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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from                     to     

Commission File Number 001-35985
cdw-20221231_g1.gif
CDW CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Delaware 26-0273989
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
75 Tri-State International 
Lincolnshire,Illinois60069
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(847) 465-6000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
None
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.01 per shareCDWNasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    ý  Yes    ¨  No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    ¨  Yes    ý  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    ý  Yes    ¨  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    ý  Yes    ¨  No


Table of Contents
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer
ý 
  Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
  Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.     Yes No

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements
of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.      Yes      No

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant
to §240.10D-1(b).      Yes      No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).       Yes      No

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2022, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $21,272 million, based on the per share closing sale price of $157.56 on that date.

As of February 21, 2023, there were 135,591,556 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Certain parts of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2023 annual meeting of stockholders to be held on May 18, 2023, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or before April 30, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.



CDW CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
Year Ended December 31, 2022
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item Page
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.
SIGNATURES
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws. All statements other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. These statements relate to analyses and other information, which are based on forecasts of future results or events and estimates of amounts not yet determinable. These statements also relate to our future prospects, developments and business strategies. We claim the protection of The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for all forward-looking statements in this report.
These forward-looking statements are identified by the use of terms and phrases such as “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “target” and similar terms and phrases or future or conditional verbs such as “could,” “may,” “should,” “will,” and “would.” However, these words are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. Although we believe that our plans, intentions and other expectations reflected in or suggested by such forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure you that we will achieve those plans, intentions or expectations. All forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results or events to differ materially from those that we expected.
Important factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from our expectations, or cautionary statements, are disclosed under the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this report. All written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us, or persons acting on our behalf, are expressly qualified in their entirety by those cautionary statements as well as other cautionary statements that are made from time to time in our other Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filings and public communications. You should evaluate all forward-looking statements in the context of these risks and uncertainties.
We caution you that the important factors referenced above may not reflect all of the factors that could cause actual results or events to differ from our expectations. In addition, we cannot assure you that we will realize the results or developments we expect or anticipate or, even if substantially realized, that they will result in the consequences or affect us or our operations in the way we expect. The forward-looking statements included in this report are made only as of the date hereof or, with respect to any documents incorporated by reference, available at the time such document was prepared or filed with the SEC. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as otherwise required by law.
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PART I
Item 1. Business
Our Company
CDW Corporation (together with its subsidiaries, the “Company,” “CDW” or “we”), a Fortune 500 company and member of the S&P 500 Index, is a leading multi-brand provider of information technology (“IT”) solutions to small, medium and large business, government, education and healthcare customers in the United States (“US”), the United Kingdom (“UK”) and Canada. Our broad array of offerings ranges from discrete hardware and software products to integrated IT solutions and services that include on-premise and cloud capabilities across hybrid infrastructure, digital experience and security.
On December 1, 2021, we completed our previously announced acquisition of Sirius Computer Solutions, Inc. (“Sirius”). This strategic acquisition has enhanced our services and solutions capabilities in key areas, including hybrid infrastructure, security, digital and data innovation, and cloud and managed services, as well as added services scale, further balancing and diversifying our portfolio mix. The addition of Sirius strengthens our role as the trusted technology advisor to our customers, with the expertise and portfolio breadth, depth and scale to orchestrate complete customer-centric solutions.
We are vendor, technology and consumption model “agnostic”, offering a broad selection of products and multi-branded IT solutions. Our solutions are delivered in physical, virtual and cloud-based environments through approximately 10,600 customer-facing coworkers, including sellers, highly-skilled technology specialists and advanced service delivery engineers. We are a leading sales channel partner for many original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), software publishers and cloud providers (collectively, our “vendor partners”), whose products we sell or include in the solutions we offer. We provide our vendor partners with a cost-effective way to reach customers and deliver a consistent brand experience through our established end-market coverage, technical expertise and extensive customer access.
We simplify the complexities of technology solutions across design, selection, procurement, integration and management for our customers. Our goal is to have our customers, regardless of their size, view us as a trusted adviser and extension of their IT resources. Our multi-brand offering approach across our vendor partners enables us to provide the solutions and services that best address each customer’s specific requirements to enable their desired business outcomes.
We have capabilities to provide integrated IT solutions in more than 150 countries for customers with primary locations in the US, UK and Canada, which are large and growing markets. According to the International Data Corporation (“IDC”), the total US, UK and Canadian IT market generated approximately $1.4 trillion in sales in 2022. We believe our addressable markets in the US, UK and Canada represent approximately $460 billion in annual sales. These are highly fragmented markets served by thousands of IT resellers and solutions providers. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we estimate that our total Net sales of $23.7 billion represented approximately 5% of our addressable markets. We believe that demand for IT will continue to outpace general economic growth in the markets we serve, fueled by new technologies, including hybrid and cloud computing, virtualization and mobility as well as growing end-user demand for security, efficiency and productivity.
Value Proposition
We are positioned in the middle of the IT ecosystem where we procure products from OEMs, software publishers, cloud providers and wholesale distributors and provide added value to our customers by helping them navigate through complex options and implement the best solution for their business. In this role, we believe we provide unique value to both our vendor partners and our customers.
Our value proposition to our customersOur value proposition to our vendor partners
Broad selection of products and multi-branded IT solutions
Access to over 250,000 customers
Value-added services with integration capabilitiesLarge and established customer channels
Highly-skilled specialists and engineersStrong distribution and implementation capabilities
Solutions across IT lifecycleCustomer relationships driving insight into technology roadmaps
Customers
We provide integrated IT solutions to over 250,000 small, medium and large business, government, education and healthcare customers throughout the US, UK and Canada.
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We serve our customers through sales teams focused on customer end-markets that are supported by technical specialists and highly-skilled service delivery engineers. Our market segmentation allows us to customize our offerings and to provide enhanced expertise in designing and implementing IT solutions that meet our customer’s specific needs.
We have three reportable segments, Corporate, Small Business and Public. Our Corporate segment primarily serves US private sector business customers with more than 250 employees. Our Small Business segment primarily serves US private sector business customers with up to 250 employees. Our Public segment is comprised of government agencies and education and healthcare institutions in the US. We also have two other operating segments: CDW UK and CDW Canada, each of which do not meet the reportable segment quantitative thresholds and, accordingly, are included in an all other category (“Other”).
In our US business, which represents approximately 90% of our revenues, we currently have five dedicated customer channels: corporate, small business, government, education and healthcare, each of which generated $1.9 billion or greater in Net sales in 2022. Net sales to customers in the UK and Canada combined generated $2.9 billion in 2022. We believe this diversity of customer end-markets provides us with multiple avenues for growth and has been a key factor in our ability to weather economic and technology cycles and continue to gain market share.
Partners
We provide more than 100,000 products and services from more than 1,000 partners, including well-established companies such as Adobe, APC, Apple, Cisco, Dell EMC, Google, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, HP Inc., IBM, Intel, Lenovo, Microsoft, NetApp, Nutanix, Palo Alto Networks, Poly, Pure Storage, Samsung, and VMware, as well as from emerging technology companies to expand our portfolio. This broad portfolio of partners and technologies enables us to offer customers significant options and meet customer demand for the products and solutions that best meet their needs. We believe our value proposition to vendor partners enables us to evolve our offering as new technologies emerge and new companies seek us as a channel partner.
In 2022, we generated over $1.5 billion of Net sales from each of our five largest vendor partners. We have received the highest level of certification from major vendor partners such as Cisco, Dell EMC, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, IBM, Microsoft, NetApp, Nutanix, Palo Alto Networks, Samsung, and VMware which reflects the extensive product and solution knowledge and capabilities that we bring to our customers’ IT challenges. These certifications also provide us with access to favorable pricing, tools and resources, including vendor incentive programs, which we use to provide additional value to our customers. Our vendor partners also regularly recognize us with top awards and select us to develop and grow new customer solutions.
Product Procurement
We may purchase all or only some of the products our vendor partners offer for resale to our customers or for inclusion in the solutions we offer. Each vendor partner agreement provides for specific terms and conditions, which may include one or more of the following: product return privileges, price protection policies, purchase discounts and vendor incentive programs, such as purchase or sales rebates and cooperative advertising reimbursements. We also purchase software from major software publishers and cloud providers for resale to our customers or for inclusion in the solutions we offer. Our agreements allow us to resell cloud based solutions, software or other licensed products to the end-user customer.
In addition to purchasing products directly from our vendor partners, we purchase products from wholesale distributors for resale to our customers or for inclusion in the solutions we offer. These wholesale distributors provide logistics management and supply-chain services for us, as well as for our vendor partners.
Inventory Management
We operate two distribution centers in North America and one distribution center in the UK which combined are more than 1 million square feet in size. Leveraging our distribution and logistics capabilities, we handle and ship approximately 38 million units annually on an aggregate basis from our distribution centers.
We also have drop-shipment arrangements with many of our OEMs and wholesale distributors, which permit us to offer products to our customers without having to take physical delivery at our distribution centers. These arrangements represented approximately 51% of total North America Net sales in 2022. Electronic delivery for software licenses is approximately 12% of total North America Net sales in 2022.
We believe that the location of our distribution centers allows us to efficiently ship products to our customers and provide timely access to our principal distributors. We believe that our logistics and configuration capabilities delivered by our highly skilled and certified team enable us to customize technology for our customers to meet their unique needs.
We believe competitive sources of supply are available in substantially all of the product categories that we offer.
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Competition
The market for technology products and services is highly competitive and subject to economic conditions and rapid technological changes. This competitive environment includes the ability to tailor specific solutions to customer needs, the quality and breadth of product and service offerings, knowledge and expertise of sales force, customer service, price, product availability, speed of delivery and credit availability. We face competition from resellers, direct manufacturers, large service providers, cloud providers, telecommunication companies, and to a lesser extent e-tailers and retailers. Smaller, local or regional value-added resellers typically focus on a single solution suite or portfolio of solutions from one or two vendor partners.
We believe we are well positioned to compete within this marketplace due to our competitive advantages. We expect the competitive landscape to continue to evolve as new technologies are developed. While innovation can help our business as it creates new offerings for us to sell, it can also disrupt our business model and create new and stronger competitors. For additional information on the risks associated with competition, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
We believe we have sustainable competitive advantages that differentiate us in the marketplace. We have built a strong sales organization and deep services and solutions capabilities over time and expect to continue to invest to enhance these capabilities, which we believe when combined with our competitive advantages of scale and a performance driven culture, will help drive sustainable, profitable growth for us today and in the future. Our scale enables us to have a national and international footprint, as well as invest in resources to meet specific customer end-market needs. Our sellers are organized around unique customer end-markets that are both vertically and geographically focused. Our scale enables our ability to invest in technical coworkers who work directly with our sellers to help customers implement increasingly complex IT solutions. We have cross-border relationships that enable us to serve the needs of our US, UK and Canadian-based customers in more than 150 countries. Our strong, execution-oriented culture is underpinned by our compensation system.
Our Offerings
Our offerings range from discrete hardware and software products and services to complex integrated solutions including one or more of these elements. We believe our customers increasingly view technology purchases as integrated solutions vital to their strategies and missions rather than discrete product and services categories. We estimate that approximately 50% of our Net sales in 2022 in the US came from sales of product categories and services typically associated with solutions. Our hardware products include notebooks/mobile devices (including tablets), network communications, desktop computers, video monitors, enterprise and data storage, and other hardware. Our software products include application suites, security, virtualization, operating systems and network management. Our services include advisory and design, software development, implementation, managed services and warranties.
IT is important to both critical business operations and to drive greater growth and productivity. To help our customers accomplish this, we have built a robust portfolio of solutions across hybrid infrastructure, digital experience, security and services that we provide in physical, virtual, or cloud-based environments.
We provide customers with cloud solutions and services through public cloud solutions, which reside off customer premises on a public (shared) infrastructure, private cloud solutions, which reside on customer premises, and hybrid cloud solutions that deliver the benefits of both public and private solutions. Our migration, integration and managed services help our customers simplify cloud adoption, as well as the ongoing management of cloud solutions, across the entire IT lifecycle. Service delivery engineers work with our customers to design cloud solutions meeting their organizational, technology and financial objectives.
We offer a broad portfolio of integrated solutions that include the following on-premise, hybrid and cloud capabilities:
Services: We help organizations design, orchestrate and manage technology for their unique needs. Our offerings demonstrate our expertise in the most critical technology areas for our customers. Our service delivery engineers have expertise which include integrated cloud, collaboration, data center, mobility and security business technology, from the physical to the application layer. We leverage best-in-class partner technology platforms to seamlessly architect and manage disparate IT platforms into integrated business technology solutions.
Hybrid Infrastructure: We assess our customers application infrastructure need, design flexible, resilient and efficient solutions and manage the solution throughout its lifecycle. Our broad portfolio of hardware and software products, encompassing both on and off-premise solutions, enables us to provide well-integrated solutions, including converged and hyper-converged infrastructure, physical and virtualized servers, software defined automation and orchestration solutions, hybrid storage, energy-efficient power and cooling, and data center networking.
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Digital Experience: We build end-to-end solutions that deliver access to applications that improve our customers’ productivity regardless of device or location. We connect our customers’ physical devices, including laptops, desktops, IP Phones, mobile devices and print systems. We utilize collaboration solutions to unite applications via the integration of products that facilitate the use of multiple enterprise communication methods including email, persistent chat, social media, voice and video. We also host cloud-based collaboration solutions. Our solutions provide the tools that allow our customers’ employees to share knowledge, ideas and information among each other and with clients and partners effectively, securely and quickly.
Security: We assess our customers’ security needs and provide them with tools and services to help effectively manage risk. We are a security solutions integrator that combines our expertise in design, solution architecture and implementation services. Our customer solutions can take the form of hardware, software or Software as a Service across a multitude of categories such as: endpoint security, email security, web security, intrusion prevention, authentication, firewall, virtual private network services and network access control. Security consulting engagements include security assessment, policy and procedure gap analysis, security roadmaps and health checks.
Although we believe customers increasingly view technology purchases as solutions rather than discrete product and service categories, our Net sales by major category, based upon our internal category classifications, was as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
2022
2021
2020
Dollars in
Millions
Percentage
of Total Net Sales
Dollars in
Millions
Percentage
of Total Net Sales
Dollars in
Millions
Percentage
of Total Net Sales
Hardware:
Notebooks/Mobile Devices$6,179.7 26.0 %$6,659.4 32.0 %$5,486.2 29.7 %
Netcomm Products2,729.7 11.5 1,950.9 9.4 1,955.0 10.6 
Desktops1,284.9 5.4 1,203.6 5.8 1,132.4 6.1 
Video1,785.2 7.5 1,605.0 7.7 1,190.8 6.4 
Enterprise and Data Storage (Including Drives)1,375.0 5.8 992.1 4.8 947.4 5.1 
Other Hardware4,736.5 19.9 4,358.6 20.9 4,121.6 22.3 
Total Hardware18,091.0 76.1 16,769.6 80.6 14,833.4 80.2 
Software(1)
3,684.9 15.5 2,802.4 13.5 2,581.0 14.0 
Services(1)
1,842.0 7.8 1,126.1 5.4 913.9 4.9 
Other(2)
130.8 0.6 122.7 0.5 139.2 0.9 
Total Net sales$23,748.7 100.0 %$20,820.8 100.0 %$18,467.5 100.0 %
1.Certain software and services revenue is recorded on a net basis for accounting purposes, so the category percentage of Net sales is not representative of the category percentage of gross profits.
2.Includes items such as delivery charges to customers.
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Our Internal Capabilities
Human Capital Management
Our culture is reflected through our coworkers, who are driven to serve our customers, our partners, our communities and all our stakeholders. We provide our coworkers with diverse experiences, engagement opportunities, strong training and development, competitive compensation and meaningful careers, which creates a high-performance culture that is central to CDW’s success. We know that an inclusive environment produces the best ideas and our coworkers are driven to finding the best technology solutions to enable the mission-driven needs of our customers.
We have approximately 15,100 coworkers across the globe, with 12,250 coworkers in the US, 1,750 in the UK and 1,100 in Canada. More than 50% of our US Net sales are generated by account managers who have more than seven years of tenure with CDW. Our coworker relations are strong and none of our coworkers are covered by collective bargaining agreements.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
CDW’s commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion is a core value that shapes who we are, and how we work, grow and do business. We remain steadfast in our commitment to a culture of inclusion and equity, where everyone feels they belong.
Our diversity, equity and inclusion efforts foster an inclusive environment for coworkers and job candidates that cannot be separated from how we work with customers, partners and the community. It all comes back to our character, values and ethics as an organization. We are focused on making sure our values are reflected in our behavior where everyone feels they are seen, heard and valued.
Coworker Engagement
We strive to create a culture of collaboration, belonging and individual growth and reward. Our coworker engagement strategy utilizes frequent, short surveys as well as virtual listening groups to gain a real-time understanding of the coworker experience at CDW. As a result of our coworkers’ consistent engagement, we have garnered meaningful feedback and recommendations, which have led to measurable and impactful results.
Training & Development
We focus on skills enhancement, leadership development, innovation excellence and professional growth throughout our coworkers’ careers at CDW. Our programs include: leadership development trainings, unique developmental opportunities for our high-potential emerging leaders, a 24-month training program for new North American sales coworkers, technical skill development training, an 15-month apprentice-style program for aspiring engineers, and coworker access to over 15,000 on-demand educational modules.
Total Rewards
Our total rewards philosophy provides market competitive compensation and benefits designed to attract, retain and motivate our coworkers. We pay for performance through our compensation programs which are aligned to both individual and company performance. Our sellers’ compensation is aligned to their individual performance and provides substantially uncapped commission opportunity. We provide a comprehensive benefits package to our coworkers, including healthcare, retirement plans with profit sharing and match, tuition assistance, inclusive parental leave policies, adoption assistance, paid time off, paid volunteer hours and philanthropic match programs based upon eligibility and location.
Health and Safety
We continue to follow our three guiding principles. First, safeguard the health and well-being of our coworkers, second, serve the mission-driven needs of our customers and third, support our communities. We have implemented a wide variety of measures to help keep our coworkers healthy and safe. Since the start of the pandemic, we have maintained a cross-functional response team led by senior leadership to guide the Company’s response to COVID-19, and we continually monitor guidance of the world’s leading health authorities. In addition, we implemented safety protocols at our distribution centers, such as additional personal protective equipment, expanded health and safety training and increased available mental health resources.
Oversight and Management
Our Coworker Services organization is responsible for the strategy and management of coworker-related matters, working in concert with all our leaders. Our Board understands the importance of our inclusive, performance-driven culture to our ongoing success and is actively engaged with our President and Chief Executive Officer and our Chief People Officer across a broad range of human capital management topics.
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Marketing
We market the CDW brand to US, UK and Canadian audiences using a variety of channels that include digital, broadcast, print, social and other emerging channels. We market to current and prospective customers through integrated marketing programs including behaviorally targeted email, display ads, paid search, social media, events and sponsorships, as well as mass media. This promotion is also supported by integrated communication efforts targeting technology decision-makers, influencers and the general public using a combination of expert technology articles, videos, case studies, media interviews and speaking opportunities.
As a result of our relationships with our vendor partners, a significant portion of our advertising and marketing expenses is reimbursed through cooperative advertising programs. These programs are at the discretion of our vendor partners and are typically tied to sales or other commitments to be met by us within a specified period of time. We believe that our results and analytical techniques that measure the efficacy of our marketing programs differentiate us from our competitors.
Information Technology Systems
We maintain customized IT and unified communication systems that enhance our ability to provide prompt, efficient and expert service to our customers. In addition, these systems enable centralized management of key functions, including purchasing, inventory management, billing and collection of accounts receivable, sales, distribution and financial accounting and reporting. Our systems provide us with thorough and detailed information regarding key aspects of our business. These capabilities help us to continuously enhance productivity, ship customer orders quickly and efficiently, respond appropriately to industry changes and provide high quality customer service. We believe our websites and software tools, which provide electronic order processing and advanced features, such as order tracking, reporting and asset management, make it easy for customers to transact business with us and ultimately strengthen our customer relationships.
History
Founded in 1984, CDW became a public company in 1993. In 2006, we acquired Berbee Information Networks Corporation to expand our capabilities in customized engineering services and managed services. In 2007, we went private and then became public again in 2013.
In 2015, we acquired control of 100% of UK-based IT solutions provider, Kelway TopCo Limited. Rebranded CDW UK in 2016, the acquisition extended our footprint into the UK.
In 2019, we acquired Canada-based technology solutions provider, Scalar Decisions Inc.
CDW’s AmplifiedTM Services portfolio has been aided by acquisitions of various companies. In addition to the acquisition of Sirius in 2021, an IT solutions integrator, as described above, we further strengthened our consulting and services expertise by acquiring Aptris, an IT service management solutions provider and ServiceNow Elite partner, in 2019. In 2020, we acquired IGNW, a cloud-native services, software development and data orchestration capability provider. In 2021, we acquired Amplified IT, which has expert capability in Google Workspace for Education and Focal Point Data Risk, which has expert capabilities in cybersecurity services.
Available Information
We maintain a website at www.cdw.com. You may access our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 with the SEC free of charge at our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Our website and the information contained on that site, or connected to that site, are not incorporated into and are not a part of this report.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
There are many factors that could adversely affect our business, results of operations and cash flows, some of which are beyond our control. The following is a description of some important factors that may cause our business prospects, results of operations and cash flows in future periods to differ materially from those currently expected or desired. Factors not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and cash flows.
Business and Operational Risks
Our business depends on our vendor partner relationships and the terms of the agreements governing those relationships.
Our solutions portfolio includes products and services from OEMs, software publishers and cloud providers. We are authorized by these vendor partners to sell all or some of their products and services via direct marketing activities. Our authorization with each vendor partner is subject to specific terms and conditions regarding such things as sales channel restrictions, product return privileges, services performance commitments, price protection policies, purchase discounts and vendor partner programs and funding, including purchase rebates, sales volume rebates, purchasing incentives and cooperative advertising reimbursements. However, we do not have any long-term contracts with our vendor partners and many of these arrangements are terminable upon notice by either party. A reduction in vendor partner programs or funding or our failure to timely react to changes in vendor partner programs or funding could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, a reduction in the amount or a change in the terms of credit granted to us by our vendor partners could increase our need for, and the cost of, working capital and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or cash flows.
From time to time, vendor partners may terminate or limit our right to sell some or all of their products or change the terms and conditions or reduce or discontinue the incentives that they offer us. For example, there is no assurance that, as our vendor partners continue to sell directly to end users and through resellers, they will not limit or curtail the availability of their products to solutions providers like us. Any such termination or limitation or the implementation of such changes could have a negative impact on our business, results of operations or cash flows.
We purchase the products included in our portfolio both directly from our vendor partners and from wholesale distributors. A significant portion of our sales are derived from products manufactured by Apple, Cisco, Dell EMC, HP Inc., Lenovo and Microsoft. In addition, purchases from two wholesale distributors, Ingram Micro and TD SYNNEX, represent approximately one-third of our total US purchases. The loss of, or change in business relationship with, any of these or any other wholesale distributors or key vendor partners, or the diminished availability of their products, including due to backlogs for their products, could reduce the supply and increase the cost of products we sell and negatively impact our competitive position.
Further, the sale, spin-off or combination of any of our wholesale distributors or key vendor partners and/or certain of their business units, including any such sale to or combination with a vendor with whom we do not currently have a commercial relationship or whose products we do not sell, or our inability to develop relationships with new and emerging vendors and vendors that we have not historically represented in the marketplace, could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations or cash flows.
The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic has adversely impacted and could continue to adversely impact our business and results of operations and could also adversely impact our cash flows, financial condition and liquidity.
The global spread of COVID-19 continues to create significant macroeconomic uncertainty, volatility and disruption. Many governments and health authorities have from time to time implemented recommendations or mandates intended to slow the further spread of the disease, such as shelter-in-place orders, resulting in the temporary closure of schools and non-essential businesses, or social distancing and other mitigation measures, resulting in modified operations of various businesses including ours, and these measures may remain in place for a significant period of time. While some of these restrictions have been lifted or eased in certain jurisdictions, the recovery process remains uncertain. We have experienced and could continue to experience disruptions, including as a result of resurgences of COVID-19, that prevent us from meeting the demands of our customers, such as product constraints from our vendor partners and wholesale distributors and other disruptions to our supply chain, disruptions in or restrictions on the ability of our coworkers to work effectively, temporary closures of our distribution facilities, modifications in the operation of facilities that remain open and disruptions of commercial delivery services. The impact of COVID-19 and measures implemented to slow the spread have caused and could continue to cause delay in, or limit the ability of, our customers to place orders for our products and services and make timely payments to us and could materially increase our labor, logistics and other costs. As long as the pandemic continues, our coworkers will continue to be exposed to health risks, and we could be negatively impacted in the future if a significant number of our coworkers, or coworkers who perform critical functions, become unable to work as a result of exposure to COVID-19. In addition, the pandemic has resulted in a
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widespread health crisis that has adversely affected the economies and financial markets of many countries, including the US, the UK and Canada. During the COVID-19 pandemic and even after it has subsided, we may experience adverse impacts to our business as a result of the pandemic’s global economic impact, including any recession, economic downturn or volatility, government spending cuts, tightening of credit markets or increased unemployment that has occurred or may occur in the future, which could cause our customers and potential customers to postpone or reduce spending on technology products or services or put downward pressure on prices. In addition, we have experienced and may continue to experience inflationary pressures, resulting in increased product prices that we may be unable to pass on to our customers.
Individually and collectively, the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic have adversely impacted and could continue to adversely impact our business and results of operations and could also adversely impact our cash flows, financial condition and liquidity. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and liquidity in the future will depend on future developments, which are uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to, the ultimate duration of the pandemic, future resurgences and emergences of new variants of the virus and their severity, the availability, efficacy and acceptance of vaccines and treatments, actions taken to contain the virus including reimplementation of closures, and the effectiveness of these actions, and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume and be sustained. The COVID-19 pandemic has and may continue to have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.
Our sales are dependent on continued innovations in hardware, software and services by our vendor partners and the competitiveness of their offerings, and our ability to partner with new and emerging technology providers.
The technology industry is characterized by rapid innovation and the frequent introduction of new and enhanced hardware, software and services, such as cloud-based and other “as a service” solutions. We have been and will continue to be dependent on innovations in hardware, software and services, as well as the acceptance of those innovations by customers. Also, customers may delay spending while they evaluate new technologies. A decrease in the rate of innovation, a lack of acceptance of innovations by our customers or delays in technology spending by our customers, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or cash flows.
In addition, if we are unable to anticipate and expand our capabilities to keep pace with changes in technology and new hardware, software and services, for example by providing the appropriate training to our account managers, technology specialists and engineers to enable them to effectively sell and deliver such new offerings to customers, our business, results of operations or cash flows could be adversely affected.
We also are dependent upon our vendor partners for the development and marketing of hardware, software and services to compete effectively with hardware, software and services of vendors whose products and services we do not currently offer or that we are not authorized to offer in one or more customer channels. To the extent that a vendor’s offering that is in high demand is not available to us for resale in one or more customer channels, and there is not a competitive offering from another vendor that we are authorized to sell in such customer channels, our business, results of operations or cash flows could be adversely impacted.
Substantial competition could reduce our market share and significantly harm our financial performance.
We compete with hardware resellers, manufacturers who sell directly to customers, large service providers and system integrators, communications service providers, cloud providers, e-commerce companies and office supply retailers, among others. We expect the competitive landscape to continue to evolve as new technologies and consumption models emerge, such as cloud-based and other “as a service” solutions, hyper-converged infrastructure and embedded software solutions. Our continued competitiveness depends upon our ability to anticipate and evolve at pace and scale with new technologies, services and solutions through strategic and timely investments in innovation, expansion of offerings and the capabilities necessary to implement them.
While innovation can help our business as it creates new offerings for us to sell, it can also disrupt our business model and create new and stronger competitors. For instance, while cloud-based solutions present an opportunity for us, cloud-based solutions and technology solutions as a service could increase the amount of sales directly to customers rather than through solutions providers like us, or could reduce the amount of hardware we sell. In addition, some of our hardware and software vendor partners sell, and could intensify their efforts to sell, their products directly to our customers. Moreover, traditional OEMs have increased their services capabilities through mergers and acquisitions with service providers, which could potentially increase competition in the market to provide comprehensive technology solutions to customers. If we are unable to effectively respond to the evolving competitive landscape, or respond in a manner that is less effective than that of our competitors, our business, results of operations or cash flows could be adversely impacted.
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We focus on providing high quality service to gain new customers and retain existing customers. To the extent we face increased competition to gain and retain customers, we may be required to reduce prices, increase advertising expenditures or take other actions which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows. Additionally, some of our competitors may reduce their prices in an attempt to stimulate sales, which may require us to reduce prices. This would require us to sell a greater number of products to achieve the same level of Net sales and Gross profit. If such a reduction in prices occurs and we are unable to attract new customers and sell increased quantities of products, our sales growth and profitability could be adversely affected.
The success of our business depends on the continuing development, maintenance and operation of our information technology systems.
Our success is dependent on the accuracy, proper utilization and continuing operation, maintenance and development of our information technology systems, including our business systems, such as our sales, customer management, financial and accounting, marketing, purchasing, warehouse management, e-commerce and mobile systems, as well as our operational platforms, including voice and data networks and power systems. The quality and our utilization of the information generated by our information technology systems, and our success in implementing new systems and upgrades, affects, among other things, our ability to:
conduct business with our customers, including delivering services and solutions to them;
provide the means to effectively manage global operations across time zones;
keep pace with changes and innovation and compete effectively;
effectuate comprehensive and reliable data collection, maintenance and governance;
manage our inventory, accounts receivable and accounts payable;
support planned growth in services and solutions and continued evolution of the business;
purchase, sell, ship and invoice our hardware and software products and provide and invoice our services efficiently and on a timely basis; and
maintain our cost-efficient operating model while scaling our business.
Our information technology systems are inherently exposed to varied technological threats beyond our control. While we have taken steps to protect our information technology systems from a variety of threats, both internal and external, and from human error, there can be no guarantee that those steps will be effective. Furthermore, although we have redundant systems at a separate location to back up our primary systems, there can be no assurance that these redundant systems will operate properly if and when required. Any disruption to or infiltration of our information technology systems could significantly harm our reputation, business and results of operations due to failure to comply with customer, partner, legal or regulatory obligations.
Breaches of data security and the failure to protect our information technology systems from cybersecurity threats could adversely impact our business.
Our business involves the handling, storage and transmission of proprietary information and sensitive or confidential data, including personal information of coworkers, customers, partners and others, which we must do in compliance with applicable law. In connection with our services business, some of our coworkers have access to our customers’ confidential data and other information. Additionally, third parties, such as data center colocation and hosted solution partners, provide services to us and also provide services as a component of our services delivery to customers. These third parties or others that are a part of our supply chain could also be a source of security risk in the event of a failure to protect their own products, security systems and infrastructure and we may not be able to control the manner in which these third parties respond to any security breach. We have privacy and data security policies, practices and controls in place that are designed to prevent security breaches; however, as newer technologies evolve, as more business is conducted over the internet and remotely, as we acquire more business operations and as the portfolio of the service providers we exchange confidential information, software and/or hardware with expands, we are exposed to increased risks from breaches in security, including those arising from human error, negligence or mismanagement or from illegal or fraudulent acts, such as cyberattacks.
We, and some third parties upon which we rely, regularly experience malicious attacks and other attempts to gain authorized access to our systems, and attacks against us by state-sponsored organizations and nation-states may increase during periods of intense diplomatic or armed conflicts such as the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Although we have not experienced a material security breach to date, the evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, in light of new and sophisticated
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methods used by criminals and cyberterrorists, state-sponsored organizations and nation-states, including computer viruses, malware, ransomware, phishing, misrepresentation, social engineering and forgery, make it increasingly challenging to anticipate, detect and defend against these threats. We and our third party partners have implemented various security controls to meet compliance and privacy requirements while defending against these evolving security threats. However, breaches in security could expose us, our supply chain, our customers or other individuals to significant disruptions and a risk of public disclosure, loss or misuse of confidential data.
Security breaches could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or regulatory penalties under laws protecting the privacy of personal information (including those under the European Union General Data Protection Regulation and the California Privacy Rights Act), significant remediation costs as well as the loss of existing or potential customers and, ultimately, damage to our brand and reputation. While we maintain insurance coverages that are intended to address certain aspects of data security, such insurance may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise, and may not continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms or at all. Moreover, media or other reports of perceived vulnerabilities in our network security or perceived lack of security within our environment, even if inaccurate, could materially adversely impact our reputation and business. The cost and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures could also be significant. Such breaches, costs and consequences could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows.
If we or our third-party service providers fail to provide high-quality services to our customers, our reputation, brand, business, results of operations or cash flows could be adversely affected.
Our services include professional services, managed services, warranties, configuration services, partner services and telecom services. Additionally, we deliver and manage mission critical software, systems and network solutions for our customers. We also offer certain services, such as implementation and installation services and repair services, to our customers through various third-party service providers engaged to perform these services on our behalf. If we or our third-party service providers fail to provide high-quality services to our customers or such services result in an unplanned disruption of our customers’ businesses, this could, among other things, result in legal claims and proceedings and liability for us. Moreover, as we expand our services and solutions business and provide increasingly complex services and solutions, we may be exposed to additional operational, regulatory and other risks. We also could incur liability for failure to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to the new services and solutions we provide to our customers. If any of the foregoing were to occur, our reputation with our customers, our brand and our business, results of operations or cash flows could be adversely affected.
If we lose any of our key personnel, are unable to attract and retain the talent required for our business, our labor costs significantly increase or if our approach to workforce management is ineffective, our business could be disrupted and our financial performance could suffer.
Our success is heavily dependent upon our ability to attract, develop, engage and retain key personnel to manage, lead, innovate and grow our business, including our key executive, management, sales, services and technical coworkers.
Our future success will depend to a significant extent on the efforts of our leadership team, as well as the effectiveness of our succession planning and efforts to develop and promote top talent. Our future success also will depend on our ability to retain and motivate our customer-facing coworkers, who have been given critical CDW knowledge regarding, and the opportunity to develop strong relationships with, many of our customers. In addition, as we seek to expand our offerings of value-added services and solutions, our success will even more heavily depend on attracting and retaining highly skilled technology specialists and engineers, for whom the market is extremely competitive.
In order to attract, retain and motivate key personnel in a competitive marketplace, it is important to provide a competitive compensation package. If our compensation package is not viewed as being competitive, our ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel could be adversely affected. Additionally, as minimum wage rates increase or related laws and regulations change, we have and may need to continue to increase not only the wage rates of our minimum wage coworkers, but also the wages paid to our other hourly or salaried coworkers.
A sustained labor shortage or increased turnover rates within our coworker base could lead to increased costs, such as increased overtime to meet demand and increased wage rates to attract and retain coworkers, and could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows. Additionally, if we fail to effectively manage our workforce, we may need to terminate or reposition coworkers within our Company to eliminate an abundance of or to reconfigure resources, which could damage our coworker relations and our ability to attract and retain key personnel.
If we are unable to attract, develop, engage and retain key personnel, or if our approach to workforce management is ineffective, our relationships with our vendor partners and customers and our ability to expand our offerings of value-added services and solutions could be adversely affected. Moreover, if we are unable to continue to train our sales, services and technical personnel effectively to meet the rapidly changing technology needs of our customers, the overall quality and
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efficiency of such personnel could decrease. Such consequences could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows.
A natural disaster or other adverse occurrence at one of our primary facilities or a third-party provider location could damage our business.
If the warehouse and distribution equipment or operations at one of our distribution centers were to be seriously damaged or disrupted by a natural disaster, which may increase in number or severity as a result of climate change, or other adverse occurrence, including disruption related to political or social unrest, we could utilize another distribution center or third-party distributors to ship products to our customers. However, this may not be sufficient to avoid interruptions in our service and may not enable us to meet all of the needs of our customers and would cause us to incur incremental operating costs. In addition, we operate numerous facilities which may contain both business-critical data and confidential information of our customers and third parties, such as data center colocation and hosted solution partners, and third-parties provide services as a component of our services delivery to customers. A natural disaster or other adverse occurrence at any of our major data storage locations or third-party provider locations could negatively impact our business, results of operations or cash flows.
Increases in the cost of commercial delivery services or disruptions of those services could materially adversely impact our business.
We generally ship hardware products to our customers by FedEx, United Parcel Service and other commercial delivery services and invoice customers for delivery charges. If we are unable to pass on to our customers future increases in the cost of commercial delivery services (including those that may result from an increase in fuel or personnel costs or a need to use higher cost delivery channels during periods of increased demand), our profitability could be adversely affected. Additionally, strikes, inclement weather, natural disasters or other service interruptions by such shippers or periods of increased demand on delivery services, such as those we have experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, could materially adversely affect our ability to deliver or receive products on a timely basis.
We are exposed to accounts receivable and inventory risks.
We extend credit to our customers for a significant portion of our sales. We are subject to the risk that our customers may not pay for the products they have purchased, may pay at a slower rate than we have historically experienced, or may seek extended payment terms. This risk is heightened during periods of global or industry-specific economic downturn or uncertainty, during periods of rising interest rates or, in the case of public sector customers, during periods of budget constraints. Significant failures of customers to timely pay all amounts due to us could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows.
We are also exposed to inventory risks as a result of the rapid technological changes that affect the market and pricing for the products we sell. In addition to drop-ship arrangements with many of our OEMs and wholesale distributors, we seek to minimize our inventory exposure through a variety of inventory management procedures and policies, including our rapid-turn inventory model, as well as vendor price protection and product return programs. However, if we were unable to maintain our rapid-turn inventory model, if there were unforeseen product developments that created more rapid obsolescence or if our vendor partners were to change their terms and conditions, our inventory risks could increase. We also from time to time take advantage of cost savings associated with certain opportunistic bulk inventory purchases offered by our vendor partners or we may decide to carry high inventory levels of certain products that have limited or no return privileges due to customer demand or request or to manage supply chain interruptions. If we purchase inventory in anticipation of customer demand that does not materialize, or if customers reduce, delay or decommit from orders, and if we were unable to return the inventory to a vendor partner, we would be exposed to an increased risk of inventory obsolescence.
Achieving the anticipated benefits of the Sirius acquisition remains subject to a number of uncertainties.
On December 1, 2021, the Company completed its acquisition of Sirius (the “Sirius Acquisition”). Risks and uncertainties associated with the integration of Sirius include, among other things, our ability to retain key personnel and maintain relationships with customers, suppliers and other third parties. Moreover, achieving the anticipated benefits of the Sirius Acquisition is subject to a number of uncertainties, including that the anticipated benefits may not be fully realized or may take longer to realize than expected, that the Sirius Acquisition may not be accretive to the extent anticipated, and that the Company’s acquisition and integration of Sirius may involve unanticipated liabilities and costs. Failure to achieve the anticipated benefits of the Sirius Acquisition in the expected timeframe or at all could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and common stock price.
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We could be exposed to additional risks if we continue to make strategic investments or acquisitions or enter into alliances.
We may continue to pursue transactions, including strategic investments, acquisitions or alliances, in an effort to extend or complement our existing business. These types of transactions involve numerous business risks, including finding suitable transaction partners and negotiating terms that are acceptable to us, the diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns, extending our product or service offerings into areas in which we have limited experience, entering into new geographic markets, the potential loss of key coworkers or business relationships and successfully integrating acquired businesses. There can be no assurance that the intended benefits of our investments, acquisitions and alliances will be realized, or that those benefits will offset these numerous risks or other unforeseen factors, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows.
In addition, our financial results could be adversely affected by financial adjustments required by generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) in connection with these types of transactions, including the Sirius Acquisition, where significant goodwill or intangible assets are recorded. To the extent the value of goodwill or identifiable intangible assets becomes impaired, we may be required to incur material charges relating to the impairment of those assets.
Our future operating results may fluctuate significantly, which may result in volatility in the market price of our stock and could impact our ability to operate our business effectively.
We may experience significant variations in our future quarterly results of operations. These fluctuations may cause the market price of our common stock to be volatile and may result from many factors, including the condition of the technology industry in general, shifts in demand and pricing for hardware, software and services, the introduction of new products or upgrades. Further, if our customers’ businesses are adversely affected by global or regional economic conditions such as cost inflation or rising interest rates, they may delay or reduce purchases from us, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our operating results are also highly dependent on Gross profit as a percentage of Net sales. Our Gross profit percentage fluctuates due to numerous factors, some of which may be outside of our control, including general macroeconomic conditions including inflation; pricing pressures; changes in product costs from our vendor partners; the availability of price protection, purchase discounts and incentive programs from our vendor partners; changes in product, order size and customer mix; the risk of some items in our inventory becoming obsolete; increases in product and delivery costs that we cannot pass on to customers; and general market and competitive conditions.
In addition, our cost structure is based, in part, on anticipated sales and gross margins. Therefore, we may not be able to adjust our cost structure quickly enough to compensate for any unexpected sales or gross margin shortfall, and any such inability could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or cash flows.
Fluctuations in foreign currency have an effect on our reported results of operations.
Our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency rates results primarily from the translation exposure associated with the preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements. While our Consolidated Financial Statements are reported in US dollars, the financial statements of our subsidiaries outside the US are prepared using the local currency as the functional currency and translated into US dollars. As a result, fluctuations in the exchange rate of the US dollar relative to the local currencies of our international subsidiaries, particularly the British pound and the Canadian dollar, could cause material fluctuations in our reported results of operations. We also have foreign currency exposure to the extent sales and purchases are not denominated in a subsidiary’s functional currency, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or cash flows.
Macroeconomic and Industry Risks
Global and regional economic and political conditions may have an adverse impact on our business.
Weak or unstable economic conditions generally, inflation and actions taken by central banks to counter inflation, sustained uncertainty about global political conditions (such as that caused by UK’s exit from the European Union in 2020, referred to as “Brexit”), periods of intense diplomatic or armed conflict (such as the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine and responsive sanctions against Russia), government spending cuts and the impact of new government policies (including the introduction of new or increased taxes, the imposition of minimum taxes or new or increased limitations on deductions, credits or other tax benefits), or a tightening of credit markets, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or rising interest rates, could cause our customers and potential customers to postpone or reduce spending on technology products or services or put downward pressure on prices, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or cash flows.


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The interruption of the flow of products from suppliers could disrupt our supply chain.
Our business depends on the timely supply of products in order to meet the demands of our customers. Manufacturing interruptions or delays, including as a result of the financial instability or bankruptcy of manufacturers, significant labor disputes such as strikes, natural disasters (which may increase in number or severity as a result of climate change), political or social unrest, armed conflict, pandemics (such as the COVID-19 pandemic) or other public health crises, or other adverse occurrences affecting any of our suppliers’ facilities, could disrupt our supply chain. We have experienced and could continue to experience product constraints due to the failure of suppliers to accurately forecast customer demand, or to manufacture sufficient quantities of product to meet customer demand (including as a result of shortages of product components), among other reasons. Additionally, the relocation of key distributors utilized in our purchasing model could increase our need for, and the cost of, working capital and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or cash flows.
Moreover, supply chain disruptions have caused and could continue to cause us to experience more volatility in our level of inventory and delays in completion of orders and installations for our customers and could further exacerbate current inflationary pressures. In the event that supply chain pressures ease, we may experience changes in average selling prices and our gross margins on certain products as customers become more price sensitive.
Our supply chain is also exposed to risks related to international operations. While we purchase our products primarily in the markets we serve (for example, products for US customers are sourced in the US), our vendor partners manufacture or purchase a significant portion of the products we sell outside of the US, primarily in Asia. Political, social or economic instability in Asia, or in other regions in which our vendor partners purchase or manufacture the products we sell, could cause disruptions in trade, including exports to the US. Other events related to international operations that could cause disruptions to our supply chain include:
the imposition of additional trade law provisions or regulations, including the adoption or expansion of trade restrictions;
the imposition of additional duties, tariffs and other charges on imports and exports, including any resulting retaliatory tariffs or charges and any reductions in the production of products subject to such tariffs and charges;
foreign currency fluctuations; and
restrictions on the transfer of funds.
We cannot predict whether the countries in which the products we sell, or any components of those products, are purchased or manufactured will be subject to new or additional trade restrictions or sanctions imposed by the US or foreign governments, including the likelihood, type or effect of any such restrictions. Periods of intense diplomatic or armed conflict, such as the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, may result in new and rapidly evolving trade restrictions and sanctions. Trade restrictions, including new or increased tariffs or quotas, embargoes, sanctions, safeguards and customs restrictions against the products we sell, could increase the cost or reduce the supply of product available to us and adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, our exports are subject to regulations, some of which may be inconsistent, and noncompliance with these requirements could have a negative effect on our business, results of operations or cash flows.
Our financial performance could be adversely affected by decreases in spending on technology products and services by our public and private sector customers due to, among other things, customer spending decisions and government spending policies.
Our sales are impacted by customer spending decisions on technology, including refresh decisions, customer initiatives that drive technology spending and customer budget priorities. Our sales to our public sector customers, and our other customers that do business with our public sector customers in particular, are impacted by government spending policies, budget priorities and revenue levels. An adverse change in government spending policies (such as budget cuts or limitations or temporary shutdowns of government operations), shifts in budget priorities or reductions in revenue levels, could cause our impacted public sector customers or our other customers that do business with impacted public sector customers to reduce or delay their purchases or to terminate or not renew their contracts with us, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows. Additionally, such adverse change in government spending policies, shifts in budget priorities or reductions in revenue levels could impact cash collections from contracts with our impacted public sector customers or other customers that do business with impacted public sector customers, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows.
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Legal and Regulatory Risks
The failure to comply with our public sector contracts or applicable laws and regulations could result in, among other things, termination, fines or other liabilities, and changes in procurement regulations could adversely impact our business, results of operations or cash flows.
Revenues from our public sector customers are derived from sales to governmental entities, educational institutions and healthcare customers through various contracts and open market sales of products and services. Sales to public sector customers are highly regulated and present risks and challenges not present in private commercial agreements. Noncompliance with contract provisions, government procurement regulations or other applicable laws or regulations (including the False Claims Act, the Medicare and Medicaid Anti-Kickback Statute or similar laws of the jurisdictions for our business activities outside of the US) or security clearance and confidentiality requirements could result in civil, criminal and administrative liability, including substantial monetary fines or damages, termination of government contracts or other public sector customer contracts, and suspension, debarment or ineligibility from doing business with governmental entities or other customers in the public sector. In addition, contracts in the public sector are generally terminable at any time for convenience of the contracting agency or group purchasing organization (“GPO”) or upon default and public sector contracts may be subject to periodic funding approval, rejections or delays, which could adversely impact public sector demand for our products and services. Furthermore, our inability to enter into or retain contracts with GPOs may threaten our ability to sell to customers in those GPOs and compete effectively. The effect of any of these possible actions or failures could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, the adoption of new or modified procurement regulations and other requirements may increase our compliance costs and reduce our gross margins, which could have a negative effect on our business, results of operations or cash flows.
We are exposed to risks from legal proceedings and audits, including intellectual property infringement claims, which may result in substantial costs and expenses or interruption of our normal business operations.
We are party to various legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business, which include commercial, employment, tort and other litigation.
We are also subject to intellectual property infringement claims against us in the ordinary course of our business, either because of the products and services we sell or the business systems and processes we use to sell such products and services, in the form of cease-and-desist letters, licensing inquiries, lawsuits and other communications and demands. In our industry, such intellectual property claims have become more frequent as the complexity of technological products and the intensity of competition in our industry have increased. Increasingly, many of these assertions are brought by non-practicing entities whose principal business model is to secure patent licensing revenue, but we may also be subject to demands from inventors, competitors or other patent holders who may seek licensing revenue, lost profits and/or an injunction preventing us from engaging in certain activities, including selling certain products or services.
In addition, we are subject to proceedings, investigations and audits by federal, state, international, national, provincial and local authorities, including as a result of our significant sales to governmental entities. For example, a subsidiary of the Company received a Civil Investigative Demand dated September 20, 2021 from the US Department of Justice (“DOJ”) in connection with a False Claims Act investigation. The DOJ has requested information related to teaming agreements with OEMs.
We also are subject to audits by various partners, group purchasing organizations and customers, including government agencies, relating to purchases and sales under various contracts. In addition, we are subject to indemnification claims under various contracts.
Current and future litigation, infringement claims, governmental proceedings and investigations, audits or indemnification claims that we face may result in substantial costs and expenses and significantly divert the attention of our management regardless of the outcome. In addition, these matters could lead to increased costs or interruptions of our normal business operations. Litigation, infringement claims, governmental proceedings and investigations, audits or indemnification claims involve uncertainties and the eventual outcome of any such matter could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows.
Failure to comply with complex and evolving laws and regulations applicable to our operations or failure to meet stakeholder expectations on environmental sustainability and corporate responsibility matters could adversely affect our business, results of operations or cash flows.
Our global operations span a variety of legal regimes, subjecting us to numerous complex, diverse, evolving and at times potentially inconsistent laws and regulations in a number of areas, including labor and employment, advertising, e-commerce,
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tax, trade, import and export controls, economic and trade sanctions, anti-corruption, data privacy and security requirements, competition, climate, environmental and health and safety. The evaluation of and compliance with these laws, regulations and similar requirements may be onerous and expensive, and may have other adverse impacts on our business, results of operations or cash flows, the risk of which will be heightened as we expand the products and services we offer, expand into new markets and channels and expand internationally. For example, we may be subject to increased costs and use of operational resources associated with complying with any new climate-related laws and regulations. Additionally, the hardware, software and services we offer increasingly utilize new and evolving technologies such as artificial intelligence (“AI”), which presents risks and challenges that could result in legal liability.
We have implemented policies and procedures designed to help ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, but there can be no guarantee against coworkers, contractors or agents violating such laws and regulations or our policies and procedures. Additionally, there is increased focus by stakeholders on environmental sustainability and corporate responsibility matters, including climate change response, packaging and waste reduction, energy consumption, and diversity, equity and inclusion. Our disclosure on these matters and our failure, or perceived failure, to meet our commitments or otherwise effectively address these matters may erode customer trust or confidence, particularly if they receive considerable publicity or result in litigation, and could have a negative impact on our business.
As a public company, we also are subject to increasingly complex public disclosure, corporate governance and accounting requirements that increase compliance costs and require significant management focus.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our level of indebtedness could adversely affect our business.
As of December 31, 2022, we had $5.9 billion of total debt outstanding and $519 million of obligations outstanding under our inventory financing agreements, and the ability to borrow an additional $1.1 billion under our senior unsecured revolving loan facility (the “Revolving Loan Facility”). Our level of indebtedness could have important consequences, including the following:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness;
requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to debt service payments on our and our subsidiaries’ debt, which reduces the funds available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;
requiring us to comply with restrictive covenants in our senior credit facilities and indentures, which limit the manner in which we conduct our business;
making it more difficult for us to obtain vendor financing from our vendor partners, including original equipment manufacturers and software publishers;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in the industry in which we operate;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to any of our less-leveraged competitors;
increasing our vulnerability to both general and industry-specific adverse economic conditions; and
limiting our ability to obtain additional debt or equity financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate requirements and increasing our cost of borrowing.
Restrictive covenants under our senior credit facilities and, to a lesser degree, our indentures may adversely affect our operations and liquidity.
Our senior credit facilities and, to a lesser degree, our indentures contain, and any future indebtedness of ours may contain, various covenants that limit our ability to, among other things:
incur or guarantee additional debt;
receive dividends or other payments from our subsidiaries;
enter into transactions with affiliates;
pledge our assets as collateral;
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merge or consolidate with other companies or transfer all or substantially all of our assets; and
engage in sale leaseback transactions.
As a result of these covenants, we are limited in the manner in which we conduct our business and we may be unable to engage in favorable business activities or finance future operations or capital needs. A breach of any of these covenants or any of the other restrictive covenants would result in a default under our senior credit facilities. Upon the occurrence of an event of default under our senior credit facilities, the lenders:
will not be required to lend any additional amounts to us;
could elect to declare all borrowings outstanding thereunder, together with accrued and unpaid interest and fees, to be due and payable; or
could require us to apply all of our available cash to repay these borrowings.
The acceleration of amounts outstanding under our senior credit facilities would likely trigger an event of default under our existing indentures.
If the lenders under our senior credit facilities accelerate the repayment of borrowings, we may not have sufficient assets to repay our senior credit facilities and our other indebtedness or the ability to borrow sufficient funds to refinance such indebtedness. Even if we were able to obtain new financing, it may not be on commercially reasonable terms, or terms that are acceptable to us.
Failure to maintain the ratings assigned to our debt securities by rating agencies may increase our future borrowing costs and reduce our access to capital.
Major debt rating agencies regularly evaluate our debt based on a number of factors, and any rating assigned could be lowered or withdrawn by a rating agency if, in that rating agency’s judgment, future circumstances relating to the basis of the rating, such as adverse changes in our financial position, so warrant. We may not be able to maintain our existing investment grade ratings from certain credit rating agencies, and the failure to do so could increase the cost of servicing certain of our existing indebtedness, and make it more difficult to raise debt financing on favorable terms in the future.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantially more debt, including secured debt. This could further increase the risks associated with our leverage.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. The terms of our senior credit facilities and indentures do not fully prohibit us or our subsidiaries from doing so. To the extent that we incur additional indebtedness, the risks associated with our level of indebtedness described above, including our possible inability to service our debt, will increase. As of December 31, 2022, we had $1.1 billion available for additional borrowing under our Revolving Loan Facility.
Variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Certain of our borrowings, primarily borrowings under our senior credit facilities, are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. As of December 31, 2022, we had $857 million of variable rate debt outstanding. Interest rates increased significantly during 2022 and may continue to do so. When interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness increase even though the amount borrowed remains the same, and could negatively impact our net income absent any derivative instruments. From time to time, we may execute derivative instruments to reduce interest rate volatility, subject to acceptable terms. We cannot assure you we will enter into such derivative instruments in the future or that such instruments will be effective.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our common stock price may be volatile and may decline regardless of our operating performance, and holders of our common stock could lose a significant portion of their investment.
The market price for our common stock may be volatile. Our stockholders may not be able to resell their shares of common stock at or above the price at which they purchased such shares, due to fluctuations in the market price of our common stock, which may be caused by a number of factors, many of which we cannot control, including the risk factors described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the following:
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changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our common stock, our failure to meet these estimates or failure of securities analysts to maintain coverage of our common stock;
downgrades by any securities analysts who follow our common stock;
future sales of our common stock by our officers, directors and significant stockholders;
market conditions or trends in our industry or the economy as a whole;
investors’ perceptions of our prospects;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, joint ventures or capital commitments; and
changes in key personnel.
In addition, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies, including companies in our industry. In the past, securities class action litigation has followed periods of market volatility. If we were involved in securities litigation, we could incur substantial costs, and our resources and the attention of management could be diverted from our business.
In the future, we may also issue our securities in connection with investments or acquisitions. The number of shares of our common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of our common stock and depress our stock price.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law might discourage or delay acquisition attempts for us that may be considered favorable.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that may make the acquisition of the Company more difficult without the approval of our Board of Directors. These provisions:
authorize the issuance of undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and the shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval, and which may include super voting, special approval, dividend, or other rights or preferences superior to the rights of the holders of common stock;
generally prohibit stockholder action by written consent, requiring all stockholder actions be taken at a meeting of our stockholders;
provide that special meetings of the stockholders can only be called by or at the direction of our Board of Directors pursuant to a written resolution adopted by the affirmative vote of the majority of the total number of directors that the Company would have if there were no vacancies;
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for elections to our Board of Directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings; and
provide that our Board of Directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our amended and restated bylaws.
In addition, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which will prevent us from engaging in a business combination with a person who acquires at least 15% of our common stock for a period of three years from the date such person acquired such common stock, unless Board or stockholder approval is obtained prior to the acquisition. These anti-takeover provisions and other provisions under Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of the Company, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for our stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions our stockholders desire.
We cannot assure you that we will continue to pay dividends on our common stock or repurchase any of our common stock under our share repurchase program, and our indebtedness and certain tax considerations could limit our ability to continue to pay dividends on, or make share repurchases of, our common stock. If we do not continue to pay dividends, you may not receive any return on investment unless you are able to sell your common stock for a price greater than your purchase price.
We expect to continue to pay a cash dividend on our common stock. However, any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors. Any determination to pay dividends on, or repurchase, shares of our common
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stock in the future will depend upon our results of operations, financial condition, business prospects, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, any potential indebtedness we may incur, our target leverage ratio, restrictions imposed by applicable law, tax considerations and other factors our Board of Directors deems relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends on, or repurchase, shares of our common stock will be limited by restrictions on our ability to pay dividends or make distributions to our stockholders and on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or make distributions to us, in each case, under the terms of our current and any future agreements governing our indebtedness. There can be no assurance that we will continue to pay a dividend at the current rate or at all or that we will continue to repurchase shares of our common stock. If we do not pay dividends in the future, realization of a gain on your investment will depend entirely on the appreciation of the price of our common stock, which may never occur.
We are a holding company and rely on dividends, distributions and other payments, advances and transfers of funds from our subsidiaries to meet our obligations.
We are a holding company that does not conduct any business operations of our own. As a result, we are largely dependent upon cash dividends and distributions and other transfers from our subsidiaries to meet our obligations. The agreements governing the indebtedness of our subsidiaries impose restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends or other distributions to us. The deterioration of the earnings from, or other available assets of, our subsidiaries for any reason could also limit or impair their ability to pay dividends or other distributions to us.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
As of December 31, 2022, we owned or leased a total of 2.4 million square feet of space, primarily in the US, UK and Canada. We own two properties: a 513,240 square foot distribution center in North Las Vegas, Nevada, and a combined office and a 442,400 square foot distribution center in Vernon Hills, Illinois. In addition, we conduct sales, services and administrative activities in various locations primarily in the US, UK and Canada.
We believe our facilities are well maintained, suitable for our business and occupy sufficient space to meet our operating needs. As part of our normal business, we regularly evaluate sales center performance and site suitability. Leases covering our currently occupied leased properties expire at varying dates, all within the next 13 years.
We anticipate no difficulty in retaining occupancy through lease renewals, month-to-month occupancy or replacing the leased properties with equivalent properties. We believe that suitable additional or substitute leased properties will be available as required.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are party to various legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business, which include commercial, intellectual property, employment, tort and other litigation matters. For additional information regarding legal proceedings, refer to Note 16 (Commitments and Contingencies) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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Information about our Executive Officers
The following table lists the name, age as of February 24, 2023 and positions of each executive officer of the Company.
NameAgePosition
Christine A. Leahy58Chair of our Board of Directors since January 1, 2023; President and Chief Executive Officer and member of our Board of Directors since January 2019; Chief Revenue Officer from July 2017 to December 2018; Senior Vice President - International, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary from May 2016 to July 2017; Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary from January 2007 to May 2016.
Sona Chawla55Chief Growth and Innovation Officer since January 2020; President, Kohl’s Corporation (an omnichannel retailer) from May 2018 to October 2019 and Chief Operating Officer from November 2015 to May 2018.
Christina M. Corley55
Chief Commercial and Operating Officer since January 2020; Chief Operating Officer from January 2019 to January 2020; Senior Vice President, Commercial and International Markets from July 2017 to December 2018; Senior Vice President, Corporate Sales from September 2011 to July 2017.
Frederick J. Kulevich57Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since October 2017; Vice President and Deputy General Counsel from May 2016 to October 2017; Vice President and Assistant General Counsel from May 2014 to May 2016; Senior Director, Ethics and Compliance from July 2006 to May 2014.
Albert J. Miralles53
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since September 2021; Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, CNA Financial Corporation (a commercial property and casualty insurance company) from February 2020 to September 2021; President, CNA Warranty from October 2019 to September 2021; Executive Vice President and Chief Risk Officer of the CNA Insurance Companies from January 2018 to October 2019.
Carolyn Wiesenhahn51
Chief People Officer and Senior Vice President, Coworker Services since September 2022; Senior Vice President Human Resources, CVS Health (a health solutions company) from June 2016 to August 2022.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our common stock has been listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market since June 27, 2013 under the symbol “CDW.”
Holders
As of February 21, 2023, there were 7 holders of record of our common stock. The number of beneficial stockholders is substantially greater than the number of holders of record because a portion of our common stock is held through brokerage firms.
Dividends
On February 8, 2023, we announced that our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend on our common stock of $0.59 per share. The dividend will be paid on March 10, 2023 to all stockholders of record as of the close of business on February 24, 2023.
We expect to continue to pay quarterly cash dividends on our common stock in the future, but such payments remain at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our results of operations, financial condition, business prospects, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, any potential indebtedness we may incur, restrictions imposed by applicable law, tax considerations and other factors that our Board of Directors deems relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends on our common stock will be limited by restrictions on our ability to pay dividends or make distributions to our stockholders and on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or make distributions to us, in each case, under the terms of our current and any future agreements governing our indebtedness. For additional information on our cash resources and needs and restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources” included elsewhere in this report. For additional information on restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, see Note 9 (Debt) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On February 10, 2021, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized a $1.25 billion increase to our share repurchase program under which we may repurchase shares of our common stock from time to time in private transactions, open market purchases or other transactions as permitted by securities laws and other legal requirements. The timing and amounts of any purchases will be based on market conditions and other factors including but not limited to share price, regulatory requirements and capital availability. The program does not require the purchase of any minimum dollar amount or number of shares and the program may be modified, suspended or discontinued at any time.
During the three months ended December 31, 2022, we made no share repurchases.
As of December 31, 2022, we had $87.6 million remaining available under our share repurchase program. On February 8, 2023, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized a $750 million increase to our share repurchase program.
Cumulative Total Shareholder Return
The information contained in this Cumulative Total Shareholder Return section shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or “filed” or incorporated by reference in future filings with the SEC, or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into a document filed under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
The following graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return, calculated on a dividend reinvested basis, on $100.00 invested at the closing of the market on December 31, 2017 through and including the market close on December 31, 2022, with the cumulative total return for the same time period of the same amount invested in the S&P 500 Index, the S&P Information Technology Index and a peer group index. We added the S&P Information Technology Index to provide investors with additional information on our performance relative to the general IT industry and will continue to also present our peer group index. Our peer group index for 2022 consists of the following companies: Accenture plc, Arrow Electronics, Inc., Avnet, Inc., Best Buy Company, Inc., CGI Group Inc., Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation, DXC Technology Company, Flex Ltd., Genuine Parts Company, Henry Schein, Inc., Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company, Insight Enterprises, Inc., Jabil, Inc., LKQ Corporation, TD SYNNEX Corporation, W.W. Grainger, Inc. and Wesco International, Inc. This peer group was selected based on a review of publicly available information about these companies and our determination that they
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met one or more of the following criteria: (i) similar size in terms of revenue and/or enterprise value (one-third to three times our revenue or enterprise value); (ii) operates in a business-to-business distribution environment; (iii) members of the technology industry; (iv) similar customers (i.e., business, government, healthcare, and education); (v) companies that provide services and/or solutions; (vi) similar margins; (vii) comparable percentage of international sales; (viii) frequently identified as a peer by the other peer companies or Institutional Shareholder Services Inc.; or (ix) identified by the Company as a competitor.
The cumulative total shareholder returns over the indicated period are based on historical data and should not be considered indicative of future shareholder returns.
cdw-20221231_g2.jpg
December 31, 2017December 31, 2018December 31, 2019December 31, 2020December 31, 2021December 31, 2022
CDW Corp$100 $118 $210 $196 $308 $272 
S&P 500$100 $94 $121 $140 $178 $144 
S&P Information Technology$100 $98 $146 $207 $276 $196 
CDW Peers$100 $89 $117 $136 $191 $150 
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
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Item 6. [RESERVED]
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, as used in this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” the terms “we,” “us,” “the Company,” “our,” “CDW” and similar terms refer to CDW Corporation and its subsidiaries. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements” above.
Overview
CDW Corporation, a Fortune 500 company and member of the S&P 500 Index, is a leading multi-brand provider of information technology (“IT”) solutions to small, medium and large business, government, education and healthcare customers in the US, the UK and Canada. Our broad array of offerings ranges from discrete hardware and software products to integrated IT solutions and services that include on-premise and cloud capabilities across hybrid infrastructure, digital experience and security.
We are vendor, technology, and consumption model “agnostic”, with a solutions portfolio including more than 100,000 products and services from more than 1,000 leading and emerging brands. Our solutions are delivered in physical, virtual and cloud-based environments through approximately 10,600 customer-facing coworkers, including sellers, highly-skilled technology specialists and advanced service delivery engineers. We are a leading sales channel partner for many original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), software publishers and cloud providers (collectively, our “vendor partners”), whose products we sell or include in the solutions we offer. We provide our vendor partners with a cost-effective way to reach customers and deliver a consistent brand experience through our established end-market coverage, technical expertise and extensive customer access.
On December 1, 2021, we completed the acquisition of Sirius Computer Solutions, Inc. (“Sirius”). Sirius is a leading provider of secure, mission-critical technology-based solutions and is one of the largest IT solutions integrators in the United States, leveraging its services-led approach, broad portfolio of hybrid infrastructure solutions, and deep technical expertise of its 2,600 coworkers to support corporate and public customers. This strategic acquisition has enhanced our breadth and depth of services and solutions offerings.
We have three reportable segments, Corporate, Small Business and Public. Our Corporate segment primarily serves US private sector business customers with more than 250 employees. Our Small Business segment primarily serves US private sector business customers with up to 250 employees. Our Public segment is comprised of government agencies and education and healthcare institutions in the US. We also have two other operating segments: CDW UK and CDW Canada, each of which do not meet the reportable segment quantitative thresholds and, accordingly, are included in an all other category (“Other”). The financial results of Sirius have been included in our Consolidated Financial Statements and the results of our Corporate, Small Business and Public segments since the date of the acquisition.
We may sell all or only select products that our vendor partners offer. Each vendor partner agreement provides for specific terms and conditions, which may include one or more of the following: product return privileges, price protection policies, purchase discounts and vendor incentive programs, such as purchase or sales rebates and cooperative advertising reimbursements. We also resell software for major software publishers. Our agreements with software publishers allow the end-user customer to acquire software or licensed products and services. In addition to helping our customers determine the best software solutions for their needs, we help them manage their software agreements, including warranties and renewals. A significant portion of our advertising and marketing expenses are reimbursed through cooperative advertising programs with our vendor partners. These programs are at the discretion of our vendor partners and are typically tied to sales or other commitments to be met by us within a specified period of time.
For a discussion of results for the year ended December 31, 2021, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 28, 2022.
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Trends and Key Factors Affecting our Financial Performance
We believe the following key factors may have a meaningful impact on our business performance, influencing our ability to generate sales and achieve our targeted financial and operating results:
General economic conditions are a key factor affecting our results as they can impact our customers’ willingness to spend on information technology. Macroeconomic uncertainty persists as a result of the continued rate of inflation and the corresponding increase in interest rates driven by monetary policy. Additionally, social and geopolitical factors such as resurgences of COVID-19, changes in government administration and laws and the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine have resulted in business volatility and disruption. The enhanced uncertainty in the current environment may result in a delay or pause on investments in technology by our customers.
Customers’ top priorities continue to be digital transformation, security, hybrid and cloud solutions and end point solutions as hybrid environments become the accepted work model and drive demand for remote collaboration and work-and-learn-from-anywhere capabilities. We have orchestrated solutions by leveraging client devices, accessories, collaboration tools, security, software and hybrid and cloud offerings to help customers build these capabilities and achieve their objectives.
Changes in spending policies, budget priorities and funding levels, including current and future stimulus packages, are key factors influencing the purchasing levels of Government, Healthcare and Education customers. As the duration and ongoing economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic remain uncertain, current and future budget priorities and funding levels for Government, Healthcare and Education customers may be adversely affected.
Technology trends drive customer purchasing behaviors in the market. Current technology trends are focused on delivering greater flexibility and efficiency, as well as designing IT securely. These trends are driving customer adoption of solutions such as those delivered via cloud, software defined architectures and hybrid on-premise and off-premise combinations, as well as the evolution of the IT consumption model to more “as a service” offerings, including software as a service and infrastructure as a service, in addition to ongoing managed and professional service arrangements. Technology trends are likely to change as customers prioritize the projects that produce the most important outcomes for their operations.
Key Business Metrics
We monitor a number of financial and non-financial measures and ratios on a regular basis in order to track the progress of our business and make adjustments as necessary. We believe that the most important of these measures and ratios include average daily sales, Gross profit, Net income, Non-GAAP operating income, Non-GAAP operating income margin, Non-GAAP net income, Net sales growth on a constant currency basis, Net income per diluted share, Non-GAAP net income per diluted share, Free cash flow, Cash and cash equivalents, cash conversion cycle and debt levels including available credit. These measures and ratios are closely monitored by management, so that actions can be taken, as necessary, in order to achieve financial objectives.
In this section, we present Non-GAAP operating income, Non-GAAP operating income margin, Non-GAAP net income, Non-GAAP net income per diluted share, Net sales growth on a constant currency basis and Free cash flow, which are non-GAAP financial measures.
We believe Non-GAAP operating income, Non-GAAP operating income margin, Non-GAAP net income, Non-GAAP net income per diluted share and Net sales growth on a constant currency basis provide analysts, investors and management with helpful information regarding the underlying operating performance of our business, as they remove the impact of items that management believes are not reflective of underlying operating performance. Management uses these measures to evaluate period-over-period performance as management believes they provide a more comparable measure of the underlying business. We also present Free cash flow as we believe this measure provides more information regarding our liquidity and capital resources. Certain non-GAAP financial measures are also used to determine certain components of performance-based compensation. For the definitions of Non-GAAP measures and reconciliations to the most directly comparable US GAAP measure, see “Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Financial Measure Reconciliations.”
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The results of certain key business metrics are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in millions, except per share amounts)20222021
Net sales$23,748.7 $20,820.8 
Gross profit4,686.6 3,568.5 
Operating income1,735.2 1,419.0 
Net income1,114.5 988.6 
Non-GAAP operating income2,050.5 1,645.4 
Non-GAAP net income1,341.5 1,118.9 
Net income per diluted share8.137.04
Non-GAAP net income per diluted share9.797.97
Average daily sales(1)
93.5 82.0 
Net debt(2)
5,607.5 6,600.4 
Cash conversion cycle (in days)(3)
21 24 
Cash provided by operating activities1,335.9 784.6 
Free cash flow1,292.7 476.7 
(1)    There were 254 selling days for both the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021.
(2)    Defined as Total debt minus Cash and cash equivalents.
(3)    Cash conversion cycle is defined as days of sales outstanding in Accounts receivable and certain receivables due from vendors plus days of supply in Merchandise inventory minus days of purchases outstanding in Accounts payable and Accounts payable-inventory financing, based on a rolling three-month average.
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Results of Operations
Results of operations, in dollars and as a percentage of Net sales are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
20222021
Dollars in
Millions
Percentage of
Net Sales
Dollars in
Millions
Percentage of
Net Sales
Net sales$23,748.7 100.0 %$20,820.8 100.0 %
Cost of sales19,062.1 80.3 17,252.3 82.9 
Gross profit4,686.6 19.7 3,568.5 17.1 
Selling and administrative expenses2,951.4 12.4 2,149.5 10.3 
Operating income1,735.2 7.3 1,419.0 6.8 
Interest expense, net(235.7)(1.0)(150.9)(0.7)
Other (expense) income, net(11.7)— 29.7 0.1 
Income before income taxes1,487.8 6.3 1,297.8 6.2 
Income tax expense(373.3)(1.6)(309.2)(1.5)
Net income$1,114.5 4.7 %$988.6 4.7 %
Net sales
Total Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased $2,928 million, or 14.1%, to $23,749 million compared to the prior year. All operating segments contributed to the Net sales growth. For additional information, see the “Segment Results of Operations” below.
Gross profit
Gross profit was $4,687 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $1,118 million, or 31.3%, compared to $3,569 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. As a percentage of Net sales, Gross profit margin increased 260 basis points to 19.7% for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in Gross profit margin was primarily driven by more favorable product mix and rate and higher mix of netted down revenue, as well as increased Net sales and margins on services as a result of the recent business acquisitions.
Selling and administrative expenses
Selling and administrative expenses increased $802 million, or 37.3%, to $2,951 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to $2,150 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily driven by higher payroll expenses consistent with higher Gross profit and higher coworker count, including the impact of the acquisition of Sirius, and higher intangible asset amortization expense from the acquisition of Sirius.
Operating income
Operating income was $1,735 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $316 million, or 22.3%, compared to $1,419 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Operating income increased primarily due to higher Gross profit dollars, partially offset by higher payroll expenses and higher intangible asset amortization from the acquisition of Sirius.
Interest expense, net
Interest expense, net was $236 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $85 million, or 56.2%, compared to $151 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by additional interest expense from the $2.5 billion aggregate principal amount of unsecured senior notes issued on December 1, 2021, the net proceeds of which were used to fund the acquisition of Sirius.
Other (expense) income, net
During the year ended December 31, 2021, we sold all ownership interests in an equity method investment and recognized a $36 million gain, with no similar activity in 2022.
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Income tax expense
Income tax expense was $373 million in 2022, compared to $309 million in 2021. The effective income tax rate, expressed by calculating income tax expense as a percentage of Income before income taxes, was 25.1% and 23.8% for 2022 and 2021, respectively.
For 2022, the effective tax rate differed from the US federal statutory rate primarily due to state and local income taxes, partially offset by excess tax benefits on equity-based compensation. For 2021, the effective tax rate differed from the US federal statutory rate primarily due to state and local income taxes and a discrete deferred tax expense as a result of an increase in the UK corporate tax rate effective in 2023, partially offset by excess tax benefits on equity-based compensation.
The 2022 effective tax rate was higher than 2021 primarily attributable to lower excess tax benefits on equity-based compensation, partially offset by a prior year discrete deferred tax expense as a result of an increase in the UK corporate tax rate effective in 2023.
Segment Results of Operations
Net sales by segment, in dollars and as a percentage of total Net sales, and the year-over-year dollar and percentage change in Net sales are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
20222021
(dollars in millions)Net SalesPercentage
of Total Net Sales
Net SalesPercentage
of Total Net Sales
Dollar
Change
Percent
Change
(1)
Corporate$10,350.1 43.6 %$8,179.7 39.3 %$2,170.4 26.5 %
Small Business1,938.9 8.2 1,870.1 9.0 68.8 3.7 
Public:
Government2,574.3 10.8 2,155.6 10.4 418.7 19.4 
Education3,621.4 15.2 4,108.7 19.7 (487.3)(11.9)
Healthcare2,355.6 9.9 1,919.3 9.2 436.3 22.7 
Total Public8,551.3 35.9 8,183.6 39.3 367.7 4.5 
Other2,908.4 12.3 2,587.4 12.4 321.0 12.4 
Total Net sales$23,748.7 100.0 %$20,820.8 100.0 %$2,927.9 14.1 %
(1)There were 254 selling days for both the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021.
Operating income by segment, in dollars and as a percentage of Net sales, and the year-over-year percentage change was as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
20222021
Dollars in
Millions
Percentage
of Net Sales
Dollars in
Millions
Percentage
of Net Sales
Percent Change
in Operating Income
Segments:(1)
Corporate$931.7 9.0 %$697.3 8.5 %33.6 %
Small Business186.8 9.6 167.7 9.0 11.4 
Public681.7 8.0 606.7 7.4 12.4 
Other(2)
130.7 4.5 115.8 4.5 12.9 
Headquarters(3)
(195.7)nm*(168.5)nm*16.1 
Total Operating income$1,735.2 7.3 %$1,419.0 6.8 %22.3 %
* Not meaningful
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(1)Segment operating income includes the segment’s direct operating income, allocations for certain Headquarters’ costs, allocations for income and expenses from logistics services, certain inventory adjustments and volume rebates and cooperative advertising from vendors.
(2)Includes the financial results for our other operating segments, CDW UK and CDW Canada, which do not meet the reportable segment quantitative thresholds.
(3)Includes Headquarters’ function costs that are not allocated to the segments.
Corporate
Corporate segment Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased $2,170 million, or 26.5%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase in Net sales, which also included the contribution from the acquisition of Sirius, was primarily driven by customers’ priorities on digital transformation and a hybrid work model. These factors resulted in higher Net sales across various categories, including software, netcomm products, services, enterprise storage, notebooks/mobile devices and video.
Corporate segment Operating income was $932 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $234 million, or 33.6%, compared to $697 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Corporate segment Operating income increased primarily due to higher Gross profit dollars, partially offset by higher payroll and higher intangible asset amortization from the acquisition of Sirius.
Small Business
Small Business segment Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased $69 million, or 3.7%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by customers’ priorities on digital transformation, resulting in increased Net sales in services, software and notebooks/mobile devices.
Small Business segment Operating income was $187 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $19 million, or 11.4%, compared to $168 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Small Business segment Operating income increased primarily due to higher Gross profit dollars, partially offset by higher payroll.
Public
Public segment Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased $368 million, or 4.5%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase in Net sales, which also included the contribution from the acquisition of Sirius, was primarily driven by Healthcare and Government customers. Net sales to Healthcare customers increased by 22.7% primarily due to continued focus in digital transformation to enhance patient experiences, which resulted in increased Net sales in services, netcomm products and software. Net sales to Government customers increased 19.4% primarily driven by state and local customers, which resulted in increased Net sales in netcomm products, services and software. These increases were partially offset by decreased Net sales to Education customers of 11.9% primarily driven by decreased Net sales in notebooks/mobile devices with K-12 customers.
Public segment Operating income was $682 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $75 million, or 12.4%, compared to $607 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Public segment Operating income increased primarily due to higher Gross profit dollars, partially offset by higher payroll and higher intangible asset amortization from the acquisition of Sirius.
Other
Net sales in Other, which is comprised of results from our UK and Canadian operations, for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased $321 million, or 12.4%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was driven by both our UK and Canadian operations as customers continued to focus on digital transformation, resulting in increased Net sales in software, netcomm products, notebooks/mobile devices and services.
Other Operating income was $131 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $15 million, or 12.9%, compared to $116 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Other Operating income increased primarily due to higher Gross profit dollars, partially offset by higher payroll.
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Non-GAAP Financial Measure Reconciliations
We have included reconciliations of Non-GAAP operating income, Non-GAAP operating income margin, Non-GAAP income before income taxes, Non-GAAP net income, Non-GAAP net income per diluted share, Net sales growth on a constant currency basis and Free cash flow for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 below.
Non-GAAP operating income excludes, among other things, charges related to the amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets, equity-based compensation and the associated payroll taxes, and acquisition and integration expenses. Non-GAAP operating income margin is defined as Non-GAAP operating income as a percentage of Net sales. Non-GAAP income before income taxes and Non-GAAP net income exclude, among other things, charges related to acquisition-related intangible asset amortization, equity-based compensation, acquisition and integration expenses, and the associated tax effects of each. Net sales growth on a constant currency basis is defined as Net sales growth excluding the impact of foreign currency translation on Net sales compared to the prior period. Free cash flow is defined as cash flows from operating activities less capital expenditures, adjusted for the net change in accounts payable-inventory financing and other financed purchases.
Non-GAAP operating income, Non-GAAP operating income margin, Non-GAAP income before income taxes, Non-GAAP net income, Non-GAAP net income per diluted share, Net sales growth on a constant currency basis and Free cash flow are considered non-GAAP financial measures. Generally, a non-GAAP financial measure is a numerical measure of a company’s performance or financial condition that either excludes or includes amounts that are not normally included or excluded in the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with US GAAP. Non-GAAP measures used by management may differ from similar measures used by other companies, even when similar terms are used to identify such measures.
We believe Non-GAAP operating income, Non-GAAP operating income margin, Non-GAAP net income, Non-GAAP net income per diluted share and Net sales growth on a constant currency basis provide analysts, investors and management with helpful information regarding the underlying operating performance of our business, as they remove the impact of items that management believes are not reflective of underlying operating performance. Management uses these measures to evaluate period-over-period performance as management believes they provide a more comparable measure of the underlying business. We also present Free cash flow as we believe this measure provides more information regarding our liquidity and capital resources. Certain non-GAAP financial measures are also used to determine certain components of performance-based compensation.
Non-GAAP operating income and Non-GAAP operating income margin
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)20222021% Change
Operating income, as reported$1,735.2 $1,419.0 22.3 %
Amortization of intangibles(1)
167.9 94.9 
Equity-based compensation91.1 72.6 
Acquisition and integration expenses48.3 54.3 
Other adjustments8.0 4.6 
Non-GAAP operating income2,050.5 1,645.4 24.6 %
Non-GAAP operating income margin8.6 %7.9 %
(1)Includes amortization expense for acquisition-related intangible assets, primarily customer relationships, customer contracts and trade names.
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Non-GAAP net income and Non-GAAP net income per diluted share
Year Ended December 31, 2022
Year Ended December 31, 2021
(dollars in millions)Income before income taxes
Income tax
expense(1)
Net incomeIncome before income taxes
Income tax
expense(1)
Net incomeNet Income % Change
US GAAP, as reported$1,487.8 $(373.3)$1,114.5 $1,297.8 $(309.2)$988.6 12.7 %
Amortization of intangibles(2)
167.9 (44.6)123.3 94.9 (18.9)76.0 
Equity-based compensation91.1 (30.4)60.7 72.6 (42.6)30.0 
Acquisition and integration expenses48.3 (12.4)35.9 54.3 (10.4)43.9 
Gain on sale of equity method investment— — — (36.0)8.5 (27.5)
Net loss on extinguishment of long-term debt1.6 (0.4)1.2 6.0 (1.5)4.5 
Other adjustments8.0 (2.1)5.9 4.6 (1.2)3.4 
Non-GAAP$1,804.7 $(463.2)$1,341.5 $1,494.2 $(375.3)$1,118.9 19.9 %
Net income per diluted share, as reported$8.13 $7.04 
Non-GAAP net income per diluted share$9.79 $7.97 
Shares used in computing US GAAP and Non-GAAP net income per diluted share137.0 140.5 
(1)Income tax on non-GAAP adjustments includes excess tax benefits associated with equity-based compensation.
(2)Includes amortization expense for acquisition-related intangible assets, primarily customer relationships, customer contracts and trade names.
Net sales growth on a constant currency basis
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)20222021
% Change(1)
Net sales, as reported$23,748.7 $20,820.8 14.1 %
Foreign currency translation(2)
— (197.3)
Net sales, on a constant currency basis$23,748.7 $20,623.5 15.2 %
(1)There were 254 selling days for both the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021.
(2)Represents the effect of translating Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 of CDW UK and CDW Canada at the average exchange rates applicable in 2022.
Free cash flow
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)20222021
Net cash provided by operating activities$1,335.9 $784.6 
Capital expenditures(127.8)(100.0)
Net change in accounts payable - inventory financing84.6 (161.8)
Financing payments for revenue generating assets (46.1)
Free cash flow$1,292.7 $476.7 
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Seasonality
While we have not historically experienced significant seasonality throughout the year, sales in our Corporate segment, which primarily serves US private sector business customers with more than 250 employees, have historically been higher in the fourth quarter than in other quarters due to customers spending their remaining technology budget dollars at the end of the year. Additionally, sales in our Public segment have historically been higher in the third quarter than in other quarters primarily due to the buying patterns of the federal government and education customers. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have experienced variability compared to historic seasonality trends. Seasonality by channel is expected to continue to be different than historical experience.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Overview
We finance our operations and capital expenditures with cash from operations and borrowings under our revolving loan facility. As of December 31, 2022, we had $1.1 billion of availability for borrowings under our revolving loan facility. Our liquidity and borrowing plans are established to align with our financial and strategic planning processes and ensure we have the necessary funding to meet our operating commitments, which primarily include the purchase of inventory, payroll and general expenses. We also take into consideration our overall capital allocation strategy, which includes dividend payments, assessment of debt levels, acquisitions and share repurchases. We believe we have adequate sources of liquidity and funding available for at least the next year; however, there are a number of factors that may negatively impact our available sources of funds. The amount of cash generated from operations will be dependent upon factors such as the successful execution of our business plan, general economic conditions and working capital management.
Our material contractual obligations consist of debt and related interest payments and operating leases. See Note 9 (Debt) and Note 11 (Leases) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding future maturities of debt and operating leases.
Long-Term Debt and Financing Arrangements
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we prepaid $636 million on our senior unsecured term loan facility without penalty. As a result of the prepayment, no additional mandatory payments are required on the remaining principal amount until its maturity date on December 1, 2026.
As of December 31, 2022, we had total unsecured indebtedness of $5.9 billion and we were in compliance with the covenants under our various credit agreements and indentures.
We may from time to time repurchase one or more series of our outstanding unsecured senior notes, depending on market conditions, contractual commitments, our capital needs and other factors. Repurchases of our senior notes may be made by open market or private transactions and may be pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 plans or otherwise.
For additional information regarding our debt and refinancing activities, see Note 9 (Debt) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Inventory Financing Agreements
We have entered into agreements with certain financial intermediaries to facilitate the purchase of inventory from various suppliers under certain terms and conditions. These amounts are classified separately as Accounts payable-inventory financing on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. We do not incur any interest expense associated with these agreements as balances are paid when they are due. For additional information, see Note 7 (Inventory Financing Agreements) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Share Repurchase Program
During 2022, we made no share repurchases. For additional information about our share repurchase program, refer to Note 12 (Stockholders’ Equity) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Dividends
A summary of 2022 dividend activity for our common stock is as follows:
Dividend AmountDeclaration DateRecord Date Payment Date
$0.500February 9, 2022February 25, 2022March 10, 2022
$0.500May 4, 2022May 25, 2022June 10, 2022
$0.500August 3, 2022August 25, 2022September 9, 2022
$0.590November 2, 2022November 25, 2022December 9, 2022
$2.090
On February 8, 2023, we announced that our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend on our common stock of $0.590 per share. The dividend will be paid on March 10, 2023 to all stockholders of record as of the close of business on February 24, 2023.
The payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our results of operations, financial condition, business prospects, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, any potential indebtedness we may incur, restrictions imposed by applicable law, tax considerations and other factors that our Board of Directors deems relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends on our common stock will be limited by restrictions on our ability to pay dividends or make distributions to our stockholders and on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or make distributions to us, in each case, under the terms of our current and any future agreements governing our indebtedness.
Cash Flows
Cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)20222021
Net cash provided by (used in):
Operating Activities$1,335.9 $784.6 
Investing Activities
Capital expenditures(127.8)(100.0)
Acquisitions of businesses, net of cash acquired(36.7)(2,705.6)
Proceeds from sale of equity method investment— 36.0 
Cash flows used in investing activities(164.5)(2,769.6)
Financing Activities
Net change in accounts payable - inventory financing84.6 (161.8)
Financing payments on revenue generating assets— (46.1)
Other cash flows from financing activities(1,186.7)1,040.7 
Cash flows (used in) provided by financing activities(1,102.1)832.8 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents(12.2)0.1 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents$57.1 $(1,152.1)
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Operating Activities
Cash flows from operating activities are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)20222021Change
Net income$1,114.5 $988.6 $125.9 
Adjustments for the impact of non-cash items(1)
388.0 227.6 160.4 
Net income adjusted for the impact of non-cash items1,502.5 1,216.2 286.3 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(2)
(34.8)(616.8)582.0 
Merchandise inventory(3)
111.9 (151.0)262.9 
Accounts payable-trade(4)
(260.0)374.5 (634.5)
Other16.3 (38.3)54.6 
Net cash provided by operating activities$1,335.9 $784.6 $551.3 
(1)Includes items such as depreciation and amortization, deferred income taxes, provision for credit losses and equity-based compensation expense.
(2)The change is primarily due to sales volume and collection performance.
(3)The change is primarily driven by shipment activity related to customer stocking positions.
(4)The change is primarily due to timing of payments.
In order to manage our working capital and operating cash needs, we monitor our cash conversion cycle, defined as days of sales outstanding in accounts receivable plus days of supply in inventory minus days of purchases outstanding in accounts payable, based on a rolling three-month average. Components of our cash conversion cycle are as follows:
December 31,
(in days)20222021
Days of sales outstanding (DSO)(1)
71 65 
Days of supply in inventory (DIO)(2)
17 17 
Days of purchases outstanding (DPO)(3)
(67)(58)
Cash conversion cycle21 24 
(1)Represents the rolling three-month average of the balance of Accounts receivable, net at the end of the period, divided by average daily Net sales for the same three-month period. Also incorporates components of other miscellaneous receivables.
(2)Represents the rolling three-month average of the balance of Merchandise inventory at the end of the period divided by average daily Cost of sales for the same three-month period.
(3)Represents the rolling three-month average of the combined balance of Accounts payable-trade, excluding cash overdrafts, and Accounts payable-inventory financing at the end of the period divided by average daily Cost of sales for the same three-month period.
The cash conversion cycle decreased to 21 days at December 31, 2022, compared to 24 days at December 31, 2021. The overall decrease was impacted by the acquisition of Sirius. In addition, netted down revenue increases DSO and DPO as the corresponding receivables and payables reflect the gross amounts due from customers and due to vendors while the corresponding sales and cost of sales are reflected on a net basis.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities decreased $2,605 million in 2022 compared to 2021. This decrease was primarily due to the acquisitions of Sirius, Amplified IT LLC and Focal Point Data Risk LLC in 2021, partially offset by increased capital expenditures in 2022 due to increased investment in our information technology systems and proceeds received from the sale of an equity method investment in 2021. For additional information regarding the acquisitions, see Note 3 (Acquisitions) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities decreased $1,935 million in 2022 compared to 2021. The decrease was primarily due to less debt proceeds and higher debt payments in 2022. This decrease was partially offset by the absence of share repurchases and increased volume in our inventory financing arrangements. For additional information regarding the inventory financing and debt activities, see Note 7 (Inventory Financing Agreements) and Note 9 (Debt) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We have no off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a material current or future effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
Issuers and Guarantors of Debt Securities
Each series of our outstanding unsecured senior notes (the “Notes”) are issued by CDW LLC and CDW Finance Corporation (the “Issuers”) and are guaranteed by CDW Corporation (“Parent”) and certain of each CDW LLC’s direct and indirect, 100% owned, domestic subsidiaries (the “Guarantor Subsidiaries” and, together with Parent, the “Guarantors”). All guarantees by Parent and the Guarantors are joint and several, and full and unconditional; provided that guarantees by the Guarantor Subsidiaries are subject to certain customary release provisions contained in the indentures governing the Notes.
The Notes and the related guarantees are the Issuers’ and the Guarantors’ senior unsecured obligations and are:
structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our non-guarantor subsidiaries and
rank equal in right of payment with all of the Issuers’ and the Guarantors’ existing and future unsecured senior debt.
The following tables set forth Balance Sheet information as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, and Statement of Operations information for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 for the accounts of the Issuers and the accounts of the Guarantors (the “Obligor Group”). The financial information of the Obligor Group is presented on a combined basis and the intercompany balances and transactions between the Obligor Group have been eliminated.
Balance Sheet Information
December 31,
(dollars in millions)20222021
Current assets$5,588.3 $4,584.1 
   Goodwill3,939.7 2,373.1 
   Other assets2,032.6 1,017.3 
Total Non-current assets5,972.3 3,390.4 
Current liabilities4,369.3 3,393.0 
   Long-term debt5,792.9 6,534.6 
   Other liabilities641.9 562.4 
Total Long-term liabilities6,434.8 7,097.0 
Statements of Operations Information
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in millions)20222021
Net sales$20,741.8 $17,979.4 
Gross profit4,156.6 3,078.0 
Operating income1,584.7 1,301.9 
Net income1,005.8 921.3 
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Commitments and Contingencies
The information set forth in Note 16 (Commitments and Contingencies) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report is incorporated herein by reference.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with US GAAP requires management to make use of certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, as well as related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Historically, we have not made significant changes to the methods for determining these estimates as our actual results have not differed materially from our estimates. We do not believe it is reasonably likely that the estimates and related assumptions will change materially in the foreseeable future; however, actual results could differ from those estimates under different assumptions, judgments or conditions.
Critical accounting policies and estimates are those that are most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations, and which require us to make our most difficult and subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain. Based on this definition, we have identified the critical accounting policies and estimates addressed below. For additional information related to significant accounting policies used in the preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements, see Note 1 (Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Revenue Recognition
We sell some of our products and services as part of bundled contract arrangements containing multiple deliverables, which may include a combination of different products and services. Significant judgment may be required when determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together.
For contracts consisting of multiple performance obligations, the total transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation based upon its standalone selling price. Judgment is required to determine the standalone selling price for each distinct performance obligation. For certain types of performance obligations, we use a combination of methods to estimate the standalone selling price based on recent transactions. When evidence from recent transactions is not available to confirm that the prices are representative of the standalone selling price, an expected cost plus margin approach is used.
Additional judgment is required in determining whether we are the principal, and report revenues on a gross basis, or agent, and report revenues on a net basis. For each identified performance obligation in a transaction, we evaluate the facts and circumstances present to determine whether or not we control the specified good or service prior to transfer to the customer. This evaluation includes, but is not limited to, assessing indicators such as whether: (i) we are primarily responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified goods or service, (ii) we have inventory risk before the specified good or service has been transferred to a customer and (iii) we have discretion in establishing the price for the specified good or service. When the evaluation indicates we control the specified good or service prior to transfer to the customer, we are acting as a principal. When the evaluation indicates we do not control the specified good or service prior transfer to the customer, we are acting as an agent.
The nature of our contracts give rise to variable consideration, primarily in the form of volume rebates and sales returns and allowances. We estimate variable consideration at the most likely amount to which we expect to be entitled. The estimates of variable consideration and determination of whether to include estimated amounts in the transaction price are based on an assessment of our anticipated performance and all information that is reasonably available.
We recognize revenue from performance obligations when, or as, the customer obtains control over the specified good or service. That is, when the customer has the ability to direct the use of and obtain substantially all of the benefits from the good or service. For the sale of hardware and software, this is generally upon delivery to the customer. As a result, we perform an analysis to estimate the amount of Net sales in-transit at the end of the period and adjust revenue and the related costs to reflect only what has been delivered to the customer. This analysis requires judgment whereby we perform an analysis of the estimated number of days of sales in-transit to customers at the end of each reporting period based on a weighted-average analysis of commercial delivery terms that include drop-shipment arrangements. Changes in delivery patterns may result in a different number of business days estimated to make this adjustment. For the sale of professional services, we recognize the revenue over time given that our customers simultaneously receive and consume the benefits from these services as they are performed. Revenues from professional services are primarily recognized using an input method, which requires management to make estimates regarding the amount of resources required for each engagement in order to satisfy the performance obligation.
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Goodwill
Goodwill is allocated to reporting units expected to benefit from the business combination. Goodwill is subject to periodic testing for impairment at the reporting unit level on an annual basis during the fourth quarter, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. These events or circumstances could include a significant change in the business climate, legal factors, operating performance indicators, competition or sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit.
We may elect to utilize a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. As part of our qualitative assessment, judgment is required in weighing the effect of various positive and negative factors that may affect the fair value. We consider various factors, including the excess of fair value over carrying value from the last quantitative test, macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, the projected financial performance and actual financial performance compared to prior year projected financial performance.
If we elect to bypass the qualitative assessment, or if indicators of impairment exist, a quantitative impairment test is performed. As part of the quantitative assessment, application of the goodwill impairment test requires judgment, including the identification of reporting units, assignment of assets and liabilities to reporting units and determination of the fair value of each reporting unit. Fair value of a reporting unit is determined by using a weighted combination of an income approach and a market approach, as this combination is considered the most indicative of our fair value in an orderly transaction between market participants. This analysis requires significant judgments, including estimation of future cash flows, which is dependent on internal forecasts, estimation of the long-term rate of growth for our business, estimation of the useful life over which cash flows will occur, determination of our weighted average cost of capital, future market conditions and profitability of future business strategies. The estimates used to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit change from year to year based on operating results, market conditions and other factors. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value and goodwill impairment for each reporting unit. However, our past estimates of fair value would not have indicated an impairment when revised to include subsequent years’ actual results.
We completed our annual impairment analysis during the fourth quarter of 2022. We performed a qualitative analysis for all reporting units and concluded that it was more likely than not that the fair values of all reporting units exceeded their respective carrying values and, therefore, did not result in an impairment. In 2020, we performed a quantitative analysis of goodwill impairment and determined that no impairment existed.
Business combinations
We allocate purchase price consideration to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their fair values as of the acquisition date. Determining the fair value of these assets and liabilities requires the use of significant estimates, particularly in valuing acquired intangible assets and Goodwill.
Purchased intangible assets other than goodwill are initially recognized at fair value and amortized over their useful lives. We determine the fair value of purchased intangible using an income approach on an individual asset basis. The fair value measurements were primarily based on significant inputs that are not observable, which are categorized as a Level 3 measurement in the fair value hierarchy. The values assigned to consideration transferred, assets acquired and liabilities assumed may be adjusted during the measurement period as new information arises.
We use the multi-period excess earnings method to determine the fair value of customer relationships. This method identifies the portion of revenue expected to be generated through repeat customers existing as of the valuation date and includes an attrition rate to account for the loss of customers over time. Critical estimates utilized in valuing customer relationships include estimated forecasted future revenue and EBITDA margin growth rates, customer attrition rates and market-participant discount rates. The assumptions we apply in forecasting future revenue and customer attrition rates is based on analysis of historical data, assessment of current and anticipated market conditions, estimated growth rates, and management plans.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The information set forth in Note 2 (Recent Accounting Pronouncements) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures of Market Risks
Interest Rate Risk
Our market risks relate primarily to changes in interest rates. The interest rates on borrowings under our senior unsecured revolving loan facility and our senior unsecured term loan facility are floating and, therefore, are subject to fluctuations. We
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manage our exposure to interest rate risk through the proportion of fixed-rate debt and variable-rate debt in our debt portfolio. Additionally, from time to time, we may execute derivative instruments in order to manage the risk associated with changes in interest rates on borrowings under our variable-rate debt facilities. For additional information on our debt, refer to Note 9 (Debt) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Foreign Currency Risk
We transact business in foreign currencies other than the US dollar, primarily the British pound and the Canadian dollar, which exposes us to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Revenue and expenses generated from our international operations are generally denominated in the local currencies of the corresponding countries. The functional currency of our international operating subsidiaries is the same as the corresponding local currency. Upon consolidation, as results of operations are translated, operating results may differ from expectations. The direct effect of foreign currency fluctuations on our results of operations has not been material as the majority of our results of operations are denominated in US dollars.
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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
Page
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of CDW Corporation
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of CDW Corporation and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 24, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
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Revenue recognition
Description of the Matter
As described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company recognizes revenue upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers when acting as a principal and upon arranging for the third party to provide the product or service, when acting as an agent. The Company applies judgment in determining whether it is the principal and reports revenue on a gross basis, or an agent and reports revenue on a net basis. The Company also sells some of its products and services as part of bundled contract arrangements containing multiple performance obligations. Significant judgment may be required when determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together. For each distinct performance obligation, judgment is required to determine the relative standalone selling price to allocate the transaction price, such as using an expected cost plus margin approach.
Auditing the Company’s contracts with customers was challenging given the significant audit effort required to analyze the Company’s various products, services and contract arrangements. For example, certain customer contracts may contain multiple parties and there can be subjective judgment in assessing the Company’s role as principal or agent in the contract arrangement. For certain other customer contracts, there can be judgment in the identification of the distinct performance obligations along with the determination of the associated relative standalone selling prices.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding of the revenue process, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of the Company’s internal controls over the relevant terms of the customer contracts, including the determination of principal versus agent, the identification of distinct performance obligations and the determination of the relative standalone selling price for separate performance obligations.
To test revenue recognition, our audit procedures included among others, examination of executed customer contracts for a sample of sales transactions, and evaluating the Company’s determination of principal versus agent, identifying products and services in the contract and assessing separate distinct performance obligations. To test management’s determination of relative standalone selling price for separate performance obligations, we performed audit procedures that included, among others, assessing the appropriateness of the methodology applied, testing the mathematical accuracy of the underlying data and calculations and inspecting the underlying data information on a sample basis.
Accounting for the Acquisition of Sirius - Valuation of Intangible Assets
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Description of the Matter
As described in Note 1 and Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company acquired Granite Parent, Inc. (also referred to as “Sirius”) for net consideration of $2,455 million during the year ended December 31, 2021. The transaction was accounted for as a business combination and the Company allocated $1,164 million of the purchase price to the fair value of identified intangible assets.
Auditing the Company’s accounting for its acquisition of Sirius was complex due to the significant estimation uncertainty in the Company’s determination of the fair value of identified intangible assets of $1,164 million, which principally consisted of customer relationships of $1,140 million. The significant estimation uncertainty was primarily due to the sensitivity of the fair value of customer relationships to underlying assumptions about the future performance of the acquired business and the expectations of market participant synergies on which those assumptions were based. The Company used the income approach to measure customer relationships. The significant assumptions used to estimate the value of customer relationships included the long-term growth rate, customer attrition rate and discount rate. These significant assumptions are forward looking and could be affected by future economic and market conditions.


How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding of the Company’s process for accounting for the acquisition. We tested the design and operating effectiveness of the Company's controls over the estimation process supporting the recognition and measurement of customer relationships, including the measurement period adjustments. We also tested controls regarding management’s review of assumptions used in the valuation model.
To test the fair value of the Company’s customer relationships, including measurement period adjustments, we performed, with the assistance of our valuation specialists, audit procedures that included evaluating the Company’s selection of the valuation methodology, significant assumptions used and completeness and accuracy of the underlying data. For example, we compared the significant assumptions to historical and current industry, market and economic trends. We also tested the underlying source information used and verified the mathematical accuracy of the calculations within the valuation model.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2011.
Chicago, Illinois
February 24, 2023
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CDW CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
 December 31,
 20222021
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$315.2 $258.1 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for credit losses of $25.7 and $20.4, respectively
4,461.3 4,499.4 
Merchandise inventory800.2 927.6 
Miscellaneous receivables489.1 435.5 
Prepaid expenses and other498.2 357.5 
Total current assets6,564.0 6,478.1 
Operating lease right-of-use assets149.2 155.6 
Property and equipment, net188.8 195.8 
Goodwill4,342.7 4,382.9 
Other intangible assets, net1,490.7 1,628.1 
Other assets396.1 358.9 
Total Assets$13,131.5 $13,199.4 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable-trade$2,821.3 $3,114.2 
Accounts payable-inventory financing519.0 448.3 
Current maturities of long-term debt56.3 102.7 
Contract liabilities485.5 402.9 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities:
Compensation377.8 361.7 
Advertising130.5 145.5 
Sales and income taxes73.5 65.9 
Other483.2 454.8 
Total current liabilities4,947.1 5,096.0 
Long-term liabilities:
Debt5,866.4 6,755.8 
Deferred income taxes203.4 222.3 
Operating lease liabilities175.2 184.2 
Other liabilities336.1 235.4 
Total long-term liabilities6,581.1 7,397.7 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 16)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value, 100.0 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding for both periods
  
Common stock, $0.01 par value, 1,000.0 shares authorized; 135.5 and 134.8 shares outstanding, respectively
1.4 1.3 
Paid-in capital3,518.1 3,369.5 
Accumulated deficit(1,763.8)(2,570.7)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(152.4)(94.4)
Total stockholders’ equity1,603.3 705.7 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity$13,131.5 $