who are considered to have disposed of such property on the disposition of such property by our partnership or the Holding LP), are obligated to comply with the procedures set out in section 116 of the Tax Act and obtain a certificate pursuant to the Tax Act. In order to obtain such certificate, the non-Canadian limited partner is required to report certain particulars relating to the transaction to the CRA not later than 10 days after the disposition occurs. Our General Partner does not expect our units to be "taxable Canadian property" of any non-Canadian limited partner and does not expect our partnership or the Holding LP to dispose of property that is "taxable Canadian property", but no assurance can be given in these regards.

Brookfield Infrastructure 45


Table of Contents

         Payments of dividends or interest (other than interest not subject to Canadian federal withholding tax) by residents of Canada to the Holding LP will be subject to Canadian federal withholding tax and we may be unable to apply a reduced rate taking into account the residency or entitlement to relief under an applicable income tax treaty or convention of our unitholders.

        Our partnership and the Holding LP will be deemed to be a non-resident person in respect of certain amounts paid or credited or deemed to be paid or credited to them by a person resident or deemed to be resident in Canada, including dividends or interest. Dividends or interest (other than interest not subject to Canadian federal withholding tax) paid or deemed to be paid by a person resident or deemed to be resident in Canada to the Holding LP will be subject to withholding tax under Part XIII of the Tax Act at the rate of 25%. However, the CRA's administrative practice in similar circumstances is to permit the rate of Canadian federal withholding tax applicable to such payments to be computed by looking through the partnership and taking into account the residency of the partners (including partners who are resident in Canada) and any reduced rates of Canadian federal withholding tax that any non-Canadian limited partners may be entitled to under an applicable income tax treaty or convention, provided that the residency status and entitlement to treaty benefits can be established. In determining the rate of Canadian federal withholding tax applicable to amounts paid by the Holding Entities to the Holding LP, our General Partner expects the Holding Entities to look-through the Holding LP and our partnership to the residency of the partners of our partnership (including partners who are resident in Canada) and to take into account any reduced rates of Canadian federal withholding tax that non-Canadian limited partners may be entitled to under an applicable income tax treaty or convention in order to determine the appropriate amount of Canadian federal withholding tax to withhold from dividends or interest paid to the Holding LP. However, there can be no assurance that the CRA will apply its administrative practice in this context. If the CRA's administrative practice is not applied and the Holding Entities withhold Canadian federal withholding tax from applicable payments on a look-through basis, the Holding Entities may be liable for additional amounts of Canadian federal withholding tax plus any associated interest and penalties. Under the Canada-United States Tax Convention 1980 ("Treaty"), in certain circumstances a Canadian-resident payer is required to look-through fiscally transparent partnerships, such as our partnership, and the Holding LP to the residency and Treaty entitlements of their partners and to take into account the reduced rates of Canadian federal withholding tax that such partners may be entitled to under the Treaty.

        While our General Partner expects the Holding Entities to look-through our partnership and the Holding LP in determining the rate of Canadian federal withholding tax applicable to amounts paid or deemed to be paid by the Holding Entities to the Holding LP, we may be unable to accurately or timely determine the residency of our unitholders for purposes of establishing the extent to which Canadian federal withholding taxes apply or whether reduced rates of withholding tax apply to some or all of our unitholders. In such a case, the Holding Entities will withhold Canadian federal withholding tax from all payments made to the Holding LP that are subject to Canadian federal withholding tax at the rate of 25%. Canadian-resident unitholders will be entitled to claim a credit for such taxes against their Canadian federal income tax liability but non-Canadian limited partners will need to take certain steps to receive a refund or credit in respect of any such Canadian federal withholding taxes withheld equal to the difference between the withholding tax at a rate of 25% and the withholding tax at the reduced rate they are entitled to under an applicable income tax treaty or convention. Unitholders should consult their own tax advisors concerning all aspects of Canadian federal withholding taxes.

46 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

         Our units may not continue to be "qualified investments" under the Tax Act for registered plans.

        Provided that our units are listed on a "designated stock exchange" (which currently includes the Toronto Stock Exchange ("TSX") and the NYSE), our units will be "qualified investments" under the Tax Act for a trust governed by a registered retirement savings plan ("RRSP"), deferred profit sharing plan, registered retirement income fund ("RRIF"), registered education savings plan, registered disability savings plan, and tax-free savings account ("TFSA"). However, there can be no assurance that our units will continue to be listed on a "designated stock exchange." There can also be no assurance that tax laws relating to "qualified investments" will not be changed. Taxes may be imposed in respect of the acquisition or holding of non-qualified investments by such registered plans and certain other taxpayers and with respect to the acquisition or holding of "prohibited investments" (as defined in the Tax Act) by a TFSA or an RRSP or RRIF.

        Notwithstanding the foregoing, a holder of a TFSA or an annuitant under an RRSP or RRIF, as the case may be, will be subject to a penalty tax if our units held in a TFSA, RRSP or RRIF are a "prohibited investment" for the TFSA, RRSP or RRIF, as the case may be. Generally, our units will not be a "prohibited investment" if the holder of the TFSA or the annuitant under the RRSP or RRIF, as applicable, deals at arm's length with our partnership for purposes of the Tax Act and does not have a "significant interest" (as defined in the Tax Act) in our partnership. Unitholders who intend to hold our units in a TFSA, RRSP or RRIF should consult with their own tax advisors regarding the application of the foregoing "prohibited investment" rules having regard to their particular circumstances.

         The Canadian federal income tax consequences to our unitholders could be materially different in certain respects from those described in this annual report on Form 20-F if our partnership or the Holding LP is a "SIFT partnership" (as defined in the Tax Act).

        Under the rules in the Tax Act applicable to a "SIFT partnership" ("SIFT Rules"), certain income and gains earned by a "SIFT partnership" will be subject to income tax at the partnership level at a rate similar to a corporation, and allocations of such income and gains to its partners will be taxed as a dividend from a "taxable Canadian corporation". In particular, a "SIFT partnership" will be required to pay a tax on the total of its income from businesses carried on in Canada, income from "non-portfolio properties" (as defined in the Tax Act) other than taxable dividends, and taxable capital gains from dispositions of "non-portfolio properties". "Non-portfolio properties" include, among other things, equity interests or debt of corporations, trusts or partnerships that are resident in Canada, and of non-resident persons or partnerships the principal source of income of which is one or any combination of sources in Canada (other than an "excluded subsidiary entity", as defined in the Tax Act) that are held by the "SIFT partnership" and have a fair market value that is greater than 10% of the equity value of such entity, or that have, together with debt or equity that the "SIFT partnership" holds of entities affiliated (within the meaning of the Tax Act) with such entity, an aggregate fair market value that is greater than 50% of the equity value of the "SIFT partnership". The tax rate that is applied to the above mentioned sources of income and gains is set at a rate equal to the "net corporate income tax rate" plus the "provincial SIFT tax rate" (each as defined in the Tax Act).

Brookfield Infrastructure 47


Table of Contents

        A partnership will be a "SIFT partnership" throughout a taxation year if at any time in the taxation year (i) it is a "Canadian resident partnership" (as defined in the Tax Act), (ii) "investments" (as defined in the Tax Act) in the partnership are listed or traded on a stock exchange or other public market, and (iii) it holds one or more "non-portfolio properties". For these purposes, a partnership will be a "Canadian resident partnership" at a particular time if (a) it is a "Canadian partnership" (as defined in the Tax Act) at that time, (b) it would, if it were a corporation, be resident in Canada (including, for greater certainty, a partnership that has its central management and control located in Canada), or (c) it was formed under the laws of a province. A "Canadian partnership" for these purposes is a partnership all of whose members are resident in Canada or are partnerships that are "Canadian partnerships".

        Under the SIFT Rules, our partnership and the Holding LP could each be a "SIFT partnership" if it is a "Canadian resident partnership". However, the Holding LP would not be a "SIFT partnership" if our partnership is a "SIFT partnership" regardless of whether the Holding LP is a "Canadian resident partnership" on the basis that the Holding LP would be an "excluded subsidiary entity". Our partnership and the Holding LP will be a "Canadian resident partnership" if the central management and control of these partnerships is located in Canada. This determination is a question of fact and is expected to depend on where our General Partner is located and exercises central management and control of the respective partnerships. Our General Partner will take appropriate steps so that the central management and control of these entities is not located in Canada such that the SIFT Rules should not apply to our partnership or the Holding LP at any relevant time. However, no assurance can be given in this regard. If our partnership or the Holding LP is a "SIFT partnership", the Canadian federal income tax consequences to our unitholders could be materially different in certain respects from those described in Item 10.E "Taxation—Certain Material Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations." In addition, there can be no assurance that the SIFT Rules will not be revised or amended in the future such that the SIFT Rules will apply.

ITEM 4.    INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

4.A    HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF BROOKFIELD INFRASTRUCTURE

Overview

        Brookfield Infrastructure owns and operates high quality, long-life assets that generate stable cash flows, require relatively minimal maintenance capital expenditures and, by virtue of barriers to entry and other characteristics, tend to appreciate in value over time. Our current operations consist of utilities, transport, energy and communications infrastructure businesses in North and South America, Europe and Asia Pacific. Brookfield Infrastructure has appointed Brookfield as its Service Provider to provide certain management, administrative and advisory services for a fee under the Master Services Agreement. Brookfield owns an approximate 29.5% interest in Brookfield Infrastructure.

        Our mission is to own and operate a globally diversified portfolio of high quality infrastructure assets that will generate sustainable and growing distributions over the long-term for our unitholders. To accomplish this objective, we will seek to leverage our operating segments to acquire infrastructure assets and actively manage them to extract additional value following our initial investment. An integral part of our strategy is to participate with institutional investors in Brookfield-sponsored partnerships that target acquisitions that suit our profile. We focus on partnerships in which Brookfield has sufficient influence or control to deploy an operations-oriented approach.

48 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        We target a total return of 12% to 15% per annum on the infrastructure assets that we own, measured over the long-term. We intend to generate this return from the in-place cash flow of our operations plus growth through investments in upgrades and expansions of our asset base, as well as acquisitions. If we are successful in growing our FFO per unit, we expect to be able to increase distributions to unitholders. Additionally, an increase in our FFO per unit should result in capital appreciation. We also measure the growth of FFO per unit, which we believe is a proxy for our ability to increase distributions. See Item 5 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for more detail.

        Our objective is to pay a distribution to unitholders that is sustainable on a long-term basis while retaining within our operations sufficient liquidity to fund recurring growth capital expenditures, debt repayments and general corporate requirements. We currently believe that a payout of 60% to 70% of our FFO is appropriate.

        In light of the current prospects for our business, the board of directors of our General Partner recently approved a 7.5% increase in our annual distribution to $2.28 per unit, or 57 cents per unit quarterly. Distributions have grown at a compound annual growth rate of 12% since inception of the partnership in 2008. We target a 5% to 9% annual distribution growth in light of the per unit FFO growth that we foresee in our operations. We intend to review our distribution per unit in the first quarter of each year in the normal course. Please refer to Item 3.D Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Us and Our Partnership—"Our partnership is a holding entity and currently we rely on the Holding LP and, indirectly, the Holding Entities and our operating entities to provide us with the funds necessary to pay distributions and meet our financial obligations".

History and Development of our Business

        Our partnership, Brookfield Infrastructure Partners L.P., is a Bermuda exempted limited partnership that was established on May 21, 2007 under the provisions of the Bermuda Exempted Partnership Act of 1992 ("Bermuda Exempted Partnerships Act") and the Bermuda Limited Partnership Act. Our registered office is 73 Front Street, Hamilton HM 12, Bermuda and our telephone number at this address is +1-441-294-3309. Our partnership was spun-off from Brookfield on January 31, 2008. The following table outlines the formative events in the history and development of our business:

Date   Notes   Event
May 2007   1   Corporate:
Utilities:
  Established Brookfield Infrastructure Partners L.P.
Contributed interests in utilities investments into Brookfield Infrastructure, including:
–  South American electricity transmission operations
–  North American electricity transmission operations
–  Brazilian transmission investments ("TBE")
        Timber:   Contributed interests in timberlands into Brookfield Infrastructure

January 2008

 
2
 

Corporate:

 

Began trading as public entity on NYSE (under the symbol "BIP")

November 2008

 
3
 

Timber:

 

Invested $103 million in U.S. timber operation following the acquisition of a tree farm in Washington State

January 2009

 
4
 

Utilities:

 

Brookfield and partner Isolux Corsan Concesiones, SA (Isolux) were awarded right to build $500 million of transmission lines in Texas

June 2009

 
5
 

Utilities:

 

Completed the sale of our interest in TBE for after-tax proceeds of $275 million

September 2009

 
6
 

Corporate:

 

Units commenced trading on TSX (under the symbol "BIP.UN")

Brookfield Infrastructure 49


Table of Contents

Date   Notes   Event

November 2009

  7  

Corporate:

 

Invested $941 million to acquire a 40% interest in Prime and direct interests in two assets from Prime

        Utilities:   Acquired interests in the following:
–  Australian regulated terminal operations
–  Asia Pacific regulated distribution operations
–  UK regulated distribution operations
        Transport:   Acquired interests in the following:
–  Australian rail operations
–  UK port operations
–  European port operations
        Energy:   Acquired interests in the following:
–  North American gas transmission operations
–  European energy distribution operations
–  Australian energy distribution operations

November 2009

 
8
 

Corporate:

 

Raised approximately $940 million of net proceeds through issuance of equity. Proceeds were used to fund the Prime investments

September 2010

 
9
 

Corporate:

 

Closure of $2.7 billion Brookfield sponsored infrastructure fund in which Brookfield Infrastructure participated

December 2010

 
10
 

Corporate:

 

Completed merger with Prime

        Utilities:   Increased interests in the following:
–  Australian regulated terminal operations
–  Asia Pacific regulated distribution operations
–  UK regulated distribution operations
        Transport:   Increased interests in the following:
–  Australian rail operations
–  European port operations
        Energy:   Increased interests in the following:
–  North American gas transmission operations
–  European energy distribution operations
–  Australian energy distribution operations

October 2011

 
11
 

Corporate:

 

Raised approximately $660 million of net proceeds through issuance of equity. Proceeds were used primarily to fund Australian rail expansion and pending Chilean toll road acquisition

December 2011

 
12
 

Transport:

 

Invested $160 million to acquire Chilean toll road assets

January 2012

 
13
 

Utilities:

 

Invested $55 million in a Colombian regulated distribution business

April 2012

 
14
 

Energy:

 

Invested $16 million in a natural gas storage facility in Alberta

August 2012

 
15
 

Corporate:

 

Raised approximately $500 million of net proceeds through issuance of equity. Proceeds were used to partially fund several strategic initiatives

October 2012

 
16
 

Utilities:

 

Acquired Brookfield's interest in our Chilean transmission system for approximately $235 million

October 2012

 
17
 

Transport:

 

Closed acquisition of additional interest in Chilean toll road for $170 million increasing ownership to 51%

October 2012

 
18
 

Corporate:

 

Completed C$400 million corporate bond issuance

October 2012

 
19
 

Energy:

 

Invested approximately $75 million in a district energy system in Toronto

50 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Date   Notes   Event

November 2012

  20  

Utilities:

 

Completed merger and recapitalization of a UK regulated distribution utility investing approximately $525 million and closed sale of 20% interest in combined UK regulated distribution business for proceeds of approximately $235 million

December 2012

 
21
 

Transport:

 

Completed $310 million investment in Brazilian toll road platform

December 2012

 
22
 

Corporate:

 

Closed upsizing of credit facilities to $855 million

December 2012

 
23
 

Timber:

 

Completed sale of 12.5% interest in Canadian Timber operations for approximately $85 million

May 2013

 
24
 

Corporate:

 

Raised approximately $330 million of net proceeds through issuance of equity. Proceeds were used for repayment of amounts outstanding under revolving credit facilities, investment opportunities, working capital and other general corporate purposes

June 2013

 
25
 

Timber:

 

Completed sale of Canadian timberlands for net proceeds of approximately $170 million

July 2013

 
26
 

Timber:

 

Completed the sale of U.S. timberland operations for approximately $790 million, including $320 million of proportionate debt

August 2013

 
27
 

Corporate:

 

Closed upsizing of credit facilities to $1.4 billion

September 2013

 
28
 

Transport:

 

Invested a further approximate $490 million in Brazilian toll road platform

October 2013

 
29
 

Corporate:

 

Closure of $7 billion Brookfield sponsored infrastructure fund in which Brookfield Infrastructure made a commitment

November 2013

 
30
 

Utilities:

 

Sold Asia Pacific regulated distribution business for approximately $415 million

December 2013

 
31
 

Energy:

 

Invested approximately $40 million in a district energy business serving Houston and New Orleans

March 2014

 
32
 

Transport

 

Invested approximately $125 million in West Coast North American container terminals

March 2014

 
33
 

Corporate:

 

Effected certain amendments to the limited partnership agreement of the Holding LP to simplify its governance structure

August 2014

 
34
 

Energy:

 

Invested approximately $50 million aggregate in three district energy businesses serving Chicago, Las Vegas and Seattle

August 2014

 
35
 

Transport

 

Invested approximately $370 million in a rail and port logistics business in Brazil

August 2014

 
36
 

Corporate:

 

Extended $1.4 billion credit facilities to June 2019

December 2014

 
37
 

Energy:

 

Invested approximately $40 million in a Texas gas storage business

December 2014

 
38
 

Energy:

 

Invested approximately $40 million in a West Coast North American gas storage business

March 2015

 
39
 

Corporate:

 

Completed C$450 million corporate bond issuance. Proceeds were used for general corporate purposes, including to fund new investments that were previously announced and repay amounts outstanding under credit facilities

March 2015

 
40
 

Corporate:

 

Effected certain amendments to the provisions of the limited partnership agreements of our partnership and the Holding LP to provide for issuance of preferred limited partnership units of our partnership and the Holding LP, respectively

Brookfield Infrastructure 51


Table of Contents

Date   Notes   Event

March 2015

  41  

Corporate:

 

Raised approximately C$125 million of gross proceeds through issuance of Series 1 Preferred Units. Proceeds were used for general corporate purposes, including to fund new investments that were previously announced and repay amounts outstanding under credit facilities

March 2015

 
42
 

Communications Infrastructure:

 

Invested approximately $415 million in a European telecommunications operation

April 2015

 
43
 

Corporate:

 

Raised approximately $926 million of net proceeds through issuance of equity. Proceeds were used for repayment of amounts outstanding under revolving credit facilities, investment opportunities, working capital and other general corporate purposes

June 2015

 
44
 

Corporate:

 

Extended $1.4 billion credit facilities to June 2020

June 2015

 
45
 

Energy:

 

Signed agreements to invest approximately $70 million in a North American gas storage business

August 2015

 
46
 

Transport:

 

Signed agreements in connection with a proposed acquisition of all shares in Asciano, a rail and port logistics company in Australia, by Brookfield Infrastructure and its institutional partners

August 2015

 
47
 

Utilities:

 

Sold interest in New England electricity transmission business for gross proceeds of approximately $65 million and net proceeds of approximately $28 million

August 2015

 
48
 

Transport:

 

Signed agreements to invest $120 million to acquire toll road assets in India, subject to customary closing conditions

October 2015

 
49
 

Corporate:

 

Completed C$500 million corporate bond issuance. Proceeds were used for investment opportunities, working capital and other general corporate purposes

November 2015

 
50
 

Transport:

 

Invested approximately $900 million in an on-market acquisition of shares in Asciano

November 2015

 
51
 

Transport:

 

Amended agreement with Asciano to contemplate a takeover bid for all the ordinary shares in Asciano not already owned by Brookfield Infrastructure

December 2015

 
52
 

Corporate:

 

Effected certain amendments to the provisions of the limited partnership agreements of our partnership and the Holding LP to provide for issuance of an additional series of preferred limited partnership units of our partnership and the Holding LP

December 2015

 
53
 

Corporate:

 

Raised approximately C$125 million of gross proceeds through issuance of Series 3 Preferred Units. Proceeds were used for investment opportunities, working capital and other general corporate purposes

December 2015

 
54
 

Energy:

 

Closed the acquisition of additional interest in a North American gas transmission company for $106 million, increasing ownership to 50%

December 2015

 
55
 

Corporate:

 

Closed upsizing of credit facilities to $1.875 billion

January 2016

 
56
 

Utilities:

 

Signed agreements to sell interest in Ontario electricity transmission business for gross proceeds of approximately C$370 million, resulting in net proceeds of C$220 million

February 2016

 
57
 

Corporate:

 

Entered into $500 million credit facility with Brookfield

February 2016

 
58
 

Transport:

 

The Brookfield Infrastructure consortium's takeover bid for Asciano lapsed

52 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Details of History and Development of our Business (Notes)

(1)
Prior to the spin-off, Brookfield acquired the following interests in our utilities and timber operations: (i) a 100% interest in our North American electricity transmission operations, in 1982; (ii) a 50% interest in our Canadian freehold timberlands, in May 2005; (iii) a 28% interest in our South American electricity transmission operations, in June 2006; (iv) 7%-18% interests in TBE, a group of five related transmission investments in Brazil, in 2006; and (v) a 100% interest in our U.S. freehold timberlands, in April 2007.

    In conjunction with the spin-off, Brookfield contributed the following interests in our utilities and timber operations to us: (i) a 100% interest in our North American electricity transmission operations; (ii) a 38% interest in our Canadian freehold timberlands; (iii) an 11% interest in our South American electricity transmission operations; (iv) 7%-18% interests in TBE; and (v) a 30% interest in our U.S. freehold timberlands.

    Our Chilean electricity transmission system was acquired by Brookfield on June 30, 2006 by a consortium of buyers led by Brookfield. As part of the stock purchase agreement between the parties, the buyers agreed to pay a purchase price adjustment of $160 million that was determined on April 4, 2008 following the final resolution of the 2006 transmission rate proceeding. In conjunction with our disproportionate funding of this purchase price adjustment, our ownership in our Chilean electricity transmission system increased to approximately 18% from approximately 11% at the time of the spin-off.

(2)
On January 31, 2008, our partnership was spun off from Brookfield and its units began trading on the NYSE under the symbol "BIP".

(3)
On November 4, 2008, we invested $103 million into our U.S. freehold timberlands. The proceeds were used to partially fund the add-on acquisition of a 67,661 acre tree farm in Washington State for $163 million and repay an outstanding bridge loan whose principal amount was approximately $250 million.

(4)
In January 2009, Brookfield and its partner Isolux, through their joint venture company, Wind Energy Texas Transmission LLC ("WETT"), were awarded the right to build $500 million of transmissions lines in Texas to facilitate the delivery of wind power to population centers as part of the Texas Competitive Renewable Energy Zones program. In the third quarter of 2009, Brookfield contributed its interest in WETT to a Brookfield sponsored infrastructure fund in which we own an interest (see Note 9 below). Upon finalization of the route selection and determination of the number of substations that comprise our system, this investment opportunity increased to approximately $750 million.

(5)
On June 30, 2009, we completed the sale of our interest in our Brazilian transmission operations for after-tax proceeds of $275 million, including proceeds from foreign exchange currency hedges. The sale resulted in the recognition of an approximately $68 million after-tax gain over book value.

(6)
On September 10, 2009, our partnership's units commenced trading on the TSX under the symbol "BIP.UN".

Brookfield Infrastructure 53


Table of Contents

(7)
On November 20, 2009, we invested $941 million to acquire an interest in Prime, and direct interests in two assets from Prime, collectively the BBI Transaction. In total, our investment in Prime was part of a comprehensive recapitalization in which Prime raised over $1.6 billion from our partnership, Brookfield and other investors to repay debt. The first direct investment was in a UK port operation, which is one of the largest in the UK. The second investment was an economic interest in an Australian terminal operation, one of the largest coal export terminals in the world. Our interests in North American gas transmission operations, Australian regulated distribution operations, UK regulated distribution operations, European energy distribution operations, Australian energy distribution operations, Australian rail operations, European port operations and an additional interest in the Australian terminal operations were held through Prime.

(8)
Our participation in the BBI Transaction was financed in part by a public offering of 40.7 million units at a price of C$15.55 per unit that closed in November 2009. The net proceeds of the public offering, inclusive of the exercise of the underwriters' over-allotment option, were approximately C$601 million. We funded the balance of the $940 million investment in the BBI Transaction through the issuance of Redeemable Partnership Units and general partner units of the Holding LP to Brookfield at a price of approximately $13.71 per unit, representing the price of our units issued under the public offering net of underwriting commissions payable by our partnership.

(9)
On September 20, 2010, Brookfield closed a $2.7 billion infrastructure fund. Brookfield manages the fund and has committed to the fund's total capital commitments, with Brookfield Infrastructure participating in the fund to the extent target acquisitions suit Brookfield Infrastructure's profile. We hold all or a portion of our interests in our Australian regulated terminal operations, our UK port operations, our Texas electricity transmission project, our high-voltage direct current ("HVDC") submarine transmission line, our South American toll road operations, our Colombian distribution utility, our gas storage operations and our district heating and cooling operations through this fund.

(10)
On December 8, 2010, Brookfield Infrastructure increased its ownership of Prime from 40% to 100% through a Merger Transaction whereby Prime security holders received 0.24 of our units per Prime security held and a special distribution of A$0.20 per Prime security. Pursuant to the merger, approximately 50.7 million units were issued, including 0.9 million Redeemable Partnership Units to Brookfield.

(11)
On October 26, 2011, Brookfield Infrastructure issued approximately 19.4 million units at $24.75 per unit under its shelf registrations in the U.S. and Canada. Brookfield acquired approximately 8.3 million Redeemable Partnership Units at the offering price net of commissions to maintain its interest on a fully exchanged basis. Net proceeds from this equity offering totalled approximately $657 million. The proceeds were used to fund an equity investment in our Australian rail, including the pay down of our corporate credit facility, which had been primarily drawn over the previous nine months to fund the investment in our rail expansion program, and a $160 million investment in Chilean toll road assets.

(12)
On December 15, 2011 we invested approximately $160 million to purchase an ownership stake in two related Chilean toll road assets comprised of a 33 kilometre toll road and tunnel that form part of a key ring road in the transportation network of Santiago, Chile. The toll road and tunnel are long-life assets that have concessions with expirations in 2033 and 2037, respectively. This investment seeds our toll road platform with high quality assets in a high growth country with a favourable concession regime.

(13)
On January 27, 2012, we purchased an ownership interest in a Colombian electricity distribution utility. This utility serves a predominantly residential load in Boyacá, a region of 1.3 million inhabitants located 150 kilometres north of Bogotá with emerging cement, steel and coal industries.

54 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

(14)
On April 27, 2012, we purchased an ownership interest in a natural gas storage facility in northeastern Alberta.

(15)
In August 2012, Brookfield Infrastructure issued approximately 11.1 million units at an offering price of $33.25 per unit under its shelf registrations in the U.S. and Canada. Brookfield acquired approximately 4.4 million Redeemable Partnership Units at the offering price net of commissions to maintain its interest on a fully exchanged basis. Net proceeds from this equity offering totalled $497 million. The net proceeds were used by Brookfield Infrastructure to partially fund several strategic initiatives further described below.

(16)
On October 1, 2012, Brookfield Infrastructure acquired Brookfield's interest in its Chilean transmission system for $235 million. Following this transaction, Brookfield Infrastructure's ownership interest was 28%.

(17)
On October 1, 2012, we closed the acquisition of an additional interest in our Chilean toll road for $170 million, increasing our ownership to 51%.

(18)
On October 10, 2012, Brookfield Infrastructure issued C$400 million of five-year corporate bonds in the Canadian market with a 3.5% interest rate, which was swapped into U.S. dollars at an effective interest rate of 2.7%. Proceeds were used primarily to refinance holding company debt.

(19)
On October 31, 2012, we invested approximately $75 million in a district energy system that serves commercial customers in downtown Toronto, which we acquired in partnership with institutional investors. This business generates very stable cash flow with 93% of its revenue under long-term contracts with high quality counterparties. There are growth opportunities in this business in light of the large pipeline of prospective new customers that can be connected to the deep lake cooling system.

(20)
On November 13, 2012, we completed the merger of our existing UK regulated distribution business with a UK regulated distribution business that we acquired in the third quarter. In conjunction with the merger, we invested $525 million of equity to recapitalize the combined business. On November 30, 2012, Brookfield Infrastructure closed the sale of a 20% interest in the combined business to an institutional investor for proceeds of approximately $235 million. Brookfield Infrastructure maintained control of this business, while bringing on board a respected global infrastructure investor as a minority partner who we believe is well-suited to work with us in support of the growth of the combined business over the long-term.

(21)
On December 4, 2012, Brookfield Infrastructure purchased a controlling interest in a Brazilian toll road platform, along with Abertis Infraestructuras and institutional partners. Following this acquisition, Brookfield Infrastructure owns interests in 11 toll roads in Brazil and Chile. Its 3,200 kilometre network is diversified with a balance of light and heavy vehicles and urban and interurban traffic. As one of the largest owner/operators of toll roads in the region, Brookfield Infrastructure is well positioned to invest in additional expansions and upgrades of the system as well as add-on acquisitions and development opportunities in two of the highest growth countries in the region. As required by law, Brookfield Infrastructure and its partners made a tender offer to acquire the interests of the minority holders of the Brazilian toll roads, which resulted in Brookfield Infrastructure acquiring an additional interest in the Brazilian toll road business in September 2013, as detailed below.

(22)
In December, 2012, Brookfield Infrastructure closed an upsizing of its corporate credit facilities, increasing commitments to $855.6 million from $700 million. Following a second close in January 2013, commitments increased to $900 million. The incremental $200 million of commitments have substantially the same terms as the previous facilities. These corporate credit facilities continue to be available to provide short-term liquidity for investments and acquisitions as well as general corporate purposes.

Brookfield Infrastructure 55


Table of Contents

(23)
On December 31, 2012, Brookfield Infrastructure completed its sale of a 12.5% interest of its Canadian timberlands for $85 million, and retained a 25% interest in this business.

(24)
In May 2013, Brookfield Infrastructure issued approximately 6.6 million units at an offering price of $37.75 per unit under its shelf registrations in the U.S. and Canada. Brookfield acquired approximately 2.6 million Redeemable Partnership Units at the offering price net of commissions in order to maintain its interest on a fully-exchanged basis. Net proceeds from this equity offering totalled approximately $330 million. The proceeds were used for the repayment of amounts outstanding under revolving credit facilities, investment opportunities, working capital and other general corporate purposes.

(25)
On June 7, 2013, Brookfield Infrastructure completed the sale of its remaining 25% interest in its Canadian timberlands for proceeds of approximately $170 million.

(26)
On July 23, 2013, Brookfield Infrastructure completed the sale of its interest in its U.S. Pacific Northwest timberlands for approximately $790 million. The buyer agreed to assume Brookfield Infrastructure's proportionate debt of approximately $320 million resulting in net proceeds from the transaction of approximately $470 million.

(27)
In August 2013, Brookfield Infrastructure closed an upsizing of its corporate credit facilities, increasing commitments to $1.4 billion. The incremental $545 million of commitments have substantially the same terms as the previous facilities. These corporate credit facilities continue to be available to provide short-term liquidity for investments and acquisitions as well as general corporate purposes.

(28)
On September 6, 2013, Brookfield Infrastructure invested a further approximate $490 million in its Brazilian toll road platform, increasing its ownership to approximately 31%.

(29)
On October 30, 2013, Brookfield closed a $7 billion infrastructure fund. Brookfield manages the fund and has committed to the fund's total capital commitments, with Brookfield Infrastructure participating in the fund to the extent target acquisitions suit Brookfield Infrastructure's profile. We hold all or a portion of our interests in our Brazilian rail and port logistics business, North American west coast container terminal, European telecommunications infrastructure operation, U.S. district energy operation and our North American gas storage operations through this fund.

(30)
On November 29, 2013, Brookfield Infrastructure announced that it completed the sale of its 42% interest in its Asia Pacific regulated distribution business for approximately $415 million.

(31)
On December 2, 2013, Brookfield Infrastructure invested approximately $40 million in a district energy system that serves commercial customers in New Orleans and Houston, which we acquired in partnership with institutional investors. Brookfield Infrastructure owns an approximate 40% interest in the business.

(32)
On March 26, 2014, Brookfield Infrastructure acquired alongside institutional investors an approximate 50% equity stake in Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. container terminals in Los Angeles and Oakland, of which Brookfield Infrastructure invested 40% for a total investment of approximately $125 million.

56 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

(33)
On March 28, 2014, Brookfield Infrastructure effected a restructuring pursuant to which the Holding LP's limited partnership agreement was amended to make our partnership the managing general partner of the Holding LP and to make the Infrastructure Special LP, the former general partner of the Holding LP, a special limited partner of the Holding LP. This change was made in order to simplify the Holding LP's governance structure and to more clearly delineate our partnership's governance rights in respect of the Holding LP. As a result, the voting agreement between Brookfield Infrastructure and Brookfield, which required Brookfield to exercise certain of its voting rights in respect of the Holding LP's former general partner as directed by Brookfield Infrastructure, was terminated and related changes were made to our Limited Partnership Agreement and the Master Services Agreement. Because Brookfield is a party to these agreements, all of the amendments were approved by a special committee of independent directors of the General Partner and the former general partner of the Holding LP. The economic interests of Brookfield Infrastructure were not affected by these changes.

(34)
On August 7, 2014, Brookfield Infrastructure invested alongside institutional investors to acquire two district energy businesses serving Chicago and Las Vegas, and on November 21, 2014, Brookfield Infrastructure invested alongside institutional investors to acquire a district energy business serving Seattle. Brookfield Infrastructure invested approximately $50 million in aggregate for the three businesses and it owns an approximate 40% interest in each business.

(35)
On August 19, 2014, Brookfield Infrastructure invested approximately $370 million, alongside institutional investors to acquire an approximately 11% interest in VLI, one of Brazil's largest rail and port logistics businesses.

(36)
In August 2014, Brookfield Infrastructure closed an extension of its corporate credit facilities to June 30, 2019 and decreased the annual interest rate spread applicable on LIBOR and the unused commitment fee to 120 basis points and 18 basis points, respectively.

(37)
On December 3, 2014, Brookfield Infrastructure acquired alongside institutional investors a 50% interest in Tres Palacios Gas Storage in Texas for approximately $100 million, of which Brookfield Infrastructure invested approximately $40 million.

(38)
On December 31, 2014, Brookfield Infrastructure acquired alongside institutional investors a 100% stake in Lodi Gas Storage in California for approximately $105 million, of which Brookfield Infrastructure invested approximately $40 million.

(39)
On March 11, 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure issued C$450 million of seven-year corporate bonds in the Canadian market with a 3.5% interest rate, which was swapped into $360 million on a matched maturity basis at an effective rate of 3.9%. Proceeds were used for general corporate purposes, including to fund new investments that were previously announced and repay amounts outstanding under credit facilities.

(40)
On March 12, 2015, our Limited Partnership Agreement was amended to permit the authorization and issuance of preferred units, authorize and create the Class A Preferred Units, Series 1 Preferred Units and Series 2 Preferred Units and to make certain consequential changes resulting from such authorization and creation. On March 12, 2015, the limited partnership agreement of the Holding LP was also amended to permit the authorization and issuance of Holding LP preferred units, authorize and create the cumulative class A preferred units ("Holding LP Class A Preferred Units"), cumulative class A preferred units, Series 1 ("Holding LP Series 1 Preferred Units") and cumulative class A preferred units, Series 2 ("Holding LP Series 2 Preferred Units") with terms substantially mirroring the Class A Preferred Units, Series 1 Preferred Units and Series 2 Preferred Units, respectively.

Brookfield Infrastructure 57


Table of Contents

(41)
On March 12, 2015, our partnership issued 5 million Series 1 Preferred Units at an offering price of C$25.00 per Series 1 Preferred Unit under its shelf registration in Canada. Our Partnership acquired 5 million Holding LP Series 1 Preferred Units at the offering price. Holders of the Series 1 Preferred Units and Holding LP Series 1 Preferred Units will be entitled to receive a cumulative quarterly fixed distribution at a rate of 4.50% annually for the initial period ending June 30, 2020. Thereafter, the distribution rate will be reset every five years at a rate equal to the 5-year Government of Canada bond yield plus 3.56%. Holders of Series 2 Preferred Units and Holding LP Series 2 Preferred Units will be entitled to receive a cumulative quarterly floating distribution at a rate equal to the 90-day Canadian Treasury Bill yield plus 3.56%. Proceeds were used for general corporate purposes, including to fund new investments that were previously announced and repay amounts outstanding under credit facilities. Net proceeds from this offering totalled approximately $95 million.

(42)
On March 31, 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure, through a Brookfield sponsored fund, acquired a 21% interest in TDF, a European telecommunications infrastructure operation, for approximately $415 million.

(43)
In April 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure issued approximately 13.4 million units at an offering price of $45.00 per unit under its shelf registrations in the U.S. and Canada. Brookfield acquired approximately 8.1 million Redeemable Partnership Units at the offering price net of commissions on a fully-exchanged basis. Net proceeds from this equity offering totalled approximately $926 million. The proceeds were used for the repayment of amounts outstanding under revolving credit facilities, investment opportunities, working capital and other general corporate purposes.

(44)
On June 12, 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure amended its corporate credit facilities to, among other things, effect an extension of those corporate credit facilities to June 30, 2020 its corporate credit facilities. These corporate credit facilities continue to be available to provide short-term liquidity for investments and acquisitions as well as general corporate purposes.

(45)
In June 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure, along with institutional partners, signed definitive agreements to acquire all of the outstanding common units of Niska Gas Storage Partners LLC ("Niska"). The total equity investment for all parties will be $175 million of which Brookfield Infrastructure will invest approximately $70 million for an effective 40% ownership stake. Brookfield Infrastructure are currently progressing the required regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions and if approved it is expected that the transaction will close in the first half of 2016. Niska is North America's largest independent natural gas storage operator with approximately 250 billion cubic feet of natural gas storage.

(46)
On August 17, 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure entered into a binding agreement to acquire, along with institutional partners (the "Brookfield Consortium"), the entire issued capital of Asciano, a rail and port logistics company in Australia with an enterprise value of approximately A$12 billion by way of scheme or arrangement.

(47)
On August 21, 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure completed the sale of its 23% interest in its New England electricity transmission operation for gross proceeds of approximately $65 million and net proceeds of approximately $28 million.

(48)
On August 27, 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure signed agreements to invest approximately $120 million, alongside institutional investors, to acquire six toll roads in India, which includes 242 kilometres of existing motorway operations and a further 103 kilometres of roads under expansion and development. Completion of this transaction is expected in the first quarter of 2016, subject to obtaining all required consents and regulatory approvals.

58 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

(49)
On October 30, 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure issued two tranches of corporate bonds in the Canadian market: C$125 million of three-year bonds with a 3.0% interest rate and C$375 million of five-year bonds with an interest rate of 3.5%. The three-year and five-year bonds were swapped into a combined $378 million bond on a matched maturity basis at an effective rate of 3.8%. The proceeds were used for investment opportunities, working capital and other general corporate purposes.

(50)
On November 5, 2015, an Australian subsidiary of our partnership (the "Acquirer") acquired 188 million shares in Asciano representing a 14.9% interest. Concurrently, the Acquirer entered into arrangements to acquire an indirect economic interest of an additional 4.3%, for a total direct and indirect interest of 19.3%. Total consideration paid for the interest in Asciano was approximately $1.2 billion, with Brookfield Infrastructure's share of that investment being approximately $900 million.

(51)
On November 9, 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure announced that it had entered into an amended agreement pursuant to which the Acquirer would make a takeover bid for all the ordinary shares in Asciano not already owned by the Acquirer.

(52)
On December 8, 2015, our Limited Partnership Agreement was amended to authorize and create the Series 3 Preferred Units and Series 4 Preferred Units and to make certain consequential changes resulting from such authorization and creation. On December 8, 2015, the limited partnership agreement of the Holding LP was also amended to authorize and create the cumulative class A preferred units, Series 3 ("Holding LP Series 3 Preferred Units") and cumulative class A preferred units, Series 4 ("Holding LP Series 4 Preferred Units") with terms substantially mirroring the Class A Preferred Units, Series 3 Preferred Units and Series 4 Preferred Units, respectively.

(53)
On December 8, 2015 our partnership issued 5 million Series 3 Preferred Units at an offering price of C$25.00 per Series 3 Preferred Unit under its shelf registration in Canada. Our Partnership acquired 5 million Holding LP Series 3 Preferred Units at the offering price. Holders of the Series 3 Preferred Units and Holding LP Series 3 Preferred Units will be entitled to receive a cumulative quarterly fixed distribution at a rate of 5.50% annually for the initial period ending December 31, 2020. Thereafter, the distribution rate will be reset every five years at a rate equal to the greater of: i) the 5-year Government of Canada bond yield plus 4.53% and ii) 5.50%. Proceeds were used for investment opportunities, working capital and other general corporate purposes. Net proceeds from this offering totalled approximately $90 million.

(54)
On December 10, 2015, Kinder Morgan, Inc and Brookfield Infrastructure jointly acquired, from Myria Holdings, Inc., the 53 percent equity interest in Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC ("NGPL") not already owned by them for a total purchase price of approximately $242 million. Brookfield Infrastructure paid approximately $106 million and increased its ownership from 26.5% to 50%.

(55)
On December 11, 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure closed an upsizing of its corporate credit facilities, increasing commitments to $1.875 billion. The incremental $450 million of commitments have substantially the same terms as the previous facilities. These corporate credit facilities continue to be available to provide short-term liquidity for investments and acquisitions as well as general corporate purposes.

(56)
On January 29, 2016, Brookfield Infrastructure signed binding agreements to sell its 100% interest in its Ontario electricity transmission operation for gross proceeds of approximately C$370 million, resulting in net proceeds of approximately C$220 million.

Brookfield Infrastructure 59


Table of Contents

(57)
In February 2015, Brookfield Infrastructure entered into a $500 million credit facility with Brookfield, with a term of twelve months. The purpose of this credit facility is to provide Brookfield Infrastructure with additional liquidity for general corporate purposes and capital expenditures, if required.

(58)
On February 18, 2016 the takeover bid for Asciano made by the Brookfield Consortium lapsed, following the withdrawal of its recommendation by the board of directors of Asciano. This change of recommendation triggered an A$88 million payment to the Brookfield Consortium. Subsequently, Brookfield Infrastructure commenced preliminary discussions with Qube Holdings Limited and its consortium partners about a potential new proposal to acquire Asciano.

4.B    BUSINESS OVERVIEW

Our Operations

        Brookfield Infrastructure owns a portfolio of infrastructure assets that are diversified by sector and by geography. We have a stable cash flow profile with approximately 90% of our adjusted EBITDA supported by regulated or contractual revenues. In order to assist our unitholders and preferred unitholders in evaluating our performance and assessing our value, we group our businesses into operating segments based on similarities in their underlying economic drivers.

60 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Our operating segments are summarized below:

Operating Segment
 
Asset Platform
 
Primary Location

Utilities

       

Regulated or contractual businesses that earn a return on their rate base

  •  Regulated Terminal
•  Electricity Transmission

•  Regulated Distribution
  •  Asia Pacific
•  North America & South America
•  South America & Europe

Transport

       

Systems that provide transportation for freight, bulk commodities and passengers

  •  Rail

•  Toll Roads

•  Ports
  •  South America & Asia Pacific
•  South America & Asia Pacific
•  North America & Europe

Energy

       

Systems that provide transmission, distribution and storage services

  •  Transmission, Distribution & Storage
•  District Energy
  •  North America & Europe

•  North America & Asia Pacific

Communications Infrastructure

       

Provides essential services and critical infrastructure to the media and telecom sectors

  •  Tower Infrastructure operations   •   Europe

GRAPHIC

Brookfield Infrastructure 61


Table of Contents

Utilities

Overview

        Our utilities segment is comprised of regulated businesses, which earn a return on a regulated or notionally stipulated asset base, which we refer to as rate base. Our rate base increases in accordance with capital that we invest to upgrade and expand our systems. Depending on the jurisdiction, our rate base may also increase by inflation and maintenance capital expenditures and decrease by regulatory depreciation. The return that we earn is typically determined by a regulator or contracts for prescribed periods of time. Thereafter, it may be subject to customary reviews based upon established criteria. Due to the regulatory diversity we have within our utilities segment, we mitigate exposure to any single regulatory regime. In addition, due to the regulatory frameworks and economies of scale of our utilities businesses, we often have significant competitive advantages in competing for projects to expand our rate base. Accordingly, we expect this segment to produce stable revenue and margins that should increase with investment of additional capital and inflation. Nearly all of our utility segment's adjusted EBITDA is supported by regulated or contractual revenues.

        Our objectives for our utilities segment are to invest capital in the expansion of our rate base and to provide safe and reliable service for our customers on a cost efficient basis. If we do so, we will be in a position to earn an appropriate return on our rate base. Our performance can be measured by the growth in our rate base, the return on our rate base, as well as our AFFO.

        Our utilities segment is comprised of the following:

Regulated Terminal

    One of the world's largest coal export terminals, with 85 million tons per annum ("mtpa") of capacity

Electricity Transmission

    Approximately 11,100 kilometres of transmission lines in North and South America

Regulated Distribution

    Approximately 2.6 million electricity and natural gas connections

Regulated Terminal Operations

        Our regulated terminal operation is comprised of a port facility that exports metallurgical and thermal coal mined in the central Bowen Basin region of Queensland, Australia, which is a high quality and low cost source of predominately metallurgical coal. Our terminal is one of the world's largest export terminals, accounting for approximately 20% of global seaborne metallurgical coal exports and 6% of total global seaborne coal exports.

        Our regulated terminal operation generates revenues under a regulatory regime that provides us with take-or-pay contracts. These contracts include: (i) a capacity charge that is allocated to users based on the percentage of total capacity for which they contract and (ii) a fixed and variable handling charge associated with operating and maintaining the terminal. The capacity charge is paid by users irrespective of their use of our terminal facility. The handling charge (both fixed and variable) is structured to be a complete pass through of the costs charged for terminal operations and maintenance. In the event that any user no longer requires their capacity, the regulatory regime re-socializes this capacity amongst the other users at the end of each regulatory period, thereby providing protection for the full recovery of capital investments.

62 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Strategic Position

        The Bowen Basin is a high quality, low cost, prolific series of coal deposits, where there are few cost efficient options to access export markets other than through our terminal operations. We have take-or-pay contracts with some of the world's largest mining companies that operate in the Bowen Basin. Our regulated terminal operation is substantially contracted through 2019. Existing customers hold evergreen options to extend their capacity by a further five years and based on their past actions are expected to renew.

Regulatory Environment

        Our Australian terminal operation is regulated by the Queensland Competition Authority ("QCA"). The current regulatory period was set for five and a half years ending June 30, 2016, thereafter the subsequent regulatory period will be set for the next five years ending June 30, 2021. The QCA utilizes a return on regulated asset base methodology to calculate our revenue requirement. Our coal terminal's rate base increases with inflation and capital expenditures and decreases by depreciation. Our current weighted average cost of capital allowed by the QCA is approximately 9.9%. In the next regulatory period subsequent to June 30, 2016, Brookfield Infrastructure anticipates the weighted average cost of capital allowed by the QCA to decrease primarily due to a reduction in the risk free interest rate included in its determination.

Growth Opportunities

        Over the past 30 years, our terminal's capacity has been expanded from 15 mtpa to 85 mtpa to meet ongoing customer demand. Potential exists to further expand our operations to facilitate future expansions by mining companies in the Bowen Basin. Our coal terminal has committed to feasibility studies aimed at identifying further incremental expansion opportunities within the existing port precinct and surrounding area.

Electricity Transmission Operations

        Our electricity transmission operations are comprised of approximately 11,100 kilometres of transmission lines in North and South America. Our North American electricity transmission operations consists of approximately 560 kilometres of 44 kilovolt ("kV") to 230 kV transmission lines in Ontario and approximately 600 kilometres of 345 kV transmission lines in Texas. Our South American electricity transmission system is comprised of approximately 9,900 kilometres including approximately 80% of Chile's high voltage transmission grid. During January 2016, we signed agreements to sell our Ontario electricity transmission operation which we expect to close by the end of 2016.

Strategic Position

        Our electricity transmission operations occupy key positions in the markets in which we operate. In North America, our operations include an important component of Ontario's transmission system that connects generators in Northern Ontario to electricity demand in Southern Ontario. In Texas, our transmission lines facilitate the delivery of wind power to population centers as part of the state's competitive renewable energy zone program. In South America, our operations constitute the backbone of the high-voltage transmission system in Chile. Our Chilean operations extend from the city of Arica in the north of Chile to the island of Chiloé in the south, serving 98% of the population of the country.

Brookfield Infrastructure 63


Table of Contents

        All of our electricity transmission operations benefit from stable long-term cash flows. Our Ontario and Texas operations have a broad customer base with revenues assessed and collected on a province and state-wide basis, respectively, mitigating our volume and credit risk. Approximately 51% of our South American electricity transmission operations' revenues are derived from a number of long-term transmission contracts, primarily serving hydro-electric power generators. These contracts have a pricing framework that is similar to the applicable regulatory framework (as discussed below), and following their expiration, a majority of this contracted revenue will convert to the regulatory framework.

Regulatory Environment

        All of our electricity transmission operations are located in regions with stable regulatory environments. In Chile, regulated revenues are determined every four years based on a 10% annuity real rate of return on replacement cost of the existing transmission system plus annual payments that provide for recovery of operational, maintenance and administrative costs. Since the 10% return is prescribed by law, it is not subject to review in the regulatory process. Between rate reviews, both revenue components are adjusted by a multi-component inflation factor. This effectively results in a 10% pre-tax, real return on our regulated asset base. Since the Chilean regulatory and contractual frameworks are based on replacement cost, we are not required to invest capital in our regulated asset base at a level equal to depreciation to prevent a decline in revenue. Furthermore, our South American electricity transmission system has no material volume risk.

        Our Texas transmission business operates under a historical cost of services regulatory regime overseen by the Public Utility Commission of Texas. Based on a September 2015 rate case, our Texas transmission business is allowed to earn a 9.6% return on equity which is deemed to be 40% of our rate base. Our rate base and revenues are calculated in a manner similar to our Ontario transmission system. Our operating revenues do not fluctuate with usage of our system but do fluctuate based on total system peak annual electric loads, which are measured by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas, a not-for-profit corporate entity that is responsible for the day to day operation of Texas' electrical system.

        In Ontario, revenues from our operations are 100% regulated under a historical cost of service regime and are subject to periodic review by the Ontario Energy Board. Based on a recent rate review, our Ontario transmission operations are allowed to earn a 9.2% return on equity, which is deemed to be 40% of our rate base. Our rate base is equal to the historic cost of the system's assets plus any capital expenditures less depreciation and other deductibles. Our operating revenues do not fluctuate with usage of our system but do fluctuate based on provincial electric loads, which are measured by the Independent Electricity System Operator, a not-for-profit corporate entity that is responsible for the day-to-day operation of Ontario's electrical system.

Growth Opportunities

        We believe that attractive growth opportunities exist for our electricity transmission operations, including the following:

        Chile has electricity generation that is many kilometres from population centers. Upgrades and expansions of the electricity transmission system will be required to connect new electricity generation to load centers to satisfy increased electricity demand resulting from economic growth. As of December 31, 2015, the approved capital expenditure backlog of our South American transmission system was approximately $442 million and is comprised of projects that have been awarded to us for which expenditures have not yet been made.

64 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Our Texas transmission project was completed in January 2014 and we believe that there are further opportunities to grow our rate base. Generation in Texas is expected to be developed in the western area of the state which is away from population centers in the east. In addition, strong economic growth and an aging infrastructure will drive the need for further expansions and upgrades of the existing transmission system. We are favourably positioned to take advantage of these opportunities due to our geographical location in west Texas as well as our incumbent status.

        Over the past decade, Ontario has issued several regulations and directives aimed at replacing coal-fired generation with renewable energy sources including the Ontario Bill 150. The majority of the new generation that will be developed is in remote locations far from the existing transmission grid. Expansions of the electricity transmission system will be required to connect this generation to the existing grid.

Regulated Distribution Operations

        Our regulated distribution operations have approximately 2.6 million electricity and natural gas connections in the UK and Colombia. In the UK, our regulated distribution operation is the largest independent "last mile" natural gas and electricity connections provider, comprised of approximately 2.2 million connections, principally natural gas and electricity. In South America, our electricity distribution franchise area is in the Boyacá province of Colombia, a region that is approximately 150 kilometres north of the capital, Bogotá.

Strategic Position

        Similar to our electricity transmission systems, our regulated distribution operations are critical to the markets in which they are located. In the UK, our regulated distribution system is currently a market leader in terms of new gas and electricity connection sales and total installed connections among independent utilities. Our South American regulated distribution operations provide reliable power to approximately 440,000 customers.

        Our regulated distribution operations generate stable cash flow in the geographies in which we operate. Our UK operation has a diverse customer base throughout England, Scotland and Wales, which underpins its cash flow. Our UK customers consist primarily of large energy retailers who serve residential and business users. Our South American regulated distribution operations provide power to a customer base that is primarily residential, with nearly 100% urban electrification and 92% rural electrification in the areas we service.

Regulatory Environment

        Our UK regulated distribution operations compete with other connection providers in the UK to secure contracts to construct, own and operate connections for six product lines which include: natural gas, electricity, water, fibre, district heating and smart meters. Once connections are established, we charge retailers rates that are established based on the tariff of the distribution utility with which we are interconnected. These tariffs are set on the basis of a regulated asset base. The connection rate is typically adjusted annually and provides inflation protection as it escalates at inflation minus a factor determined by the UK regulator. During the first 20 years after the commissioning of a connection, the gas connection rate is subject to a cap and floor that escalates by an inflation factor. Connections revenue does not vary materially with volume transported over our system.

        Our South American distribution business earns an annuity return on the replacement cost of its systems plus a charge to cover operating expenses. Our rates are determined every five years. Our current regulated return is in excess of 13%. Between rate reviews, revenues are adjusted by an inflation factor. The majority of our South American regulated distribution business' revenues do not fluctuate with volumes.

Brookfield Infrastructure 65


Table of Contents

Growth Opportunities

        We believe that our regulated distribution operations will be able to grow organically in each of the regions in which we operate. Opportunities for growth in the UK are driven by new gas and electricity connections, as well as through leveraging and cross-selling certain bundled service offerings and by introducing new product lines such as "fibre to home" to existing customers. Prospects for growth are further aided by the continual opening up of the electricity market to independent connections providers, the continuing recovery in the housing market and by participating in the UK smart meter roll out program. In early 2016, we adopted approximately 200,000 smart meters from a UK energy retailer, with a contract to adopt up to a further 500,000 meters by June 2017. In South America, our regulated distribution operations have a grandfathered operating license which allows us to expand vertically into the generation, transmission, and retail sectors. The business is located in a region which is home to emerging industrial industries and is experiencing strong economic growth which will drive the need for further build-out of our distribution system and regional expansion of the transmission system. We believe we are well positioned to take advantage of future growth opportunities.

Transport

Overview

        Our transport segment is comprised of open access systems that provide transportation, storage and handling services for freight, bulk commodities and passengers, for which we are paid an access fee. Profitability is based on the volume and price achieved for the provision of these services. This operating segment is comprised of businesses with price ceilings as a result of regulation, such as our rail and toll road operations, as well as unregulated businesses, such as our ports. Transport businesses typically have high barriers to entry and, in many instances, have very few substitutes in their local markets. While these businesses have greater sensitivity to market prices and volume than our utilities segment, revenues are generally stable and, in many cases, are supported by contracts or customer relationships. The diversification within our transport segment mitigates the impact of fluctuations in demand from any particular sector, commodity or customer. Approximately 80% of our transport segment's adjusted EBITDA is supported by contractual revenues.

        Our objectives for our transport segment are to provide safe and reliable service to our customers and to satisfy their growth requirements by increasing the utilization of our assets and expanding our capacity in a capital efficient manner. If we do so, we will be able to charge an appropriate price for our services and earn an attractive return on the capital deployed. Our performance can be measured by our revenue growth and our adjusted EBITDA margin.

        Our transport segment is comprised of the following:

Rail

    Approximately 10,000 kilometres of track and rail operations in Australia and Brazil

Toll Roads

    Approximately 3,500 kilometres of motorways in Brazil, Chile and, subject to the completion of the Gammon Acquisition, India

Ports

    33 terminals in North America, the UK and Europe

66 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Rail

        Our Australian rail network is comprised of a below rail access provider, with over 5,100 kilometres of track and related infrastructure in the southwest region of Western Australia under a long-term lease with the State Government. There are approximately 34 years remaining on this lease and this rail system is a crucial transport link in the region. Our Australian rail operation's revenue is derived from access charges paid by rail operators or underlying customers. Stability of revenue is underpinned by rail transport being a relatively small yet essential component of the overall value of the commodities and freight transported, as well as the strong contractual framework that exists with rail operators' customers.

        Our Brazilian rail operations are part of an integrated system with transshipment terminals, rail, port terminal operations, and almost 18,000 locomotives and wagons. They provide below and above rail services for approximately 4,800 kilometres of track, with concessions expiring in 2026 and 2038. Our Brazil rail operates under concession contracts that establish productivity standards, volume goals and price caps. Additional revenue is earned by offering complimentary services including inland transshipment terminals and port services, which for the most part are not subject to any tariff regimes.

Strategic Position

        Our Australian rail network is the only freight rail network providing access to the region's five State Government-owned ports for minerals and grain, as well as interstate intermodal terminals. The majority of our customers are leading commodity customers with the top 10 customers contributing approximately 90% of track access revenue, through long dated contracts.

        Our Brazilian rail operations span nine states and operate in three main corridors serving Brazil's center-north, center-east and center-southeast regions, including the most important agricultural and industrial regions in the country. Main sources of revenue are derived from grains, sugar, fertilizer, industrial and steel sectors and are generated from a diversified customer base.

Regulatory Environment

        In Western Australia, the Economic Regulatory Authority ("ERA") is the independent economic regulator, responsible for the gas, electricity, water and rail industries. For the rail industry, an access regime exists with the ERA determining the revenue ceiling and floor boundaries by track segment for parties to negotiate within. These boundaries are established using a methodology based on a regulated rate of return on replacement value. Across the majority of the network, current revenue is well below the regulated ceiling. As a result, no contracted revenue is currently exposed to reduction under this access regime. Our Australian rail network operates its track on an open access basis consistent with the rail access regime and its lease obligations.

        Our Brazilian rail concessions are governed by Brazil's transportation regulator, Agência Nacional de Transportes Terrestres ("ANTT"), which is also responsible for the tariff regime in that country. In addition, we access rail networks controlled by Vale S.A., Brazil's largest mining company, in an arrangement governed by long-term agreements. The regulatory regime requires concession holders to provide open access to all track users. Since most of our port operations are privately held, they are not subject to regulated tariffs and are able to move third party cargos with no regulatory limitations.

Growth Opportunities

        Our Australian rail operation is a critical component of the logistics chain in its region, in many cases, it is the only mode of transportation for freight that is economically viable. As a result, our rail operation is well positioned to benefit from the development of new agriculture or mining projects, which would require access to the rail network to transport to port for export markets.

Brookfield Infrastructure 67


Table of Contents

        Our Brazilian rail business expects to invest approximately R$5 billion to upgrade and expand its operations over the next few years, allowing it to capture volume growth by attracting cargo volumes that currently are transported by trucks, a higher cost alternative in Brazil. This business is focused on improving network integrations in the system by capturing the growing demand for integrated transportation services in Brazil. This includes a R$2.2 billion port terminal expansion project located at Latin America's largest port. The project will add three berths to handle over 14 mtpa of grain and sugar exports and fertilizer imports, which will significantly benefit our rail operation by increasing volumes to be transported as a result of the added capacity at our terminals and improving our strategic position as an integrated logistics provider. Other projects include the completion of four inland terminals and the purchase of locomotives and wagons.

Toll Roads

        Our toll road operations are comprised of urban and interurban toll roads in Chile, Brazil and, subject to completion of the Gammon Acquisition, India. Our Chilean operations include 33 kilometres of free flowing roads that form a key part of the ring road network of Santiago, Chile. Our Brazilian operations comprise approximately 3,250 kilometres of inter-urban toll roads, located in the Southeast and South regions of Brazil crossing or connecting the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Parana and Santa Catarina. Our operations in India will include 242 kilometres of existing roads and a further 103 kilometres of new motorways under expansion and development. These concessions began operations between 1998 and 2008 and operate under long-term concessions with staggered maturities, with an average remaining term of 15 years.

        Our toll roads are expected to generate stable, growing cash flows as a result of their strategic locations, the favourable economic trends in Chile, Brazil and India and inflation indexed tariffs. These markets have experienced significant economic growth over the last 20 years, leading to increased motorization rates and economic trade, which has driven increases in traffic volumes. We expect these trends to continue in the long-term, resulting in significant future traffic growth on our toll roads.

Strategic Position

        Our Chilean toll road constitutes a key artery in Santiago's urban road network as it connects the affluent business center of east Santiago with Chile's international airport, the Port of Valparaiso and the North of Chile. The primary users of the road are commuters getting to and from work. Conversely, our Brazilian toll roads are part of the inter-urban Brazilian toll road network, whose traffic is a mix of heavy industrial users and cars. Our roads are used in the transportation of goods in states of Brazil, which represent approximately 65% of Brazilian GDP. Subject to completion of the Gammon Acquisition, our toll road portfolio in India will span the country and include some of India's most important national highways. Further, our investment in our toll road portfolio in India is expected to expand our toll road platform to a new market that has significant growth prospects.

        Our toll roads are critical infrastructure for the economies of Chile, Brazil and India, with few viable alternative routes available. The ability to build new competing routes is limited by environmental restrictions, difficulty to expropriate urban land and physical restrictions.

Regulatory Environment

        Our Chilean assets are governed by the Ministerio de Obras Publicas ("MOP"). Chile has an established concession program which has been in place for more than 20 years. To date, 80 concession agreements have been awarded, representing a total investment of approximately $20 billion within the country. Specifically, the ministerial regime for urban toll roads allows operators to raise tariffs annually at a level equal to inflation + 3.5% with additional increases in the form of congestion premiums, which can be up to three times the base tariff during congested periods.

68 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Our Brazilian assets are governed by Agência Reguladora de Serviços Públicos Delegados de Transporte do Estado de São Paulo ("ARTESP") and ANTT, the Sao Paulo State and Federal regulators, respectively. The country has a widely developed toll road program, both at the Federal and State level, which has been in place for approximately 15 years. As of 2015, there were 53 motorway concessions in Brazil totaling over 19,000 kilometres. Brazilian concession agreements provide operators with annual tariff increases indexed to inflation and additional investments not considered in the initial concession agreements are compensated with real tariff increases or an extension of the concession period.

        Following completion of the Gammon Acquisition, our assets and contractual obligations in India will be governed by the National Highways Authority of India ("NHAI"), which has been operational for 20 years and has responsibility to develop, maintain and manage the National Highways vested or entrusted to it by the Central Government of India. Revenues derived from the assets will include both toll road tariffs and annuity concession payments. The toll road tariffs are linked to inflation which is expected to benefit from India's growing economy. The annuity concession payments have the added benefit of stable and predictable cash flows with a government related entity.

Growth Opportunities

        We believe that long-term growth in the South American and Indian economies will trigger increases in traffic volumes. Coupled with tariff increases from inflation and congestion tariffs, this should drive significant future cash flow growth for our toll road businesses. In addition, Brazil, Chile, and India are seeking to increase their respective paved road network by expanding existing roads and developing new roads. These planned expansions should present opportunities for us to invest additional capital in these attractive markets, given the scale of our existing network.

Ports

        Our port operations are located primarily in the UK, North America and Europe. Our UK port is one of the largest operators in the country by volume and is a statutory harbor authority ("SHA") for the Port of Tees and Hartlepool in the north of the UK. Our UK port's status as the SHA gives it the right to charge vessel and cargo owners conservancy tariffs (toll-like dues) for use of the River Tees. At our UK port, our revenue is primarily generated from port handling services for bulk and container volumes. In addition, approximately 25% of our revenue is earned from conservancy and pilotage tariffs. Furthermore, we have a freehold land base of approximately 2,000 acres that is strategically located in close proximity to our port, which generates income from long-term property leases that account for approximately 10% of revenue.

        Our North American port operation is comprised of gateway container terminals in the ports of Los Angeles and Oakland, which operate under long-term terminal leases with the Los Angeles and Oakland port authorities. These terminals handled almost 1.1 million Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units ("TEUs") in 2015. In North America, our revenue is generated from port handling services for container volumes. Approximately 30% of our volumes are underpinned by a 10-year minimum volume guarantee arrangement provided by our partner in this business, Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd.

        Our European port operations are comprised of a portfolio of concessions in key strategic locations throughout Europe that handle heavy dry bulk, specialty dry bulk, liquid bulk, general cargo and containers. Our European port operations handle approximately 46 mtpa of cargo. At our European operations, we benefit from diversified operations with over 50 different types of products handled at 22 port terminals located throughout seven European countries.

Brookfield Infrastructure 69


Table of Contents

Strategic Position

        Our port operations are strategically located. In the UK, Teesport is a large, deep-water port located in a well-developed industrial area in Northern England. The SHA status, as well as the established infrastructure which includes rail and road access, create barriers to entry for potential competitors.

        Our North American port operations are located in the ports of Los Angeles and Oakland, the first and fifth largest container port markets in North America, respectively. These deep-water ports are in close proximity to irreplaceable, land-side infrastructure for intermodal and transloading services and are capable of handling the largest vessels currently in service.

        Our European port operations are located in 22 port terminals across continental Europe and consist of 500 hectares of long-term port concessions and over 30 kilometres of quay length. With substantial infrastructure that is often integrated with our customers' facilities, including cranes, berths, warehouses, inloading and outloading equipment, our European port operations are protected by significant barriers to entry. Additionally, our operations provide logistical services for our customers that would be difficult for potential competitors to replicate.

        Our UK and North American port operations have a number of long-term contracts with established parties, including large multinational corporations. The majority of our revenues are derived from customers with significant investment in industrial infrastructure at or within close proximity to these ports. Our European port operations mainly serve industrial customers in the immediate vicinity of our terminals under varied contract terms. Many key customers have been long-term customers continuously for between 10 and 30 years.

Regulatory Environment

        Our UK port is unregulated, but its status as the SHA for the River Tees provides the statutory right to collect conservancy tariffs (toll-like dues) payable by ships using the river and the requirement to maintain navigability of the waterway. The port has the statutory authority to set tariffs which are determined through consultancy with users of the river and indexed to inflation. Our North American and European port operations conduct business in an unregulated environment.

Growth Opportunities

        Our UK port's flexible, multi-purpose capacity positions it to benefit from numerous growth initiatives, including the expansion of our container handling facilities, in addition to improvements in our rail capacity, which have driven new customer contracts for container cargo and positions Teesport to be the main entry point for container cargo destined for the Northern England market.

        Our North American port operations are undergoing a significant modernization project in Los Angeles that is expected to approximately double capacity and increase efficiency. Once complete, this project will make our terminal in Los Angeles one of the lowest cost and most automated terminals in North America with surplus capacity to facilitate future volume growth.

        In Europe, our port operations are well positioned to capitalize on increasing demand for bulk and general commodities as well as cross-selling opportunities with existing customers.

70 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Energy

Overview

        Our energy segment is comprised of systems that provide transportation, storage and distribution services. Profitability is based on the volume and price achieved for the provision of these services. This operating segment is comprised of businesses that are subject to regulation, such as our natural gas transmission business whose services are subject to price ceilings, and businesses that are essentially unregulated like our district energy business. Energy businesses typically have high barriers to entry as a result of significant fixed costs combined with economies of scale or unique positions in their local markets. Our energy segment is expected to benefit from forecasted increases in demand for energy. Although these businesses have greater sensitivity to market prices and volume than our utilities segment, revenues are typically contracted with varying durations and are relatively stable.

        Our objectives for our energy segment are to provide safe and reliable service to our customers and to satisfy their growth requirements by increasing the utilization of our assets and expanding our capacity in a capital efficient manner. If we do so, we will be able to charge an appropriate price for our services and earn an attractive return on the capital deployed. Our performance can be measured by our revenue growth, our adjusted EBITDA margin and our AFFO.

        Our energy segment is comprised of the following:

Transmission, Distribution and Storage Operations

    Approximately 15,000 kilometres of natural gas transmission pipelines

    Over 40,000 natural gas distribution customers in the UK

    600 billion cubic feet ("bcf") of natural gas storage in the U.S. and Canada, including 230 bcf of capacity owned and operated by Niska Gas Storage, the acquisition of which was signed in June 2015 and is subject to regulatory approval

District Energy Operations

    Delivers heating and cooling to customers from centralized systems including heating plants capable of delivering 2,870,000 pounds per hour of steam heating capacity, centralized gas distribution and cogeneration for heating, cooling and energy, 255,000 tons of contracted cooling capacity, as well as 1,800 customer connections for distributed water and sewage services

Transmission, Distribution and Storage Operations

        Our transmission, distribution and storage operations include approximately 15,000 kilometres of natural gas transmission and pipeline systems in the U.S., an unregulated natural gas and liquid propane gas ("LPG") distribution operation in the UK, and significant natural gas storage capacity in the U.S. and Canada.

        Our natural gas transmission pipelines comprise one of the largest systems in the U.S., extending from the Gulf Coast, Texas and Oklahoma to Chicago. Our energy distribution system in the UK is the only provider of natural gas and LPG distribution services on the islands on which it operates. The majority of revenues from these businesses are generated under contracts and are well positioned to benefit from forecasted increases in demand for clean energy.

Brookfield Infrastructure 71


Table of Contents

Strategic Position

        Our North American natural gas transmission system is the largest provider of natural gas transmission and storage services to the Chicago and Northern Indiana market and has significant interconnectivity with local distribution companies, industrial users and gas-fired power plants. The system is also well connected to other pipelines accessing additional downstream markets, which increases demand for our services. On December 10, 2015, we acquired an additional 23.5% interest in our North American natural gas transmission system bringing our interest to 50%.

        In the UK, our energy distribution business is the sole provider of gas distribution and retail services on the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, servicing over 40,000 customers. The natural gas and LPG distribution customer base on the Channel Islands and Isle of Man is comprised of a number of residential and commercial end users. Our main competition comes from alternate energy sources, such as electricity.

        We own interests in three natural gas storage facilities across North America, located in northern Alberta, northern California and south Texas. Upon regulatory approval and closing of our announced acquisition of Niska Gas Storage we will add facilities in northern Oklahoma, southern Alberta and northern California. These facilities contract with customers to provide natural gas storage services for which customers pay a storage fee. Our Canadian and Californian natural gas storage facilities represent approximately 31% and 26% of the total storage capacity in the province of Alberta and state of California respectively, while our south Texas gas storage facility has a high deliverability capacity and interconnects across 10 interstate and intrastate pipelines.

Regulatory Environment

        Our transmission and storage operations are subject to varied regulation that differs across our regions of operation. Our U.S. operations are regulated by FERC under the Natural Gas Act of 1938 ("Gas Act"). FERC provides a regulated framework for shippers and natural gas pipeline owners to reach commercial agreement with customers without regulatory intervention under a maximum rate regime, and there is no periodic rate case obligation.

        Our UK energy distribution operations are quasi-regulated, and are ultimately subject to government oversight.

        Our Canadian natural gas storage facilities are regulated by the Alberta Energy and Resources Conservation Board, which provides operational and environmental oversight. Our Californian natural gas storage facilities are also subject to California Public Utilities Commission oversight. These facilities are not subject to any economic regulation.

Growth Opportunities

        Within our North American natural gas transmission operations we are progressing a number of incremental growth opportunities that will expand our service offerings through capital projects supported by long-term contracts. The incremental projects will be constructed through late 2016 and into 2019 and are expected to start contributing incremental adjusted EBITDA in late 2016. The incremental projects include an expansion of capacity in the Chicago market, expansion to provide additional receipt points to the Gulf Coast market and a new pipeline supporting the export market to Mexico. In addition to the projects under contract, and their future add-on growth opportunities, this business is well positioned to take advantage of changing market dynamics in the North American natural gas market.

72 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Within our existing storage businesses we have identified opportunities to expand our facilities' capacity by adding incremental storage capacity through low cost capital projects. Additionally, ownership of natural gas storage facilities is highly fragmented and we expect to continue to transact opportunistically in the marketplace. We believe that with the recent drop in commodity prices and a prolonged period of low natural gas storage spreads that there is an opportunity to act as an industry consolidator at attractive valuations.

District Energy

        Our North American district energy operations are located in seven cities and consist of heating plants capable of delivering 2,870,000 pounds per hour of steam heating capacity, produced from six gas-fired steam plants and 255,000 tons of contracted cooling capacity, sourced from deep lake water systems and a variety of other conventional chilling technologies. These operations provide steam heating in key markets such as downtown Toronto, Ontario, in the medical district of New Orleans, Louisiana and in the central business district of Seattle, Washington. District cooling services are provided through an innovative deep lake cooling system in Toronto and from mechanical chilling operations in key markets such as Chicago, Illinois, Houston, Texas, and New Orleans.

        Our Australian district energy operations provide heating, cooling and energy solutions and distributed natural gas, water and sewage services, in the states of Tasmania, New South Wales and Victoria. The natural gas network includes over 800 kilometres of pipeline, bringing 100 million cubic meters of natural gas to homes and businesses each year, with availability to provide this service to approximately 59,500 commercial and residential customers.

Strategic Position

        Our district energy business in North America provides essential heating and cooling services to commercial customers, governments, hospitals and major sporting arenas in Toronto, Houston, New Orleans, Chicago and Seattle. Our Australian district energy business is comprised of an established natural gas distribution and retail business, supplying approximately 15,400 residential, commercial and industrial customers currently connected to our network in Tasmania and New South Wales. We are also operating and developing projects to supply natural gas and/or thermal energy, as well as distributed water and sewage services, to residential and commercial customers. In most cases our district energy businesses offer the only feasible source of energy to customers who are connected to our network. In addition, we are able to realize synergies across this platform through the sharing of best practices for customer contracting and due diligence, financing synergies through raising funds at the platform level, as well as sharing back office functions in our North American and Australian businesses.

Regulatory Environment

        Our district energy business in Toronto is governed by the Ontario Public Utilities Act of 1913 and Toronto District Heating Corporation Act, 1998. However, the business is not subject to rate regulation but receives the rights of a utility in Ontario, allowing it unrestricted access to its network of underground pipes in downtown Toronto. Our district energy business in Australia is currently not subject to any economic regulation. In Houston, Chicago, New Orleans and Seattle, our operations are enabled by franchise agreements with the respective municipalities.

Brookfield Infrastructure 73


Table of Contents

Growth Opportunities

        We have significant organic growth opportunities in our various district energy businesses, primarily through system expansions. Our Toronto deep lake water cooling system provides chilled water by pumping cold water from the depths of Lake Ontario. As a result of significant historical investment, this system has low variable costs. The system currently has significant excess capacity during non-peak periods of demand, upon which we will seek to capitalize by connecting incremental interruptible load to the system at limited capital cost. During 2015, we commissioned a significant capital project to increase our steam generating capacity in New Orleans to meet the needs of our customers, a number of whom are expanding the size and scope of their facilities. The district energy industry in North America is highly fragmented, providing significant opportunities to grow our business through acquisitions.

        During 2015, our Australian district energy business commenced building a distributed energy network to certain regional towns under the State of Victoria's Energy for the Regions program. The project involves centralized natural gas networks which will roll out over the next three years with availability to provide service to approximately 12,500 homes and businesses. The Australian district energy business is developing into a multi-asset energy and water provider, offering combined services for heating, cooling and energy as well as distributed water and sewage services.

        There are significant barriers to entry in these businesses, as there are limited opportunities for customers to support competing businesses once connected to our systems. Once a system is established, we are well positioned to capture further organic growth opportunities.

Communications Infrastructure

Overview

        Our communications infrastructure segment provides essential services and critical infrastructure to the media broadcasting and telecom sectors. These services and access to infrastructure are contracted on a long-term basis with tariff escalation mechanisms. Our telecommunications customers pay upfront and recurring fees to lease space on our towers to host their equipment. Our broadcasting customers pay us fees for transmitting television and radio content to end users.

        The key objective for this segment is to capture benefit from increased demand for densification from mobile network operators and to acquire towers and other infrastructure that are non-core to such operators. Our performance will be measured by growth in our adjusted EBITDA.

        The segment is comprised of approximately 7,000 multi-purpose towers and active rooftop sites and 5,000 km of fibre backbone located in France.

        These operations generate stable, inflation-linked cash flows underpinned by long-term contracts (typically 10 years in telecommunications and five years in broadcasting) with large, prominent customers in France.

Strategic Position

        Our business is the leading independent communications infrastructure operator in France. Its sites cover the entire French territory, with some in the very best locations, which enable us to be a leader across all of the segments in which we operate. Its scale in telecommunications sites makes it the number one independent tower operator in France and a preferred partner of mobile network operators. In television, it is capable of covering the French population with approximately 97% coverage in one of Europe's largest television markets. In radio we are the reference provider for services in France with approximately 60% share of FM analog radio frequencies.

74 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Regulatory Environment

        In the television business, a small proportion of the sites (currently approximately 80) are considered to be non-replicable because either (i) they benefit from a remarkable location, often on an elevated point or area where the construction of a second tower is in practice very complex, (ii) equipment attachment height is greater than 100 meters or (iii) a set of exceptional circumstances prevent the site from being replicated. On these sites the regulator considers the business to have significant market power and as a result regulates the prices that can be charged. In total these regulated revenues account for approximately 40% of our television broadcast revenues. On the residual television sites, deemed replicable, access prices are subject to a price floor and cap established by the regulator.

Growth Opportunities

        We see growth opportunities in the telecom infrastructure segment on the back of three main trends: technological evolution driving further site growth, network densification and further site rollout associated with minimum coverage requirements. We believe that the size and scope of our tower platform will position us to take advantage of these favourable trends through construction and acquisition of additional assets.

Acquisition Strategy

        Over the past few years, we have established operating segments with scale in many aspects of the utility, transport, energy and communications infrastructure industries. As we look to grow our business, we will primarily target acquisitions that utilize existing operating segments to acquire high quality assets that we can actively manage to achieve a total return of 12 to 15% per annum, and extend our operating platforms into new geographies in which Brookfield has a presence. We intend to utilize existing liquidity and capital recycling program to fund acquisitions and prudently access capital markets. As we grow our asset base, we will primarily target acquisitions in the following infrastructure sectors:

    Utilities: electricity transmission, regulated electricity, gas and water distribution and regulated or contracted terminal operations;

    Transport: railroads, ports, toll roads and airports;

    Energy: oil and gas pipelines and gathering and storage systems and district energy systems; and

    Communications infrastructure: telecommunications towers.

        An integral part of our acquisition strategy is to participate with institutional investors in Brookfield sponsored consortiums for single asset acquisitions and as a partner in or alongside Brookfield sponsored partnerships that target acquisitions that suit our profile. We will focus on consortiums and partnerships where Brookfield has sufficient influence or control to deploy our operations oriented approach. Brookfield has a strong track record of leading such transactions.

        Brookfield has agreed that it will not sponsor transactions that are suitable for us in the infrastructure sector unless we are given an opportunity to participate. See Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Relationship Agreement". Since Brookfield has large, well-established operations in real estate and renewable power that are separate from us, Brookfield will not be obligated to provide us with any opportunities in these sectors. In addition, since Brookfield has granted an affiliate the right to act as the exclusive vehicle for Brookfield's timberland acquisitions in Eastern Canada and the Northeastern U.S., we will not be entitled to participate in timberland acquisitions in those geographic regions.

Brookfield Infrastructure 75


Table of Contents

About Brookfield

        Brookfield is a global asset management company focused on property, renewable energy, infrastructure and private equity assets with over $225 billion of assets under management, 30,000 operating employees and over 700 investment professionals worldwide. Brookfield's strategy is to combine best-in-class operating segments and transaction execution capabilities to acquire and invest in targeted assets and actively manage them in order to achieve superior returns on a long-term basis.

        To execute our vision of being a leading owner and operator of high quality infrastructure assets that produce an attractive risk-adjusted total return for our unitholders, we will seek to leverage our relationship with Brookfield and in particular, its operations-oriented approach, which is comprised of the following attributes:

    strong business development capabilities, which benefit from deep relationships within, and in-depth knowledge of, its target markets;

    technical knowledge and industry insight used in the evaluation, execution, risk management and financing of development projects and acquisitions;

    project development capabilities, with expertise in negotiating commercial arrangements (including offtake arrangements and engineering, procurement and construction contracts), obtaining required permits and managing construction of network upgrades and expansions, as well as greenfield projects;

    operational expertise, with considerable experience optimizing sales of its products and structuring and executing contracts with end users to enhance the value of its assets; and

    development and retention of the highest quality people in its operations.

        Brookfield has an approximate 29.5% interest in Brookfield Infrastructure. Our partnership and the other Service Recipients have each appointed Brookfield as their Service Provider to provide certain management, administrative and advisory services, for a fee, under the Master Services Agreement.

Employees

        Our partnership does not employ any of the individuals who carry out the current management of our partnership. The personnel that carry out these activities are employees of Brookfield, and their services are provided to our partnership or for our benefit under the Master Services Agreement. For a discussion of the individuals from Brookfield's management team that are expected to be involved in our infrastructure business, see Item 6.A "Directors and Senior Management—Our Management."

Intellectual Property

        Our partnership, as licensee, has entered into a Licensing Agreement with Brookfield pursuant to which Brookfield has granted us a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to use the name "Brookfield" and the Brookfield logo in connection with marketing activities. Other than under this limited license, we do not have a legal right to the "Brookfield" name or the Brookfield logo. Brookfield may terminate our Licensing Agreement immediately upon termination of our Master Services Agreement and it may be terminated in the circumstances described under Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Licensing Agreements."

76 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

4.C    ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

Organizational Charts

        The chart below presents a summary of our ownership and organizational structure. Please note that on this chart all interests are 100% unless otherwise indicated and "GP Interest" denotes a general partnership interest and "LP Interest" denotes a limited partnership interest. These charts should be read in conjunction with the explanation of our ownership and organizational structure below and the information included under Item 4.B "Business Overview," Item 6.C "Board Practices" and Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions."

LOGO

(1)
Brookfield's general partner interest is held through Brookfield Infrastructure Partners Limited, a Bermuda company that is indirectly wholly-owned by Brookfield Asset Management, an Ontario corporation.

(2)
On March 28, 2014, our partnership and the Holding LP underwent a restructuring, which redesignated our partnership's interest in the Holding LP as managing general partner units ("Managing General Partner Units") and re-designated Brookfield's 0.5% interest in the Holding LP as special limited partner units ("Special Limited Partner Units"). Brookfield's Special Limited Partner Units are held through the Infrastructure Special LP, a Bermuda limited partnership, the sole general partner of which is the Infrastructure General Partner, a Bermuda company that is wholly owned by Brookfield Asset Management.

(3)
Brookfield's limited partnership interest in the Holding LP, held in Redeemable Partnership Units, is redeemable for cash or exchangeable for our units in accordance with the Redemption-Exchange Mechanism, which could result in Brookfield eventually owning approximately 29.3% of our partnership's issued and outstanding units on a fully exchanged basis (including the issued and outstanding units that Brookfield currently also owns). See Item 10.B "Memorandum and Articles of Association—Description of the Holding LP's Limited Partnership Agreement—Redemption—Exchange Mechanism."

(4)
Brookfield has provided an aggregate of $20 million of working capital to certain Holding Entities through a subscription for preferred shares. See Item 4.C "Organizational Structure—The Holding LP and Holding Entities".

(5)
The Service Provider provides services to Brookfield Infrastructure pursuant to the Master Services Agreement.

(6)
On March 12, 2015, our partnership issued five million Series 1 Preferred Units to the public and acquired five million Holding LP Series 1 Preferred Units. On December 8, 2015, our partnership issued five million Series 3 Preferred Units to the public and acquired five million Holdings LP Series 3 Preferred Units.

(7)
As of December 31, 2015, our partnership had outstanding 162,163,205 units. An equal number of Managing General Partner Units are held by our partnership in the Holding LP.

Brookfield Infrastructure 77


Table of Contents

Our Partnership

        We own and operate high quality, long-life assets that generate stable cash flows, require relatively minimal maintenance capital expenditures and, by virtue of barriers to entry and other characteristics, tend to appreciate in value over time.

        Our partnership is a Bermudian exempted limited partnership that was established on May 21, 2007. See Item 4.D "Property, Plant and Equipment" for information regarding our partnership's head office.

        Our partnership's sole material asset is its managing general partnership interest and preferred limited partnership interest in the Holding LP. Our partnership serves as the Holding LP's managing general partner and has sole authority for the management and control of the Holding LP. Our partnership anticipates that the only distributions that it will receive in respect of our partnership's managing general partnership interest and preferred limited partnership interest in the Holding LP will consist of amounts that are intended to assist our partnership in making distributions to our unitholders in accordance with our partnership's distribution policy, to our preferred unitholders in accordance with the terms of our preferred units and to allow our partnership to pay expenses as they become due. The declaration and payment of cash distributions by our partnership is at the discretion of our General Partner. Our partnership is not required to make such distributions and neither our partnership nor our General Partner can assure you that our partnership will make such distributions as intended.

The Service Provider and Brookfield

        The Service Recipients have engaged the Service Provider, an affiliate of Brookfield, to provide them with management and administration services pursuant to the Master Services Agreement.

Our General Partner

        Our General Partner serves as our partnership's general partner and has sole authority for the management and control of our partnership, which is exercised exclusively by its board of directors in Bermuda. Our partnership's managing general partnership interest in the Holding LP, which consists of Managing General Partner Units, entitles our partnership to serve as the Holding LP's managing general partner, with sole authority for management and control of the Holding LP, which is exercised exclusively through the board of directors of our General Partner.

        See also the information contained in this annual report on Form 20-F under Item 3.D "Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Us and Our Partnership," Item 3.D "Risk Factors—Risks Relating to our Relationship with Brookfield," Item 6.A "Directors and Senior Management," Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions," Item 10.B "Memorandum and Articles of Association—Description of Our Units, Preferred Units and Our Limited Partnership," Item 10.B "Memorandum and Articles of Association—Description of the Holding LP's Limited Partnership Agreement" and Item 7.A "Major Shareholders."

The Holding LP and Holding Entities

        Our partnership indirectly holds its interests in operating entities through the Holding LP and the Holding Entities. The Holding LP owns all of the common shares of the Holding Entities. Brookfield has provided an aggregate of $20 million of working capital to certain Holding Entities through a subscription for preferred shares of such Holding Entities. These preferred shares are entitled to receive a cumulative preferential dividend equal to 6% of their redemption value as and when declared by the board of directors of the applicable Holding Entity and are redeemable at the option of the Holding Entity, subject to certain limitations, at any time after the tenth anniversary of their issuance. Except for the preferred share of our primary U.S. Holding Entity, which is entitled to one vote, the preferred shares are not entitled to vote, except as required by law.

78 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Infrastructure Special LP

        The Infrastructure Special LP is entitled to receive incentive distributions from the Holding LP as a result of its ownership of the special limited partnership interest of the Holding LP See Item 7.B "Related Party Transactions—Incentive Distributions."

Significant Subsidiaries

        The following table sets forth for each of Brookfield Infrastructure's significant subsidiaries, the jurisdiction of incorporation and the percentage ownership held by Brookfield Infrastructure.

 
   
   
  Ownership
Interest
  Voting
Interest
 
Defined Name
  Name of entity   Jurisdiction of
Organization
  2015
%
  2015
%
 

Holding LP

  Brookfield Infrastructure L.P.   Bermuda     70 (1)   100  

Australian rail operation

  Brookfield Rail Holdings No. 1 Pty Ltd   Australia     100 (2)   100  

Regulated terminal operations

  DBCT Management Pty Ltd   Australia     71 (2)   100  

UK regulated distribution operations

  Brookfield Utilities UK Holdings Limited   United Kingdom     80 (2)   80  

South American transmission operation

  ETC Holdings Limited   Chile     28 (2)   28  

North American natural gas transmission operation

  Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC   United States     50 (2)   50  

(1)
Ownership interest held directly by our partnership.

(2)
Ownership interest held indirectly by the Holding LP.

4.D   PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

        Our partnership's principal office and its registered office is at 73 Front Street, Hamilton HM 12, Bermuda. Our partnership does not directly own any real property.

        See also the information contained in this annual report on Form 20-F under Item 3.D "Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Operations and the Infrastructure Industry—All of our infrastructure operations may require substantial capital expenditures in the future," "—Investments in infrastructure projects prior to or during a construction or expansion phase are likely to be subject to increased risk," "—All of our operating entities are subject to changes in government policy and legislation," and Item 5 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

ITEM 4A.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

        Not applicable.

Brookfield Infrastructure 79


Table of Contents

ITEM 5.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Performance Targets and Key Measures

        We target a total return of 12% to 15% per annum on the infrastructure assets that we own, measured over the long-term. We intend to generate this return from the in-place cash flow from our operations plus growth through investments in upgrades and expansions of our asset base, as well as acquisitions. If we are successful in growing our funds from operations ("FFO") per unit, we will be able to increase distributions to unitholders. Furthermore, the increase in our FFO per unit should result in capital appreciation (see "Reconciliation of Non-IFRS Financial Measures" on page 106 for more detail). We also measure the growth of FFO per unit, which we believe is a proxy for our ability to increase distributions to unitholders. In addition, we have performance measures that track the key value drivers for each of our operating segments. See "Segmented Disclosures" on page 85 for more detail.

Distribution Policy

        Our objective is to pay a distribution per unit that is sustainable on a long-term basis while retaining sufficient liquidity within our operations to fund recurring growth capital expenditures, debt repayments and general corporate requirements. We currently believe that a payout of 60% to 70% of our FFO is appropriate over the long-term.

        In light of the current strong prospects for our business, the Board of Directors of our General Partner approved a 7.5% increase in our quarterly distribution to 57 cents per unit, which will start with the distribution paid in March 2016. This increase reflects the forecasted contribution from our recently commissioned capital projects, as well as the expected cash yield on acquisitions that we closed in the past year. Since the spin-off, we have increased our quarterly distribution from 26.5 cents per unit to 57 cents per unit, a compound annual growth rate of 12%. We target 5% to 9% annual distribution growth in light of the per unit FFO growth we foresee in our operations.

Basis of Presentation

        Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS"), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ("IASB"). Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Brookfield Infrastructure and the entities over which it has control. Brookfield Infrastructure accounts for investments over which it exercises significant influence or joint control, but does not control, using the equity method.

        Our partnership's equity interests include units held by public unitholders and the Redeemable Partnership Units held by Brookfield. Our units and the Redeemable Partnership Units have the same economic attributes in all respects, except that the Redeemable Partnership Units provide Brookfield the right to request that its units be redeemed for cash consideration. In the event that Brookfield exercises this right, our partnership has the right, at its sole discretion, to satisfy the redemption request with our units, rather than cash, on a one-for-one basis. As a result, Brookfield, as holder of Redeemable Partnership Units, participates in earnings and distributions on a per unit basis equivalent to the per unit participation of the limited partnership units of our partnership. However, given the redeemable feature referenced above, we present the Redeemable Partnership Units as a component of non-controlling interests.

80 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        When we discuss the results of our operating segments, we present Brookfield Infrastructure's proportionate share of results for operations accounted for using consolidation and the equity method, in order to demonstrate the impact of key value drivers of each of these operating segments on our partnership's overall performance. As a result, segment revenues, costs attributable to revenues, other income, interest expense, depreciation and amortization, deferred taxes, fair value adjustments and other items will differ from results presented in accordance with IFRS as they (1) include Brookfield Infrastructure's proportionate share of earnings (losses) from investments in associates attributable to each of the above noted items, and (2) exclude the share of earnings (losses) of consolidated investments not held by Brookfield Infrastructure apportioned to each of the above noted items. However, net income for each segment is consistent with results presented in accordance with IFRS. See "Reconciliation of Operating Segments" on page 107 for a reconciliation of segment results to our partnership's statement of operating results in accordance with IFRS.

        Our presentation currency and functional currency is the U.S. dollar, and has been throughout each of the last eight years. There were no changes in accounting policies that have had a material impact on the comparability of the results between financial years since the adoption of IFRS.

REVIEW OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL RESULTS

        In this section we review our consolidated performance and financial position as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 and for the 12-month periods ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013. Further details on the key drivers of our operations and financial position are contained within the review of operating segments.

        The following table summarizes the financial results of Brookfield Infrastructure for the 12-month periods ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013.

 
  Year ended
December 31
 
US$ MILLIONS, EXCEPT PER UNIT INFORMATION
  2015   2014   2013  
Summary Statements of Operating Results
 

Revenues

  $ 1,855   $ 1,924   $ 1,826  

Direct operating costs

    (798 )   (846 )   (823 )

General and administrative expenses

    (134 )   (115 )   (110 )

Depreciation and amortization expense

    (375 )   (380 )   (329 )

Interest expense

    (367 )   (362 )   (362 )

Share of earnings (loss) from investments in associates and joint ventures

    69     50     (217 )

Mark-to-market on hedging items

    83     38     19  

Other income (expense)

    54     (1 )   (35 )

Net income

    391     229     65  

Net income from continuing operations

    391     229     20  

Net income from discontinued operations

            45  

Net income (loss) attributable to the partnership(1)

    298     184     (58 )

Net income (loss) per limited partnership unit

  $ 1.04   $ 0.67   $ (0.43 )

(1)
Includes net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests—Redeemable Partnership Units held by Brookfield, general partner and limited partners.

Brookfield Infrastructure 81


Table of Contents

2015 vs. 2014

        Revenues for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 were $1,855 million, which decreased by $69 million, or 4%, compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014. Revenue from acquisitions completed over the past 12 months within our U.S. district energy and gas storage businesses contributed $79 million, while organic growth initiatives within our Canadian and Australian district energy businesses contributed incremental revenue of $18 million. Our utilities segment contributed additional revenue of $42 million as results benefitted from inflation indexation and various growth initiatives primarily at our UK regulated distribution operation. Our transport operations contributed an additional $36 million of revenue, primarily due to higher rates at our Australian rail operation, inflationary tariff increases at our South American toll roads and higher volumes at our UK port operations. These increases were more than offset by the impact of foreign exchange, as the U.S. dollar strengthened relative to most currencies in which we operate, which reduced our revenue in U.S. dollar terms by $244 million.

        Direct operating expenses for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 were $798 million, which decreased by $48 million, or 6%, compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014. This was driven by $52 million of operating expenses representing the full year impact of district energy and gas storage businesses acquired in the second half of 2014, an additional $28 million of costs resulting from the expansion of our systems through organic growth initiatives and higher volumes at our transport operations. These increases were more than offset by the impact of foreign exchange, which reduced our expenses in U.S. dollar terms by $128 million.

        General and administrative expenses for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 were $134 million, which increased by $19 million, or 17%, compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014. These expenses are primarily comprised of the base management fee that is paid to Brookfield, which is equal to 1.25% of the partnership's market value plus recourse debt, net of cash. This figure also includes certain public company expenditures relating to the on-going operations of the partnership. The base management fee increased as compared to the same period in 2014 as a result of an increase in market capitalization and recourse debt throughout 2015.

        Depreciation and amortization expense for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 was $375 million, which decreased by $5 million, or 1%, compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014. Depreciation and amortization expense increased by $26 million due to the impact of acquisitions of district energy and gas storage businesses completed in 2014, and $19 million attributable to higher asset values resulting from our annual revaluation process and capital expenditures over the past year. These increases were offset by the impact of foreign exchange, which reduced our expenses in U.S. dollar terms by $50 million.

        Interest expense for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 was $367 million, which increased by $5 million, or 1%, compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014. Interest expense increased by $12 million as a result of the aforementioned acquisitions, in addition to higher non-recourse borrowings primarily associated with organic growth initiatives, which contributed incremental interest expense of $22 million. We also incurred additional interest expense of $18 million associated with our two corporate medium term note issuances completed in March and October of 2015. These increases were partially offset by the impact of foreign exchange, which decreased our interest expense in U.S. dollar terms by $47 million during the period.

82 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Earnings from investments in associates for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 were $69 million, which increased by $19 million, or 38%, compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014. The increase is due to the $28 million contribution from the acquisition of our European telecommunications infrastructure operation, completed in March of 2015, and the full-year contribution from our Brazilian rail operations that was acquired in August of 2014. Our results also benefitted from numerous organic growth initiatives across the business that contributed an additional $11 million, resulting from increased volumes across a number of our businesses. These items were offset by the impact of foreign exchange.

        Mark-to-market gains on hedging items for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 were $83 million compared to $38 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014. Both the current and comparative period consist primarily of revaluation gains relating to foreign exchange hedging activities at the corporate level. The gains recognized in the current and comparative period are the result of lower hedged rates on various currency contracts we had in place relative to the spot rates at period end.

2014 vs. 2013

        Revenues for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014 were $1,924 million, which increased by $98 million, or 5%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2013. Of this increase $47 million relates to acquisitions made in our U.S. district energy business during 2014. Our utilities segment contributed incremental revenues of $58 million, as we benefitted from inflationary increases in our rate base and investments in organic growth initiatives. Our business also recorded higher revenues in its transport operations as a result of increased volumes at our Chilean toll road, UK port operation and Australian rail operation, contributing a further $47 million. These increases were partially offset by depreciation of the currencies in which we operate relative to the U.S. dollar, which reduced revenues in U.S. dollar terms by $54 million.

        Direct operating expenses for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014 were $846 million, which increased by $23 million, or 3%, compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013. The increase is primarily attributable to the aforementioned U.S. district energy acquisitions completed during 2014, which contributed $31 million of incremental operating expenses. Further incremental costs of $32 million were incurred as a result of capital expansion programs at our UK regulated distribution operation and Australian rail operation as well as higher volumes in our UK port operation. These increases were offset by the impact of foreign exchange, which reduced our expenses in U.S. dollar terms by $40 million.

        General and administrative expenses for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014 were $115 million, which increased by $5 million, or 5%, compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013. The $5 million increase in general and administrative expenses from 2013 to 2014 is due to the increase in market capitalization attributable to the higher trading price of our partnership units.

        Depreciation and amortization expense for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014 was $380 million, which increased by $51 million, or 13%, compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013. This increase is due primarily to the impact of acquisitions completed during the year and higher asset values resulting from our annual revaluation process.

        Interest expense for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014 was $362 million, which was equal to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013. This increase in interest expense was driven by an expansion of our U.S. district energy business acquisition during the year as well as higher borrowings at our UK regulated distribution business associated with various growth initiatives, which contributed incremental interest expense of $7 million. These increases were offset by the impact of foreign exchange, which reduced expenses in U.S. dollar terms by $7 million.

Brookfield Infrastructure 83


Table of Contents

        Earnings from investments in associates for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014 were $50 million compared to losses of $217 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013. The increase is primarily attributable to the $275 million impairment charge recorded at our North American natural gas transmission operation in 2013.

        Mark-to-market gains on hedging items for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014 were $38 million compared to $19 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013. Both the current and comparative period consist primarily of revaluation gains relating to foreign exchange hedging activities at the corporate level. The gains recognized in the current and comparative period are the result of lower hedged rates on various currency contracts we had in place relative to the spot rates at period end.

        The following table summarizes the statement of financial position of Brookfield Infrastructure for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014.

 
  As of  
US$ MILLIONS
  December 31, 2015   December 31, 2014  
Summary Statements of Financial Position Key Metrics
 

Cash and cash equivalents

    $     199     $     189  

Other current assets

    1,354     1,371  

Total assets

    17,735     16,495  

Current liabilities

    908     780  

Corporate borrowings

    1,380     588  

Non-recourse borrowings

    5,852     6,221  

Other long-term liabilities

    2,419     2,584  

Limited Partners' capital

    3,838     3,533  

General Partner capital

    23     24  

Non-controlling interest—Redeemable Partnership Units held by Brookfield

    1,518     1,321  

Non-controlling interest—in operating subsidiaries

    1,608     1,444  

Preferred Unitholders

    189      

        Total assets were $17,735 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $16,495 million at December 31, 2014, an increase of $1,240 million. This increase is primarily due to $2,447 million in assets accumulated through the investment in a toehold interest in Asciano, the acquisition of our European telecommunications infrastructure operations, and the follow-on investments in our Chilean toll road and North American natural gas transmission operation. Total assets also increased by $872 million as the result of revaluation gains recorded, primarily at our UK regulated distribution operation, South American transmission operation and European and North American port operations. These positive impacts were partially offset by the impact of foreign exchange, which reduced our asset base in U.S. dollar terms by $1,824 million, and from the sale of our New England electricity transmission operation in the third quarter of 2015.

        Corporate borrowings were $1,380 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $588 million at December 31, 2014, an increase of $792 million. This increase was due to incremental draws of $161 million on our corporate credit facility and $732 million resulting from the medium term note issuances completed in 2015. The increase was partially offset by the impact of foreign exchange, which reduced our corporate debt balance by $101 million.

84 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Non-recourse borrowings were $5,852 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $6,221 million at December 31, 2014, a decrease of $369 million. This decrease is primarily due to the strength of the U.S. dollar relative to all currencies in which we have issued debt. Our debt balances were also reduced by $231 million as a result of our Ontario electricity transmission and European energy distribution operations that were classified as held for sale at December 31, 2015. These decreases were partially offset by additional debt at our UK regulated distribution operation of $155 million, as well as an increase of $76 million from the follow-on investment at our Chilean toll road.

        Partnership capital was $5,379 million at December 31, 2015, compared to $4,878 million at December 31, 2014, an increase of $501 million. This increase was mainly driven by $950 million of partnership units issued in April 2015, net of $24 million of associated fees, net income attributable to the partnership of $298 million, net revaluation gains of $527 million resulting from our annual revaluation of property, plant and equipment and $25 million primarily due to mark-to-market hedging gains at the corporate level recorded in other comprehensive income. This increase was partially offset by $662 million of foreign currency translation losses, $546 million of distributions paid to our unitholders and $67 million of unit repurchases throughout 2015.

        In March and December 2015 Brookfield Infrastructure issued $189 million of preferred units, which are presented as a separate class of equity under partnership capital.

SEGMENTED DISCLOSURES

        In this section, we review the results of our principal operating segments: utilities, transport, energy and communications infrastructure. Each segment is presented on a proportionate basis, taking into account Brookfield Infrastructure's ownership in operations accounted for using the consolidation and equity methods, whereby our partnership either controls or exercises significant influence or joint control over its investments. See "Discussion of Segment Reconciling Items" on page 110 for a reconciliation of segment results to our partnership's statement of operating results in accordance with IFRS.

Utilities Operations

Results of Operations

        The following table presents the roll-forward of our rate base and selected key metrics:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
 

Rate base, start of period

  $ 4,118   $ 4,242  

Impact of disposals

    (38 )    

Capital expenditures commissioned

    234     189  

Inflation and other indexation

    97     110  

Regulatory depreciation

    (53 )   (72 )

Foreign exchange

    (340 )   (351 )
           

Rate base, end of period

  $ 4,018   $ 4,118  
           

Brookfield Infrastructure 85


Table of Contents


 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Funds from operations (FFO)

  $ 387   $ 367   $ 377  

Maintenance capital

    (13 )   (14 )   (27 )
               

Adjusted funds from operations (AFFO)

  $ 374   $ 353   $ 350  
               

Return on rate base(1),(2)

    11%     11%     11%  
               

1.
Return on rate base is adjusted EBITDA divided by time weighted average rate base.

2.
Return on rate base excludes impact of connections revenues at our UK regulated distribution operation.

        The following table presents our utilities segment's proportionate share of financial results:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Revenue

  $ 698   $ 736   $ 831  

Costs attributable to revenues

    (174 )   (217 )   (284 )
               

Adjusted EBITDA

    524     519     547  

Interest expense

    (142 )   (158 )   (175 )

Other income

    5     6     5  
               

Funds from operations (FFO)

    387     367     377  

Depreciation and amortization

    (153 )   (155 )   (147 )

Deferred taxes and other items

    (24 )   (58 )   6  
               

Net income

  $ 210   $ 154   $ 236  
               

        The following table presents our proportionate adjusted EBITDA and FFO for the businesses in this operating segment:

 
  Adjusted EBITDA   FFO  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Regulated Distribution

  $ 228   $ 200   $ 236   $ 183   $ 158   $ 178  

Regulated Terminal

    156     172     174     92     93     91  

Electricity Transmission

    140     147     137     112     116     108  
                           

Total

  $ 524   $ 519   $ 547   $ 387   $ 367   $ 377  
                           

2015 vs. 2014

        For the year ended December 31, 2015 our regulated distribution operations generated adjusted EBITDA of $228 million and FFO of $183 million compared to $200 million and $158 million, respectively, in 2014. Results increased year-over-year primarily due to record connections activity at our UK regulated distribution business, additions to our rate base and inflation indexation.

        For the year ended December 31, 2015 our regulated terminal reported adjusted EBITDA of $156 million and FFO of $92 million compared to $172 million and $93 million, respectively, in 2014. Adjusted EBITDA and FFO decreased from prior year as the benefits of inflation indexation and additions to rate base were offset by the impact of foreign exchange as our hedged rate declined compared to prior year. This was partially offset at the FFO level by the favourable impact of foreign exchange on our Australian dollar denominated interest expense.

86 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        For the year ended December 31, 2015 our electricity transmission operations generated adjusted EBITDA of $140 million and FFO of $112 million compared to $147 million and $116 million, respectively, in 2014. Adjusted EBITDA and FFO decreased slightly as inflation indexation and additions to rate base were offset by the impact of foreign exchange and the sale of our New England electricity transmission business in August of 2015.

        Depreciation and amortization decreased to $153 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $155 million for the same period in 2014. The decrease of $2 million from 2014 is primarily due to the impact of foreign exchange, mostly offset by higher depreciation expense from additions to our regulated asset base and higher asset values as a result of our annual revaluation process.

        Deferred taxes and other items for the year ended December 31, 2015 was a loss of $24 million compared to a loss of $58 million for the same period in 2014. The variance is associated with a deferred tax recovery due to a favourable change in UK tax law offset by lower mark-to-market gains on hedging items at our UK regulated distribution business.

2014 vs. 2013

        For the year ended December 31, 2014 our regulated distribution operations generated adjusted EBITDA of $200 million and FFO of $158 million compared to $236 million and $178 million, respectively, in 2013. Results decreased year-on-year primarily due to the sale of our Asia Pacific regulated distribution operation in the fourth quarter of 2013. Excluding the impact of the sale, results for the business were ahead of 2013 by $39 million due primarily to stronger performance at our UK regulated distribution business that benefitted from a higher rate base, inflation indexation and higher connections activity.

        For the year ended December 31, 2014 our regulated terminal reported adjusted EBITDA of $172 million and FFO of $93 million compared to $174 million and $91 million, respectively, in 2013. Adjusted EBITDA decreased relative to the comparative period as inflation indexation and the benefit of additions to rate base were more than offset by the impact of foreign exchange. FFO increased compared to the prior period due to lower borrowing costs, where we benefitted from financings completed during 2014 and favourable foreign exchange impact on our interest expense.

        For the year ended December 31, 2014 our electricity transmission operation generated adjusted EBITDA of $147 million and FFO of $116 million compared to $137 million and $108 million, respectively, in 2013. Adjusted EBITDA and FFO increased versus 2013 due to inflation indexation, commissioning of projects into rate base and lower operating costs, partially offset by the impact of foreign exchange.

        Depreciation and amortization increased to $155 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, up from $147 million for the same period in 2013. The increase of $8 million from 2013 is primarily due to higher depreciation expense from additions to our regulated asset base from growth capital expenditures and the aforementioned acquisitions, partially offset by the impact of the aforementioned disposition of our Asia Pacific regulated distribution operation in the fourth quarter of 2013. Deferred taxes and other items for the year ended December 31, 2014 were a loss of $58 million compared to a gain of $6 million in 2013. The negative variance versus the prior period is associated with lower mark-to-market gains on hedging items at our UK regulated distribution business.

Brookfield Infrastructure 87


Table of Contents

Transport Operations

Results of Operations

        The following table presents our proportionate share of the key metrics of our transport segment:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Growth capital expenditures

  $ 297   $ 332   $ 212  

Adjusted EBITDA margin(1)

    49%     48%     47%  

Funds from operations (FFO)

    398     392     326  

Maintenance capital

    (72 )   (80 )   (63 )
               

Adjusted funds from operations (AFFO)

  $ 326   $ 312   $ 263  
               
(1)
Adjusted EBITDA margin is adjusted EBITDA divided by revenues.

        The following table presents our transport segment's proportionate share of financial results:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Revenues

  $ 1,143   $ 1,238   $ 1,054  

Cost attributed to revenues

    (588 )   (639 )   (557 )
               

Adjusted EBITDA

    555     599     497  

Interest expense

    (142 )   (173 )   (153 )

Other expenses

    (15 )   (34 )   (18 )
               

Funds from operations (FFO)

    398     392     326  

Depreciation and amortization

    (217 )   (250 )   (183 )

Deferred taxes and other items

    (46 )   (39 )   (78 )
               

Net income

  $ 135   $ 103   $ 65  
               

        The following table presents proportionate adjusted EBITDA and FFO for each business in this operating segment:

 
  Adjusted EBITDA   FFO  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Rail

  $ 292   $ 270   $ 250   $ 231   $ 201   $ 187  

Toll Roads

    180     248     173     111     140     97  

Ports

    83     81     74     56     51     42  
                           

Total

  $ 555   $ 599   $ 497   $ 398   $ 392   $ 326  
                           

2015 vs. 2014

        For the year ended December 31, 2015, our rail business generated adjusted EBITDA of $292 million and FFO of $231 million compared to $270 million and $201 million, respectively, in 2014. Adjusted EBITDA and FFO increased versus prior year as a result of improved agricultural volumes and a full year contribution from our South American rail operation acquired in the third quarter of 2014, as well as increased volumes and inflationary rate increases at our Australian operation. These increases were partially offset by the impact of foreign exchange.

88 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        For the year ended December 31, 2015, our toll roads contributed adjusted EBITDA of $180 million and FFO of $111 million compared to $248 million and $140 million, respectively, in 2014. Adjusted EBITDA and FFO decreased versus prior year as the benefit of regulatory tariff increases and stronger light vehicle volumes were more than offset by the impact of foreign exchange. In local currency, toll road adjusted EBITDA was 5% higher than prior year.

        For the year ended December 31, 2015, our port operations reported adjusted EBITDA of $83 million and FFO of $56 million compared to $81 million and $51 million, respectively, in 2014. Adjusted EBITDA and FFO have increased versus the prior year as benefits from the delivery of the first phase of the automation project at our North American container terminal and increased container volumes at our UK port operation were partially offset by the impact of foreign exchange.

        Non-cash expenses are primarily comprised of depreciation and amortization, inflation indexation on our Chilean peso denominated debt, deferred taxes and other items. Depreciation and amortization decreased to $217 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, down from $250 million in 2014. The $33 million decrease versus 2014 is due to foreign exchange, which more than offset incremental depreciation from our South American rail acquisition in the third quarter of 2014. Deferred taxes and other expenses for the year ended December 31, 2015 were $46 million compared to $39 million for the same period in 2014. The $7 million increase versus the prior year was due to the acquisition of our South American rail business in August 2014 and higher inflation indexation on our Chilean peso denominated debt.

2014 vs. 2013

        For the year ended December 31, 2014, our rail business generated adjusted EBITDA of $270 million and FFO of $201 million compared to $250 million and $187 million, respectively, in 2013. Results increased primarily as a result of the partial contribution from our Brazilian rail acquisition completed in the third quarter of 2014. On a same store basis, FFO increased as a result of higher volumes associated with a bumper grain harvest and the completion of the expansion program resulted in volumes ramping up substantially and reached full take-or-pay levels in March 2013.

        For the year ended December 31, 2014, our toll roads contributed adjusted EBITDA of $248 million and FFO of $140 million compared to $173 million and $97 million, respectively, in 2013. Results increased compared to the prior year primarily due to the increase in ownership of our Brazilian toll roads completed in September 2013. On a same store basis, toll revenues increased 8% from 2013 to 2014, driven by tariff increases and higher volumes.

        For the year ended December 31, 2014, our port operations reported adjusted EBITDA of $81 million and FFO of $51 million compared to $74 million and $42 million, respectively, in 2013. Adjusted EBITDA and FFO increased compared to the prior period primarily due to increased volumes at our UK port, as economic conditions in the region continued to improve, and the contribution from our North American container port acquisition in 2014.

        Non-cash expenses are primarily comprised of depreciation and amortization, inflation indexation on our Chilean peso denominated debt, deferred taxes and other items. Depreciation and amortization increased to $250 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, up from $183 million in 2013. The $67 million increase compared to 2013 is primarily driven by a full year contribution from the additional investment in our Brazilian toll road operation made in the third quarter of 2013 and contribution from the close of our South American rail acquisition in the third quarter of 2014. Deferred taxes and other expenses for the year ended December 31, 2014 were $39 million compared to $78 million for the same period in 2013. The $39 million reduction is primarily the result of breakage fees associated with the refinancing of our Australian rail operation and European port operations.

Brookfield Infrastructure 89


Table of Contents

Energy Operations

Results of Operations

        The following table presents our proportionate share of the key metrics of our energy segment:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Growth capital expenditures

  $ 27   $ 37   $ 15  

Adjusted EBITDA margin(1)

    48%     45%     42%  

Funds from operations (FFO)

    90     68     70  

Maintenance capital

    (45 )   (37 )   (39 )
               

Adjusted funds from operations (AFFO)

  $ 45   $ 31   $ 31  
               
(1)
Adjusted EBITDA margin is adjusted EBITDA divided by revenues.

        The following table presents our energy segment's proportionate share of financial results:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Revenues

  $ 349   $ 311   $ 323  

Cost attributed to revenues

    (183 )   (172 )   (186 )
               

Adjusted EBITDA

    166     139     137  

Interest expense

    (79 )   (71 )   (69 )

Other income

    3         2  
               

Funds from operations (FFO)

    90     68     70  

Depreciation and amortization

    (90 )   (76 )   (70 )

Deferred taxes and other items

        12     (254 )
               

Net income (loss)

  $   $ 4   $ (254 )
               

        The following table presents proportionate adjusted EBITDA and FFO for each business in this operating segment:

 
  Adjusted EBITDA   FFO  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Transmission, Distribution & Storage

  $ 118   $ 111   $ 117   $ 49   $ 45   $ 54  

District Energy

    48     28     20     41     23     16  
                           

Total

  $ 166   $ 139   $ 137   $ 90   $ 68   $ 70  
                           

2015 vs. 2014

        For the year ended December 31, 2015, our energy transmission, distribution and storage operations generated adjusted EBITDA of $118 million and FFO of $49 million compared to $111 million and $45 million, respectively, in 2014. Adjusted EBITDA and FFO increased from 2014 to 2015 as the segment benefitted from higher transportation volumes at our North American natural gas transmission operation.

90 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        For the year ended December 31, 2015, our district energy business contributed adjusted EBITDA of $48 million and FFO of $41 million compared to $28 million and $23 million, respectively, in 2014. Adjusted EBITDA and FFO increased compared to the year ended December 31, 2014 as a result of contributions from new district energy systems that were acquired in the third quarter of 2014, the completion of organic growth projects, such as the Louisiana State University medical center project, new customer connections and renewal of existing customers at favourable rates.

        Non-cash expenses are primarily comprised of depreciation, amortization, impairment charges, deferred taxes and other items. Depreciation and amortization increased to $90 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, up from $76 million for the same period in 2014, respectively. The increase is primarily due to additional depreciation as a result of our annual revaluation process and acquisitions in our district energy business, partially offset by the impact of foreign exchange. Deferred taxes and other expenses for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $nil compared to $12 million of income for the same period in 2014. The decrease of $12 million compared to the prior year is due to the benefit from a reduction in our gas storage obligation recognized in 2014 with the acquisition of our U.S. gas storage business.

2014 vs. 2013

        For the year ended December 31, 2014, our transmission, distribution and storage operations reported adjusted EBITDA of $111 million and FFO of $45 million compared to $117 million and $54 million, respectively, in 2013. Adjusted EBITDA and FFO decreased compared to the years ended December 31, 2013 due to weak market fundamentals that impacted transportation revenues at our North American natural gas transmission operation.

        For the year ended December 31, 2014, our district energy business contributed adjusted EBITDA of $28 million and FFO of $23 million compared to $20 million and $16 million, respectively, in 2013. Results increased as a result of contributions from new district energy systems that came on-line in the fourth quarter of 2013 and the third quarter of 2014 as well as increased contributions from our Australian distribution operation that benefitted from higher in-place connections. Prior period balances have been reclassified to include our Australian district energy business which was formerly presented as part of our energy distribution segment.

        Non-cash expenses are primarily comprised of depreciation, amortization, impairment charges, deferred taxes and other items. Depreciation and amortization increased to $76 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, up from $70 million in 2013. The increase is primarily due to additional depreciation as a result of acquisitions in our district energy business. Deferred taxes and other expenses for the year ended December 31, 2014 was $12 million of income compared to a $254 million loss in 2013. The increase of $266 million versus the comparative period is due primarily to a $275 million impairment charge taken on our North American natural gas transmission operation in 2013.

Brookfield Infrastructure 91


Table of Contents

Communications Infrastructure Operations

Results of Operations

        The following table presents our proportionate share of the key metrics of our communications infrastructure segment:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Growth capital expenditures

  $ 15   $   $  

Adjusted EBITDA margin(1)

    54%          

Funds from operations (FFO)

    60          

Maintenance capital

    (6 )        
               

Adjusted funds from operations (AFFO)

  $ 54   $   $  
               
(1)
Adjusted EBITDA margin is adjusted EBITDA divided by revenues.

        The following table presents our communications infrastructure platform's proportionate share of financial results:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Revenues

  $ 123   $   $  

Cost attributed to revenues

    (57 )        

Adjusted EBITDA

    66          
               

Interest expense

    (6 )        
               

Funds from operations (FFO)

    60          

Depreciation and amortization

    (46 )        

Deferred taxes and other items

    1          
               

Net income

  $ 15   $   $  
               

        For the year ended December 31, 2015, our communications infrastructure segment generated adjusted EBITDA and FFO of $66 million and $60 million, respectively, versus $nil and $nil, respectively, in the prior year, as this business was acquired on March 31, 2015. Non-cash expenses are primarily comprised of depreciation, amortization, deferred taxes and other items.

92 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

Corporate and other

        The following table presents the components of Corporate and Other, on a proportionate basis for the twelve months ended:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Timber adjusted EBITDA

  $   $   $ 39  

General and administrative costs

    (8 )   (8 )   (8 )

Base management fee

    (126 )   (107 )   (102 )
               

Adjusted EBITDA

    (134 )   (115 )   (71 )

Other income

    34     26     6  

Financing costs

                   

Timber

            (13 )

Corporate

    (27 )   (14 )   (13 )
               

Funds from operations (FFO)

    (127 )   (103 )   (91 )

Deferred taxes and other items

    65     26     (14 )
               

Net loss

  $ (62 ) $ (77 ) $ (105 )
               

2015 vs. 2014

        General and administrative costs for the year ended December 31, 2015 were consistent with the comparative periods. We anticipate that our general and administrative costs, excluding the base management fee, will be in the range of $8 million to $10 million per year. The base management fee increased by $19 million versus the same period in 2014 as a result of an increase in the partnership's market value plus recourse net debt due primarily to capital raised throughout 2015.

        Financing costs include interest expense and standby fees on our committed credit facility and corporate medium term notes, less interest earned on cash balances. Corporate financing costs for the year ended December 31, 2015 increased versus 2014 due to higher draws on our credit facility used to bridge finance new investments during 2015 and interest on corporate medium term notes issued in March and October 2015.

        Other income includes interest and distribution income as well as realized gains earned on corporate financial assets. The increase during the year ended December 31, 2015 versus the comparative period is primarily due to incremental interest income generated on corporate financial assets acquired over the past 12 months.

        Deferred taxes and other expenses for the year ended December 31, 2015 were $65 million of income compared to $26 million of income in 2014. The $39 million variance is due to incremental mark-to-market gains related to our foreign currency hedging program in 2015.

2014 vs. 2013

        In 2013, we completed the sale of our timberland operations for proceeds of $640 million, and as a result eliminated reporting on the timber segment and included results from this business in our Corporate and other segment. The timber business generated FFO for the year ended December 31, 2013 of $25 million.

Brookfield Infrastructure 93


Table of Contents

        General and administrative costs for the year ended December 31, 2015 were consistent with the comparative periods. We anticipate that our general and administrative costs, excluding the base management fee, will be in the range of $8 million to $10 million per year. The $5 million increase in base management fee from 2013 to 2014 was caused by the increase in market capitalization attributable to the higher trading price of our partnership units.

        Other income includes interest and distribution income as well as realized gains earned on corporate financial assets. The increase during the year ended December 31, 2014 versus the comparative period is primarily due to incremental interest income generated on corporate financial assets acquired in 2014.

        Deferred taxes and other expenses for the year ended December 31, 2014 were $26 million of income compared to an expense of $14 million in 2013. The $40 million variance is due to the benefit of mark-to-market gains related to our foreign currency hedging program in 2014, while 2013 contained mark-to-market losses.

SELECTED STATEMENT OF OPERATING RESULTS AND FINANCIAL POSITION INFORMATION

        To measure performance, we focus on FFO and AFFO, among other measures. We also focus on adjusted EBITDA and net income, taking into account items that we consider unusual or otherwise not reflective of the ongoing profitability of our operations. We define FFO as net income excluding the impact of depreciation and amortization, deferred income taxes, breakage and transaction costs, non-cash valuation gains or losses and other items. We define AFFO as FFO less maintenance capex, as detailed in the Reconciliation of Non-IFRS Financial Measures section of this MD&A. FFO is a measure of operating performance, and AFFO is a measure of the sustainable cash flow of our business. Since they are not calculated in accordance with, and do not have any standardized meanings prescribed by, IFRS, FFO and AFFO are unlikely to be comparable to similar measures presented by other issuers and FFO and AFFO have limitations as analytical tools. See the Reconciliation of Non-IFRS Financial Measures section for a more fulsome discussion, including a reconciliation to the most directly comparable IFRS measures.

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS, EXCEPT PER UNIT INFORMATION)
  2015   2014   2013  
Key Metrics
 

Funds from operations (FFO)

  $ 808   $ 724   $ 682  

Per unit FFO(1)

    3.59     3.45     3.30  

Distributions per unit

    2.12     1.92     1.72  

Payout ratio(2)

    68%     62%     57%  

Growth of per unit FFO(1)

    4%     5%     37%  

Adjusted funds from operations (AFFO)(3)

    672     593     553  

AFFO Yield

    13%     13%     13%  

(1)
Average units outstanding during the year of 224.9 million (2014: 210.1 million, 2013: 206.7 million).

(2)
Payout ratio is defined as distributions paid per unit (inclusive of GP incentive and preferred unit distributions) divided by FFO.

(3)
AFFO is defined as FFO less maintenance capital expenditures.

        For the year ended December 31, 2015 we posted strong results with FFO totaling $808 million ($3.59 per unit) compared to FFO of $724 million ($3.45 per unit) in 2014 and FFO of $682 million ($3.30 per unit) in 2013. Results increased by 4% and 9% on a per unit basis compared to 2014 and 2013, respectively, as organic growth across most of our businesses and incremental earnings on capital that we deployed over the past two years more than offset the impact of weakening foreign currencies against the U.S. dollar. Our payout ratio is 68%, which is within our long-term target range of 60-70%.

94 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

The following tables present selected statement of operating results and financial position information by operating segment on a proportionate basis:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015   2014   2013  
Statement of Operating Results
 

Net income (loss) by segment

                   

Utilities

  $ 210   $ 154   $ 236  

Transport

    135     103     65  

Energy

        4     (254 )

Communications Infrastructure

    15          

Corporate and other

    (62 )   (77 )   (105 )
               

Net income (loss)

  $ 298   $ 184   $ (58 )
               

Adjusted EBITDA by segment

                   

Utilities

  $ 524   $ 519   $ 547  

Transport

    555     599     497  

Energy

    166     139     137  

Communications Infrastructure

    66          

Corporate and other

    (134 )   (115 )   (71 )
               

Adjusted EBITDA

  $ 1,177   $ 1,142   $ 1,110  
               

FFO by segment

                   

Utilities

  $ 387   $ 367   $ 377  

Transport

    398     392     326  

Energy

    90     68     70  

Communications Infrastructure

    60          

Corporate and other

    (127 )   (103 )   (91 )
               

FFO

  $ 808   $ 724   $ 682  
               

Brookfield Infrastructure 95


Table of Contents


 
  As of  
 
  December 31,
2015
  December 31,
2014
 
(US$ MILLIONS)
 
Statement of Financial Position
 

Total assets by segment

             

Utilities

  $ 4,723   $ 4,805  

Transport

    5,338     4,970  

Energy

    2,744     1,816  

Communications Infrastructure

    824      

Corporate and other

    (196 )   (56 )
           

Total assets

  $ 13,433   $ 11,535  
           

Net debt by segment

             

Utilities

  $ 2,721   $ 2,843  

Transport

    2,118     2,513  

Energy

    1,735     1,030  

Communications Infrastructure

    386      

Corporate and other

    1,094     271  
           

Net debt

  $ 8,054   $ 6,657  
           

Partnership capital by segment

             

Utilities

  $ 2,002   $ 1,962  

Transport

    3,220     2,457  

Energy

    1,009     786  

Communications Infrastructure

    438      

Corporate and other

    (1,290 )   (327 )
           

Partnership capital

  $ 5,379   $ 4,878  
           

CAPITAL RESOURCES AND LIQUIDITY

        The nature of our asset base and the quality of our associated cash flows enable us to maintain a stable and low cost capital structure. We attempt to maintain sufficient financial liquidity at all times so that we are able to participate in attractive opportunities as they arise, better withstand sudden adverse changes in economic circumstances and maintain a relatively high distribution of our FFO to unitholders. Our principal sources of liquidity are cash flows from our operations, undrawn credit facilities and access to public and private capital markets. We also structure the ownership of our assets to enhance our ability to monetize them to provide additional liquidity, if necessary. Certain subsidiaries may be subject to limitations on their ability to declare and pay dividends. Any limitations existing at December 31, 2015 and 2014 were insignificant and would not adversely impact our ability to meet cash obligations.

96 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Our group-wide liquidity at December 31, 2015 was $2,400 million and was comprised of the following:

 
  As of  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  December 31, 2015
  December 31, 2014
 

Corporate cash and cash equivalents

  $    286   $    317  

Committed corporate credit facility

    1,875     1,400  

Draws on corporate credit facility

    (407 )   (246 )

Commitments under corporate credit facility

    (83 )   (110 )

Proportionate cash retained in businesses

    257     380  

Proportionate availability under subsidiary credit facilities

    472     384  
           

Group-wide liquidity

  $ 2,400   $ 2,125  
           

        At December 31, 2015, we believe that the sources of group-wide liquidity are sufficient for Brookfield Infrastructure's present requirements. We finished the year with group-wide liquidity of approximately $2,400 million, up from $2,125 million at December 31, 2014 primarily as a result of capital raised during the year being offset by funds deployed for acquisitions and growth capital expenditures. Brookfield Infrastructure increased its corporate revolving credit facility by $475 million to $1.875 billion and subsequent to year end, entered into a $500 million credit facility with Brookfield increasing total liquidity to $2.9 billion.

Brookfield Infrastructure 97


Table of Contents

        At the corporate level, we ended the year with $1,671 million of liquidity, an increase of $310 million compared to the prior year. We finance our assets principally at the operating company level with debt that generally has long-term maturities, few restrictive covenants and no recourse to either Brookfield Infrastructure or our other operations. At the operating company level, we endeavor to maintain prudent levels of debt. We also strive to ladder our principal repayments over a number of years. On a proportionate basis as of December 31, 2015, scheduled principal repayments over the next five years are as follows:

(US$ MILLIONS)
  Average Term
(years)
  2016   2017   2018   2019   2020   Beyond   Total  

Recourse borrowings

                                                 

Corporate borrowings

    4   $   $ 287   $ 90   $   $ 678   $ 325   $ 1,380  
                                   

Total recourse borrowings

    4         287     90         678     325     1,380  
                                   

Non-recourse borrowings(1)(2)

                                                 

Utilities

    9     254     5     5     60     207     2,227     2,758  

Transport

    8     193     174     258     94     154     1,402     2,275  

Energy

    6     34     944     2     277     98     406     1,761  

Communications Infrastructure

    5         63         160     63     137     423  
                                   

Total non-recourse borrowings(1)(2)

    8     481     1,186     265     591     522     4,172     7,217  
                                   

Total borrowings(3)

    8   $ 481   $ 1,473   $ 355   $ 591   $ 1,200   $ 4,497   $ 8,597  
                                   

Cash retained in businesses

                                                 

Utilities

                                            $ 37  

Transport

                                              157  

Energy

                                              26  

Communications Infrastructure

                                              37  

Corporate and other

                                              286  
                                                 

Total cash retained

                                            $ 543  
                                                 

Net debt

                                                 

Utilities

                                            $ 2,721  

Transport

                                              2,118  

Energy

                                              1,735  

Communications Infrastructure

                                              386  

Corporate

                                              1,094  
                                     

Total net debt

          6%     17%     4%     7%     14%     52%   $ 8,054  
                                     

(1)
Represents non-recourse debt to Brookfield Infrastructure as the holders have recourse only to the underlying operations.

(2)
Non-recourse project debt from our social infrastructure operations has been excluded from the above tables as this is long-term debt which is fully amortized during the term of our concession contracts.

(3)
As of December 31, 2015, approximately 25% has been issued as floating rate debt. Brookfield Infrastructure and its subsidiaries have entered into interest rate swaps whereby the floating rate debt has been converted to fixed rate debt, effectively reducing floating rate debt maturities to approximately 17% of our total borrowings.

        The average cash interest rates for our utilities, transport, energy, communications infrastructure and corporate segments were 5.3%, 6.6%, 6.9%, 2.1% and 3.2%, respectively
(December 31, 2014: 5.5%, 6.4%, 6.9%, N/A and 3.4% respectively).

98 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

        Our debt has an average term of eight years. On a proportionate basis, our net debt-to-capitalization ratio as of December 31, 2015 was 60%. Proportionate debt can be reconciled to consolidated debt as follows:

 
  As of December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
 

Consolidated debt

  $ 7,232   $ 6,809  

Add: proportionate share of debt of investments in associates:

             

Utilities

    643     684  

Transport

    764     1,140  

Energy

    1,462      

Communications Infrastructure

    423      

Add: proportionate share of debt directly associated with assets held for sale

    206     809  

Less: borrowings attributable to non-controlling interest

    (1,662 )   (1,834 )

Premium on debt and cross currency swaps

    (471 )   (254 )
           

Proportionate debt

  $ 8,597   $ 7,354  
           

CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS

        The table below outlines Brookfield Infrastructure's contractual obligations as at December 31, 2015:

 
  Payments due by period  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  Total   Less than 1 year   1-2 years   2-5 years   5+ years  

Accounts payable and other liabilities

  $ 497   $ 345   $ 30   $ 11   $ 111  

Interest-bearing liabilities(1)

    9,725     563     761     2,769     5,632  

Finance lease liabilities

    3     1     2          

Other long-term liabilities

    163     66     53     222     (178 )
                       

  $ 10,388   $ 975   $ 846   $ 3,002   $ 5,565  
                       

(1)
Comprised of non-recourse borrowings and corporate borrowings and includes interest payments of $257 million, $275 million, $764 million and $1,147 million for the periods as follows: less than 1 year, 1-2 years, 2-5 years and 5 years and thereafter, respectively. Interest payments are calculated based on interest rates in effect as at the balance sheet date.

        In addition, pursuant to the Master Services Agreement, on a quarterly basis we pay a base management fee to Brookfield equal to 0.3125% (1.25% annually) of the market value, plus recourse debt of our partnership net of cash. This fee is estimated to be approximately $130 million per year based on our market capitalization and unit price as at December 31, 2015.

        An integral part of the partnership's strategy is to participate with institutional investors in Brookfield-sponsored private infrastructure funds that target acquisitions that suit Brookfield Infrastructure's profile. In the normal course of business, the partnership has made commitments to Brookfield-sponsored private infrastructure funds to participate in these target acquisitions in the future, if and when identified.

Brookfield Infrastructure 99


Table of Contents

FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS—FOREIGN CURRENCY HEDGING STRATEGY

        To the extent that we believe it is economic to do so, our strategy is to hedge a portion of our equity investments and/or cash flows exposed to foreign currencies. The following key principles form the basis of our foreign currency hedging strategy:

    We leverage any natural hedges that may exist within our operations

    We utilize local currency debt financing to the extent possible

    We may utilize derivative contracts to the extent that natural hedges are insufficient

        The following table presents our hedged position in foreign currencies as of December 31, 2015:

 
  Net Investment Hedges  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  USD   AUD   GBP   BRL   CLP   CAD   EUR   COP  

Equity Investment—US$

  $ (26 ) $ 2,238   $ 1,260   $ 885   $ 127   $ 220   $ 618   $ 57  

FX contracts—US$

    3,583     (1,999 )   (1,031 )           (111 )   (442 )    
                                   

Net unhedged—US$

  $ 3,557   $ 239   $ 229   $ 885   $ 127   $ 109   $ 176   $ 57  
                                   

        At December 31, 2015, 66% of our net equity investment was denominated in U.S. dollars after the impact of hedges. For the 12 months ended December 31, 2015, we recorded gains in other comprehensive income of $89 million related to these contracts (2014: $141 million).

OTHER MARKET RISKS

Inflation Risk

        Certain of our subsidiaries and associates are subject to inflation risk. Most significantly, our South American electricity transmission operations and a portion of our toll road operations in Chile are subject to inflation risk as these debt portfolios are denominated in Unidad de Fomento ("UF") which is an inflation indexed Chilean peso monetary unit that is set daily, on the basis of the prior month's inflation rate. However, we believe this is offset by the nature of our revenues which are in large part indexed to Chilean inflation.

Commodity Risk

        Some of our operations are critically linked to the transport or production of key commodities. For example, in the long-term, our Australian regulated terminal operation relies on demand for coal exports, our Australian rail operation relies on demand for iron ore exports and our North American natural gas transmission operation relies on demand for natural gas and benefits from higher gas prices. While we endeavour to protect against short to medium term commodity demand risk wherever possible by structuring our contracts in a way that minimizes volume risk (e.g. minimum guaranteed volumes and 'take-or-pay' arrangements), these contract terms are not always able to be achieved and in any event the contract terms are finite and may include suspension or termination rights in favour of the customer. Accordingly, a long-term and sustained downturn in the demand for or price of a key commodity linked to one of our operations may have a material adverse impact on the financial performance or growth prospects of that particular operation, notwithstanding the use of take-or-pay contracts wherever possible. See Item 4.B "Business Overview" for more information.

        Revenues from our South American transmission operation are adjusted by a multi-factor inflation index that is designed to approximate changes in prices of the underlying components of the replacement cost of our transmission system. See Item 4.B "Business Overview". Due to the construction of the system, metals, such as aluminum, are a material percentage of replacement cost. Thus, changes in the price of these metals will impact our revenues.

100 Brookfield Infrastructure


Table of Contents

CAPITAL REINVESTMENT

        Our financing plan is to fund our recurring growth capital expenditures with cash flow generated by our operations, as well as debt financing that is sized to maintain our credit profile. To fund large scale development projects and acquisitions, we will evaluate a variety of capital sources including proceeds from selling non-core assets, equity and debt financing. We will seek to raise additional equity if we believe that we can earn returns on these investments in excess of the cost of the incremental equity.

        The following table highlights the sources and uses of cash for the year:

 
  Year ended December 31  
(US$ MILLIONS)
  2015
  2014
  2013
 

Funds from operations (FFO)

  $ 808   $ 724   $ 682  

Less maintenance capital

    (136 )   (131 )   (129 )
               

Funds available for distribution (AFFO)

    672     593     553  

Distributions paid

    (546 )   (448 )   (388 )
               

Funds available for reinvestment

    126     145     165  
               

Growth capital expenditures

    (597 )   (611 )   (504 )

Asset level debt funding of growth capital expenditures

    364     339     288  

New investments, net of disposals

    (1,669 )   (310 )   528  

Asset level (repayments) financings

    (243 )   77     419  

Draws (repayments) on corporate credit facility

    161     246     (546 )

Corporate debt issuance, net

    738          

Partnership unit issuances, net of repurchases

    889         335  

Proceeds from preferred unit issuances

    189          

Changes in working capital and other

    (112 )   (42 )   (42 )