10-K 1 g-10k_20181231.htm 10-K g-10k_20181231.htm

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.

Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the transition period from                          to                          .

 

 

Commission file number: 001-33626

GENPACT LIMITED

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Bermuda

98-0533350

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

Canon’s Court

22 Victoria Street

Hamilton HM 12

Bermuda

(441) 295-2244

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive office)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Name of Exchange on Which Registered

Common shares, par value $0.01 per share

 

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any amendment to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.          

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes     No

As of June 30, 2018, the aggregate market value of the common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $4,301,213,430, based on the closing price of the registrant’s common shares, par value of $0.01 per share, reported on the New York Stock Exchange on such date of $28.93 per share. Directors, executive officers and significant shareholders of Genpact Limited are considered affiliates for purposes of this calculation, but should not necessarily be deemed affiliates for any other purpose.

As of February 20, 2019, there were 189,456,783 common shares of the registrant outstanding.

Documents incorporated by reference:

The registrant intends to file a definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018. Portions of the proxy statement are incorporated herein by reference to the following parts of this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

Part III, Item 10, Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance;

Part III, Item 11, Executive Compensation;

Part III, Item 12, Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters;

Part III, Item 13, Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence; and

Part III, Item 14, Principal Accounting Fees and Services.

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page No.

PART I

 

Item No.

 

 

 

 

1.

 

Business

 

4

 

 

1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

16

 

 

1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

38

 

 

2.

 

Properties

 

38

 

 

3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

38

 

 

4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

38

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

39

 

 

6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

40

 

 

7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

41

 

 

7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

70

 

 

8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

71

 

 

9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

72

 

 

9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

72

 

 

9B.

 

Other Information

 

73

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

73

 

 

11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

73

 

 

12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

73

 

 

13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

73

 

 

14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

74

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

74

 

 

16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

77

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

 

Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

F-2

Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

F-5

Consolidated Statements of Income

 

F-6

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)

 

F-7

Consolidated Statements of Equity and Redeemable Non-controlling Interest

 

F-8

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

F-11

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

 

F-12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

78

 


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Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

We have made statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Annual Report”) in, among other sections, Item 1—“Business,” Item 1A—“Risk Factors,” and Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” that are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking terms such as “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “seek,” “estimate,” “could,” “may,” “shall,” “will,” “would” and variations of such words and similar expressions, or the negative of such words or similar expressions. These forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us, may include projections of our future financial performance, which in some cases may be based on our growth strategies and anticipated trends in our business. These statements are only predictions based on our current expectations and projections about future events. There are important factors that could cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In particular, you should consider the numerous risks outlined under Item 1A—“Risk Factors” in this Annual Report. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements relating to:

 

our ability to retain existing clients and contracts;

 

our ability to win new clients and engagements;

 

the expected value of the statements of work under our master service agreements;

 

our beliefs about future trends in our market;

 

political, economic or business conditions in countries where we have operations or where our clients operate, including the uncertainty related to the pending withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, commonly known as Brexit, and heightened economic and political uncertainty within and among other European Union member states;

 

expected spending on business process outsourcing and information technology services by clients;

 

foreign currency exchange rates;

 

our ability to convert bookings to revenue;

 

our rate of employee attrition;

 

our effective tax rate; and

 

competition in our industry.

Factors that may cause actual results to differ from expected results include, among others:

 

our ability to develop and successfully execute our business strategies;

 

our ability to grow our business and effectively manage growth and international operations while maintaining effective internal controls;

 

our dependence on favorable policies and tax laws that may be changed or amended in a manner adverse to us or be unavailable to us in the future, including as a result of recently adopted tax legislation in the United States, and our ability to effectively execute our tax planning strategies;

•   our ability to comply with data protection laws and regulations and to maintain the security and     confidentiality of personal and other sensitive data of our clients, employees or others;

 

our dependence on revenues derived from clients in the United States and Europe and clients that operate in certain industries, such as the financial services industry;    

 

our ability to successfully consummate or integrate strategic acquisitions;

 

our ability to maintain pricing and asset utilization rates;

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our ability to hire and retain enough qualified employees to support our operations;

 

increases in wages in locations in which we have operations;

 

our relative dependence on the General Electric Company (GE) and our ability to maintain our relationships with divested GE businesses;

 

financing terms, including, but not limited to, changes in the London Interbank Offered rate, or LIBOR, including the pending global phase-out of LIBOR, and changes to our credit ratings;

 

our ability to meet our corporate funding needs, pay dividends and service debt, including our ability to comply with the restrictions that apply to our indebtedness that may limit our business activities and investment opportunities;

 

restrictions on visas for our employees traveling to North America and Europe;

 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates between the currencies in which we transact business, primarily the U.S. dollar, Australian dollar, Chinese renminbi, Euro, Indian rupee, Japanese yen, Mexican peso, Philippine peso, Polish zloty, Romanian leu and U.K. pound sterling;

 

our ability to retain senior management;

 

the selling cycle for our client relationships;

 

our ability to attract and retain clients and our ability to develop and maintain client relationships on attractive terms;

 

legislation in the United States or elsewhere that adversely affects the performance of business process outsourcing and information technology services offshore;

 

increasing competition in our industry;

 

telecommunications or technology disruptions or breaches, or natural or other disasters;

 

our ability to protect our intellectual property and the intellectual property of others;

 

deterioration in the global economic environment and its impact on our clients, including the bankruptcy of our clients;

 

regulatory, legislative and judicial developments, including the withdrawal of governmental fiscal incentives;

 

the international nature of our business;

 

technological innovation;

 

our ability to derive revenues from new service offerings; and

 

unionization of any of our employees.

Although we believe the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable at the time they are made, we cannot guarantee future results, level of activity, performance or achievements. Achievement of future results is subject to risks, uncertainties, and potentially inaccurate assumptions. Should known or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove inaccurate, actual results could differ materially from past results and those anticipated, estimated or projected. You should bear this in mind as you consider forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this filing to conform our prior statements to actual results or revised expectations. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our Forms 10-Q and Form 8-K reports to the SEC.

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we use the terms “Genpact,” “Company,” “we” and “us” to refer to Genpact Limited and its subsidiaries. Our registered office is located at Canon’s Court, 22 Victoria Street, Hamilton HM 12, Bermuda.


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PART I

Item 1. Business

About Genpact

Genpact is a global professional services firm that makes business transformation real.  We drive digital-led innovation and run digitally-enabled intelligent operations for our clients, guided by our experience running thousands of processes for hundreds of Fortune Global 500 clients.  We have more than 87,000 employees serving clients in key industry verticals from more than 25 countries. Our 2018 total net revenues were $3.0 billion.

In 2018, we continued to implement a strategy focused on differentiated, domain-led solutions, growing our expertise in strategic industries and geographic markets, and expanding our client relationships.  We made acquisitions in 2018 to increase our domain expertise in our areas of focus, and we invested in our people and our solutions – in particular our digital capabilities –in an effort to drive more agile business models for our clients and help them to stay ahead of the disruptive challenges they are facing.

Our Approach

We use our Smart Enterprise ProcessesSM (SEP) —a patented and highly granular approach to dramatically improving the performance of business processes – to help our clients make their business processes more efficient and effective. SEPs, and their more recent evolution, Digital SEPs, combine Lean Six Sigma methodologies – which reduce waste and inefficiency and improve process quality – with design-thinking principles and our deep expertise in how businesses run.  Our SEPs test the effectiveness of client processes using best-in-class benchmarks we have developed by mapping and analyzing hundreds of millions of client transactions across thousands of end-to-end business processes. In this way, we identify opportunities for improving client processes and technologies, and we apply our deep process knowledge and process-centric technology to transform them.  Our Digital SEPs build on our SEP framework by adding domain-specific digital products and solutions that draw on our expertise in mobility, cloud, workflow, advanced visualization, robotics, and machine learning.

Genpact Cora integrates our proprietary automation, analytics, and AI technologies into a unified platform. It draws insights from our deep domain and operations expertise in our target industries and service lines, and is focused on improving the customer experience. Our teams use Genpact Cora to embed the latest technologies along with our deep domain knowledge into our solutions to accelerate our clients’ digital transformations.

Domain-led digital transformation

Our clients are operate in increasingly complex business environments, driven by an explosion in technology opportunities, new and disruptive competitors, and shifting market dynamics.  Companies need to reimagine their business models and adapt to rapid change.

These organizations seek partners that can both improve productivity and manage cost while creating competitive advantages and realizing top-line benefits, such as expanded market share, seamless customer experiences, increased revenue, and minimized risk and loss. We believe our approach to business transformation, enabled through combining our deep industry and process expertise with our advanced skills in digital, differentiates us from our competitors.

Our Lean DigitalSM Innovation Centers help clients learn about new digital solutions that can address their business needs. We use these innovation centers to bring together clients, partners, and other industry leaders for brainstorming and hackathon-style workshops. As part of this process, we apply design thinking to make the most of human capabilities, domain expertise, and innovative technology,

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and create solutions that quickly and aptly meet client objectives. The results can include quick-turnaround prototypes that clients can install and test in their own environments.

We enable domain-led digital transformation for our clients primarily in two ways: designing and running Intelligent OperationsSM and providing digital-led Transformation Services.

Intelligent Operations

Our Intelligent Operations embed digital and advanced analytics into our business process outsourcing solutions to automate and transform our clients’ operations. This allows enterprises to be more flexible and helps them focus on what they need to do to better compete in their industries.

Transformation Services

Our transformation services include our digital products, services and solutions, consulting services, and analytics offerings.

Digital: Through our portfolio of digital products, we help our clients harness the power of digital. Our Genpact Cora platform helps us design and implement our digital solutions, making use of advanced technologies, including robotic process automation, AI and data engineering.

Consulting: Our consulting practice, which includes digital experts, helps clients:

 

Get a complete picture of how they run their operations across their organization in our areas of focus;

 

Measure how their operating processes compare to industry best practices;

 

Create custom roadmaps to help them meet their business goals; and

 

Train client teams to execute on our recommendations.

Analytics: We use advanced analytics and data engineering to help our clients make timely, informed and fact-based decisions. We offer analytics services and solutions in areas where we have domain expertise, both on a standalone basis and embedded in our other service offerings. We use quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze a client’s data to help them assess new business opportunities, manage risk, and make better business decisions. Our Lean Digital Innovation Centers in Bangalore and Delhi, India, Boston and Palo Alto, United States, and Netyana, Israel bring together our clients, partners, and other industry experts to design and develop new ideas.

Our service offerings

For clients across our chosen industry verticals, we offer the following professional services:

 

Finance and accounting services;

 

Core industry operations specific to our chosen industry verticals;

 

Sourcing, procurement and supply chain services; and

 

IT services.

Finance and accounting

We believe we are one of the world’s premier providers of financial and accounting services. Our services in this area include:

 

Accounts payable: document management, invoice processing, approval and resolution management, and travel and expense processing;

 

Invoice-to-cash: customer master data management, credit and contract management, fulfillment, billing, collections, and dispute management services;

 

Record to report: accounting, treasury, tax services, product cost accounting, and closing and reporting, including SEC and regulatory reporting;

 

Enterprise performance management: budgeting, forecasting, and business performance reporting; and

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Enterprise risk and compliance: operational risk and controls across a wide range of regulatory environments.

Core industry operations

We help our clients design, transform and run core enterprise operations specific to their industries. On the foundation of domain expertise embedded in our SEP frameworks, we use our Lean Digital approach to leverage digital technologies and specialized analytics to power Intelligent Operations. We support our clients’ core operations in all of our chosen industry verticals.  

Sourcing, procurement and supply chain services

We offer direct and indirect strategic sourcing, category management, spend analytics, procurement operations, master data management, and other procurement and supply chain advisory services.

We use our expertise in this area to help clients transform and run sourcing strategies across expense categories, drive process compliance and realize significant cost reduction in their businesses. Using our Lean Digital approach and best-in-class SEPs, we help clients improve productivity and their customers’ experiences by:

 

Improving sourcing and procurement processes;

 

Optimizing inventory management and the overall supply chain;

 

Automating processes, such as order management;

 

Integrating separate technology systems and analyzing disparate data sources; and

 

Providing a single dashboard to see metrics in one place.

IT services

Our IT services include end-user computing support, infrastructure management, application production support, and database management. We provide support in more than 25 languages.

Monitoring and management: We help our clients monitor and manage their data centers, servers, storage, emails, networks, databases, applications, and end-user devices.

Infrastructure management: We offer cloud infrastructure services, IT service integration and management and cybersecurity services.

Business intelligence and data warehousing: We leverage our deep domain and process expertise to help clients with business intelligence and big data, enterprise resource planning, quality assurance, technology integration, and business intelligence reporting. We also have significant expertise in Hyperion, SAS and Cognos, and platform support for ERP systems such as Oracle, SAP, and Microsoft.

Industries we serve

We work with clients across our chosen industry verticals, which are areas in which we believe we have deep industry acumen. In addition to our professional services, such as finance and accounting, that are available to clients across our verticals, we offer core industry-specific services to clients in select verticals.

Banking and financial services

Our clients in this vertical include retail, investment and commercial banks, mortgage lenders, equipment and lease financing providers and other financial services companies.  Our services for these clients include application processing, collections and customer services, equipment and auto loan servicing, mortgage origination and servicing, risk management and compliance services, reporting and monitoring services, and wealth management operations support.

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Capital markets

Our clients in this vertical include investment banks, wealth and asset management firms, broker/dealers, exchanges, clearing and settlement organizations and other financial enterprises.  Our services for these clients include end-to-end information technology services, application development and maintenance, managed services, risk management and compliance services, and consulting.

Insurance

Our services for clients in the insurance industry – such as property and casualty insurers, life and annuities insurers, reinsurance providers and insurance brokerage firms – include underwriting, claims management, risk and catastrophe modelling, and customer segmentation and loyalty.

Consumer goods and retail

Our clients in this vertical include companies in the food and beverage, household goods, apparel, personal goods and consumer health industries as well as grocery chains and other retailers.  The services we provide to these clients include supply chain management, order management, trade promotion optimization, and supplier risk management.

Life sciences and healthcare

Our clients in this vertical include pharmaceutical, medical technology and biotechnology companies as well as healthcare payers (health insurers) and providers and pharmacy benefit managers.  Our services for life sciences clients include regulatory affairs services, such as lifecycle management, regulatory operations, Chemistry Manufacturing Controls compliance, safety and pharmacovigilance, and regulatory information management.  Our services for healthcare clients include managing the end-to-end lifecycle of a claim, from claims processing and adjudication to claims recovery and payment integrity.

Infrastructure, manufacturing and services

Our clients in this vertical include companies in the automotive, chemicals, energy, hospitality, manufacturing, media and entertainment, and transportation and logistics sectors.  Our solutions for these clients include industry-specific solutions for the Internet of Things (IIoT), aftermarket services support, industrial asset optimization, engineering services covering the complete product lifecycle from concept to release and sustaining engineering, supply chain management, direct procurement and logistics services.

High Tech

Our clients in this vertical include companies in the electronics, software and technology sectors. The services we provide to these clients include industry-specific solutions for the IIoT, order and supply chain management, and risk management.

Our clients

We serve more than 700 clients across many industries and geographies. Our clients include some of the biggest brands in the world, many of which are leaders in their industries.

GE

GE has been our largest client since our inception and accounted for $268.2 million, or approximately 8.9%, of our total net revenues in 2018. We serve most of GE’s business units, including GE Aviation, Baker Hughes GE, GE Corporate, GE Current, GE Digital, GE Healthcare, GE Industrial Finance, GE Power, GE Renewables and GE Transportation.

We provide broad services to GE across all of our service offerings. Commitments with respect to services we may perform for GE are set forth in statements of work, or SOWs, purchase orders and business services agreements, or BSAs, that we may enter into with individual GE business units from

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time to time. These SOWs, purchase orders and BSAs cover in more detail the type of work to be performed and the associated amounts to be billed. In general, each GE business unit decides whether to enter into a SOW, purchase order or BSA with us and on what terms it will do so. Therefore, although some decisions may be made centrally at GE, our revenues from GE come from many different businesses, each with its own leader who makes decisions about our services.

Global clients

We serve about one fourth of the Fortune Global 500, including clients such as Aon, Bayer, Boeing, Citigroup, Hyatt, McKesson, PayPal, Walgreens Boots Alliance and Walmart.

Our net revenues from Global Clients, which include all clients other than GE, have grown from $1.6 billion in 2013 to $2.7 billion in 2018, representing a compound annual growth rate of 11%. Our net revenues from Global Clients as a percentage of total net revenues increased from approximately 77% in 2013 to approximately 91% in 2018.  See Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Classification of Certain Net Revenues.”

Our contracts with clients often take the form of a master services agreement, or MSA, which is a framework agreement that we then supplement with SOWs, and we also frequently enter into software-as-a-service and consulting agreements with our clients depending on the scope of the services to be performed. Our MSAs specify the general terms that apply to the services we will provide. For more about our contracting frameworks, see Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Overview—Net Revenues.”

Our people

Our people are critical to the success of our business.  We have created, and constantly reinforce, a culture that emphasizes collaboration, innovation, process improvement, and dedication to our clients.  We seek to attract, retain and develop employees who exhibit our core values – curiosity, incisiveness and courage – and who uphold our dedication to integrity consistent with our Code of Ethical Business Conduct. We are committed to the career development of our employees, and our increasingly mobile, agile and inclusive learning infrastructure supports focused and meaningful technical, functional, industry-specific, managerial, and leadership skill development for our employees based on their roles and levels. Our performance management approach supports our career philosophy by encouraging employees to reflect on their performance, set challenging goals, identify their development needs and find relevant learning and training opportunities.

As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 87,000 employees working in more than 25 countries.

Partnerships and alliances

We have entered into and continue to pursue alliances with companies whose solutions complement ours. Together, we work to enhance our existing solutions or create new solutions to meet market needs.

Our alliances generally fall into one of the following categories:

 

Joint ventures

 

Strategic, go-to-market alliances

 

Deal-specific relationships to jointly solve a specific issue for a client

 

Digital and other “white label” embedded technology-based relationships

We have three primary types of partners: consulting partners, digital partners, and solution partners. Our digital and solution partnerships aim to nurture relationships with established and emerging players and start-ups. These potential partners specialize in leading-edge disruptive digital technologies and solutions that we can embed into our offerings or proactively bring to market.

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Corporate social responsibility

Genpact’s approach to corporate social responsibility focuses on three pillars that reflect our strengths, core expertise, and causes that our employees care about:

 

Education and employability

 

Gender diversity and inclusion

 

Sustainability

We foster a culture of giving and volunteering through several global platforms, projects, and social initiatives. Our more than 31,000 employee volunteers have, among other things, helped underprivileged children get better access to education, assisted unemployed women in developing job skills and finding jobs, and worked on projects to help improve infrastructure and education in the communities in which we work and live.  Additionally, more than 10,000 of our employees participate in our payroll-based charitable donation programs.

Sales and marketing

We market our services to both existing and potential clients through our business development team and our global relationship managers. Members of this team are based around the globe, including in the United States, Europe, Australia and Asia, and dedicate their time to expanding the services we provide to our existing clients as well as acquiring new clients.

We have designated client partners and global relationship managers for each of our strategic relationships. The relationship manager is supported by digital and analytics, process improvement, quality, transition, finance, human resources, information technology and industry/product subject matter expert teams to ensure the best possible solution is provided to our clients. We constantly measure our client satisfaction levels to ensure that we maintain high service levels for each client, using measures such as the Net Promoter Score. Our sales force is primarily organized by industry vertical teams that are supported by horizontal service offerings.

The length of our selling cycle varies depending on the type of engagement. The sales cycle for project work is typically much shorter than the sales cycle for a large business process engagement. Our efforts may begin in response to our lead generation program, a perceived opportunity, a reference by an existing client, a request for proposal or otherwise. In addition to our business development personnel, the sales effort involves people from the relevant service areas, people familiar with that prospective client’s industry and business leaders. We may expend substantial time and resources in securing new business. See Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Overview—Net Revenues.”

As our relationship with a client grows, the time required to win an engagement for additional services often gradually declines. In addition, as we become more knowledgeable about a client’s business and processes, our ability to identify opportunities to create value for the client typically increases. For example, productivity benefits and greater business impact can often be achieved by applying our Lean DigitalSM approach and SEPSM methodology, by focusing on processes that are “upstream” or “downstream” from the processes we initially handle, or by applying our analytical, consulting and digital capabilities to transform processes.

We also strive to foster relationships between our senior leadership team and our clients’ senior management. These “C-level” relationships ensure that both parties are focused on establishing priorities, aligning objectives and driving client value from the top down. High-level executive relationships have been particularly constructive as a means of increasing business from our existing clients. It also provides us with a forum for addressing client concerns. Our governance methodology is designed to ensure that we are well connected at all levels of our clients’ organizations (executive, management and operations).

Significant new business opportunities are reviewed by business and sales leaders from the applicable industry vertical, operations personnel, and members of our finance department. If they

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determine that the new business is aligned with our strategic objectives and a good use of our resources, then our business development team is authorized to pursue the opportunity.

Global delivery

We serve our clients using our global network of 88 delivery centers in 17 countries. We have delivery centers in Australia, Brazil, China, Guatemala, India, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We also have many employees who work with our clients either onsite or virtually, which offers flexibility for both clients and employees.  

With this global network, we are able to manage complex processes around the world. We use different locations for different types of services depending on client needs and the mix of skills and cost of employees at each location.

Our presence around the world gives us:

 

multilingual capabilities;

 

access to a larger talent pool; and

 

“near-shoring” capabilities to take advantage of time zones.

We also regularly look for new places to open delivery centers and offices, both in new countries or new cities in countries where we already have a presence. Before we choose a new location, we consider several factors, such as the talent pool, infrastructure, government support, operating costs, and client demand.

Service delivery model

We seek to be a seamless extension of our clients’ operations. To that end, we developed the Genpact Virtual CaptiveSM service delivery model, in which we create a virtual extension of our clients’ teams and environments. Our clients get dedicated employees and management, as well as dedicated infrastructure at our delivery centers. We also train our teams in our clients’ cultures, processes, and business environments.

Intellectual Property

The solutions we offer our clients often include a range of proprietary methodologies, software, and reusable knowledge capital. We also develop intellectual property in the course of our business and our agreements with our clients regulate the ownership of such intellectual property. We seek to protect our intellectual property through various means, including by agreement and applications for patents, trademarks, service marks, copyrights and domain names. Some of our intellectual property rights are trade secrets and relate to proprietary business process enhancements.

We often use third-party and client software platforms and systems to provide our services. Our agreements with our clients normally include a license to use the client’s proprietary systems to provide our services. Clients authorize us to access and use third party software licenses held by the client so that we may provide our services.

 

It is our practice to enter into agreements with our employees and independent contractors that:

 

ensure that all new intellectual property developed by our employees or independent contractors in the course of their employment or engagement is assigned to us;

 

provide for employees’ and independent contractors’ cooperation in intellectual property protection matters even if they no longer work for us; and

 

include a confidentiality undertaking by our employees and independent contractors.

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Competition

We operate in a highly competitive and rapidly evolving global market. We have a number of competitors offering services that are the same as or similar to ours. Our competitors include:

 

large multinational service providers and accounting firms that provide consulting and other professional services;

 

companies that are primarily business process service providers operating from low-cost countries, most commonly India;

 

companies that are primarily information technology service providers with some business process service capabilities;

 

smaller, niche service providers that provide services in a specific geographic market, industry or service area, including digital; and

 

in-house departments of companies that use their own resources rather than engage an outside firm for the types of services and solutions we provide.

Our revenues are derived primarily from Fortune Global 500 and Fortune 1000 companies. We believe that the principal competitive factors in our industry include:

 

skills and capabilities;

 

technical and industry expertise;

 

innovative service and product offerings, including digital offerings;

 

ability to add value, including through continuous process improvement;

 

reputation and client references;

 

contractual terms, including competitive pricing;

 

scope of services;

 

quality of services and solutions;

 

ability to sustain long-term client relationships; and

 

global reach and scale.

Our clients typically retain us on a non-exclusive basis.

 

Regulation

We are subject to regulation in many jurisdictions around the world as a result of the complexity of our operations and services, particularly in the countries where we have operations and where we deliver services. We are also subject to regulation by regional bodies such as the European Union, or EU.

In addition, the terms of our service contracts typically require that we comply with applicable laws and regulations. In some of our service contracts, we are contractually required to comply even if such laws and regulations apply to our clients, but not to us, and sometimes our clients require us to take specific steps intended to make it easier for them to comply with applicable requirements. In some of our service contracts, our clients undertake the responsibility to inform us about laws and regulations that may apply to us in jurisdictions in which they are located.

If we fail to comply with any applicable laws and regulations, we may be restricted in our ability to provide services, and may also be the subject of civil or criminal actions involving penalties, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations. Our clients generally have the right to terminate our contracts for cause in the event of regulatory failures, subject to notice periods. See Item 1A—“Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Business—Our global operations expose us to numerous and sometimes

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conflicting legal and regulatory requirements, and violations of these laws and regulations could harm our business.” If we fail to comply with contractual commitments to facilitate our clients’ compliance, we may be liable for contractual damages, and clients in regulated industries may be less willing to use our services.

We are affected by laws and regulations in the United States, the United Kingdom, the EU and its member states, and other countries in which we do business that are intended to limit the impact of outsourcing on employees in those jurisdictions, and occasional changes to laws and regulations in such jurisdictions may impose changes that further restrict or discourage offshore outsourcing or otherwise harm our business.  See Item 1A—“Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Business—Future legislation or executive action in the United States and other jurisdictions could significantly affect the ability or willingness of our clients and prospective clients to utilize our services.”

Our collection, use, disclosure and retention of personal health-related and other information is subject to an array of privacy, data security, and data breach notification laws and regulations that change frequently, are inconsistent across the jurisdictions in which we do business, and impose significant compliance costs. In the United States, personal information is subject to numerous federal and state laws and regulations relating to privacy, data security, and breach notification, including, for example, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, Communications Act, and Electronic Communications Privacy Act. As of 2018, all fifty U.S. states and the District of Columbia have implemented separate data security and breach notification laws with which we must comply; in addition, some states have strengthened their existing laws. Some courts have become more willing to allow individuals to pursue claims in data breach cases, indicating that it may become easier for consumers to sue companies for data breaches. California’s new privacy law, which is expected to take effect in 2020, will impose additional obligations related to the collection and usage of California residents’ data. Related laws and regulations govern our direct marketing activities and our use of personal information for direct marketing, including the Telemarketing and Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act, Telemarketing Sales Rule, Telephone Consumer Protection Act and rules promulgated by the Federal Communications Commission, and CAN-SPAM Act. In 2018, the Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data, or CLOUD, Act established new required processes and procedures for handling U.S. law enforcement requests for data that we may store outside of the U.S. In the EU, a new, comprehensive General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, went into effect in May 2018. The GDPR supersedes EU member states’ national protection laws and imposes privacy and data security compliance obligations and increased penalties for noncompliance. In particular, the GDPR has introduced numerous privacy-related changes for companies operating in the EU, including greater control for data subjects, increased data portability for EU consumers, data breach notification requirements and increased fines. GDPR enforcement has begun, and companies have faced fines for violations of certain provisions. Fines can reach as high as 4% of a company’s annual total revenue, potentially including the revenue of a company’s international affiliates. Additionally, foreign governments outside of the EU are also taking steps to fortify their data privacy laws and regulations. For example, some countries in Latin America and Asia are considering GDPR-like data protection laws, and Canada implemented a new mandatory breach reporting and recordkeeping regime in November 2018. Evolving laws and regulations in India protecting the use of personal information could also impact our engagements with clients, vendors and employees in India. As privacy laws and regulations around the world continue to evolve, these changes could adversely affect our business operations, websites and mobile applications that are accessed by residents in the applicable countries. 

In the United States, we are either directly subject to, or contractually required to comply or facilitate our clients’ compliance with, laws and regulations arising out of our work for clients operating there, especially in the area of banking, financial services and insurance, such as the Financial Modernization Act (sometimes referred to as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act), the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act, the Bank Secrecy Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the Bank Service Company Act, the Home Owners Loan Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, and regulation by U.S. agencies such as the SEC, the Federal Reserve, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the National Credit Union Administration, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.

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Because of our debt collections work in the United States, we are also regulated by laws such as the Truth in Lending Act, the Fair Credit Billing Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act and related regulations. We are currently licensed to engage in debt collection activities in all jurisdictions in the United States where licensing is required. U.S. banking and debt collection laws and their implementing regulations are occasionally amended, and these changes may impose new obligations on us or may change existing obligations.  

Because of our insurance processing activities in the United States, we are currently licensed as a third-party administrator in 41 states and are regulated by the department of insurance in each such state. In two other states, we qualify for regulatory exemption from licensing based on the insurance processing activities we provide.

In the United States, we are subject to laws and regulations governing foreign trade, such as export control, customs and sanctions regulations maintained by government bodies such as the Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security, the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, and the Homeland Security Department’s Bureau of Customs and Border Protection.

Several of our service delivery centers, primarily located in India, China, the Philippines and Guatemala, benefit from tax incentives or concessional rates provided by local laws and regulations. The Indian Special Economic Zones Act of 2005, or SEZ legislation, introduced a tax holiday in certain situations for operations established in designated “special economic zones,” or SEZs. The SEZ tax benefits are available only for new business operations that are conducted at qualifying SEZ locations. We cannot predict what percentage of our operations or income in India or other jurisdictions in future years will be eligible for a tax holiday. See Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Overview—Income Taxes.” In addition to the tax holidays described above, certain benefits are also available to us under certain Indian state laws. These benefits include rebates and waivers in relation to payments for the transfer or registration of property (including for the purchase or lease of premises), waivers of conversion fees for land, exemption from state pollution control requirements, entry tax exemptions, labor law exemptions and commercial usage of electricity.

Our hedging activities and currency transfer are restricted by regulations in certain countries, including India, Romania and China.

Certain Bermuda Law Considerations

As a Bermuda company, we are also subject to regulation in Bermuda. Among other things, we must comply with the provisions of the Companies Act 1981 of Bermuda as amended, or the Companies Act, regulating the declaration and payment of dividends and the making of distributions from contributed surplus.

We are classified as a non-resident of Bermuda for exchange control purposes by the Bermuda Monetary Authority. Pursuant to our non-resident status, we may engage in transactions in currencies other than Bermuda dollars. There are no restrictions on our ability to transfer funds in and out of Bermuda or to pay dividends to United States residents that are holders of our common shares.

Under Bermuda law, “exempted” companies are companies formed for the purpose of conducting business outside Bermuda. As an exempted company, we may not, without a license granted by the Minister of Finance, participate in certain business transactions, including transactions involving Bermuda landholding rights and the carrying on of business of any kind, for which we are not licensed in Bermuda.

Organizational structure

We conduct our business primarily through direct and indirect subsidiaries of our parent company, Genpact Limited, which is a Bermuda exempted limited company.

Our business was initially conducted through various entities and divisions of GE. We began operating as an independent company in 2004, when GE spun off our operations and sold indirect interests in us to our initial investors. In 2007, we completed our initial public offering. In 2012, affiliates

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of Bain Capital Investors, LLC, or Bain Capital, acquired the majority of the remaining interests held by our initial investors. Following an offering in February 2019, Bain Capital (through its affiliates) owned approximately 17% of our outstanding equity as of February 15, 2019.

Available Information

We file current and periodic reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, at www.sec.gov. We make available free of charge on our website, www.genpact.com, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report.

Executive Officers

The following table sets forth information concerning our executive officers as of February 15, 2019:

 

 

 

 

 

Name

 

Age

 

Position(s)

N.V. Tyagarajan

 

57

 

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

Edward Fitzpatrick

 

52

 

Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer

Patrick Cogny

 

52

 

Senior Vice President, Infrastructure, Manufacturing & Services and High Tech

Balkrishan Kalra

 

49

 

Senior Vice President, Consumer Goods, Retail, Life Sciences and Healthcare

Ahmed Mazhari

 

49

 

Senior Vice President, Chief Growth Officer

Piyush Mehta

 

50

 

Senior Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer

Darren Saumur

 

51

 

Senior Vice President, Global Operating Officer

Heather White

 

46

 

Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary

N.V. Tyagarajan has served as our President and Chief Executive Officer since June 2011. From February 2009 to June 2011, he was our Chief Operating Officer. From February 2005 to February 2009, he was our Executive Vice President and Head of Sales, Marketing and Business Development. From October 2002 to January 2005, he was Senior Vice President, Quality and Global Operations, for GE’s Commercial Equipment Finance division. Between 1999 and 2002, he served as our Chief Executive Officer.

Edward Fitzpatrick has served as our Chief Financial Officer since July 2014. Prior to joining Genpact, he spent 13 years at Motorola Solutions Inc. and its predecessor company Motorola Inc., most recently serving as executive vice president and Chief Financial Officer. Prior to Motorola, he worked at General Instrument Corporation, which was acquired by Motorola Inc., and Price Waterhouse, LLP. Mr. Fitzpatrick also currently serves as a director of CBOE, Inc.

Patrick Cogny has served as our Senior Vice President of Infrastructure, Manufacturing and Services since September 2011 and has also been responsible for our High Tech business since January 2017. From 2005 to August 2011, he was the Chief Executive Officer of Genpact Europe. Prior to this, he spent 15 years working for GE in the Healthcare business and in the GE Europe corporate headquarters, in France, the United States and Belgium.

Balkrishan Kalra has served as our Senior Vice President, Consumer Goods, Retail and Life Sciences since 2008 and has also been responsible for our Healthcare business since 2016. Prior to this, he held various roles at Genpact since joining us in 1999.

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Ahmed Mazhari has served as our Senior Vice President and Chief Growth Officer since September 2016. In this role, he is currently responsible for our global sales and marketing functions, partnerships and alliances, transitions, digital solutioning and robotic process automation.  From 2013 to 2016, he served as our Head of Global Sales and Client Relationships.  Prior to this, he held various roles at Genpact, including European business leader and sales leader for Europe.  Mr. Mazhari joined us in 1997.

Piyush Mehta has served as our Senior Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer since March 2005. He has worked for us since 2001, initially as Vice President of Human Resources.

Darren Saumur became our Senior Vice President, Global Operating Officer in April 2018. Prior to joining Genpact, he was an executive vice president responsible for the services business at Infor from 2014 to 2018. From 2005 to 2014, he worked at SAP where he ran SAP’s global consulting businesses.  Mr. Saumur began his career at Ernst & Young, where he worked from 1991 to 2005.

Heather White became our Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary in April 2018.  Ms. White has been with Genpact since 2005, and served most recently as our Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel.  Prior to joining Genpact, she was a corporate attorney in the New York and London offices of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP.

 


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Item 1A.     Risk Factors

Risks Related to our Business

Our success largely depends on our ability to achieve our business strategies, and our results of operations and financial condition may suffer if we are unable to continually develop and successfully execute our strategies.

Our future growth, profitability and cash flows largely depend upon our ability to continually develop and successfully execute our business strategies. While we have confidence that our strategic plans reflect opportunities that are appropriate and achievable, the execution of our strategy may not result in long-term growth in revenue or profitability due to a number of factors, including incorrect assumptions, global or local economic conditions, competition, changes in the industries in which we operate, sub-optimal resource allocation or any of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section. In pursuit of our growth strategy, we may also invest significant time and resources into new product or service offerings, and these offerings may fail to yield sufficient return to cover our investments in them. The failure to continually develop and execute optimally on our business strategies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our results of operations could be adversely affected by economic and political conditions and the effects of these conditions on our clients’ businesses and levels of business activity.

Global macroeconomic conditions affect our clients’ businesses and the markets they serve. Volatile, negative or uncertain economic conditions in our significant markets have in the past undermined and could in the future undermine business confidence in our significant markets or in other markets, which are increasingly interdependent, and cause our clients to reduce or defer their spending on new initiatives, or may result in clients reducing, delaying or eliminating spending under existing contracts with us, which would negatively affect our business. Growth in the markets we serve could be at a slow rate, or could stagnate or contract, in each case, for an extended period of time. Differing economic conditions and patterns of economic growth and contraction in the geographical regions in which we operate and the industries we serve have affected and may in the future affect demand for our services.

A material portion of our revenues and profitability is derived from our clients in North America and Europe. Weak demand in these markets could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Additionally, major political events, including the United Kingdom’s planned withdrawal from the European Union scheduled to occur on March 29, 2019 (“Brexit”), create uncertainty for businesses that operate in these markets. As the United Kingdom and EU continue to negotiate the terms of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal, there remains uncertainty on topics that are relevant to our operations in the United Kingdom, such as privacy regulations, trade agreements, immigration laws and employment laws. We face uncertainty in our operations as to the impact of Brexit on, among other things, the free movement of our employees between the United Kingdom and EU member states and the movement of data between the United Kingdom and EU member states. Furthermore, a significant portion of our revenues from clients in the United Kingdom is generated in British pounds. As a result, we are exposed to the risk that revenues from clients based in the United Kingdom will be affected by adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. Additionally, uncertainty as to the future trade terms between the United Kingdom and the EU could negatively impact our clients who are based or have operations in the United Kingdom or the EU, including clients in the financial services sector, and as a consequence could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations. We are currently examining the various possible impacts Brexit may have on our business and operating model in an effort to develop solutions to address any of the potential outcomes of the negotiations. Any of these factors, or the possibility of a less orderly Brexit that adversely affects global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Ongoing economic volatility and uncertainty and changing demand patterns affect our business in a number of other ways, including making it more difficult to accurately forecast client demand and effectively build our revenue and resource plans. Economic volatility and uncertainty is particularly challenging because it may take some time for the effects and changes in demand patterns resulting from

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these and other factors to manifest themselves in our business and results of operations. Changing demand patterns from economic volatility and uncertainty could have a significant negative impact on our results of operations.

Our business depends on generating and maintaining ongoing, profitable client demand for our services and solutions, including through the adaptation and expansion of our services and solutions in response to ongoing changes in technology and offerings, and a significant reduction in such demand or an inability to respond to the evolving technological environment could materially affect our results of operations.

Our revenue and profitability depend on the demand for our services and solutions with favorable margins, which could be negatively affected by numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control and unrelated to our work product. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to continue to develop and implement services and solutions that anticipate and respond to rapid and continuing changes in technology and offerings to serve the evolving needs of our clients. Examples of areas of significant change include digital- and cloud-related offerings, which are continually evolving as developments such as AI, automation, Internet of Things and as-a-service solutions are commercialized. Technological developments such as these may materially affect the cost and use of technology by our clients and, in the case of as-a-service solutions, could affect the nature of how we generate revenue. Some of these technologies, such as cloud-based services, AI and automation, and others that may emerge, have reduced and replaced some of our historical services and solutions and may continue to do so in the future. This has caused, and may in the future cause, clients to delay spending under existing contracts and engagements and to delay entering into new contracts while they evaluate new technologies. Such delays can negatively impact our results of operations if the pace and level of spending on new technologies is not sufficient to make up any shortfall.

Developments in the industries we serve, which may be rapid, also could shift demand to new services and solutions. If, as a result of new technologies or changes in the industries we serve, our clients demand new services and solutions, we may be less competitive in these new areas or need to make significant investment to meet that demand. Our growth strategy focuses on responding to these types of developments by driving innovation that will enable us to expand our business into new growth areas. If we do not sufficiently invest in new technology and adapt to industry developments, or evolve and expand our business at sufficient speed and scale, or if we do not make the right strategic investments to respond to these developments and successfully drive innovation, our services and solutions, our results of operations, and our ability to develop and maintain a competitive advantage and to execute on our growth strategy could be negatively affected.

Companies in the industries we serve sometimes seek to achieve economies of scale and other synergies by combining with or acquiring other companies. If one of our current clients merges or consolidates with a company that relies on another provider for the services and solutions we offer, we may lose work from that client or lose the opportunity to gain additional work if we are not successful in generating new opportunities from the merger or consolidation.

Future legislation or executive action in the United States and other jurisdictions could significantly affect the ability or willingness of our clients and prospective clients to utilize our services.

In the United States, federal and state measures aimed at limiting or restricting offshore outsourcing have been occasionally proposed and enacted.   In addition, public figures in the United States, including the current  President,  members of his administration and other elected officials, continue to suggest that U.S. businesses be subjected to tax or other adverse consequences for outsourcing, with incentives for returning outsourced operations to the United States, although it is not known what specific measures might be proposed or how they would be implemented and enforced, or whether emerging or enacted tax reform or other near-term Congressional action will affect companies’ outsourcing practices.  There can be no assurance that pending or future legislation or executive action in the United States that would significantly adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition will not be enacted.

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Legislation enacted in certain European jurisdictions and any future legislation in Europe, Japan or any other country in which we have clients restricting the performance of business process services from an offshore location or imposing burdens on companies that outsource data processing functions could also have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. For example, evolving EU cloud computing standards and regulations and proposed taxes on outsourced data center activities or new EU and Japanese regulations on international transfers of personal data may limit or restrict our operations, or make them more costly. Moreover, legislation enacted in the United Kingdom and by many EU countries, provides that if a company outsources all or part of its business to a service provider or changes its current service provider, the affected employees of the company or of the previous service provider are entitled to become employees of the new service provider, generally on the same terms and conditions as their original employment. In addition, dismissals of employees who were employed by the company or the previous service provider immediately prior to that outsourcing, if the dismissals resulted solely or principally from the outsourcing, are automatically considered unfair dismissals that entitle such employees to compensation. As a result, in order to avoid unfair dismissal claims we may have to offer, and become liable for, voluntary redundancy payments to the employees of our clients in the United Kingdom and other EU countries who have adopted similar laws who transfer business to us. Additionally, the United Kingdom’s decision to leave the EU has introduced uncertainty into trade relations and could result in increased costs, delays, and regulatory complexity in our business involving the United Kingdom.

Our global operations expose us to numerous and sometimes conflicting legal and regulatory requirements, and violations of these laws and regulations could harm our business.

We are subject to, or subject to contractual requirements to comply with or facilitate our clients’ compliance with, numerous, and sometimes conflicting, legal regimes on matters such as anticorruption, import/export controls, trade restrictions, taxation, immigration, internal and disclosure control obligations, securities regulation, anti-competition, data privacy and protection, wage-and-hour standards, and employment and labor relations. Our clients’ business operations are also subject to numerous regulations, and our clients may require that we perform our services in compliance with regulations applicable to them or in a manner that will enable them to comply with such regulations.

The global nature of our operations increases the difficulty of compliance. Compliance with diverse legal requirements is costly, time-consuming and requires significant resources. Violations of one or more of these regulations in the conduct of our business could result in significant fines, criminal sanctions against us and/or our employees, prohibitions on doing business, breach of contract damages and harm to our reputation. Due to the varying degrees of development of the legal systems of the countries in which we operate, local laws may not be well developed or provide sufficiently clear guidance and may be insufficient to protect our rights.

In particular, our collection, use, disclosure, and retention of personal health-related and other information is subject to an array of privacy, data security, and data breach notification laws and regulations that change frequently, are inconsistent across the jurisdictions in which we do business, and impose significant compliance costs. Changes in these laws and regulations and inconsistencies in the standards that apply to our business in different jurisdictions may impose significant compliance costs, reduce the efficiency of our operations, and expose us to enforcement risks. In the EU, a new, comprehensive General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, went into effect in May 2018. It supersedes EU member states’ national protection laws and imposes privacy and data security compliance obligations and increased penalties for noncompliance. In particular, the GDPR has introduced numerous privacy-related changes for companies operating in the EU, including greater control for data subjects, increased data portability for EU consumers, data breach notification requirements and increased fines. GDPR enforcement has begun, and companies have faced fines for violations of certain provisions. Fines can reach as high as 4% of a company’s annual total revenue, potentially including the revenue of a company’s international affiliates. Additionally, foreign governments outside of the EU are also taking steps to fortify their data privacy laws and regulations. For example, some countries in Latin America and Asia are considering GDPR-like data protection laws, and Canada implemented a new mandatory breach reporting and recordkeeping regime in November 2018. Evolving laws and regulations in India protecting the use of personal information could also impact our engagements with clients, vendors and employees

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in India. As privacy laws and regulations around the world continue to evolve, these changes could adversely affect our business operations, websites and mobile applications that are accessed by residents in the applicable countries.

In addition, in many parts of the world, including countries in which we operate and/or seek to expand, common practices in the local business community might not conform to international business standards and could violate anticorruption laws or regulations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the UK Bribery Act 2010. Our employees, subcontractors, agents, joint venture partners, the companies we acquire and their employees, subcontractors and agents, and other third parties with which we associate, could take actions that violate policies or procedures designed to promote legal and regulatory compliance or applicable anticorruption laws or regulations. Violations of these laws or regulations by us, our employees or any of these third parties could subject us to criminal or civil enforcement actions (whether or not we participated or knew about the actions leading to the violations), including fines or penalties, disgorgement of profits and suspension or disqualification from work, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, including our results of operations and our reputation.

We could be liable to our clients or others for damages, subject to criminal liability, fines or penalties, and our reputation could be damaged, if our information systems are breached or confidential or sensitive client or employee data is compromised.

We are often required to collect, process and store proprietary, personally identifying or other sensitive or confidential client data in the operation of our business or in connection with the services we provide under our contracts, including, for example, names, address, social security numbers, personal health information, credit card account numbers, payment history records, and checking and savings account numbers. In addition, we collect and store data regarding our employees and contractors. As a result, we are subject to numerous data protection and privacy laws and regulations designed to protect this information in the countries in which we operate as well as the countries of residence of the persons whose data we process. Data may be accessed or modified improperly as a result of theft, error or malfeasance by our employees, contractors or other third parties, and others may attempt to fraudulently induce our employees, clients or other third parties into disclosing sensitive information such as user names, passwords or other information in order to gain access to our data or IT systems or our clients', contractors’ or other third parties' data or IT systems. If any person, including any of our current or former employees or contractors, negligently disregards or intentionally breaches our or our clients’ established controls with respect to sensitive data or if we do not adapt to changes in data protection legislation, we could be subject to significant litigation, monetary damages, regulatory enforcement actions, fines and/or criminal prosecution in one or more jurisdictions.

In addition, the products, services and software that we provide to our clients may contain or introduce cybersecurity threats or vulnerabilities to our clients’ information technology networks, intentionally or unintentionally. Our clients may maintain their own proprietary, sensitive, or confidential information that could be compromised in a cybersecurity attack, or their systems may be disabled or disrupted as a result of such an attack. Our clients, regulators, or other third parties may attempt to hold us liable, through contractual indemnification clauses or directly, for any such losses or damages resulting from such an attack.

The threat of incursion into our information systems and technology infrastructure has increased and evolved in recent years with the increasing number and sophistication of third parties who have hacked, attacked, disrupted or otherwise invaded information systems of other companies and have misappropriated or disclosed data. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently or may be designed to remain dormant until a predetermined event and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. The steps we have taken to protect our data security may be inadequate. If an actual or perceived breach of our security occurs, whether through breach of our computer systems, systems failure or otherwise, the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures and our reputation could be harmed and we could lose existing or potential customers. Media or other reports of perceived security vulnerabilities in our network

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security, even if nothing has actually been attempted or occurred, could also adversely impact our brand and reputation and materially affect our business.

In addition, we might not be able to prevent others from using our data and proprietary information to compete with us. Existing trade secret, copyright and trademark laws offer only limited protection. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our data and proprietary information.  For example, doing business in certain jurisdictions poses risks, including but not limited to theft of intellectual property and data and potentially different treatment of foreign owned intellectual property rights and data than that owned or developed in such jurisdictions. If we have to resort to legal proceedings to enforce our rights, the proceedings could be burdensome, protracted and expensive and could involve a high degree of risk and be unsuccessful.

Our clients, suppliers, subcontractors, and other third parties with whom we do business, including in particular cloud service providers and software vendors, generally face similar cybersecurity threats, and in some cases we must rely on the safeguards adopted by these parties. We may also be liable to our clients or others for damages caused by disclosure of confidential information or system failures. Many of our contracts do not limit our potential liability for breaches of confidentiality. We may also be subject to civil actions and criminal prosecution by governments or government agencies for breaches relating to such data. Our insurance coverage or indemnification protections for breaches or mismanagement of such data may not be adequate to cover all costs related to data loss, cybersecurity attacks, or disruptions resulting from such events, or they may not continue to be available on reasonable terms or in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims against us and our insurers may disclaim coverage as to any future claims. The impact of these cybersecurity attacks, data losses, and other security breaches cannot be predicted, but any such attack, loss or breach could disrupt our operations, or the operations of our clients, suppliers, subcontractors, or other third parties. Incidents of this type could require significant management attention and resources, could result in the loss of business, regulatory enforcement and financial liability, and could harm our reputation among our clients and the public, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operation, or liquidity.

While we have developed and implemented security measures and internal controls designed to prevent, detect and respond to cyber and other security threats and incidents, such measures cannot ensure security and may not be successful in preventing future security breaches. We are subject to regular incursion attempts from a variety of sources, and we have experienced data security incidents such as inadvertent or unauthorized disclosures of data, including as a result of phishing or malware, and other unauthorized access to or use of our systems or those of third parties. To date such incidents have not had a material impact on our operations or financial results; however, there is no assurance that such impacts will not be material in the future.

Tax matters may have an adverse effect on our operations, effective tax rate and financial condition.

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and in numerous foreign jurisdictions, notably in India where we have substantial operations. Our provision for income taxes, actual tax expense and cash tax liability could be adversely affected by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, lower income before taxes generated in countries with lower tax rates; higher income generated in countries with higher tax rates; changes in tax laws and regulations or in applicable income tax treaties; changes in accounting principles or interpretations thereof or in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities; the possible disappearance or expiration of certain tax concessions that we have enjoyed in prior years; and adverse outcomes of tax examinations and pending tax-related litigation. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our operations, effective tax rate and financial condition.

We are subject to examination of our income tax returns by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service and tax authorities around the world, notably in India where we have substantial operations, and there can be no assurance that negative outcomes from those examinations or any appeals therefrom will not adversely affect our provision for income taxes and cash tax liability, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our operations, effective tax rate and financial condition. For example, the Government of India has appealed a 2011 ruling by the Delhi High Court that Genpact India Private Limited (one of our subsidiaries) cannot be held to be a representative assessee of GE in connection with an assertion that GE

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has tax liability in India by reason of a 2004 transfer of shares of our predecessor company. We believe that, if the Government of India is successful in its appeal, GE would be obligated to indemnify us for any resulting tax, though there can be no assurance as to the outcome of this matter.

In addition, the Government of India issued assessment orders to us in 2014, 2015 and 2016 seeking to assess tax on certain transactions that occurred in 2009, 2010 and 2013. We do not believe that the transactions should be subject to tax in India under applicable law, including due to the relief provided under the Mauritius-India treaty, and have accordingly filed appeals.  Our appeal in respect of tax year 2010 has been resolved in our favor. We have received demands for potential tax claims resulting from assessments related to tax years 2009 and 2013 in an aggregate amount of $158 million, including interest. To date, we have paid a total of $23 million toward these demands to the Indian tax authority under protest, and may be required to pay the remainder of the demands pending resolution of the matter. There is no assurance that we will prevail in this matter or similar transactions, including where we have relied on the Mauritius-India treaty, and a final determination of tax in the amounts claimed could have a material adverse effect on our operations, effective tax rate and financial condition.

More generally, the Indian tax authorities may claim that Indian tax is owed with respect to certain of our transactions, such as our acquisitions (including our subsidiaries organized under Indian law or owning assets located in India), internal reorganizations and the sale of our shares in public offerings or otherwise by our existing significant shareholders, in which indirect transfers of Indian subsidiaries or assets are involved. Those authorities may seek to impose tax on us directly or as a withholding agent or representative assessee of the seller in these or other transactions.

Furthermore, there is growing pressure in many jurisdictions, including the United States, and from multinational organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the EU to amend existing international tax rules in order to render them more responsive to current global business practices. For example, the OECD has published a package of measures for reform of the international tax rules as a product of its Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) initiative, which was endorsed by the G20 finance ministers. Many of the initiatives in the BEPS package require amendments to the domestic tax legislation of various jurisdictions. Separately, the EU is asserting that a number of country-specific favorable tax regimes and rulings in certain member states may violate, or have violated, EU law, and may require rebates of some or all of the associated tax benefits to be paid by benefitted taxpayers in particular cases. In 2016, the EU adopted the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive which requires EU member states to implement measures to prohibit tax avoidance practices beginning January 1, 2019.

In addition, in December 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Trump, bringing about far-ranging changes to the existing corporate tax system. This legislation establishes a territorial-style system for taxing foreign-source income of multinational corporations and, among other items and with varying effective dates, includes changes to U.S. federal tax rates, an additional minimum tax measured in part by “base erosion payments” involving certain members of affiliated groups, significant additional limitations on the deductibility of interest, the modification of constructive ownership rules used to determine the status of certain non-U.S. companies as “controlled foreign corporations,” and changes to the rules governing taxable and tax-free cross-border transfers of intangible property. Many of the provisions in this legislation are unclear or incomplete in their application. While this legislation has not so far had a material overall impact on our effective tax rate or business practices and operations, it is possible that our tax liability may materially increase in the future as a result of this legislation. Other legislative and regulatory proposals may also affect our tax position or our business practices and operations, depending on whether and in what form they may ultimately take effect.  See Item 1A—“Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Business—Future legislation or executive action in the United States and other jurisdictions could significantly affect the ability or willingness of our clients and prospective clients to utilize our services.”

Although we monitor these developments, it is very difficult to assess to what extent recent changes and other proposals, if enacted, may be implemented in the United States and other jurisdictions in which we conduct our business or may impact the way in which we conduct our business or our effective tax rate due to their unpredictability and interdependency. As these and other tax laws and related regulations and practices change, those changes could have a material adverse effect on our operations, effective tax rate and financial condition.

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If the transfer pricing arrangements we have among our subsidiaries are determined to be inappropriate, our tax liability may increase.

We have transfer pricing arrangements among our subsidiaries in relation to various aspects of our business, including operations, financing, marketing, sales and delivery functions. U.S. and Indian transfer pricing regulations, as well as regulations applicable in other countries in which we operate, require that any international transaction involving associated enterprises be on arm’s-length terms. We consider the transactions among our subsidiaries to be substantially on arm’s-length terms. If, however, a tax authority in any jurisdiction reviews any of our tax returns and determines that the transfer prices and terms we have applied are not appropriate, or that other income of our affiliates should be taxed in that jurisdiction, we may incur increased tax liability, including accrued interest and penalties, which would cause our tax expense to increase, possibly materially, thereby reducing our profitability and cash flows, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our operations, effective tax rate and financial condition.

GE accounts for a significant portion of our revenues and any material loss of business from, or change in our relationship with, GE could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Historically, we have derived a significant portion of our revenues from GE. In 2016, 2017 and 2018, GE accounted for 13.9%, 9.8% and 8.9% of our revenues, respectively. In the past, GE has divested businesses we serve, including a significant portion of its GE Capital business. We expect that our services for GE will decline in the future if GE pursues further divestitures. We intend to continue to make efforts to procure contracts with respect to GE’s divested businesses; however, there can be no assurance that we will be able to procure any such contracts or that such contracts would be on favorable terms. GE is not obligated to provide us with any exclusivity or opportunity to work on GE projects and GE is not required to purchase a minimum amount of services from us.  In addition, GE has the right to terminate our services in whole or in part for any reason by providing us with a short period of advance notice. Any material loss of business from, or change in relationship with, GE could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.  Further, our revenues from GE may be more volatile in the future and this volatility could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.  See Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Overview—Net Revenues” for further information regarding our relationship with GE.

We expect that our business with GE will continue to come from a variety of GE’s businesses and that, in general, GE’s decisions to use our services will continue to be made by a number of people within GE. Therefore, although some decisions may be made centrally at GE, we expect that the total level of business we receive will continue to depend on the decisions of the various operating managers of such businesses. Finally, there can be no assurance that GE will not establish its own business unit to provide English-language business process services from low-wage countries or otherwise compete with us.  Any of the foregoing events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our revenues are highly dependent on clients located in the United States and Europe, as well as on clients that operate in certain industries. If events or conditions occur which adversely affect the economic health of the United States or Europe, demand in the United States or Europe or in certain industries for the type of services we provide, or the rate of growth in the industries in which our clients operate, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

In 2018, more than 65% of our revenues were derived from clients based in North America and more than 15% of our revenues were derived from clients based in Europe. Additionally, in 2018, more than 35% of our revenues were derived from clients in the financial services industry, which includes insurance.

A number of factors could adversely affect our ability to do business in the United States or Europe, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. For example, the United Kingdom’s negotiations with the EU over Brexit and ongoing

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uncertainty within the UK Government and Parliament sustains the possibility of the United Kingdom leaving the EU on March 29, 2019 without a withdrawal agreement and associated transition period in place, which is likely to cause significant market and economic disruption.

Brexit has created, and continues to create, political and economic uncertainty about the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU and as to whether any other European countries may similarly seek to exit the EU. We have operations in the United Kingdom and a number of countries in the EU and our global operations serve clients with operations in these regions, and as a result our business, financial condition and results of operations may be impacted by such uncertainty and by the terms of the United Kingdom’s pending withdrawal from the EU.

Furthermore, any deterioration in economic activity in the United States or Europe could adversely affect demand for our services, thus reducing our revenue. Increased regulation, changes in existing regulation or increased government intervention in the industries in which our clients operate may adversely affect growth in such industries and therefore have an adverse impact on our revenues.

 

We may face difficulties in providing end-to-end business solutions or delivering complex, large or unique projects for our clients that could cause clients to discontinue their work with us, which in turn could harm our business and our reputation.

We continue to expand the nature and scope of our engagements, including by incorporating digital solutions that use social, mobility, big data and cloud-based technologies. Our ability to effectively offer a wide range of business solutions depends on our ability to attract existing or new clients to new service offerings, and the market for our solutions is highly competitive. We cannot be certain that our new service offerings, particularly our digital offerings, will effectively meet client needs or that we will be able to attract clients to these service offerings. The complexity of our new service offerings, our inexperience in developing or implementing them, and significant competition in the markets for these services may affect our ability to market these services successfully. In addition, the breadth of our existing service offerings continues to result in larger and more complex projects with our clients, which have risks associated with their scope and complexities. Our failure to deliver services that meet the requirements specified by our clients could result in termination of client contracts, and we could be liable to our clients for significant penalties or damages or suffer reputational harm. Larger projects may involve multiple engagements or stages, and there is a risk that a client may choose not to retain us for additional stages or may cancel or delay additional planned engagements. These terminations, cancellations or delays may result from factors that have little or nothing to do with the quality of our services, such as the business or financial condition of our clients or the economy generally. Such cancellations or delays make it difficult to plan for project resource requirements and inaccuracies in such resource planning and allocation may have a negative impact on our profitability.

From time to time we also enter into agreements that include unique service level delivery requirements or novel pricing arrangements with which we have no experience and that may be unique in the industry.  These projects can include performance targets that become more rigorous over the term of the contracts and service delivery components that are partially subjective by design, and we may be unable achieve such targets or to satisfy our clients’ expectations in delivering such services.  Our failure to deliver such engagements to our clients’ expectations could result in termination of client contracts, and we could be liable to our clients for penalties or damages or suffer reputational harm.  We may also discover that we have not priced such engagements appropriately, which could adversely affect our profitability and results of operations.    

Our partnerships, alliances and relationships with third-party suppliers and   contractors and other third parties with whom we do business expose us to a variety of risks that could have a material adverse effect on our business.  

Our partnerships and alliances and our relationships with a variety of third parties, including suppliers, contractors and others, expose us to a variety of risks that could have a material adverse effect on our business, and we may not be successful in mitigating such risks. Our operations depend on our ability to anticipate our needs for products and services, as well as our suppliers’ ability to deliver sufficient quantities and quality of products and services at reasonable prices and in time for us to meet

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commitments for the delivery of our own services.  In addition, we must adequately address quality issues associated with our services, including with respect to any third-party components to our services.  Any performance failure on the part of our partners or the third parties with whom we do business could delay our performance of client deliverables, which could deprive us of potential revenue.  Additionally, our partners, third-party suppliers and contractors and other third parties with whom we do business may not be able to comply with current good business practices or applicable laws or regulatory requirements. Our failure, or the failure of such third parties, to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect our business.

We may have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our partners and third parties with whom we do business dedicate to their arrangements with us. Our ability to generate revenues from these arrangements will depend on our partners’ or other third parties’ desire and ability to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements.  Further, certain of our suppliers, partners and other contractors may decide to discontinue conducting business with us.

In addition, we are a party to a number of license agreements with third parties and expect to enter into additional licenses in the future. Our existing licenses impose, and we expect that future licenses will impose, various obligations and restrictions on us. If we fail to comply with these obligations and restrictions, the licensor may have the right to terminate the license, in which event we might not be able to market any product or service that is covered by these agreements, which could materially adversely affect our business. Termination of these license agreements or reduction or elimination of our licensed rights may result in our having to negotiate new or reinstated licenses with less favorable terms, or cause us to lose rights in important intellectual property or technology.

Any of the foregoing may prevent us from working with our partners or third parties with whom we do business and could subject us to losses, affect our ability to bring products and services to market, cause us to fail to satisfy our client obligations and harm our reputation.

We may fail to attract and retain enough qualified employees to support our operations.

Our industry relies on large numbers of skilled employees and our success depends on our ability to attract, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees. Historically, high employee attrition has been common in our industry. See Item 1—“Business—Our people.” In 2018, our attrition rate for all employees who were employed for a day or more was approximately 28%. We cannot assure you that we will be able to reduce our level of attrition or even maintain our attrition rate at the 2018 level. If our attrition rate increases, our operating efficiency and productivity may decrease.

Competition for qualified employees, particularly in India and China, remains high and we expect such competition to continue. We compete for employees not only with other companies in our industry but also with companies in other industries, such as software services, engineering services and financial services companies. In many locations in which we operate, there is a limited pool of employees who have the skills and training needed to do our work. If our business continues to grow, the number of people we will need to hire will increase. We will also need to increase our hiring if we are not able to maintain our attrition rate through innovative recruiting and retention policies. Significant competition for employees could have an adverse effect on our ability to expand our business and service our clients, as well as cause us to incur greater personnel expenses and training costs.

Wage increases in the countries in which we have operations may prevent us from sustaining our competitive advantage and may reduce our profit margin.

Salaries and related benefits of our employees are our most significant costs. Most of our employees are based in India and other countries in which wage levels have historically been significantly lower than wage levels in the United States and Western Europe for comparably skilled professionals, which has been one of our competitive advantages. However, wage levels for comparably skilled employees in most of the countries in which we operate have increased and further increases are expected at a faster rate than in the United States and Western Europe because of, among other reasons, faster economic growth, increased competition for skilled employees and increased demand for business process services. We will

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lose this competitive advantage to the extent that we are not able to control or share wage increases with our clients. Sharing wage increases may cause our clients to be less willing to utilize our services. In addition, wage increases may reduce our margins. We will attempt to control such costs by our efforts to add capacity in locations where we consider wage levels of skilled personnel to be satisfactory, but we may not be successful in doing so. We may need to increase our wage levels significantly and rapidly in order to attract the quantity and quality of employees that are necessary for us to remain competitive, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, a recent judicial decision in India that we are still evaluating could increase the amount we will be required to pay to or for the benefit of our employees in India.  Further, if this decision is implemented with retrospective application, the amount of the payments that we are required to make at that time to or for the benefit of our employees could be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. We have also increased, and expect to further increase, the number of employees we have in the United States from the levels than we have had historically, and this could have a negative effect on our profit margin.

Currency exchange rate fluctuations in various currencies in which we do business, especially the Indian rupee, the euro and the U.S. dollar, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Most of our revenues are denominated in U.S. dollars, with the remaining amounts largely in euros, UK pounds sterling, the Australian dollar, the Japanese yen and the Indian rupee. Most of our expenses are incurred and paid in Indian rupees, with the remaining amounts largely in U.S. dollars, Chinese renminbi, Romanian lei, euros, UK pounds sterling, Philippine pesos, Japanese yen, Polish zloty, Mexican pesos, Guatemalan quetzals and the Australian dollar. As we expand our operations to new countries, we will incur expenses in other currencies. We report our financial results in U.S. dollars. The exchange rates between the Indian rupee, the euro and other currencies in which we incur costs or receive revenues, on the one hand, and the U.S. dollar, on the other hand, have changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future. See Item 7A—“Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.”

Our results of operations could be adversely affected over time by certain movements in exchange rates, particularly if the Indian rupee or other currencies in which we incur expenses appreciate against the U.S. dollar or if the currencies in which we receive revenues, such as the euro, depreciate against the U.S. dollar. Although we take steps to hedge a substantial portion of our Indian rupee-U.S. dollar, Mexican peso-U.S. dollar, Philippines peso-U.S. dollar, euro-U.S. dollar, euro- Romanian leu, pound sterling-U.S. dollar, Australian dollar-U.S. dollar and our Chinese renminbi-Japanese yen foreign currency exposures, there is no assurance that our hedging strategy will be successful or that the hedging markets will have sufficient liquidity or depth for us to implement our strategy in a cost effective manner. In addition, in some countries such as India and China, we are subject to legal restrictions on hedging activities, as well as convertibility of currencies, which could limit our ability to use cash generated in one country in another country and could limit our ability to hedge our exposures. Finally, our hedging policies only provide near term protection from exchange rate fluctuations. If the Indian rupee or other currencies in which we incur expenses appreciate against the U.S. dollar, we may have to consider additional means of maintaining profitability, including by increasing pricing, which may or may not be achievable. See also Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Overview—Foreign exchange gains (losses), net.”

Restrictions on entry visas may affect our ability to compete for and provide services to clients, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

A portion of our business depends on the ability of our employees to obtain the necessary visas and entry permits to do business in the countries where our clients and, in some cases, our delivery centers, are located. In recent years, in response to terrorist attacks, global unrest and political rhetoric, immigration authorities generally, and those in the United States in particular, have increased the level of scrutiny in granting visas. If further terrorist attacks occur, global unrest intensifies, or political rhetoric continues, then obtaining visas for our personnel may become even more difficult. Local immigration laws

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may also require us to meet certain other legal requirements as a condition to obtaining or maintaining entry visas. Countries where our clients may be located, including the United States, may through legislation or regulation restrict the number of visas or entry permits available.  In general, immigration laws are subject to legislative change and varying standards of application and enforcement due to political forces, economic conditions, terrorist attacks or other events.  In addition, there is currently uncertainty with respect to immigration laws and standards in the United States due to legislation introduced in Congress and policy changes  suggested and adopted by the current U.S. President and members of his administration.  Current U.S. efforts to reduce the number of first-time and renewal H-1B and H-4 visas could result in fewer employees eligible to work for us in the United States under those programs, as could executive actions that prohibit citizens of designated countries from emigrating to and/or working in the United States.  It is not currently known what, if any, other such visa restrictions might be proposed or how they would be implemented or enforced.

Our senior leadership team is critical to our continued success and the loss of such personnel could harm our business.

Our future success substantially depends on the continued service and performance of the members of our senior leadership team. These personnel possess business and technical capabilities that are difficult to replace. In particular, our Chief Executive Officer and other members of our senior leadership team have been involved in our business since its commencement under GE. Our employment agreement with our Chief Executive Officer does not obligate him to work for us for any specified period. If we lose key members of our senior leadership team, we may not be able to effectively manage our current operations or meet ongoing and future business challenges, and this may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may be unable to service our debt or obtain additional financing on competitive terms.

On August 9, 2018, we entered into an amended and restated five-year credit agreement with certain financial institutions as lenders which replaced our prior credit facility. The amended and restated credit agreement provides for a $680 million term credit facility and a $500 million revolving credit facility, each of which may be increased subject to certain conditions. The credit agreement obligations are unsecured, and guaranteed by certain subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2018, the total amount due under the credit facility, including the amount utilized under the revolving facility, was $958 million.  The credit agreement contains covenants that require maintenance of certain financial ratios, including consolidated leverage and interest coverage ratios, and also, under certain conditions, restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, create liens, make certain investments, pay dividends or make certain other restricted payments, repurchase common shares, undertake certain liquidations, mergers, consolidations and acquisitions and dispose of certain assets or subsidiaries, among other things. If we breach any of these restrictions and do not obtain a waiver from the lenders, subject to applicable cure periods the outstanding indebtedness (and any other indebtedness with cross-default provisions) could be declared immediately due and payable, which could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition.

On March 27, 2017, we issued $350.0 million aggregate principal amount of 3.70% senior notes in a private offering.  On July 24, 2018, an exchange offer was completed and all outstanding unregistered notes were exchanged for freely tradable notes registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. As of December 31, 2018, the amount outstanding under the notes, net of debt amortization expense of $1.7 million, was $348.3 million, which is payable on April 1, 2022 when the notes mature.  We are required to pay interest on the notes semi-annually in arrears on April 1 and October 1 of each year, ending on the maturity date. The notes are subject to certain customary covenants, including limitations on our ability to incur debt secured by liens, engage in certain sale and leaseback transactions and consolidate, merge, convey or transfer our assets. Upon certain change of control transactions, we would be required to make an offer to repurchase the notes at a price equal to 101% of the aggregate principal amount of such notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest.  The interest rate payable on the notes is subject to adjustment if the credit rating of the notes is downgraded up to a maximum increase of 2.0%. We may redeem the registered notes at any time in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes redeemed, together with accrued and unpaid interest or, if the notes are redeemed

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prior to March 1, 2022, a specified “make-whole” premium. The notes are our senior unsecured obligations and rank equally with all our other senior unsecured indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

Our indebtedness and related debt service obligations can have negative consequences, requiring us to dedicate significant cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our debt, which reduces the funds we have available for other purposes such as acquisitions and capital investment; limiting our ability to obtain additional financing and limiting our ability to undertake strategic acquisitions; increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, including by reducing our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business and market conditions; and exposing us to interest rate risk since a portion of our debt obligations are at variable rates. We may incur more debt in the future, and there can be no assurance that our cost of funding will not substantially increase.  

Central banks around the world, including the Federal Reserve, have commissioned working groups with the goal of finding suitable replacements for LIBOR. The U.K. Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, has announced that it has commitments from panel banks to continue to contribute to LIBOR through the end of 2021. Accordingly, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the publication of such rates beyond 2021. The full impact of such reforms and actions, together with any transition away from LIBOR, including the potential or actual discontinuance of LIBOR publication, remains unclear. These changes may have an adverse impact on us since we have LIBOR-based debt obligations.  

 

 

We often face a long selling cycle to secure a new contract as well as long implementation periods that require significant resource commitments, which result in a long lead time before we receive revenues from new relationships.

We often face a long selling cycle to secure a new contract. If we are successful in obtaining an engagement, that is generally followed by a long implementation period in which the services are planned in detail and we demonstrate to a client that we can successfully integrate our processes and resources with their operations. During this time a contract is also negotiated and agreed. There is then a long ramping up period in order to commence providing the services. We typically incur significant business development expenses during the selling cycle. We may not succeed in winning a new client’s business, in which case we receive no revenues and may receive no reimbursement for such expenses. Even if we succeed in developing a relationship with a potential new client and begin to plan the services in detail, a potential client may choose a competitor or decide to retain the work in-house prior to the time a final contract is signed. If we enter into a contract with a client, we will typically receive no revenues until implementation actually begins. Our clients may also experience delays in obtaining internal approvals or delays associated with technology or system implementations, thereby further lengthening the implementation cycle. We generally hire new employees to provide services to a new client once a contract is signed. We may face significant difficulties in hiring such employees and incur significant costs associated with these hires before we receive corresponding revenues. If we are not successful in obtaining contractual commitments after the selling cycle, in maintaining contractual commitments after the implementation cycle or in maintaining or reducing the duration of unprofitable initial periods in our contracts, it may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our profitability will suffer if we are not able to price appropriately, maintain asset utilization levels and control our costs.

Our profitability is largely a function of the efficiency with which we utilize our assets, and in particular our people and delivery centers, and the pricing that we are able to obtain for our services. Our utilization rates are affected by a number of factors, including our ability to transition employees from completed projects to new assignments, hire and assimilate new employees, forecast demand for our services and thereby maintain an appropriate headcount in each of our geographies and workforce and manage attrition, and our need to devote time and resources to training, professional development and other typically non-chargeable activities. The prices we are able to charge for our services are affected by a number of factors, including our clients’ perceptions of our ability to add value through our services, competition, introduction of new services or products by us or our competitors, our ability to accurately

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estimate, attain and sustain revenues from client engagements, margins and cash flows over increasingly longer contract periods and general economic and political conditions. Therefore, if we are unable to price appropriately or manage our asset utilization levels, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Our profitability is also a function of our ability to control our costs and improve our efficiency. As we increase the number of our employees and grow our business, we may not be able to manage the significantly larger and more geographically diverse workforce that may result and our profitability may not improve. New taxes may also be imposed on our services such as sales taxes or service taxes which could affect our competitiveness as well as our profitability. Additionally, we may fail to appropriately estimate our costs in agreeing to provide new or novel services with unique pricing arrangements or service delivery requirements.

Our results of operations and share price could be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain effective internal controls.

The accuracy of our financial reporting is dependent on the effectiveness of our internal controls. We are required to provide a report from management to our shareholders on our internal control over financial reporting that includes an assessment of the effectiveness of these controls. Internal control over financial reporting has inherent limitations, including human error, sample-based testing, the possibility that controls could be circumvented or become inadequate because of changed conditions, and fraud. Because of these inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting might not prevent or detect all misstatements or fraud. If we cannot maintain and execute adequate internal control over financial reporting or implement required new or improved controls that provide reasonable assurance of the reliability of the financial reporting and preparation of our financial statements for external use, we could suffer harm to our reputation, fail to meet our public reporting requirements on a timely basis, be unable to properly report on our business and our results of operations, or be required to restate our financial statements, and our results of operations, the market price of our common shares and our ability to obtain new business could be materially adversely affected.

We make estimates and assumptions in connection with the preparation of our consolidated financial statements, and any changes to those estimates and assumptions could adversely affect our financial results.

Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The application of generally accepted accounting principles requires us to make estimates and assumptions about certain items and future events that affect our reported financial condition, and our accompanying disclosure with respect to, among other things, revenue recognition and income taxes. We base our estimates on historical experience, contractual commitments and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances and at the time they are made. These estimates and assumptions involve the use of judgment and are subject to significant uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. If our estimates, or the assumptions underlying such estimates, are not correct, actual results may differ materially from our estimates, and we may need to, among other things, adjust revenues or accrue additional charges that could adversely affect our results of operations.

Our operating results may experience significant fluctuations.

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly from period to period. The long selling cycle for many of our services as well as the time required to complete the implementation phases of new contracts makes it difficult to accurately predict the timing of revenues from new clients or new SOWs as well as our costs. In addition, our future revenues, operating margins and profitability may fluctuate as a result of: lower demand for our services; lower win rates versus our competition; changes in pricing in response to client demands and competitive pressures; changes to the financial condition of our clients; employee wage levels and utilization rates; changes in foreign exchange rates, including the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar and the euro versus the U.S. dollar; the timing of collection of accounts receivable; enactment of new taxes; changes in domestic and international income tax rates and regulations; and changes to levels and types of share-based compensation awards and assumptions used to determine the fair value of such awards. As a result of these factors, it is possible that in some future periods, our revenues and

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operating results may be significantly below the expectations of public market analysts and investors. In such an event, the price of our common shares would likely be materially and adversely affected.

We enter into long-term contracts and fixed price contracts with our clients. Our failure to price these contracts correctly may negatively affect our profitability.

The pricing of our services is usually included in SOWs entered into with our clients, many of which are for terms of two to five years. In certain cases, we have committed to pricing over this period with only limited sharing of risk regarding inflation and currency exchange rates. In addition, we are obligated under some of our contracts to deliver productivity benefits to our clients. If we fail to estimate accurately future wage inflation rates, currency exchange rates or our costs, or if we fail to accurately estimate the productivity benefits we can achieve under a contract, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

A portion of our SOWs are currently billed on a fixed price basis rather than on a time and materials basis. We may increase the number of fixed price contracts we perform in the future. Any failure to accurately estimate the resources or time required to complete a fixed price engagement or to maintain the required quality levels or any unexpected increase in the cost to us of employees, office space or technology could expose us to risks associated with cost overruns and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial conditions.

 

We may be subject to claims and lawsuits for substantial damages by our clients arising out of disruptions to their businesses or our inadequate performance of services.

We depend in large part on our relationships with clients and our reputation for high-quality services to generate revenue and secure future engagements. Most of our service contracts with clients contain service level and performance requirements, including requirements relating to the quality of our services. Failure to consistently meet service requirements of a client or errors made by our employees in the course of delivering services to our clients could disrupt the client’s business and result in a reduction in our revenues, clients terminating their business relationships with us and/or a claim for damages against us. Additionally, we could incur liability if a process we manage for a client were to result in internal control failures or impair our client’s ability to comply with its own internal control requirements. We are also subject to actual and potential claims, lawsuits, investigations and proceedings outside of errors and omissions claims.

Under our MSAs with our clients, our liability for breach of our obligations is generally limited to actual damages suffered by the client and is typically capped at the greater of an agreed amount or the fees paid or payable to us under the relevant agreement. These limitations and caps on liability may be unenforceable or otherwise may not protect us from liability for damages. In addition, certain liabilities, such as claims of third parties for which we may be required to indemnify our clients or liability for breaches of confidentiality, are generally not limited under those agreements. Our MSAs are governed by laws of multiple jurisdictions, therefore the interpretation of such provisions, and the availability of defenses to us, may vary, which may contribute to the uncertainty as to the scope of our potential liability. Although we have commercial general liability insurance coverage, the coverage may not continue to be available on acceptable terms or in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims and our insurers may disclaim coverage as to any future claims.

The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or changes in our insurance policies (including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements), could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition. It is also possible that future results of operations or cash flows for any particular quarterly or annual period could be materially adversely affected by an unfavorable resolution of these matters.  In addition, these matters divert management and personnel resources away from operating our business.  Even if we do not experience significant monetary costs, there may be adverse publicity associated with these matters that could result in reputational harm, either to us directly or to the industries or geographies we operate in, that may materially adversely affect our business, client or employee relationships.  Further, defending against these claims can involve potentially significant costs, including legal defense costs.

 

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If we are unable to collect our receivables or unbilled services, our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected.

Our business depends on our ability to successfully obtain payment from our clients of the amounts they owe us for work performed. We evaluate the financial condition of our clients and usually bill and collect on relatively short cycles. We have established allowances for losses of receivables and unbilled services. Actual losses on client balances could differ from those that we currently anticipate, and, as a result, we might need to adjust our allowances. We might not accurately assess the creditworthiness of our clients. Macroeconomic conditions could also result in financial difficulties for our clients, including bankruptcy and insolvency. Additionally, cyberattacks on any of our clients could disrupt their internal systems and capability to make payments. The occurrence of such events could cause clients to delay payments to us, request modifications to their payment arrangements that could increase our receivables balance, or default on their payment obligations to us. If we experience an increase in the time to bill and collect for our services, our cash flows could be adversely affected.

Some of our contracts contain provisions which, if triggered, could result in lower future revenues and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operation and financial condition.

Some of our contracts allow a client, in certain limited circumstances, to request a benchmark study comparing our pricing and performance with that of an agreed list of other service providers for comparable services. Based on the results of the study and depending on the reasons for any unfavorable variance, we may be required to make improvements in the services we provide or to reduce the pricing for services on a prospective basis to be performed under the remaining term of the contract, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Some of our contracts contain provisions that would require us to pay penalties to our clients and/or provide our clients with the right to terminate the contract if we do not meet pre-agreed service level requirements. Failure to meet these requirements could result in the payment of significant penalties by us to our clients which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

A few of our MSAs provide that during the term of the MSA and under specified circumstances, we may not provide similar services to the competitors of our client. Some of our contracts also provide that, during the term of the contract and for a certain period thereafter ranging from six to 12 months, we may not provide similar services to certain or any of our client’s competitors using the same personnel. These restrictions may hamper our ability to compete for and provide services to other clients in the same industry, which may inhibit growth and result in lower future revenues and profitability.

Some of our contracts with clients specify that if a change of control of our company occurs during the term of the contract, the client has the right to terminate the contract. These provisions may result in our contracts being terminated if there is such a change in control, resulting in a potential loss of revenues. In addition, these provisions may act as a deterrent to any attempt by a third party to acquire our company.

Some of our contracts with clients require that we bear the cost of any sales or withholding taxes or unreimbursed value-added taxes imposed on payments made under those contracts. While the imposition of these taxes is generally minimized under our contracts, changes in law or the interpretation thereof and changes in our internal structure may result in the imposition of these taxes and a reduction in our net revenues.

Our industry is highly competitive, and we may not be able to compete effectively.

Our industry is highly competitive, highly fragmented and subject to rapid change. We believe that the principal competitive factors in our markets are breadth and depth of process, technology and domain expertise, service quality, the ability to attract, train and retain qualified people, compliance rigor, global delivery capabilities, price and marketing and sales capabilities. We compete for business with a variety of companies, including large multinational firms that provide consulting, technology and/or business process services, off-shore business process service providers in low-cost locations like India, in-house

30


 

captives of potential clients, software services companies that also provide business process services and accounting firms that also provide consulting or outsourcing services.

Some of our competitors have greater financial, marketing, technological or other resources and larger client bases than we do, and may expand their service offerings and compete more effectively for clients and employees than we do. Some of our competitors have more established reputations and client relationships in our markets than we do. In addition, some of our competitors who do not have global delivery capabilities may expand their delivery centers to the countries in which we are located which could result in increased competition for employees and could reduce our competitive advantage. There could also be new competitors that are more powerful as a result of strategic consolidation of smaller competitors or of companies that each provide different services or service different industries.

Increased competition may result in lower prices and volumes, higher costs for resources, especially people, and lower profitability. We may not be able to supply clients with services that they deem superior and at competitive prices and we may lose business to our competitors. Any inability to compete effectively would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our business could be materially and adversely affected if we do not protect our intellectual property or if our services are found to infringe on the intellectual property of others.

Our success depends in part on certain methodologies, practices, tools and technical expertise we utilize in designing, developing, implementing and maintaining applications and other proprietary intellectual property rights. In order to protect our rights in these various intellectual properties, we rely upon a combination of nondisclosure and other contractual arrangements as well as patent, trade secret, copyright and trademark laws. We also generally enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, clients and potential clients and limit access to and distribution of our proprietary information. India is a member of the Berne Convention, an international intellectual property treaty, and has agreed to recognize protections on intellectual property rights conferred under the laws of other foreign countries, including the laws of the United States. There can be no assurance that the laws, rules, regulations and treaties in effect in the United States, India and the other jurisdictions in which we operate and the contractual and other protective measures we take, are adequate to protect us from misappropriation or unauthorized use of our intellectual property, or that such laws will not change. We may not be able to detect unauthorized use and take appropriate steps to enforce our rights, and any such steps may not be successful. Infringement by others of our intellectual property, including the costs of enforcing our intellectual property rights, may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Although we believe that we are not infringing on the intellectual property rights of others, claims may nonetheless be successfully asserted against us in the future. The costs of defending any such claims could be significant, and any successful claim may require us to modify, discontinue or rename any of our services. Any such changes may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

A substantial portion of our assets and operations are located in India and we are subject to regulatory, economic, social and political uncertainties in India.

We are subject to several risks associated with having a substantial portion of our assets and operations located in India.

We have benefited from many policies of the Government of India and the Indian state governments in the states in which we operate which are designed to promote foreign investment generally and the business process services industry in particular, including significant fiscal incentives, relaxation of regulatory restrictions, liberalized import and export duties and preferential rules on foreign investment and repatriation. There is no assurance that such policies will continue. Various factors, such as changes in the central or state governments, could trigger significant changes in India’s economic liberalization and deregulation policies and disrupt business and economic conditions in India generally and our business in particular.

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In addition, our financial performance and the market price of our common shares may be adversely affected by general economic conditions and economic and fiscal policy in India, including changes in exchange rates and controls, interest rates and taxation policies, as well as social stability and political, economic or diplomatic developments affecting India in the future. In particular, India has experienced significant economic growth over the last several years, but faces major challenges in sustaining that growth in the years ahead. These challenges include the need for substantial infrastructure development and improving access to healthcare and education. Recent economic reform efforts have been disruptive and may increase the level of economic uncertainty in India. Our ability to recruit, train and retain qualified employees, develop and operate our delivery centers, and attract and retain clients could be adversely affected if India does not successfully meet these challenges.

Our delivery centers are at risk of damage from natural disasters and other disruptions.

Our delivery centers and our data and voice communications may be damaged or disrupted as a result of natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, heavy rains, epidemics, tsunamis and cyclones, technical disruptions such as electricity or infrastructure breakdowns, including damage to telecommunications cables, computer glitches and electronic viruses or human-caused events such as protests, riots, labor unrest and cyberattacks. Such events may lead to the disruption of information systems and telecommunication services for sustained periods. They also may make it difficult or impossible for employees to reach our business locations. Damage or destruction that interrupts our provision of services could adversely affect our reputation, our relationships with our clients, our leadership team’s ability to administer and supervise our business or it may cause us to incur substantial additional expenditure to repair or replace damaged equipment or delivery centers. We may also be liable to our clients for disruption in service resulting from such damage or destruction. While we currently have commercial liability insurance, our insurance coverage may not be sufficient. Furthermore, we may be unable to secure such insurance coverage at premiums acceptable to us in the future or at all. Prolonged disruption of our services would also entitle our clients to terminate their contracts with us. Any of the above factors may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may face difficulties as we expand our operations into countries in which we have no prior operating experience.

We intend to continue to expand our global footprint in order to maintain an appropriate cost structure and meet our clients’ delivery needs. This may involve expanding into countries other than those in which we currently operate. It may involve expanding into less developed countries, which may have less political, social or economic stability and less developed infrastructure and legal systems. As we expand our business into new countries we may encounter regulatory, personnel, technological and other difficulties that increase our expenses or delay our ability to start up our operations or become profitable in such countries. This may affect our relationships with our clients and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Terrorist attacks and other acts of violence involving any of the countries in which we or our clients have operations could adversely affect our operations and client confidence.

Terrorist attacks and other acts of violence or war may adversely affect worldwide financial markets and could potentially lead to economic recession, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. These events could adversely affect our clients’ levels of business activity and precipitate sudden significant changes in regional and global economic conditions and cycles. These events also pose significant risks to our people and to our delivery centers and operations around the world.

Southern Asia has, from time to time, experienced instances of civil unrest and hostilities among neighboring countries, including India and Pakistan. In recent years, military confrontations between India and Pakistan have occurred in the region of Kashmir and along the India/Pakistan border. There have also been incidents in and near India, such as continued terrorist activity around the northern border of India, troop mobilizations along the India/Pakistan border and an aggravated geopolitical

32


 

situation in the region. Such military activity or terrorist attacks in the future could influence the Indian economy by disrupting communications and making travel more difficult. Resulting political tensions could create a greater perception that investments in companies with Indian operations involve a high degree of risk, and that there is a risk of disruption of services provided by companies with Indian operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our share price and/or the market for our services. Furthermore, if India were to become engaged in armed hostilities, particularly hostilities that were protracted or involved the threat or use of nuclear weapons, we might not be able to continue our operations. We generally do not have insurance for losses and interruptions caused by terrorist attacks, military conflicts and wars.

If more stringent labor laws become applicable to us or if our employees unionize, our profitability may be adversely affected.

India has stringent labor legislation that protects employee interests, including legislation that sets forth detailed procedures for dispute resolution and employee removal and legislation that imposes financial obligations on employers upon retrenchment. Though we are exempt from some of these labor laws at present under exceptions in some states for providers of IT-enabled services, there can be no assurance that such laws will not become applicable to us in the future. If these labor laws become applicable to our employees, it may become difficult for us to maintain flexible human resource policies and attract and employ the numbers of sufficiently qualified candidates that we need or discharge employees, and our compensation expenses may increase significantly.

In addition, our employees may in the future form unions. If employees at any of our delivery centers become eligible for union membership, we may be required to raise wage levels or grant other benefits that could result in an increase in our compensation expenses, in which case our profitability may be adversely affected.

We may engage in strategic transactions that could create risks.

As part of our business strategy, we regularly review potential strategic transactions, including potential acquisitions, dispositions, consolidations, joint ventures or similar transactions, some of which may be material. Through the acquisitions we pursue, we may seek opportunities to add to or enhance the services we provide, to enter new industries or expand our client base, or to strengthen our global presence and scale of operations. We have completed numerous acquisitions since our inception. There can be no assurance that we will find suitable candidates in the future for strategic transactions at acceptable prices, have sufficient capital resources to accomplish our strategy, or be successful in entering into agreements for desired transactions.

Acquisitions, including completed acquisitions, also pose the risk that any business we acquire may lose clients or employees or could under-perform relative to expectations. We could also experience financial or other setbacks if transactions encounter unanticipated problems, including problems related to execution, integration or unknown liabilities. Although we conduct due diligence in connection with our acquisitions, there could be liabilities that we fail to discover, that we inadequately assess or that are not properly disclosed to us.  Any material liabilities associated with our acquisitions could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Following the completion of an acquisition, we may have to rely on the seller to provide administrative and other support, including financial reporting and internal controls, to the acquired business for a period of time. There can be no assurance that the seller will do so in a manner that is acceptable to us.

Our principal shareholders exercise significant influence over us, and their interests in our business may be different from yours.

A significant percentage of our issued and outstanding common shares are currently beneficially owned by affiliates of Bain Capital. Following a recent offering in February 2019, Bain Capital (through its affiliates) beneficially owned approximately 17% of our outstanding common shares as of February 15, 2019. Our shareholder agreement with Bain Capital and its co-investors provides that Bain Capital has the right to designate for nomination four directors to our board, so long as it maintains certain minimum

33


 

shareholding thresholds, and the shareholders party to the agreement have agreed to vote their shares for the election of such persons. The number of directors that Bain Capital is entitled to designate for nomination is reduced if its ownership of our common shares declines below certain levels and such right ceases if such ownership falls below 7.5% of our outstanding common shares, and also may be increased in certain circumstances. Following the February 2019 offering, given the size of its shareholding, the number of directors that Bain Capital is entitled to designate for nomination pursuant to our shareholder agreement was reduced to two.

These shareholders can exercise significant influence over our business policies and affairs and all matters requiring a shareholders’ vote, including the composition of our board of directors, the adoption of amendments to our certificate of incorporation and bye-laws, the approval of mergers or sales of substantially all of our assets, our dividend policy and our capital structure and financing. This concentration of ownership also may delay, defer or even prevent a change in control of our company and may make some transactions more difficult or impossible without the support of these shareholders, even if such transactions are beneficial to other shareholders. The interests of these shareholders may conflict with your interests. Bain Capital currently holds interests in companies that compete with us and it may, from to time, make significant investments in companies that could compete with us. In addition, pursuant to our shareholder agreement and to the extent permitted by applicable law, our directors who are affiliated with Bain Capital are not required to present to us corporate opportunities (e.g., acquisitions or new potential clients) of which they become aware. So long as Bain Capital owns a significant amount of our equity it will be able to strongly influence our decisions.

We may become subject to taxation as a result of our incorporation in Bermuda or place of management, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We have received a written assurance from the Bermuda Minister of Finance under The Exempted Undertaking Tax Protection Act 1966 of Bermuda to the effect that if there is enacted in Bermuda any legislation imposing tax computed on profits or income, or computed on any capital asset, gain or appreciation, or any tax in the nature of estate duty or inheritance tax, then the imposition of any such tax shall not be applicable to us or to any of our operations or common shares, debentures or other obligations or securities until March 31, 2035, except insofar as such tax applies to persons ordinarily resident in Bermuda or is payable by us in respect of real property owned or leased by us in Bermuda. We cannot assure you that after such date we would not be subject to any such tax. If we were to become subject to taxation in Bermuda or any other jurisdiction as a result of our incorporation in Bermuda, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The introduction of economic substance requirements in Bermuda could adversely affect us.

Harmful tax practices have become the focus of increased scrutiny from the European Union. The Council of the European Union adopted a resolution on a code of conduct for business taxation directed at counteracting the effects of zero tax and preferential tax regimes around the world.   In 2017, the Code of Conduct Group (Business Taxation) (“COCG”) investigated the tax policies of both European Union member states and non-European Union member states, assessing tax transparency, fair taxation and the implementation of anti–base erosion and profit shifting measures.

Following assessment by the COCG, Bermuda was included in a list of jurisdictions which are required by the European Union to address concerns of the COCG relating to the demonstration of economic substance.  On December 31, 2018, the Bermuda Government implemented legislation which brought certain substance requirements into force with effect from January 1, 2019 for newly-incorporated entities, and with effect from July 1, 2019 for currently existing entities. The introduction of the substance regime in Bermuda may present difficulties for us. There is not yet any guidance on what would constitute “adequate substance” under the newly-implemented legislation.   The new substance requirements could be difficult to manage in a short timeframe for implementation and compliance and could have a material adverse effect on us or our operations.

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We may not be able to realize the entire book value of goodwill and other intangible assets from acquisitions.

As of December 31, 2018, we had $1,393.8 million of goodwill and $177.1 million of intangible assets. We periodically assess these assets to determine if they are impaired and we monitor for impairment of goodwill relating to all acquisitions and our formation in 2004. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment at least on an annual basis as of December 31 of each year, based on a number of factors including macro-economic conditions, industry and market considerations, overall financial performance, business plans and expected future cash flows. Impairment testing of goodwill may also be performed between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of goodwill below its carrying amount. We perform an assessment of qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. Based on the results of the qualitative assessment, the Company performs the quantitative assessment of goodwill impairment if it determines that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the book value of our goodwill and other intangible assets is impaired, any such impairment would be charged to earnings in the period of impairment. We cannot assure you that future impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.


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Risks Related to our Shares

Future sales of our common shares could cause our share price to decline.

Sales of substantial amounts of common shares by our employees and other shareholders, or the possibility of such sales, may adversely affect the price of our common shares and impede our ability to raise capital through the issuance of equity securities. Following an offering in February 2019, Bain Capital (through its affiliates) and its co-investors beneficially owned approximately 20% of our outstanding common shares as of February 15, 2019. Subject to certain restrictions set forth in our shareholder agreement with Bain Capital and its co-investors, such shareholders are able to sell their common shares in the public market from time to time without registering them, subject to certain limitations on the timing, amount and method of those sales imposed by Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Pursuant to our shareholder agreement, Bain Capital has the right, subject to certain conditions and with certain exceptions, to require us to file registration statements covering all of the common shares it owns or to include those common shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or for another holder of our common shares. Following their registration and sale under the applicable registration statement, those shares will become freely tradable. By exercising their registration rights and selling a large number of common shares, these holders could cause the price of our common shares to decline. In addition, the perception in the public markets that sales by them might occur could also adversely affect the market price of our common shares.

There can be no assurance that we will continue to declare and pay dividends on our common shares, and future determinations to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors.

Prior to 2017, we did not declare regular dividends. In February 2017, we announced the declaration of the first quarterly cash dividend on our common shares in the amount of $0.06 per common share.  In February 2018, we announced an increase in our quarterly cash dividend to $0.075 per common share, and in February 2019 we announced an increase in our quarterly cash dividend to $0.085 per share, representing a planned annual dividend of $0.34 per share. Any determination to pay dividends to holders of our common shares in the future, including future payment of a regular quarterly cash dividend, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on many factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, general business conditions, statutory requirements under Bermuda law and any other factors our board of directors deems relevant. Our ability to pay dividends will also continue to be subject to restrictive covenants contained in credit facility agreements governing indebtedness we and our subsidiaries have incurred or may incur in the future. In addition, statutory requirements under Bermuda law could require us to defer making a dividend payment on a declared dividend date until such time as we can meet statutory requirements under Bermuda law. A reduction in, delay of, or elimination of our dividend payments could have a negative effect on our share price.

We are organized under the laws of Bermuda, and Bermuda law differs from the laws in effect in the United States and may afford less protection to shareholders.

Our shareholders may have more difficulty protecting their interests than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a state of the United States. As a Bermuda company, we are governed by, in particular, the Companies Act. The Companies Act differs in some material respects from laws generally applicable to U.S. corporations and shareholders, including the provisions relating to interested directors, mergers, amalgamations, takeovers and indemnification of directors.

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Generally, the duties of directors and officers of a Bermuda company are owed to the company only. Shareholders of Bermuda companies generally do not have the right to take action against directors or officers of the company except in limited circumstances. Directors of a Bermuda company must, in exercising their powers and performing their duties, act honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the company, exercising the care and skill that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in comparable circumstances. Directors have a duty not to put themselves in a position in which their duties to the company and their personal interests may conflict and also are under a duty to disclose any personal interest in any material contract or arrangement with the company or any of its subsidiaries. If a director of a Bermuda company is found to have breached his or her duties to that company, he may be held personally liable to the company in respect of that breach of duty. A director may be liable jointly and severally with other directors if it is shown that the director knowingly engaged in fraud or dishonesty (with such unlimited liability as the courts shall direct). In cases not involving fraud or dishonesty, the liability of the director will be determined by the Supreme Court of Bermuda or other Bermuda court (with such liability as the Bermuda court thinks just) who may take into account the percentage of responsibility of the director for the matter in question, in light of the nature of the conduct of the director and the extent of the causal relationship between his or her conduct and the loss suffered.

In addition, our bye-laws contain a broad waiver by our shareholders of any claim or right of action, both individually and on our behalf, against any of our officers or directors. The waiver applies to any action taken by an officer or director, or the failure of an officer or director to take any action, in the performance of his or her duties, except with respect to any matter involving or arising out of any fraud or dishonesty on the part of the officer or director or to matters which would render it void pursuant to the Companies Act. This waiver limits the rights of shareholders to assert claims against our officers and directors unless the act or failure to act involves fraud or dishonesty. Therefore, our shareholders may have more difficulty protecting their interests than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a state within the United States.

The market price for our common shares has been and may continue to be volatile.

The market price for our common shares has been and may continue to be volatile and subject to price and volume fluctuations in response to market and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. Among the factors that could affect our stock price are:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results;

 

changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;

 

changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other companies engaged in providing business process and information technology services;

 

loss of one or more significant clients;

 

addition or loss of executive officers or key employees;

 

regulatory developments in our target markets affecting us, our clients or our competitors;

 

announcements of technological developments;

 

limited liquidity in our trading market;

 

sales or expected sales of additional common shares, either by us or any of our shareholders, or purchases or expected purchases of common shares, including by us under existing or future share repurchase programs, which purchases are at the discretion of our board of directors and may not continue in the future;

 

terrorist attacks or natural disasters or other such events impacting countries where we or our clients have operations; and

 

actions or announcements by activist shareholders or others.

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In addition, securities markets generally and from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to the operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common shares.

You may be unable to effect service of process or enforce judgments obtained in the United States or Bermuda against us or our assets in the jurisdictions in which we or our executive officers operate.

We are incorporated and organized under the laws of Bermuda, and a significant portion of our assets are located outside the United States. It may not be possible to enforce court judgments obtained in the United States against us in Bermuda or in countries, other than the United States, where we have assets based on the civil liability or penal provisions of the federal or state securities laws of the United States. In addition, there is some doubt as to whether the courts of Bermuda and other countries would recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers based on the civil liability or penal provisions of the federal or state securities laws of the United States or would hear actions against us or those persons based on those laws. We have been advised by Appleby (Bermuda) Limited, our Bermuda counsel, that the United States and Bermuda do not currently have a treaty providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. Therefore, a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any federal or state court in the United States based on civil liability, whether or not based solely on United States federal or state securities laws, would not automatically be enforceable in Bermuda. Similarly, those judgments may not be enforceable in countries, other than the United States, where we have assets.

Item 1B.      Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.      Properties

We have delivery centers in 17 countries. Our only material properties are our premises in India at Phase V, Gurgaon, which comprises approximately 212,531 square feet, and Uppal, Hyderabad which comprises approximately 449,286 square feet, both of which we own. We have a mixture of owned and leased properties and substantially all of our leased properties are leased under long-term leases with varying expiration dates. We believe that our properties and facilities are suitable and adequate for our present purposes and are well-maintained.

Item 3.      Legal Proceedings

There are no legal proceedings pending against us that we believe are likely to have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Item 4.      Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

Item 5.      Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Stock Price Information and Stockholders

The principal market on which the Company’s common shares are traded is the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “G.” As of January 31, 2019, there were 15 holders of record of our common shares.

 

The following graph and table compare the performance of an investment in our common shares (measured as the cumulative total shareholder return) with investments in the S&P 500 Index (capitalization weighted) and a peer group of companies for the period from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. The selected peer group for the period presented is comprised of six companies that we believe are our closest reporting issuer competitors: Accenture plc, Cognizant Technology Solutions Corp., ExlService Holdings, Inc., Infosys Technologies Limited, Wipro Technologies Limited, and WNS (Holdings) Limited. The returns of the component entities of our peer group index are weighted according to the market capitalization of each company as of the beginning of each period for which a return is presented. The returns assume that $100 was invested on December 31, 2013 and that all dividends were reinvested. The performance shown in the graph and table below is historical and should not be considered indicative of future price performance.  

 

 

 

 

 

3/31/14

6/30/14

9/30/14

12/31/14

3/31/15

Genpact

94.83

95.43

88.84

103.05

126.57

Peer Group

99.40

97.20

98.92

105.85

118.51

S&P 500

101.81

107.14

108.34

113.69

114.77

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6/30/15

9/30/15

12/31/15

3/31/16

6/30/16

Genpact

116.11

128.52

135.98

148.01

146.11

Peer Group

115.18

122.45

120.05

131.66

126.87

S&P 500

115.09

107.68

115.26

116.82

119.68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9/30/16

12/31/16

3/31/17

6/30/17

9/30/17

Genpact

130.38

132.50

135.11

152.19

157.55

Peer Group

118.79

119.27

124.55

129.62

138.52

S&P 500

124.29

129.05

136.88

141.10

147.42

 

 

 

 

 

 

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12/31/17

3/31/18

6/30/18

9/30/18

12/31/18

Genpact

174.26

176.05

159.62

169.31

149.70

Peer Group

149.16

155.19

162.33

167.81

146.03

S&P 500

157.22

156.03

161.38

173.83

150.33

 

 

This graph is not deemed to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and should not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our prior or subsequent filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Dividends

In February 2018, our board of directors approved a 25% increase in our quarterly cash dividend to $0.075 per common share, representing a planned annual dividend of $0.30 per common share. In 2018, dividends were declared in February, May, July and October and paid in March, June, September and December. In February 2019, our board of directors approved an approximately 13% increase in our quarterly cash dividend to $0.085 per common share, representing a planned annual dividend of $0.34 per common share for 2019. Any future dividends will be at the discretion of the board of directors and subject to Bermuda and other applicable laws.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

None.

Purchase of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

Share repurchase activity during the three months ended December 31, 2018 was as follows:

 

Period

 

Total Number of Shares

Purchased

 

 

Average Price Paid per

Share ($)

 

 

Total Number of Shares

Purchased as Part of Publicly

Announced Plan or Program

 

 

Approximate Dollar Value

of Shares that May Yet Be

Purchased Under the Plan

or Program ($)

 

October 1-October 31, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

327,997,960

 

November 1-November 30, 2018

 

 

806,310

 

 

 

29.71

 

 

 

806,310

 

 

 

304,041,985

 

December 1-December 31, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

304,041,985

 

 

In February 2017, our board of directors authorized a $500 million increase to our existing $750 million share repurchase program, first announced in February 2015, bringing the total authorization under our existing program to $1.25 billion. This repurchase program does not obligate us to acquire any specific number of shares and does not specify an expiration date. All shares repurchased under the plan have been cancelled. See Note 19—“Capital stock” to our consolidated financial statements under Part IV, Item 15—“Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules” for additional information.

Item 6.      Selected Financial Data

The table below presents selected historical financial data.

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP). Financial data as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 and for the three-year period ended December 31, 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Financial data as of December 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016 and for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2015 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

40


 

You should read the selected financial data below together with the financial statements included herein and Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

 

  

Year ended December 31,

 

 

2014

 

 

2015

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

 

2018

 

 

(dollars and share count in millions, except per share data)

 

Statement of income data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total net revenues

$

 

2,279.4

 

 

$

 

2,461.0

 

 

$

 

2,570.8

 

 

$

 

2,736.9

 

 

$

 

3,000.8

 

Income from operations

$

 

294.0

 

 

$     334.2

 

 

$     341.2

 

 

$      331.3

 

 

$     348.2

 

Net income available to Genpact Limited common shareholders

$

 

192.0

 

 

$

 

239.8

 

 

$

 

269.7

 

 

$

 

263.1

 

 

$

 

282.0

 

Earnings per common share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

$

 

0.87

 

 

$

 

1.11

 

 

$

 

1.30

 

 

$

 

1.36

 

 

$

 

1.48

 

Diluted

$

 

0.85

 

 

$

 

1.09

 

 

$

 

1.28

 

 

$

 

1.34

 

 

$

 

1.45

 

Weighted average number of common shares used in computing earnings per

common share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

220.8

 

 

216.6

 

 

206.9

 

 

 

 

193.9

 

 

 

 

190.7

 

Diluted

225.2

 

 

219.1

 

 

210.1

 

 

 

 

197.0

 

 

 

 

194.0

 

Cash dividend per common share

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

0.24

 

 

$

 

0.30

 

 

  

As of December 31,

 

 

2014

 

 

2015

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

(dollars in millions)

 

Balance sheet data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

 

461.8

 

 

  $

 

450.9

 

 

$

 

422.6

 

 

$

 

504.5

 

 

$

 

368.4

 

Total assets

 

 

2,742.5

 

 

2,793.5

 

 

 

 

2,885.9

 

 

 

 

3,449.6

 

 

 

 

3,529.4

 

Long-term debt, including current portion

 

 

653.6

 

 

 

776.5

 

 

 

 

737.3

 

 

 

 

1,045.9

 

 

 

 

1,009.1

 

Genpact Limited shareholders’ equity

$

 

1,285.1

 

 

$ 1,304.4

 

 

$

 

1,286.6

 

 

$

 

1,424.0

 

 

$

 

1,404.2

 

 

 

 

Item 7.      Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes that appear elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition to historical information, this discussion includes forward-looking information that involves risks and assumptions, which could cause actual results to differ materially from management’s expectations. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Overview

Our 2018 revenues were $3.001 billion, an increase of 10% year-over-year, or 9% on a constant currency basis. See “Net Revenues” below for an explanation of how we calculate net revenue growth on a constant currency basis, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.

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Net Revenues

Revenue by top clients.    The table below sets forth the percentage of our total net revenues derived from our largest clients, including GE, in the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018:

 

 

 

Percentage of Total Net Revenues

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

 

2017

 

 

 

2018

 

Top five clients

 

 

24.3

%

 

 

 

20.3

%

 

 

 

21.9

%

Top ten clients

 

 

33.3

%

 

 

 

29.2

%

 

 

 

31.5

%

Top fifteen clients

 

 

39.7

%

 

 

 

35.9

%

 

 

 

37.9

%

Top twenty clients

 

 

44.4

%

 

 

 

40.9

%

 

 

 

42.8

%

 

We earn revenues pursuant to contracts that generally take the form of a master service agreement, or MSA, which is a framework agreement that is then supplemented by statements of work, or SOWs. Our MSAs specify the general terms applicable to the services we will provide. Our MSAs are generally for terms of three to seven years, although they may also have an indefinite term or be for terms of less than three years. In most cases they do not specify pricing terms or obligate the client to purchase a particular amount of services. We then enter into SOWs under an MSA, which specify particular services to be provided and the pricing terms. Most of our revenues are from SOWs with terms of two to five years. We typically have multiple SOWs under any given MSA, and the terms of our SOWs vary depending on the nature of the services provided. We seek to develop long-term relationships with our clients. We believe that these relationships best serve our clients as they create opportunities for us to provide a variety of services using the full range of our capabilities and to deliver continuous process improvement.

New business proposals are reviewed in line with our strategy to target specific industry verticals and geographical markets. We begin each year with a set of named accounts, including prospective clients with operations in our target areas, and all opportunities during the year are reviewed by business leaders from the applicable industry vertical, operations personnel, and members of our finance team. In this way, we try to ensure that contract terms meet our pricing, cash and service objectives. See Item 1—“Business—Sales and marketing.”

There are a variety of aspects to our pricing of contracts. Under some of our MSAs, we are able to share a limited amount of inflation and currency exchange risk for engagements lasting longer than 12 months. Many of our MSAs also provide that, under transaction-based and fixed-price SOWs, we are entitled to retain a portion of certain productivity benefits we achieve. However, some of our MSAs and SOWs require certain minimum productivity benefits to be passed on to our clients. Once an MSA and related SOWs are signed and production of services commences, our revenues and expenses increase as services are ramped up to the agreed upon level. In many cases, we may have opportunities to increase our margins over the life of an MSA or SOW, driven by a number of factors. Our revenues include gains or losses arising upon the maturity of qualified cash flow hedges.

Under our services agreements with GE, GE has the right to terminate the MSA or any SOW in whole or in part for any reason by providing us with a short period of advance notice. GE is not obligated to provide us with any exclusivity or opportunity to work on GE projects and GE is not required to purchase a minimum amount of services from us.

Although some decisions about our services may be made centrally at GE, the total level of business we receive from GE generally depends on the decisions of the various operating managers of the GE businesses we serve. Because our business from GE is derived from a variety of businesses within GE, our exposure to GE is diversified in terms of industry risk. See Item 1A—“Risk Factors— GE accounts for a significant portion of our revenues and any material loss of business from, or change in our relationship with, GE could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.”

Classification of certain net revenues.    We classify our net revenues in two categories: net revenues from GE and net revenues from Global Clients. Net revenues from Global Clients consist of revenues from services provided to all clients other than GE and the companies in which GE owns 20% or less of the outstanding equity interest. If GE ceases to own at least 20% of a business we serve, we reclassify the revenues from such business as Global Client revenues following the divestiture. Prior to 2016, we

42


 

reclassified revenues from these divested GE businesses as Global Client revenues in each fiscal quarter beginning on the date of divestiture. However, beginning with 2016, we reclassify such revenue as Global Client revenue only at the end of each fiscal year. We believe that this allows us to provide a more consistent view of quarterly trends underlying our Global Client and GE businesses. After reclassifying $69.7 million of revenues from businesses that GE divested in 2016, our 2016 revenues from Global Clients and GE were $2,212.9 million and $357.9 million, respectively. The impact of the reclassification of revenue from divested GE businesses to Global Client revenue in 2017 and 2018 was immaterial.

In many cases, we have continued to perform services for GE-divested businesses following their divestiture by GE even though they were not obligated by the GE MSA to continue to use our services. In such cases, we have either entered into new MSAs with respect to such businesses following their divestiture by GE or agreed with such businesses to continue to work pursuant to the terms agreed to by GE. We are currently undertaking efforts, and plan to continue efforts, to procure engagements with the businesses that GE divests as part of its GE Capital divestitures.

In 2016, we also reclassified revenue from our 2016 acquisitions of Endeavour Software Technologies Private Limited and PNMSoft Ltd. as revenue from BPO services rather than revenue from IT services to better align with the digital business process client solutions derived from these businesses. After reclassifying $12.4 million of revenues from these acquisitions, our 2016 revenues from BPO and IT services were $2,083.4 million and $487.3 million, respectively.

Expenses.    Personnel expenses are a major component of both our cost of revenue and our selling, general and administrative expenses. Personnel expenses include salaries and benefits (including stock-based compensation) as well as costs related to recruiting and training. Personnel expenses are allocated between cost of revenue and selling, general and administrative expenses based on the classification of the employee. Stock-based compensation and depreciation and amortization expense are allocated between cost of revenue and selling, general and administrative expenses based on an employee’s function.

Our industry is labor-intensive. Wage levels in the countries in which our delivery centers are located have historically increased on a year-over-year basis. We attempt to address the impact of wage increases, and pressures to increase wages, in a number of ways, which include seeking to control entry-level wages, managing our attrition rate, delivering productivity and “right-skilling,” which refers to ensuring that positions are not filled by overqualified employees. We try to control increases in entry-level wages by implementing innovative recruiting policies, utilizing continuous training techniques, emphasizing promotion opportunities and maintaining an attractive work atmosphere and company culture.

In planning capacity expansion, we look for locations that help us ensure global delivery capability while helping us control average salary levels. In India and in other countries where we may open multiple locations, we try to expand into cities where competition for personnel and wage levels may be lower than in more developed cities. In addition, under some of our contracts we have the ability to share with our clients a portion of any increase in costs due to inflation. Nevertheless, despite these steps, we expect general increases in wage levels in the future, which could adversely affect our margins. A significant increase in attrition rates would also increase our recruiting and training costs and decrease our operating efficiency, productivity and profit margins. Increased attrition rates or increased pricing may also cause some clients to be less willing to use our services. See Item 1A—“Risk Factors—Wage increases in the countries in which we have operations may prevent us from sustaining our competitive advantage and may reduce our profit margin.”

Our operational expenses include facilities maintenance expenses, travel and living expenses, IT expenses, and consulting and certain other expenses. Consulting charges, consisting of the cost of consultants and contract employees with specialized skills who are directly responsible for the performance of services for clients, are included in cost of revenue. Facilities maintenance expenses and certain other expenses are allocated between cost of revenue and selling, general and administrative expenses based on the employee’s function.

Cost of revenue.    The principal component of cost of revenue is personnel expenses. We include in cost of revenue all personnel expenses for employees who are directly responsible for the performance of services for clients, their supervisors and certain support personnel who may be dedicated to a particular

43


 

client or a set of processes. Travel and living expenses are included in cost of revenue if the personnel expense for the employee incurring such expense is included in cost of revenue. These expenses include gains or losses that arise upon the maturity of qualified cash flow hedges.

The ratio of cost of revenue to revenues for any particular SOW or for all SOWs under an MSA is typically higher in the early periods of the contract or client relationship than in later periods. This is because the number of supervisory and direct support personnel relative to the number of employees who are performing services declines. It is also because we may retain a portion of the benefit of productivity increases realized over time.

Selling, general and administrative expenses.    Our selling, general and administrative, or SG&A, expenses are primarily comprised of personnel expenses for senior management, corporate personnel in enabling functions such as human resources, finance, legal, marketing, sales and sales-related personnel, and other support personnel. The operational costs component of SG&A expenses also includes travel and living costs for such personnel. Additionally, the operational costs component of SG&A expenses includes professional fees, which represent the costs of third-party legal, tax, accounting and other advisors, and an allowance for doubtful receivables. These expenses include gains or losses that arise upon the maturity of qualified cash flow hedges.

Amortization of acquired intangible assets.    Amortization of acquired intangible assets consists of amortization expenses relating to intangible assets acquired through acquisitions.

Other operating (income) expense, net.    Other operating (income) expense, net primarily consists of the impact of the change in the fair value of earn-out consideration relating to business acquisitions and certain operating losses resulting from the impairment of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets.

Foreign exchange gains (losses), net.    Foreign exchange gains (losses), net, primarily consist of gains or losses on the re-measurement of non-functional currency assets and liabilities. In addition, it includes gains or losses from derivative contracts entered into to offset the impact of the re-measurement of non-functional currency assets and liabilities. It also includes the realized and unrealized gains or losses on derivative contracts that do not qualify for hedge accounting.

We also enter into derivative contracts to offset the impact of the re-measurement of non-functional currency expenditures and income. The gains or losses on derivative contracts that qualify for hedge accounting are deferred and included under other comprehensive income (loss) until the derivative contracts mature, at which time the gains or losses on such cash flow hedges are classified as net revenues, cost of revenue or selling, general and administrative expenses based on the underlying risk being hedged. See Note 2—“Summary of significant accounting policies” to our consolidated financial statements under Part IV, Item 15—“Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules’’ and Item 7A—“Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk—Foreign Currency Risk.”

Approximately 76% of our fiscal 2018 revenues were earned in U.S. dollars. We also received payments in euros, U.K. pounds sterling, Australian dollars, Chinese renminbi, Japanese yen and Indian rupees. Our costs are primarily in Indian rupees, as well as in U.S. dollars, Chinese renminbi, euros and the currencies of the other countries in which we have operations. While some of our contracts provide for limited sharing of the risk of inflation and fluctuations in currency exchange rates, we bear a substantial portion of this risk, and therefore our operating results could be negatively affected by adverse changes in wage inflation rates and foreign currency exchange rates. See our discussion of wage inflation under “Expenses” above. We enter into forward currency contracts, which are generally designed to qualify for hedge accounting, in order to hedge most of our cost currency exposure between the U.S. dollar and the Indian rupee and Mexican peso, and between the euro and the Romanian leu, and our revenue currency exposure between the U.S. dollar and the pound sterling, Australian dollar, Philippine peso and euro, and between the Chinese renminbi and the Japanese yen. However, our ability to hedge such risks is limited by local law, the liquidity of the market for such hedges and other practical considerations. Thus, our results of operations may be adversely affected if we are not able to enter into the desired hedging arrangements or if our hedging strategies are not successful. See Note 2—“Summary of significant accounting policies” to our consolidated financial statements under Part IV, Item 15—“Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules” for additional information.

44


 

Interest income (expense), net.    Interest income (expense), net consists primarily of interest expense on indebtedness, including resulting from interest rate swaps, capital lease obligations, interest adjustments relating to earn-out consideration in connection with certain acquisitions, certain items related to debt restructuring, and interest income on certain deposits. We manage a portion of our interest rate risk related to floating rate indebtedness by entering into interest rate swaps under which we receive floating rate payments based on the greater of LIBOR and the floor rate under our term loan and make payments based on a fixed rate.

Other income (expense), net.    Other income (expense), net primarily includes the gain or loss on the divestitures of certain businesses and certain government incentives received by our subsidiaries.

Net loss (income) attributable to redeemable non-controlling interest.    Non-controlling interest primarily refers to the loss associated with the redeemable non-controlling interest in the operations of SSE, which we acquired in the first quarter of 2016. We purchased the remainder of the outstanding equity interest in SSE in the first quarter of 2018. See Note 3—“Business acquisitions and divestiture” to our consolidated financial statements under Part IV, Item 15—“Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” 

Equity-method investment activity, net.    Equity-method investment activity, net primarily represents our share of loss in a non-consolidated affiliate that we divested on June 30, 2017.

Income taxes.    We are incorporated in Bermuda and have operations in many countries. Our effective tax rate has historically varied and will continue to vary from year to year based on the tax rate in our jurisdiction of organization, the geographical sources of our earnings and the tax rates in those countries, the tax relief and incentives available to us, the financing and tax planning strategies employed by us, changes in tax laws or the interpretation thereof, and movements in our tax reserves, if any.

Bermuda taxes.    We are organized in Bermuda. Bermuda does not impose any income tax on us.

Indian taxes.      Indian SEZ legislation provides for a 15-year tax holiday scheme for operations established in designated special economic zones, or SEZs. Under the SEZ legislation, qualifying operations are eligible for a deduction from taxable income equal to (i) 100% of their profits or gains derived from the export of services for a period of five years from the commencement of operations; (ii) 50% of such profits or gains for the next five years; and (iii) 50% of such profits or gains for an additional period of five years, subject to the creation of a “Special Economic Zone Re-investment Reserve Account,” to be utilized only for acquiring new plant or machinery or for other business purposes, not including the distribution of dividends. This holiday is available only for new business operations that are conducted at qualifying SEZ locations and is not available to operations formed by splitting up or reconstructing existing operations or transferring existing plant and equipment (beyond prescribed limits) to new locations. During the last ten years, we established new delivery centers that we believe are eligible for the SEZ benefits. However, we cannot forecast what percentage of our operations or income in India will in the future be eligible for SEZ benefits, as this will depend on how much of our business can be conducted at the qualifying locations and how much of that business can be considered to meet the restrictive conditions described above.

Our tax expense will increase as a result of the expiration of our tax holidays, and our after-tax profitability will be materially reduced, unless we can obtain comparable benefits under new legislation or otherwise reduce our tax liability.

Additionally, the governments of foreign jurisdictions from which we deliver services may assert that certain of our clients have a “permanent establishment” in such jurisdictions by reason of the activities we perform on their behalf, particularly those clients that exercise control over or have substantial dependency on our services. Such an assertion could affect the size and scope of the services requested by such clients in the future.

Transfer pricing.    We have transfer pricing arrangements among our subsidiaries involved in various aspects of our business, including operations, marketing, sales and delivery functions. U.S. and Indian transfer pricing regulations, as well as the regulations applicable in the other countries in which we operate, require that any international transaction involving affiliated enterprises be made on arm’s-length terms. We consider the transactions among our subsidiaries to be substantially on arm’s-length

45


 

pricing terms. If, however, a tax authority in any jurisdiction reviews any of our tax returns and determines that the transfer prices we have applied are not appropriate, or that other income of our affiliates should be taxed in that jurisdiction, we may incur increased tax liability, including accrued interest and penalties, which would cause our tax expense to increase, possibly materially, thereby reducing our profitability and cash flows.

Other taxes.    We have operating subsidiaries in other countries, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, Germany, Guatemala, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Kenya, Latvia, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as sales and marketing subsidiaries in certain jurisdictions, including the United States and the United Kingdom, which are subject to tax in such jurisdictions.

In 2009, one of our subsidiaries in China obtained a ruling from the Government of China certifying it to be a Technologically Advanced Service Enterprise. As a result, that subsidiary was subject to a lower corporate income tax rate of 15%, initially for a three-year period that began in 2009, which was extended through December 31, 2018, subject to the fulfillment of certain conditions. Our delivery centers also enjoy corporate tax holidays or concessional tax rates in certain other jurisdictions, including the Philippines and Israel. These tax concessions will expire over the next few years, possibly increasing our overall tax rate.

Our ability to repatriate surplus earnings from our foreign subsidiaries in a tax-efficient manner is dependent upon interpretations of local laws, possible changes in such laws and the renegotiation of existing double tax avoidance treaties. Changes to any of these may adversely affect our overall tax rate.

Tax audits.    Our tax liabilities may also increase, including due to accrued interest and penalties, if the applicable income tax authorities in any jurisdiction, during the course of any audits, were to disagree with any of our tax return positions. Through the period ended December 30, 2004, we have an indemnity from GE for any additional taxes attributable to periods prior to December 30, 2004.

Tax losses and other deferred tax assets.    Our ability to utilize our tax loss carry-forwards and other deferred tax assets and credits may be affected if our profitability deteriorates or if new legislation is introduced that changes carry-over or crediting rules. Additionally, reductions in enacted tax rates may affect the value of our deferred tax assets and our tax expense.

Certain Acquisitions

From time to time we may make acquisitions or engage in other strategic transactions if suitable opportunities arise, and we may use cash, securities, other assets or a combination thereof as consideration.

On August 30, 2018, we acquired 100% of the outstanding equity/partnership interests in Barkawi Management Consultants GmbH & Co. KG, a German limited partnership, and certain affiliated entities in the United States, Germany and Austria (collectively referred to as “Barkawi”) for total purchase consideration of $101.3 million. This amount includes cash consideration of $95.6 million, net of cash acquired of $5.7 million. This acquisition enhances our supply chain management consulting capabilities. Goodwill arising from the acquisition amounted to $81.3 million, which has been allocated to our India reporting unit and is partially deductible for tax purposes. The goodwill represents primarily the acquired consulting expertise, operating synergies and other benefits expected to result from combining the acquired operations with those of our existing operations.

On July 3, 2018, we acquired 100% of the outstanding equity interest in Commonwealth Informatics Inc. (“Commonwealth”), a Massachusetts corporation, for preliminary purchase consideration of $17.6 million. This amount includes cash consideration of $16.1 million, net of cash acquired of $1.5 million, and preliminary adjustments for working capital and indebtedness. This acquisition enhances our signal management and pharmacovigilance capabilities for clients in the life sciences industry. Goodwill arising from the acquisition amounted to $11.2 million, which has been allocated to our India reporting unit and is deductible for tax purposes. The goodwill represents primarily the acquired capabilities, operating synergies and other benefits expected to result from combining the acquired operations with our existing operations.

46


 

On January 8, 2016, we acquired 51% of the outstanding equity interest in Strategic Sourcing Excellence LLC (“SSE”), a Delaware limited liability company, for total consideration of $14.5 million. This amount includes the fair value of earn-out consideration and cash consideration of $2.6 million, adjusted for working capital, transaction expenses, indebtedness and measurement period adjustments, which did not have a significant impact on our consolidated statements of income, balance sheets or cash flows in the periods in which the adjustments were made. This acquisition strengthens our procurement consulting, transformation and strategic sourcing capabilities. The equity purchase agreement between us and the selling equity holders provides for contingent earn-out consideration of up to $20.0 million, payable by us to the selling equity holders based on the performance of SSE following closing relative to the thresholds specified in the earn-out calculation. Up to $9.8 million of the total potential earn-out consideration, representing the selling equity holders’ redeemable, non-controlling 49% interest in SSE, was payable by us to the selling equity holders only if either the put or call option, each as described below, was exercised. Goodwill arising from the acquisition amounted to $14.4 million, which has been allocated to our India reporting unit and is deductible for tax purposes. The goodwill represents future economic benefits we expect to derive from our expanded presence in the sourcing and procurement consulting domains, operating synergies and other anticipated benefits of combining the acquired operations with our existing operations. The equity purchase agreement granted us a call option to purchase the remaining 49% equity interest in SSE, which option we had the right to exercise between January 1, 2018 and January 31, 2018. As we did not exercise our call option during such period, the selling equity holders exercised their put option on March 1, 2018 in accordance with the terms of the equity purchase agreement to require us to purchase their 49% interest in SSE for $3.0 million. We also paid the selling equity holders $1.8 million in earn-out consideration in the first quarter of 2018.

On September 5, 2017, we acquired 100% of the outstanding equity interest in TandemSeven, Inc. (“TandemSeven”), a Massachusetts corporation, for total purchase consideration of $35.6 million. This amount includes cash consideration of $31.8 million, net of cash acquired of $3.9 million, and an adjustment for working capital and indebtedness. TandemSeven’s focus on improving the design of customer experiences complements our existing capabilities aimed at transforming clients’ processes end-to-end. Goodwill arising from the acquisition amounted to $25.2 million, which has been allocated to our India reporting unit and is deductible for tax purposes. The goodwill represents primarily the acquired expertise, operating synergies and other benefits expected to result from combining the acquired operations with our existing operations.

On May 3, 2017, we acquired 100% of the outstanding equity interest in each of BrightClaim LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, BrightServe LLC, a Georgia limited liability company, National Vendor LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, and BrightClaim Blocker, Inc., a Delaware corporation (collectively referred to as “BrightClaim”). The total purchase consideration for the acquisition of BrightClaim was $56.5 million. This amount includes cash consideration of $52.4 million, net of cash acquired of $4.0 million, adjusted for working capital, net debt, transaction expenses and measurement period adjustments which did not have a significant impact on our consolidated statements of income, balance sheets or cash flows in the applicable adjustment periods. This acquisition enhances our breadth and depth of service offerings for clients in the insurance industry. Goodwill arising from the acquisition amounted to $42.6 million, which has been allocated to our India reporting unit and is partially deductible for tax purposes. The goodwill represents primarily the capabilities, operating synergies and other benefits expected to be derived from combining the acquired operations with our existing operations.

On April 13, 2017, we acquired 100% of the outstanding equity interest in RAGE Frameworks, Inc. (“RAGE”), a Delaware corporation, for total purchase consideration of $125.3 million. This amount includes cash consideration of $124.1 million, net of cash acquired of $1.6 million, and an adjustment for working capital and indebtedness. This acquisition enhances our digital and artificial intelligence capabilities by adding knowledge-based automation technology and services. Goodwill arising from the acquisition amounted to $105.5 million, which has been allocated to our India reporting unit and is not deductible for tax purposes. The goodwill represents primarily the acquired digital and artificial intelligence capabilities, operating synergies and other benefits expected to be derived from combining the acquired operations with our existing operations.

47


 

During 2017, we also completed five individually immaterial business acquisition transactions, namely the acquisition of a supply chain management delivery center in the U.S. (“U.S. Delivery Center”), the purchase of all of the outstanding equity interest in OnSource, LLC (“OnSource”), the purchase of the IT business of Birlasoft (“Birlasoft”), the purchase of the image processing business of Fiserv Solutions of Australia Pty Ltd. (“Fiserv”) and the purchase of all of the outstanding equity interest in Lease Dimensions, Inc. (“Lease Dimensions”). The aggregate total consideration to consummate these acquisitions was $87.6 million. This aggregate amount includes the fair value of contingent earn-out consideration, cash consideration of $76.6 million, net of cash acquired of $0.3 million, and adjustments for closing date working capital, indebtedness, value transfer, seller transaction expenses and certain employee-related liabilities.

The U.S. Delivery Center acquisition enhances our supply chain management capabilities for clients in the consumer packaged goods industry. The OnSource acquisition brings incremental digital capabilities to our insurance service offerings. The Birlasoft transaction expands our end-to-end capabilities for clients in the healthcare and aviation industries. The Fiserv transaction strengthens our financial services portfolio and expands our Australia footprint. The Lease Dimensions acquisition enhances our capabilities in commercial lending and leasing.

The purchase agreement for the acquisition of the U.S. Delivery Center provides for contingent earn-out consideration ranging from $0 to $10.0 million, payable by us to the seller based on the achievement of certain milestones relative to the thresholds specified in the earn-out calculation. The purchase agreement for the Lease Dimensions acquisition provides for contingent earn-out consideration ranging from $0 to $3.0 million, payable by us to the sellers based on the performance of the business following closing relative to the thresholds specified in the earn-out calculation.

Goodwill arising from these acquisitions amounted to $56.5 million. This goodwill represents primarily the capabilities, operating synergies and other benefits expected to result from combining the acquired operations with our existing operations. The following table sets forth, with respect to each of the five acquisitions, the acquisition date, goodwill reporting unit and goodwill deductibility for tax purposes:

 

Acquisition

Acquisition date

Goodwill reporting unit

Tax deductibility of goodwill

U.S. Delivery Center

October 16, 2017

India

Deductible

OnSource

July 18, 2017

India

Deductible

Birlasoft

July 18, 2017

IT Services

Deductible

Fiserv

May 11, 2017

India

Non-deductible

Lease Dimensions

February 15, 2017

Americas

Non-deductible

Divestiture

In November 2017, we completed the sale of a portion of our legacy IT support business in Europe. Net proceeds from the sale of this business were $0. As a result of this divestiture, we recorded a loss of $5.7 million under “other income (expense)” in our consolidated statement of income.

Secondary Offerings

On August 18, 2017, we completed a secondary offering of our common shares, pursuant to which certain of our shareholders affiliated with Bain Capital Investors, LLC, namely Glory Investments A Limited and its affiliated assignees, together with their co-investor, GIC Private Limited (the “Selling Shareholders”), sold 10.0 million common shares at a price of $28.72 per share in an underwritten public offering. All of the common shares were sold by the Selling Shareholders and, as a result, we did not receive any of the proceeds from the offering.

On November 20, 2017, we completed an additional secondary offering of our common shares pursuant to which the Selling Shareholders sold 10.0 million common shares at a price of $30.26 per share in an underwritten public offering. All of the common shares were sold by the Selling Shareholders and, as a result, we did not receive any of the proceeds from the offering.

On February 15, 2019, we completed an additional secondary offering of our common shares pursuant to which the Selling Shareholders sold 10.0 million common shares at a price of $32.215 per

48


 

share in an underwritten public offering.  All of the common shares were sold by the Selling Shareholders and, as a result, we did not receive any of the proceeds from the offering. 

Bookings

New bookings is an operating or other statistical measure. We define new bookings as the total contract value of new client contracts, and certain renewals, extensions and changes to existing contracts to the extent that such contracts represent incremental future business. In determining total contract value for this purpose, we assume the minimum volume to which the client has committed. However, for deals that have a total contract value in excess of $200 million and include employees transferring to us from a client, we include as new bookings for any given year only that portion of the total contract value which relates to services performed in connection with employee transfers that are initiated during that year. Regular renewals of contracts with no change in scope, which we consider business as usual, are not counted as new bookings. We provide information regarding our new bookings because we believe doing so provides useful trend information regarding changes in the volume of our new business over time and may be a useful metric as an indicator of future revenue growth potential. New bookings is also used by management to measure our sales force productivity.

New bookings in 2018 were approximately $3.9 billion, up 40% from approximately $2.8 billion in 2017. The overall increase in new bookings is due to strong growth in our transformation services bookings and new sales of digitally-enabled services in our BPO business. We attribute this growth to strategic investments in our digital and analytics capabilities, domain expertise, our people and our brand, together with a focus on growth opportunities in a specific set of industry verticals and service lines.

New bookings can vary significantly year to year depending in part on the timing of the signing of a small number of large contracts. The types of services clients are demanding, the duration of the contract and the pace and level of their spending may impact the conversion of new bookings to revenues. For example, business process outsourcing, or BPO, bookings, which are typically for multi-year contracts, generally convert to revenue over a longer period of time compared to information technology outsourcing bookings, which are often for short-term, project-based work.

Information regarding our new bookings is not comparable to, nor should it be substituted for, an analysis of our revenues over time. The calculation of new bookings involves estimates and judgments. There are no third-party standards or requirements governing the calculation of new bookings. We do not update our new bookings for material subsequent terminations or reductions related to bookings originally recorded in prior fiscal years. New bookings are recorded using then-existing foreign currency exchange rates and are not subsequently adjusted for foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Our revenues recognized each year will vary from the new bookings value since new bookings is a snapshot measurement of a portion of the total client contract value at a given time.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

A summary of our significant accounting policies is included in Note 2—“Summary of significant accounting policies” to our consolidated financial statements under Part IV, Item 15—“Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” An accounting policy is deemed to be critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made and if changes in the estimate that are reasonably possible could materially impact the financial statements or require a higher degree of judgment than others in their application. We base our estimates on historical experience, contractual commitments and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances and at the time they are made. We believe the following critical accounting policies require a higher level of management judgment and estimates than others in preparing the consolidated financial statements. Management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements are reasonable. Although these estimates are based upon management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.

Revenue recognition.    We typically face a long selling cycle in securing a new client. It is not unusual for us to spend twelve to eighteen months or more from the time we begin actively soliciting a new client until we begin to recognize revenues.

49


 

All costs we incur prior to signing a contract with a client are expensed as incurred, except for any incremental and direct costs incurred for acquiring the contracts, such as certain sales commissions to employees or third parties, which are classified as contract cost assets and are amortized over the expected period of benefit. Contract acquisition fees or other upfront fees paid to a client are classified as contract assets which are amortized over the expected period of benefit and recorded as an adjustment to the transaction price.

Once a contract is signed, we defer revenues from the transition of services to our delivery centers, as well as the related cost of revenue where such activities do not represent separate performance obligations. Revenues relating to such transition activities are classified under contract liabilities and subsequently recognized ratably over the period in which the related services are performed. Costs relating to such transition activities are fulfillment costs which are directly related to the contract and result in the generation or enhancement of resources. Such costs are expected to be recoverable under the contract and are therefore classified as contract cost assets and recognized ratably over the estimated expected period of benefit under cost of revenue.

Our client contracts sometimes also include incentive payments received for discrete benefits delivered or promised to be delivered to clients or service level agreements that could result in credits or refunds to the clients. Revenues relating to such arrangements are accounted for as variable consideration when the amount of revenue to be recognized can be estimated to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of any incremental revenue will not occur.

We include offerings such as sale of licenses, in certain contracts, which may be perpetual or subscription-based. We recognize upfront revenue from distinct perpetual licenses at the point in time when the software is made available to the client. Revenue from distinct subscription-based licenses is recognized at the point in time it is transferred to the client. Revenue from any associated maintenance or ongoing support services is recognized ratably over the term of the contract. For a combined software license/services performance obligation, revenue is recognized over the period that the services are performed. 

We price our services under a variety of arrangements, including time and materials, transaction-based and, to a lesser extent, fixed-price contracts. When services are priced on a time-and-materials basis, we charge the client based on full-time equivalent, or FTE, rates for the personnel who will directly perform the services. The FTE rates are determined on a periodic basis, vary by category of service delivery personnel and are set at levels to reflect all of our costs, including the cost of supervisory personnel, the allocable portion of other costs, and a margin. In some cases, time-and-materials contracts are based on hourly rates of the personnel providing the services. We recognize revenues when the promised services are delivered to customers for an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for those services. We accrue for revenue and unbilled receivables for services rendered between the last billing date and the balance sheet date.

In transaction-based pricing, clients are charged a fixed fee per transaction, with the fee per transaction sometimes linked to the total number of transactions processed. Some of our contracts give the client the option to prospectively change from a time-and-materials model to a transaction-based pricing model. Revenues from services rendered under time-and-material and transaction-based contracts are recognized as the services are provided.

In the case of fixed-price contracts, including those for application development, maintenance and support services, revenues are recognized ratably over the terms of the contracts.

We sometimes enter into multiple-element revenue arrangements in which a customer may purchase a combination of our services. Revenue from multiple-element arrangements is recognized, for each element, based on an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation on a relative standalone basis.

Revenue for performance obligations that are satisfied over time is recognized in accordance with the methods prescribed for measuring progress. The input (effort or cost expended) method has been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current contract estimates.

50


 

Timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing. If we receive payment in respect of services prior to the time a contract is signed, we recognize the payment as an advance from a client. When the related contract is signed, the advance becomes revenue to the extent the services are rendered and price is fixed or determinable.

Significant judgements involved include (a) determining whether services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately rather than together where we enter into contracts with clients that include promises to transfer multiple products and services, (b) determining the standalone selling price for each distinct performance obligation and (c) estimating credits or refunds to our clients resulting from incentive payments received for discrete benefits delivered to clients or under service level agreements. In instances where a standalone selling price for a performance obligation is not directly observable, we use information that may include market conditions and other observable inputs. We estimate credit or refund amounts at contract inception and adjust them at the end of each reporting period as additional information becomes available only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of any incremental revenue will not occur.

Accounts receivable.    Our accounts receivable include amounts for services that we have performed but for which we have not received payment. Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced or to-be-invoiced amount and do not bear interest. We typically follow a 30-day billing cycle and, as such, at any point in time we may have accrued up to 30 days of revenues that have not been billed. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses inherent in our accounts receivable portfolio. In establishing the required allowance, we consider current market conditions and our clients’ financial condition, the amount of receivables in dispute, and the current receivables’ aging and current payment patterns of the client. We do not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to our clients.

Business combinations.    The application of business combination accounting requires the use of significant estimates and assumptions. We account for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting, by recognizing the identifiable tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, and any non-controlling interest in the acquired business, measured at their acquisition date fair values. Contingent consideration is included within the acquisition cost and is recognized at its fair value on the acquisition date. The measurement of purchase price, including future contingent consideration, if any, and its allocation, requires significant estimates in determining the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, including with respect to intangible assets and deferred and contingent consideration. Significant estimates and assumptions we may make include, but are not limited to, the timing and amount of future revenue and cash flows based on, among other things, anticipated growth rates, customer attrition rates, and the discount rate reflecting the risk inherent in future cash flows.

 

Goodwill and other intangible assets.    Goodwill represents the cost of acquired businesses in excess of the fair value of the identifiable tangible and intangible net assets purchased. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least on an annual basis on December 31, or as circumstances warrant based on a number of factors, including operating results, business plans and future cash flows. We perform an assessment of qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. Based on our assessment of events or circumstances, we perform a quantitative assessment of goodwill impairment if it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. Based on the results of our assessments of qualitative factors, we determined that the fair values of all of our reporting units are likely to be higher than their respective carrying amounts as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017.

We capitalize certain software and technology development costs incurred in connection with developing or obtaining software or technology for sale/lease to customers when the initial design phase is completed and commercial and technological feasibility has been established. Any development cost incurred before technological feasibility is established is expensed as incurred as research and development costs. Technological feasibility is established upon completion of a detailed design program or, in its absence, completion of a working model. Capitalized software and technology costs include only (i) the external direct costs of materials and services utilized in developing or obtaining software and

51


 

technology and (ii) compensation and related benefits for employees who are directly associated with the project.

We review for impairment our intangible assets with defined useful lives whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the related carrying amounts may not be recoverable. Determining whether we have incurred an impairment loss requires comparing the carrying amount to the sum of undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. When determining the fair value of our intangible assets, we utilize various assumptions, including discount rates, estimated growth rates, economic trends and projections of future cash flows. These projections also take into account factors such as the expected impact of new client contracts, expanded or new business from existing clients, efficiency initiatives, and the maturity of the markets in which each of our businesses operates. We generally categorize intangible assets acquired individually or with a group of other assets or in a business combination as customer-related, marketing-related, technology-related, and other intangible assets. See Note 2—“Summary of significant accounting policies—Business combinations, goodwill and other intangible assets” to our consolidated financial statements under Part IV, Item 15—“Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules’’ for more information about how we value our intangible assets. Actual results may vary, and may cause significant adjustments to the valuation of our assets in the future.

Derivative instruments and hedging activities.    We enter into forward foreign exchange contracts to mitigate foreign exchange risk on intercompany transactions and forecasted transactions denominated in foreign currencies, and we enter into interest rate swaps to mitigate interest rate fluctuation risk on our indebtedness. Most of these transactions meet the criteria for hedge accounting as cash flow hedges under FASB guidance on Derivatives and Hedging.

With respect to derivatives designated as cash flow hedges, we formally document all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as our risk management objectives and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. In addition, we formally assess, both at the inception of a hedge and on a quarterly basis, whether each derivative is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item. If we determine that a derivative or a portion thereof is not highly effective as a hedge, or if a derivative ceases to be a highly effective hedge, we prospectively discontinue hedge accounting with respect to that derivative.

We recognize derivative instruments and hedging activities as either assets or liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets and measure them at fair value. Changes in the fair values of these hedges are deferred and recorded as a component of other comprehensive income (losses), net of tax, until the hedged transactions occur and are recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Income along with the underlying hedged item and disclosed as a part of “Total net revenues,” “Cost of revenue”, “Selling, general and administrative expenses,” and “Interest expense” as applicable.

We value our derivatives based on market observable inputs, including both forward and spot prices for currencies. Derivative assets and liabilities included in Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy primarily represent foreign currency forward contracts. The quotes are taken from independent sources and databases.

Income taxes.    We account for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, income tax expense is recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year. In addition, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities, and their tax bases and operating losses are carried forward, if any. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which the temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates or tax status is recognized in the statement of income in the period that includes the enactment date or the filing or approval date of the tax status change. Deferred tax assets are recognized in full, subject to a valuation allowance that reduces the amount recognized to that which is more likely than not to be realized. In assessing the likelihood of realization, we consider estimates of future taxable income. In the case of an entity that benefits from a corporate tax holiday, deferred tax assets or liabilities for existing temporary differences are recorded only to the extent such temporary differences are expected to reverse after the expiration of the tax holiday.

52


 

We also evaluate potential exposures related to tax contingencies or claims made by tax authorities in various jurisdictions and determine if a reserve is required. A reserve is recorded if we believe that a loss is more likely than not to occur and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Any such reserves are based on estimates and are subject to changing facts and circumstances considering the progress of ongoing audits, case law and new legislation. We believe that the reserves we have established are adequate.

We apply a two-step approach for recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining, based on the technical merits, that the position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount of the tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement. We also include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits within our provision for income tax expense.

We generally plan to indefinitely reinvest the undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries, except for those earnings that can be repatriated in a tax-free manner. Accordingly, we do not currently accrue any material income, distribution or withholding taxes that would arise if such earnings were repatriated.

Employee benefit plans.    We record annual costs relating to defined benefit plans based on calculations that incorporate various actuarial and other assumptions, including discount rates, mortality, assumed rates of return on plan assets, future compensation increases and attrition rates. We review these assumptions on an annual basis and modify the assumptions based on current rates and trends when it is appropriate to do so. Actual results in any given year will often differ from actuarial assumptions because of economic and other factors.

Stock-based compensation expense.    We recognize and measure compensation expense for all stock-based awards based on the grant date fair value. For option awards, grant date fair value is determined under the option pricing model (Black-Scholes-Merton model) and, for stock-based awards other than option awards, grant date fair value is determined on the basis of the fair market value of the Company’s shares on the grant date of such awards. Determining the fair value of stock-based awards requires estimates and assumptions, including estimates of the period the stock awards will be outstanding before they are exercised, future volatility in the price of our common shares, and the number of stock-based awards that are likely to be forfeited. The Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model also involves the use of additional key assumptions, including dividend yield and risk-free interest rate. For performance share units, we are required to estimate the most probable outcome of the performance conditions in order to determine the stock-based compensation cost to be recorded over the vesting period. We periodically assess the reasonableness of our assumptions and update our estimates as required. If actual results differ significantly from our estimates, stock-based compensation expense and our results of operations could be materially affected.

Government incentives.    We recognize government incentives in the income statement under “other income (expense), net” Incentives are recognized in the income statement when there is reasonable assurance that we will comply with the conditions for their receipt and a reasonable expectation that the funds will be received. In certain circumstances, the receipt of an incentive may not be subject to any condition or requirement to incur further costs, in which case the incentive is recognized in the income statement in the period in which it becomes receivable. In the event that it becomes likely that we will be required to repay an incentive that has already been recognized, we make a provision for the estimated liability.

 

53


 

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth certain data from our income statement for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Percentage Change

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

Increase/(Decrease)

 

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017 vs.

2016

 

 

 

2018 vs.

2017

 

 

 

 

(dollars in millions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net revenues—GE*

 

$

 

357.9

 

 

$

 

269.2

 

 

$

 

268.2

 

 

 

(24.8

)

%

 

 

(0.4

)

%

Net revenues—Global Clients*

 

 

 

2,212.9

 

 

 

 

2,467.7

 

 

 

 

2,732.6

 

 

 

11.5

 

%

 

 

10.7

 

%

Total net revenues

 

2,570.8

 

 

2,736.9

 

 

3,000.8

 

 

 

6.5

 

%

 

 

9.6

 

%

Cost of revenue

 

1,554.3

 

 

1,681.4

 

 

1,921.8

 

 

 

8.2

 

%

 

 

14.3

 

%

Gross profit

 

1,016.4

 

 

1,055.5

 

 

1,079.0

 

 

 

3.8

 

%

 

 

2.2

 

%

Gross profit margin

 

 

 

39.5

%

 

 

 

38.6

%

 

 

 

36.0

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses

 

653.0

 

 

689.5

 

 

693.9

 

 

 

5.6

 

%

 

 

0.6

 

%

Amortization of acquired intangible assets

 

27.2

 

 

36.4

 

 

38.9

 

 

 

34.0

 

%

 

 

6.7

 

%

Other operating (income) expense, net

 

(4.9)

 

 

(1.7)

 

 

(1.8)

 

 

 

(66.4

)

%

 

 

11.1

 

%

Income from operations

 

341.2

 

 

331.3

 

 

348.2

 

 

 

(2.9

)

%

 

 

5.1

 

%

Income from operations as a percentage of net revenues

 

 

 

13.3

%

 

 

 

12.1

%

 

 

 

11.6

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign exchange gains (losses), net

 

2.6

 

 

2.0

 

 

15.2

 

 

 

(24.1

)

%

 

 

663.5

 

%

Interest income (expense), net

 

 

 

(16.2

)

 

 

 

(31.7

)

 

 

 

(37.1

)

 

 

96.1

 

%

 

 

17.0

 

%

Other income (expense), net

 

9.7

 

 

23.6

 

 

35.8

 

 

 

143.4

 

%

 

 

51.6

 

%

Income before equity-method investment activity, net and income tax expense

 

337.3

 

 

325.1

 

 

362.0

 

 

 

(3.6

)

%

 

 

11.4

 

%

Equity-method investment activity, net

 

(7.7)

 

 

(4.5)

 

 

(0.0)

 

 

 

(41.0

)

%

 

 

(99.7

)

%

Income before income tax expense

 

329.6

 

 

320.6

 

 

 

 

362.0

 

 

 

(2.7

)

%

 

 

12.9

 

%

Income tax expense

 

 

62.1

 

 

 

59.7

 

 

80.8

 

 

 

(3.8

)

%

 

 

35.2

 

%

Net income

 

267.5

 

 

260.8

 

 

281.3

 

 

 

(2.5

)

%

 

 

7.8

 

%

Net loss attributable to redeemable non-controlling interest

 

2.1

 

 

2.3

 

 

0.8

 

 

 

6.2

 

%

 

 

(66.5

)

%

Net income attributable to Genpact Limited common shareholders

 

$

 

269.7

 

 

$

 

263.1

 

 

$

 

282.0

 

 

 

(2.4

)

%

 

 

7.2

 

%

Net income attributable to Genpact Limited common shareholders as a percentage of net revenues

 

 

 

10.5

%

 

 

 

9.6

%

 

 

 

9.4

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*As described in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Overview—Classification of Certain Net Revenues,” net revenues from certain businesses in which GE ceased to be a 20% shareholder are reclassified from GE net revenues to Global Client net revenues only at the end of each fiscal year. Net revenues from GE in the year ended December 31, 2016, after excluding net revenues from such divested GE businesses, decreased by 8.2% compared to the year ended December 31, 2015. Net revenues from GE in the year ended December 31, 2017, after excluding net revenues from such divested GE businesses, decreased by 18.5% compared to the year ended December 31, 2016. There was no significant impact on net revenues from GE in the year ended December 31, 2018 as a result of excluding net revenues from such divested GE businesses.

 

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Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared to the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2017

Net revenues.    Our net revenues were $3,000.8 million in 2018, up $263.9 million, or 9.6%, from $2,736.9 million in 2017. The growth in our net revenues was primarily driven by an increase in BPO services – including our transformation services – delivered to our Global Clients, and incremental revenue from acquisitions completed in 2017 and 2018. Adjusted for foreign exchange, primarily the impact of changes in the values of the euro, the U.K. pound sterling, Japanese yen and the Indian rupee against the U.S. dollar, our net revenues grew 9% compared to 2017. Revenue growth on a constant currency basis is a non-GAAP measure. We provide information about our revenue growth on a constant currency basis so that our revenue may be viewed without the impact of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations compared to prior fiscal periods, thereby facilitating period-to-period comparisons of our business performance. Total net revenues on a constant currency basis are calculated by restating current-period activity using the prior fiscal period’s foreign currency exchange rates and adjusted for hedging gains/losses.

Our average headcount increased to approximately 79,900 in 2018 from approximately 75,500 in 2017.

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Percentage Change

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

Increase/

(Decrease)

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2018 vs. 2017

 

 

 

 

(dollars in millions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Global Clients:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BPO services

 

$

 

2,089.2

 

 

$

 

2,345.0

 

 

 

12.2

 

%

IT services

 

 

 

378.5

 

 

 

 

387.6

 

 

 

2.4

 

 

Total net revenues from Global Clients

 

$

 

2,467.7

 

 

$

 

2,732.6