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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the transition period from                          to                         
Commission file number 001-33508
 
Limelight Networks, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware20-1677033
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2220 W. 14th Street,
Tempe, AZ 85281
(Address of principal executive offices, including Zip Code)
(602850-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol (s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per shareLLNWNASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_____________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
              
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes    No  
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $393.0 million based on the last reported sale price of the common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share, as of January 28, 2022: 135,104,080 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Registrant’s 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.



LIMELIGHT NETWORKS, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  Page
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.[Reserved]
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.Form 10-K Summary
 



SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). All statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, other than statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by the words “may,” “will,” “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “estimate,” or “continue,” and similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events, as well as trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These statements include, among other things:
our beliefs regarding delivery traffic growth trends and demands for digital content and edge services;
our expectations regarding revenue, costs, expenses, gross margin, non-GAAP earnings per share, Adjusted EBITDA and capital expenditures;
our plans regarding investing in our content delivery network and Application Operations (AppOps), our coordinated complete solution to deliver instant, secure website applications, as well as other products and technologies;
our beliefs regarding the competition within the digital edge platform industry;
our beliefs regarding the growth of our business and how that impacts our liquidity and capital resources requirements;
our expectations regarding headcount and our ability to recruit personnel;
the impact of certain new accounting standards and guidance as well as the time and cost of continued compliance with existing rules and standards;
our plans with respect to investments in marketable securities,
our expectations and strategies regarding acquisitions;
our expectations regarding litigation and other pending or potential disputes;
our estimations regarding taxes and belief regarding our tax reserves;
our beliefs regarding the use of Non-GAAP financial measures;
our approach to identifying, attracting and keeping new and existing clients, our focus on core market growth segments where we will have a right-to-win, as well as our expectations regarding client turnover;
the sufficiency of our sources of funding;
the sufficiency of our facilities to meet our needs;
our belief regarding our interest rate risk;
our beliefs regarding inflation risks;
our beliefs regarding expense and productivity of and competition for our sales force;
our beliefs regarding the significance of our large clients; and
our beliefs regarding the impact of health epidemics and pandemics, including the outbreak of COVID-19, on our current and potential clients, and our balance sheet, financial condition, and results of operations.
These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described under the caption “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and those discussed in other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
In addition, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements contained herein are based on our current expectations and assumptions and on information available as of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
Unless expressly indicated or the context requires otherwise, the terms "Limelight," "we," "us," and "our" in this document refer to Limelight Networks, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, where appropriate, its wholly owned subsidiaries. All information is presented in thousands, except per share amounts, client count and where specifically noted.

1


PART I
Item 1.        Business     
We were incorporated in Delaware in 2003 and have operated in the Phoenix metropolitan area since 2001 and elsewhere throughout the United States since 2003. We began international operations in 2004. Our principal executive office is located at 2220 W. 14th Street, Tempe, Arizona, 85281, and our main telephone number is (602) 850-5000. We operate and report on a calendar year basis with our fiscal quarters ending March 31, June 30, September 30, and December 31st.
Overview
Limelight’s goal is to provide clients with a productive, performant and protected environment to run their mission critical applications on the edge.
Limelight has a comprehensive strategic operating plan focused on evolving the company into a leading provider of edge services for outcome buyers by offering solutions that we believe provide superior performance and team productivity versus point solutions available from existing vendors. Limelight is targeting this $37 billion market with its two edge solutions: Content Delivery and AppOps.
The foundation of our strategy is supported by three pillars, each of which balance our immediate and longer-term growth and profitability objectives. The first pillar is improving our core, which focuses on network performance and operating costs; the second pillar is expanding our core, which focuses on revenue growth with existing and new clients, and the third pillar is extending our core, which focuses on introducing new solutions that will increase network utilization, growth, and gross margins.
Based on our Improve-Extend-Expand pillars, in 2021, we implemented a rigorous and disciplined process that spans all aspects of our network and client operations. This has resulted in significant sequential growth and margin expansion since implementation.
In September 2021, we announced the acquisition of Moov Corporation (Moov), a California corporation doing business as Layer0, a sub-scale SaaS based application acceleration and developer support platform. We believe this platform coupled with our global CDN network will be a catalyst in our pursuit of positioning us as an Edge Solutions platform. Our acquisition of Moov was a significant step in advancing Limelight's strategy as an edge-enabled software-as-a-service (SaaS) solutions provider with the combined platform delivering sub-second web applications (Apps) and application programming interfaces (APIs) through an all-in-one Jamstack platform. This flagship product enables Limelight to capitalize on the accelerating trend of developers using the edge to better address application performance, improve overall productivity, and reduce the attack surface. We believe that the combined Moov capabilities and our proprietary global network give Limelight the best application delivery solution in the market.    
Industry Trends
The internet of the future requires the highest quality digital experiences around the world. Four major trends include:
Faster Web Apps. Consumer expectations for online experiences have never been higher. A website’s user experience needs to be fast, seamless, and uninterrupted. According to Google, 53% of visitors will abandon a site if it takes longer than three seconds to load. This puts pressure on developers to release web Apps that load at sub-second speeds. We believe having a fully integrated platform with developer workflow will be a growing requirement for businesses worldwide.
Faster Web App Teams. Teams that ship software faster, grow revenue faster. The fastest quartile of teams work at companies who grow revenue 2.5 to 5 times faster than companies with slower teams, according to a (May 2021) study by McKinsey. We believe our holistic platform allows teams to ship updates to their Apps significantly faster than today’s state-of-the-art, which requires cobbling together over a dozen point cloud services from the hyperscale cloud, web CDN, and observability vendors.
Broadcast-Quality Online Video and rise of OTT. We believe online video and the practice of "cord cutting" is now a primary choice for people to watch video content, whether it’s via their personal computers, smartphones, tablets, smart televisions, or other connected devices. Consumers expect the same quality experience online as they would have in viewing broadcast television. This puts a significant burden on publishers to not only produce compelling content, but also to deliver it in a way that meets high consumer expectations. We believe that as more content is made available in 4K resolution, more consumers will want to consume the higher-quality content, resulting in increased strain on internet architecture and infrastructure.
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Growth of Digital Downloads. We believe consumers are increasingly making purchases of movies, music, video games, and applications digitally from a variety of retailers and download sizes have increased, especially for video games. For example, releases of popular games have topped 70 gigabytes in size. As digital purchases of massive files increase further, we believe this will cause more strain on the internet’s infrastructure. We believe this will result in additional pressure on organizations and service providers to take steps to avoid congestion, latency, lengthening download times, and increasingly interrupted downloads, all of which we believe would undermine an organization’s ability to deliver the best possible digital experience.
Our Services
Our services leverage Limelight’s high capacity, high speed private global network with distributed computing resources and extensive connectivity to last-mile broadband network providers, ideal for emerging edge compute workloads where rapid response times are needed.
Layer0 by Limelight (aka AppOps). Limelight’s extensive global network provides the infrastructure backbone trusted by large video providers. Layer0 by Limelight takes this to the next level for web applications, integrating the edge into the web developer’s environment while offering next-generation features that allows teams to ship twice as fast and the ability to deliver sub-second page loads. Layer0 by Limelight can augment or replace a sites existing web content delivery network (CDN) and security vendor to deliver faster page loads and lower costs while the development team gains new features that cater to the shift to zero ops and programming at the edge.
Content Delivery. Global broadcasters and content rights owners trust Limelight for delivery of their big launches and high-profile live streaming events. From fast file downloads to instant loading web pages, Limelight’s ongoing investment in the development and optimization of every component of its CDN provides exceptional performance, even over congested or changing network conditions.
Video Delivery. Limelight’s live and on-demand video delivery services and online video platform integrate Limelight's global private network with advanced video delivery and management capabilities, helping clients get over-the-top video to virtually any device, anywhere in the world at high quality and with the lowest rebuffer rates in the industry.
Cloud Security. Limelight’s cloud security services offer a layered defense against malicious website attacks and unauthorized content access without impacting the performance of web applications and content delivery. Limelight DDoS Attack Interceptor defends against denial-of-service attacks, and Limelight Web Application Firewall protection guards against attacks that are intended to compromise the back-end services of applications and web sites, in order to deface, disable, or steal data.
Limelight Global Network
Limelight’s network has helped launch and grow many large video properties in the world and is now on the forefront of enabling a new generation of web and application development with Layer0.
Website builders now have a dramatically simpler yet more capable infrastructure in the cloud for their websites and APIs. As the hyper scale cloud providers and the existing edge platform vendors keep offering point ‘cloud primitives’ as ‘hammers and nails,’ Limelight is delivering what clients have been asking for — an integrated solution that securely delivers outstanding productivity and performance outcomes in the market:
Our private fiber backbone enables traffic to bypass the congested public internet, resulting in faster, more reliable, and more secure content delivery. Our infrastructure is densely architected with data centers clustered around major metropolitan locations and directly interconnected with thousands of major internet service providers (ISPs) and last-mile networks. Limelight provides an exceptional user experience in a more secure infrastructure with the capacity to support the most onerous digital traffic demands:
110 terabits per second
More than 140 global Points-of Presence (PoPs)
More than 1,000 ISP connections
More than 50 countries served
Sub-second page loads
Unlike traditional CDN vendors which rely on third-party technologies for key components of their content delivery infrastructure, Limelight’s ongoing investment in the development and optimization of every component of our content delivery platform provides outstanding delivery performance with a fully-integrated suite of software services that solve clients’ content and application delivery challenges.
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Sales, Service, and Marketing
We target media, high tech, software, gaming, enterprise, and other organizations for which the delivery of digital content and Apps are critical to the success of their business.
Our sales, services, and marketing professionals are based in locations across the Americas, EMEA, and Asia Pacific, and they focus on direct and channel sales, sales operations, professional services, account management, and technical consulting. We have been investing in growing our sales team, which has resulted in significant growth in sales pipeline and backlog. As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 115 employees in sales positions. To support sales, service teams and architects are also available to help clients respond to changing business requirements, implement new services, facilitate training, or augment staff.
We conduct marketing programs to support sales efforts and promote the Limelight brand. We invest in a variety of targeted digital and non-digital marketing activities and programs to build awareness, engage with prospective clients, and build pipelines for our global sales teams. As of December 31, 2021, we had 7 employees on our global marketing team.
Clients
Our clients operate in the media, entertainment, gaming, technology and software, enterprise, retail, and other sectors. As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 580 active clients worldwide, including many notable brands in the world in the fields of online video, live sports, digital music, news media, games, rich media applications, e-commerce, financial services, travel, and software delivery.
As we provide exceptional network performance and cost efficiency, we believe there continues to be significant opportunity to expand market share with our current clients. We believe we have an opportunity to continue driving improvements in profitability and growth by extending the use of our network to new clients with new solutions that use non-peak traffic solutions.
Both new and existing clients are focused on creating better digital experiences for their customers, and their digital builders need to load content faster, personalize it more, and protect it outside of the control environment. Our clients are seeking to augment the scale and centralization benefits the cloud offers with a low latency, real-time processing, and security-enabled edge network. Our goal as an organization is to continue to put powerful differentiated edge capabilities in the hands of all of our clients.
Competition
Content Delivery
We operate in the digital content delivery market, which is rapidly evolving and highly competitive. We expect this competitive environment to continue.
The principal methods of competition in this market include scale, performance, service, ease of use, product features, and price. We primarily face competition from Akamai, Lumen Technologies, Amazon, Fastly, StackPath, and Verizon Digital Media Services.
Product feature competition is intense, requiring continuous investment in innovation.
We believe our future success will depend on our ability to continue to innovate and enhance the performance, integration, and functionality of our existing suite of services and of our global network, and on our ability to add additional services and functionality to meet the market’s increasing expectations regarding digital content delivery.
We believe our established edge services platform is the broadest offering available. Our cloud-based software and flexible serverless computing combined with our high-speed private global network infrastructure, solves multiple challenges for clients by removing the need to install, manage, or provision software and hardware to satisfy the requirements for storing and delivering digital content. In addition, the market for digital content delivery can sometimes require multiple vendors to provide clients with a complete set of tools and services to manage and deliver all of their digital content to all audiences as part of a global digital presence. We also believe that in those situations where multiple vendors are required, Limelight offers one of the few CDNs with the scale, performance, and reach required to deliver digital content to global audiences.
Web App CDN and AppOps
Developers want the ability to access the edge of a global network to create their front-end applications, preview their content, and deploy instantly. They also need to deliver their applications on a platform that includes basic security needs such
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as web application firewall (WAF), distributed denial-of-service (DDoS), and threat detection.
By combining the SaaS assets of Layer0 with the existing global edge platform of Limelight, our app delivery solution drives significant value for clients including better performance with website speeds four times faster than current competitive alternatives, improved developer productivity with our Jamstack tool set, simple-to-deploy web Apps built for the edge, and self-service onboarding.
While our competition focuses on static site generation as a means to accelerate websites and empower developers, Limelight focuses on dynamic site caching at the edge. Layer0 brings the full site speeds and frontend developer productivity benefits of Jamstack to large-scale, dynamic websites that have thousands or even millions of pages and frequently changing data. Layer0 makes these websites faster for end-users and easier for development teams to manage.
Research and Development
Our research and development (R&D) organization is responsible for the design, development, testing, and certification of the software, hardware, and network architecture of our global network, as well as support of our content delivery and AppOps solutions. As of December 31, 2021, we had 161 employees and employee equivalents in our research and development group.
Our engineering efforts support product development across all of our service areas, as well as innovation related to the global network itself. We test our services to ensure scalability in times of peak demand. We use internally developed and third-party software to monitor and to improve the performance of our network in the major internet consumer markets around the world.
The acquisition of Layer0 added significant technical talent to Limelight’s R&D organization, with more than 90 new team members joining. They will be instrumental in carrying out our vision of enabling our solution sets within our global edge network for developers and for overseeing Limelight’s evolution as an edge solutions platform.
Our research and development expenses were $21,669, $21,680, and $22,534 in 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively, including stock-based compensation expense of $2,435, $2,589, and $1,922 in 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.
Intellectual Property
Our success depends in part upon our ability to protect our core technology and other intellectual capital. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks, domain registrations, and contractual protections.
As of December 31, 2021, we had received 132 patents in the United States, expiring between 2023 and 2036, and we had 3 U.S. patent application pending. We do not have any issued patents in foreign countries. We do not know whether any of our patent applications will result in the issuance of a patent or whether the examination process will require us to narrow our claims. Any patents that may be issued to us may be contested, circumvented, found unenforceable or invalidated, and we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing them. Therefore, we cannot predict the exact effect of having a patent with certainty.
As of December 31, 2021, we had received three trademarks in the United States. Our name, Limelight Networks, Inc., has been filed for multiple classes in the United States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union (including Benelux) India, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. We have 24 non-United States trademarks registered. There is a risk that pending trademark applications may not issue, and that those trademarks that have issued may be challenged by others who believe they have superior rights to the marks.
We generally control access to and use of our proprietary software and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including physical and electronic security, contractual protections with employees, contractors, clients and partners, and domestic and foreign copyright laws.
Human Capital
Limelight is an industry leader in providing edge-enabled solutions to deliver fast, secure digital experiences on a global scale. Our technology removes obstacles and frees our clients to focus on growth and innovation. From content delivery and AppOps to Jamstack application architecture and web security, we believe we are uniquely positioned to leverage our global private network and client-obsessed experts to help our clients win.
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At Limelight we are committed to creating and delivering world-class digital experiences. Our core values act as a compass that ensures we stay on a course that empowers us to create unmatched value for our clients, extraordinary results for our shareholders, and inspiration in the work that our employees do.
llnw-20211231_g1.jpg
Our values are at the heart of everything we do and serve as the foundation of our high-performing culture. Ownership means we focus on the job that is most required, treating time and resources as precious. With a laser focus on Performance, we achieve extraordinary results through work that is planned and managed. We are Client Obsessed; we give them our full attention. Our First Team is radically committed to collaboration, trust, feedback, accountability, and performance. Through Design, we create better experiences through simplicity and efficiency.
At Limelight, we are passionate about building a great company that achieves extraordinary results for our shareholders by inspiring our First Team to create unmatched value for our clients. We seek value and are unapologetic about our commitment to accountability, excellence, and having a no-nonsense culture.
We are truly a ‘First Team’ culture at Limelight. We believe in results, and we trust our employees to manage their virtual workplace and schedule to achieve the best results. Trust, along with the right tools and technology, are the keys to better problem solving, sharing of ideas, and creating a sense of community, culture, and empowerment.
Through our newly created Centers of Excellence (COE), we are maniacally focused on building a destination culture.
Our People Acquisition and Performance COE leads in our pursuit of attracting and retaining high performers that thrive in a Pay for Performance culture.
Our People Engagement and Culture COE represents our First Team’s commitment to Limelight and strong alignment with our values, mission, and culture. Whether it’s a Limelight Xperience (speaker series), 2BeerXperience (small, informal, and interactive conversations with members of Executive Leadership), or First Team Quarterly meetings, the entire premise is built on creating a culture of open communication using honesty and transparency.
Our People Rewards COE is designed to provide strong competitive advantages that attract top talent and retain our First Team through compensation and rewards that translate to an ownership mentality.
As of December 31, 2021, we had 552 employees and employee equivalents, a decrease of 66 from 618 on December 31, 2020. The decrease was primarily driven by a reduction in workforce of approximately 16% in March of 2021. Our employees are represented by approximately 13 self-identified nationalities working in approximately 18 different countries around the world. Collectively, we speak approximately 14 different languages. Our global workforce is highly educated, primarily experienced in the technology sector with approximately 80% of our employees working in R&D, Operations, Growth and Client Success. During the year ended December 31, 2021, our voluntary turnover rate normalized to approximately 1% monthly, below the technology industry benchmark (Culpepper, January 2022).
Available Information
We maintain a website at www.limelight.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to such reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as well as our annual reports to shareholders and Section 16 reports on Forms 3, 4 and 5, are available free of charge on this site through the “Investors” link as soon as reasonably practicable after we file or furnish these reports with the SEC. All reports we file with the SEC are also available free of charge via EDGAR through the SEC’s website at https://www.sec.gov. Our Guidelines on Corporate Governance and charters for our Board committees are also available on our website. The information contained on and linked from our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Information about our Executive Officers
Our executive officers and their ages and positions as of January 24, 2022 are as follows:
NameAgePosition
Robert Lyons54Chief Executive Officer and Director
Daniel Boncel46Chief Financial Officer
Michael DiSanto49Chief Administrative and Legal Officer and Secretary
Ajay Kapur45Chief Technology Officer
Christine Cross49Chief Client Success and Marketing Officer
Kathy Austin59Chief People Experience Officer
Eric Armstrong54Chief Growth Officer

Robert Lyons has served as our Chief Executive Officer and Director since February 2021. Prior to joining Limelight, from 2018 to 2021, Mr. Lyons was most recently CEO of Alert Logic, a global leader in cybersecurity, specifically in managed threat detection and response. There, he led the company through a multi-year strategic reposition that resulted in becoming a global leader in cybersecurity, specifically in managed threat detection and response. Prior to Alert Logic, from 2014 to 2018, Mr. Lyons held executive positions, including President, at Connexions Loyalty/Affinion Group, a leader in customer engagement and loyalty solutions. Mr. Lyons has also previously held executive positions at Ascend Learning, Stream Global Services, Avaya, Convergys, and United Health Care. Mr. Lyons earned his master’s degree in management and technology from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, and a bachelors’ degree in business management from Moravian College in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
Daniel Boncel has served as our Chief Financial Officer since 2020 and oversees all finance functions for Limelight worldwide, including accounting and controllership, treasury, tax, and internal audit. Mr. Boncel joined Limelight in 2013 as Vice President of Finance and Chief Accounting Officer. His responsibilities included management of billing, collections, treasury, payroll, tax, and compliance with SEC and Sarbanes Oxley requirements. He gained additional experience as senior manager of SEC and technical accounts at Republic Services and held increasing levels of supervisory experience as a senior manager at Price Waterhouse Coopers. Mr. Boncel is a Certified Public Accountant and earned his Bachelor’s in Business Administration with a major in Accounting from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in 1997.
Michael DiSanto has served as our Chief Administrative and Legal Officer and Secretary since 2015. Prior to joining us, Mr. DiSanto was a partner at the law firm Bingham McCutchen LLP from 2013 to 2014.  From 2010 to 2013, Mr. DiSanto was a partner at the law firm Dinsmore & Shohl LLP. From 2008 to 2010, Mr. DiSanto was a partner at the law firm Reed Smith. Mr. DiSanto received a B.A. from Vanderbilt University and his J.D. from Santa Clara University School of Law.
Ajay Kapur has served as our Chief Technology Officer since September 2021. Prior to joining us, Mr. Kapur was a founder and Chief Executive Officer of Moov Corporation (doing business as Layer0, which we acquired in September 2021) for 14 years. Prior to founding Moov Corporation, Mr. Kapur worked for the private equity and investment banking divisions of Goldman Sachs from 1999 to 2002. Mr. Kapur earned an MBA from Stanford University and bachelor’s degrees in Physics and Computer Science from University of California, Berkeley.
Christine Cross has served as our Chief Client Success and Marketing Officer since 2020. Ms. Cross has 25 years of experience across marketing, product, sales, and operations, primarily in technology companies prior to joining Limelight. From 2019 to 2020, Ms. Cross was the Chief Marketing Officer of PXG (Parsons Xtreme Golf), a designer and manufacturer of high-end, custom-fitted golf clubs, equipment, accessories, and apparel. Prior to that, Ms. Cross spent nearly 10 years at GoDaddy, an internet domain register and hosting company, serving in a variety of roles, including Vice President of Global Customer Development and Marketing from 2018 to 2019, Vice President of Customer Development from 2016 to 2018, and Vice President of Domains from 2015 to 2016. In her most recent role, Ms. Cross and her team were responsible for all elements of customer marketing to GoDaddy's 18M+ customers. Ms. Cross holds an MBA from the University of Connecticut and a BA in Business/Marketing from Wartburg College.
Kathy Austin has served as our Chief People Experience Officer since March 2021 and oversees all aspects of the People Experience at Limelight. Ms. Austin has over 25 years of experience in technology driven organizations across all facets of Human Resources including People Acquisition and Performance, People Engagement and People Rewards. Prior to joining Limelight, from 2018 to 2021, Ms. Austin served as the Global VP, Human Resources for Vispero, the world’s leading assistive technology provider for the visually impaired. From 2015 to 2018, Ms. Austin served as the VP, HR at Connexions Loyalty/Affinion Group, a leading provider of loyalty technology services. Prior to that, Ms. Austin has held various leadership
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positions since 1989. Ms. Austin earned her Bachelor’s in Business Administration with a concentration in Human Resources Management from Virginia Commonwealth University.
Eric Armstrong has served as our Chief Growth Officer since June 2021. Mr. Armstrong is responsible for worldwide sales, new business development and growth marketing. Mr. Armstrong has more than 20 years of sales leadership in a variety of high growth technology companies covering cloud-based infrastructure, SaaS, networking and video solutions. Prior to joining Limelight from 2016 to 2021, Mr. Armstrong held various executive roles, including most recently as Vice President of North American Sales and Services at Harmonic, Inc. a technology company that develops and markets video processing SaaS and SW Solutions for companies that produce, process, and distribute video content for television and the internet. Before that, Mr. Armstrong held sales and executive positions at Zscaler, VeriSign, and Kontiki. Mr. Armstrong has a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and a Master of Science in Computer Engineering from Santa Clara University.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
    Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7, and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making a decision to invest in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below may not be the only ones we face. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. All information is presented in thousands, except per share amounts, client count, head count and where specifically noted.
Risks Related to Industry Dynamics and Competition
We currently face competition from established competitors and may face competition from others in the future.
We compete in markets that are intensely competitive, where differentiation is primarily measured by performance and cost where the difference between providers can be as small as a fraction of a percent or penny. In these markets, vendors offer a wide range of alternate solutions, and in a multi-CDN environment, our clients can route traffic to us, or away from us, within seconds, and at minimal costs. This naturally results in on-going price compression, and increased competition on features, functionality, integration and other factors. Several of our current competitors, as well as a number of our potential competitors, have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, broader client relationships and industry alliances, and substantially greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. As a consequence of the hyper competitive dynamics in our markets, we have experienced price compression, and an increased requirement for product advancement and innovation in order to remain competitive, which in turn have adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect our revenue, gross margin and operating results.
Our primary competitors for our services include, among others, Akamai, Lumen Technologies, Amazon, Fastly, StackPath, and Verizon Digital Media Services. In addition, a number of companies have recently entered or are currently attempting to enter our market, either directly or indirectly. These new entrants include companies that have built internal content delivery networks to solely deliver their own traffic, rather than relying solely, largely or in part on content delivery specialists, such as us. Some of these new entrants may become significant competitors in the future. Given the relative ease by which clients typically can switch among service providers in a multi-CDN environment, differentiated offerings or pricing by competitors could lead to a rapid loss of clients. Some of our current or potential competitors may bundle their offerings with other services, software or hardware in a manner that may discourage content providers from purchasing the services that we offer. In addition, we face different market characteristics and competition with local content delivery service providers as we expand internationally. Many of these international competitors are very well positioned within their local markets. Increased competition could result in price reductions and revenue shortfalls, loss of clients and loss of market share, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to develop, improve, and expand our new services, to extend enhancements to the existing portfolio of services that we offer, or if we fail to predict and respond to emerging technological trends and clients’ changing needs, our operating results and market share may suffer.
The market for our services is characterized by rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, and new product and service introductions. Our operating results depend on our ability to help our clients deliver better digital experiences to their customers, understand user preferences, and predict industry changes. Our operating results also depend on our ability to improve and expand our solutions and services on a timely basis, and develop and extend new services into existing and emerging markets. This process is complex and uncertain. We must commit significant resources to improving and expanding our existing services before knowing whether our investments will result in services the market will accept. Furthermore, we may not successfully execute our initiatives because of errors in planning or timing, technical hurdles that we fail to overcome in a timely fashion, misunderstandings about market demand or a lack of appropriate resources. As prices for our core services fall, we will increasingly rely on new capabilities, product offerings, and other service offerings to maintain or increase our gross margins. Failures in execution, delays in improving and expanding our services, failures to extend our service offerings, or a market that does not accept the services and capabilities we introduce could result in competitors providing more differentiation than we do, which could lead to loss of market share, revenue, and earnings.
Risks Relating to Our Operations
Any unplanned interruption or degradation in the functioning or availability of our network or services, or attacks on or disruptions to our internal information technology systems, could lead to increased costs, a significant decline in our revenue, and harm to our reputation.
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Our business is dependent on providing our clients with an exceptional digital experience that is fast, efficient, safe, and reliable, every minute of every day. Our services could be disrupted by numerous events, including natural disasters, failure or refusal of our third-party network providers to provide the necessary capacity or access, failure of our software or global network infrastructure and power losses. In addition, we deploy our servers in third-party co-location facilities, and these third-party co-location providers could experience system outages or other disruptions that could constrain our ability to deliver our services.
We may also experience business disruptions caused by security incidents, such as software viruses and malware, unauthorized hacking, DDoS attacks, security system control failures in our own systems or from vendors we or our clients use, email phishing, software vulnerabilities, social engineering, or other cyberattacks. These types of security incidents have been increasing in sophistication and frequency and sometimes result in the unauthorized access to or use of, and/or loss of intellectual property, client or employee data, trade secrets, or other confidential information. The economic costs to us to eliminate or alleviate cyber or other security problems, viruses, worms, malicious software programs, and other security vulnerabilities could be significant, and our efforts to address these problems may not be successful and could result in interruptions, delays, cessation of service, and loss of existing or potential clients.
Any material interruption or degradation in the functioning of our services for any reason could reduce our revenue and harm our reputation with existing and potential clients, and thus adversely impact our business and results of operations. This is true even if such interruption or degradation was for a relatively short period of time, but occurred during the streaming of a significant live event, launch by a client of a new streaming service, or the launch of a new video-on-demand offering.
If we are unable to sell our services at acceptable prices relative to our costs, our revenue and gross margins will decrease and our business and financial results will suffer.
Our once innovative and highly valued content delivery service has become commoditized in its current form and we are often in a multi-CDN supplier environment, where our clients can route traffic to us, or away from us, within seconds. This naturally results in on-going price compression. Simultaneously, we invest significant amounts in purchasing capital equipment as part of our effort to increase the capacity of our global network. Our investments in our infrastructure are based upon our assumptions regarding future demand, anticipated network utilization, as well as prices that we will be able to charge for our services. These assumptions may prove to be wrong. If the price that we are able to charge clients to deliver their content falls to a greater extent than we anticipate, if we over-estimate future demand for our services, are unable to achieve an acceptable rate of network utilization, or if our costs to deliver our services do not fall commensurate with any future price declines, we may not be able to achieve acceptable rates of return on our infrastructure investments, and our gross profit and results of operations may suffer dramatically.
As we further expand our global network and services, and as we refresh our network equipment, we are dependent on significant future growth in demand for our services to justify additional capital expenditures. If we fail to generate significant additional demand for our services, our results of operations will suffer, and we may fail to achieve planned or expected financial results. There are numerous factors that could, alone or in combination with other factors, impede our ability to increase revenue, moderate expenses, or maintain gross margins, including:
continued price declines arising from significant competition;
increasing settlement fees for certain peering relationships;
failure to increase sales of our services;
increases in electricity, bandwidth and rack space costs or other operating expenses, and failure to achieve decreases in these costs and expenses relative to decreases in the prices we can charge for our services and products;
failure of our current and planned services and software to operate as expected;
loss of any significant or existing clients at a rate greater than our increase in sales to new or existing clients;
failure to increase sales of our services to current clients as a result of their ability to reduce their monthly usage of our services to their minimum monthly contractual commitment;
failure of a significant number of clients to pay our fees on a timely basis or at all or to continue to purchase our services in accordance with their contractual commitments; and
inability to attract high quality clients to purchase and implement our current and planned services.
A significant portion of our revenue is derived collectively from our video delivery, cloud security, edge compute, origin storage, and support services. These services tend to have higher gross margins than our content delivery services. We may not be able to achieve the growth rates in revenue from such services that we or our investors expect or have experienced in the past. If we are unable to achieve the growth rates in revenue that we expect for these service offerings, our revenue and operating results could be significantly and negatively affected.
Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.
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Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations. As of December 31, 2021, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, of $278,300 and $183,600, respectively, due to prior period losses. In general, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” can be subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its NOLs to offset future taxable income. Our existing NOLs may be subject to limitations arising from past ownership changes. Future changes in our stock ownership, some of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code.  In addition, under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the Tax Act), the amount of post 2017 NOLs that we are permitted to deduct in any taxable year is limited to 80% of our taxable income in such year, where taxable income is determined without regard to the NOL deduction itself. In addition, the Tax Act generally eliminates the ability to carry back any NOL to prior taxable years, while allowing post 2017 unused NOLs to be carried forward indefinitely. There is a risk that due to changes under the Tax Act, regulatory changes, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. For these reasons, we may not be able to realize a tax benefit from the use of our NOLs, whether or not we attain profitability.
We may have difficulty scaling and adapting our existing architecture to accommodate increased traffic and technology advances or changing business requirements. This could lead to the loss of clients and cause us to incur unexpected expenses to make network improvements.
    Our services and solutions are highly complex and are designed to be deployed in and across numerous large and
complex networks. Our global network infrastructure has to perform well and be reliable for us to be successful. We will need to continue to invest in infrastructure and client success to account for the continued growth in traffic (and the increased complexity of that traffic) delivered via networks such as ours. We have spent and expect to continue to spend substantial amounts on the purchase and lease of equipment and data centers and the upgrade of our technology and network infrastructure to handle increased traffic over our network, implement changes to our network architecture and integrate existing solutions and to roll out new solutions and services. For example, during 2021, we increased our network capacity by more than 20% to over 108 terabits per second through software enhancements and hardware additions. This expansion is expensive and complex and could result in inefficiencies, operational failures or defects in our network and related software. If we do not implement such changes or expand successfully, or if we experience inefficiencies and operational failures, the quality of our solutions and services and user experience could decline. Cost increases or the failure to accommodate increased traffic or these evolving business demands without disruption could harm our operating results and financial condition. For example, supply chain disruptions due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, natural disasters, increased demand, and political unrest (among other reasons) impact, and will likely continue to impact, our ability to procure equipment for upgrades, replacement parts, and network expansion within our expected price range or in extreme cases, at all. Global supply chain issues also affect our ability to timely deploy equipment, such as servers and other components required to keep our network up-to-date and growing to meet our clients’ needs. Such delays in procuring and deploying the equipment required for our network could affect the quality and delivery time of services to our existing clients and prevent us from acquiring the network equipment needed to expand our business. Also, from time to time, we have needed to correct errors and defects in our software or in other aspects of our network. In the future, there may be additional errors and defects that may harm our ability to deliver our services, including errors and defects originating with third party networks or software on which we rely. These occurrences could damage our reputation and lead to the loss of current and potential clients, which would harm our operating results and financial condition.
Rapid increase in the use of mobile and other devices to access the internet present significant development and deployment challenges.
The number of people who access the internet through devices other than PCs, including mobile devices, game consoles, and television set-top devices continues to increase dramatically. The capabilities of these devices are advancing exponentially, and the increasing need to provide a high-quality video experience will present us with significant challenges. If we are unable to deliver our service offerings to a substantial number of alternative device users and at a high quality, or if we are slow to develop services and technologies that are more compatible with these devices, we may fail to capture a significant share of an important portion of the market. Such a failure could limit our ability to compete effectively in an industry that is rapidly growing and changing, which, in turn, could cause our business, financial condition and results of operations to suffer.
Our operations are dependent in part upon communications capacity provided by third party telecommunications providers. A material disruption of the communications capacity could harm our results of operations, reputation and client relations.
We enter into arrangements for private line capacity for our backbone from third party providers. Our contracts for private line capacity generally have terms of three to four years. The communications capacity may become unavailable for a variety of reasons, such as physical interruption, technical difficulties, contractual disputes, or the financial health of our third party providers. Also, industry consolidation among communications providers could result in fewer viable market alternatives,
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which could have an impact on our costs of providing services. Alternative providers are currently available; however, it could be time consuming and expensive to promptly identify and obtain alternative third party connectivity. Additionally, as we grow, we anticipate requiring greater private line capacity than we currently have in place. If we are unable to obtain such capacity from third party providers on terms commercially acceptable to us or at all, our business and financial results would suffer. Similarly, if we are unable to timely deploy enough network capacity to meet the needs of our client base or effectively manage the demand for our services, our reputation and relationships with our clients would be harmed, which, in turn, could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face risks associated with international operations that could harm our business.
We have operations in numerous foreign countries and may continue to expand our sales and support organizations internationally. As part of our business strategy, we intend to expand our international network infrastructure. Expansion could require us to make significant expenditures, including the hiring of local employees or resources, in advance of generating any revenue. As a consequence, we may fail to achieve profitable operations that will compensate our investment in international locations. We are subject to a number of risks associated with international business activities that may increase our costs, lengthen our sales cycle and require significant management attention. These risks include, but are not limited to:
increased expenses associated with sales and marketing, deploying services and maintaining our infrastructure in foreign countries;
competition from local service providers, many of which are very well positioned within their local markets;
challenges caused by distance, language, and cultural differences;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements preventing or limiting us from operating our global network or resulting in unanticipated costs and delays;
interpretations of laws or regulations that would subject us to regulatory supervision or, in the alternative, require us to exit a country, which could have a negative impact on the quality of our services or our results of operations;
legal systems that may not adequately protect contract and intellectual property rights, policies, and taxation, the physical infrastructure of the country;
potential political turmoil;
longer accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
corporate and personal liability for violations of local laws and regulations;
currency exchange rate fluctuations and repatriation of funds;
potentially adverse tax consequences;
credit risk and higher levels of payment fraud; and
foreign exchange controls that might prevent us from repatriating cash earned outside the United States.
There can be no assurance that these international risks will not materially adversely affect our business. Should there be significant productivity losses, or if we become unable to conduct operations in international locations in the future, and our contingency plans are unsuccessful in addressing the related risks, our business could be adversely affected.
Our business depends on continued and unimpeded access to third party controlled end-user access networks.
Our services depend on our ability to access certain end-user access networks in order to complete the delivery of rich media and other online content to end-users. Some operators of these networks may take measures that could degrade, disrupt or increase the cost of our or our clients’ access to certain of these end-user access networks. Such measures may include restricting or prohibiting the use of their networks to support or facilitate our services, or charging increased fees to us, our clients or end-users in connection with our services. In 2015, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) released network neutrality and open Internet rules that reclassified broadband Internet access services as a telecommunications service subject to some elements of common carrier regulation. Among other things, the FCC order prohibited blocking or discriminating against lawful services and applications and prohibited “paid prioritization,” or providing faster speeds or other benefits in return for compensation. In 2017, the FCC overturned these rules. As a result, we or our clients could experience increased cost or slower data on these third-party networks. If we or our clients experience increased cost in delivering content to end users, or otherwise, or if end users perceive a degradation of quality, our business and that of our clients may be significantly harmed. This or other types of interference could result in a loss of existing clients, increased costs and impairment of our ability to attract new clients, thereby harming our revenue and growth.
In addition, the performance of our infrastructure depends in part on the direct connection of our network to a large number of end-user access networks, known as peering, which we achieve through mutually beneficial cooperation with these networks. In some instances, network operators charge us for the peering connections. If, in the future, a significant percentage of these network operators elected to no longer peer with our network or peer with our network on less favorable economic terms, then the performance of our infrastructure could be diminished, our costs could increase and our business could suffer.
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We use certain “open-source” software, the use of which could result in our having to distribute our proprietary software, including our source code, to third parties on unfavorable terms, which could materially affect our business.
Certain of our service offerings use software that is subject to open-source licenses. Open-source code is software that is freely accessible, usable and modifiable. Certain open-source code is governed by license agreements, the terms of which could require users of such open-source code to make any derivative works of such open-source code available to others on unfavorable terms or at no cost. Because we use open-source code, we may be required to take remedial action to protect our proprietary software. Such action could include replacing certain source code used in our software, discontinuing certain of our products or features or taking other actions that could divert resources away from our development efforts.
In addition, the terms relating to disclosure of derivative works in many open-source licenses are unclear. We periodically review our compliance with the open-source licenses we use and do not believe we will be required to make our proprietary software freely available. Nevertheless, if a court interprets one or more such open-source licenses in a manner that is unfavorable to us, we could be required to make some components of our software available at no cost, which could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Our business requires the continued development of effective business support systems to support our client growth and related services.
The growth of our business depends on our ability to continue to develop effective business support systems. This is a complicated undertaking requiring significant resources and expertise. Business support systems are needed for implementing client orders for services, delivering these services, and timely and accurate billing for these services. The failure to continue to develop effective business support systems could harm our ability to implement our business plans and meet our financial goals and objectives.
Risks Relating to our Clients and Demand for our Services
We depend on a limited number of clients for a substantial portion of our revenue in any fiscal period, and the loss of, or a significant shortfall in demand from, these clients could significantly harm our results of operations.
A relatively small number of clients typically account for a significant percentage of our revenue. For the year ended
December 31, 2021, sales to our top 20 clients accounted for approximately 74% of our total revenue and we had two clients, Amazon and Sony, which each represented more than 10% of our total revenue.
In the past, the clients that comprised our top 20 clients have continually changed, and we also have experienced significant fluctuations in our individual clients’ usage of, or decreased usage of, our services. As a consequence, we may not be able to adjust our expenses in the short term to address the unanticipated loss of a large client during any particular period. As such, we may experience significant, unanticipated fluctuations in our operating results that may cause us to not meet our expectations or those of stock market analysts, which could cause our stock price to decline.
Rapidly evolving technologies or new business models could cause demand for our services to decline or could cause these services to become obsolete.
Clients, potential clients, or third parties may develop technological or business model innovations that address digital delivery requirements in a manner that is, or is perceived to be, equivalent or superior to our service offerings. This is particularly true as our clients increase their operations and begin expending greater resources on delivering their content using third party solutions. If we fail to offer services that are competitive to in-sourced solutions, we may lose additional clients or fail to attract clients that may consider pursuing this in-sourced approach, and our business and financial results would suffer.
If competitors introduce new products or services that compete with or surpass the quality or the price or performance of our services, we may be unable to renew our agreements with existing clients or attract new clients at the prices and levels that allow us to generate attractive rates of return on our investment. We may not anticipate such developments and may be unable to adequately compete with these potential solutions. In addition, our clients’ business models may change in ways that we do not anticipate, and these changes could reduce or eliminate our clients’ needs for our services. If this occurred, we could lose clients or potential clients, and our business and financial results would suffer.
As a result of these or similar potential developments, it is possible that competitive dynamics in our market may require us to reduce our prices faster than we anticipate, which could harm our revenue, gross margin and operating results.
Many of our significant current and potential clients are pursuing emerging or unproven business models, which, if unsuccessful, or ineffective at monetizing delivery of their content, could lead to a substantial decline in demand for our content delivery and other services.
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Many of our clients’ business models that center on the delivery of rich media and other content to users remain unproven. Some of our clients will not be successful in selling advertising, subscriptions, or otherwise monetizing the content we deliver on their behalf, and consequently, may not be successful in creating a profitable business model. This will result in some of our clients discontinuing their business operations and discontinuing use of our services and solutions. Further, any deterioration and related uncertainty in the global financial markets and economy, such as that caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, could result in reductions in available capital and liquidity from banks and other providers of credit, fluctuations in equity and currency values worldwide, and concerns that portions of the worldwide economy may be in a prolonged recessionary period. In addition, as the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects the global financial markets and economy, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this ‘‘Risk Factors’’ section. Any of this could materially adversely impact our clients’ access to capital or willingness to spend capital on our services or, in some cases, ultimately cause the client to exit their business. This uncertainty may also impact our clients’ levels of cash liquidity, which could affect their ability or willingness to timely pay for services that they will order or have already ordered from us. From time to time we discontinue service to clients for non-payment of services. We expect clients may discontinue operations or not be willing or able to pay for services that they have ordered from us.
If we are unable to attract new clients or to retain our existing clients, our revenue could be lower than expected and our operating results may suffer.
If our existing and prospective clients do not perceive our services to be of sufficiently high value and quality, we may not be able to retain or expand business with our current clients or attract new clients. We sell our services pursuant to service agreements that generally include some form of financial minimum commitment. Our clients have no obligation to renew their contracts for our services after the expiration of their initial commitment, and these service agreements may not be renewed at the same or higher level of service, if at all. Moreover, under some circumstances, some of our clients have the right to cancel their service agreements prior to the expiration of the terms of their agreements. Aside from minimum financial commitments, clients are not obligated to use our services for any particular type or amount of traffic. For those clients which utilize a multi-CDN strategy, they can route traffic to us, or away from us, within seconds. These facts, in addition to the hyper competitive landscape in our market, means that we cannot accurately predict future client renewal rates or usage rates. Our clients’ usage or renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including:
their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our services;
the quality and reliability of our network;
the prices of our services;
the prices of services offered by our competitors;
discontinuation by our clients of their internet or web-based content distribution business;
mergers and acquisitions affecting our client base; and
reductions in our clients’ spending levels.
If our clients do not renew their service agreements with us, or if they renew on less favorable terms, our revenue may decline and our business may suffer. Similarly, our client agreements often provide for minimum commitments that are often significantly below our clients’ historical usage levels. Consequently, even if we have agreements with our clients to use our services, these clients could significantly curtail their usage without incurring any penalties under our agreements. In this event, our revenue would be lower than expected and our operating results could suffer. It also is an important component of our growth strategy to market our services and solutions to particular industries or market segments. As an organization, we may not have significant experience in selling our services into certain of these markets. Our ability to successfully sell our services into these markets to a meaningful extent remains unproven. If we are unsuccessful in such efforts, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer.
We generate our revenue primarily from the sale of content delivery services, and the failure of the market for these services to expand as we expect or the reduction in spending on those services by our current or potential clients would seriously harm our business.
While we offer our clients a number of services and solutions, we generate the majority of our revenue from charging our clients for the content delivered on their behalf through our global network. We are subject to an elevated risk of reduced demand for these services. Furthermore, if the market for delivery of rich media content in particular does not continue to grow as we expect or grows more slowly, then we may fail to achieve a return on the significant investment we are making to prepare for this growth. Our success, therefore, depends on the continued and increasing reliance on the internet for delivery of media content and our ability to cost-effectively deliver these services. Many different factors may have a general tendency to limit or reduce the number of users relying on the internet for media content, the amount of content consumed by our clients’ users, or the number of providers making this content available online, including, among others:
a general decline in internet usage;
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third party restrictions on online content, including copyright, digital rights management, and geographic restrictions;
system impairments or outages, including those caused by hacking or cyberattacks; and
a significant increase in the quality or fidelity of off-line media content beyond that available online to the point where users prefer the off-line experience.
    The influence of any of these or other factors may cause our current or potential clients to reduce their spending on content delivery services, which would seriously harm our operating results and financial condition.
If our ability to deliver media files in popular proprietary content formats was restricted or became cost-prohibitive, demand for our content delivery services could decline, we could lose clients and our financial results could suffer.
Our business depends on our ability to deliver media content in all major formats. If our legal right or technical ability to store and deliver content in one or more popular proprietary content formats was limited, our ability to serve our clients in these formats would be impaired and the demand for our services would decline by clients using these formats. Owners of propriety content formats may be able to block, restrict, or impose fees or other costs on our use of such formats, which could lead to additional expenses for us and for our clients, or which could prevent our delivery of this type of content altogether. Such interference could result in a loss of clients, increased costs, and impairment of our ability to attract new clients, any of which would harm our revenue, operating results, and growth.
Risks Relating to Human Capital Management
Failure to effectively enhance our sales capabilities could harm our ability to increase our client base and achieve broader market acceptance of our services.
Increasing our client base and achieving broader market acceptance of our services will depend to a significant extent on our ability to enhance our sales and marketing operations. We have a widely deployed field sales force. Our sales personnel are closer to our current and potential clients. Nevertheless, adjustments that we make to improve productivity and efficiency to our sales force have been and will continue to be expensive and could cause some near-term productivity impairments. As a result, we may not be successful in improving the productivity and efficiency of our sales force, which could cause our results of operations to suffer.
We believe that there is significant competition for sales personnel with the sales skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve significant growth in revenue in the future will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training and retaining sufficient numbers of sales personnel. New hires require significant training and, in most cases, take a significant period of time before they achieve full productivity. Our recent hires and planned hires may not become as productive as we would like, and we may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals in the future in the markets where we do business. Our business will be seriously harmed if our sales force productivity efforts do not generate a corresponding significant increase in revenue.
If we are unable to retain our key employees and hire qualified personnel, our ability to compete could be harmed.
Our future success depends upon the continued services of our executive officers and other key technology, sales, marketing, and support personnel who have critical industry experience and relationships that they rely on in implementing our business plan. There is considerable competition for talented individuals with the specialized knowledge to deliver our services, and this competition affects our ability to hire and retain key employees. Historically, we have experienced a significant amount of employee turnover, especially with respect to our sales personnel. Sales personnel that are relatively new may need time to become fully productive. Inability to retain or hire key employees could disrupt our operations, delay the development and introduction of our services, and negatively impact our ability to sell our services.
Risks Relating to Intellectual Property, Litigation, and Regulations
Our involvement in litigation may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operations.
    We have been involved in multiple intellectual property lawsuits in the past. We are from time to time party to other lawsuits. The outcome of all litigation is inherently unpredictable. The expenses of defending these lawsuits, particularly fees paid to our lawyers and expert consultants, have been significant to date. If the cost of prosecuting or defending current or future lawsuits continues to be significant, it may continue to adversely affect our operating results during the pendency of such lawsuits. Lawsuits also require a diversion of management and technical personnel time and attention away from other activities to pursue the defense or prosecution of such matters. In addition, adverse rulings in such lawsuits either alone or cumulatively may have an adverse impact on our revenue, expenses, market share, reputation, liquidity, and financial condition.
We need to defend our intellectual property and processes against patent or copyright infringement claims, which may
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cause us to incur substantial costs and threaten our ability to do business.
Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors and non-practicing entities, may hold or obtain patents or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use or sell our services or develop new services, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. We have been and continue to be the target of intellectual property infringement claims by third parties. Companies holding internet-related patents or other intellectual property rights are increasingly bringing suits alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise asserting their rights and seeking licenses. Any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources from the defense of such claims. In addition, many of our agreements with clients require us to defend and indemnify those clients for third-party intellectual property infringement claims against them, which could result in significant additional costs and diversion of resources. If we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may also be required to do one or more of the following:
cease selling, incorporating or using products or services that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;
pay substantial damages;
obtain a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may or may not be available on reasonable terms or at all; or
redesign products or services.
If we are forced to litigate any claims or to take any of these other actions, our business may be seriously harmed.
Our business may be adversely affected if we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights from unauthorized use or infringement by third parties.
We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. We have applied for patent protection in the United States and a number of foreign countries. These legal protections afford only limited protection and laws in foreign jurisdictions may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States. Monitoring infringement of our intellectual property rights is difficult, and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights. Developments and changes in patent law, such as changes in interpretations of the joint infringement standard, could restrict how we enforce certain patents we hold. We also cannot be certain that any pending or future patent applications will be granted, that any future patent will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or that rights granted under any patent that may be issued will provide competitive advantages to us. If we are unable to effectively protect our intellectual property rights, our business may be harmed.
Internet-related and other laws relating to taxation issues, privacy, data security, and consumer protection and liability for content distributed over our network could harm our business.
Laws and regulations that apply to communications and commerce conducted over the internet are becoming more prevalent, both in the United States and internationally, and may impose additional burdens on companies conducting business online or providing internet-related services such as ours. Increased regulation could negatively affect our business directly, as well as the businesses of our clients, which could reduce their demand for our services. For example, tax authorities abroad may impose taxes on the internet-related revenue we generate based on where our internationally deployed servers are located. In addition, domestic and international taxation laws are subject to change. Our services, or the businesses of our clients, may become subject to increased taxation, which could harm our financial results either directly or by forcing our clients to scale back their operations and use of our services in order to maintain their operations. Also, the Communications Act of 1934, as amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (the Act), and the regulations promulgated by the FCC under Title II of the Act, may impose obligations on the internet and those participants involved in internet-related businesses. In addition, the laws relating to the liability of private network operators for information carried on, processed by or disseminated through their networks are unsettled, both in the United States and abroad. Network operators have been sued in the past, sometimes successfully, based on the content of material disseminated through their networks. We may become subject to legal claims such as defamation, invasion of privacy and copyright infringement in connection with content stored on or distributed through our network. In addition, our reputation could suffer as a result of our perceived association with the type of content that some of our clients deliver. If we need to take costly measures to reduce our exposure to the risks posed by laws and regulations that apply to communications and commerce conducted over the internet, or are required to defend ourselves against related claims, our financial results could be negatively affected.
Several other laws also could expose us to liability and impose significant additional costs on us. For example, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act has provisions that limit, but do not eliminate, our liability for the delivery of client content that infringe copyrights or other rights, so long as we comply with certain statutory requirements. Also, the Children’s On-line Privacy Protection Act restricts the ability of online services to collect information from minors and the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act of 1998 requires online service providers to report evidence of violations of federal child
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pornography laws under certain circumstances. There are also emerging regulation and standards regarding the collection and use of personal information and protecting the security of data on networks. Compliance with these laws, regulations, and standards is complex and any failure on our part to comply with these regulations may subject us to additional liabilities.
We are subject to stringent privacy and data protection requirements and any actual or perceived failure by us to comply with such requirements could expose us to liability and have an adverse impact on our business.
We are subject to stringent laws and legal requirements that regulate our collection, processing, storage, use and sharing of certain personal information, including the EUs General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Brazils Lei Geral de Protecao de Dados Pessoais (LGPD), and in the United States, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), among others. GDPR specifically imposes strict rules regulating data transfers of personal data from the EU to the United States. These laws and regulations are costly to comply with, could expose us to civil penalties and substantial penalties for non-compliance, as well as private rights of action for data breaches, all of which could increase our potential liability. This could also delay or impede the development or adoption of our products and services, reduce the overall demand for our services, result in negative publicity, increase our operating costs, require significant management time and attention, slow the pace at which we close (or prevent us from closing) sales transactions. Furthermore, these laws have prompted a number of proposals for new US and global privacy legislation, which, if enacted, could add additional complexity and potential legal risk, require additional investment of resources, and impact strategies and require changes in business practices and policies.
We expect that we will continue to face uncertainty as to whether our evolving efforts to comply with our obligations under privacy laws will be sufficient. If we are investigated by data protection regulators, we may face fines and other penalties. Any such investigation or charges by data protection regulators could have a negative effect on our existing business and on our ability to attract and retain new clients.
Privacy concerns could lead to regulatory and other limitations on our business, including our ability to use “cookies” and video player “cookies” that are crucial to our ability to provide services to our clients.
Our ability to compile data for clients depends on the use of “cookies” to identify certain online behavior that allows our clients to measure a website or video’s effectiveness. A cookie is a small file of information stored on a user’s computer that allows us to recognize that user’s browser or video player when the user makes a request for a web page or to play a video. Certain privacy laws regulate cookies and/or require certain disclosures regarding cookies or place restrictions on the sending of unsolicited communications. In addition, internet users may directly limit or eliminate the placement of cookies on their computers by, among other things, using software that blocks cookies, or by disabling or restricting the cookie functions of their internet browser software and in their video player software. If our ability to use cookies were substantially restricted due to the foregoing, or for any other reason, we would have to generate and use other technology or methods that allow the gathering of user data in order to provide services to clients. This change in technology or methods could require significant re-engineering time and resources, and may not be complete in time to avoid negative consequences to our business. In addition, alternative technology or methods might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. If the use of cookies is prohibited and we are not able to efficiently and cost effectively create new technology, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
Risks Relating to the COVID-19 Pandemic
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have materially affected how we and our clients are operating our businesses, and the duration and extent to which this will impact our future results of operations and overall financial performance remains uncertain.
In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. This pandemic adversely affected work forces, organizations, governments, clients, economies, and financial markets globally, and led to an economic downturn and increased market volatility. It also disrupted the normal operations of many businesses, including ours. For example, in response to the outbreak of COVID-19, we activated our pandemic response plan and took several precautionary steps early to safeguard our business and our people, including implementing travel bans and restrictions, temporarily closing offices, and canceling participation in various industry events. The continued persistence of this outbreak, as well as intensified measures undertaken to contain the spread of COVID-19, could decrease consumer spending, adversely affect demand for our technology and services, cause some of our clients and partners to exit their business, cause one or more of our clients to fail to renew, terminate, or renegotiate their contracts, affect the ability of our sales team to travel to potential clients, impact expected spending from new clients, and negatively impact collections of accounts receivable, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Also, the sales cycle for a new client of our technology and services could lengthen, resulting in a potentially longer delay between increasing operating expenses and the generation of corresponding revenue, if any. We cannot predict whether and to what degree the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and reactions thereto will continue, and expect to face difficulty accurately predicting our internal forecasts for the
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foreseeable future. The outbreak also presents challenges as our workforce is currently working remotely and shifting to assisting new and existing clients who are also generally working remotely. It is not possible for us to predict the duration or magnitude of the adverse results of the outbreak and its effects on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.
Risks Relating to Strategic Transactions
As part of our business strategy, we may acquire businesses or technologies and may have difficulty integrating these operations.
We may seek to acquire businesses or technologies that are complementary to our business in the future. Acquisitions are often complex and involve a number of risks to our business, including, among others:
the difficulty of integrating the operations, services, solutions and personnel of the acquired companies;
the potential disruption of our ongoing business;
the potential distraction of management;
the possibility that our business culture and the business culture of the acquired companies will not be compatible;
the difficulty of incorporating or integrating acquired technology and rights;
expenses related to the acquisition and to the integration of the acquired companies;
the impairment of relationships with employees and clients as a result of any integration of new personnel;
employee turnover from the acquired companies or from our current operations as we integrate businesses;
risks related to the businesses of acquired companies that may continue following the merger; and
potential unknown liabilities associated with acquired companies.
    If we are not successful in completing acquisitions, or integrating completed acquisitions in a timely manner, we may be required to reevaluate our business strategy, and we may incur substantial expenses and devote significant management time and resources without a productive result. Acquisitions will require the use of our available cash or dilutive issuances of securities. Future acquisitions or attempted acquisitions could also harm our ability to achieve profitability. For example, in September 2021, we acquired Moov Corporation, a company that provides a sub-scale SaaS based application acceleration and developer support platform. While we have started to integrate the people and technologies from Moov, we have limited experience in making acquisitions and there is no guarantee that such integration will be successful. Moreover, the integration process will likely require significant time and resources, require significant attention from management, and may disrupt the ordinary functioning of our business, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Risks Related to Investments and Our Outstanding Convertible Notes
If we are required to seek funding, such funding may not be available on acceptable terms or at all.
    We believe that our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities classified as current plus cash from operations will be sufficient to fund our operations and proposed capital expenditures for at least the next twelve months. However, we may need or desire to obtain funding due to a number of factors, including a shortfall in revenue, increased expenses, increased investment in capital equipment, the acquisition of significant businesses or technologies, or adverse judgments or settlements in connection with future, unforeseen litigation. If we do need to obtain funding, it may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we are unable to obtain sufficient funding, our business would be harmed. Even if we were able to find outside funding sources, we might be required to issue securities in a transaction that could be highly dilutive to our investors or we may be required to issue securities with greater rights than the securities we have outstanding today. We might also be required to take other actions that could lessen the value of our common stock, including borrowing money on terms that are not favorable to us. If we are unable to generate or raise capital that is sufficient to fund our operations, we may be required to curtail operations, reduce our capabilities or cease operations in certain jurisdictions or completely.

Servicing our debt may require a significant amount of cash. We may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our indebtedness.
In July 2020, we issued $125,000 aggregate principal amount of 3.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2025 (the Notes) in a private offering. Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on, or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate cash flow from operations sufficient to service our debt or make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional debt or equity financing on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance any future indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms,
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which could result in a default on our debt obligations. In addition, any of our future debt agreements may contain restrictive covenants that may prohibit us from adopting any of these alternatives. Our failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of our debt.
Our indebtedness and liabilities could limit the cash flow available for our operations, expose us to risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations and impair our ability to satisfy our obligations under the Notes.
We incurred $125,000 principal amount of additional indebtedness as a result of our issuance of the Notes. We may also incur additional indebtedness to meet future financing needs, including under our credit facility with SVB. Our indebtedness could have significant negative consequences for our security holders and our business, results of operations, and financial condition by, among other things:
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing;
requiring the dedication of a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service our indebtedness, which will reduce the amount of cash available for other purposes;
limiting our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business;
diluting the interests of our stockholders as a result of issuing shares of our stock upon conversion of the Notes; and
placing us at a possible competitive disadvantage with competitors that are less leveraged than us or have better access to capital.
Our business may not generate sufficient funds, and we may otherwise be unable to maintain sufficient cash reserves, to pay amounts due under our indebtedness, including the Notes, and our cash needs may increase in the future. In addition, the Loan and Security Agreement (as amended, the Credit Agreement) with Silicon Valley Bank (SVB) originally entered into in November 2015 governing our credit facility contains, and any future indebtedness that we may incur may contain, financial and other restrictive covenants that limit our ability to operate our business, raise capital or make payments under our other indebtedness. If we fail to comply with these covenants or to make payments under our indebtedness when due, then we would be in default under that indebtedness, which could, in turn, result in that and our other indebtedness becoming immediately payable in full.
We may be unable to raise the funds necessary to repurchase the Notes for cash following a fundamental change, or to pay any cash amounts due upon conversion, and our other indebtedness may limit our ability to repurchase the Notes or pay cash upon their conversion.
Holders of the Notes may require us to repurchase their Notes following a fundamental change at a cash repurchase price generally equal to the principal amount of the Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, upon conversion, we will satisfy part or all of our conversion obligation in cash unless we elect to settle conversions solely in shares of our common stock. We may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to repurchase the Notes or pay the cash amounts due upon conversion. In addition, applicable law, regulatory authorities, and the agreements governing our other indebtedness may restrict our ability to repurchase the Notes or pay the cash amounts due upon conversion. Our failure to repurchase the Notes or to pay the cash amounts due upon conversion when required will constitute a default under the indenture governing the Notes. A default under the indenture or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our other indebtedness, which may result in that other indebtedness becoming immediately payable in full. We may not have sufficient funds to satisfy all amounts due under the other indebtedness and the Notes.
The accounting method for the Notes could adversely affect our reported financial condition and results.
The accounting method for reflecting the Notes on our balance sheet, accruing interest expense for the Notes and reflecting the underlying shares of our common stock in our reported diluted earnings per share may adversely affect our reported earnings and financial condition. We expect that, under applicable accounting principles, the initial liability carrying amount of the Notes will be the fair value of a similar debt instrument that does not have a conversion feature, valued using our cost of capital for straight, non-convertible debt. We expect to reflect the difference between the net proceeds from the offering of the Notes and the initial carrying amount as a debt discount for accounting purposes, which will be amortized into interest expense over the term of the Notes. As a result of this amortization, the interest expense that we expect to recognize for the Notes for accounting purposes will be greater than the cash interest payments we will pay on the Notes, which will result in lower reported income or higher reported losses. The lower reported income or higher reported losses resulting from this accounting treatment could depress the trading price of our common stock and the Notes.
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However, in August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) published Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2020-06, eliminating the separate accounting for the debt and equity components as described above. ASU 2020-06 will be effective for SEC-reporting entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021 (or, in the case of smaller reporting companies, December 15, 2023), including interim periods within those fiscal years. On January 1, 2021, we early adopted ASU 2020-06. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 eliminated the separate accounting described above and will reduce the interest expense that we expect to recognize for the Notes for accounting purposes. In addition, ASU 2020-06 eliminates the use of the treasury stock method for convertible instruments that can be settled in whole or in part with equity, and instead require application of the “if-converted” method. Under that method, if it is adopted, diluted earnings per share would generally be calculated assuming that all the Notes were converted solely into shares of common stock at the beginning of the reporting period, unless the result would be anti-dilutive. The application of the if-converted method may reduce our reported diluted earnings per share. Also, if any of the conditions to the convertibility of the Notes is satisfied, then we may be required under applicable accounting standards to reclassify the liability carrying value of the Notes as a current, rather than a long-term, liability. This reclassification could be required even if no Note-holders convert their Notes and could materially reduce our reported working capital.
Transactions relating to our Notes may affect the value of our common stock.
In connection with the pricing of the Notes, we entered into capped call transactions (collectively, the Capped Calls) with one of the initial purchasers of the Notes and other financial institutions (collectively, the Option Counterparties). The Capped Calls cover, subject to customary adjustments, the number of shares of common stock initially underlying the Notes. The Capped Calls are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution of our common stock upon conversion of the Notes or at our election (subject to certain conditions) offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the aggregate principal amount of converted Notes, as the case may be, with such reduction or offset subject to a cap.
In addition, the Option Counterparties or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our common stock and/or purchasing or selling our common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions following the pricing of the Notes and from time to time prior to the maturity of the Notes (and are likely to do so on each exercise date of the Capped Calls, which are expected to occur during the 40 trading day period beginning on the 41st scheduled trading day prior to the maturity date of the Notes, or following any termination of any portion of the Capped Calls in connection with any repurchase, redemption, or conversion of the Notes if we make the relevant election under the Capped Calls). This activity could also cause or avoid an increase or a decrease in the market price of our common stock.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the Capped Calls.
The Option Counterparties are financial institutions, and we will be subject to the risk that any or all of them might default under the Capped Calls. Our exposure to the credit risk of the Option Counterparties will not be secured by any collateral. Past global economic conditions have resulted in the actual or perceived failure or financial difficulties of many financial institutions. If an option counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under the Capped Calls with such option counterparty. Our exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, an increase in our exposure will be correlated to an increase in the market price subject to the cap and in the volatility of our common stock. In addition, upon a default by an option counterparty, we may suffer more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock. We can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of the Option Counterparties.
The trading price of our common stock has been, and is likely to continue to be, volatile.
The trading prices of our common stock and the securities of technology companies generally have been highly volatile. Factors affecting the trading price of our common stock will include:
variations in our operating results;
announcements of technological innovations, new services or service enhancements, strategic alliances or significant agreements by us or by our competitors;
commencement or resolution of, our involvement in and uncertainties arising from litigation;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
changes in the estimates of our operating results or changes in recommendations by securities analysts;
if we or our stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock (including shares issued upon the exercise of options and warrants);
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;
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the gain or loss of significant clients;
market conditions in our industry, the industries of our clients, and the economy as a whole, including the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; and
adoption or modification of regulations, policies, procedures or programs applicable to our business.
In addition, if the market for technology stocks or the stock market in general experiences loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, operating results or financial condition. The trading price of our common stock might also decline in reaction to events or speculation of events that affect other companies in our industry even if these events do not directly affect us.  
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they issue an adverse or misleading opinion or report, our stock, our stock price, and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If an analyst issues an adverse or misleading opinion, our stock price could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease covering us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Future equity issuances or a sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock may cause the price of our common stock to decline.
Because we may need to raise additional capital in the future to continue to expand our business and our research and development activities, among other things, we may conduct additional equity offerings. If we or our stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock (including shares issued upon the exercise of options and warrants) in the public market, the market price of our common stock could fall. A decline in the market price of our common stock could make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company and may affect the trading price of our common stock.
Provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders. These provisions:
establish that members of the board of directors may be removed only for cause upon the affirmative vote of stockholders owning a majority of our capital stock;
authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that could be issued by our board of directors to increase the number of outstanding shares and thwart a takeover attempt;
limit who may call special meetings of stockholders;
prohibit action by written consent, thereby requiring stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of the stockholders;
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings;
provide for a board of directors with staggered terms; and
provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by a resolution of our board of directors.
In addition, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which imposes certain restrictions relating to transactions with major stockholders, may discourage, delay or prevent a third party from acquiring us.
General Risk Factors
We are subject to the effects of fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, which could affect our operating results.
The financial condition and results of operations of our operating foreign subsidiaries are reported in the relevant local currency and are then translated into U.S. dollars at the applicable currency exchange rate for inclusion in our consolidated U.S. dollar financial statements. Also, although a large portion of our client and vendor agreements are denominated in U.S. dollars, we may be exposed to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates with respect to client agreements with certain of our international clients. Exchange rates between these currencies and U.S. dollars in recent years have fluctuated significantly and may do so in the future. In addition to currency translation risk, we incur currency transaction risk whenever one of our operating subsidiaries enters into a transaction using a different currency than the relevant local currency. Given the volatility of exchange rates, we may be unable to manage our currency transaction risks effectively. Currency fluctuations could have a material adverse effect on our future international sales and, consequently, on our financial condition and results of operations.
We could incur charges due to impairment of goodwill and long-lived assets.
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As of December 31, 2021, we had a goodwill balance of approximately $114,511, which is subject to periodic testing for impairment. Our long-lived assets also are subject to periodic testing for impairment. A significant amount of judgment is involved in the periodic testing. Failure to achieve sufficient levels of cash flow could result in impairment charges for goodwill or fixed asset impairment for long-lived assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our reported results of operations. Our goodwill impairment analysis also includes a comparison of the aggregate estimated fair value of our reporting unit to our total market capitalization. If our stock trades below our book value, a significant and sustained decline in our stock price and market capitalization could result in goodwill impairment charges. During times of financial market volatility, significant judgment will be used to determine the underlying cause of the decline and whether stock price declines are short-term in nature or indicative of an event or change in circumstances. Impairment charges, if any, resulting from the periodic testing are non-cash.
Our results of operations may fluctuate in the future. As a result, we may fail to meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.
Our results of operations may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. If our results of operations fall below the expectations of securities analysts or investors, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. In addition to the effects of other risks discussed in this section, fluctuations in our results of operations may be due to a number of factors, including, among others:
our ability to increase sales to existing clients and attract new clients to our services;
the addition or loss of large clients, or significant variation in their use of our services;
costs associated with current or future intellectual property lawsuits and other lawsuits;
service outages or third party security breaches to our platform or to one or more of our clients’ platforms;
the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure and the adequacy of available funds to meet those requirements;
the timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors;
the occurrence of significant events in a particular period that result in an increase in the use of our services, such as a major media event or a client’s online release of a new or updated video game or operating system;
changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors;
the timing of recognizing revenue;
limitations of the capacity of our global network and related systems;
the timing of costs related to the development or acquisition of technologies, services or businesses;
the potential write-down or write-off of intangible or other long-lived assets;
general economic, industry and market conditions (such as fluctuations experienced in the stock and credit markets during times of deteriorated global economic conditions or during an outbreak of an epidemic or pandemic, such as the recent COVID-19 outbreak) and those conditions specific to internet usage;
limitations on usage imposed by our clients in order to limit their online expenses; and
war, threat of war or terrorism, including cyber terrorism, and inadequate cybersecurity.
We believe that our revenue and results of operations may vary significantly in the future and that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. You should not rely on the results of one period as an indication of future performance.
We have a history of losses and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
    We incur significant expenses in developing our technology and maintaining and expanding our network. We also incur significant share-based compensation expense and have incurred (and may in the future incur) significant costs associated with litigation.  Accordingly, we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability for the foreseeable future. We also may not achieve sufficient revenue to achieve or maintain profitability and thus may continue to incur losses in the future for a number of reasons, including, among others:
slowing demand for our services;
increasing competition and competitive pricing pressures;
any inability to provide our services in a cost-effective manner;
incurring unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays; and
other risks described in this report.
If we fail to achieve and maintain profitability, the price of our common stock could decline, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer.
We have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our
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management is required to devote substantial time to corporate governance.
We have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant public company expenses, including accounting, legal and other professional fees, insurance premiums, investor relations costs, and costs associated with compensating our independent directors. In addition, rules implemented by the SEC and Nasdaq impose additional requirements on public companies, including requiring changes in corporate governance practices. For example, the Nasdaq listing requirements require that we satisfy certain corporate governance requirements. Our management and other personnel need to devote a substantial amount of time to these governance matters. Moreover, these rules and regulations increase our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, these rules and regulations make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance.
If the accounting estimates we make, and the assumptions on which we rely, in preparing our financial statements prove inaccurate, our actual results may be adversely affected.
Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments about, among other things, taxes, revenue recognition, share-based compensation costs, contingent obligations, and doubtful accounts. These estimates and judgments affect the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, the amounts of charges accrued by us, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances and at the time they are made. If our estimates or the assumptions underlying them are not correct, we may need to accrue additional charges or reduce the value of assets that could adversely affect our results of operations, investors may lose confidence in our ability to manage our business and our stock price could decline.
If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal controls or fail to implement our controls and procedures with respect to acquired or merged operations, our ability to produce accurate financial statements could be impaired, which could adversely affect our operating results, our ability to operate our business and investors’ views of us.
We must ensure that we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place so that we can produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis. We are required to spend considerable effort on establishing and maintaining our internal controls, which is costly and time-consuming and needs to be re-evaluated frequently.
We have operated as a public company since June 2007, and we will continue to incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses as we comply with Sarbanes-Oxley, as well as new rules implemented from time to time by the SEC and Nasdaq. These rules impose various requirements on public companies, including requiring changes in corporate governance practices, increased reporting of compensation arrangements, and other requirements. Our management and other personnel will continue to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, new rules and regulations will likely increase our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly.
Section 404 of SOX requires that we include in our annual report our assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and our audited financial statements as of the end of each fiscal year. Furthermore, our independent registered public accounting firm, Ernst & Young LLP (EY), is required to report on whether it believes we maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of the end of the year. Our continued compliance with Section 404 will require that we incur substantial expense and expend significant management time on compliance related issues, including our efforts in implementing controls and procedures related to acquired or merged operations. We currently do not have an internal audit group and use an international accounting firm to assist us with our assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. In future years, if we fail to timely complete this assessment, or if EY cannot timely attest, there may be a loss of public confidence in our internal controls, the market price of our stock could decline, and we could be subject to regulatory sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. In addition, any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to timely meet our regulatory reporting obligations.
Changes in financial accounting standards or practices may cause adverse, unexpected financial reporting fluctuations and affect our reported results of operations.
A change in accounting standards or practices can have a significant effect on our operating results and may affect our reporting of transactions completed before the change is effective. New accounting pronouncements and varying interpretations of existing accounting pronouncements have occurred and may occur in the future. Changes to existing rules or the questioning of current practices may adversely affect our reported financial results or the way we conduct our business.

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Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None
Item 2.        Properties
Our global corporate headquarters is located in Tempe, Arizona. During 2021 we moved to a home and office hybrid work model. We have subleased certain of our office facilities, including our previous corporate headquarters in Scottsdale, Arizona, and have downsized our offices throughout the world. We are exploring opportunities to sublease additional office facilities under this new model.
We lease space for a data center and warehouse in Phoenix, Arizona. We lease offices in other locations in the United States, including in or near Lexington, Kentucky; Boston, Massachusetts; and New York, New York. We also lease offices in Europe and Asia in or near London, England; Paris, France; Bangalore, Chennai, Laxmi Cyber City, Mumbai, New Delhi, Noida, and West Bengai, India; Lviv, Ukraine; Tallinn, Estonia; Tokyo, Japan; Seoul, Korea; Singapore; and Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shanghai, China. We believe our facilities are sufficient to meet our needs for the foreseeable future and, if needed, additional space will be available at a reasonable cost.
Item 3.        Legal Proceedings
    For a description of our material pending legal proceedings, please refer to Note 12 “Contingencies - Legal Matters” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this annual report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 4.        Mine Safety Disclosures.
    Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
    Our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, trades on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “LLNW”.
Holders
    As of January 28, 2022, there were 261 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividends
    We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on shares of our common stock or other securities and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all future earnings, if any, for use in the operation of our business.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
None
Issuers Purchases of Equity Securities
    None
STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The graph set forth below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock between December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2021, with the cumulative total return of (i) the Nasdaq Composite Index and (ii) the S&P Information Technology Sector Index, over the same period. This graph assumes the investment of $100 on December 31, 2016 in our common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index and the S&P Information Technology Sector Index, and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any. The comparisons shown in the graph below are based upon historical data. We caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our common stock.
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llnw-20211231_g2.jpg
This graph assumes an investment on December 31, 2016, of $100 in our common stock (based on the closing sale price of our common stock), and in each of such indices (including the reinvestment of all dividends). Measurement points are to the last trading day for each respective period. The performance shown is not necessarily indicative of future performance.
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Item 6.        [Reserved]
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Item 7.        Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
    This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 21E of the Exchange Act, as amended. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements as to industry trends, our future expectations, operations, financial condition and prospects, business strategies and other matters that do not relate strictly to historical facts. These statements are often identified by the use of words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “estimate,” or “continue,” and similar expressions or variations. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below, and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” set forth in Part I, Item 1A and in the “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” preceding Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements. Prior period information has been modified to conform to current year presentation. All information is presented in thousands, except per share amounts, client count and where specifically noted.
Overview
We were founded in 2001 as a provider of content delivery network services to deliver digital content over the internet. We began development of our infrastructure in 2001 and began generating meaningful revenue in 2002. Today, we are a leading provider of content delivery services and AppOps. Our coordinated complete solution delivers instant, secure website applications that provides powerful tools and we provide a client-first approach to optimize and deliver digital experiences at the edge. We are a trusted partner to some of the world’s notable brands and serve their global customers with experiences such as livestream sporting events, global movie launches, video games, and file downloads for new phone Apps. We offer one of the largest, best-optimized private networks coupled with a global team of industry experts to provide edge services that are fast, secure, and reliable. Our mission is to securely manage and globally deliver digital content, building client satisfaction through exceptional reliability and performance.
Our business is dependent on creating an exceptional digital experience by providing our clients with fast, safe, efficient, and reliable edge access, distribution of content delivery and digital asset management services over the internet every minute of every day. Because of this, we operate a globally distributed network with services that are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and 365 days a year. Our sophisticated and powerful network is fully redundant and includes extensive diversity through data centers and telecommunication suppliers within and across regions.
Our delivery services represented approximately 74% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021. We also generate revenue through the sale of professional services and other infrastructure services, such as transit, rack space services, and hardware to help our clients build out edge solutions.
In early 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic. This pandemic has disrupted the normal operations of many businesses, including ours. Despite such disruption, our level of client service has remained uninterrupted. There also has been no material impact to our financial reporting systems, internal control over financial reporting, and disclosure controls and procedures. The future impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic remain uncertain and while it is difficult to predict what the world will look like when this pandemic has run its course, we currently do not expect the COVID-19 pandemic to have a material adverse impact on our balance sheet, financial condition, and results of operations, nor do we expect any impairment of goodwill, long-lived assets or right of use assets.
We provide our services in a highly competitive industry in which differentiation is primarily measured by performance and cost and the difference between providers can be as small as a fraction of a percent. We have experienced the commoditization of our once innovative and highly valued content delivery service, which, when combined with the low switching costs in a multi-CDN environment, results in on-going price compression, despite the large, unmet market need for our services. In 2021, we continued to see a decline in our average selling price, primarily due to the on-going price compression with our multi-CDN clients.
In February 2021, Bob Lyons joined the company as Chief Executive Officer, and Director. Since that date and under Mr. Lyon’s leadership, we have implemented a go-forward strategy designed to simultaneously address short-term headwinds and to position us to achieve near- and long-term success by building upon and more fully leveraging our ultra-low latency, global network, and operational expertise. We are focused on three key areas:
Improving Our Core. Our ability to consistently grow revenue requires us to anticipate and provide our clients with reliable performance and the tools they need and to provide them sooner and better than our competitors and do a better job at managing the cost structure of our network. In early 2021, our revenue and profitability trends were adversely impacted by
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lower network performance and operating expenses. Improvements in our networks performance led to increased traffic volumes in the second half of 2021. Our operating expenses are largely driven by payroll and related employee costs. We have implemented a broader and more detailed operating model built on metrics, process discipline, and improvements to client satisfaction, performance, and cost. We are working towards building an internal culture that embraces speed, transparency, and accountability. We also announced tangible steps to improve our cost competitiveness, with a reduction in workforce by approximately 16% in March of 2021. As a result, our employee headcount decreased from 618 on December 31, 2020, to 510 on March 31, 2021. As of December 31, 2021, our employee headcount was 552. We recorded a restructuring charge of $13,425 during the year ended December 31, 2021, and also incurred $4,827, in transition related expenses for a total of $18,252 in restructuring and transition related costs during 2021. We believe these actions will result in approximately $15,000 of recurring annual savings, primarily in selling, general and administrative expense. We also implemented other cost saving measures across the enterprise which result in another $15,000 of recurring annual expenses. We continue to seek opportunities to be more efficient and productive in order to achieve cost savings and improve our profitability. The performance of our network has also improved significantly in the last year, as measured by third-party services.
Expanding Our Core. We have rebuilt our sales team and installed senior leadership to evolve a team that is focused on growth. We are redesigning our commercial and product approaches to strengthen and broaden our key client relationships, to support a land, perform and expand strategy. We believe that this, coupled with new edge-based tools and solutions we anticipate bringing to market, will assist in our ability to re-accelerate growth. Key elements of our plan to Expand the Core include tightening the alignment between our sales and marketing organizations, moving to a “client success” model that pairs client relationship managers with client performance managers to ensure proactive client success and exploring ways to dynamically optimize how we price our services that gives us more flexibility and a renewed ability to sell more broadly into our existing client base. We have seen significant growth as a result of this strategy with bookings and pipeline expanding significantly. Productivity improvements and expanded capacity have led to a strong pipeline in both product lines. We continue to attract large media companies for content delivery and our AppOps solution continues to see adoption by companies of various sizes and types that are seeking a better solution for their high stakes web applications. These companies were out of reach with our previous strategy.
Extending Our Core. Longer-term, we believe we can drive meaningful improvements to profitability and growth by diversifying our capabilities, clients, and revenue mix. We need to enable digital builders to easily load content faster, personalize it more and protect it outside of a controlled environment. We believe we have an opportunity of extending the use of our network to new clients with new solutions that utilize non-peak traffic solutions. In September 2021, we announced the acquisition of Moov, a California corporation doing business as Layer0, a sub-scale SaaS based application acceleration and developer support platform, for total purchase consideration of $52,487. We believe this platform coupled with our global CDN network will be a catalyst in our pursuit of positioning us as an Edge Solutions platform. Following the acquisition of Moov:

• We launched a new web application acceleration solution in the fourth quarter of 2021, which combined the powerful elements of the Limelight CDN as well as Moov’s software to deliver a substantially improved performance.
• We have identified approximately $3,000 of recurring cost synergies.
• We believe that this acquisition meaningfully improves our product management and development
capabilities and sets us on a path of continuous product innovation.
Additionally, Ajay Kapur, Moov’s co-founder, became our Chief Technology Officer, and other
Moov leadership assumed important roles at Limelight.
In our earnings release on January 20, 2022, we recognized share-based compensation expense related to our 2021 management bonus plan based on our expected payout at that time. After the release, our compensation committee determined that the actual bonus payments would be less than managements original expectation. As a result, we reversed approximately $2,100 of share-based compensation expense and approximately $200 of related employer payroll taxes, which resulted in our previously reported net loss of $57,065, decreasing by approximately $2,300 to $54,761.
    The following table summarizes our revenue, costs and expenses for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019 (in thousands of dollars and as a percentage of total revenue).
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Year Ended December 31,
202120202019
Revenue$217,630 100.0 %$230,194 100.0 %$200,634 100.0 %
Cost of revenue157,281 72.3 %147,088 63.9 %119,090 59.4 %
Gross profit60,349 27.7 %83,106 36.1 %81,544 40.6 %
Operating expenses94,314 43.3 %97,500 42.4 %97,269 48.5 %
Restructuring charges13,425 6.2 %— — %— — %
Operating loss (47,390)(21.8)%(14,394)(6.3)%(15,725)(7.8)%
Total other income (expense)(6,217)(2.9)%(4,238)(1.8)%431 0.2 %
Loss before income taxes(53,607)(24.6)%(18,632)(8.1)%(15,294)(7.6)%
Income tax expense1,154 0.5 %645 0.3 %750 0.4 %
Net loss$(54,761)(25.2)%$(19,277)(8.4)%$(16,044)(8.0)%
Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
To evaluate our business, we consider and use non-generally accepted accounting principles (Non-GAAP) net loss, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA as supplemental measures of operating performance. These measures include the same adjustments that our management takes into account when it reviews and assesses operating performance on a period-to-period basis. We consider Non-GAAP net loss to be an important indicator of overall business performance. We define Non-GAAP net loss to be U.S. GAAP net loss, adjusted to exclude share-based compensation, non-cash interest expense, restructuring and transition related charges, acquisition and legal related expenses, and amortization of intangible assets. We believe that EBITDA provides a useful metric to investors to compare us with other companies within our industry and across industries. We define EBITDA as U.S. GAAP net loss, adjusted to exclude depreciation and amortization, interest expense, interest and other (income) expense, and income tax expense. We define Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA adjusted to exclude share-based compensation, restructuring and transition related charges, and acquisition and legal related expenses. We use Adjusted EBITDA as a supplemental measure to review and assess operating performance. Our management uses these Non-GAAP financial measures because, collectively, they provide valuable information on the performance of our on-going operations, excluding non-cash charges, taxes and non-core activities (including interest payments related to financing activities). These measures also enable our management to compare the results of our on-going operations from period to period, and allow management to review the performance of our on-going operations against our peer companies and against other companies in our industry and adjacent industries. We believe these measures also provide similar insights to investors, and enable investors to review our results of operations “through the eyes of management.”
Furthermore, our management uses these Non-GAAP financial measures to assist them in making decisions regarding our strategic priorities and areas for future investment and focus.
In our January 20, 2022, earnings press release, as furnished on Form 8-K, we included Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA. The terms Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not defined under U.S. GAAP, and are not measures of operating income, operating performance or liquidity presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA have limitations as analytical tools, and when assessing our operating performance, Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation, or as a substitute for net income (loss) or other consolidated income statement data prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Some of these limitations include, but are not limited to:
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect our cash expenditures or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
These measures do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
Non-GAAP net income (loss) and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect the cash requirements necessary for litigation costs, including provision for litigation and litigation expenses;
These measures do not reflect the interest expense, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments, on our debt that we may incur;
These measures do not reflect income taxes or the cash requirements for any tax payments;
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Although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will be replaced sometime in the future, and EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements;
While share-based compensation is a component of operating expense, the impact on our financial statements compared to other companies can vary significantly due to such factors as the assumed life of the options and the assumed volatility of our common stock; and
Other companies may calculate Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA differently than we do, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our U.S. GAAP results and using Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA, and Adjusted EBITDA only as supplemental support for management’s analysis of business performance. Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are calculated as follows for the periods presented.
Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In accordance with the requirements of Item 10(e) of Regulation S-K, we are presenting the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures and reconciling the unaudited Non-GAAP financial metrics to the comparable U.S. GAAP measures.
Reconciliation of U.S. GAAP Net Loss to Non-GAAP Net Loss
(Unaudited)
Year Ended December 31,
202120202019
U.S. GAAP net loss$(54,761)$(19,277)$(16,044)
Share-based compensation14,283 15,717 13,778 
Non-cash interest expense811 1,938 — 
Restructuring and transition related charges18,252 — — 
Acquisition and legal related expenses2,640 — — 
Amortization of intangible assets1,048 — — 
Non-GAAP net loss$(17,727)$(1,622)$(2,266)
Reconciliation of U.S. GAAP Net Loss to EBITDA to Adjusted EBITDA
(Unaudited)
Year Ended December 31,
202120202019
U.S. GAAP net loss$(54,761)$(19,277)$(16,044)
Depreciation and amortization25,302 23,170 20,065 
Interest expense5,245 3,939 76 
Interest and other (income) expense972 299 (507)
Income tax expense 1,154 645 750 
EBITDA $(22,088)$8,776 $4,340 
Share-based compensation14,283 15,717 13,778 
Restructuring and transition related charges18,252 — — 
Acquisition and legal related expenses2,640 — — 
Adjusted EBITDA$13,087 $24,493 $18,118 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make judgments, assumptions, and estimates that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial
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statements and accompanying notes. Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements describes the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements. The accounting policies described below are significantly affected by critical accounting estimates. Such accounting policies require significant judgments, assumptions, and estimates used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements, and actual results could differ materially from the amounts reported based on these policies.
Business Combinations                         
In accounting for acquisitions through which a set of assets and activities are transferred to us, we perform an initial test to determine whether substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets transferred are concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets, such that the acquisition would not represent a business. If the initial test does not result in substantially all of the fair value concentrated in a single or group of similar assets, we then perform a second test to evaluate whether the assets and activities transferred include inputs and substantive processes that, together, significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs, which would constitute a business. If the result of the second test indicates that the acquired assets and activities constitute a business, we account for the transaction as a business combination.
For our business combinations, we allocate the purchase consideration of the acquisition, which includes the estimated acquisition date fair value of contingent consideration (if applicable), to the tangible assets, liabilities and identifiable intangible assets acquired based on each of the estimated fair values at the acquisition date. The excess of the purchase consideration over the fair values is recorded as goodwill. Determining the fair value of such items requires judgment, including estimating future cash flows or the cost to recreate an acquired asset.
Acquisition-related expenses are expensed as incurred, except for those costs incurred to issue debt or equity securities (if applicable), and are included in general and administrative expense in our consolidated statements of operations. During and up to the one-year period beginning with the acquisition date, we may record certain purchase accounting adjustments related to the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed against goodwill. After the final determination of the fair value of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to our consolidated statements of operations. The fair value of contingent consideration liabilities assumed from an acquisition are remeasured each reporting period after the acquisition date and the changes in the estimated fair value, if any, are recorded within operating expenses in our consolidated statement of operations for such period. In accounting for income taxes in a business combination, changes in the deferred tax asset valuations allowance and income tax uncertainties after the acquisition date will be recognized through income tax expense in our consolidated statement of operations each reporting period.
The results of operations of the acquired business are included in our consolidated statement of operations since the date of acquisition.
Revenue Recognition
Revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our clients, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services.
For contracts that contain minimum commitments over the contractual term, we estimate an amount of variable consideration by using either the expected value method. We include estimates of variable consideration in revenue only when we have a high degree of confidence that revenue will not be reversed in a subsequent reporting period. We believe that the expected value method is the most appropriate estimate of the amount of variable consideration. These clients have entered into contracts with contract terms generally from one to four years. As of December 31, 2021, we have approximately $2,635 of remaining unsatisfied performance obligations. We recognized revenue of approximately $8,859 and $7,896, respectively, during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, related to these types of contracts with our clients. We expect to recognize approximately 95% of the remaining unsatisfied performance obligations in 2022 and the remainder in 2023.
We recorded deferred revenue of $3,107 in accordance with the allocation of purchase consideration related to the acquisition of Moov Corporation. Deferred revenue is primarily driven by payments received in advance of satisfying our performance obligations. We recognized approximately $1,656 in 2021 that was included in the deferred revenue purchase consideration allocation. The deferred revenue balance of approximately $1,451 as of December 31, 2021, represents our aggregate remaining performance obligations that will be recognized as revenue over the period in which the performance obligations are satisfied. We expect to recognize approximately 99% of the remaining unsatisfied performance obligations in 2022, and the remainder in 2023.
We may charge the clients an activation fee when services are first activated. We do not charge activation fees for contract renewals. Activation fees are not distinct within the context of the overall contractual commitment with the client to
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perform our content delivery service and are therefore recognized initially as deferred revenue and recognized as revenue ratably over the estimated life of the client arrangement.
At the inception of a client contract for service, we make an assessment as to that client’s ability to pay for the services provided. If we subsequently determine that collection from the client is not probable, we record an allowance for credit losses or deferred revenue for that clients’ unpaid invoices and cease recognizing revenue for continued services provided until it is probable that revenue will not be reversed in a subsequent reporting period. Our standard payment terms vary by the type and location of our client but do not contain a financing component.
    Arrangements with Multiple Performance Obligations
Certain of our revenue arrangements include multiple promises to our clients. Revenue arrangements with multiple promises are accounted for as separate performance obligations if each promise is distinct. Such arrangements may include a combination of some or all of the following: content delivery services, video content management services, performance services for website and web application acceleration and security, professional services, cloud storage, edge computing services, and sale of equipment.
Judgment may be required in determining whether products or services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately or as one combined performance obligation. Revenue is recognized over the period in which the performance obligations are satisfied, which is generally over the contract term. We have determined that generally most of our products and services do not constitute an individual service offering to our clients, as our promise to the client is to provide a complete edge services platform, and therefore have concluded that it represents a single performance obligation. We have determined that professional services and hardware sales represent separate performance obligations from that of our edge services platform.
Consideration is allocated to the performance obligations using the relative standalone selling price method. Generally, arrangements with performance obligations are provided over the same contract period, and therefore, revenue is recognized over the same period.
We determine standalone selling price by evaluating the overall pricing objectives and market conditions. Consideration includes our discounting practices, the size and volume of our transactions, the area where services are sold, price lists, historical sales and contract prices.
Goodwill
We have recorded goodwill as a result of business acquisitions. Goodwill is recorded when the purchase price paid for an acquisition exceeds the estimated fair value of the net identified tangible and intangible assets acquired. In each of our acquisitions, the objective of the acquisition was to expand our product offerings and client base and to achieve synergies related to cross selling opportunities, all of which contributed to the recognition of goodwill.
We test goodwill for impairment on an annual basis or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill might be impaired. We concluded that we have one reporting unit and assigned the entire balance of goodwill to this reporting unit. The estimated fair value of the reporting unit is determined using our market capitalization as of our annual impairment assessment date or more frequently if circumstances indicate the goodwill might be impaired. Items that could reasonably be expected to negatively affect key assumptions used in estimating fair value include but are not limited to:
sustained decline in our stock price due to a decline in our financial performance due to the loss of key clients, loss of key personnel, emergence of new technologies or new competitors and/or unfavorable outcomes of intellectual property disputes;
decline in overall market or economic conditions leading to a decline in our stock price; and
decline in observed control premiums paid in business combinations involving comparable companies.
The estimated fair value of the reporting unit is determined using a market approach. Our market capitalization is adjusted for a control premium based on the estimated average and median control premiums of transactions involving companies comparable to us. As of the annual impairment testing date of October 31, 2021, we determined that goodwill was not impaired.
Share-Based Compensation
We account for our share-based compensation awards using the fair-value method. The grant date fair value was determined using the Black-Scholes-Merton pricing model. The Black-Scholes-Merton valuation calculation requires us to
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make key assumptions such as future stock price volatility, expected terms, risk-free rates, and dividend yield. Our expected volatility is derived from our volatility rate as a publicly traded company. The expected term is based on our historical experience. The risk-free interest factor is based on the United States Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of the grant for zero coupon United States Treasury notes with maturities of approximately equal to each grant’s expected term. We have never paid cash dividends and do not currently intend to pay cash dividends, and therefore, we have assumed a 0% dividend yield.
We apply the straight-line attribution method to recognize compensation costs associated with awards that are not subject to graded vesting. For awards subject to graded vesting, we recognize expense separately for each vesting tranche. We regularly estimate when and if performance-based award will be earned and record expense over the estimated service period only for awards considered probable of being earned. Any previously recognized expense is reversed in the period in which an award is determined to no longer be probable of being earned.
Results of Continuing Operations
Discussion of our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 31, 2020 is presented below.
Discussion of our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 can be found in “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on February 12, 2021.
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020
Revenue
We derive revenue primarily from the sale of our digital content delivery, video delivery, website development and acceleration, cloud security, edge compute, and origin storage services. We also generate revenue through the sale of professional services and other infrastructure services, such as transit, rack space services, and hardware to help our clients build out edge solutions.
The following table reflects our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to December 31, 2020:
Year Ended December 31,
IncreasePercent
20212020(Decrease)Change
Revenue$217,630 $230,194 $(12,564)(5.5)%
Our revenue decreased during the year ended December 31, 2021, versus 2020 primarily due to a decrease in our delivery services revenue. In addition to price compression, which is expected in the industry, the decrease in delivery services revenue was primarily due to lower traffic volumes with our largest client as a result of easing COVID-19 lockdown restrictions and a reduced amount of new content released for consumption. We believe that we have improved our performance with many of our largest clients, and we are positioned to take advantage of volume growth as new content is released. Our active clients worldwide increased to 580 as of December 31, 2021, compared to 527 as of December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily driven by our acquisition of Moov in September 2021.
    During the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, sales to our top 20 clients accounted for approximately 74% and 75%, respectively of our total revenue. The clients that comprised our top 20 clients change from time to time, and our large clients may not continue to be as significant going forward as they have been in the past.
    During the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, we had two clients, Amazon which represented approximately 29% and 36%, respectively, and Sony which represented 11% and 11%, respectively, of our total revenue.
Revenue by geography is based on the location of the client from which the revenue is earned. The following table sets forth revenue by geographic area (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):
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Year Ended December 31,
20212020
Americas$141,917 65 %$142,345 62 %
EMEA24,568 11 %36,958 16 %
Asia Pacific51,145 24 %50,891 22 %
Total revenue$217,630 100 %$230,194 100 %
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists primarily of fees paid to network providers for bandwidth and backbone, costs incurred for non-settlement free peering and connection to internet service providers, and fees paid to data center operators for housing of our network equipment in third party network data centers, also known as co-location costs. Cost of revenue also includes leased warehouse space and utilities, depreciation of network equipment used to deliver our content delivery services, payroll and related costs, and share-based compensation for our network operations and professional services personnel. Other costs include hardware costs, professional fees and outside services, travel and travel-related expenses and royalty expenses.
Cost of revenue was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):
Year Ended December 31,
20212020
Bandwidth and co-location fees$94,180 43.3 %$88,473 38.4 %
Depreciation - network22,508 10.3 %21,579 9.4 %
Payroll and related employee costs16,576 7.6 %18,467 8.0 %
Share-based compensation1,385 0.6 %1,998 0.9 %
Other costs22,632 10.4 %16,571 7.2 %
Total cost of revenue$157,281 72.3 %$147,088 63.9 %
    Our cost of revenue increased in both aggregate dollars and as a percentage of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021, versus the comparable 2020 period. The changes in cost of revenue were primarily a result of the following:
Bandwidth and co-location fees increased in aggregate dollars due to higher transit fees, as well as continued expansion in existing and new geographies.
Depreciation expense increased due to increased capital expenditures over the last two years.
Payroll and related employee costs were lower as a result of decreased network operations and professional services personnel and lower variable compensation.
Share-based compensation decreased primarily as a result of lower variable compensation paid out in restricted stock units, and the impact of the reduction in workforce in March 2021 versus the comparable 2020 period. These decreases were off-set by equity related to our recently completed business combination.
Other costs increased primarily due to costs associated with the sale of hardware, increased international re-seller costs, professional fees, and increased fees and licenses. These increases were partially off-set by decreased contract royalties, travel and entertainment expense, office supplies, and facilities.
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General and Administrative
General and administrative expense was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):
Year Ended December 31,
20212020
Payroll and related employee costs$13,083 6.0 %$12,348 5.4 %
Professional fees and outside services5,293 2.4 %4,305 1.9 %
Share-based compensation12,514 5.8 %7,611 3.3 %
Acquisition and legal related expenses2,640 1.2 %— — %
Other costs6,561 3.0 %7,020 3.0 %
Total general and administrative$40,091 18.4 %$31,284 13.6 %
Our general and administrative expense increased in both aggregate dollars and as a percentage of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021, versus the comparable 2020 period.
The increase in aggregate dollars for the year ended December 31, 2021, versus the comparable 2020 period was primarily driven by an increase in share-based compensation, acquisition and legal related expenses, professional fees, and bad debt expense, which is included in other costs. The increase in share-based compensation was the result of a transition agreement entered into between us and our former CEO who retired in January 2021, which modified existing share-based awards and resulted in additional share-based compensation. Share-based compensation also increased as a result of our acquisition of Moov in September 2021, and for a sign-on bonus converted from cash to restricted stock units for our current CEO. Professional fees increased due to higher legal fees associated with corporate and governance matters, casual labor, and other outside services.
    We expect our general and administrative expenses for 2022 to remain consistent as a percentage of revenue.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expense was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):
Year Ended December 31,
20212020
Payroll and related employee costs$21,043 9.7 %$31,355 13.6 %
Share-based compensation2,513 1.2 %3,519 1.5 %
Marketing programs1,555 0.7 %2,228 1.0 %
Other costs4,649 2.1 %5,843 2.5 %
Total sales and marketing$29,760 13.7 %$42,945 18.7 %
    Our sales and marketing expense decreased in both aggregate dollars and as a percentage of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021, versus the comparable 2020 period.
The decrease in aggregate dollars was primarily driven by decreased payroll and related employee costs, decreased share-based compensation, marketing programs, and decreased other costs. The decrease in payroll and related employee costs was due to the impact of the reduction in workforce in March 2021 and lower variable compensation. Share-based compensation decreased primarily as a result of lower equity variable compensation in 2021 versus the comparable 2020 period. The decrease in other costs was due to decreased facility costs, decreased other employee costs, decreased fees and licenses, and decreased travel and entertainment. These decreases were off-set by increases in casual labor and recruiting.
    We expect our sales and marketing expenses for 2022 to increase as a percentage of revenue as compared to 2021 due to increased marketing related initiatives and personnel costs to drive revenue growth.
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Research and Development
Research and development expense was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):
Year Ended December 31,
20212020
Payroll and related employee costs$13,325 6.1 %$14,334 6.2 %
Share-based compensation2,435 1.1 %2,589 1.1 %
Other costs5,909 2.7 %4,757 2.1 %
Total research and development$21,669 10.0 %$21,680 9.4 %
Our research and development expense increased in aggregate dollars and increased as a percentage of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021 versus the comparable 2020 period.
The increase in aggregate dollars was primarily due to an increase in other costs, which was mainly due to increased fees and licenses and other employee costs off-set by lower facility costs and lower professional fees. The decrease in payroll and related employee costs was due to reduced salaries and variable compensation due to lower headcount.
    We expect our research and development expenses for 2022 to increase in aggregate dollars and as a percentage of revenue as many of the employees from Moov are engineers that will drive development of future growth initiatives.
Depreciation and Amortization (Operating Expenses)
Depreciation expense consists of depreciation on equipment and furnishings used by general administrative, sales and marketing, and research and development personnel. Amortization expense consists of amortization of acquired intangible assets.
Depreciation and amortization expense was $2,794, or 1.3% of revenue, for the year ended December 31, 2021, versus $1,591, or 0.7% of revenue for the comparable 2021 period. The increase in depreciation and amortization expense was primarily due to the amortization of intangible assets acquired in the business combination in September. For the year ended December 31, 2021, amortization of intangibles was approximately $1,048. Based on our intangible assets at December 31, 2021, we expect amortization of other intangible assets to be approximately $3,144, $3,144, $3,134, 3,114, and $2,076 for fiscal years 2022, 2023, 2024, 2025, and 2026, respectively.
Restructuring Charges
The restructuring charges for the year ended December 31, 2021, were the result of management's commitment to restructure certain parts of the company to focus on cost efficiencies, improved growth and profitability, and align our workforce and facility requirements with our continued investment in the business. As a result, certain headcount reductions were made, as well as incurring certain charges for facilities, right of use assets, outside service contracts, share-based compensation, and professional fees. Please refer to Note 11 "Restructuring Charge" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We expect to incur approximately $2,000 of additional restructure charges primarily for consulting fees to restructure our datacenter architecture over the next 12 months.
Interest Expense
Interest expense was $5,245 for the year ended December 31, 2021, versus $3,939 for the comparable 2020 period. Interest expense includes expense associated with the issuance of the Notes and fees associated with the Credit Agreement with Silicon Valley Bank.
Interest Income
Interest income was $134 for the year ended December 31, 2021 versus $69 for the comparable 2020 period. Interest income includes interest earned on invested cash balances and marketable securities.
Other Income (Expense)
Other expense was $1,106 for the year ended December 31, 2021, versus other expense of $368 for the comparable 2020 period. For the year ended December 31, 2021, other income/expense consisted primarily of foreign currency transaction
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gains and losses, legal settlement, and the gain/loss on sale of fixed assets. For the year ended December 31, 2020, other income/expense consisted primarily of foreign currency transaction gains and losses, and the gain/loss on sale of fixed assets.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2021, was $1,154 versus $645 for the comparable 2020 period. Income tax expense on net income (loss) before taxes was different than the statutory income tax rate primarily due to our providing for a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets in certain jurisdictions, and recording of state and foreign tax expense for the year. The effective income tax rate is based primarily upon income or loss for the year, the composition of the income or loss in different countries, and adjustments, if any, for the potential tax consequences, benefits or resolutions for tax audits.
On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) was enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We have evaluated the impact of the CARES Act, and do not expect the provisions of the CARES Act to have an impact on us.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2021, our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities classified as current totaled $79,325. Included in this amount is approximately $9,521 of cash and cash equivalents held outside the United States. Changes in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities are dependent upon changes in, among other things, working capital items such as deferred revenues, accounts payable, accounts receivable, accrued provision for litigation, and various accrued expenses, as well as purchases of property and equipment and changes in our capital and financial structure due to debt repurchases and issuances, stock option exercises, sales of equity investments, and similar events.
Cash from operations could also be affected by various risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and other risks detailed in Part I, Item 1A titled “Risk Factors”. However, we believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, and available borrowing capacity will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next twelve months. If the assumptions underlying our business plan regarding future revenue and expenses change or if unexpected opportunities or needs arise, we may seek to raise additional cash by selling equity or debt securities.     
The major components of changes in cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2021, and 2020 are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Operating Activities
    Net cash provided by operating activities was $14 for the year ended December 31, 2021, versus net cash provided by operating activities of $21,328 for 2020, a decrease of $21,314. Changes in operating assets and liabilities of $5,740 during the year ended December 31, 2021, versus $(1,750) in 2020 were primarily due to:
accounts receivable increased $9,109 during the year ended December 31, 2021, as a result of timing of collections as compared to a $2,000 decrease in the comparable 2020 period;
prepaid expenses and other current assets decreased $1,966 during the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to an increase of $5,717 in the comparable 2020 period. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease in prepaid bandwidth and backbone expenses, and prepaid expenses and insurance. These decreases were offset by an increase in VAT receivable;
accounts payable and other current liabilities increased $8,903 during the year ended December 31, 2021, versus a decrease of $1,069 for the comparable 2020 period due to increased accounts payable, accrued compensation and benefits, accrued account payable, accrued legal fees, and our restructuring charge accrual.
Cash provided by operating activities may not be sufficient to cover new purchases of property and equipment during 2022 and beyond. The timing and amount of future working capital changes and our ability to manage our days sales outstanding will also affect the future amount of cash used in or provided by operating activities.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $8,847 for the year ended December 31, 2021, versus $102,665 for 2020. Net cash used in investing activities was related to the acquisition of a business, the purchase of marketable securities, and capital expenditures primarily for servers and network equipment associated with the build-out and expansion of our global computing platform, partially offset by cash received from the sale and maturities of marketable securities.
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In September 2021, we acquired Moov. The purchase price included both cash and shares of our common stock. Cash paid, net of cash acquired, was approximately $30,968.
We expect to have ongoing capital expenditure requirements as we continue to invest in and expand our network. During 2021, we made capital expenditures of $15,810, which represented approximately 7% of our total revenue. We currently expect capital expenditures in 2022 to be approximately 10% of revenue, as we continue to increase the capacity of our global network and re-fresh our systems.
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $4,529 for the year ended December 31, 2021, versus net cash provided by financing activities of $109,518 for 2020. Net cash provided by financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily relates to cash received from the exercise of stock options and our employee stock purchase plan of $6,185, offset by the payments of employee tax withholdings related to the net settlement of vested restricted stock units of $1,626.
Net cash provided by financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily relates to cash received from the issuance of the Notes of $121,600, and the exercise of stock options and our employee stock purchase plan of $10,068, offset by $16,413 premium paid related to our capped call transactions, $859 payment of debt issuance costs, and the payments of employee tax withholdings related to the net settlement of vested restricted stock units of $4,878.
Convertible Senior Notes and Capped Call Transactions
In July 2020, we issued $125,000 aggregate principal amount of the Notes, with an initial conversion rate of 117.2367 shares of our common stock (equal to an initial conversion rate of $8.53 per share), subject to adjustment in some events. The Notes will be senior, unsecured obligations of ours and will be equal in right of payment with our senior, unsecured indebtedness; senior in right of payment to our indebtedness that is expressly subordinated to the Notes; effectively subordinated to our senior, secured indebtedness, including future borrowings, if any, under our $20,000 credit facility with SVB, to the extent of the value of the collateral securing that indebtedness; and structurally subordinated to all indebtedness and other liabilities, including trade payables, and (to the extent we are not a holder thereof) preferred equity, if any, of our subsidiaries. The Notes are governed by an indenture (the Indenture) between us, as the issuer, and U.S. Bank, National Association, as trustee. The Indenture does not contain any financial covenants.
The Notes mature on August 1, 2025, unless earlier converted, redeemed or repurchased in accordance with their term prior to the maturity date. Interest is payable semiannually in arrears on February 1 and August 1 of each year, beginning on February 1, 2021. We may not redeem the Notes prior to August 4, 2023.
On or after August 4, 2023, and on or before the 40th scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date, we may redeem for cash all or any portion of the Notes if the last reported sale price of our common stock has been at least 130% of the conversion price then in effect for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive), including the trading day immediately preceding the date on which we provide notice of redemption, during any 30 consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date on which we provide notice of redemption. The redemption price will equal 100% of the principal amount of the Notes being redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the redemption date. No sinking fund is provided for the Notes.
During the year ended December 31, 2021, the conditions allowing holders of the Notes to convert were not met and therefore the Notes are not yet convertible.
In connection with the offering of the Notes, we also entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions (collectively, the Capped Calls). The Capped Calls have an initial strike price of approximately $8.53 per share, subject to certain adjustments, which corresponds to the initial conversion price of the Notes. The Capped Calls have an initial cap price of $13.38 per share, subject to certain adjustments. The capped call transactions cover, subject to anti-dilution adjustments, approximately 14.7 million shares of our common stock and are expected to offset the potential economic dilution to our common stock up to the initial cap price.
Line of Credit
In November 2015 we entered into the Credit Agreement with SVB. Since the inception, there have been eight amendments, with the most recent amendment being in September 2021. The maximum principal commitment amount remains at $20,000. The Eighth Amendment modified language within the Credit Agreement, which permitted us enter into the business combination in September 2021. Our borrowing capacity is the lesser of the commitment amount or 80% of eligible accounts receivable. All outstanding borrowings owed under the Credit Agreement become due and payable no later than the
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final maturity date of November 2, 2022. As long as our Adjusted Quick Ratio remains above 1.5 to 1, we no longer are required to submit quarterly borrowing base reports.
    As of December 31, 2021, borrowings under the Credit Agreement bear interest at the current prime rate minus 0.25%. In the event of default, obligations shall bear interest at a rate per annum which is 3% above the then applicable rate.  As of December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020, we had no outstanding borrowings, and we had availability under the Credit Agreement of $20,000.
    Financial Covenants and Borrowing Limitations
    The Credit Agreement requires, and any future credit facilities will likely require, us to comply with specified financial requirements that may limit the amount we can borrow. A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default. Our ability to satisfy those covenants depends principally upon our ability to meet or exceed certain financial performance results. Any debt agreements we enter into in the future may further limit our ability to enter into certain types of transactions.
    We are required to maintain an Adjusted Quick Ratio of at least 1.0 to 1.0. We are also subject to certain customary limitations on our ability to, among other things, incur debt, grant liens, make acquisitions and other investments, make certain restricted payments such as dividends, dispose of assets or undergo a change in control. As of December 31, 2021, we were in compliance with our covenant under the Credit Agreement.
    For a more detailed discussion regarding our Credit Agreement, please refer to Note 10 "Debt - Line of Credit" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
    We may be prevented from taking advantage of business opportunities that arise because of the limitations imposed on us by restrictive covenants within the Credit Agreement. These restrictions may also limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions, meet capital needs or otherwise restrict our activities or business plans and adversely affect our ability to finance our operations, enter into acquisitions, execute our business strategy, effectively compete with companies that are not similarly restricted or engage in other business activities that would be in our interest. In the future, we may also incur debt obligations that might subject us to additional and different restrictive covenants that could affect our financial and operational flexibility. We cannot assure you that we will be granted waivers or amendments to the indenture governing the Credit Agreement, or such other debt obligations if for any reason we are unable to comply with our obligations thereunder or that we will be able to refinance our debt on acceptable terms, or at all, should we seek to do so. Any such limitations on borrowing under the Credit Agreement, including payments related to litigation, could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity and our ability to continue as a going concern could be impaired.     
Share Repurchases
    On March 14, 2017, our board of directors authorized a $25,000 share repurchase program. Any shares repurchased under this program will be canceled and returned to authorized but unissued status. During the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, we did not repurchase any shares under the repurchase programs. As of December 31, 2021, there remained $21,200 under this share repurchase program.
Contractual Obligations, Contingent Liabilities, and Commercial Commitments
In the normal course of business, we make certain long-term commitments for right-of-use (ROU) assets, (primarily office facilities) and purchase commitments for bandwidth, and computer rack space. These commitments expire on various dates ranging from 2022 to 2030. We expect that the growth of our business will require us to continue to add to and increase our ROU assets and long-term commitments in 2022 and beyond. As a result of our growth strategies, we believe that our liquidity and capital resources requirements will grow.
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    The following table presents our contractual obligations and commercial commitments, as of December 31, 2021 over the next five years and thereafter (in thousands):
Payments Due by Period
Less thanMore than
Total1 year1-3 years3-5 years5 years
Purchase Commitments
  Bandwidth commitments$92,333 $40,114 $33,258 $17,716 $1,245 
  Rack space commitments14,295 10,118 4,177 — — 
Total purchase commitments106,628 50,232 37,435 17,716 1,245 
Right-of-use assets and other operating leases14,064 2,544 3,251 2,908 5,361 
Total commitments$120,692 $52,776 $40,686 $20,624 $6,606 
New Accounting Pronouncements
See Item 8 of Part II, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - Recent Accounting Standards.”
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Interest Rate Risk
Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our debt and investment portfolio. In our investment portfolio, we do not use derivative financial instruments. Our investments are primarily with our commercial and investment banks and, by policy, we limit the amount of risk by investing primarily in money market funds, United States Treasury obligations, high quality corporate and municipal obligations, and certificates of deposit. Interest expense on our line of credit is at the current prime rate minus 0.25%.  In the event of default, obligations shall bear interest at a rate per annum which is 3% above the then applicable rate. An increase in interest rates of 100 basis points would add $10 of interest expense per year, to our financial position or results of operations, for each $1,000 drawn on the line of credit. As of December 31, 2021, there were no outstanding borrowings against the line of credit.
Foreign Currency Risk
We operate in the Americas, EMEA and Asia-Pacific. As a result of our international business activities, our financial results could be affected by factors such as changes in foreign currency exchange rates or economic conditions in foreign markets, and there is no assurance that exchange rate fluctuations will not harm our business in the future. We have foreign currency exchange rate exposure on our results of operations as it relates to revenues and expenses denominated in foreign currencies. A portion of our cost of revenues and operating expenses are denominated in foreign currencies as are our revenues associated with certain international clients. To the extent that the U.S. dollar weakens, similar foreign currency denominated transactions in the future will result in higher revenues and higher cost of revenues and operating expenses, with expenses having the greater impact on our financial results. Similarly, our revenues and expenses will decrease if the U.S. dollar strengthens against these foreign currencies. Although we will continue to monitor our exposure to currency fluctuations, and, where appropriate, may use financial hedging techniques in the future to minimize the effect of these fluctuations, we are not currently engaged in any financial hedging transactions. Assuming a 10% weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to our foreign currency denominated revenues and expenses, our net loss for the year ended December 31, 2021, would have been higher by approximately $4,128. There are inherent limitations in the sensitivity analysis presented, primarily due to the assumption that foreign exchange rate movements across multiple jurisdictions are similar and would be linear and instantaneous. As a result, the analysis is unable to reflect the potential effects of more complex markets or other changes that could arise, which may positively or negatively affect our results of operations.
Inflation Risk
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. If our costs were to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Credit Risk
During any given fiscal period, a relatively small number of clients typically account for a significant percentage of our revenue. For example, in 2021, 2020, and 2019, sales to our top 20 clients accounted for approximately 74%, 75%, and 72%, respectively, of our total revenue. During 2021 and 2020, we had two clients, Amazon and Sony which represented approximately 29% and 11%, respectively, and 36% and 11%, respectively, of our total revenue. During 2019, Amazon represented approximately 30% of our total revenue. In 2022, we anticipate that our top 20 client concentration levels will remain consistent with 2021. In the past, the clients that comprised our top 20 clients have continually changed, and our large clients may not continue to be as significant going forward as they have been in the past.


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Item 8.        Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
LIMELIGHT NETWORKS, INC.
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Schedule
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Limelight Networks, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Limelight Networks, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes and the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company at December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 17, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Business Combination - Valuation of Acquired Intangible Assets
Description of the Matter
As discussed in Note 3 of the consolidated financial statements, the Company completed the acquisition of Moov in September 2021 for purchase consideration of $52.5 million. The Company accounted for this transaction as a business combination.
Auditing management’s accounting for the acquisition was complex due to the significant estimation uncertainty in determining the fair value of the acquired developed technology intangible asset totaling $8.5 million. The Developed Technology asset was valued using an income-based approach. The fair value determinations of the developed technology acquired intangible asset required management to make estimates and significant assumptions regarding the future cash flows of the intangible asset, including revenue growth rates, earnings metrics, a technological obsolescence curve, economic life, and discount rate. These significant assumptions were forward-looking and could be affected by future market and economic conditions.
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How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of the controls that address the risks of material misstatement relating to valuation of the acquired developed technology intangible asset. For example, we tested controls over management’s review of the valuation model for the acquired intangible asset, as well as the completeness and accuracy of the valuation inputs.
To test the estimated fair value of the developed technology intangible asset, our audit procedures included, among others, assessing the fair value methodology used by the Company and testing the significant assumptions and the underlying data used by the Company in its analyses. We involved firm valuation specialists to assist us in our evaluation of the Company’s valuation models, related assumptions and outputs of the valuation models. We evaluated the methodology used by the Company and significant assumptions included in the fair value estimates.
Accounting for Revenue Recognition
Description of the Matter
As described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company generates revenues from the sales of its suite of content and video delivery services. The Company’s revenue recognition process for its content and delivery services involved several applications and data sources needed for the initiation, processing, and recording of transactions from the Company’s various revenue sources, as well as the calculation of revenue in accordance with the Company’s accounting policy.
Auditing the Company's accounting for revenue from contracts with customers was challenging and complex primarily due to the multiple applications and data sources associated with the revenue recognition process.


How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s revenue recognition process, including its IT general controls and application controls over the IT applications supporting the revenue recognition process. To test the Company’s accounting for revenue from contracts with customers, we performed substantive audit procedures that included, among others, testing on a sample basis the completeness and accuracy of the underlying data within the Company’s revenue systems, performing data analytics to test recorded revenue, tracing a sample of sales transactions to supporting documentation, and testing a sample of cash to billings reconciliations.


/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2006.
Phoenix, Arizona
February 17, 2022


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Limelight Networks, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
December 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$41,918 $46,795 
Marketable securities37,367 76,928 
Accounts receivable, net42,217 31,675 
Income taxes receivable61 68 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets13,036 15,588 
Total current assets134,599 171,054 
Property and equipment, net33,622 46,418 
Operating lease right of use assets6,338 10,150 
Marketable securities, less current portion40 40 
Deferred income taxes1,893 1,530 
Goodwill114,511 77,753 
Intangible assets, net14,613  
Other assets5,485 7,233 
Total assets$311,101 $314,178 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$11,631 $4,587 
Deferred revenue3,266 933 
Operating lease liability obligations1,861 2,465 
Income taxes payable873 253 
Other current liabilities19,292 17,560 
Total current liabilities36,923 25,798 
Convertible senior notes, net121,782 100,945 
Operating lease liability obligations, less current portion9,616 11,265 
Deferred income taxes308 279 
Deferred revenue, less current portion116 220 
Other long-term liabilities777 479 
Total liabilities169,522 138,986 
Commitments and contingencies
Stockholders’ equity:
Convertible preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 7,500 shares authorized; 0 shares issued
  and outstanding
  
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 300,000 shares authorized; 134,337 and 123,653 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively
134 124 
Additional paid-in capital576,807 556,512 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(8,345)(7,511)
Accumulated deficit(427,017)(373,933)
Total stockholders’ equity141,579 175,192 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$311,101 $314,178 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
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Limelight Networks, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
 Years Ended December 31,
 202120202019
Revenue$217,630 $230,194 $200,634 
Cost of revenue:
Cost of services (1)134,773 125,509 99,897 
Depreciation — network22,508 21,579 19,193 
Total cost of revenue157,281 147,088 119,090 
Gross profit60,349 83,106 81,544 
Operating expenses:
General and administrative40,091 31,284 30,785 
Sales and marketing29,760 42,945 43,078 
Research and development21,669 21,680 22,534 
Depreciation and amortization2,794 1,591 872 
Restructuring charges13,425   
Total operating expenses107,739 97,500 97,269 
Operating loss(47,390)(14,394)(15,725)
Other income (expense):
Interest expense(5,245)(3,939)(76)
Interest income134 69 427 
Other, net(1,106)(368)80 
Total other income (expense)(6,217)(4,238)431 
Loss before income taxes(53,607)(18,632)(15,294)
Income tax expense 1,154 645 750 
Net loss$(54,761)$(19,277)$(16,044)
Net loss per share:
       Basic$(0.43)$(0.16)$(0.14)
       Diluted$(0.43)$(0.16)$(0.14)
Weighted average shares used in per share calculation:
Basic 127,789 121,196 115,890 
Diluted127,789 121,196 115,890 
____________
(1)Cost of services excludes amortization related to intangibles, including developed technology, client relationships, and trade names, which are included in depreciation and amortization
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
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LIMELIGHT NETWORKS, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss
(In thousands)

 
 Years Ended December 31,
 202120202019
Net loss$(54,761)$(19,277)$(16,044)
Other comprehensive gain (loss), net of tax:
Unrealized gain (loss) on investments2 (51)41 
Foreign exchange translation (loss) gain(836)1,750 782 
Other comprehensive (loss) gain, net of tax(834)1,699 823 
Comprehensive loss$(55,595)$(17,578)$(15,221)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
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Limelight Networks, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(In thousands)
 Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
 SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 2018114,246 $114 $513,682 $(10,033)$(338,612)$165,151 
Net loss— — — — (16,044)(16,044)
Change in unrealized loss on
  available-for-sale
  investments, net of taxes
— — — 41 — 41 
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of taxes
— — — 782 — 782 
Exercise of common stock options1,054 1 2,467 — — 2,468 
Vesting of restricted stock units3,416 3 (3)— —  
Restricted stock units
  surrendered in lieu of
  withholding taxes
(1,142)(1)(3,606)— — (3,607)
Issuance of common stock
  under employee stock
  purchase plan
794 1 1,937 — — 1,938 
Share-based compensation — — 15,808 — — 15,808 
Balance at December 31, 2019118,368 $118 530,285 (9,210)(354,656)166,537 
Net loss— — — — (19,277)(19,277)
Change in unrealized
  loss on available-for-sale
  investments, net of taxes
— — — (51)— (51)
Foreign currency translation
  adjustment, net of taxes
— — — 1,750 — 1,750