20-F 1 d305012d20f.htm FORM 20-F Form 20-F
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

 

  ¨ REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

 

  þ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011

OR

 

  ¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to                  to                 

OR

 

  ¨ SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission file number 001-33178

MELCO CROWN ENTERTAINMENT LIMITED

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

36th Floor, The Centrium, 60 Wyndham Street, Central, Hong Kong

(Address of principal executive offices)

Leanne Palmer, Vice President Financial Compliance, Tel +852 2598 3600, Fax +852 2537 3618

36th Floor, The Centrium, 60 Wyndham Street, Central, Hong Kong

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class   Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
American depositary shares   The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
each representing three ordinary shares   (The NASDAQ Global Select Market)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None.

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None.

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

1,653,101,002 ordinary shares outstanding as of December 31, 2011

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ    No  ¨

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes  ¨    No  þ

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  þ    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

þ Large accelerated filer

  ¨ Accelerated filer   ¨ Non-accelerated filer

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP þ

   International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ¨    Other ¨

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.    Item 17  ¨    Item 18  ¨

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  þ

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.    Yes  ¨    No  ¨

 

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

     1   

GLOSSARY

     4   

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     8   

PART I

     9   

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

     9   

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

     9   

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

     10   

A. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

     10   

B. CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

     12   

C. REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

     12   

D. RISK FACTORS

     13   

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

     42   

A. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

     42   

B. BUSINESS OVERVIEW

     42   

C. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

     64   

D. PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

     67   

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

     67   

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

     67   

A. OPERATING RESULTS

     67   

B. LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

     83   

C. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, PATENTS AND LICENSES, ETC.

     88   

D. TREND INFORMATION

     88   

E. OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS

     88   

F. TABULAR DISCLOSURE OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS

     89   

G. SAFE HARBOR

     90   

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

     90   

A. DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT

     90   

B. COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

     95   

C. BOARD PRACTICES

     96   

D. EMPLOYEES

     102   

E. SHARE OWNERSHIP

     103   

ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

     118   

A. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS

     118   

 

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B. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

     121   

C. INTERESTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL

     121   

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

     121   

A. CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION

     121   

B. SIGNIFICANT CHANGES

     123   

ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

     123   

A. OFFERING AND LISTING DETAILS

     123   

B. PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     123   

C. MARKETS

     123   

D. SELLING SHAREHOLDERS

     124   

E. DILUTION

     124   

F. EXPENSES OF THE ISSUE

     124   

ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     124   

A. SHARE CAPITAL

     124   

B. MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

     124   

C. MATERIAL CONTRACTS

     124   

D. EXCHANGE CONTROLS

     124   

E. TAXATION

     124   

F. DIVIDENDS AND PAYING AGENTS

     129   

G. STATEMENT BY EXPERTS

     129   

H. DOCUMENTS ON DISPLAY

     129   

I. SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION

     130   

ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

     130   

ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

     132   

A. DEBT SECURITIES

     132   

B. WARRANTS AND RIGHTS

     132   

C. OTHER SECURITIES

     132   

D. AMERICAN DEPOSITORY SHARES

     132   

PART II

     133   

ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

     133   

ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

     133   

ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

     134   

ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

     135   

ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS

     135   

 

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ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

     135   

ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

     136   

ITEM 16E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

     136   

ITEM 16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

     136   

ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

     136   

ITEM 16H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

     137   

PART III

     137   

ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     137   

ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     137   

ITEM 19. EXHIBITS

     137   

 

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INTRODUCTION

In this annual report on Form 20-F, unless otherwise indicated:

 

   

“2011 Credit Facilities” refers to the credit facilities entered into pursuant to an amendment agreement dated June 22, 2011 between, among others, Melco Crown Gaming, Deutsche Bank AG, Hong Kong Branch as agent and DB Trustees (Hong Kong) Limited as security agent, comprising a term loan facility and a revolving credit facility, for a total amount of HK$9.36 billion (approximately US$1.2 billion), and which reduce and remove certain restrictions in the City of Dreams Project Facility;

 

   

“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each of which represents three ordinary shares;

 

   

“Altira Developments” refers to our subsidiary, Altira Developments Limited, a Macau company through which we hold the land and building for Altira Macau;

 

   

“Altira Hotel” refers to our subsidiary, Altira Hotel Limited, a Macau company through which we currently operate the hotel and other non-gaming businesses at Altira Macau;

 

   

“Altira Macau” refers to an integrated casino and hotel development that caters to Asian rolling chip customers, which opened in May 2007 and owned by Altira Developments;

 

   

“China,” “mainland China” and “PRC” refer to the People’s Republic of China, excluding Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;

 

   

“City of Dreams” refers to an integrated resort located on two adjacent pieces of land in Cotai, Macau, which opened in June 2009, and currently features a casino areas and three luxury hotels, including a collection of retail brands, a wet stage performance theater and other entertainment venues, and owned by Melco Crown (COD) Developments;

 

   

“City of Dreams Project Facility” refers to the project facility dated September 5, 2007 entered into between, amongst others, Melco Crown Gaming as borrower and certain other subsidiaries as guarantors, for a total sum of US$1.75 billion for the purposes of financing, among other things, certain project costs of City of Dreams, as amended and supplemented from time to time;

 

   

“Cotai” refers to an area of reclaimed land located between the islands of Taipa and Coloane in Macau;

 

   

“Crown” refers to Crown Limited, an Australian-listed corporation, which completed its acquisition of the gaming businesses and investments of Consolidated Media Holdings Limited (formerly known as PBL), on December 12, 2007;

 

   

“Crown Asia Investments” refers to Crown Asia Investments Pty, Ltd., formerly PBL Asia Investments Limited, which is 100% indirectly owned by Crown, and was incorporated in the Cayman Islands but is now a registered Australian company;

 

   

“Exchange Notes” refers to approximately 99.96% of the Initial Notes which were, on December 27, 2010, exchanged for 10.25% senior notes due 2018, registered under the Securities Act of 1933;

 

   

“Greater China” refers to mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, collectively;

 

   

“HK$” and “H.K. dollars” refer to the legal currency of Hong Kong;

 

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“HKSE” refers to The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited;

 

   

“Hong Kong” refers to the Hong Kong Special Administration Region of the People’s Republic of China;

 

   

“Initial Notes” refers to the US$600 million aggregate principal amount of 10.25% senior notes due 2018 issued by MCE Finance on May 17, 2010;

 

   

“Macau” and “Macau SAR” refer to the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China;

 

   

“MCE Finance” refers to our wholly owned subsidiary, MCE Finance Limited, a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability;

 

   

“Melco” refers to Melco International Development Limited, a Hong Kong listed company;

 

   

“Melco Crown (COD) Developments” refers to our subsidiary, Melco Crown (COD) Developments Limited, a Macau company through which we hold the land and buildings for City of Dreams;

 

   

“Melco Crown (COD) Hotels” refers to our subsidiary, Melco Crown (COD) Hotels Limited, a Macau company through which we currently operate the non-gaming businesses at City of Dreams;

 

   

“Melco Crown Gaming” refers to our subsidiary, Melco Crown Gaming (Macau) Limited, a Macau company and the holder of our gaming subconcession;

 

   

“MPEL International” refers to our wholly owned subsidiary, MPEL International Limited, a Cayman Islands company with limited liability;

 

   

“Melco Leisure” refers to Melco Leisure and Entertainment Group Limited, a company incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands and a wholly owned subsidiary of Melco;

 

   

“Mocha Clubs” collectively refers to clubs with gaming machines, the first of which opened in September 2003, and are now the largest non-casino based operations of electronic gaming machines in Macau, and operated by Melco Crown Gaming;

 

   

“our board” refers to the board of directors of our company or a duly constituted committee thereof;

 

   

“our subconcession” and “our gaming subconcession” refer to the Macau gaming subconcession held by Melco Crown Gaming;

 

   

“Patacas” and “MOP” refer to the legal currency of Macau;

 

   

“PBL” refers to Publishing and Broadcasting Limited, an Australian listed corporation that is now known as Consolidated Media Holdings Limited;

 

   

“Renminbi” and “RMB” refer to the legal currency of China;

 

   

“RMB Bonds” refer to the RMB2.3 billion (equivalent to US$353.3 million based on exchange rate on transaction date) aggregate principal amount of 3.75% bonds due 2013 issued by our company on May 9, 2011;

 

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“SCI” refers to Studio City International Holdings Limited (formerly known as Cyber One Agents Limited), a company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands with limited liability that is 60% owned by one of our subsidiaries and 40% owned by New Cotai Holdings, LLC through its wholly owned subsidiary New Cotai, LLC;

 

   

“Senior Notes” refers to the Initial Notes and the Exchange Notes, collectively;

 

   

“share(s)” and “ordinary share(s)” refer to our ordinary share(s), par value US$0.01 each;

 

   

“SPV” refers to Melco Crown SPV Limited, formerly known as Melco PBL SPV Limited, a Cayman Islands exempted company which is 50/50 owned by Melco Leisure and Crown Asia Investments;

 

   

“Studio City” refers to an integrated resort comprising entertainment, retail and gaming facilities proposed to be developed under the shareholder agreement between our company and New Cotai, LLC;

 

   

“Studio City Developments” refers to our subsidiary, Studio City Developments Limited (formerly known as MSC Desenvolvimentos, Limitada and East Asia Satellite Television Limited), a Macau company in which we own 60% of the equity interest;

 

   

“US$” and “U.S. dollars” refer to the legal currency of the United States;

 

   

“U.S. GAAP” refers to the accounting principles generally accepted in the United States; and

 

   

“we,” “us,” “our company,” “our” and “MCE” refer to Melco Crown Entertainment Limited and, as the context requires, its predecessor entities and its consolidated subsidiaries.

This annual report on Form 20-F includes our audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 and as of December 31, 2011 and 2010.

Any discrepancies in any table between totals and sums of amounts listed therein are due to rounding. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures preceding them.

 

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GLOSSARY

 

“average daily rate” or “ADR”

calculated by dividing total room revenues (less service charges, if any) by total rooms occupied, i.e., average price of occupied rooms per day

 

“cage”

a secure room within a casino with a facility that allows patrons to exchange cash for chips required to participate in gaming activities, or to exchange chips for cash

 

“chip”

round token that is used on casino gaming tables in lieu of cash

 

“concession”

a government grant for the operation of games of fortune and chance in casinos in Macau under an administrative contract pursuant to which a concessionaire, or the entity holding the concession, is authorized to operate games of fortune and chance in casinos in Macau

 

“dealer”

a casino employee who takes and pays out wagers or otherwise oversees a gaming table

 

“drop”

the amount of cash to purchase gaming chips and promotional vouchers that are deposited in a gaming table’s drop box, plus gaming chips purchased at the casino cage

 

“drop box”

a box or container that serves as a repository for cash, chips, chip purchase vouchers, credit markers and forms used to record movements in the chip inventory on each table game

 

“gaming machine handle (volume)”

the total amount wagered in gaming machines

 

“gaming promoter” or “junket representative”

an individual or corporate entity who, for the purpose of promoting rolling chip gaming activity, arranges customer transportation and accommodation, provides credit in its sole discretion if authorized by a gaming operator, and arranges food and beverage services and entertainment in exchange for commissions or other compensation from a gaming operator

 

“gaming promoter aggregator model”

a model where the gaming operator typically pays an additional level of remuneration above usual market commission rate to the gaming promoter which in return provides additional services by managing and providing credit to its collaborators

 

 

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“hold percentage”

the amount of win (calculated before discounts and commissions) as a percentage of drop or rolling chip volume

 

“integrated resort”

a resort which provides customers with a combination of hotel accommodations, casinos or gaming areas, retail and dining facilities, MICE space, entertainment venues and spas

 

“junket player”

a player sourced by gaming promoters to play in the VIP gaming rooms or areas

 

“marker”

evidence of indebtedness by a player to the casino or gaming operator

 

“mass market patron”

a customer who plays in the mass market segment

 

“mass market segment”

consists of both table games and slot machines played on public mass gaming floors by mass market patrons for cash stakes that are typically lower than those in the rolling chip segment

 

“mass market table games drop” (previously known as “non-rolling chip volume”)

the amount of table games drop in the mass market table games segment

 

 

“mass market table games hold percentage” (previously known as “non-rolling chip hold percentage”)

mass market table games win as a percentage of mass market table games drop

 

 

“mass market table games segment”

the mass market segment consisting of mass market patrons who play table games

 

“MICE”

Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions, an acronym commonly used to refer to tourism involving large groups brought together for an event or specific purpose

 

“net rolling”

net turnover in a non-negotiable chip game

 

“non-negotiable chip”

promotional casino chip that is not to be exchanged for cash

 

“non-rolling chip” or “traditional cash chip”

chip that can be exchanged for cash, used by mass market patrons to make wagers

 

“occupancy rate”

the average percentage of available hotel rooms occupied during a period

 

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“premium direct player”

a rolling chip player who is a direct customer of the concessionaires or subconcessionaires and is attracted to the casino through direct marketing efforts and relationships with the gaming operator

 

“progressive jackpot”

a jackpot for a slot machine or table game where the value of the jackpot increases as wagers are made; multiple slot machines or table games may be linked together to establish one progressive jackpot

 

“revenue per available room” or “REVPAR”

calculated by dividing total room revenues (less service charges, if any) by total rooms available, thereby representing a combination of hotel average daily room rates and occupancy

 

“rolling chip”

non-negotiable chip primarily used by rolling chip patrons to make wagers

 

“rolling chip patron”

a player who is primarily a VIP player and typically receives various forms of complimentary services from the gaming promoters or concessionaires or subconcessionaires

 

“rolling chip segment”

consists of table games played in private VIP gaming rooms or areas by rolling chip patrons who are either premium direct players or junket players

 

“rolling chip volume”

the amount of non-negotiable chips wagered and lost by the rolling chip market segment

 

“rolling chip win rate” (previously known as “rolling chip hold percentage”)

rolling chip table games win as a percentage of rolling chip volume

 

“slot machine”

traditional gaming machine operated by a single player and electronic multiple-player gaming machines

 

“subconcession”

an agreement for the operation of games of fortune and chance in casinos between the entity holding the concession, or the concessionaire, a subconcessionaire and the Macau government, pursuant to which the subconcessionaire is authorized to operate games of fortune and chance in casinos in Macau

 

“table games win”

the amount of wagers won net of wagers lost that is retained and recorded as casino revenues

 

“VIP gaming room” or “VIP gaming area”

gaming rooms or areas that have restricted access to rolling chip patrons and typically offer more personalized service than the general mass market gaming areas

 

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“wet stage performance theater”

the approximately 2,000-seat theater specifically designed to stage The House of Dancing Water show

 

“win percentage-gaming machines”

actual win expressed as a percentage of gaming machine handle

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements that relate to future events, including our future operating results and conditions, our prospects and our future financial performance and condition, all of which are largely based on our current expectations and projections. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors,” “Item 4. Information on the Company” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors” for a discussion of some risk factors that may affect our business and results of operations. Moreover, because we operate in a heavily regulated and evolving industry, may become highly leveraged, and operate in Macau, a market that has recently experienced extremely rapid growth and intense competition, new risk factors may emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of these factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in any forward-looking statement.

In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “potential,” “continue,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. We have based the forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements relating to:

 

   

our ability to raise additional financing;

 

   

our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;

 

   

growth of the gaming market in and visitation to Macau;

 

   

our anticipated growth strategies;

 

   

the liberalization of travel restrictions on PRC citizens and convertibility of the Renminbi;

 

   

the availability of credit for gaming patrons;

 

   

the uncertainty of tourist behavior related to spending and vacationing at casino resorts in Macau;

 

   

fluctuations in occupancy rates and average daily room rates in Macau;

 

   

increased competition and other planned casino hotel and resort projects in Macau and elsewhere in Asia, including in Macau from Sociedade de Jogos de Macau, S.A., or SJM, Venetian Macao, S.A., or VML, Wynn Resorts (Macau) S.A., or Wynn Macau, Galaxy Casino, S.A., or Galaxy, and MGM Grand Paradise, S.A., or MGM Grand Paradise;

 

   

the formal grant of an occupancy permit for certain areas of City of Dreams that remain under construction or development;

 

   

the development of Studio City;

 

   

our entering into new development and construction and new ventures;

 

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construction cost estimates for our development projects, including projected variances from budgeted costs;

 

   

government regulation of the casino industry, including gaming license approvals and the legalization of gaming in other jurisdictions;

 

   

the completion of infrastructure projects in Macau;

 

   

the outcome of any current and future litigation; and

 

   

other factors described under “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors.”

The forward-looking statements made in this annual report on Form 20-F relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report on Form 20-F. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this annual report on Form 20-F and the documents that we referenced in this annual report on Form 20-F and have filed as exhibits with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

PART I

 

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

 

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ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

A. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following reflects selected historical financial data that should be read in conjunction with “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto beginning on page F-1 of this annual report on Form 20-F. The historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be expected in the future.

 

    Year Ended December 31,  
    2011     2010     2009     2008     2007  
    (In thousands of US$, except share and per share data and operating data)  

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

         

Net revenues

  $ 3,830,847      $ 2,641,976      $ 1,332,873      $ 1,416,134      $ 358,496   

Total operating costs and expenses

    (3,385,737     (2,549,464     (1,604,920     (1,414,960     (554,313

Operating income (loss)

  $ 445,110      $ 92,512      $ (272,047   $ 1,174      $ (195,817

Net income (loss)

  $ 288,844      $ (10,525   $ (308,461   $ (2,463   $ (178,151

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

    5,812                               

Net income (loss) attributable to our company

    294,656        (10,525     (308,461   $ (2,463   $ (178,151

Net income (loss) attributable to our company per share

         

— Basic

  $ 0.184      $ (0.007   $ (0.210   $ (0.002   $ (0.145

— Diluted

  $ 0.182      $ (0.007   $ (0.210   $ (0.002   $ (0.145

Net income (loss) attributable to our company per ADS (1)

         

— Basic

  $ 0.551      $ (0.020   $ (0.631   $ (0.006   $ (0.436

— Diluted

  $ 0.547      $ (0.020   $ (0.631   $ (0.006   $ (0.436

Weighted average shares used in calculating net income (loss) attributable to our company per share

         

— Basic

    1,604,213,324        1,595,552,022        1,465,974,019        1,320,946,942        1,224,880,031   

— Diluted

    1,616,854,682        1,595,552,022        1,465,974,019        1,320,946,942        1,224,880,031   

 

    December 31,  
    2011     2010     2009     2008     2007  
    (In thousands of US$)  

Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

         

Cash and cash equivalents

  $     1,158,024      $     441,923      $ 212,598      $ 815,144      $ 835,419   

Restricted cash

    364,807        167,286        236,119        67,977        298,983   

Total assets

    6,269,980            4,884,440            4,862,845            4,495,442            3,617,099   

Total current liabilities

    603,119        675,604        521,643        447,289        480,516   

Total debts (2)

    2,325,980        1,839,931        1,798,879        1,529,195        616,376   

Total liabilities

    3,082,328        2,361,249        2,353,801        2,086,838        1,188,558   

Noncontrolling interests

    231,497                               

Total equity

    3,187,652        2,523,191        2,509,044        2,408,604        2,428,541   

 

(1) Each ADS represents three ordinary shares.

 

(2) Includes amounts due to shareholders within one year, loans from shareholders and current and non-current portion of long-term debt.

 

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The following events/transactions affect the year-to-year comparability of the selected financial data presented above:

 

   

In September 2006, we acquired a Macau subconcession. Prior to this date we did not hold a concession or subconcession to operate gaming activities in Macau and we operated under a services agreement with SJM.

 

   

In April 2006, we commenced construction of the City of Dreams project.

 

   

On May 12, 2007, Altira Macau opened and became fully operational on July 14, 2007.

 

   

On June 1, 2009, City of Dreams opened and progressively added to its operations with the opening of Grand Hyatt Macau in the fourth quarter of 2009 and the opening of The House of Dancing Water in the third quarter of 2010.

 

   

On July 27, 2011, we acquired a 60% equity interest in SCI, the developer of Studio City.

Exchange Rate Information

Although we will have certain expenses and revenues denominated in Patacas, our revenues and expenses will be denominated predominantly in H.K. dollars and in connection with a portion of our indebtedness and certain expenses, U.S. dollars. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from H.K. dollars to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to H.K. dollars in this annual report on Form 20-F were made at a rate of HK$7.78 to US$1.00.

The H.K. dollar is freely convertible into other currencies (including the U.S. dollar). Since October 17, 1983, the H.K. dollar has been officially linked to the U.S. dollar at the rate of HK$7.80 to US$1.00. The market exchange rate has not deviated materially from the level of HK$7.80 to US$1.00 since the peg was first established. However, in May 2005, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority broadened the trading band from the original rate of HK$7.80 per U.S. dollar to a rate range of HK$7.75 to HK$7.85 per U.S. dollar. The Hong Kong government has stated its intention to maintain the link at that rate, and it, acting through the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, has a number of means by which it may act to maintain exchange rate stability. However, no assurance can be given that the Hong Kong government will maintain the link at HK$7.75 to HK$7.85 per U.S. dollar or at all.

The noon buying rate on December 30, 2011 in New York City for cable transfers in H.K. dollar per U.S. dollar, as certified for customs purposes by the H.10 weekly statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board of the United States, or the Federal Reserve Board, was HK$7.7663 to US$1.00. On April 3, 2012, the noon buying rate was HK$7.7650 to US$1.00. We make no representation that any H.K. dollar or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or H.K. dollars, as the case may be, at any particular rate, the rates stated below, or at all.

 

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The following table sets forth the exchange rate as set forth in the statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board for and as of period ends indicated through April 3, 2012.

 

     Noon Buying Rate  

Period

   Period End      Average (1)      Low      High  
     (H.K. dollar per US$1.00)  

April 2012 (through April 3, 2012)

     7.7650         7.7655         7.7660         7.7650   

March 2012

     7.7656         7.7620         7.7678         7.7551   

February 2012

     7.7551         7.7544         7.7559         7.7532   

January 2012

     7.7555         7.7622         7.7674         7.7538   

December 2011

     7.7663         7.7767         7.7851         7.7663   

November 2011

     7.7730         7.7809         7.7957         7.7679   

October 2011

     7.7641         7.7774         7.7884         7.7634   

2011

     7.7663         7.7841         7.8087         7.7634   

2010

     7.7810         7.7692         7.8040         7.7501   

2009

     7.7536         7.7513         7.7618         7.7495   

2008

     7.7499         7.7814         7.8159         7.7497   

2007

     7.7984         7.8008         7.8289         7.7497   

 

(1) Annual averages are calculated from month-end rates. Monthly averages are calculated using the average of the daily rates during the relevant period.

The Pataca is pegged to the H.K. dollar at a rate of HK$1.00 = MOP1.03. All translations from Patacas to U.S. dollars in this annual report on Form 20-F were made at the exchange rate of MOP8.0134 = US$1.00. The Federal Reserve Board does not certify for customs purposes a noon buying rate for cable transfers in Patacas.

This annual report on Form 20-F also contains translations of certain Renminbi amounts into U.S. dollars. Unless otherwise stated, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars in this annual report on Form 20-F were made at the noon buying rate on December 30, 2011 in New York City for cable transfers in RMB per U.S. dollar, as certified for customs purposes by the H.10 weekly statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board, which was RMB6.2939 to US$1.00. We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or RMB, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all. On April 3, 2012, the noon buying rate was RMB6.2975 to US$1.00.

B. CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

Not applicable.

C. REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

Not applicable.

 

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D. RISK FACTORS

Our business, financial condition and results of operations can be affected materially and adversely by any of the following risk factors.

Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations in Macau

We have a short operating history, and so we are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. Our short operating history may not serve as an adequate basis to judge our future operating results and prospects.

In significant respects, we remain in an early phase of our business operations and there is limited historical information available about our company upon which you can base your evaluation of our business and prospects. In particular, City of Dreams, which contributed 65.0% of our total net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011, commenced operations on June 1, 2009, and progressively added to its operations with the opening of Grand Hyatt Macau in the fourth quarter of 2009 and the opening of The House of Dancing Water in the third quarter of 2010. The City of Dreams site is still under ongoing development. Melco Crown Gaming acquired its subconcession in September 2006 and previously did not have any direct experience operating casinos in Macau. As a result, you should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks, expenses and challenges that we will face given our limited experience operating gaming businesses in an intensely competitive market. Among other things, we have continuing obligations to satisfy and comply with conditions and covenants under our existing credit facilities so as to be able to continue to roll over existing revolving loans drawn down under the facilities and to maintain the facilities.

We may encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by companies with early stage operations, and those risks and difficulties may be heightened in a rapidly developing market such as the gaming market in Macau. Some of the risks relate to our ability to:

 

   

fulfill conditions precedent to draw down or roll over funds from current and future credit facilities;

 

   

comply with covenants under our debt issuances and credit facilities;

 

   

raise additional capital, as required;

 

   

respond to changing financing requirements;

 

   

operate, support, expand and develop our operations and our facilities;

 

   

attract and retain customers and qualified employees;

 

   

maintain effective control of our operating costs and expenses;

 

   

maintain internal personnel, systems, controls and procedures to assure compliance with the extensive regulatory requirements applicable to the gaming business as well as regulatory compliance as a public company;

 

   

respond to competitive market conditions;

 

   

respond to changes in our regulatory environment;

 

   

identify suitable locations and enter into new leases or right to use agreements (which are similar to license agreements) for new Mocha Clubs; and

 

   

renew or extend lease agreements for existing Mocha Clubs.

 

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If we are unable to complete any of these tasks, we may be unable to operate our businesses in the manner we contemplate and generate revenues from such projects in the amounts and by the times we anticipate. We may also be unable to meet the conditions to draw on our existing or future financing facilities in order to fund various activities or may suffer a default under our existing or future financing facilities. If any of these events were to occur, it would cause a material adverse effect on our business and prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We are dependent upon a limited number of properties for a substantial portion of our cash flow, we are and will be subject to greater risks than a gaming company with more operating properties.

We are primarily dependent upon City of Dreams, Altira Macau and Mocha Clubs for our cash flow. We acquired a 60% equity interest in SCI, the developer of Studio City, on July 27, 2011. While site preparation for Studio City has been substantially completed, we have not commenced construction or scheduled any opening date for Studio City. Currently, we expect to commence construction by the end of the second quarter of 2012, subject to receipt of all necessary government approvals and financing, and we estimate the construction period to be 36 months from commencement of construction. Given that our operations are and will be conducted based on a small number of principal properties, we are and will be subject to greater risks than a gaming company with more operating properties due to the limited diversification of our businesses and sources of revenues.

All our future construction projects, including the next phase of City of Dreams and Studio City, will be subject to significant development and construction risks, which could have a material adverse impact on related project timetables, costs and our ability to complete the projects.

All our future construction projects will be subject to a number of risks, including:

 

   

lack of sufficient, or delays in availability of, financing;

 

   

changes to plans and specifications;

 

   

engineering problems, including defective plans and specifications;

 

   

shortages of, and price increases in, energy, materials and skilled and unskilled labor, and inflation in key supply markets;

 

   

delays in obtaining or inability to obtain necessary permits, licenses and approvals;

 

   

changes in laws and regulations, or in the interpretation and enforcement of laws and regulations, applicable to gaming, leisure, residential, real estate development or construction projects;

 

   

labor disputes or work stoppages;

 

   

disputes with and defaults by contractors and subcontractors;

 

   

personal injuries to workers and other persons;

 

   

environmental, health and safety issues, including site accidents and the spread of viruses such as H1N1 or H5N1;

 

   

weather interferences or delays;

 

   

fires, typhoons and other natural disasters;

 

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geological, construction, excavation, regulatory and equipment problems; and

 

   

other unanticipated circumstances or cost increases.

The occurrence of any of these development and construction risks could increase the total costs, delay or prevent the construction or opening or otherwise affect the design and features of any future construction projects which we might undertake. We cannot guarantee that our construction costs or total project costs for future projects will not increase beyond amounts initially budgeted.

We could encounter substantial cost increases or delays in the development of our projects, including the next phase of City of Dreams and Studio City, which could prevent or delay the opening of such projects.

We have certain projects under development or intended to be developed pursuant to our expansion plan, including the next phase of City of Dreams and Studio City. The completion of these projects is subject to a number of contingencies, such as those mentioned above in the risk factor on development and construction risks including, in particular, adverse developments in applicable legislation, delays or failures in obtaining necessary government licenses, permits or approvals. The occurrence of any of these developments could increase the total costs or delay or prevent the construction or opening of new projects, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We will also require additional financing to develop our projects. Our ability to obtain such financing depends on a number of factors beyond our control, including market conditions, investors’ and lenders’ perceptions of, and demand for, debt and equity securities of gaming companies, credit availability and interest rates.

There is no assurance that the actual construction costs related to our projects will not exceed the costs we have projected and budgeted. In addition, construction costs, particularly labor costs, are increasing in Macau and we believe that they are likely to continue to increase due to the significant increase in building activity and the ongoing labor shortage in Macau. Immigration and labor regulations in Macau may limit or restrict our contractors’ ability to obtain sufficient laborers from China to make up for any gaps in available labor in Macau and help reduce construction costs. Continuing increases in construction costs in Macau will increase the risk that construction will not be completed on time, within budget or at all, which could materially and adversely affect our business, cash flow, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We have not yet entered into all of the definitive construction contracts necessary for the construction and development of Studio City, which could adversely impact the project costs and the project timeline.

While we have entered into some design and consultancy contracts and some preliminary contracts for site office set-up and foundation work for Studio City, we are still in the process of tendering for and negotiating the other definitive construction contracts necessary for the construction and development of Studio City. We cannot assure you that we will be able to enter into definitive construction contracts with contractors with sufficient skill, financial strength and experience on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Our ability to enter into such commercial arrangements may depend on the availability of qualified contractors and subcontractors, in addition to receipt of all necessary government approvals, the final design and development plan, funding costs, the availability of financing on terms acceptable to us and prevailing market conditions, among other variables. We may not be able to obtain guaranteed maximum price or fixed contract price terms on the various construction contracts for Studio City, which could cause us to bear greater risks of cost overruns and construction delays. If price terms of any construction contracts change due to market conditions or other circumstances, we may exceed projected and budgeted costs, which in turn could impact our ability to finance or complete the development of Studio City. Further, while site preparation for Studio City has been substantially completed, the construction period is estimated to be 36 months from commencement of construction, which we currently expect to commence by the end of the second quarter of 2012, subject to receipt of all necessary government approvals and financing. If we are unable to enter into construction contracts on terms satisfactory to us or obtain all necessary government approvals and financing, we may not be able to commence or complete

 

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construction by the estimated construction period, or at all, and all or a portion of our investment to date could be lost, resulting in an impairment charge. If we are unable to enter into satisfactory construction contracts for Studio City or are unable to closely control the construction costs and timetables for the development of Studio City, our business, financial condition and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

If we do not obtain Macau government approval for the amendment of the Studio City land concession on terms acceptable to us, we could forfeit all or part of our investment in Studio City and would not be able to open and operate that facility as planned.

Land concessions in Macau are issued by the Macau government and generally have a term of 25 years, which is renewable for further consecutive periods of up to 10 years in accordance with applicable law. The development period is typically set out in the contract and failure to develop the land within such period may entail penalties and, ultimately, reversion of the land to the Macau government. The amendment of existing land concession contracts is subject to an administrative procedure, which consists of the submission of an amendment request, the presentation of an initial amendment proposal followed by a final amendment proposal by the Macau government, the payment of additional premiums, and the publication of the amendments in the official gazette of Macau, or the Macau Official Gazette. The title to the land use right is obtained once the related land concession contract is published in the Macau Official Gazette. See “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulations — Land Use Rights.” Studio City Developments is the lessee of the plot of land on which the Studio City site is located. Since 2005, this land concession contract has been in the process of being amended, and any amendment terms may be changed by the Macau government. The amendment procedure has yet to be completed and we cannot assure you that it will be completed on terms acceptable to us. If the amendment is not completed on terms satisfactory to us and if all payments required are not made by us, we may not be able to complete and operate Studio City as planned and we could lose all or a substantial part of our investment in Studio City, which would in turn have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial position and prospects.

Any simultaneous planning, design, construction and development of the next phase of City of Dreams and Studio City may stretch our management time and resources, which could lead to delays, increased costs and other inefficiencies in the development of these projects.

We expect some portions of the planning, design and construction of the next phase of City of Dreams and the development of Studio City to proceed simultaneously. There may be overlap of the planning, design, development and construction periods of these projects involving the need for intensive work on each of the projects. Members of our senior management will be involved in planning and developing both projects at the same time, in addition to overseeing our day-to-day operations. Our management may be unable to devote sufficient time and attention to our development and construction projects, as well as our operating properties, and that may delay the construction or opening of one or both of our projects, cause construction cost overruns or cause the performance of our operating properties to be lower than expected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our senior management, and our business may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.

We place substantial reliance on the gaming, project development and hospitality industry experience and knowledge of the Macau market possessed by members of our senior management team, including our co-chairman and chief executive officer, Mr. Lawrence Ho. The loss of the services of one or more members of our senior management team could hinder our ability to effectively manage our business and implement our growth and development strategies. Finding suitable replacements for Mr. Lawrence Ho or other members of our senior management could be difficult, and competition for personnel of similar experience could be intense in Macau. In addition, we do not currently carry key person insurance on any members of our senior management team.

 

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The success of our business may depend on our ability to attract and retain adequate qualified personnel. A limited labor supply and increased competition could cause labor costs to increase.

The pool of experienced gaming and other skilled and unskilled personnel in Macau is limited. Many of our new personnel occupy sensitive positions requiring qualifications sufficient to meet gaming regulatory and other requirements or are required to possess other skills for which substantial training and experience are needed. Moreover, competition to recruit and retain qualified gaming and other personnel is expected to continue, as well as our demand for qualified personnel. In addition, we are not currently allowed under Macau government policy to hire non-Macau resident dealers, croupiers and supervisors.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to attract and retain a sufficient number of qualified individuals to operate our properties or that costs to recruit and retain such personnel will not increase significantly. The inability to attract and retain qualified employees and operational management personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business. Further, the Macau government is currently enforcing a labor policy pursuant to which the ratio of local to foreign workers that may be recruited for construction works shall have to be 1:1. This could have a material adverse effect on our ability to complete future works on our properties, for example, Studio City, or the next phase of development at City of Dreams. Moreover, if the Macau government enforces similar restrictive ratios in other areas, such as the gaming, hotel and entertainment industries, this could have a materially adverse effect on the operation of our properties.

Our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all losses that we may suffer from our operations. In addition, our insurance costs may increase or we may not be able to obtain similar insurance coverage in the future.

We currently have various insurance policies providing coverage typically required by gaming and hospitality operations in Macau. Such coverage includes property damage, business interruption and general liability. These insurance policies provide coverage that is subject to policy terms, conditions and limits. There is no assurance that we will be able to renew such insurance coverage on equivalent premium cost, terms, conditions and limits upon policy renewals. The cost of coverage may in the future become so high that we may be unable to obtain the insurance policies we deem necessary for the operation of our projects on commercially practicable terms, or at all, or we may need to reduce our policy limits or agree to certain exclusions from our coverage.

We cannot assure you that any such insurance policies we may obtain will be adequate to protect us from material losses. For example, our property insurance coverage is in an amount that may be less than the expected full replacement cost of rebuilding properties if there was a total loss. If we incur loss, damage or liability for amounts exceeding the limits of our current or future insurance coverage, or for claims outside the scope of our current or future insurance coverage, our financial conditions and business operations could be materially and adversely affected. For example, certain casualty events, such as labor strikes, nuclear events, acts of war, loss of income due to cancellation of conventions or room reservations arising from fear of terrorism, contagious or infectious disease, deterioration or corrosion, insect or animal damage and pollution may not be covered under our policies. As a result, certain acts and events could expose us to significant uninsured losses. In addition to the damages caused directly by a casualty loss such as fire or natural disasters, we may suffer a disruption of our business as a result of these events or be subject to claims by third parties who may be injured or harmed. While we currently carry business interruption insurance and general liability insurance, such insurance may not, in the future, be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and, in any event, may not be adequate to cover all losses that may result from such events.

There is limited available insurance in Macau and our insurers in Macau may need to secure reinsurance in order to provide adequate cover for our property and development projects. Our credit agreements, the subconcession contract, the indenture governing the Senior Notes and certain other material agreements require a certain level of insurance to be maintained, which must be obtained in Macau unless otherwise

 

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authorized by the Macau government. Failure to maintain adequate coverage could be an event of default under our credit agreements or the subconcession contract and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operations and results of cash flows.

Conducting business in Macau has certain political and economic risks that may lead to significant volatility and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

All of our operations are in Macau. Accordingly, our business development plans, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected by significant political, social and economic developments in Macau and China and by changes in government policies or changes in laws and regulations or the interpretations of these laws and regulations. In particular, our operating results may be adversely affected by:

 

   

changes in Macau’s and China’s political, economic and social conditions;

 

   

tightening of travel restrictions to Macau which may be imposed by China;

 

   

changes in policies of the government or changes in laws and regulations, or in the interpretation or enforcement of these laws and regulations, particularly exchange control regulations, and repatriation of capital or measures to control inflation;

 

   

measures that may be introduced to control inflation, such as interest rate increases or bank account withdrawal controls; and

 

   

changes in the rate or method of taxation.

Our operations in Macau are also exposed to the risk of changes in laws and policies that govern operations of Macau-based companies. Tax laws and regulations may also be subject to amendment or different interpretation and implementation, thereby adversely affecting our profitability after tax. Further, certain terms of our gaming subconcession may be subject to renegotiations with the Macau government in the future, including amounts we will be obligated to pay the Macau government in order to continue operations. Melco Crown Gaming’s obligations to make certain payments to the Macau government under the terms of its subconcession include a fixed annual premium per year and a variable premium depending on the number and type of gaming tables and gaming machines that we operate. The results of any renegotiations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

As we expect a significant number of patrons to come to our properties from China, general economic conditions and policies in China could have a significant impact on our financial prospects. A slowdown in economic growth and tightening of credit availability or restrictions on travel imposed by China could adversely impact the number of visitors from China to our properties in Macau as well as the amounts they are willing to spend in our casinos, which could have a material adverse effect on the results of our operations and financial condition.

The winnings of our patrons could exceed our casino winnings at particular times during our operations.

Our revenues are mainly derived from the difference between our casino winnings and the winnings of our casino patrons. Since there is an inherent element of chance in the gaming industry, we do not have full control over our winnings or the winnings of our casino patrons. If the winnings of our patrons exceed our casino winnings, we may record a loss from our gaming operations over a specific period, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

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Win rates for our casino operations depend on a variety of factors, some beyond our control, which, at particular times, adversely impact our results of operations.

In addition to the element of chance, theoretical win rates are also affected by other factors, including players’ skill and experience, the mix of games played, the financial resources of players, the spread of table limits, the volume of bets placed by our players and the amount of time players spend on gambling — thus our actual win rates may differ greatly over short time periods, such as from quarter to quarter, and could cause our quarterly results to be volatile. Each of these factors, alone or in combination, have the potential to negatively impact our win rates, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Our gaming business is subject to the risk of cheating and counterfeiting.

All gaming activities at our table games are conducted exclusively with gaming chips which, like real currency, are subject to the risk of alteration and counterfeiting. We incorporate a variety of security and anti-counterfeit features to detect altered or counterfeit gaming chips. Despite such security features, unauthorized parties may try to copy our gaming chips and introduce, use and cash in altered or counterfeit gaming chips in our gaming areas. Any negative publicity arising from such incidents could also tarnish our reputation and may result in a decline in our business, financial condition and results of operation.

Our existing surveillance and security systems, designed and periodically reviewed to detect cheating at our casino operations, may not be able to detect all such cheating in time or at all, particularly if patrons collude with our employees. In addition, our gaming promoters or other persons could, without our knowledge, enter into betting arrangements directly with our casino patrons on the outcomes of our games of chance, thus depriving us of revenues.

Our operations are reviewed to detect and prevent cheating. Each game has a theoretical win rate and statistics are examined with these in mind. Cheating may give rise to negative publicity and such action may materially affect our business, financial condition, operations and cash flows.

Because we depend upon our properties in Macau for all of our cash flow, we will be subject to greater risks than a gaming company that operates in more than one market.

We are and will be primarily dependent upon City of Dreams, Altira Macau and Mocha Clubs for our cash flow. Following construction and commencement of operations, Studio City will also contribute to cash flows. Our current operations are and are expected to be conducted only at properties in Macau, so we will be subject to greater risks than a gaming company with operating properties in several markets. These risks include:

 

   

dependence on the gaming and leisure market in Macau and limited diversification of our businesses and sources of revenues;

 

   

a decline in economic, competitive and political conditions in Macau or generally in Asia;

 

   

inaccessibility to Macau due to inclement weather, road construction or closure of primary access routes;

 

   

a decline in air or ferry passenger traffic to Macau due to higher ticket costs, fears concerning travel or otherwise;

 

   

travel restrictions to Macau imposed now or in the future by China;

 

   

changes in Macau governmental laws and regulations, or interpretations thereof, including gaming laws and regulations;

 

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natural and other disasters, including typhoons, outbreaks of infectious diseases or terrorism, affecting Macau;

 

   

that the number of visitors to Macau does not increase at the rate that we have expected;

 

   

relaxation of regulations on gaming laws in other regional economies that would compete with the Macau market; and

 

   

a decrease in gaming activities at our properties.

Any of these conditions or events could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Terrorism and the uncertainty of war, economic downturns and other factors affecting discretionary consumer spending and leisure travel may reduce visitation to Macau and harm our operating results.

The strength and profitability of our business depends on consumer demand for casino resorts and leisure travel in general. Changes in Asian consumer preferences or discretionary consumer spending could harm our business. Terrorist acts could have a negative impact on international travel and leisure expenditures, including lodging, gaming and tourism. We cannot predict the extent to which future terrorist acts may affect us, directly or indirectly. In addition to fears of war and future acts of terrorism, other factors affecting discretionary consumer spending, including general economic conditions, amounts of disposable consumer income, fears of recession and lack of consumer confidence in the economy, may negatively impact our business. Consumer demand for hotel, casino resorts and the type of luxury amenities we currently offer and plan to offer in the future are highly sensitive to downturns in the economy. An extended period of reduced discretionary spending and/or disruptions or declines in airline travel could significantly harm our operations.

An outbreak of the highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by the H5N1 virus (avian flu or bird flu), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, or H1N1 virus (swine flu) or other contagious disease may have an adverse effect on the economies of certain Asian countries and may adversely affect our results of operations.

During 2004, large parts of Asia experienced unprecedented outbreaks of avian flu which, according to a report of the World Health Organization, or WHO, in 2004, placed the world at risk of an influenza pandemic with high mortality and social and economic disruption. As of April 5, 2012, the WHO confirmed a total of 354 fatalities in a total number of 601 cases reported to the WHO, which only reports laboratory confirmed cases of avian flu since 2003. In particular, Guangdong Province, PRC, which is located across the Zhuhai Border from Macau, has confirmed several cases of avian flu. Currently, fully effective avian flu vaccines have not been developed and there is evidence that the H5N1 virus is evolving so there can be no assurance that an effective vaccine can be discovered in time to protect against the potential avian flu pandemic. In the first half of 2003, certain countries in Asia experienced an outbreak of SARS, a highly contagious form of atypical pneumonia, which seriously interrupted economic activities and caused the demand for goods and services to plummet in the affected regions.

In April 2009, there was an outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus which originated in Mexico but has since spread globally including confirmed reports in Indonesia, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, and elsewhere in Asia. More recently, the Influenza A (H1N1) virus have been detected in Africa and Asia. Human infections have been reported to WHO from Cambodia, Hong Kong, Egypt and Indonesia. Indonesia also recently confirmed its first Influenza A (H1N1) linked death. The Influenza A (H1N1) virus is believed to be highly contagious and may not be easily contained. There can be no assurance that an outbreak of avian flu, SARS, H1N1 (swine flu) or other contagious disease or the measures taken by the governments of affected countries against such potential outbreaks, will not seriously interrupt our gaming operations or visitation to Macau, which may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. The perception that an outbreak of

 

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avian flu, SARS or other contagious disease may occur again may also have an adverse effect on the economic conditions of countries in Asia.

Our gaming operations could be adversely affected by restrictions on the export of the Renminbi and limitations of the Pataca exchange markets.

Gaming operators in Macau are currently prohibited from accepting wagers in Renminbi, the currency of China. There are currently restrictions on the export of the Renminbi outside of mainland China, including to Macau. For example, Chinese traveling abroad are only allowed to take a total of RMB20,000 plus the equivalent of up to US$5,000 out of China. Restrictions on the export of the Renminbi may impede the flow of gaming customers from China to Macau, inhibit the growth of gaming in Macau and negatively impact our operations. Our revenues in Macau are denominated in H.K. dollars and Patacas, the legal currency of Macau. Any depegging may result in volatile fluctuations in the exchange rates for these currencies.

The currency market for Patacas is relatively small and undeveloped and therefore our ability to convert large amounts of Patacas into U.S. dollars over a relatively short period of time may be limited. As a result, we may experience difficulty in converting Patacas into U.S. dollars, which could hinder our ability to service a portion of our indebtedness and certain expenses denominated in U.S. dollars.

Unfavorable fluctuations in the currency exchange rates of the H.K. dollar, U.S. dollar or Pataca could adversely affect our indebtedness, expenses and profitability.

Our exposure to foreign exchange rate risk is associated with the currency of our operations and our indebtedness and as a result of the presentation of our financial statements in U.S. dollars. The majority of our revenues are denominated in H.K. dollars, given the H.K. dollar is the predominant currency used in gaming transactions in Macau and is often used interchangeably with the Pataca in Macau, while our expenses are denominated predominantly in Patacas. In addition, a significant portion of our indebtedness, as a result of the Senior Notes, and certain expenses, are denominated in U.S. dollars, and the costs associated with servicing and repaying such debt will be denominated in U.S. dollars.

The value of the H.K. dollar and Patacas against the U.S. dollar may fluctuate and may be affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions. While the H.K. dollar is pegged to the U.S. dollar within a narrow range and the Pataca is in turn pegged to the H.K. dollar and the exchange rates between these currencies has remained relatively stable over the past several years, we cannot assure you that the current peg or linkages between the U.S. dollar, H.K. dollar and Pataca will not be broken or modified and subjected to fluctuation. Any significant fluctuations in the exchange rates between H.K. dollars or Patacas to U.S. dollars may have a material adverse effect on our revenues and financial condition. For example, to the extent that we are required to convert U.S. dollar financings into H.K. dollars or Patacas for our operations, fluctuations in the exchange rates between H.K. dollars or Patacas against the U.S. dollar could have an adverse effect on the amounts we receive from the conversion.

While we maintain a certain amount of our operating funds in the same currencies in which we have obligations to reduce our exposure to currency fluctuations, we have not engaged in hedging transactions with respect to foreign exchange exposure of our revenues and expenses in our day-to-day operations during the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010. We will consider our overall procedure for managing our foreign exchange risk from time to time, but we cannot assure you that any such procedures will enable us to obtain and achieve effective hedging of our foreign exchange risk, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

 

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We may undertake mergers, acquisitions or strategic transactions that could result in operating difficulties and distraction from our current business.

We may in the future acquire or make investments in companies or projects to expand or complement our existing operations. From time to time, we engage in discussions and negotiations with companies regarding our acquiring or investing in such companies or projects. Even if we do identify suitable opportunities, we may not be able to make such acquisitions or investments on commercially acceptable terms, adequate financing may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all, and we may not be able to consummate a proposed acquisition or investment. In addition, if we acquire or invest in another company or project, the integration process following the completion of such acquisition may prove more difficult than anticipated. We may be subject to liabilities or claims that we are not aware of at the time of the investment or acquisition, and we may not realize the benefits anticipated at the time of the investment or acquisition. These difficulties could disrupt our ongoing business, distract our management and employees, increase our expenses and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

Litigation, disputes and regulatory investigations may adversely affect our profitability and financial condition.

We are, and may be in the future, subject to legal actions, disputes and regulatory investigations in the ordinary course of our business. For instance, if we are unsuccessful in defending our subsidiary against certain claims alleging that it received misappropriated or misapplied funds, this may require further improvements to our existing anti-money laundering, or AML, procedures, systems and controls and our business operations may be subject to greater scrutiny from relevant regulatory authorities, all of which may increase our compliance costs. No assurance can be provided that any provisions we have made for such matters will be sufficient. Our results of operations or cash flows may be adversely affected by an unfavorable resolution of any pending or future litigation, disputes and regulatory investigation.

Ama and its individual guarantor might not be able to repay us the amounts outstanding under the settlement agreements, and, consequently, we may not be able to recover such amounts in the expected time or at all.

On March 23, 2010, Melco Crown Gaming initiated executory proceedings against Ama International Limited, or Ama, and Ms. Mei Huan Chen, an individual guarantor of Ama, for recovery of certain amounts outstanding and owed by Ama, a former gaming promoter for Altira Macau. On July 29, 2011, Melco Crown Gaming, Ama and Ms. Chen entered into settlement agreements. As part of the settlement, on September 1, 2011, Ama submitted a request to terminate the civil action filed against Melco Crown Gaming, and Ama and Ms. Chen filed the relevant requests to terminate all incidental proceedings against Melco Crown Gaming. Pursuant to the settlement agreements, Ama and Ms. Chen agreed to pay approximately HK$249.2 million (US$32.0 million) in monthly installments, with the last installment to be paid on May 30, 2013. As of April 3, 2012, Ama and Ms. Chen have paid a total of HK$118.1 million (US$15.2 million). While Ms. Chen has mortgaged and pledged certain assets to secure payment of outstanding amounts, there can be no assurance that Ama and Ms. Chen will be able to pay such amounts in a timely manner or at all. If Ama and Ms. Chen are unable to pay us the amounts outstanding under the settlement agreements, we may not be able to recover the amounts in debt owed to us by Ama in the expected time or at all, and our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We extend credit to a portion of our customers, and we may not be able to collect gaming receivables from our credit customers.

We conduct, and expect to continue to conduct, our table gaming activities at our casinos on a credit basis as well as a cash basis. As is common practice in Macau, we grant credit to our gaming promoters and certain of our premium direct players. The gaming promoters bear the responsibility for issuing to, and subsequently collecting credit, from their players. This credit is often unsecured, as is customary in our industry. High-end patrons typically are extended more credit than patrons who wager lower amounts.

 

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We may not be able to collect all of our gaming receivables from our credit customers. We expect that we will be able to enforce our gaming receivables only in a limited number of jurisdictions, including Macau and under certain circumstances, Hong Kong. As most of our gaming customers are visitors from other jurisdictions, principally Hong Kong and China, we may not have access to a forum in which we will be able to collect all of our gaming receivables because, among other reasons, courts of many jurisdictions, including China, do not enforce gaming debts. Further, we may be unable to locate assets in other jurisdictions against which to seek recovery of gaming debts. The collectability of receivables from international customers could be negatively affected by future business or economic trends or by significant events in the countries in which these customers reside. We may also in given cases have to determine whether aggressive enforcement actions against a customer will unduly alienate the customer and cause the customer to cease playing at our casinos. We could suffer a material adverse impact on our operating results if receivables from our credit customers are deemed uncollectible. In addition, in the event a patron has been extended credit and has lost back to us the amount borrowed and the receivable from that patron is deemed uncollectible, Macau gaming tax will still be payable on the resulting gaming revenues, notwithstanding our uncollectible receivable. An estimated allowance for doubtful debts is maintained to reduce our receivables to their carrying amounts, which approximate fair values.

The current credit environment may limit availability of credit to gaming patrons and may negatively impact our revenues.

We conduct our table gaming activities at our casinos on a credit basis as well as a cash basis and our gaming promoters conduct their operations by extending credit to gaming patrons. The general economic downturn and turmoil in the financial markets have placed broad limitations on the availability of credit from credit sources as well as lengthening the recovery cycle of extended credit. Any severe contraction of liquidity in the global credit markets may make it difficult and costly to obtain new lines of credit or to refinance existing debt. Our business and financing plans may be dependent upon completion of future financings. If the credit environment worsens, it may be difficult to obtain any additional financing on acceptable terms, which could adversely affect our ability to complete development projects. Continued tightening of liquidity conditions in credit markets may constrain revenue generation and growth and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business may face a higher level of volatility due to the current weighting of rolling chip in our revenues base.

A substantial proportion of our casino revenues is generated from the rolling chip segment of the gaming market. The revenues generated from the rolling chip segment of the gaming market are acutely volatile primarily due to high bets, and the resulting high winnings and losses. As a result, our business and results of operations and cash flows from operations may be more volatile from quarter to quarter than that of our competitors and may require higher levels of cage cash in reserve to manage this volatility.

We depend upon gaming promoters for a portion of our gaming revenues and if we are unable to establish, maintain and increase the number of successful relationships with gaming promoters, our ability to attract rolling chip patrons may be adversely affected.

Gaming promoters, who organize tours for rolling chip patrons to casinos in Macau, are responsible for a portion of our gaming revenues in Macau. With the rise in casino operations in Macau, the competition for relationships with gaming promoters has increased. As of December 31, 2011, we had agreements in place with approximately 86 gaming promoters. If we are unable to utilize and develop relationships with gaming promoters, our ability to grow our gaming revenues will be hampered and we will have to seek alternative ways to develop and maintain relationships with rolling chip patrons, which may not be as profitable as relationships developed through gaming promoters. As competition intensifies we may therefore need to offer better terms of business to gaming promoters, including extensions of credit, which may increase our overall credit exposure. If our gaming promoters are not able to maintain relationships with patrons, our ability to maintain or grow casino revenues may be adversely affected.

 

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A cap on commission payments to gaming promoters, including any allowances, is set by the Macau government at 1.25% of rolling chip volume. This cap was introduced in September 2009 and has been enforced from December 2009 and has affected our gaming promoters and the level of their incentives but has thus far not materially affected our revenues. If, however, the Macau government further reduces the cap on the commission rates payable to gaming promoters to a level lower than the maximum 1.25% we are currently permitted to pay, gaming promoters’ incentives to bring travelers to our casinos would be further diminished, and certain of our gaming promoters may be forced to cease operations. If this were to happen, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We are impacted by the reputation and integrity of the parties with whom we engage in business activities and we cannot assure you that these parties will always maintain high standards or suitability throughout the term of our association with them. Failure to maintain such high standards or suitability may cause us and our shareholders to suffer harm to our own and the shareholders’ reputation, as well as impaired relationships with, and possibly sanctions from, gaming regulators.

The reputation and integrity of the parties with whom we engage in business activities, in particular those who are engaged in gaming related activities, such as gaming promoters, and developers and hotel operators that do not hold concessions or subconcessions and with which we have or may enter into services agreements, are important to our own reputation and to Melco Crown Gaming’s ability to continue to operate in compliance with its subconcession. Under Macau Law no. 16/2001, or the Macau Gaming Law, Melco Crown Gaming has an obligation to supervise its gaming promoters to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations and serious breaches or repeated misconduct by its gaming promoters could result in the termination of its subconcession. For parties we deal with in gaming related activities, where relevant, the gaming regulators undertake their own probity checks and will reach their own suitability findings in respect of the activities and parties which we intend to associate with. In addition, we also conduct our internal due diligence and evaluation process prior to engaging such parties. Notwithstanding such regulatory probity checks and our own due diligence, we cannot assure you that the parties with whom we are associated will always maintain the high standards that gaming regulators and we require or that such parties will maintain their suitability throughout the term of our association with them. If we were to deal with any party whose probity was in doubt, this may reflect negatively on our own probity when assessed by the gaming regulators. Also, if a party associated with us falls below the gaming regulators’ suitability standards, we and our shareholders may suffer harm to our and the shareholders’ reputation, as well as impaired relationships with, and possibly sanctions from, gaming regulators with authority over our operations.

In particular, the reputations of the gaming promoters we deal with are important to our own reputation and Melco Crown Gaming’s ability to continue to operate in compliance with its subconcession. While we endeavor to ensure high standards of probity and integrity in the gaming promoters with whom we are associated, we cannot assure you that the gaming promoters with whom we are associated will always maintain such high standards. If we were to deal with a gaming promoter whose probity was in doubt or who failed to operate in compliance with Macau law consistently, this may be considered by regulators or investors to reflect negatively on our own probity and compliance records. If a gaming promoter falls below our standards of probity, integrity and legal compliance, we and our shareholders may suffer harm to our or their reputation, as well as worsened relationships with, and possibly sanctions from, gaming and other regulators with authority over our operations or us.

Any violation of the FCPA could have a negative impact on us.

We are subject to regulations imposed by the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, and other anti-corruption laws which if violated may result in severe criminal and civil sanctions as well as other penalties. There has been a general increase in FCPA enforcement activity in recent years by the SEC and U.S. Department of Justice. Both the number of FCPA cases and sanctions imposed have risen dramatically. We have in place an ongoing FCPA compliance program which includes internal policies, procedures and training aimed to prevent and detect compliance issues and risks with these laws. However, we cannot assure you that our employees,

 

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contractors and agents will continually adhere to our compliance programs. Should they not follow our programs, we could be subject to investigations, prosecutions and other legal proceedings and actions which could result in civil penalties, administrative remedies and criminal sanctions, any of which may result in a material adverse effect on our financial condition. As a U.S. listed company with gaming operations in Macau, compliance with U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our operations increases our cost of doing business. We also deal in significant amounts of cash in our operations and are subject to various reporting and AML regulations. Any violation of AML laws or regulations by us could have a negative effect on our results of operations.

A failure to establish and protect our intellectual property rights could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have registered the trademarks “Altira,” “Mocha Club,” “City of Dreams” and “Melco Crown Entertainment” in Macau and other jurisdictions. We have also registered in Macau and other jurisdictions certain other trademarks and service marks used in connection with the operations of our hotel casino projects in Macau. We endeavor to establish and protect our intellectual property rights and our goods and services through trademarks and service marks, domain names, licenses and other contractual provisions. The brands we use in connection with our properties are beginning to gain recognition. Failure to possess, obtain or maintain adequate protection of our intellectual property rights could negatively impact the development of our brands and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, if a third party claims we have infringed, currently infringe, or could in the future infringe its intellectual property rights, we may need to cease use of such intellectual property or incur substantial expenses to defend ourselves against such allegations, or if third parties misappropriate or infringe our intellectual property, we may need to take steps to protect our intellectual property that may result in substantial expenses, all of which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The audit report included in this annual report has been prepared by auditors whose work may not be inspected fully by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and, as such, you may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, our independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit reports included in our annual reports filed with the SEC, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or the PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards.

While we have offices in both Hong Kong and Macau and a substantial part of our operations is located in Macau, we do not have substantial operations within mainland China (outside of Hong Kong and Macau). The work of our auditor in Hong Kong has been subject to PCAOB review in the past. However, because many of our auditor’s other clients have substantial operations within mainland China, and the PCAOB has been unable to complete inspections of the work of our auditor as it relates to those operations within mainland China without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is not currently inspected fully by the PCAOB.

Inspections of other firms that the PCAOB has conducted outside mainland China have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The lack of PCAOB inspections in mainland China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor’s audit procedures and quality control procedures as they relate to their work in mainland China. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of such regular inspections.

The inability of the PCAOB to conduct full inspections of auditors in mainland China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared

 

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to auditors who primarily work in jurisdictions where PCAOB has full inspection access. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

Risks Relating to the Gaming Industry in Macau

We face intense competition in Macau and elsewhere in Asia. We may not be able to compete successfully and may lose or be unable to gain market share.

The hotel, resort and casino businesses are highly competitive. Our competitors in Macau and elsewhere in Asia include many of the largest gaming, hospitality, leisure and resort companies in the world. Some of these current and future competitors are larger than we are and may have more diversified resources and greater access to capital to support their developments and operations in Macau and elsewhere. In particular, some of our competitors have announced intentions for further expansion and developments in Cotai, where City of Dreams is, and Studio City will be, located. For example, Galaxy opened Galaxy Macau Resort in Cotai in May 2011 and Sands China Ltd., a subsidiary of Las Vegas Sands Corporation, opened Sands Cotai Central in Cotai in April 2012. See “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Market and Competition.”

We also compete to some extent with casinos located in other countries, such as Malaysia, South Korea, the Philippines, Cambodia, Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere in the world, including Las Vegas and Atlantic City in the United States. In addition, certain countries, such as Singapore have legalized casino gaming and others may in the future legalize casino gaming, including Japan, Taiwan and Thailand. Singapore awarded a casino license to Las Vegas Sands and a second casino license to the Genting Group in 2006. The Genting Group opened its casino in February 2010 and Las Vegas Sands opened its casino in April 2010. We also compete with cruise ships operating out of Hong Kong and other areas of Asia that offer gaming. The proliferation of gaming venues in Southeast Asia could also significantly and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

Currently, Macau is the only region in China offering legal casino gaming. Although the Chinese government has strictly enforced its regulations prohibiting domestic gaming operations, there may be casinos in parts of mainland China that are operated illegally and without licenses. Competition from illegal casinos in mainland China could adversely affect our business, cash flow, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our regional competitors also include Crown’s Crown Entertainment Complex in Melbourne, Australia and Burswood Entertainment Complex in Perth, Australia and other casino resorts that Melco and Crown may develop elsewhere in Asia outside Macau. Melco and Crown may develop different interests and strategies for projects in Asia under their joint venture which conflict with the interests of our business in Macau or otherwise compete with us for Asian gaming and leisure customers. See “— Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Ownership.”

The Macau government could grant additional rights to conduct gaming in the future, which could significantly increase competition in Macau and cause us to lose or be unable to gain market share.

Melco Crown Gaming is one of six companies authorized by the Macau government to operate gaming activities in Macau. Pursuant to the terms of Macau Law No. 16/2001, or the Macau Gaming Law, the Macau government is precluded from granting more than three gaming concessions. The Macau government has announced that until further assessment of the economic situation in Macau there will not be any increase in the number of concessions or subconcessions. However, the policies and laws of the Macau government could change and the Macau government could grant additional concessions or subconcessions, and we could face additional competition which could significantly increase the competition in Macau and cause us to lose or be unable to maintain or gain market share.

 

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Gaming is a highly regulated industry in Macau and adverse changes or developments in gaming laws or regulations could be difficult to comply with or significantly increase our costs, which could cause our projects to be unsuccessful.

Gaming is a highly regulated industry in Macau. Current laws, such as licensing requirements, tax rates and other regulatory obligations, including those for AML, could change or become more stringent resulting in additional regulations being imposed upon the gaming operations in the Altira Macau casino, the City of Dreams casino, the Mocha Clubs and other future projects including our Studio City project and any other locations we may operate from time to time. Any such adverse developments in the regulation of the gaming industry could be difficult to comply with and could significantly increase our costs, which could cause our projects to be unsuccessful.

In September 2009, the Macau government set a cap on commission payments to gaming promoters, including allowances, of 1.25% of net rolling. This policy, which is being enforced as of December 2009, may limit our ability to develop successful relationships with gaming promoters and attract rolling chip patrons. Any failure to comply with these regulations may result in the imposition of liabilities, fines and other penalties and may materially and adversely affect our gaming subconcession.

New smoking control legislation came into effect on January 1, 2012 and prohibits smoking in casinos from January 1, 2013. The legislation however permits casinos to maintain designated smoking areas of up to 50% of the areas open to the public which must be created on or before January 1, 2013.

The Macau government is currently considering raising the minimum age required for the entrance in casinos in Macau from 18 years of age to 21 years of age. In respect of current employees who may be subject to this regulation, it is proposed that employees shall maintain their positions while in the process of reaching the minimum required age and it is further proposed that the director of the Direcção de Inspecção e Coordenação de Jogos (the Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau), a department of the Public Administration of Macau, or the DICJ, may authorize employees under 21 years of age to temporarily enter the casino after considering their special technical qualifications. If implemented, this could adversely affect our ability to engage sufficient staff for the operation of our projects.

In March 2010, the Macau government announced that the number of gaming tables operating in Macau should not exceed 5,500 until the end of the first quarter of 2013. According to the DICJ, the number of gaming tables in Macau as of December 31, 2011, was 5,302. On September 19, 2011, the Secretary for Economy and Finance of the Macau government announced that for a period of 10 years from 2014, the total number of gaming tables to be authorized in Macau will be limited to an annual increase of 3%. This restriction may adversely affect the future expansion of our business. These restrictions are of non-statutory nature and different policies, including on the annual increase rate in the number of gaming tables, may be adopted at any time by the relevant Macau government authorities.

Also, the Macau government announced on April 22, 2008 that it intends to restrict the ability of operators to open slot lounges, such as our Mocha Clubs, in residential areas. Early this year, the Macau government publicly stated that new legislation is being prepared, pursuant to which slot lounges shall cease to be operated in residential areas. According to the said statement, the new legislation shall only allow the operation of slot machine lounges within the premises of casinos, within a radius of 300 to 500 meters therefrom or in hotels and commercial buildings. The new legislation may limit our ability to find new sites or maintain existing sites for the operation of our Mocha Clubs. We currently only have one Mocha Club, Marina Plaza, in an area that may be considered to be a residential area. To date, the Macau government has not issued any formal specific instructions for Melco Crown Gaming to close or relocate such Mocha Club, but we understand that the Macau government expects such closure to take place within a timeframe to be defined with us. If Melco Crown Gaming were to receive specific instructions from the Macau government, we intend that it complies with the Macau government’s instructions.

Further, we are subject to data privacy legislation such as the Personal Data Protection Act of Macau. Our business requires the collection and retention of customer data, including credit card numbers and other personally identifiable information of our customers. We are also required under applicable law to collect and retain personal data in respect of our employees. While we believe that our system and practices are adequate to

 

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meet applicable legal and regulatory requirements in Macau with regard to the collection, retention and processing of personal data, our information technology system may be unable to satisfy changing regulatory requirements, or may require additional investments or time in order to do so. In addition, our information technology system and records may be subject to security breaches, system failures, viruses, operator error or inadvertent releases of personal data. A significant loss, theft or fraudulent use of personal data maintained by us or other any breach by us of the Personal Data Protection Act of Macau could adversely affect our reputation and could result in criminal or administrative penalties, in addition to any civil liability and other expenses.

Current Macau laws and regulations concerning gaming and gaming concessions and matters such as prevention of money laundering are, for the most part, fairly recent and there is little precedent on the interpretation of these laws and regulations. These laws and regulations are complex and a court or an administrative or regulatory body may in the future render an interpretation of these laws and regulations or issue new or modified regulations that differ from our interpretation, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

Our activities in Macau are subject to administrative review and approval by various agencies of the Macau government. For example, our activities are subject to the administrative review and approval by the DICJ, the Health Department, Labor Bureau, Land, Public Works and Transport Bureau, Fire Department, Finance Department and the Macau Government Tourism Office. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain all necessary approvals, which may materially affect our business and operations. Macau law permits redress to the courts with respect to administrative actions. However, such redress is largely untested in relation to gaming regulatory issues.

The harshest penalty that may be imposed on us for failure to comply with the complex legal and regulatory regime in Macau is revocation of the subconcession. Under the subconcession, the Macau government has the right to unilaterally terminate the subconcession in the event of non-compliance by Melco Crown Gaming with its basic obligations under the subconcession and applicable Macau laws. If such a termination were to occur, Melco Crown Gaming would be unable to operate casino gaming in Macau. We would also be unable to recover the US$900 million consideration paid to Wynn Macau for the issue of the subconcession. For a list of termination events, please see “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulations — The Subconcession — The Subconcession Contract.” These events could lead to the termination of Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession without compensation to Melco Crown Gaming. In many of these instances, the subconcession contract does not provide a specific cure period within which any such events may be cured and, instead, we would rely on consultations and negotiations with the Macau government to remedy any such violation.

Based on information from the Macau government, proposed amendments to the legislation with regard to reversion of casino premises are being considered. We expect that if such amendments take effect, on the expiry or any termination of Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession, unless Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession were extended, only that portion of casino premises within our developments as then designated with the approval of the Macau government, including all gaming equipment, would revert to the Macau government automatically without compensation to us. Until such amendments come into effect, all of our casino premises and gaming equipment would revert automatically without compensation to us.

The subconcession contract contains various general covenants, obligations and other provisions as to which the determination of compliance is subjective. For example, compliance with general and special duties of cooperation, special duties of information, and with obligations foreseen for the execution of our investment plan may be subjective. We cannot assure you that we will perform such covenants in a way that satisfies the requirements of the Macau government and, accordingly, we will be dependent on our continuing communications and good faith negotiations with the Macau government to ensure that we are performing our obligations under the subconcession in a manner that would avoid any violations.

Under Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession, the Macau government is allowed to request various changes in the plans and specifications of our Macau properties and to make various other decisions and determinations that may be binding on us. For example, the Chief Executive of the Macau SAR has the right to require that we increase Melco Crown Gaming’s share capital or that we provide certain deposits or other

 

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guarantees of performance with respect to the obligations of our Macau subsidiaries in any amount determined by the Macau government to be necessary. Melco Crown Gaming is limited in its ability to raise additional capital by the need to first obtain the approval of the Macau governmental authorities before raising certain debt or equity. Melco Crown Gaming’s ability to incur debt or raise equity may also be restricted by our existing and any future loan facilities. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with these requirements or any other requirements of the Macau government or with the other requirements and obligations imposed by the subconcession.

Furthermore, pursuant to the subconcession contract, we are obligated to comply not only with the terms of that agreement, but also with laws, regulations, rulings and orders that the Macau government might promulgate in the future. We cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with any such laws, regulations, rulings or orders or that any such laws, regulations, rulings or orders would not adversely affect our ability to construct or operate our Macau properties. If any disagreement arises between us and the Macau government regarding the interpretation of, or our compliance with, a provision of the subconcession contract, we will be relying on the consultation and negotiation process with the applicable Macau governmental agency described above. During any such consultation, however, we will be obligated to comply with the terms of the subconcession contract as interpreted by the Macau government.

Melco Crown Gaming’s failure to comply with the terms of its subconcession in a manner satisfactory to the Macau government could result in the termination of its subconcession. We cannot assure you that Melco Crown Gaming would always be able to operate gaming activities in a manner satisfactory to the Macau government. The loss of its subconcession would prohibit Melco Crown Gaming from conducting gaming operations in Macau, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and could result in defaults under our indebtedness agreements and a partial or complete loss of our investments in our projects.

Currently, there is no precedent on how the Macau government will treat the termination of a concession or subconcession upon the occurrence of any of the circumstances mentioned above. Some of the laws and regulations summarized above have not yet been applied by the Macau government. Therefore, the scope and enforcement of the provisions of Macau’s gaming regulatory system cannot be fully assessed at this time.

Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession contract expires in 2022 and if we were unable to secure an extension of its subconcession in 2022 or if the Macau government were to exercise its redemption right in 2017, we would be unable to operate casino gaming in Macau.

The subconcession contract expires on June 26, 2022. Unless it is extended beyond this date or legislation on reversion of casino premises is amended, all of our casino premises and gaming related equipment under Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession will automatically be transferred to the Macau government without compensation and we will cease to generate revenues from such operations. Under the subconcession contract, beginning in 2017, the Macau government has the right to redeem the subconcession contract by providing us with at least one year’s prior notice. In the event the Macau government exercises this redemption right, we would be entitled to fair compensation or indemnity. The standards for the calculation of the amount of such compensation or indemnity would be determined based on the gross revenues generated by City of Dreams during the tax year immediately prior to the redemption, multiplied by the remaining term of the subconcession. We would not receive any further compensation (including for consideration paid to Wynn Macau for the subconcession). We cannot assure you that Melco Crown Gaming would be able to renew or extend the subconcession contract on terms favorable to us, or at all. We also cannot assure you that if the subconcession was redeemed, the compensation paid would be adequate to compensate us for the loss of future revenues.

Melco Crown Gaming’s tax exemption from complementary tax on income from gaming operations under the subconcession tax will expire in 2016, and we may not be able to extend it.

Companies in Macau are subject to complementary tax of up to 12% of taxable income, as defined in relevant tax laws, and gaming revenues are subject to a 35% special gaming tax as well as other levies of 4% under the subconcession contract. The other levies are subject to change on renegotiation of the subconcession

 

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contract and as a result of any change in relevant laws. The Macau government granted to Melco Crown Gaming the benefit of a corporate tax holiday from complementary tax on gaming income in Macau from 2007 to 2011 and the exemption has been extended for five years from 2012 to 2016. However, we cannot assure you that it will be extended beyond the expiration date.

Visitation to Macau may decline due to increased restrictions on visitations to Macau from citizens of mainland China.

A significant number of our gaming customers come from mainland China. Any travel restrictions imposed by China could disrupt the number of patrons visiting our properties from mainland China. Since mid 2003, under the Individual Visit Scheme, or IVS, mainland Chinese citizens from certain cities have been able to travel to Macau on an individual visa application basis, and did not need to join a tour group which they would have otherwise been required to. In mid 2008, the Chinese government adjusted its IVS visa policy toward Macau and limited the number of visits that some mainland Chinese citizens may make to Macau in a given time period. In addition, in May 2009, China placed certain restrictions on the operations of “below-cost” tour groups that involve low up-front payments and compulsory shopping. It is not known when, or if, policies similar to those implemented previously restricting visitation by mainland Chinese citizens to Macau and Hong Kong, will be put in place and visa policies may be adjusted, without notice, in the future. A decrease in the number of visitors from mainland China may adversely affect our results of operations.

We cannot assure you that AML policies that we have implemented, and compliance with applicable AML laws, will be totally effective to prevent our casino operations from being exploited for money laundering purposes.

Macau’s free port, offshore financial services and free movements of capital create an environment whereby Macau’s casinos could be exploited for money laundering purposes. We have implemented AML policies in compliance with all applicable AML laws and regulations in Macau. We cannot assure you that any such policies will be effective in preventing our casino operations from being exploited for money laundering purposes, including from jurisdictions outside of Macau. In the normal course of business, we expect to be required by regulatory authorities from Macau and other jurisdictions to attend meetings and interviews from time to time to discuss our operations as they relate to AML laws and regulations.

Any incident of money laundering, accusation of money laundering or regulatory investigations into possible money laundering activities involving us, our employees, our gaming promoters or our customers could have a material adverse impact on our reputation, business, cash flows, financial condition, prospects and results of operations. Any serious incident of or repeated violation of laws related to money laundering or regulatory investigation into money laundering activities may cause a revocation or suspension of the subconcession. For more information regarding Macau’s AML regulations, see “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulations — AML Regulations.”

If Macau’s transportation infrastructure does not adequately support the development of Macau’s gaming and leisure industry, visitation to Macau may not increase as currently expected, which may adversely affect our projects.

Macau consists of a peninsula and two islands and is connected to China by two border crossings. Macau has an international airport and connections to China and Hong Kong by road, ferry and helicopter. To support Macau’s planned future development as a gaming and leisure destination, the frequency of bus, plane and ferry services to Macau will need to increase. While various projects are under development to improve Macau’s internal and external transportation links, these projects may not be approved, financed or constructed in time to handle the projected increase in demand for transportation or at all, which could impede the expected increase in visitation to Macau and adversely affect our projects.

 

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Macau is susceptible to extreme weather conditions that may have an adverse impact on our operations.

Macau is susceptible to extreme weather conditions including severe typhoons and heavy rainstorms. Macau consists of a peninsula and two islands off the coast of mainland China. Unfavorable weather conditions could prevent or discourage guests from traveling to Macau. In the event of a severe typhoon or other natural disaster in Macau, our properties and business may be severely disrupted and our results of operations could be adversely affected.

Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Ownership

Our existing shareholders will have a substantial influence over us, and their interests in our business may be different than yours.

Melco and Crown together own a substantial majority of our outstanding shares, with each beneficially holding approximately 33.57% of our outstanding shares (exclusive of any shares represented by ADSs held by Melco Crown SPV Limited, or SPV) as of April 3, 2012. Melco and Crown have entered into a shareholders deed regarding the voting of their shares of our company under which each agrees to, among other things, vote its shares in favor of three nominees to our board designated by the other. As a result, Melco and Crown, if they act together, will have the power, among other things, to elect directors to our board, including six of ten directors who are designated nominees of Crown and Melco, appoint and change our management, affect our legal and capital structure and our day-to-day operations, approve material mergers, acquisitions, dispositions and other business combinations and approve any other material transactions and financings. These actions may be taken in many cases without the approval of independent directors or other shareholders and the interests of these shareholders may conflict with your interests as minority shareholders.

Business conducted by a collaboration of different corporate groups involves certain risks.

Melco and Crown are our controlling shareholders, with each holding approximately 33.57% of our total shares issued and outstanding (exclusive of any ordinary shares represented by ADSs held by SPV) as of April 3, 2012. With Melco and Crown being our controlling shareholders, there are special risks associated with the possibility that Melco and Crown may: (i) have economic or business interests or goals that are inconsistent with ours or that are inconsistent with each other’s interests or goals, causing disagreement between them or between them and us which harms our business; (ii) have operations and projects elsewhere in Asia that compete with our businesses in Macau and for available resources and management attention within the joint venture group; (iii) take actions contrary to our policies or objectives; (iv) be unable or unwilling to fulfill their obligations under the relevant joint venture or shareholders’ deed; or (v) have financial difficulties. In addition, there is no assurance that the laws and regulations relating to foreign investment in Melco’s or Crown’s governing jurisdictions will not be altered in such a manner as to result in a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

Melco and Crown may pursue additional casino projects in Asia, which, along with their current operations, may compete with our projects in Macau, which could have material adverse consequences to us and the interests of our minority shareholders.

Melco and Crown may take action to construct and operate new gaming projects located in other countries in the Asian region, which, along with their current operations, may compete with our projects in Macau and could have adverse consequences to us and the interests of our minority shareholders. We could face competition from these other gaming projects. We also face competition from regional competitors, which include Crown Melbourne in Melbourne, Australia and Burswood Entertainment Complex in Perth, Australia. We expect to continue to receive significant support from both Melco and Crown in terms of their local experience, operating skills, international experience and high standards. Should Melco or Crown decide to focus

 

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more attention on casino gaming projects located in other areas of Asia that may be expanding or commencing their gaming industries, or should economic conditions or other factors result in a significant decrease in gaming revenues and number of patrons in Macau, Melco or Crown may make strategic decisions to focus on their other projects rather than us, which could adversely affect our growth.

Casinos and integrated gaming resorts are becoming increasingly popular in Asia, giving rise to more opportunities for industry participants and increasing regional competition. We cannot guarantee you that Melco and Crown will make strategic and other decisions which do not adversely affect our business.

Changes in our share ownership, including a change of control of our shares owned collectively by Melco and Crown, could result in our inability to draw loans or cause events of default under our indebtedness, or could require MCE Finance to make an offer to repurchase the Senior Notes or require us to make an offer to repurchase the RMB Bonds.

The credit facilities entered into pursuant to an amendment agreement dated June 22, 2011, or the 2011 Credit Facilities, include provisions under which we may suffer an event of default or incur an obligation to prepay the facility in full upon the occurrence of a change of control with respect to Melco Crown Gaming, or a decline in the aggregate indirect holdings of Melco Crown Gaming shares by Melco and Crown, below certain thresholds which is accompanied by a ratings decline. Under the terms of the Senior Notes, a change of control in connection with a decrease of the indirect holdings of Melco Crown Gaming shares by Melco and Crown below certain thresholds accompanied by a ratings decline will trigger a change of control, which would require MCE Finance to offer to repurchase the Senior Notes at a price equal to 101% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, additional amounts and liquidated damages, if any, to the date of redemption. Under the terms of the RMB Bonds, we must offer to redeem the RMB Bonds, upon the occurrence of a change of control in connection with a decrease of the indirect holdings of Melco Crown Gaming shares by Melco and Crown below certain thresholds, at a price equal to 101% of their principal amount, plus accrued interest up to, but excluding, the Put Settlement Date (as defined in the trust deed). Any occurrence of these events could be outside our control and could result in defaults and cross-defaults which cause the termination and acceleration of up to all of our credit facilities, the Senior Notes or the RMB Bonds and potential enforcement of remedies by our lenders, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Crown’s investment in our company is subject to regulatory review in several jurisdictions and if regulators in those jurisdictions were to find that we, Crown or Melco failed to comply with certain regulatory requirements and standards, Crown may be required to withdraw from the joint venture.

Crown wholly owns and operates Crown Entertainment Complex in Melbourne, Australia and Burswood Entertainment Complex in Perth, Australia. Crown also fully owns and operates the Aspinalls Club in London. In addition, Crown owns a portfolio of gaming investments that have been accumulated to complement Crown’s existing core businesses.

In all jurisdictions in which Crown, or any of its wholly owned subsidiaries, holds a gaming license or Crown has a significant investment in a company which holds gaming licenses, gaming regulators are empowered to investigate associates, including business associates of Crown, such as us, to determine whether the associate is of good repute and of sound financial resources. If, as a result of such investigation, the relevant gaming regulator determines that, by reason of its association, Crown has ceased to be suitable to hold a gaming license or to hold a substantial investment in the holder of a gaming license then the relevant gaming regulator may direct Crown to terminate its association or risk losing its gaming license or approval to invest in the holder of a gaming license in the relevant jurisdiction.

 

 

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If actions by us or our subsidiaries or by Melco or Crown fail to comply with the regulatory requirements and standards of the jurisdictions in which Crown owns or operates casinos or in which companies in which Crown holds a substantial investment own or operate casinos or if there are changes in gaming laws and regulations or the interpretation or enforcement of such laws and regulations in such jurisdictions, Crown may be required to withdraw from its investment in our company or limit its involvement in one or more aspects of our gaming operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Withdrawal by Crown from its investment in our company could cause the failure of conditions to drawing loans under our credit facilities or the occurrence of events of default under our credit facilities.

Risks Relating to Our Financing and Indebtedness

Our current, projected and potential future indebtedness could impair our financial condition, which could further exacerbate the risks associated with our significant leverage.

We have incurred and expect to incur, based on current budgets and estimates, secured and unsecured long-term indebtedness, including the following:

 

   

approximately US$1.2 billion under the 2011 Credit Facilities;

 

   

US$600 million from MCE Finance’s sale of the Senior Notes;

 

   

RMB2.3 billion from the offering of the RMB Bonds and the deposit-linked facility for HK$2.7 billion entered on May 20, 2011, or the Deposit-Linked Loan, which is secured by the proceeds of the RMB Bonds;

 

   

financing for a significant portion of the costs of developing the next phase at the City of Dreams site and Studio City, in an amount which is as yet undetermined.

Our significant indebtedness could have material consequences. For example, it could:

 

   

make it difficult for us to satisfy our debt obligations;

 

   

increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

 

   

impair our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital needs, capital expenditure, acquisitions or general corporate purposes;

 

   

require us to dedicate a significant portion of our cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our debt, which would reduce the funds available to us for our operations or expansion of our existing operations;

 

   

limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;

 

   

place us at a competitive disadvantage as compared to our competitors, to the extent that they are not as leveraged;

 

   

subject us to higher interest expense in the event of increases in interest rates to the extent a portion of our debt bears interest at variable rates;

 

   

cause us to incur additional expenses by hedging interest rate exposures of our debt and exposure to hedging counterparties’ failure to pay under such hedging arrangements, which would reduce the funds available for us for our operations; and

 

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in the event we or one of our subsidiaries were to default, result in the loss of all or a substantial portion of our own and our subsidiaries’ assets, over which our lenders have taken or will take security.

Any of these or other consequences or events could have a material adverse effect on our ability to satisfy our other debt obligations.

We may require external debt or equity financing to complete our future investment projects, which may not be available on satisfactory terms or at all.

We have in the past funded our capital investment projects through, among others, cash generated from our operations, credit facilities and the issuance of the Senior Notes and the RMB Bonds. We will require additional funding in the future for our capital investment projects, including Studio City, which we may raise through external financing. External debt or equity financing by us may require the approval of or communication to the Macau government, and may be subject to, among others, the terms of credit facilities, the Senior Notes and the RMB Bonds. In addition, our ability to obtain debt or equity financing on acceptable terms, depends on a variety of factors that are beyond our control, including market conditions, investors’ and lenders’ perceptions of, and demand for, debt and equity securities of gaming companies, credit availability and interest rates. For example, changes in ratings outlooks may subject us to ratings agency downgrades, which could make it more difficult for us to obtain financing on acceptable terms. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain sufficient funding from external sources as required on terms satisfactory to us, or at all, to finance future capital investment projects. If we are unable to obtain such funding, our business, cash flow, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow to meet our debt service obligations.

Our ability to make scheduled payments due on our existing and anticipated debt obligations, to refinance and to fund planned capital expenditure and development efforts will depend on our ability to generate cash. We will require generation of sufficient operating cash flow from our projects to service our current and future projected indebtedness. Our ability to obtain cash to service our existing and projected debts is subject to a range of economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to satisfy our existing and projected debt obligations, in which case, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as refinancing or restructuring our debt, selling assets, reducing or delaying capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the financial markets and our financial condition at such time. We cannot assure you that any refinancing or restructuring would be possible, that any assets could be sold, or, if sold, of the timing of the sales or the amount of proceeds that would be realized from those sales. We cannot assure you that additional financing could be obtained on acceptable terms, if at all, or would be permitted under the terms of our various debt instruments then in effect. Our failure to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our existing and projected debt obligations, or to refinance our obligations on commercially reasonable terms, would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are unable to comply with the restrictions and covenants in our debt agreements, including, among others, the indenture governing the Senior Notes and the trust deed governing the RMB Bonds, there could be a default under the terms of these agreements or the indenture, which could cause repayment of our debt to be accelerated.

If we are unable to comply with the restrictions and covenants in our current or future debt obligations and other agreements, or the indenture governing Senior Notes, there could be a default under the terms of these agreements. In the event of a default under these agreements, the holders of the debt could terminate their commitments to lend to us, accelerate repayment of the debt and declare all amounts borrowed due and payable

 

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or terminate the agreements, as the case may be. Furthermore, some of our debt agreements, including the indenture governing the Senior Notes and trust deed governing the RMB Bonds, contain cross-acceleration or cross-default provisions. As a result, our default under one debt agreement may cause the acceleration of repayment of debt or result in a default under our other debt agreements, including the indenture governing the Senior Notes and the trust deed governing RMB Bonds. If any of these events occur, we cannot assure you that our assets and cash flow would be sufficient to repay in full all of our indebtedness, or that we would be able to find alternative financing. Even if we could obtain alternative financing, we cannot assure you that it would be on terms that are favorable or acceptable to us.

The terms of the 2011 Credit Facilities may restrict our current and future operations and harm our ability to complete our projects and grow our business operations to compete successfully against our competitors.

The 2011 Credit Facilities and associated facility and security documents that Melco Crown Gaming has entered into also contain a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on Melco Crown Gaming and certain of our subsidiaries, or the Borrowing Group, and therefore, effectively, on us. The covenants in the 2011 Credit Facilities restrict or limit, among other things, our and our subsidiaries’ ability to:

 

   

incur additional debt, including guarantees;

 

   

create security or liens;

 

   

sell, transfer or dispose of assets;

 

   

make certain investments;

 

   

make loans, payments on certain indebtedness, distributions and other restricted payments or apply revenues earned in one part of our operations to fund development costs or cover operating losses in another part of our operations;

 

   

make payments for fees or goods and services to our controlling shareholders, unless on normal commercial terms;

 

   

vary Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession contract or the Borrowing Group’s land concessions and certain other contracts; and

 

   

enter into contracts for construction or financing of an additional hotel tower in the City of Dreams unless approved under the terms of the 2011 Credit Facilities.

In addition, the restrictions under the 2011 Credit Facilities contain financial covenants, including requirements that we satisfy certain tests or ratios such as leverage, total leverage and interest cover, each as defined in the 2011 Credit Facilities.

Restrictions also provide that should a change of control, as defined in the 2011 Credit Facilities, occur, the facility will be cancelled and all amounts outstanding thereunder become immediately due and payable. These covenants may restrict our ability to operate and restrict our ability to incur additional debt or other financing we may require, and impede our growth.

 

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Our operations are restricted by the terms of the Senior Notes, which could limit our ability to plan for or to react to market conditions or meet our capital needs.

The indenture governing the Senior Notes includes a number of significant restrictive covenants. Such covenants restrict, among other things, the ability of MCE Finance and its subsidiaries to:

 

   

incur or guarantee additional indebtedness;

 

   

make specified restricted payments, including dividends;

 

   

issue or sell capital stock of our restricted subsidiaries;

 

   

sell assets;

 

   

create liens;

 

   

enter into agreements that restrict the ability of the restricted subsidiaries to pay dividends, transfer assets or make intercompany loans;

 

   

enter into transactions with shareholders or affiliates; and

 

   

effect a consolidation or merger.

These covenants could limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions or to meet our capital needs. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, and we may have to curtail some of our operations and growth plans to maintain compliance.

Our operations are restricted by the terms of the RMB Bonds which may limit our ability to respond to market conditions or to continue the growth of our business.

The trust deed governing the RMB Bonds, or the RMB Bonds agreement, has certain covenants which restrict our ability to raise further funds. For example we must ensure that:

 

   

we have satisfactory security in place for the RMB Bonds before we raise any additional secured indebtedness;

 

   

our Consolidated Tangible Net Worth (as defined in the RMB Bonds agreement) must not fall below US$1 billion; and

 

   

our total borrowings must not exceed more than 2.5 times our Consolidated Tangible Net Worth.

The amount of RMB2.3 billion under the RMB Bonds agreement will be due immediately in the event of a default (subject to certain grace periods and exceptions), such as:

 

   

non-payment of principal or interest due under repayment terms of the RMB Bonds;

 

   

failure on the part of our Material Subsidiaries (as defined in the RMB Bonds agreement) to honor repayment terms under their debt obligations;

 

   

the initiation of insolvency proceedings by a third party against us or any of our Material Subsidiaries (as defined in the RMB Bonds agreement); and

 

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the revocation of a gaming license held by us or any of our Material Subsidiaries (as defined in the RMB Bonds agreement).

The above covenants may limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions or to meet our capital needs. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, and we may have to curtail some of our operations and growth plans to maintain compliance with the RMB Bonds agreement and ensure that we do not trigger an event of default. The RMB Bonds agreement also has a change of control provision which states that any Change of Control (as defined in the RMB Bonds agreement) would entitle the holder to seek repayment of the total outstanding amount due under the RMB Bonds.

Drawdown or rollover of advances under our debt facilities involve satisfaction of extensive conditions precedent and our failure to satisfy such conditions precedent will result in our inability to access or roll over loan advances under such facilities. There is no assurance that we will be able to satisfy all conditions precedent under our current or future debt facilities.

Our current and future debt facilities, including the 2011 Credit Facilities, require and will require satisfaction of conditions precedent prior to the advance or rollover of loans under such facilities. The satisfaction of such conditions precedent may involve actions of third parties and matters outside of our control, such as government consents and approvals. If there is a breach of any terms or conditions of our debt facilities or other obligations and it is not cured or capable of being cured, such conditions precedent will not be satisfied. The inability to draw down or roll over loan advances in any debt facility may result in a funding shortfall in our operations and we may not be able to fulfill our obligations as planned; such events may result in an event of default under such debt facility and may also trigger cross default in our other obligations and debt facilities. We do not guarantee that all conditions precedent to draw down or roll over loan advances under our debt facilities will be satisfied in a timely manner or at all. If we are unable to draw down or roll over loan advances under any current or future facility, we may have to find a new group of lenders and negotiate new financing terms or consider other financing alternatives. If required, it is possible that new financing would not be available or would have to be procured on substantially less attractive terms, which could damage the economic viability of the relevant development project. The need to arrange such alternative financing would likely also delay the construction and/or operations of our future projects or existing properties, which would affect our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition.

Our failure to comply with the covenants contained in our or our subsidiaries’ indebtedness, including failure as a result of events beyond our control, could result in an event of default that could materially and adversely affect our cash flow, operating results and our financial condition.

If there were an event of default under one of our or our subsidiaries’ debt facilities, the holders of the debt on which we defaulted could cause all amounts outstanding with respect to that debt to become due and payable immediately. In addition, any event of default or declaration of acceleration under one debt facility could result in an event of default under one or more of our other debt instruments, with the result that all of our debt would be in default and accelerated. We cannot assure you that our assets or cash flow would be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under our outstanding debt facilities, either upon maturity or if accelerated upon an event of default, or that we would be able to refinance or restructure the payments on those debt facilities. Further, if we are unable to repay, refinance or restructure our indebtedness at our subsidiaries that own or operate our properties, the lenders under those debt facilities could proceed against the collateral securing that indebtedness, which will constitute substantially all the assets and shares of our subsidiaries. In that event, any proceeds received upon a realization of the collateral would be applied first to amounts due under those debt facilities. The value of the collateral may not be sufficient to repay all of our indebtedness.

 

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Any inability to maintain current financing or obtain future financing could result in delays in our project development schedule and could impact our ability to generate revenues from operations at our present and future projects.

If we are unable to maintain our current debt facility or obtain suitable financing for our operations and our current or future projects (including any acquisitions we may make), this could adversely impact our existing operations, or cause delays in, or prevent completion of, the development of future projects or our pursuing of other opportunities. This may limit our ability to operate and expand our business and may adversely impact our ability to generate revenues. In addition, costs incurred by any new financing may be greater than currently anticipated.

Risks Relating to Our Shares and ADSs

The trading price of our ADSs has been volatile since our ADSs began trading on Nasdaq, and may be subject to fluctuations in the future. The market price for our shares may also be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

The trading price of our ADSs has been and may continue to be subject to wide fluctuations. Our ADSs were first quoted on the Nasdaq Global Market, or Nasdaq, beginning on December 19, 2006, and were upgraded to trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on January 2, 2009. During the period from December 19, 2006 until April 3, 2012, the trading prices of our ADSs ranged from US$2.27 to US$23.55 per ADS and the closing sale price on April 3, 2012 was US$14.17 per ADS. The market price for our shares and ADSs may continue to be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including the following:

 

   

uncertainties or delays relating to the financing, completion and successful operation of our projects;

 

   

developments in the Macau market or other Asian gaming markets, including the announcement or completion of major new projects by our competitors;

 

   

regulatory developments affecting us or our competitors;

 

   

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly operating results;

 

   

changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;

 

   

changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other gaming and leisure industry companies;

 

   

changes in our market share of the Macau gaming market;

 

   

addition or departure of our executive officers and key personnel;

 

   

fluctuations in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar, H.K. dollar, Pataca and Renminbi;

 

   

release or expiry of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding shares;

 

   

sales or perceived sales of additional shares or ADSs or securities convertible or exchangeable or exercisable for shares or ADSs; and

 

   

rumors related to any of the above.

 

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In addition, the securities market has from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to the operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may also have a material adverse effect on the market price of our ADSs and shares.

We currently do not intend to pay dividends, and we cannot assure you that we will make dividend payments in the future.

We may pay dividends to shareholders in the future. Such payments will depend upon a number of factors, including our results of operations, earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial conditions, contractual restrictions and other factors considered relevant by our board. We currently intend to retain all of our earnings to finance the development and expansion of our business. Accordingly, we do not intend to declare or pay cash dividends on our shares in the near to medium term. Except as permitted under the Companies Law, as amended, of the Cayman Islands, or the Cayman Companies Law, and the common law of the Cayman Islands, we are not permitted to distribute dividends unless we have a profit, realized or unrealized, or a reserve set aside from profits which our directors determine is no longer needed. We currently have no reserve set aside from profits for the payment of dividends. We cannot assure you that we will make any dividend payments on our shares in the future. Our ability to pay dividends, and our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends to us, is further subject to restrictive covenants contained in the 2011 Credit Facilities, the Senior Notes and in other facility agreements governing indebtedness we and our subsidiaries may incur. Such restrictive covenants contained in the 2011 Credit Facilities include satisfaction of certain financial tests and conditions such as continued compliance with specified interest cover and leverage ratios and, if a cash distribution, ensuring that the dividend payment amount does not exceed a certain amount of our cash and cash equivalent investments and that as a result of such dividend payment we still hold a certain amount of cash and cash equivalent investments. The Senior Notes also contain certain covenants restricting payment of dividends by MCE Finance and its subsidiaries. For more details, please see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — B. Liquidity and Capital Resources — Indebtedness.”

Substantial future sales or perceived sales of our shares or ADSs in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs and shares to decline.

Sales of our ADSs or shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of our shares and ADSs to decline. Upon expiration of the lock-up agreements, all of the shares beneficially held by Melco and Crown are available for sale, subject to volume and other restrictions, as applicable, under Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, or the Securities Act, and subject to the terms of their shareholders’ deed. To the extent these or other shares are sold into the market, the market price of our shares and ADSs could decline. The ADSs represent interests in the shares of our company. We would, subject to market forces, expect there to be a close correlation in the price of our ADSs and the price of the shares and any factors contributing to a decline in one market is likely to result to a similar decline in another.

In addition, Melco and Crown have the right to cause us to register the sale of their shares under the Securities Act, subject to the terms of their shareholders’ deed. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in these shares becoming freely tradable as ADSs without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration statement. Sales of these registered shares in the public market could cause the price of our share and ADSs to decline.

Any decision by us to raise further equity in the markets in the U.S. or Hong Kong, which would result in dilution to existing shareholders, could cause the price of our ADSs and shares to decline.

Holders of ADSs have fewer rights than shareholders and must act through the depositary to exercise those rights.

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights of our shareholders and may only exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying ordinary shares of the depositary and in accordance with the provisions of

 

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the deposit agreement. Under our amended and restated articles of association, the minimum notice period required to convene a general meeting is seven days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient notice of a shareholders’ meeting to permit you to withdraw your ordinary shares to allow you to cast your vote with respect to any specific matter. In addition, the depositary and its agents may not be able to send voting instructions to you or carry out your voting instructions in a timely manner. We will make all reasonable efforts to cause the depositary to extend voting rights to you in a timely manner, but we cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your ADSs. Furthermore, the depositary and its agents will not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast or for the effect of any such vote. As a result, you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may lack recourse if your ADSs are not voted as you requested. In addition, in your capacity as an ADS holder, you will not be able to convene a shareholder meeting.

You may be subject to limitations on transfers of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deem it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings and you may not receive cash dividends if it is unlawful or impractical to make them available to you.

We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make rights available to you in the United States unless we register the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Also, under the deposit agreement, the depositary bank will not make rights available to you unless the distribution to ADS holders of both the rights and any related securities are either registered under the Securities Act, or exempted from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. Moreover, we may not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in your holdings.

In addition, the depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our ordinary shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary may, at its discretion, decide that it is unlawful, inequitable or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, the depositary may determine that it is not practicable to distribute certain property through the mail, or that the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may decide not to distribute such property and you will not receive such distribution.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and, because judicial precedent regarding the rights of shareholders is more limited under Cayman Islands law than that under U.S. law, you may have less protection for your shareholder rights than you would under U.S. law.

Our corporate affairs are governed by our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Cayman Companies Law and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against our directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Companies Law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman

 

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Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as that from English common law, which has persuasive, but not binding, authority on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. In addition, some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands.

As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of our board or controlling shareholders than they would as shareholders of a U.S. public company.

You may have difficulty enforcing judgments obtained against us.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. All of our current operations, and administrative and corporate functions are conducted in Macau and Hong Kong. In addition, substantially all of our directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. A substantial portion of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for you to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in Cayman Islands, Macau and Hong Kong courts judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors, most of whom are not residents in the United States and the substantial majority of whose assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands, Macau or Hong Kong would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts against us or such persons predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state. In addition, it is uncertain whether such Cayman Islands, Macau or Hong Kong courts would be competent to hear original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, Macau or Hong Kong against us or such persons predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state.

We may become a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse U.S. tax consequences to U.S. investors.

We do not believe that we were a PFIC for the taxable year ended December 31, 2011 and, based on the projected composition of our income and valuation of our assets, including goodwill, we do not currently expect to be a PFIC for our taxable year ending December 31, 2012, although there can be no assurance in this regard. A non-U.S. corporation generally will be a PFIC for a taxable year if either (1) 75% or more of its gross income for such taxable year is passive income or (2) 50% or more of the value (determined based on a quarterly average) of its assets is attributable to assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income, including cash. The determination of whether we are or will be a PFIC for a taxable year depends on the application of complex U.S. federal income tax rules and generally cannot be made until the close of the taxable year in question. In addition, the determination of whether or not we are a PFIC will depend on the nature and composition of our income and assets, including goodwill, throughout a taxable year and will be based, in part, on the market price of our ordinary shares and ADSs, which may fluctuate. Accordingly, we cannot provide assurance that we are not, and we will not become, a PFIC for our current taxable year or any future taxable year. If we were treated as a PFIC for any taxable year during which you hold our ADSs or ordinary shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences, and additional reporting requirements could apply to you. See “Item 10. Additional Information — E. Taxation — United States Federal Income Taxation — Passive Foreign Investment Company.”

 

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ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

Our company was incorporated under the name of Melco PBL Entertainment (Macau) Limited in December 2004 as an exempted company with limited liability under the laws of the Cayman Islands and registered as an oversea company under the laws of Hong Kong in November 2006. We were initially formed as a 50/50 joint venture between Melco and PBL as their exclusive vehicle to carry on casino, gaming machine and casino hotel operations in Macau. Subsequently, Crown acquired all the gaming businesses and investments of PBL, including PBL’s investment in our company. As a result, in May 2008, we changed our name to Melco Crown Entertainment Limited. For more information on our corporate history and structure, see “— C. Organizational Structure.”

Our subsidiary Melco Crown Gaming is one of six companies licensed, through concession or subconcession, to operate casinos in Macau.

In December 2006, we completed the initial public offering of our ADSs, each of which represents three ordinary shares, and listed our ADSs on the Nasdaq. Since December 19, 2006, our ADSs have been listed under the symbol “MPEL” on Nasdaq. We completed follow-on offerings of ADSs in November 2007, May 2009 and August 2009. In January 2009, we were upgraded to trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.

On July 27, 2011, we acquired a 60% equity interest in SCI, the developer of Studio City, which we envision as a large-scale integrated entertainment, retail and gaming resort to be developed in Macau. For a description of our principal capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — B. Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

Our ordinary shares were listed by way of introduction on the Main Board of the HKSE and began trading under the stock code “6883” on December 7, 2011. Since December 7, 2011, we have maintained dual primary listings on Nasdaq and the HKSE.

Our principal executive offices are located at 36th Floor, The Centrium, 60 Wyndham Street, Central, Hong Kong. Our telephone number at this address is 852-2598-3600 and our fax number is 852-2537-3618. Our agent for service of process in the United States is CT Corporation System, located at 111 Eighth Avenue, New York, NY 10011. Our website is www.melco-crown.com. The information contained on our website is not part of this annual report on Form  20-F.

B. BUSINESS OVERVIEW

Overview

We are a developer, owner and, through our subsidiary Melco Crown Gaming, operator of casino gaming and entertainment resort facilities focused on the Macau market. Our subsidiary Melco Crown Gaming is one of six companies licensed, through concessions or subconcessions, to operate casinos in Macau.

We currently have two major casino based operations, namely, City of Dreams and Altira Macau, and non-casino based operations at our Mocha Clubs. Our operations cater to a broad spectrum of gaming patrons, from high-stakes rolling chip gaming patrons to gaming patrons seeking a broader entertainment experience. We seek to attract patrons from throughout Asia and, in particular, from Greater China.

We focus on the Macau gaming market, which we believe will continue to be one of the largest gaming destinations in the world. In 2011, Macau generated approximately US$33.4 billion of gaming revenues,

 

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according to the DICJ, compared to US$6.0 billion and US$3.3 billion of gaming revenues (excluding sports book and race book) generated on the Las Vegas Strip, according to the Nevada Gaming Control Board, and in Atlantic City, according to the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement, respectively. In addition, Macau is currently the only market in Greater China, and one of only several in Asia, to offer legalized casino gaming.

Our Major Existing Operations

City of Dreams

City of Dreams is an integrated resort development in Cotai, Macau which opened in June 2009. City of Dreams targets premium mass market and rolling chip players from regional markets across Asia. City of Dreams currently features a casino area of approximately 420,000 square feet with a total of approximately 430 gaming tables and approximately 1,300 gaming machines.

The resort brings together a collection of brands to create an experience that appeals to a broad spectrum of visitors from Asia. We have one hotel management agreement, pursuant to which Hyatt of Macau Ltd. manages the Grand Hyatt Macau hotel and pays us the gross operating profit after deduction of its management and incentive fees, and we have entered into license agreements with respect to Crown Towers hotel and Hard Rock hotel, pursuant to which we are granted certain rights to use certain intellectual properties from the licensors. No fee is payable for the use of the Crown marks and certain fees are payable for the use of the Hard Rock marks. See “— Intellectual Property.” The Crown Towers hotel and the Hard Rock Hotel each offers approximately 300 guest rooms, and the Grand Hyatt Macau hotel offers approximately 800 guest rooms. City of Dreams includes over 20 restaurants and bars, approximately 70 retail outlets, an audio visual multimedia experience, recreation and leisure facilities, including health and fitness clubs, three swimming pools, spa and salons and banquet and meeting facilities. The Club Cubic nightclub, with approximately 26,210 square feet of live entertainment space, opened at City of Dreams in April 2011.

The Dancing Water Theater, a wet stage performance theater with approximately 2,000 seats, opened in September 2010 and features the internationally acclaimed and award-winning The House of Dancing Water show. The House of Dancing Water is the live entertainment centerpiece of the overall leisure and entertainment offering at City of Dreams. We believe this production highlights City of Dreams as an innovative entertainment-focused destination and strengthens the overall diversity of Macau as a multi-day stay market and one of Asia’s premier leisure and entertainment destinations. The production incorporates costumes, sets and audio-visual special effects and showcases an international cast of performance artists.

“Dragon’s Treasure,” the show offered in The Bubble at City of Dreams, received the 2009 Thea Award for “Outstanding Achievement” from the Themed Entertainment Association (TEA). City of Dreams also won the “Best Leisure Development in Asia Pacific” award in the International Property Awards in 2010, which recognizes distinctive innovation and outstanding success in leisure development, and the “Best Casino VIP Room” and “Best Casino Interior Design” awards in the International Gaming Awards in 2011, which recognizes outstanding design in the casino sector. City of Dreams was also recognized for its outstanding customer service and diverse range of unique world class entertainment experiences with the “Best Customer Experience of the Year” award in the International Gaming Awards in 2012.

Our City of Dreams project costs, including the casinos, the Hard Rock Hotel, the Crown Towers hotel, the Grand Hyatt twin towers hotel, the wet stage performance theater, all retail space together with food and beverage outlets, were US$2.4 billion, consisting primarily of construction and fit out costs, design and consultation fees, and excluding the cost of land, capitalized interest and pre-opening expenses.

We continue to evaluate the next phase of our development plan at City of Dreams. We currently expect the next phase of development to include a hotel featuring either an apartment hotel or a general hotel and

 

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anticipate we will finance this phase separately from the rest of the City of Dreams. Before we finalize our development plan, we are assessing our hotel room requirements, government policies and general market conditions. The development of the hotel would be subject to the availability of additional financing and Macau government approval and may require the approval of our financiers under our existing and any future debt facilities.

As of the date of this annual report, the next phase of development of City of Dreams is at a preliminary stage without any definitive plans regarding design, capital commitment, construction schedule or budget.

Altira Macau

Altira Macau (formerly known as Crown Macau) opened in May 2007 and is designed to provide a casino and hotel experience that caters to Asian rolling chip customers and players sourced primarily through gaming promoters.

Altira Macau currently features a casino area of approximately 173,000 square feet with a total of approximately 200 gaming tables. Our multi-floor layout comprises primarily designated gaming areas and private gaming rooms for rolling chip players, together with a general gaming area for the mass market that offers various table limits to cater to a wide range of mass market patrons. Our multi-floor layout allows us the flexibility to reconfigure our gaming areas to meet the changing demands of our patrons and target specific customer segments.

We consider Altira Hotel, located within the 38-story Altira Macau, to be one of the leading hotels in Macau. The top floor of the hotel serves as the hotel lobby and reception area, providing guests with views of the surrounding area. The hotel comprises approximately 200 guest rooms, including suites and villas, and features in-room entertainment and communication facilities. A number of restaurants and dining facilities are available at Altira Macau, including a leading Italian restaurant Aurora, several Chinese and international restaurants, dining areas focused around the gaming areas and several bars. Altira Hotel also offers non-gaming entertainment venues, including a spa, gymnasium, outdoor garden podium and a sky terrace lounge.

Altira Macau offers a luxurious level of accommodations and facilities. Altira Hotel was awarded the “Forbes Five Star” rating in both Lodging and Spa categories by the Forbes Travel Guide (formerly known as Mobil Travel Guide) in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Altira Macau also won the “Best Luxury Hotel in Macau” award in the TTG China Travel Awards 2010, “Best Business Hotel in Macau” award in TTG China Travel Awards 2009 and the “Casino Interior Design Award” in the International Gaming Awards in 2008.

We introduced experienced local management to Altira Macau in 2008 to further our understanding of our rolling chip clients. In late 2009, Altira Macau transitioned away from a gaming promoter aggregator model where we contract with a junket consolidator that manages and provides credit to its collaborators, to a more traditional gaming promoter model where we contract directly with all our gaming promoters without the services of an intermediary consolidator.

The Altira brand was launched in April 2009 and has been developed to target the Asian rolling chip market. The rebranding of Crown Macau as Altira Macau aligns the brand positioning of the property with its market focus on Asian rolling chip customers players while focusing the Crown property brand solely at City of Dreams.

Mocha Clubs

Mocha Clubs first opened in September 2003 and have grown to ten Mocha Clubs, with gaming space ranging from approximately 3,000 square feet to 21,500 square feet. As of December 31, 2011, Mocha Clubs had

 

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1,842 gaming machines in operation, which represented 11% of the total machine installation in the market, according to DICJ. Mocha Clubs focus on general mass market players, including day-trip customers, outside the conventional casino setting. Except for Mocha Altira located at Altira Macau, we operate Mocha Clubs at leased or sub-leased premises or under right-to-use agreements. Our Mocha Clubs comprise the largest non-casino based operations of electronic gaming machines in Macau and are located in areas with strong pedestrian traffic, typically within three-star hotels. In addition to slot machines, each club site offers electronic tables without dealers. The gaming facilities at our Mocha Clubs include what we believe is the latest technology for gaming machines and offer both single-player machines with a variety of games, including progressive jackpots, and multi-player games where players on linked machines play against the house in electronic roulette, baccarat and sicbo, a traditional Chinese dice game.

The Mocha Club at Mocha Square was temporarily closed for renovations from the end of 2007 and resumed operations in February 2009. We redecorated the ground and first floors of the Hotel Taipa Square Mocha Club during January 2009 to facilitate easier access by customers.

In September 2011, we opened our ninth Mocha Clubs venue at the Macau Tower Convention & Entertainment Centre, or Macau Tower, which offers 260 slot machines and electronic table games across approximately 21,500 square feet of floor area on the ground floor and the lower ground floor of Macau Tower.

In January 2012, we opened our tenth Mocha Clubs venue at the Hotel Golden Dragon, which offers 300 slot machines and electronic table games across approximately 20,500 square feet of floor area on the ground floor, first floor and second floor of Hotel Golden Dragon. Mocha Clubs currently have more than 2,100 gaming machines in operation.

Our Development Project

We continually seek new opportunities for additional gaming or related businesses in Macau and will continue to target the development of a project pipeline in Macau in order to maximize the business and revenue potential of Melco Crown Gaming’s investment in its subconcession. In defining and setting the timing, form and structure for any future development, we focus on evaluating alternative available financing, market conditions and market demand.

Studio City

On July 27, 2011, we acquired a 60% equity interest in SCI, the developer of Studio City. New Cotai Holdings, LLC, an entity incorporated in Delaware and controlled by funds managed by Silver Point Capital, L.P. and Oaktree Capital Management, L.P., retains the remaining 40% interest in SCI through its wholly owned subsidiary New Cotai, LLC. The total consideration under the share purchase agreement and related transaction documents is US$360 million, which includes: (i) a payment of US$200 million to an affiliate of eSun Holdings, which was the joint venture partner of New Cotai, LLC in developing Studio City, for its entire 60% interest in, and a shareholder’s loan of US$60 million extended to, SCI and its subsidiaries; and (ii) a payment of US$100 million in cash in three installments over two years commencing upon the closing of the transaction on July 27, 2011 to New Cotai Holdings, LLC. See note 22 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for further details regarding the acquisition. We will develop Studio City with New Cotai Holdings, LLC.

Studio City is one of the few integrated resort development projects to be developed in Cotai that currently has a land grant concession. We envision Studio City as a large-scale integrated entertainment, retail and gaming resort located in Cotai, with gaming areas, four-star and/or five-star hotel offerings, and various entertainment, retail and food and beverage outlets to attract a wide range of customers, with a particular focus on the mass market segment in Asia and, in particular, from Greater China. In addition to its anticipated diverse

 

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range of gaming and non-gaming offerings, we believe Studio City’s location in the fast growing Cotai region of Macau, directly adjacent to the Lotus Bridge immigration checkpoint and a proposed light rail station, is a major competitive advantage, particularly as it relates to the increasingly important mass market segment.

Our design plans in relation to Studio City are effectively complete and we are undergoing the necessary government processes to obtain the required approvals to commence construction. Other than utilizing internal cash flow, we are also evaluating financing plans in relation to Studio City including a bank loan and other debt financing.

As of December 31, 2011, we had paid approximately US$13.2 million (excluding the cost of land) for the development of Studio City, primarily for site preparation costs and design and consultation fees.

Site preparation for Studio City has been substantially completed, and the construction period is estimated to be 36 months from commencement of construction, which we currently expect to commence by the end of the second quarter of 2012, subject to receipt of all necessary government approvals and financing. We currently estimate on a preliminary basis that the construction cost for Studio City will be approximately US$1.9 billion. However, this preliminary cost estimate may be revised depending on a number of variables, including receipt of all necessary government approvals, the final design and development plan, funding costs, the availability of financing on terms acceptable to us, and prevailing market conditions.

We will operate the gaming areas of Studio City pursuant to a services agreement we entered into in May 2007 with Studio City Entertainment Limited (formerly known as New Cotai Entertainment (Macau) Limited) and New Cotai Entertainment LLC, entities in which we acquired control of 60% of the shares in July 2011. Our subsidiary Melco Crown Gaming will retain a portion of the gross gaming revenues from the casino operations of Studio City. Notwithstanding such agreement, it is the intention of the shareholders of Studio City that each will participate in the economic interest in Studio City in a manner that will reflect each shareholder’s respective equity interest in SCI, the developer of Studio City.

Our Objectives and Strategies

Our objective is to become a leading provider of gaming, leisure and entertainment services capitalizing on the expected future growth opportunities in Macau. To achieve our objective, we have developed the following core business strategies:

Develop a Balanced Product Portfolio of Well-Recognized Branded Experiences Tailored for a Broad Spectrum of Customer Segments

We offer a balanced product portfolio targeting rolling chip and mass market players. We believe our clear focus on different market segments will enhance our ability to adapt to the fast growing and changing gaming market in Macau, as well as to achieve a balanced and sustainable long-term growth in the future.

We believe that building strong, well-recognized branded experiences is critical to our success, especially in the brand-conscious Asian market. We intend to develop and further strengthen our brands by building and maintaining high quality properties that differentiate us from our competitors throughout Asia and by providing a set of experiences tailored to meet the cultural preferences and expectations of Asian customers.

We have incorporated design elements at our properties that cater to specific customer segments. By utilizing a more focused customer segmentation strategy, we believe we can better service specific segments of the Macau gaming market.

 

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Utilize Melco Crown Gaming’s Subconcession to Maximize Our Business and Revenue Potential

We intend to leverage the independence, flexibility and economic benefits we enjoy as a subconcessionaire to capitalize on the potential growth of the Macau gaming market. As a subconcessionaire, we can, subject to government approval, develop and operate new projects without the need to partner with other concessionaires or subconcessionaires. We will consider opportunities as they arise to utilize our subconcession at newly acquired or developed or existing properties.

Develop Comprehensive Marketing and Customer Loyalty Programs

We will continue to seek to attract customers to our properties by leveraging our brands and utilizing our marketing resources. We have combined our brand recognition with customer management techniques and programs in order to build a database of repeat customers and loyalty club members. Through Mocha Clubs’ share of the Macau electronic gaming market, we have also developed a customer database and a customer loyalty program, which we believe have successfully enhanced repeat play and further built the Mocha Clubs brand.

We will seek to continue to grow and maintain our customer base through the following sales and marketing activities:

 

   

create a cross-platform sales and marketing department to promote all of our brands to potential customers throughout Asia in accordance with applicable laws;

 

   

utilize special product offers, special events, tournaments and promotions to build and maintain relationships with our guests, in order to increase repeat visits and help fill capacity during lower demand periods; and

 

   

implement complimentary incentive programs and commission based programs with selected promoters to attract high-end customers.

Create First Class Service Experiences

We believe that service quality and memorable experiences will continue to grow as a key differentiator among the operators in Macau. As the depth and quality of product offerings continue to develop and more memorable properties and experiences are created, we believe that tailored services will drive competitive advantage. As such, our focus remains on creating service experiences for the tastes and expectations of our various customers.

Our Properties

We operate our gaming business in accordance with the terms and conditions of our gaming subconcession. In addition, our City of Dreams, Altira Macau and Studio City properties and development projects are subject to the terms and conditions of land concession contracts. See “— Regulations — Land Use Rights.”

City of Dreams

The City of Dreams site is located on two adjacent land parcels in Cotai, Macau with a combined area of 113,325 square meters (approximately 1.2 million square feet). In August 2008, the Macau government granted the land on which City of Dreams is located to Melco Crown (COD) Developments and Melco Crown Gaming. The initial land premium was approximately US$105.1 million, of which approximately US$80.9 million was paid as of December 31, 2011 and the remaining amount of approximately US$24.2 million,

 

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accruing with 5% interest per annum, is due to be paid in three biannual installments, and a guarantee deposit of approximately US$424,000 was also paid upon acceptance of the land lease terms in February 2008. Melco Crown (COD) Developments and Melco Crown Gaming applied for an amendment to the land concession contract in 2009 to increase the total developable gross floor area and amend the purpose of such area, which required an additional land premium of approximately US$32.1 million, which was fully paid in March 2010, and government land use fees were revised to approximately US$1.2 million per annum. This amendment process was completed on September 15, 2010 and increased the developable gross floor area at the site to 668,574 square meters (approximately 7.2 million square feet).

During the construction period, we paid the Macau government land use fees at an annual rate of MOP30.0 (US$3.74) per square meter of land, or an aggregate annual amount of approximately MOP3.4 million (US$424,000). According to the terms of the revised land concession, the annual government land use fees payable are approximately MOP9.5 million (US$1.2 million). The government land use fee amounts may be adjusted every five years.

See note 19 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for information about our future commitments as to government land use fees for the City of Dreams site.

Under the City of Dreams land concession contract, Melco Crown (COD) Developments is authorized to build an additional four-star apartment hotel at the City of Dreams. Although there are no legal impediments for us to obtain the relevant approvals and consents for the development of a four-star apartment hotel or a five-star hotel, if we decide to pursue the option of building a five-star hotel we would have to seek an amendment to the City of Dreams land grant. In such case, we may have to pay an additional land premium, the amount of which may not be estimated at this stage.

The equipment utilized by City of Dreams in the casinos and hotels is owned by us and held for use on the City of Dreams site, and includes the main gaming equipment and software to support table games and gaming machine operations, cage equipment, security and surveillance equipment and furniture, fittings and equipment in the casinos and hotels.

Altira Macau

The Altira Macau site is located on a plot of land in Taipa, Macau of approximately 5,230 square meters (56,295 square feet). In March 2006, the Macau government granted the land on which Altira Macau is located to Altira Developments, an indirect subsidiary of our company. The land premium of approximately US$18.7 million was fully paid in July 2006, a guarantee deposit of approximately US$20,000 was paid upon acceptance of the land lease terms in 2006 and government land use fees of approximately US$171,000 per annum are payable. The amounts may be adjusted every five years. See note 19 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for information about our future commitments as to government land use fees for the Altira Macau site.

The Macau government approved total gross floor area for development for the Altira Macau site of approximately 95,000 square meters (approximately 1.0 million square feet).

The equipment utilized by Altira Macau in the casino and hotel is owned by us and held for use on the Altira Macau site and includes the main gaming equipment and software to support its table games operations, cage equipment, security and surveillance equipment and casino and hotel furniture, fittings and equipment.

 

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Mocha Clubs

Mocha Clubs operate at premises with a total floor area of approximately 94,500 square feet at the following locations:

 

Mocha Club

  

Opening Date

  

Location

   Gaming Area  
                (In square
feet)
 

Golden Dragon

   January 2012    G/F, 1/F and 2/F of Hotel Golden Dragon      20,500   

Macau Tower

   September 2011    LG/F and G/F of Macau Tower      21,500   

Mocha Altira

   December 2008    Level 1 of Altira Macau      2,950   

Mocha Square

   October 2007    1/F, 2/F and 3/F of Mocha Square      3,400   

Marina Plaza

   December 2006    1/F and 2/F of Marina Plaza      10,800   

Hotel Taipa

   January 2006    G/F of Hotel Taipa      6,000   

Sintra

   November 2005    G/F and 1/F of Hotel Sintra      5,000   

Taipa Square

   January 2005    G/F, 1/F and 2/F of Hotel Taipa Square      9,200   

Lan Kwai Fong

   April 2004    G/F of Hotel Lan Kwai Fong (formerly known as Kingsway Commercial Centre)      6,700   

Royal

   September 2003    G/F and 1/F of Hotel Royal      8,450   
        

 

 

 

Total

           94,500   
        

 

 

 

For locations operating at leased or sub-leased premises, the lease and sub-lease terms are pursuant to lease agreements that expire at various dates through June 2022, which are renewable upon our giving notice prior to expiration and subject to incremental increases in monthly rentals.

In addition to leasehold improvements to Mocha Clubs premises, the on-site equipment utilized at the Mocha Clubs is owned and held for use to support the gaming machines operations.

Studio City

The Studio City site is located on a plot of land in Cotai, Macau of 140,789 square meters (approximately 1.5 million square feet). In October 2001, the Macau government officially granted the land on which Studio City is located to Studio City Developments, an indirect subsidiary of our company. In accordance with the terms of the land concession contract, a land premium of approximately US$2.9 million was fully paid in 2005, a guarantee deposit of approximately US$105,000 was provided and government land use fees of approximately US$105,000 per annum are payable. Since 2005, the land concession contract has been in the process of being amended.

In November 2006, the Macau government issued a proposed amendment to the Studio City land concession contract, which contemplated a developable gross floor area of 444,370 square meters (approximately 4.8 million square feet), required an additional land premium of approximately US$70.6 million and would have revised the government land use fees to approximately US$326,000 per annum during the development period of Studio City and approximately US$527,000 per annum after the development period. An additional guarantee deposit of approximately US$326,000 was paid upon acceptance by Studio City Developments of the proposed land lease terms and conditions. Approximately US$23.6 million of the additional land premium due was paid in 2006, and the remaining amount of approximately US$47.0 million would be due in five biannual installments, accrued with 5% interest per annum, with the first installment to be paid within six months from the date the amended contract would be published in the Macau Official Gazette.

 

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The November 2006 proposed amendment was not published and since that date other amendments have been requested and are in progress with the Macau government. Under the 2006 amendment letter, Studio City Developments may build a complex of one five-star hotel, three three-star apartment-like hotels, one cinema production center, and supporting facilities for entertainment and tourism. On September 26, 2008, the Macau government issued a draft amendment to the Studio City land concession contract, pursuant to which, among other changes, the developable gross floor area would be increased to approximately 707,078 square meters (approximately 7.6 million square feet). Among other conditions, Studio City Developments would have to pay an additional premium, with further payment due upon final acceptance of the amendment terms and the balance to be paid in biannual installments bearing interest at 5% per annum. However, the procedure to amend the Studio City land concession is ongoing and none of these amendment terms have been finalized. The Macau government may change any terms and conditions, including the amount of additional land premium that may be due by Studio City Developments.

See note 19 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for information about our future commitments as to government land use fees for the Studio City site.

Other Premises

Taipa Square Casino premises, including the fit-out and gaming related equipment, are located on the ground floor and level one of Hotel Taipa Square and have a total floor area of approximately 1,760 square meters (18,950 square feet). We operate Taipa Square Casino under a right-to-use agreement signed on June 12, 2008 with the owner, Hotel Taipa Square (Macao) Company Limited. The term of the agreement is one year from the date of execution and is automatically renewable, subject to certain contractual provisions, for successive periods of one year with the same terms and conditions, until June 26, 2022.

Apart from the property sites for Altira Macau and City of Dreams, we maintain various offices and storage locations in Macau and Hong Kong. We lease all of our office and storage premises, except for five units located at Golden Dragon Centre (formerly known as Zhu Kuan Building) whose property rights belong to us. The five units have a total area of 839 square meters (approximately 9,029 square feet) and we operate a recruitment center there. The five units were purchased by MPEL Properties (Macau) Limited, our indirect wholly owned subsidiary, for approximately HK$79.7 million (US$10.2 million) on August 15, 2008. The Golden Dragon Centre is erected on a plot of land under a land lease grant that expires on July 27, 2015. Such land lease grant is renewable for successive periods of up to 10 years, subject to obtaining certain approvals from the Macau government.

Advertising and Marketing

We seek to attract customers to our properties and to grow our customer base over time by undertaking several types of advertising and marketing activities and plans. We utilize local and regional media to publicize our projects and operations. We have built a public relations and advertising team that cultivates media relationships, promotes our brands and directly liaises with customers within target Asian countries in order to explore media opportunities in various markets. Advertising uses a variety of media platforms that include digital, print, television, online, outdoor, on property (as permitted by Macau, PRC and other regional laws), collateral and direct mail pieces. In order to be competitive in the Macau gaming environment, we hold various promotions and special events, operate loyalty programs, maintain a database of gaming customers and have developed a series of commission and other incentive-based programs to offer to both gaming promoters and individuals alike.

Customers

We seek to cater to a broad range of customers through our diverse gaming and non-gaming facilities and amenities across our major existing operating properties.

 

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Non-Gaming Patrons

In addition to its mass market and rolling chip gaming offerings, City of Dreams offers visitors to Macau a array of multi-dimensional entertainment amenities, three international hotel brands, as well as a selection of restaurants, bars and retail outlets. Altira Macau is designed to provide a high end casino and hotel experience, tailored to meet the cultural preferences and expectations of Asian rolling chip patrons. Mocha Clubs are targeted to deliver a relaxed café-style non-casino based electronic gaming experience.

Gaming Patrons

Our gaming patrons include rolling chip players and mass market players.

Mass market players are non-rolling chip players and they come to our properties for a variety of reasons, including our direct marketing efforts, brand recognition, the quality and comfort of our mass market gaming floors and our non-gaming offerings. Mass market players are furthered classified as general mass market and premium mass market players.

Rolling chip players at our casinos are patrons who participate in our in-house rolling chip programs or in the rolling chip programs of our gaming promoters, also known as junket operators. Our rolling chip players play mostly in our dedicated VIP rooms or designated gaming areas.

Our in-house rolling chip programs consist of rolling chip players sourced through our direct marketing efforts and relationships, whom we refer to as premium direct players. Premium direct players can earn a variety of gaming-related rebates, such as cash, rooms, food and beverage and other complimentary products or services.

Gaming Promoters

A significant amount of our rolling chip play is brought to us by gaming promoters, also known as junket operators. While rolling chip players sourced by gaming promoters do not earn direct gaming related rebates from us, we pay a commission and provide other complimentary services to the gaming promoter.

We engage gaming promoters to promote our VIP gaming rooms primarily due to the importance of the rolling chip segment in the overall Macau gaming market, gaming promoters’ knowledge of and experience within the Macau gaming market, in particular with sourcing and attracting rolling chip patrons and arranging for their transportation and accommodation, and gaming promoters’ extensive rolling chip patron network. Under standard arrangements utilized in Macau, we provide gaming promoters with exclusive or casual access to one or more of our VIP gaming rooms and support from our staff, and gaming promoters source rolling chip patrons for our casinos or gaming areas to generate an expected minimum amount of rolling chip volume per month.

Gaming promoters are responsible for a substantial portion of our casino revenues. For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, approximately 61.0%, 62.3% and 71.8% of our casino revenues were derived from customers sourced through our gaming promoters, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2011, our top five customers and the largest customer were gaming promoters and accounted for approximately 23.9% and 6.9% of our casino revenues, respectively.

Gaming promoters are independent third parties that include both individuals and corporate entities and are officially licensed in Macau by the DICJ. We have procedures to screen prospective gaming promoters prior to their engagement, and conduct periodic checks that are designed to ensure that the gaming promoters with whom we associate meet suitability standards. We believe that we have strong relationships with some of the top gaming promoters in Macau and have a solid network of gaming promoters who help us market our properties and source and assist in managing rolling chip patrons at our properties. As at the years ended

 

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December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, we had agreements in place with 86, 70 and 55 gaming promoters, respectively. We expect to continue to evaluate and selectively add or remove gaming promoters going forward.

We typically enter into gaming promoter agreements for a one-year term that are automatically renewed for periods of up to one year unless otherwise terminated. The gaming promoter agreements may be terminated (i) by either party without cause upon 15 days advance written notice, (ii) upon advice from the DICJ or any other gaming regulator to cease having dealings with the gaming promoter or if DICJ cancels or fails to renew the gaming promoter’s license, (iii) if the gaming promoter fails to meet the minimum rolling chip volume it agreed to with us, (iv) if the gaming promoter enters or is placed in receivership or provisional liquidation or liquidation, an application is made for the winding up of the gaming promoter, the gaming promoter becomes insolvent or makes an assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or an encumbrancer takes possession of any of the gaming promoter’s assets or (v) if any party to the agreement is in material breach of any of the terms of the agreement and fails to remedy such breach within the timeframe outlined in the agreement. Our gaming promoters are compensated through commission arrangements that are calculated on a monthly or a per trip basis. Commissions paid to our gaming promoters (net of amounts indirectly rebated to rolling chip players) amounted to US$339.0 million, US$238.7 million and US$180.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. We generally offer commission payment structures that are calculated by reference to revenue share or monthly rolling chip volume. Under the revenue share-based arrangements, the gaming promoter participates in our gaming wins or losses from the rolling chip patrons brought in by the gaming promoter. Under the monthly rolling chip volume-based arrangements, commission rates vary but do not exceed the 1.25% regulatory cap under Macau law on gaming promoter commissions. To encourage gaming promoters to use our VIP gaming rooms for rolling chip patrons, our gaming promoters may receive complimentary allowances for food and beverage, hotel accommodation and transportation. Under the Administrative Regulation 29/2009, these allowances must be included in the 1.25% regulatory cap on gaming promoter commissions.

We conduct, and expect to continue to conduct, our table gaming activities at our casinos on a credit basis as well as a cash basis. As is common practice in Macau, we grant credit to our gaming promoters and certain of our premium direct players. The gaming promoters bear the responsibility for issuing to, and subsequently collecting credit, from their players.

We extend interest-free credit to a significant portion of our gaming promoters for short-term, renewable periods under credit agreements that are separate from the gaming promoter agreements. Credit is also granted to certain gaming promoters on a revolving basis. All gaming promoter credit lines are generally subject to monthly review and regular settlement procedures, including our credit committee review and other checks performed by our cage, count and credit department to evaluate the current status of liquidity and financial health of such gaming promoter. These procedures allow us to calculate the commissions payable to the gaming promoter and to determine the amount which can be offset, together with any other items of value held by us from the gaming promoter, against the outstanding credit balances owed by the gaming promoter. Credit is granted to a gaming promoter based on performance and financial background of the gaming promoter and, if applicable, the gaming promoter’s guarantor. If we determine that a gaming promoter has good credit history and a track record of large business volumes, we may extend credit exceeding one month of commissions payable. This credit is typically unsecured. Although the amount of such credit may exceed the amount of accrued commissions payable to, and any other amounts of value held by us from, the gaming promoters, we generally obtain personal checks and promissory notes from guarantors or other forms of collateral. We have in place internal controls and credit policies and procedures to manage this credit risk.

We aim to pursue overdue debt from gaming promoters and premium direct players. This collection activity includes, as applicable, frequent personal contact with the debtor, delinquency notices, the use of external collection agencies and litigation. However, we may not be able to collect all of our gaming receivables

 

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from our credit customers and gaming promoters. See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations in Macau — We extend credit to a portion of our customers, and we may not be able to collect gaming receivables from our credit customers.”

As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, our casino accounts receivable were US$385.9 million and US$294.0 million, respectively. Our allowance for doubtful accounts may fluctuate significantly from period to period as a result of having significant individual customer account balances where changes in their status of collectability cause significant changes in our allowance.

For information regarding allowances for doubtful accounts, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — A. Operating Results — Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates — Accounts Receivable and Credit Risk.”

Market and Competition

We believe that the gaming market in Macau is and will continue to be intensely competitive. Our competitors in Macau and elsewhere in Asia include all the current concession and subconcession holders and many of the largest gaming, hospitality, leisure and property development companies in the world. Some of these competitors are larger than us and have significantly longer track records of operation of major hotel casino resort properties.

Macau Gaming Market

In 2011, 2010 and 2009, Macau generated approximately US$33.4 billion, US$23.5 billion and US$13.6 billion of gaming revenue, respectively, according to the DICJ, compared to the US$6.0 billion, US$5.7 billion, and US$5.5 billion (excluding sports book and race book) of gaming revenue, respectively, generated on the Las Vegas Strip, according to the Nevada Gaming Control Board, and compared to the US$3.3 billion, US$3.6 billion and US$3.9 billion of gaming revenue (excluding sports book and race book), respectively, generated in Atlantic City, according to the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement for 2011 and New Jersey Casino Control Commission for 2010 and 2009. Gaming revenue in Macau has increased at a five year CAGR from 2006 to 2011 of 36.45% compared to five year CAGRs of -1.75% and -8.76% for the Las Vegas Strip and Atlantic City, respectively (excluding sports book and race book). Macau benefits from its proximity to one of the world’s largest pools of existing and potential gaming patrons and is currently the only market in Greater China, and one of only several in Asia, to offer legalized casino gaming.

In 2010 and 2011, the People’s Bank Of China implemented a range of monetary tightening measures, including raising the RMB deposit reserve requirement ratio for deposit-taking financial institutions as well as increasing RMB benchmark deposit and loan rates on several occasions. During this period, gaming revenues and visitation significantly increased. Gross gaming revenues in Macau grew by 42.2% in 2011, which follows growth of 57.8% in 2010, according to the DICJ. This growth was driven by all three main gaming segments. In 2011, according to the DICJ, rolling chip gaming revenues increased 44.6%, representing 73% of all gaming revenues in Macau, mass market table games revenues grew by 36.8% and electronic gaming revenues grew by 32.6%. We believe the growth in gaming revenues in Macau is supported by, among other things, the continuing emergence of a wealthier demographic in China, a robust regulatory framework, and significant new infrastructure developments within Macau and China, as well as by the anticipated new supply of gaming and non-gaming facilities in Macau, which is predominantly focused on the Cotai region. Visitation to Macau experienced strong growth in 2011, increasing by 12.2% to more than 28.0 million visitors in 2011, according to the Macau Government Tourism Office. Mainland China continues to drive overall visitation growth, increasing 22.2% as compared to 0.9% for all other visitors in 2011, and visitors from mainland China represented over 57.7%, while visitors from Hong Kong and Taiwan represented 27.1% and 4.3%, of all visitors to Macau in 2011, respectively, according to the Macau Government Tourism Office. In November 2011 and February 2012,

 

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The People’s Bank of China lowered the RMB deposit reserve requirement ratio for deposit-taking financial institutions.

Gaming in Macau is administered through government-sanctioned concessions awarded to three different concessionaires: SJM, which is a company listed on the HKSE in which Mr. Lawrence Ho, our co-chairman and chief executive officer, and his family members have shareholding interests; Wynn Macau, a subsidiary of Wynn Resorts Ltd.; and Galaxy, a consortium of Hong Kong and Macau businessmen. SJM has granted a subconcession to MGM Grand Paradise, which was originally formed as a joint venture by MGM-Mirage and Ms. Pansy Ho, sister of Mr. Lawrence Ho. Galaxy has granted a subconcession to VML, a subsidiary of Las Vegas Sands Corporation, the developer of Sands Macao, The Venetian Macao and Sands Cotai Central. Melco Crown Gaming obtained its subconcession under the concession of Wynn Macau.

SJM currently operates multiple casinos throughout Macau. SJM has extensive experience in operating in the Macau market and long-established relationships in Macau. SJM has announced an intention to develop a new casino in Cotai.

Wynn Macau opened the Wynn Macau in September 2006 on the Macau Peninsula. In addition they opened an extension to Wynn Macau called Encore in 2010. Wynn Macau has also announced an intention to develop a new casino in Cotai.

Galaxy currently operates multiple casinos in Macau, including StarWorld, a hotel and casino resort in Macau’s central business and tourism district. The Galaxy Macau resort opened in Cotai in May 2011.

VML with a subconcession under Galaxy’s concession, operates Sands Macao, together with The Venetian Macao, the Plaza Casino at The Four Seasons Hotel Macao and the Sands Cotai Central, which are located in Cotai. VML has also announced proposals for further large developments in Cotai, one of which has opened in 2012.

MGM Grand Paradise, with a subconcession under SJM’s concession, opened the MGM Grand Macau in December 2007, which is located next to Wynn Macau on the Macau Peninsula. MGM Grand Paradise has announced an intention to develop a new casino in Cotai.

The existing concessions and subconcessions do not place any limit on the number of gaming facilities that may be operated. In addition to facing competition from existing operations of these concessionaires and subconcessionaires, we will face increased competition when any of them constructs new, or renovates pre-existing, casinos in Macau or enters into leasing, services or other arrangements with hotel owners, developers or other parties for the operation of casinos and gaming activities in new or renovated properties, as SJM and Galaxy have done. The Macau government has publicly stated that each concessionaire will only be permitted to grant one subconcession. Moreover, the Macau government announced that, until further assessment of the economic situation in Macau, there would be no increase in the number of concessions and subconcessions. The Macau government further announced that the number of gaming tables operating in Macau should not exceed 5,500 until the end of the first quarter of 2013 and that, thereafter, from 2014, the total number of gaming tables to be authorized will be limited to an annual increase of 3%. According to the DICJ, the number of gaming tables operating in Macau as of December 31, 2011 was 5,302. The Macau government reiterated further that it does not intend to authorize the operation of any new casino that was not previously authorized by the government. However, these restrictions are of non-statutory nature and different policies, including on the annual increase rate in the number of gaming tables, may be adopted at any time by the relevant Macau government authorities. The policies and laws of the Macau government could change and permit the Macau government to grant additional gaming concessions or subconcessions. Such change in policies may also result in a change of the number of gaming tables and casinos that the government is prepared to authorize to operate.

 

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Other Regional Markets

We may also face competition from casinos and gaming resorts located in other Asian destinations together with cruise ships. Casinos and integrated gaming resorts are becoming increasingly popular in Asia, giving rise to more opportunities for industry participants and increasing regional competition. There are major gaming facilities in Australia located in Melbourne, Perth, Sydney and the Gold Coast. Genting Highlands is a popular international gaming resort in Malaysia, approximately a one-hour drive from Kuala Lumpur. South Korea has allowed gaming for some time but these offerings are available primarily to foreign visitors. There are also casinos in the Philippines, Vietnam and Cambodia, although they are relatively small compared to those in Macau.

Singapore legalized casino gaming in 2006. Genting Singapore PLC opened its resort in Sentosa, Singapore in February 2010 and Las Vegas Sands Corporation opened its casino in Marina Bay, Singapore in April 2010. Despite these openings Macau has continued to show healthy growth. In addition, several other Asian countries are considering or are in the process of legalizing gambling and establishing casino-based entertainment complexes.

Seasonality

Macau experiences many peaks and seasonal effects. The “Golden Week” and “Chinese New Year” holidays are the key periods where business and visitation fluctuate considerably. While we may experience fluctuations in revenues and cash flows from month to month, we do not believe that our business is materially impacted by seasonality.

Intellectual Property

We have registered the trademarks “Altira,” “Mocha Club”, “City of Dreams” and “Melco Crown Entertainment” in Macau and other jurisdictions. We have also registered in Macau and other jurisdictions certain other trademarks and service marks used in connection with the operations of our hotel casino projects in Macau. We have entered into a license agreement with Crown Melbourne Limited for an exclusive and non-transferable license to use the Crown brand in Macau. Our hotel management agreement with the Grand Hyatt Macau hotel provides us the right to use the Grand Hyatt trademarks on a non-exclusive and non-transferable basis. Our trademark license agreements with Hard Rock Holdings Limited provide us the right to use the Hard Rock brand in Macau, which we use at City of Dreams. Pursuant to these agreements, we have the exclusive right to use the Hard Rock brand for a hotel and casino facility at City of Dreams for a term of ten years based on a fee per gaming table and machine and percentages of revenues generated at the property payable to Hard Rock Holdings Limited. We also purchase gaming tables and gaming machines and enter into licensing agreements for the use of certain trade names and, in the case of the gaming machines, the right to use software in connection therewith. These include a license to use a jackpot system for the gaming machines.

Regulations

Gaming Regulations

The ownership and operation of casino gaming facilities in Macau are subject to the general laws (e.g., the Civil Code and the Commercial Code) and to specific gaming laws, in particular, the Macau Gaming Law. Macau’s gaming operations are also subject to the grant of a concession or subconcession by and regulatory control of the Macau government, or Dispatch of the Chief Executive. See “— The Subconcession” below for more details.

Macau Administrative Regulation no. 34/2003 describes the DICJ as the supervisory authority and regulator of the gaming industry in Macau. The core functions of the DICJ are: to collaborate in the definition of gaming policies; to supervise and monitor the activities of the concessionaires and subconcessionaires; to

 

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investigate and monitor the continuing suitability and financial capacity requirements of concessionaires, subconcessionaires and gaming promoters; to issue licenses to gaming promoters; to license and certify gaming equipment; and to issue directives and recommend practices with respect to the ordinary operation of casinos.

Below are the main features of the Macau Gaming Law, as supplemented by Macau Administrative Regulation no. 26/2001, that are applicable to our business.

 

   

If we violate the Macau Gaming Law, Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession could be limited, conditioned, suspended or revoked, subject to compliance with certain statutory and regulatory procedures. In addition, we, and the persons involved, could be subject to substantial fines for each separate violation of the Macau Gaming Law or of the subconcession contract at the discretion of the Macau government. Further, if we terminate or suspend the operation of all or a part of the conceded business without permission for reasons not due to force majeure, or in the event of insufficiency of our facilities and equipment which may affect the normal operation of the conceded business, the Macau government would be entitled to replace Melco Crown Gaming during such disruption and to ensure the continued operation of the conceded business. Under such circumstances, we would bear the expenses required for maintaining the normal operation of the conceded business.

 

   

The Macau government also has the power to supervise subconcessionaires in order to assure financial stability and capacity. See “— The Subconcession — The Subconcession Contract.”

 

   

Any person who fails or refuses to apply for a finding of suitability after being ordered to do so by the Macau government may be found unsuitable. Any stockholder of a concessionaire or subconcessionaire holding stock equal to or in excess of 5% of concessionaire or subconcessionaire stock capital who is found unsuitable will be required to dispose of such stock by a certain time (the transfer itself being subject to Macau government authorization). If a disposal has not taken place by the time so designated, such stock must be acquired by the concessionaire or subconcessionaire. We are subject to disciplinary action if, after we receive notice that a person is unsuitable to be a stockholder or to have any other relationship with us, we: pay that person any dividend or interest upon our shares; allow that person to exercise, directly or indirectly, any voting right conferred through shares held by that person; pay remuneration in any form to that person for services rendered or otherwise; or fail to pursue all lawful efforts to require that unsuitable person to relinquish his or her shares.

 

   

The Macau government also requires prior approval for the creation of a lien over gaming assets or the whole property comprising a casino, shares and gaming equipment and utensils of a concession or subconcession holder. In addition, the creation of restrictions on its stock in respect of any public offering also require the approval of the Macau government to be effective.

 

   

The Macau government must give its prior approval to changes in control through a merger, consolidation, stock or asset acquisition, or any act or conduct by any person whereby he or she obtains such control. Entities seeking to acquire control of a corporation must satisfy the Macau government concerning a variety of stringent standards prior to assuming control. The Macau government may also require controlling stockholders, officers, directors and other persons having a material relationship or involvement with the entity proposing to acquire control, to be investigated for suitability as part of the approval process of the transaction.

 

   

We are also required to collect and pay employment taxes in connection with our staff through withholding and all payable and non-exemptible taxes, levies, expenses and handling fees provided by the laws and regulations of Macau.

 

   

In addition, the Macau Gaming Law regulates gaming promoters. See “— Regulations Relating to Gaming Promoters” below.

 

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Non-compliance with these obligations could lead to the revocation of Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession and could materially adversely affect our gaming operations.

Regulations Relating to Gaming Promoters

Macau Administrative Regulation no. 6/2002, as amended pursuant to Administrative Regulation no. 27/2009, or Gaming Promoters Regulation, regulates licensing as a gaming promoter and the conduct of gaming promotion business by gaming promoters. Applications to the DICJ must be sponsored by a concessionaire or subconcessionaire who will confirm that it may contract the applicant’s services upon the latter being licensed. Licenses are subject to annual renewal and a list of licensed gaming promoters is published every year in the Macau Official Gazzette. The DICJ monitors each gaming promoter and its employees and collaborators.

Concessionaires and subconcessionaires are jointly liable for the activities of their gaming promoters and collaborators within their casinos. In addition to the licensing and suitability assessment process performed by the DICJ, all of our gaming promoters undergo a thorough internal vetting process. We conduct background checks and also conduct periodic reviews of the activities of each gaming promoter, its employees and its collaborators for possible non-compliance with Macau legal and regulatory requirements. Such reviews generally include investigations into compliance with applicable money laundering laws and regulations as well as tax withholding requirements.

Concessionaires and subconcessionaires are required to report periodically on commissions and other remunerations paid to their gaming promoters. A 5% tax must be withheld on commissions and other remunerations paid out by a concessionaire or subconcessionaire to its gaming promoters. In August 2009, the Macau government amended the legislation on gaming promoter activity (Administrative Regulation 6/2002) permitting the imposition of a cap on the percentage of commissions payable by concessionaires and subconcessionaires to gaming promoters. In September 2009, the Secretary for Economy and Finance issued a dispatch implementing a commission cap of 1.25% of rolling chip volume, effective as of September 22, 2009 and which is being enforced as of December 1, 2009. Under the amended legislation and the dispatch, any bonuses, gifts, services or other advantages which are subject to monetary valuation and which are granted, directly or indirectly, inside or outside of Macau by any concessionaire or subconcessionaires or any company of their respective group to any gaming promoter shall be considered a commission. The commission cap regulations impose fines (ranging from 100,000 Patacas up to 500,000 Patacas) on gaming operators that do not comply with the cap and other fines (ranging from 50,000 Patacas up to 250,000 Patacas) on gaming operators that do not comply with their reporting obligations regarding commission payments. If breached, the legislation on commission caps has a sanction enabling the relevant government authority to make public a government decision imposing a fine on a concessionaire and subconcessionaire, by publishing such decision on the DICJ website and in two Macau newspapers (in Chinese and Portuguese, respectively). We believe we have implemented the necessary internal control systems to ensure compliance with the commission cap and reporting obligations in accordance with applicable rules and regulations.

Macau Law no. 5/2004, or Gaming Credit Law, has legalized the extension of gaming credit to patrons or gaming promoters by concessionaires and subconcessionaires. Gaming promoters may also extend credit to patrons upon obtaining an authorization by a concessionaire or subconcessionaire to carry out such activity. Assigning or transferring one’s authorization to extend gaming credit is not permitted. This statute sets forth filing obligations for those extending credit and the supervising role of the DICJ in this activity. Gaming debts contracted pursuant to this statute are a source of civil obligations and may be enforced in court.

AML Regulations

In conjunction with current gaming laws and regulations, we are required to comply with the laws and regulations relating to AML activities in Macau. Law 2/2006 of April 3, 2006, which came into effect on April 4,

 

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2006, the Administrative Regulation (AR) 7/2006 of May 15, 2006, which came into effect on November 12, 2006, and the DICJ Instruction 2/2006 of November 13, 2006 govern our compliance requirements with respect to identifying, reporting and preventing AML and terrorism financing crimes at our casinos.

Under these laws and regulations, we are required to:

 

   

identify any customer or transaction where there is a sign of money laundering or financing of terrorism or which involves significant sums of money in the context of the transaction, even if any sign of money laundering is absent;

 

   

refuse to deal with any of our customers who fail to provide any information requested by us;

 

   

keep records on the identification of a customer for a period of five years;

 

   

notify the Finance Information Bureau if there is any sign of money laundering or financing of terrorism; and

 

   

cooperate with the Macau government by providing all required information and documentation requested in relation to AML activities.

Under Article 2 of AR 7/2006 and the DICJ Instruction 2/2006, we are required to track and mandatorily report cash transactions and granting of credit in a minimum amount of MOP 500,000 (US$62,500). Pursuant to the legal requirements above, if the customer provides all required information, after submitting the reports, we may continue to deal with those customers that we reported to the DICJ and, in case of suspicious transactions, to the Finance Information Bureau.

We employ internal controls and procedures designed to help ensure that our gaming and other operations are conducted in a professional manner and in compliance with internal control requirements issued by the DICJ set forth in its instruction on AML, the applicable laws and regulations in Macau, as well as the requirements set forth in the subconcession contract.

We have developed comprehensive AML policies and related procedures covering our AML responsibilities and have training programs in place to ensure that all relevant employees understand such AML policies and procedures. We also use an integrated information technology system to track and automatically generate significant cash transaction reports and, if permitted by the DICJ and the Finance Information Bureau, to submit those reports electronically.

Smoking Regulations

A new Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Law, or the Smoking Control Law, came into effect in Macau on January 1, 2012 and prohibits smoking in casino premises, except for a designated smoking area of up to 50% of the casino area opened to the public, provided that such area is separate from the remaining casino areas and complies with requirements to be determined by the Dispatch of the Macau Chief Executive. The Smoking Control Law requires designated smoking areas to be created and the smoking ban to be implemented by January 1, 2013. Since the effective date of the Smoking Control Law, there has been no material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. However, a full assessment of the impact of this legislation can only be determined subsequent to the implementation date of the smoking ban in casino areas.

Labor Quotas

All businesses in Macau must apply to the Macau Human Resources Office for labor quotas to import non-skilled workers from China and other countries. Businesses are free to employ Macau residents in any

 

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position without any type of quota, as by definition all Macau residents have the right to work in Macau. We have, through our subsidiaries, two main groups of labor quotas in Macau, one to import non-skilled workers from China and the other to import non-skilled workers from all other countries. Melco Crown Gaming is required by law to employ only Macau citizens as dealers and gaming supervisors. Non-resident skilled workers are also subject to authorization by the Macau Human Resource Office, which is given individually on a case by case basis.

Pursuant to Macau social security laws, Macau employers must register their employees under a mandatory social security fund and make social security contributions for each of its resident employees and pay a special duty for each of its non-resident employees on a quarterly basis. Employers must also buy insurance to cover employment accidents for all employees.

Land Use Rights

Macau land is divided into lots, each of which is given a number. There is a small amount of private freehold land in Macau, typically found in the original area of the Macau territory. Where the land is private freehold land, no government rent is payable and there are no temporal limits to the ownership of the land or the buildings erected on the land, which are private property. The rest of the land, including land reclamation areas, belongs to the Macau government. In most cases, private interests in real property located in Macau are obtained through long-term leases from the Macau government.

Our subsidiaries have entered into land concession contracts for the land on which our Altira Macau, City of Dreams and Studio City properties and development projects are located. Each contract has a term of 25 years and is renewable for further consecutive periods of 10 years and imposes, among other conditions, a development period, a land premium payment, a nominal annual government land use fee, which may be adjusted every five years, and a guarantee deposit upon acceptance of the land lease terms, which are subject to adjustments from time to time in line with the amounts paid as annual land use fees.

The land concession contract is similar to a lease and is published in the Macau Official Gazette, at which time official title to the land use right is obtained. The land is initially granted on a provisional basis and registered as such with the Macau Property Registry, subject to completion of the proposed development, and only upon completion of the development is the land concession converted into definitive status and so registered with the Macau Property Registry.

Macau property and all concessions are subject to the Macau title registration system. Title can be established by reference to the title register. The person or party registered is recognized as the legal holder of the right/title registered. The records in the Macau Property Registry are public and anyone who searches the title register can rely on the registered rights. Following the registration of title in Macau, the registered title holder will be officially recognized and able to enforce his rights vis-à-vis any third parties. All ownership rights over the properties or buildings subject to a land concession (being strata title for residential units or full ownership of any building or fraction thereof) are also registered with the Macau Property Registry and fall under a private ownership regime.

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Our company is subject to the FCPA, which makes it illegal for our company and its employees and agents from offering or giving money or any other item of value to win or retain business or to influence any act or decision of any foreign official. Since the founding of our company in 2006, a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (the “Code”) was adopted by our company and includes specific FCPA related provisions that can be found in Section IV and VII B of the Code. To further supplement the existing policy and practice, our company

 

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implemented a FCPA Compliance Program in 2007. This covers the activities of the shareholders, directors, officers, employees, and counterparties of our company.

The Subconcession

The Concession Regime

The Macau government conducted an international tender process for gaming concessions in Macau in 2001, and granted three gaming concessions to Galaxy, SJM and Wynn Macau, respectively. Upon authorization by the Macau government, each of Galaxy, SJM and Wynn Macau subsequently entered into subconcession contracts with their respective subconcessionaires. These subconcessionaires were thus granted the right to operate casino games and other games of chance in Macau. No further granting of subconcessions is permitted unless specifically authorized by the Macau government. Though there are no restrictions on the number of casinos or gaming areas that may be operated under each concession or subconcession, Macau government approval is required for the commencement of operations of any casino or gaming area.

The subconcessionaires that entered into subconcession contracts with Wynn Macau, SJM and Galaxy are Melco Crown Gaming, MGM Grand Paradise and VML, respectively. Our subsidiary, Melco Crown Gaming, executed a subconcession contract with Wynn Macau on September 8, 2006. Wynn Macau will continue to develop and run hotel operations and casino projects independent of ours.

All concessionaires and subconcessionaires must pay a special gaming tax of 35% of gross gaming revenues, defined as all gaming revenues dervied from casino or gaming areas, plus an annual gaming premium of:

 

   

MOP30 million (US$3.7 million) per annum fixed premium;

 

   

MOP300,000 (US$37,437) per annum per VIP gaming table;

 

   

MOP150,000 (US$18,719) per annum per mass market gaming table; and

 

   

MOP1,000 (US$125) per annum per electric or mechanical gaming machine including slot machines.

The Subconcession Contract

The subconcession contract provides for the terms and conditions of the subconcession granted to Melco Crown Gaming (formerly known as PBL Diversões (Macau), S.A), by Wynn Macau. Melco Crown Gaming does not have the right to further grant a subconcession or transfer the operation to third parties, pursuant to the subconcession contract.

Melco Crown Gaming paid a consideration of US$900 million to Wynn Macau. In return, upon September 8, 2006, Melco Crown Gaming was granted the right to operate games of fortune and chance or other games in casinos in Macau, for a period of 16 years until the expiration of the subconcession on June 26, 2022. No further payments need to be made to Wynn Macau in future operations. The operation of gaming-related activities is also permitted, subject to the prior approval from the Macau government.

The Macau government has reconfirmed that the subconcession is independent of Wynn Macau’s concession and that Melco Crown Gaming does not have any obligations to Wynn Macau pursuant to the subconcession contract. It is thus not affected by any modification, suspension, redemption, termination or rescission of Wynn Macau’s concession. In addition, an early termination of Wynn Macau’s concession before June 26, 2022, would not result in the termination of the subconcession. The subconcession was authorized and approved by Macau government. Our Macau legal advisor has advised us that, absent any change to Melco

 

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Crown Gaming’s legal status, rights, duties and obligations towards the Macau government or any change in applicable law, Melco Crown Gaming shall continue to be validly entitled to operate independently under and pursuant to the subconcession, notwithstanding the termination or rescission of Wynn Macau’s concession, the insolvency of Wynn Macau and/or the replacement of Wynn Macau as concessionaire in the subconcession contract. The Macau government has a contractual obligation to the effect that, should Wynn Macau cease to hold the concession prior to June 26, 2022, the Macau government would replace Wynn Macau with another entity so as to ensure that Melco Crown Gaming may continue to operate games of chance and other games in casinos in Macau and the subconcession would at all times be under a concession. Both the Macau government and Wynn Macau has undertaken to cooperate with Melco Crown Gaming to ensure all the legal and contractual obligations are met.

A summary of the key terms of the subconcession contract follows.

Development of Gaming Projects/Financial Obligations. The subconcession contract requires us to make a minimum investment in Macau of MOP4.0 billion (US$499.2 million), including investment in fully developing Altira Macau and the City of Dreams, by December 2010. In June 2010, we obtained confirmation from the Macau government that as of the date of the confirmation, we had invested over MOP 4.0 billion (US$499.2 million) in our projects in Macau.

Payments. Subconcession premiums and taxes, computed in various ways depending upon the type of gaming or activity involved, are payable to the Macau government. The method for computing these fees and taxes may be changed from time to time by the Macau government. Depending upon the particular fee or tax involved, these fees and taxes are payable either monthly or annually and are based upon either a percentage of the gross revenues or the number and type of gaming devices operated. In addition to special gaming taxes of 35% of gross gaming revenues, we are also required to contribute to the Macau government an amount equivalent to 1.6% of the gross revenues of our gaming business. Such contribution must be delivered to a public foundation designated by the Macau government whose goal is to promote, develop or study culture, society, economy, education and science and engage in academic and charitable activities. Furthermore, we are also obligated to contribute to Macau an amount equivalent to 2.4% of the gross revenues of the gaming business for urban development, tourism promotion and the social security of Macau. We are required to collect and pay, through withholding, statutory taxes on commissions or other remunerations paid to gaming promoters.

Termination Rights. The Macau government has the right, after notifying Wynn Macau, to unilaterally terminate Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession in the event of noncompliance by us with our basic obligations under the subconcession and applicable Macau laws. Termination of the subconcession contract may be enforced by agreement between Melco Crown Gaming and Wynn Macau, but is independent of Wynn Macau’s concession. A mutual agreement between the Macau government and Melco Crown Gaming can also result in termination of the subconcession. Upon termination, all of our casino premises and gaming equipment would revert to the Macau government automatically without compensation to us and we would cease to generate any revenues from these operations. In many of these instances, the subconcession contract does not provide a specific cure period within which any such events may be cured and, instead, we may be dependent on consultations and negotiations with the Macau government to give us an opportunity to remedy any such default. Neither Melco Crown Gaming nor Wynn Macau is granted explicit rights of veto, or of prior consultation. The Macau government has the exclusive right to unilaterally rescind the subconcession contract, without any compensation to us, upon the following termination events:

 

   

the operation of gaming without permission or operation of business which does not fall within the business scope of the subconcession;

 

   

abandonment of approved business or suspension of operations of our gaming business in Macau without reasonable grounds for more than seven consecutive days or more than 14 non-consecutive days within one calendar year;

 

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transfer of all or part of Melco Crown Gaming’s operation in Macau in violation of the relevant laws and administrative regulations governing the operation of games of fortune or chance and other casino games in Macau and without Macau government approval;

 

   

failure to pay taxes, premiums, levies or other amounts payable to the Macau government;

 

   

refusal or failure to resume operations following the temporary assumption of operations by the Macau government;

 

   

repeated opposition to the supervision and inspection by the Macau government and failure to comply with decisions and recommendations of the Macau government, especially those of the DICJ, applicable to us;

 

   

failure to provide or supplement the guarantee deposit or the guarantees specified in the subconcession within the prescribed period;

 

   

bankruptcy or insolvency of Melco Crown Gaming;

 

   

fraudulent activity harming the public interest;

 

   

serious and repeated violation of the applicable rules for carrying out casino games of chance or games of other forms or damage to the fairness of casino games of chance or games of other forms;

 

   

systematic non-compliance with the Macau Gaming Law’s basic obligations;

 

   

the grant to any other person of any managing power over the gaming business of Melco Crown Gaming or the grant of a subconcession or entering into any agreement to the same effect; or

 

   

failure by a controlling shareholder in Melco Crown Gaming to dispose of its interest in Melco Crown Gaming, within 90 days from the date of the authorization given by the Macau government for such disposal, pursuant to written instructions received from the regulatory authority of a jurisdiction where the said shareholder is licensed to operate, which have had the effect that such controlling shareholder now wishes to dispose of the shares it owns in Melco Crown Gaming.

Ownership and Capitalization. Set out below are the key terms in relation to ownership and capitalization under the subconcession contract:

 

   

any person who directly acquires voting rights in Melco Crown Gaming will be subject to authorization from the Macau government;

 

   

Melco Crown Gaming will be required to take the necessary measures to ensure that any person who directly or indirectly acquires more than 5% of the shares in Melco Crown Gaming would be subject to authorization from the Macau government, except when such acquisition is wholly made through the shares of publicly listed companies;

 

   

any person who directly or indirectly acquires more than 5% of the shares in Melco Crown Gaming will be required to report the acquisition to the Macau government (except when such acquisition is wholly made through shares tradable on a stock exchange as a publicly listed company);

 

   

the Macau government’s prior approval would be required for any recapitalization plan of Melco Crown Gaming; and

 

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the Chief Executive of Macau could require the increase of Melco Crown Gaming’s share capital if he deemed it necessary.

Redemption. Under the subconcession contract, beginning in 2017, the Macau government has the right to redeem the subconcession contract by providing us with at least one year’s prior notice. In the event the Macau government exercises this redemption right, we would be entitled to fair compensation or indemnity. The standards for the calculation of the amount of such compensation or indemnity would be determined based on the gross revenues generated by City of Dreams during the tax year immediately prior to the redemption, multiplied by the remaining term of the subconcession. We would not receive any further compensation (including for consideration paid to Wynn Macau for the subconcession).

Others. In addition, the subconcession contract contains various general covenants and obligations and other provisions, including special duties of cooperation, special duties of information, and execution of our investment obligations.

See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to the Gaming Industry in Macau — Melco Crown Gaming’s subconcession contract expires in 2022 and if we were unable to secure an extension of its subconcession in 2022 or if the Macau government were to exercise its redemption right in 2017, we would be unable to operate casino gaming in Macau.”

Tax

We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands. Under the current laws of the Cayman Islands, we and our subsidiaries incorporated in the Cayman Islands are not subject to Cayman Islands income or capital gains tax. In addition, dividend payments are not subject to withholding tax in the Cayman Islands. However, we and our Cayman Islands subsidiaries are subject to Hong Kong profits tax on profits arising from our activities conducted in Hong Kong.

Our subsidiaries incorporated in the British Virgin Islands are not subject to tax in the British Virgin Islands, but in the case of Mocha Slot Group Limited, it was subject to Macau complementary tax of 12% on profits earned in or derived from its activities conducted in Macau before the transfer of all of the Mocha Clubs assets and business to Melco Crown Gaming.

Our subsidiaries incorporated in Macau are subject to Macau complementary tax of 12% on profits earned in or derived from their activities conducted in Macau. Having obtained a subconcession, Melco Crown Gaming applied for and was granted the benefit of a corporate tax holiday on Macau complementary tax (but not gaming tax) in 2007, which exempted us from paying the Macau complementary tax for five years from 2007 to 2011 on income from gaming generated by Altira Macau, Mocha Clubs and City of Dreams. In April 2011, the Macau government extended the tax holiday for an additional five years to 2016. However, we cannot assure you that it will be extended beyond the expiration date. We remain subject to Macau complementary tax on our non-gaming businesses.

Melco Crown Gaming is subject to Macau gaming tax based on its gross gaming revenues. These gaming taxes are an assessment on Melco Crown Gaming’s gaming revenues and are recorded as an expense within the “Casino” line item in the consolidated statements of operations.

Our subsidiaries incorporated in Hong Kong are subject to Hong Kong profits tax on any profits arising in or derived from Hong Kong. One of our subsidiaries incorporated in Hong Kong is also subject to Macau complementary tax on profits earned in or derived from its activities conducted in Macau and another one is subject to corporate tax on profits in a number of other Asian jurisdictions through its activities conducted in these jurisdictions.

 

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Our subsidiaries incorporated in New Jersey and Delaware in the United States are subject to U.S. federal and relevant state and local taxes.

Dividend Distribution

Restrictions on Distributions. The City of Dreams Project Facility contained restrictions on payment of dividends for Melco Crown Gaming and certain of our subsidiaries specified as guarantors, or the original borrowing group, which applied until the City of Dreams Project Facility was amended on June 30, 2011. There was a restriction on paying dividends during the construction phase of the City of Dreams project. Upon completion of the construction of the City of Dreams, the relevant subsidiaries would only be able to pay dividends if they satisfied certain financial tests and conditions. The 2011 Credit Facilities contain restrictions which apply on and from June 30, 2011 on paying dividends to our company or persons who are not members of the Borrowing Group, unless certain financial tests and conditions are satisfied. Dividends may be paid from (i) excess cash flow as defined in the 2011 Credit Facilities generated by the Borrowing Group, subject to compliance with the financial covenants under the 2011 Credit Facilities; or (ii) cash held by the Borrowing Group in an amount not exceeding the aggregate cash and cash equivalents investments of the Borrowing Group as at June 30, 2011, subject to a certain amount of cash and cash equivalents being retained for operating purposes and, in either case, there being no event of default continuing or likely to occur under the 2011 Credit Facilities as a result of making such payment. The indenture governing the Senior Notes also contains certain covenants that, subject to certain exceptions and conditions, restrict the payment of dividends for MCE Finance and its restricted subsidiaries.

Distribution of Profits. All subsidiaries incorporated in Macau are required to set aside a minimum of 10% to 25% of the entity’s profit after taxation to the legal reserve until the balance of the legal reserve reaches a level equivalent to 25% to 50% of the entity’s share capital in accordance with the provisions of the Macau Commercial Code. The legal reserve sets aside an amount from the subsidiaries’ statements of operations and is not available for distribution to the shareholders of the subsidiaries. The appropriation of legal reserve is recorded in the subsidiaries’ financial statements in the year in which it is approved by the boards of directors of the relevant subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, the balance of the reserve amounted to US$3,000 in each of those years.

C. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

We are a holding company for the following principal operating subsidiaries: (1) Melco Crown Gaming, which is the holder of our subconcession; (2) Altira Hotel, (3) Altira Developments, (4) Melco Crown (COD) Hotels, and (5) Melco Crown (COD) Developments.

At the time of our initial public offering in December 2006, through three intervening holding company subsidiaries incorporated in the Cayman Islands and wholly owned by us, (1) MCE Finance (formerly known as MPEL Holdings Limited and Melco PBL Holdings Limited), (2) MPEL International Limited (formerly known as Melco PBL International Limited) (“MPEL International”), and (3) MPEL Investments Limited (formerly known as Melco PBL Investments Limited) (“MPEL Investments”), we held all of the class B shares of Melco Crown Gaming, representing 72% of the voting control of Melco Crown Gaming and the rights to virtually all the economic interests in Melco Crown Gaming. All of the class A shares of Melco Crown Gaming, representing 28% of its outstanding capital stock were owned by PBL Asia Limited, or PBL Asia (as to 18%) and, as required by Macau law, the managing director of Melco Crown Gaming (as to 10%). Mr. Lawrence Ho was appointed to serve as the managing director of Melco Crown Gaming. The class A shares were entitled as a class to an aggregate of MOP 1 in dividends and MOP 1 in proceeds of any winding up or liquidation of Melco Crown Gaming. MPEL Investments, PBL Asia, the managing director of Melco Crown Gaming and Melco Crown Gaming entered into a shareholders’ agreement under which, among other things, PBL Asia agreed to vote its class A shares in the same manner as the class B shares on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders of Melco Crown Gaming.

 

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In December 2006, we also incorporated a direct wholly owned subsidiary in Hong Kong, MPEL Services Limited (formerly Melco PBL Services Limited), for the purpose of entering into various administrative contracts, including leases for administrative office space, in Hong Kong.

Prior to the close of the City of Dreams Project Facility in September 2007, three more holding companies were incorporated through which we now hold our shares in Melco Crown Gaming: (1) MPEL Nominee One Limited or MPEL Nominee One, a Cayman Islands company, which is a 100% subsidiary of MPEL International and now holds 100% of the shares in MPEL Investments which in turn holds approximately 90% of the shares in Melco Crown Gaming made up of 1,799,999 class A shares and 7,200,000 class B shares; (2) MPEL Nominee Two Limited, or MPEL Nominee Two, a 100% subsidiary of MPEL Nominee One which holds a minority shareholding in Melco Crown Gaming’s Macau operating companies; and (3) MPEL Nominee Three Limited, or MPEL Nominee Three, a 100% subsidiary of MPEL Nominee One, which now holds one class A share in Melco Crown Gaming.

The above shareholding structure of Melco Crown Gaming was completed when PBL Asia transferred its 1,799,999 class A shares in Melco Crown Gaming to MPEL Investments and its one class A share to MPEL International on June 12, 2007 and when MPEL International transferred its one class A share in Melco Crown Gaming to MPEL Nominee Three on August 13, 2007. Mr. Lawrence Ho remains the Managing Director and 10% shareholder of Melco Crown Gaming. The shareholders’ agreement for Melco Crown Gaming was terminated on December 7, 2007.

Melco Crown Gaming, our operating subsidiary in Macau that holds a gaming subconcession, was incorporated in May 2006 and is owned 89.99% by MPEL Investments, 10% by Mr. Lawrence Ho and 0.01% by MPEL Nominee Three. According to the applicable regulations, 10% of the issued share capital of our company holding the subconcession must be held by the managing director of such company and he or she must be a permanent resident of Macau. MPEL Nominee Three was incorporated and became a shareholder of Melco Crown Gaming to comply with the applicable regulations at the time of incorporation of Melco Crown Gaming, which requires it to have at least three shareholders. The principal activity of Melco Crown Gaming is casino operations.

We formed Melco Crown (COD) Developments and Altira Developments to develop our properties at City of Dreams and Altira Hotel, respectively. Melco Crown (COD) Developments was incorporated in Macau in July 2004, and is owned 96% by Melco Crown Gaming and 4% by MPEL Nominee Two. Altira Developments was incorporated in Macau in September 2004, and is owned as to 99.98% by Melco Crown Gaming, 0.01% by MPEL Nominee Three and 0.01% by MPEL Nominee Two.

We formed Altira Hotel in June 2006 and Melco Crown (COD) Hotels in May 2007 to operate our hotel and non-gaming businesses at Altira Macau and City of Dreams, respectively. The shares of these companies are owned 96% by Melco Crown Gaming and 4% by MPEL Nominee Two.

On March 30, 2011, we incorporated MCE Cotai Investments Limited, or MCE Cotai, as an investment holding company for the purpose of acquiring an equity interest in Studio City. On July 27, 2011, we acquired a 60% equity interest in SCI, the developer of Studio City. The remaining 40% interest is held by New Cotai, LLC. SCI is an investment holding company and its operations are conducted through its subsidiary in Macau, Studio City Developments, which is owned 96% by SCI’s wholly owned subsidiary Studio City Holdings Two Limited (formerly known as Cyber Neighbor Limited) and 4% owned by SCI. Studio City Developments holds a piece of land in Macau for development of Studio City.

 

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The following diagram illustrates our organizational structure, and the place of formation, ownership interest and affiliation of each of our significant subsidiaries, as of April 3, 2012:

 

LOGO

 

Notes:

 

(1) Treasury shares are new shares issued by us and held by the depositary bank to facilitate the administration and operation of our share incentive plans. For a description of our share incentive plans, see “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees — E. Share Ownership — Share Incentive Plans.”

 

(2) The shares of these companies are owned 96% by Melco Crown Gaming and 4% by MPEL Nominee Two.

 

(3) The shares of this company are owned 99.98% by Melco Crown Gaming, 0.01% by MPEL Nominee Three and 0.01% by MPEL Nominee Two.

 

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See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — A. Major Shareholders” for more information regarding the beneficial ownership of Melco and Crown in our company.

D. PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

See “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview” for information regarding our material tangible property, plant and equipment.

 

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by, the audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. Certain statements in this “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” are forward-looking statements. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” regarding these statements.

Overview

We are a holding company that, through our subsidiaries, develops, owns and operates casino gaming and entertainment resort facilities in the Macau market. Our future operating results are subject to significant business, economic, regulatory and competitive uncertainties and risks, many of which are beyond our control. See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations in Macau.” For detailed information regarding our operations and development projects, see “Item  4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview.”

A. OPERATING RESULTS

Operations

Our primary business segments consist of:

City of Dreams

City of Dreams, opened in June 2009, currently features a casino area of approximately 420,000 square feet with a total of approximately 430 gaming tables and approximately 1,300 gaming machines, approximately 1,400 hotel rooms and suites, over 20 restaurants and bars, approximately 70 retail outlets, a wet stage performance theater, an audio visual multimedia experience, recreation and leisure facilities, including health and fitness clubs, three swimming pools, spa and salons and banquet and meeting facilities. A wet stage performance theater with approximately 2,000 seats opened in September 2010 featuring the The House of Dancing Water show produced by Franco Dragone. The Club Cubic nightclub, with approximately 26,210 square feet of live entertainment space, opened at City of Dreams in April 2011. City of Dreams targets premium mass market and rolling chip players from regional markets across Asia.

We continue to evaluate the next phase of our development plan at City of Dreams, which we currently expect to include a hotel featuring either an apartment hotel or a general hotel. Our decision on the development plan on such phase is subject to various considerations, including, among others, Macau government approval, general market conditions, other business opportunities and the availability of additional financing. For the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, net revenues generated from City of Dreams amounted to US$2,491.4 million and US$1,638.4 million, representing 65.0% and 62.0% of our total net revenues, respectively.

 

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Altira Macau

Altira Macau currently features a casino area of approximately 173,000 square feet with a total of approximately 200 gaming tables, approximately 200 hotel rooms, several fine dining and casual restaurants and recreation and leisure facilities. Altira Macau is designed to provide a casino and hotel experience that caters to Asian rolling chip players sourced primarily through gaming promoters. For the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, net revenues generated from Altira Macau amounted to US$1,173.9 million and US$859.8 million, representing 30.6% and 32.5% of our total net revenues, respectively.

Mocha Clubs

We currently operate ten Mocha Clubs with a total of more than 2,100 gaming machines in operation. Mocha Clubs focus primarily on leisure mass market gaming patrons, including day-trip customers, outside the conventional casino setting. For the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, net revenues generated from Mocha Clubs amounted to US$131.9 million and US$112.0 million, representing 3.4% and 4.2% of our total net revenues, respectively. The source of revenues was substantially all from slot machines. For the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, slot machine revenues represented 98.4% and 98.5%, respectively, of net revenues generated from Mocha Clubs.

Corporate and Others

Our Corporate and Others segment primarily includes Taipa Square Casino, a casino on Taipa Island, Macau operating within Hotel Taipa Square, which we operate under a right-to-use agreement, and other corporate costs. For the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, net revenues generated from Corporate and Others segment amounted to US$33.6 million and US$31.8 million, representing 0.9% and 1.2% of our total net revenues, respectively.

Recent Development — Studio City

On July 27, 2011, we acquired a 60% equity interest in SCI, the developer of Studio City, which we envision as a large-scale integrated entertainment, retail and gaming resort located in Cotai, with gaming areas, four-star and/or five-star hotel offerings, and various entertainment, retail and food and beverage outlets to attract a wide range of customers, with a particular focus on the mass market segment in Asia and, in particular, from Greater China.

Summary of Financial Results

For the year ended December 31, 2011, our total net revenues were US$3.83 billion, an increase of 45.0% from US$2.64 billion of net revenues in 2010. Net income attributable to our company for the year ended December 31, 2011 was US$294.7 million, as compared to a net loss of US$10.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010. Our significant improvement in profitability was predominantly a result of the substantial improvements in operating performance, particularly from our gaming operations.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009  
     (in thousands of US$)  

Net revenues

   $ 3,830,847      $ 2,641,976      $ 1,332,873   

Total operating costs and expenses

     (3,385,737     (2,549,464     (1,604,920

Operating income (loss)

     445,110        92,512        (272,047

Net income (loss) attributable to our company

   $ 294,656      $ (10,525   $ (308,461

 

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Our results of operations for the years presented are not comparable for the following reasons:

 

   

On June 1, 2009, City of Dreams opened and progressively added to its operations following the completion of construction of Grand Hyatt Macau in December 2009 and the opening of The House of Dancing Water in the third quarter of 2010.

 

   

On July 27, 2011, we acquired a 60% equity interest in SCI, the developer of Studio City.

Factors Affecting Our Current and Future Results

Our results of operations are and will be affected most significantly by:

 

   

The growth of the gaming and leisure market in Macau, which is facilitated by a number of key drivers and initiatives including, among others, favorable population demographics and economic growth in major Asian tourism markets, substantial private capital investment in Macau, particularly in developing diversified destination resort properties, and the commitment and support of central and local governments to improve and develop infrastructure both within, and connecting to, Macau;

 

   

The current economic and operating environment, including the impact of global and local economic conditions, changes in capital market conditions as well as the impact of visa and other regulatory policies of central and local governments, such as monetary policies of the People’s Bank of China, as discussed under “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Market and Competition”;

 

   

The competitive landscape in Macau, which is expected to evolve as more gaming and non-gaming facilities are developed in Macau, including the expected new supply of integrated resorts in the Cotai region of Macau, as well as the impact of recent or future expansion of gaming markets throughout Asia;

 

   

Our casino mix in terms of the different mix of table and machine games and customer playing habits, such as the mix between rolling chip and mass market table game segments, as well as changes in the mix of rolling chip business sourced through gaming promoters or via our direct VIP relationships;

 

   

Our relationships with gaming promoters, which contribute a significant portion of our casino revenues and the majority of which are provided with credit as part of the ordinary course of business, expose us to credit risks. For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, approximately 61.0%, 62.3% and 71.8% of our casino revenues were derived from customers sourced through our gaming promoters, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2011, our top five customers and the largest customer were gaming promoters and accounted for approximately 23.9% and 6.9% of our casino revenues, respectively. We believe we have good relationships with our gaming promoters and our commission levels broadly have remained stable throughout our operating history. Commissions paid to our gaming promoters (net of amounts indirectly rebated to customers) amounted to US$339.0 million, US$238.7 million and US$180.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively;

 

   

Our 2011 Credit Facilities and interest rate swaps, which expose us to interest rate risk, as discussed under “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk — Interest Rate Risk”; and

 

   

The currency of our operations, our indebtedness and presentation of our financial statements, which exposes us to foreign exchange rate risk, as discussed under “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk — Foreign Exchange Risk.”

Our historical financial results may not be characteristic of our potential future results as we continue to expand and refine our service offerings at our properties and develop and open new properties.

 

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Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

We use the following KPIs to evaluate our casino operations, including table games and gaming machines:

 

   

Table games win: the amount of wagers won net of wagers lost that is retained and recorded as casino revenues.

 

   

Drop: the amount of cash to purchase gaming chips and promotional vouchers that are deposited in a gaming table’s drop box, plus gaming chips purchased at the casino cage.

 

   

Gaming machine handle (volume): the total amount wagered in gaming machines.

 

   

Gaming machine win rate (previously known as “gaming machine hold percentage”): actual win expressed as a percentage of gaming machine handle.

In the rolling chip market segment, customers purchase identifiable chips known as non-negotiable chips, or rolling chips, from the casino cage, and there is no deposit into a gaming table’s drop box of rolling chips purchased from the cage. We also use additional indicators to monitor table games performance for rolling chip and mass market table games segments:

 

   

Rolling chip volume: the amount of non-negotiable chips wagered and lost by the rolling chip market segment.

 

   

Rolling chip win rate (previously known as “rolling chip hold percentage”): rolling chip table games win as a percentage of rolling chip volume.

 

   

Mass market table games drop (previously known as “non-rolling chip volume”): the amount of table games drop in the mass market table games segment.

 

   

Mass market table games hold percentage (previously known as “non-rolling chip hold percentage”): mass market table games win as a percentage of mass market table games drop.

Rolling chip volume and mass market table games drop are not equivalent. Rolling chip volume is a measure of amounts wagered and lost. Mass market table games drop measures buy in. Rolling chip volume is generally substantially higher than mass market table games drop. As these volumes are the denominator used in calculating win rate or hold percentage, with the same use of gaming win as the numerator, the win rate is generally lower in the rolling chip market segment than the hold percentage in the mass market table games segment.

Our combined expected rolling chip win rate (calculated before discounts and commissions) across our properties is in the range of 2.7% to 3.0%. Our combined expected mass market table games hold percentage is in the range of 18% to 22%, which is based on the mix of table games at our casino properties as each table game has its own theoretical hold percentage. Our combined expected gaming machine win rate is in the range of 5% to 6%.

We use the following KPIs to evaluate our hotel operations:

 

   

Average daily rate: calculated by dividing total room revenues (less service charges, if any) by total rooms occupied, i.e., average price of occupied rooms per day.

 

   

Occupancy rate: the average percentage of available hotel rooms occupied during a period.

 

 

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Revenue per available room, or REVPAR: calculated by dividing total room revenues (less service charges, if any) by total rooms available, thereby representing a combination of hotel average daily room rates and occupancy.

Complimentary rooms, for which rates are set at a discount from standard walk-in rates, are included in the calculation of these measures. As not all available rooms are occupied, average daily room rates are normally higher than revenue per available room.

Year Ended December 31, 2011 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2010

Revenues

Our total net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011 were US$3.83 billion, an increase of US$1.19 billion, or 45.0%, from US$2.64 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010. The increase in total net revenues was primarily driven by the significant improvements in operating performance at City of Dreams and Altira Macau, as well as contributions from The House of Dancing Water.

Our total net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011 comprised US$3.68 billion of casino revenues, representing 96.0% of our total net revenues, and US$151.4 million of net non-casino revenues (total non-casino revenues after deduction of promotional allowances). Our total net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2010 comprised US$2.55 billion of casino revenues, representing 96.5% of our total net revenues, and US$91.4 million of net non-casino revenues.

Casino. Casino revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011 were US$3.68 billion, representing a US$1.13 billion, or 44.3%, increase from casino revenues of US$2.55 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily due to an increase in casino revenues at City of Dreams of US$794.0 million, or 50.8%, and at Altira Macau of US$313.6 million, or 37.0%. This increase was primarily driven by increased rolling chip volume and mass market table games drop at both City of Dreams and Altira Macau.

Altira Macau. Altira Macau’s rolling chip volume for the year ended December 31, 2011 was US$51.2 billion, representing an increase of US$10.9 billion, or 27.1%, from US$40.3 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010. Rolling chip win rate (calculated before discounts and commissions) was 3.03% for the year ended December 31, 2011, slightly higher than our expected level of 2.7% to 3.0%, and an increase from 2.91% for the year ended December 31, 2010. In the mass market table games segment, mass market table games drop was US$581.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, representing an increase of 54.3% from US$377.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010. The mass market table games hold percentage was 16.6% for the year ended December 31, 2011, within our expected range for that year of 16.0% to 20.0% and a slight increase from 16.2% for the year ended December 31, 2010.

City of Dreams. City of Dreams’ rolling chip volume for the year ended December 31, 2011 of US$78.8 billion represented an increase of US$27.1 billion, or 52.4%, from US$51.7 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010. Rolling chip win rate (calculated before discounts and commissions) was 2.89% for the year ended December 31, 2011, which is within our expected range of 2.7% to 3.0%, and a slight decrease from 2.92% for the year ended December 31, 2010. In the mass market table games segment, mass market table games drop was US$2.94 billion for the year ended December 31, 2011 which represented an increase of US$0.88 billion, or 42.7%, from US$2.06 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010. The mass market table games hold percentage was 24.4% in the year ended December 31, 2011, which is within our expected range for that period of 21.0% to 26.0% and increased from 21.5% for the year ended December 31, 2010. Average net win per gaming machine per day was US$268 for the year ended December 31, 2011, an increase of US$49, or 22.4%, from US$219 for the year ended December 31, 2010.

 

 

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Mocha Clubs. Mocha Clubs’ average net win per gaming machine per day for the year ended December 31, 2011 was US$217, an increase of approximately US$25, or 13.0%, from US$192 for the year ended December 31, 2010.

Rooms. Room revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011 were US$103.0 million, representing a US$19.3 million, or 23.0%, increase from room revenues of US$83.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 primarily due to an increase in visitation and the positive impact of a full-year operation in 2011 of The House of Dancing Water, which opened in September 2010. Altira Macau’s average daily rate, occupancy rate and REVPAR were US$196, 98% and US$191, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2011, as compared to US$166, 94% and US$156, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2010. City of Dreams’ average daily rate, occupancy rate and REVPAR were US$172, 91% and US$156, respectively for the year ended December 31, 2011, as compared to US$157, 80% and US$126, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2010.

Food, beverage and others. Other non-casino revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011 included food and beverage revenues of US$61.8 million, and entertainment, retail and other revenues of approximately US$86.2 million. Other non-casino revenues for the year ended December 31, 2010 included food and beverage revenues of US$56.7 million, and entertainment, retail and other revenues of approximately US$32.7 million. The increase of US$58.6 million in food, beverage and other revenues from the year ended December 31, 2010 to the year ended December 31, 2011 was primarily due to an increase in visitation and the positive impact of a full-year operation in 2011 of The House of Dancing Water, which opened in September 2010.

Operating costs and expenses

Total operating costs and expenses were US$3.39 billion for the year ended December 31, 2011, representing an increase of US$836.3 million, or 32.8%, from US$2.55 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010. The increase in operating costs was primarily due to an increase in operating costs at City of Dreams and Altira Macau, which is in line with increased gaming volume and the associated increase in revenues, as well as the increase in operating costs associated with increased visitation and the full-year operation of The House of Dancing Water since its opening in September 2010.

Casino. Casino expenses increased by US$750.0 million, or 38.5%, to US$2.70 billion for the year ended December 31, 2011 from US$1.95 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010 primarily due to additional gaming tax and other levies and commission expenses of US$586.6 million and US$100.3 million, respectively, as a result of increased casino revenues, as well as other operating costs, such as payroll and utility expenses of US$63.0 million.

Rooms. Room expenses, which represent the costs in operating the hotel facilities at Altira Macau and City of Dreams, increased by 13.1% to US$18.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 from US$16.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily due to an increase in occupancy rates as a result of increased visitation.

Food, beverage and others. Food, beverage and others expenses increased by US$39.9 million, or 75.8%, to US$92.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 from US$52.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily driven by increased visitation to our properties and particularly, The House of Dancing Water, which opened in September 2010.

General and administrative. General and administrative expenses increased by US$20.4 million, or 10.2%, to US$220.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 from US$199.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily due to an increase in payroll expenses, utilities and transportation costs, which resulted from improved operating performance at City of Dreams and Altira Macau.

 

 

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Pre-opening costs. Pre-opening costs were US$2.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to US$18.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2010. Such costs relate primarily to personnel training, marketing, advertising and other administrative costs in connection with new or start-up operations. Pre-opening costs for the year ended December 31, 2011 related to the opening of Club Cubic at City of Dreams in April 2011 and the pre-opening costs for the year ended December 31, 2010 related primarily to the opening of The House of Dancing Water in September 2010.

Amortization of gaming subconcession. Amortization of our gaming subconcession continued to be recognized on a straight-line basis at an annual rate of US$57.2 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010.

Amortization of land use rights. Amortization of land use rights expenses increased by US$14.9 million, or 76.2%, to US$34.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 from US$19.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily due to the inclusion of amortization of land use rights expenses associated with Studio City.

Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization expenses increased by US$22.9 million, or 9.7%, to US$259.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 from US$236.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 primarily due to depreciation of assets placed into service associated with a full-year operation in 2011 of The House of Dancing Water, which opened in September 2010.

Property charges and others. Property charges and others for the year ended December 31, 2011 were US$1.0 million, which related to a donation made to support the relief efforts for the Japan earthquake in 2011.

Non-operating expenses

Non-operating expenses consist of interest income, interest expenses, net of capitalized interest, amortization of deferred financing costs, loan commitment fees, foreign exchange gain (loss), net, costs associated with debt modification, loss on extinguishment of debt, reclassification of accumulated losses of interest rate swap agreements from accumulated other comprehensive losses, change in fair value of interest swap agreements, listing expenses as well as other non-operating income, net.

Interest income was US$4.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, as compared to US$0.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily driven by increase in cash balances as a result of improvements in our operating cash flows.

Interest expenses were US$113.8 million, net of capitalized interest of US$3.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to US$93.4 million, net of capitalized interest of US$11.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010. The increase in net interest expenses (net of capitalization) of US$20.4 million was primarily due to US$23.4 million of higher interest expenses associated with the issuance of the Senior Notes in May 2010 as a full-year of fixed interest was recognized for the year ended December 31, 2011, an increase of US$14.9 million for interest charges on the RMB Bonds and the Deposit-Linked Loan issued in May 2011, together with a decrease in capitalized interest of US$8.6 million as such charges were not eligible for capitalization following the opening of The House of Dancing Water in September 2010, offset in part by a decrease of US$26.9 million of interest charges on the City of Dreams Project Facility, net of interest on interest rate swap agreements, primarily due to a lower outstanding balance as a result of repayments made in accordance to the amortization schedule.

Other finance costs for the year ended December 31, 2011 of US$15.6 million, included US$14.2 million of amortization of deferred financing costs and loan commitment fees of US$1.4 million. Other finance costs for the year ended December 31, 2010 included US$14.3 million of amortization of deferred financing costs and a credit amount of US$3.8 million of loan commitment fees related to the City of Dreams Project Facility.

 

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Costs associated with debt modification of US$3.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 related to the amendment of the City of Dreams Project Facility in May 2010, which included a write off on the balance of unamortized deferred financing costs relating to the reduced borrowing capacity of the revolving credit facility granted under the City of Dreams Project Facility. There were no costs associated with debt modification for the year ended December 31, 2011.

The amendment of the City of Dreams Project Facility completed on June 30, 2011 was primarily accounted for as an extinguishment of debt resulting in a loss on extinguishment of US$25.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. There was no loss on extinguishment of debt for the year ended December 31, 2010.

The reclassification of US$4.3 million relating to the accumulated losses of interest rate swap agreements from accumulated other comprehensive losses to consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2011 was required as such swap agreements no longer qualified for hedge accounting immediately after the amendment of the City of Dreams Project Facility on June 30, 2011.

Listing expenses of US$9.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 related to the listing of our shares on the HKSE in December 2011.

Income tax credit (expense)

The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2011 was a negative rate of 0.6%, as compared to a negative rate of 9.6% for the year ended December 31, 2010. Such rates for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 differ from the statutory Macau complementary tax rate of 12% primarily due to the effect of change in valuation allowance on the net deferred tax assets for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, with the effect of a tax holiday of US$69.7 million and US$28.1 million on the net income of our Macau gaming operations during the year ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, due to our income tax exemption in Macau, which is set to expire in 2016. Our management does not anticipate recording an income tax benefit related to deferred tax assets generated by our Macau operations; however, to the extent that the financial results of our Macau operations improve and it becomes more likely than not that the deferred tax assets are realizable, we will be able to reduce the valuation allowance through earnings.

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

Our net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest of US$5.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, was primarily due to the share of the Studio City expenses by New Cotai Holdings, LLC, which owns a 40% interest in SCI, upon the completion of our acquisition of a 60% equity interest in SCI on July 27, 2011.

Net income (loss) attributable to our company

As a result of the foregoing, we had net income of US$294.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to a net loss of US$10.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010.

Year Ended December 31, 2010 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2009

Revenues

Our total net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2010 were US$2.64 billion, an increase of US$1.31 billion, or 98.2%, from US$1.33 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in total net revenues was primarily driven by the improvement in operating results, and a full-year operation in 2010 of City of Dreams, which opened in June 2009 and generated US$1.09 billion more in net revenues as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, as well as an increase in rolling chip volume and win rate at Altira Macau.

 

 

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Our total net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2010 comprised US$2.55 billion of casino revenues, representing 96.5% of our total net revenues, and US$91.4 million of net non-casino revenues (total non-casino revenues after deduction of promotional allowances). Our total net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2009 comprised US$1.30 billion of casino revenues, representing 97.9% of our total net revenues, and US$28.2 million of net non-casino revenues.

Casino. Casino revenues for the year ended December 31, 2010 were US$2.55 billion, representing a US$1.25 billion, or 95.5%, increase in casino revenues of US$1.30 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to casino revenues of US$1.03 billion attributable to a full-year operation and improvement in results of City of Dreams which opened in June 2009, and an increase in casino revenues generated by Altira Macau from US$653.0 million to US$846.9 million which was primarily driven by an increase in rolling chip volume and a higher rolling chip win rate.

Altira Macau. Altira Macau’s rolling chip volume for the year ended December 31, 2010 was US$40.3 billion, representing an increase of US$2.8 billion from US$37.5 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009. Rolling chip win rate (calculated before discounts and commissions) was 2.91% for the year ended December 31, 2010, within our expected level of 2.7% to 3.0% and an increase from 2.55% for the year ended December 31, 2009. In the mass market table games segment, mass market table games drop was US$377.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, representing an increase of 38.2% from US$273.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The mass market table games hold percentage was 16.2% for the year ended December 31, 2010, within our expected range of 16.0% to 20.0% and an increase from 16.0% for the year ended December 31, 2009.

City of Dreams. City of Dreams’ rolling chip volume for the year ended December 31, 2010 of US$51.7 billion represented an increase of US$31.5 billion from US$20.3 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009. Rolling chip win rate (calculated before discounts and commissions) was 2.92% for the year ended December 31, 2010, within our expected level of 2.7% to 3.0% and an increase from 2.65% for the year ended December 31, 2009. In the mass market table games segment, mass market table games drop was US$2.06 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010 which increased by 126% from US$912.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The mass market table games hold percentage was 21.5% for the year ended December 31, 2010, which was within our expected range of 18.0% to 22.0% and significantly increased from 16.3% for the year ended December 31, 2009. The mass market table games hold percentage of 16.3% for the year ended December 31, 2009 at City of Dreams was within the range expected for the first six months of a new property. The expected range of mass market table games hold percentage is different for Altira Macau and City of Dreams due to, among other factors, the difference in the mix of table games, each of which has its own theoretical hold percentage, as well as from differences in the expected length of play per customer and average spend per bet. Average net win per gaming machine per day at City of Dreams was US$219 for the year ended December 31, 2010, an increase of US$82 from the year ended December 31, 2009.

Mocha Clubs. Mocha Clubs’ average net win per gaming machine per day for the year ended December 31, 2010 was US$192, an increase of approximately US$11 in net win per gaming machine per day over the year ended December 31, 2009.

Rooms. Room revenues for the year ended December 31, 2010 were US$83.7 million, representing a US$42.5 million, or 103.1%, increase from room revenues of US$41.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to the opening of City of Dreams in June 2009, increasing the number of hotel rooms available across both properties to approximately 1,650 in 2010. Altira Macau’s average daily rate, occupancy and REVPAR were US$166, 94% and US$156, respectively, for 2010, as compared to US$219, 92% and US$201, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease in Altira Macau’s average daily rate for the year ended December 31, 2010 was attributable to a greater proportion of rooms being allocated to gaming customers, to whom we typically provide additional discounts and promotional services, in line with our casino revenues growth. City of Dreams’ average daily rate, occupancy and REVPAR were US$157, 80% and

 

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US$126, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to US$159, 84% and US$133, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2009.

Food, beverage and others. Other non-casino revenues for the year ended December 31, 2010 included food and beverage revenues of US$56.7 million, and entertainment, retail and other revenues of approximately US$32.7 million. Other non-casino revenues for the year ended December 31, 2009 included food and beverage revenues of US$28.2 million, and entertainment, retail and other revenues of approximately US$11.9 million. The increase of US$49.3 million in non-casino revenues was primarily due to a full year of operation of City of Dreams in 2010, increased retail leased space at City of Dreams and the opening of The House of Dancing Water in September 2010.

Operating costs and expenses

Total operating costs and expenses were US$2.55 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010, representing an increase of US$944.5 million, or 58.9%, from US$1.60 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in operating costs of US$944.5 million was primarily due to the commencement of operations at City of Dreams in June 2009, followed by the opening of Grand Hyatt in the fourth quarter of 2009 and The House of Dancing Water in September 2010, and an increase in operating costs at Altira Macau associated with the increase in revenues as described above.

Casino. Casino expenses increased by US$818.7 million, or 72.4%, to US$1.95 billion for the year ended December 31, 2010 from US$1.13 billion for the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to an increase in casino revenues as a result of the full-year operation of City of Dreams in 2010, as well as additional gaming tax and other levies of US$624.5 million.

Rooms. Room expenses, which represent the costs in operating the hotel facilities at Altira Macau and City of Dreams, increased by 153.8% to US$16.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 from US$6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to the full-year operation of City of Dreams in 2010.

Food, beverage and others. Food, beverage and other expenses increased by US$31.8 million, or 152.5%, to US$52.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 from US$20.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to the full-year operation of City of Dreams in 2010 and the opening of The House of Dancing Water in September 2010.

General and administrative. General and administrative expenses increased by US$68.8 million, or 52.6%, to US$199.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 from US$131.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to an increase of US$56.9 million for the full-year operation of City of Dreams in 2010 and US$14.1 million of increased corporate payroll and other costs. The increase primarily related to payroll expenses, utilities, transportation costs and bank charges. Corporate payroll and other costs increased in line with our planned growth.

Pre-opening costs. Pre-opening costs were US$18.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to US$91.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. Such costs relate primarily to personnel training, marketing, advertising and other administrative costs in connection with new or start-up operations. Pre-opening costs for the year ended December 31, 2010 related to the opening of The House of Dancing Water in September 2010 and the pre-opening costs for the year ended December 31, 2009 related to the opening of City of Dreams in June 2009.

Amortization of gaming subconcession. Amortization of our gaming subconcession continued to be recognized on a straight-line basis at an annual rate of US$57.2 million for both the year ended December 31, 2009 and the year ended December 31, 2010.

 

 

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Amortization of land use rights. The increase in amortization of land use rights expenses to US$19.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 from US$18.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 was due to the increase in land premium associated with the increase of the developed gross floor area by approximately 1.6 million square feet of Cotai Land in Macau where the City of Dreams site is located, commencing in November 2009, when we accepted in principle the initial terms for such revision of the land lease agreement.

Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization expense increased by US$94.4 million, or 66.6%, to US$236.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 from US$141.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to depreciation of assets placed into service associated with the opening of City of Dreams in June 2009 and Grand Hyatt Macau and The House of Dancing Water which were progressively added to City of Dreams operations in the fourth quarter of 2009 and September 2010, respectively.

Property charges and others. Property charges and others generally include costs related to the remodeling and rebranding of a property which might include the retirement, disposal or write-off of assets. Property charges and other for the year ended December 31, 2010 were less than US$0.1 million. Property charges and others for the year ended December 31, 2009 were US$7.0 million which primarily included US$4.1 million related to the re-branding of Altira Macau and US$2.9 million related to asset write-offs as a result of our termination of the Macau Peninsula project, which was a proposed development project pursuant to an acquisition agreement we entered into in May 2006 and which was terminated in December 2009.

Non-operating expenses

Non-operating expenses consists of interest income, interest expenses, net of capitalized interest, amortization of deferred financing costs, loan commitment fees, foreign exchange gain, net, costs associated with debt modification as well as other non-operating income, net.

Interest income was US$0.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to US$0.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2009.

Interest expenses were US$93.4 million, net of capitalized interest of US$11.8 million, for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to US$31.8 million, net of capitalized interest of US$50.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in interest expenses of US$61.5 million was primarily due to a US$38.9 million interest related to the Senior Notes issued in May 2010 together with a decrease in capitalized interest of US$38.7 million due to the decrease in interest eligible for capitalization following the opening of City of Dreams, Grand Hyatt and The House of Dancing Water in June 2009, the fourth quarter of 2009 and September 2010, respectively, offset in part by a decrease of US$13.1 million of interest charges on the City of Dreams Project Facility, net of interest rate swap agreements, primarily as a result of reducing indebtedness by US$444.1 million by applying a portion of the net proceeds from the sale of the Senior Notes.

Other finance costs for the year ended December 31, 2010 included US$14.3 million of amortization of deferred financing costs net of capitalization, which primarily increased from the year ended December 31, 2009 due to the ineligibility for further capitalization following the completion and opening of City of Dreams in June 2009, and a credit of US$3.8 million of loan commitment fees related to the City of Dreams Project Facility. Other finance costs for 2009 included US$6.0 million of amortization of deferred financing costs net of capitalization and US$2.3 million of loan commitment fees related to the City of Dreams Project Facility.

Costs associated with debt modification of US$3.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 related to the amendment of City of Dreams Project Facility which includes a write off on the balance of unamortized deferred financing costs relating to the reduced borrowing capacity of the revolving credit facility. There were no costs associated with debt modification for the year ended December 31, 2009.

 

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Income tax credit (expense)

The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2010 was a negative rate of 9.6%, as compared to a positive rate of 0.04% for the year ended December 31, 2009. Such rates differ from the statutory Macau complementary tax rate of 12% primarily due to the effect of change in valuation allowance on the net deferred tax assets for the year ended December 31, 2009 and the year ended December 31, 2010, the impact of a net loss of Macau gaming operations during the year ended December 31, 2009 and the effect of tax holiday of US$28.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 due to our income tax exemption in Macau. Our management does not anticipate recording an income tax benefit related to deferred tax assets generated by our Macau operations; however, to the extent that the financial results of our Macau operations improve and it becomes more likely than not that the deferred tax assets are realizable, we will be able to reduce the valuation allowance through earnings.

Net loss

As a result of the foregoing, there was a net loss of US$10.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to a net loss of US$308.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2009.

Adjusted Property EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA

Our earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, pre-opening costs, development costs, property charges and others, share-based compensation, corporate and other expenses, and other non-operating income and expenses, or adjusted property EBITDA, were US$880.9 million and US$489.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Adjusted property EBITDA of Altira Macau, City of Dreams and Mocha Clubs were US$246.3 million, US$594.4 million and US$40.5 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2011 and US$133.7 million, US$326.3 million and US$29.8 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2010.

Our earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, pre-opening costs, development costs, property charges and others, share-based compensation, and other non-operating income and expenses, or adjusted EBITDA, were US$809.4 million and US$430.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Our management uses adjusted property EBITDA to measure the operating performance of our Altira Macau, City of Dreams and Mocha Clubs businesses, and to compare the operating performance of our properties with those of our competitors. Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted property EBITDA are also presented as supplemental disclosures because management believes they are widely used to measure performance and as a basis for valuation of gaming companies. Our management also uses adjusted property EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA because they are used by some investors as a way to measure a company’s ability to incur and service debt, make capital expenditures and meet working capital requirements. Gaming companies have historically reported similar measures as a supplement to financial measures in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, in particular, U.S. GAAP or IFRS.

However, adjusted property EBITDA or adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation, construed as an alternative to profit or operating profit, treated as an indicator of our U.S. GAAP operating performance, other operating operations or cash flow data, or interpreted as an alternative to cash flow as a measure of liquidity. Adjusted property EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA presented in this annual report may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies’ operating in the gaming or other business sectors. While our management believes these figures may provide useful additional information to investors when considered in conjunction with our U.S. GAAP financial statements and other information in this annual report, less reliance should be placed on adjusted property EBITDA or adjusted EBITDA as a measure in assessing our overall financial performance.

 

 

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Management’s discussion and analysis of our results of operations and liquidity and capital resources are based on our consolidated financial statements. Our consolidated financial statements were prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP. Certain of our accounting policies require that management apply significant judgment in defining the appropriate assumptions integral to financial estimates. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates those estimates and judgments are made based on information obtained from our historical experience, terms of existing contracts, industry trends and outside sources, that are currently available to us, and on various other assumptions that management believes to be reasonable and appropriate in the circumstances. However, by their nature, judgments are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty, and therefore actual results could differ from our estimates. We believe that the critical accounting policies discussed below affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.

Property and Equipment and Other Long-lived Assets

During the development and construction stage of our casino gaming and entertainment resort facilities, direct and incremental costs related to the design and construction, including costs under the construction contracts, duties and tariffs, equipment installation, shipping costs, payroll and payroll-benefit related costs, depreciation of plant and equipment used, applicable portions of interest and amortization of deferred financing costs, are capitalized in property and equipment. The capitalization of such costs begins when the development and construction of a project starts and ceases once the development activity is suspended for more than a brief period or construction is substantially completed. Pre-opening costs, consisting of marketing and other expenses related to our new or start-up operations and resort facilities are expensed as incurred.

Depreciation and amortization expense related to capitalized construction costs and other property and equipment is recognized from the time each asset is placed in service. This may occur at different stages as casino gaming and entertainment resort facilities are completed and opened.

Property and equipment and other long-lived assets with a finite useful life are depreciated and amortized on a straight-line basis over the asset’s estimated useful life. The estimated useful lives are based on factors including the nature of the assets, its relationship to other assets, our operating plans and anticipated use and other economic and legal factors that impose limits. The remaining estimated useful lives of assets are periodically reviewed, including when changes in our business and the operating environment could result in a change in our use of those assets.

Our land use rights in Macau under the land concession contracts for Altira Macau, City of Dreams and Studio City are being amortized over the estimated lease term of the land on a straight-line basis. The expiry dates of the leases of the land use rights of Altira Macau, City of Dreams and Studio City are March 2031, August 2033 and October 2026, respectively. The maximum useful life of assets at Altira Macau, City of Dreams and Studio City is therefore deemed to be the remaining life of the land concession contract. The amortization of land use rights is recognized from the date construction commences.

We will evaluate whether the term of the land concession contract is to be extended when it is probable that definitive registration will be obtained prior to the end of the land grant term.

Costs of repairs and maintenance are charged to expense when incurred. The cost and accumulated depreciation of property and equipment retired or otherwise disposed of are eliminated from the respective accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in operating income or loss.

Our total capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 were US$785.6 million, US$119.7 million and US$828.7 million, respectively, of which US$713.3 million, US$94.3 million,

 

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and US$808.4 million, respectively, were attributable to our development and construction projects, with the remainder primarily related to our new Mocha Clubs and redesign of our properties. The development and construction capital expenditures primarily related to the acquisition and development of Studio City during the year ended December 31, 2011 and to the development and construction of City of Dreams during the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009. Refer to notes 21 and 22 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for further details of these capital expenditures. For a preliminary cost estimate of our future development and construction costs in connection with Studio City, see “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Our Major Existing Operations — Our Development Project.”

We also evaluate the recoverability of our property and equipment and other long-lived assets with finite lives whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of the carrying value of those assets to be held and used is measured by first grouping our long-lived assets into asset groups and, secondly, estimating the undiscounted future cash flows that are directly associated with and expected to arise from the use of and eventual disposition of such asset group. We define an asset group as the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities and estimate the undiscounted cash flows over the remaining useful life of the primary asset within the asset group. If the carrying value of the asset group exceeds the estimated undiscounted cash flows, we record an impairment loss to the extent the carrying value of the long-lived asset exceeds its fair value with fair value typically based on a discounted cash flow model. If an asset is still under development, future cash flows include remaining construction costs. All recognized impairment losses, whether for assets to be disposed of or assets to be held and used, are recorded as operating expenses.

No impairment loss was recognized during the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010. During the year ended December 31, 2009, impairment losses amounting US$282,000 were recognized to write off gaming equipment due to the reconfiguration of the casino at Altira Macau to meet the evolving demands of gaming patrons and target specific segments. In addition, during the year ended December 31, 2009, an impairment loss amounting to US$2.9 million was recognized to write off the construction in progress carried out at the Macau Peninsula site following termination of the related acquisition agreement in December 2009.

Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets

We review the carrying value of goodwill and purchased intangible assets with indefinite useful lives, representing the trademarks of Mocha Clubs, that arose from the acquisition of Mocha Slot Group Limited and its subsidiaries by our company in 2006, for impairment at least on an annual basis or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. To assess potential impairment of goodwill, we perform an assessment of the carrying value of our reporting units at least on an annual basis or when events and changes in circumstances occur that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of our reporting units below their carrying value. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, we would perform the second step in our assessment process and record an impairment loss to earnings to the extent the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds its implied fair value. We estimate the fair value of our reporting units through internal analysis and external valuations, which utilize income and market valuation approaches through the application of capitalized earnings, discounted cash flow and market comparable methods. These valuation techniques are based on a number of estimates and assumptions, including the projected future operating results of the reporting unit, discount rates, long-term growth rates and market comparables.

A detailed evaluation was performed as of December 31, 2011 and 2010 and each computed fair value of our reporting unit was significantly in excess of the carrying amount, respectively. As a result of this evaluation, we determined that no impairment of goodwill existed as of December 31, 2011 and 2010.

Trademarks of Mocha Clubs are tested for impairment at least annually or when events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce their estimated fair value below their carrying value using the relief-from-royalty method and we determined that no impairment of trademarks existed as of December 31, 2011 and 2010. Under this method, we estimate the fair value of the trademarks through internal

 

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and external valuations, mainly based on the incremental after-tax cash flow representing the royalties that we are relieved from paying given we are the owner of the trademarks. These valuation techniques are based on a number of estimates and assumptions, including the projected future revenues of the trademarks, calculated using an appropriate royalty rate, discount rate and long-term growth rates.

Share-based Compensation

We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award and recognize the cost over the service period in accordance with applicable accounting standards. We use the Black-Scholes valuation model to value the equity instruments issued. The Black-Scholes valuation model requires the use of highly subjective assumptions of expected volatility of the underlying stock, risk-free interest rates and the expected term of options granted. Management determines these assumptions through internal analysis and external valuations utilizing current market rates, making industry comparisons and reviewing conditions relevant to us.

The expected volatility and expected term assumptions can impact the fair value of restricted shares and share options. Because of our limited trading history in the United States as a public company, we estimate the expected volatility based on the historical volatility of a peer group of publicly traded companies, and estimate the expected term based upon the vesting term or the historical expected term of publicly traded companies. We believe that the valuation techniques and the approach utilized in developing our assumptions are reasonable in calculating the fair value of the restricted shares and share options we granted. For 2011 awards, a 10% change in the volatility assumption would have resulted in a US$0.6 million change in fair value and a 10% change in the expected term assumption would have resulted in a US$0.3 million change in fair value. These assumed changes in fair value would have been recognized over the vesting schedule of such awards. It should be noted that a change in expected term would cause other changes, since the risk-free rate and volatility assumptions are specific to the term; we did not attempt to adjust those assumptions in performing the sensitivity analysis above.

Revenue Recognition

We recognize revenue at the time persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the service is provided or the retail goods are sold, prices are fixed or determinable and collection is reasonably assured.

Casino revenues are measured by the aggregate net difference between gaming wins and losses less accruals for the anticipated payouts of progressive slot jackpots, with liabilities recognized for funds deposited by customers before gaming play occurs and for chips in the customers’ possession.

We follow the accounting standards on reporting revenue gross as a principal versus net as an agent, when accounting for the operations of the Taipa Square Casino and the Grand Hyatt Macau hotel. For the operations of Taipa Square Casino, given that we operate the casino under a right to use agreement with the owner of the casino premises and have full responsibility for the casino operations in accordance with our gaming subconcession, we are the principal and casino revenues are therefore recognized on a gross basis. For the operations of Grand Hyatt Macau hotel, we are the owner of the hotel property and Hyatt operates the hotel under a management agreement as hotel manager, providing management services to us, and we receive all rewards and take substantial risks associated with the hotel business. As such, we are the principal and the transactions of the hotel are therefore recognized on a gross basis.

Room revenues, food and beverage revenues, and entertainment, retail and other revenues are recognized when services are performed. Advance deposits on rooms and advance ticket sales are recorded as customer deposits until services are provided to the customer. Minimum operating and right to use fees, adjusted for contractual base fees and operating fee escalations, are included in entertainment, retail and other revenues and are recognized on a straight-line basis over the terms of the related agreement.

 

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Revenues are recognized net of certain sales incentives which are required to be recorded as a reduction of revenue; consequently, our casino revenues are reduced by discounts, commissions (including commission rebated indirectly to rolling chip players) and points earned in customer loyalty programs, such as the player’s club loyalty program. We estimate commission rebated indirectly to rolling chip players based on our assessment of gaming promoters’ practice and current market conditions.

The retail value of rooms, food and beverage, entertainment, retail and other services furnished to guests without charge is included in gross revenues and then deducted as promotional allowances. The estimated cost of providing such promotional allowances is reclassified from rooms costs, food and beverage costs, and entertainment, retail and other services costs and is primarily included in casino expenses.

Accounts Receivable and Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject our company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of casino receivables. We issue credit in the form of markers to approved casino customers, including our gaming promoters, following investigations of creditworthiness. Such accounts receivable can be offset against commissions payable and any other value items held by us to the respective customer and for which we intend to set off when required. For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, approximately 61.0%, 62.3% and 71.8% of our casino revenues were derived from customers sourced through our gaming promoters, respectively.

As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, a substantial portion of our markers were due from customers residing in foreign countries. Business or economic conditions, the legal enforceability of gaming debts, or other significant events in foreign countries could affect the collectability of receivables from customers and gaming promoters residing in these countries.

Accounts receivable, including casino, hotel, and other receivables, are typically non-interest bearing and are initially recorded at cost. Accounts are written off when management deems it is probable the receivable is uncollectible. Recoveries of accounts previously written off are recorded when received. An estimated allowance for doubtful debts is maintained to reduce our receivables to their carrying amounts, which approximate fair values. The allowance is estimated based on our specific review of customer accounts as well as management’s experience with collection trends in the casino industry and current economic and business conditions. For balances over a specified dollar amount, our review is based upon the age of the specific account balance, the customer’s financial condition, collection history and any other known information. At December 31, 2011, a 100 basis-point change in the estimated allowance for doubtful debts as a percentage of casino receivables would change the provision for doubtful debts by approximately US$3.9 million.

Refer to note 3 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for analysis of accounts receivable by age presented based on payment due date, net of allowance.

Income Tax

Deferred income taxes are recognized for all significant temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the consolidated financial statements. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The components of the deferred tax assets and liabilities are individually classified as current and non-current based on the characteristics of the underlying assets and liabilities. Current income taxes are provided for in accordance with the laws of the relevant taxing authorities. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, we recorded valuation allowances of US$60.8 million and US$47.2 million, respectively, as management does not believe that it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will be realized. Our assessment considers, among other matters, the nature, frequency and severity of current and cumulative losses, forecasts of future profitability, and the duration of statutory carryforward periods.

 

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To the extent that the financial results of our operations improve and it becomes more likely than not that the deferred tax assets are realizable, the valuation allowance will be reduced.

Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities

We seek to manage market risk, including interest rate risk associated with variable rate borrowings, through balancing fixed-rate and variable-rate borrowings with the use of derivative financial instruments such as floating-for-fixed interest rate swap agreements. We account for derivative financial instruments in accordance with applicable accounting standards. All derivative instruments are recognized in the consolidated financial statements at fair value at the balance sheet date. Any changes in fair value are recorded in the consolidated statement of operations or in accumulated other comprehensive losses, depending on whether the derivative is designated and qualifies for hedge accounting, the type of hedge transaction and the effectiveness of the hedge. The estimated fair values of our derivative instruments are based on a standard valuation model that projects future cash flows and discounts those future cash flows to a present value using market-based observable inputs such as interest rate yields.

Recent Changes in Accounting Standards

See note 2 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for discussion of recent accounting standards.

B. LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

We have relied and intend to rely on our cash generated from our operations and our debt and equity financings to meet our financing needs and repay our indebtedness, as the case may be.

As of December 31, 2011, we held unrestricted and restricted cash and cash equivalents of approximately US$1,158.0 million and US$364.8 million, respectively, and HK$1.47 billion (approximately US$188.6 million) of the 2011 Credit Facilities remained available for future drawdown. The non-current portion of restricted cash of RMB2.3 billion (approximately US$364.8 million) represents the RMB Bonds proceeds deposited into a bank account for securing the Deposit-Linked Loan. The current portion of restricted cash as of December 31, 2010 was released upon approval obtained from the lenders in July 2011. See note 11 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for more information.

We have been able to meet our working capital needs, and we believe that our operating cash flow, existing cash balances, funds available under the 2011 Credit Facilities and additional equity or debt financings will be adequate to satisfy our current and anticipated operating, debt and capital commitments, including our development project plans, as described in “— Other Financing and Liquidity Matters” below, for a period of 12 months following the date of this annual report. For any additional financing requirements, we cannot provide assurance that future borrowings will be available. See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Financing and Indebtedness” for more information. We have significant indebtedness and we will continue to evaluate our capital structure and opportunities to enhance it in the normal course of our activities.

 

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Cash Flows

The following table sets forth a summary of our cash flows for the periods indicated:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009  
     (In thousands of US$)  

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

   $ 744,660      $ 401,955      $ (112,257

Net cash used in investing activities

     (585,388     (190,310     (1,143,639

Net cash provided by financing activities

     557,910        17,680        653,350   

Effect of foreign exchange on cash and cash equivalents

     (1,081              
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

     716,101        229,325        (602,546

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year

     441,923        212,598        815,144   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of year

   $ 1,158,024      $ 441,923      $ 212,598   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating Activities

Operating cash flows are generally affected by changes in operating income and accounts receivable with VIP table games play and hotel operations conducted on a cash and credit basis and the remainder of the business, including mass table games play, slot machine play, food and beverage, and entertainment, conducted primarily on a cash basis.

Net cash provided by operating activities was US$744.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to US$402.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2010. The increase in net cash provided in operating activities was mainly attributable to significant improvement in casino revenues, as well as a full year of operation of The House of Dancing Water, which opened in September 2010. Net cash provided by operating activities was US$402.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to net cash used in operating activities of US$112.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. From 2009 to 2010, there was an increase in operating cash flow mainly attributable to the improvement in results and a full year of operation of City of Dreams, which opened in June 2009.

Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities was US$585.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to US$190.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily due to an increase in restricted cash and a payment of US$290.0 million for the acquisition of a 60% equity interest in SCI (net of cash and cash equivalents acquired of US$35.8 million), offset in part by a reduction in payments for construction and development activities relating to The House of Dancing Water.

For the year ended December 31, 2011, there was a net increase of US$186.0 million in the amount of restricted cash, primarily due to the deposit of proceeds from issuance of the RMB Bonds of US$353.3 million pledged for the Deposit-Linked Loan, offset in part by settlement of US$10.3 million of City of Dreams project costs, settlement of interest and principal repayments of US$133.7 million in accordance with the City of Dreams Project Facility, and release of US$23.3 million to unrestricted cash after the completion of amendment of the City of Dreams Project Facility on June 30, 2011.

Our total capital expenditure payments for the year ended December 31, 2011 were US$90.3 million. We also paid US$15.3 million for the scheduled installment of City of Dreams’ land premium payment during the year ended December 31, 2011.

 

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Net cash used in investing activities was US$190.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to US$1,143.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease is primarily due to a reduction in construction and development activities relating to City of Dreams, which opened in June 2009.

Our total capital expenditure payments for the year ended December 31, 2010 were US$197.4 million. We also paid US$29.8 million for City of Dreams’ land use rights and US$27.1 million for entertainment production costs for The House of Dancing Water for the year ended December 31, 2010.

For the year ended December 31, 2010, there was a net decrease of US$69.1 million in the amount of restricted cash, primarily due to the settlement of US$210.3 million of City of Dreams costs in accordance with the City of Dreams Project Facility, offset in part by a net increase of US$97.5 million in the balance associated with the issuance of the Senior Notes as described below and an increase of US$47.0 million of cash set aside in accordance with the City of Dreams Project Facility, both of which were for future repayments of the City of Dreams Project Facility.

We expect to incur significant capital expenditures for Studio City in the future. We are also re-evaluating the next phase of our development plan at City of Dreams. See “— Other Financing and Liquidity Matters” below for more information.

The following table sets forth our capital expenditures by segment for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2011      2010      2009  
     (in thousands of US$)  

Mocha Clubs

     23,558         13,140         11,448   

Altira Macau

     6,662         7,784         6,712   

City of Dreams

     39,774         94,279         808,424   

Studio City

     713,253                   

Corporate and Others

     2,387         4,457         2,152   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total capital expenditures

     785,634         119,660         828,736   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Our capital expenditures for the year ended December 31, 2011 increased significantly primarily due to the acquisition and development of Studio City. The decrease for the year ended December 31, 2010 from the year ended December 31, 2009 was primarily due to the completion of construction and opening of City of Dreams in 2009.

Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities amounted to US$557.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, primarily from the proceeds of the issuance of the RMB Bonds and drawdown of the Deposit-Linked Loan totaling US$706.6 million in May 2011 and proceeds from the exercise of share options totaling US$4.6 million, offset in part by the repayment of the City of Dreams Project Facility of US$117.1 million and payment of debt issuance costs primarily associated with the RMB Bonds, the Deposit-Linked Loan and the 2011 Credit Facilities of US$36.1 million.

Net cash provided by financing activities amounted to US$17.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily due to proceeds from the issuance of the Senior Notes amounting to US$592.0 million, offset in part by the repayment of long-term debt of US$551.4 million, of which US$444.1 million was used to repay the City of Dreams Project Facility, and payment of deferred financing costs primarily associated with the Senior Notes of US$22.9 million.

 

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Net cash provided by financing activities amounted to US$653.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to drawdown proceeds of US$270.7 million from the City of Dreams Project Facility and proceeds from our follow-on public offerings in May 2009 and August 2009 totaling US$383.5 million after deducting offering expenses.

Indebtedness

The following table presents a summary of our indebtedness as of December 31, 2011:

 

     As of December 31,
2011
 
     (in thousands of US$)  

2011 Credit Facilities

     1,014,729   

Senior Notes, net (1)

     593,166   

RMB Bonds

     364,807   

Deposit-Linked Loan

     353,278   
  

 

 

 
     2,325,980   
  

 

 

 

 

Note:

 

(1) Net of unamortized issue discount.

Major changes in our indebtedness during the year ended December 31, 2011 are summarized below.

In May 2010, our subsidiary, MCE Finance issued US$600 million aggregate principal amount of Senior Notes with an interest rate of 10.25% per annum and a maturity date of May 15, 2018. The net proceeds were used to reduce our indebtedness under the City of Dreams Project Facility.

In May 2011, we issued RMB2.3 billion (equivalent to US$353.3 million based on exchange rate on transaction date) aggregate principal amount of 3.75% bonds due 2013 and listed on the Official List of SGX-ST. On May 20, 2011, we entered into the Deposit-Linked Loan for HK$2.7 billion (equivalent to US$353.3 million based on exchange rate on transaction date), which is secured by a deposit of RMB2.3 billion (equivalent to US$353.3 million based on exchange rate on transaction date) principally funded by the net proceeds of the RMB Bonds to hedge our exchange rate exposure. We intend to use the Deposit-Linked Loan (i) to fund potential future growth and expansion opportunities, which may include acquisitions, (ii) to repay existing debt, (iii) to partially pre-fund certain scheduled interest payments on the RMB Bonds, (iv) for working capital requirements; and (v) for general corporate purposes. As of December 31, 2011, US$325 million of the Deposit-Linked Loan had been used to make payments related to the acquisition of a 60% equity interest in SCI.

In June 2011, we completed an amendment to the City of Dreams Project Facility, known as the 2011 Credit Facilities, which reduced and removed certain restrictions on our business that were imposed by the covenants of the City of Dreams Project Facility and extended the repayment maturity date, thereby increasing our financial flexibility. The 2011 Credit Facilities include a revolving credit facility that we have presented as a long-term liability, as we have both the intent and the ability to refinance these borrowings on a long-term basis.

On November 29, 2011, the outstanding shareholder loans with an aggregate balance of approximately US$115.6 million were converted into 40,211,930 ordinary shares of our company at a conversion price of US$2.87 per ordinary share.

For further details of the above indebtedness, please refer to note 11 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report, which includes information regarding the type of debt and equity facilities used, the maturity profile of debt, the currency and interest rate structure and the nature and

 

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extent of any restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to transfer funds to our company in the form of cash dividends, loans or advances. Refer also to “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — F. Tabular Disclosure Of Contractual Obligations” for details of the maturity profile of debt and “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” for further understanding of our hedging of interest rate risk and foreign exchange risk exposure.

Other Financing and Liquidity Matters

We may obtain financing in the form of, among other things, equity or debt, including additional bank loans or high yield, mezzanine or other debt, or rely on our operating cash flow to fund the development of our projects.

We are a growing company with significant financial needs. We expect to have significant capital expenditures in the future as we continue to develop our Macau properties, in particular, Studio City and potentially the next phase of City of Dreams.

We have relied and intend in the future to rely on our operating cash flow and different forms of financing to meet our funding needs and repay our indebtedness, as the case may be.

The timing of any future debt and equity financing activities will be dependent on our funding needs, our development and construction schedule, the availability of funds on acceptable terms to us, and prevailing market conditions. We may carry out activities from time to time to strengthen our financial position and ability to better fund our business expansion. Such activities may include refinancing existing debt, monetizing assets, sale-and-leaseback transactions or other similar activities.

On December 7, 2011, we successfully completed a dual primary listing on the Main Board of the HKSE by way of introduction. This dual primary listing is expected to provide access to a broader range of investors and provide access to additional sources of equity capital if required.

On July 27, 2011, we acquired a 60% equity interest in SCI. We currently estimate on a preliminary basis that the construction cost for Studio City will be approximately US$1.9 billion. However, this preliminary cost estimate may be revised depending on a number of variables, including receipt of all necessary government approvals, the final design and development plan, funding costs, the availability of financing on terms acceptable to us, and prevailing market conditions.

We continue to evaluate the next phase of our development plan at City of Dreams, which we currently expect to include a hotel featuring either an apartment hotel or a general hotel.

Both Studio City and the next phase of City of Dreams are subject to further financing. Our investment plans are preliminary and subject to change based upon the execution of our business plan, the progress of our capital projections, market conditions and outlook on future business.

As of December 31, 2011, we had capital commitments contracted for but not provided mainly for the construction and acquisition of property and equipment for City of Dreams and Studio City totaling US$60.6 million. In addition, we have contingent liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business. For further details for our commitments and contingencies, please refer to note 19 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.

As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, our gearing ratios (total debts divided by total assets) were 37.1% and 37.7%, respectively. Our gearing ratio decreased slightly as of December 31, 2011, primarily as a result of increased cash and cash equivalents due to the growth of our business and enhancements in our capital structure and also the conversion of shareholders’ loans, offset by the increased indebtedness from the issuance of the RMB Bonds and drawdown of the Deposit-Linked Loan.

 

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Melco Crown Gaming has a rating of “BB-” by Standard & Poor’s and a rating of “Ba3” by Moody’s Investors Service. For future borrowings, any decrease in our corporate rating could result in an increase in borrowing costs.

Restrictions on Distributions

For discussion on the ability of our subsidiaries to transfer funds to our company in the form of cash dividends, loans or advances and the impact such restrictions have on our ability to meet our cash obligations, see “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Dividend Distribution.” See also “Item 8. Financial Information — A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information — Dividend Policy” and note 18 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.

C. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, PATENTS AND LICENSES, ETC.

We have entered into a license agreement with Crown Melbourne Limited and obtained an exclusive and non-transferable license to use the Crown trademark in Macau. Our hotel management agreements for the use of the Grand Hyatt and Hyatt Regency trademarks on a non-exclusive and non-transferable basis were terminated in August 2008 and replaced by a management agreement for the use of the Grand Hyatt trademarks to reflect the branding of the twin-tower hotels under the “Grand Hyatt” brand. In January 2007, we entered into a casino trademark license agreement and a hotel trademark license agreement (which was subsequently novated and amended by a Novation Agreement on August 20, 2008) with Hard Rock Holdings Limited, or Hard Rock, to use the Hard Rock brand in Macau at the City of Dreams. Pursuant to the agreements, we have the exclusive right to use the Hard Rock brand for the hotel and casino facility at City of Dreams for a term of ten years based on percentages of revenues generated at the property payable to Hard Rock. We also purchase gaming tables and gaming machines and enter into licensing agreements for the use of certain tradenames and, in the case of the gaming machines, the right to use software in connection therewith. These include a license to use a jackpot system for the gaming machines. In addition, we have registered the trademarks “Altira,” “Mocha Club”, “City of Dreams” and “Melco Crown Entertainment” in Macau and other jurisdictions. We have also registered in Macau and other jurisdictions certain other trademarks and service marks used in connection with the operations of our hotel casino projects in Macau.

D. TREND INFORMATION

Other than as disclosed in “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview,” “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and elsewhere in this annual report, we are not aware of any trends, uncertainties, demands, commitments or events that are reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our net revenues, income, profitability, liquidity or capital resources, or that caused the disclosed financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or financial conditions.

E. OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS

Except as disclosed in note 19(d) to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report, we have not entered into any material financial guarantees or other commitments to guarantee the payment obligations of any third parties. We have not entered into any derivative contracts that are indexed to our shares and classified as shareholder’s equity, or that are not reflected in our consolidated financial statements.

Furthermore, we do not have any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to such entity. We do not have any variable interest in any unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to us or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us.

 

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F. TABULAR DISCLOSURE OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS

Our total long-term indebtedness and other known contractual obligations are summarized below as of December 31, 2011.

 

     Payments Due by Period  
     Less than
1 year
     1-3
    years    
     3-5
    years    
     More than
5 years
     Total  
     (in millions of US$)  

Long-term debt obligations (1):

  

2011 Credit Facilities

             385.1         629.6                 1,014.7   

RMB Bonds

             364.8                         364.8   

Deposit-Linked Loan

             353.3                         353.3   

Senior Notes

                             600.0         600.0   

Fixed interest payments

     85.4         131.7         123.0         84.6         424.7   

Variable interest payments (2)

     21.8         38.1         15.0                 74.9   

Operating lease obligations:

              

Operating leases, including Mocha Clubs locations

     12.1         12.4         6.5         12.2         43.2   

Other contractual commitments:

              

Government annual land use fees (3)

     1.9         3.8         3.8         27.2         36.7   

Fixed interest on land premium (3)

     1.0         0.2                         1.2   

Construction, plant and equipment acquisition commitments

     60.6                                 60.6   

Gaming subconcession premium (4)

     23.3         46.6         46.6         128.0         244.5   

Other commitments (5)

     18.3         21.5         2.0         2.2         44.0   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total contractual obligations

     224.4         1,357.5         826.5         854.2         3,262.6   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) See note 11 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for further details on these debt facilities.

 

(2) Amounts for all periods represent our estimated future interest payments on our debt facilities based upon amounts outstanding and three months Hong Kong Interbank Offered Rate, or HIBOR, as at December 31, 2011 plus the applicable interest rate spread in accordance with the respective debt agreements. Actual rates will vary.

 

(3) The City of Dreams and Altira Macau sites are located on land parcels in which we have received a land concession from the Macau government for a 25-year term, renewable for further consecutive periods of up to 10 years each, until December 19, 2049. The land concession received from the Macau government for the Studio City site, in which we hold a 60% equity interest, is also for a 25-year term from October 17, 2001, renewable for further consecutive periods of ten years each until December 19, 2049. Renewals of these land concessions are subject to obtaining approvals from the Macau government. See “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Our Properties” for further details of the land concession obligations.

 

(4) In accordance with our gaming subconcession, we are required to pay a fixed annual premium of MOP30.0 million (approximately US$3.7 million) and minimum variable premium of MOP45.0 million (approximately US$5.6 million) per year based on number of gaming tables and gaming machines we operate in addition to the 39% gross gaming win tax (which is not included in this table as the amount is variable in nature). Amounts for all periods are calculated based on our gaming tables and gaming machines in operation as at December 31, 2011 through to the termination of the gaming subconcession in June 2022.

 

(5) Other commitments includes commitments for our trademark and memorabilia license fees, for our entertainment show operations and for other contracts.

 

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G. SAFE HARBOR

See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

A. DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT

Directors and Executive Officers

The following table sets forth information regarding our directors and executive officers as of the date of this annual report on Form 20-F.

 

Name

       Age       

Position/Title

Lawrence Yau Lung Ho

   35    Co-chairman, chief executive officer and executive director

James Douglas Packer

   44    Co-chairman and non-executive director

John Peter Ben Wang

   51    Non-executive director

Yuk Man Chung

   49    Non-executive director

William Todd Nisbet

   44    Non-executive director

Rowen Bruce Craigie

   56    Non-executive director

James Andrew Charles MacKenzie

   58    Independent non-executive director

Thomas Jefferson Wu

   39    Independent non-executive director

Yiu Wa Alec Tsui

   62    Independent non-executive director

Robert Wason Mactier

   47    Independent non-executive director

Geoffrey Stuart Davis

   43    Chief Financial Officer

Stephanie Cheung

   49    Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer

Nigel Alan Dean

   58    Executive Vice President and Chief Internal Audit Officer

Akiko Takahashi

   58    Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources/Corporate Social Responsibility Officer

Ying Tat Chan

   40    Chief Operating Officer

Ching Hui Hsu

   38    President of Mocha Clubs

Directors

Mr. Lawrence Yau Lung Ho was appointed as our executive director on December 20, 2004 and has served as a co-chairman of our board and chief executive officer since December 2004. Since November 2001, Mr. Ho has also served as the managing director and, since March 2006, the chairman and chief executive officer of Melco. Mr. Ho has served as a director of Melco Leisure since 2001. Mr. Ho is the managing director of Melco Crown Gaming and the director of Melco Crown (Macau) Peninsula Developments Limited, Melco Crown (Macau Peninsula) Hotel Limited, Studio City Developments, Studio City Entertainment Limited and SCI, all of which are our subsidiaries. Mr. Ho serves numerous boards and committees of privately held companies in Hong Kong, Macau and mainland China. Mr. Ho was previously the chairman and non-executive director of Value Convergence Holdings Limited, a company listed on the HKSE, until his resignation in September 2009, and the chairman and director of Mountain China Resorts (Holding) Limited (formerly known as Melco China Resorts (Holding) Limited), a company listed on the TSX Venture Exchange of Canada, until his resignation in April 2010. In recognition of Mr. Ho’s excellent directorship and entrepreneurial spirit, Institutional Investor honored him as the “Best CEO” in 2005. He was also granted the “5th China Enterprise Award for Creative Businessmen” by the China Marketing Association and China Enterprise News, “Leader of Tomorrow” by Hong Kong Tatler and one of the “Directors of the Year” awards by the Hong Kong Institute of

 

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Directors in 2005. As a socially responsible young entrepreneur in Hong Kong, Mr. Ho was elected as one of the “Ten Outstanding Young Persons Selection 2006,” organized by the Junior Chamber International Hong Kong. In 2007, he was elected as a finalist in the “Best Chairman” category in the “Stevie International Business Awards” and one of the “100 Most Influential People across Asia Pacific” by Asiamoney magazine, and in 2008, he was granted the “China Charity Award” by the Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. In 2009, Mr. Ho was selected by FinanceAsia as one of the “Best CEOs” in Hong Kong, “China Top Ten Financial and Intelligent Persons” judged by a panel led by the Beijing Cultural Development Study Centre, and was named “Young Entrepreneur of the Year” at Hong Kong’s first Asia Pacific Entrepreneurship Awards. Mr. Ho was selected again as one of the “Best CEOs” in Hong Kong by FinanceAsia in 2010 and 2011. He was also awarded “Asia’s Best CEO (Investor Relations)” at the Asian Excellence Awards by Corporate Governance Asia magazine in 2011. Mr. Ho graduated with a bachelor of arts degree in commerce from the University of Toronto, Canada in June 1999 and was awarded the Honorary Doctor of Business Administration degree by Edinburgh Napier University, Scotland in July 2009 for his contribution to business, education and the community in Hong Kong, Macau and China.

Mr. James Douglas Packer was appointed as our non-executive director on March 8, 2005 and has served as a co-chairman of our board since March 2005. Mr. Packer is the executive chairman of Crown, an operator of casinos and integrated resorts, having been appointed on its formation in 2007, and a member of the Crown Investment Committee since February 2008. Mr. Packer is also the chairman of Consolidated Press Holdings Limited (the largest shareholder of Crown), having been appointed in January 2006, and the deputy chairman of Consolidated Media Holdings Limited, having been appointed in December 2007. Mr. Packer is a director of Crown Melbourne Limited, a casino and integrated resort operator, having been appointed in July 1999, and Burswood Limited, a casino and integrated resort operator, having been appointed in September 2004. His previous directorships include Challenger Limited from November 2003 to September 2009, SEEK Limited from October 2003 to August 2009, Ellerston Capital Limited from August 2004 to August 2011, Sunland Group Limited from July 2006 to August 2009, and Ten Network Holdings Limited from December 2010 to March 2011.

Mr. John Peter Ben Wang was appointed as our non-executive director on November 21, 2006. Since November 2009, Mr. Wang has served as a non-executive director of MelcoLot Limited, a company listed on the HKSE. The principal activities of MelcoLot Limited include the management of lottery business, manufacturing and sales of lottery terminals and POS machines, and provision of management services for distribution of lottery products. Mr. Wang is also a non-executive director of China Precious Metal Resources Holdings Co., Ltd, a company listed on the HKSE and is the chairman and executive director of Summit Ascent Holdings Limited, also listed on the HKSE. Mr. Wang was the chief financial officer of Melco (one of our controlling shareholders) from 2004 to September 2009. Prior to joining Melco in 2004, Mr. Wang had over 18 years of professional experience in the securities and investment banking industry. He was a non-executive director of Oriental Ginza Holdings Limited, which is listed on the HKSE, until March 1, 2012. He was the managing director of JS Cresvale Securities International Limited (HK) from 1998 to 2004 and prior to 1998, he worked for Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (HK), CLSA (HK), Barclays (Singapore), SG Warburg (London), Salomon Brothers (London), the London Stock Exchange and Deloitte Haskins & Sells (London). Mr. Wang qualified as a chartered accountant with the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales in 1985. He graduated from the University of Kent at Canterbury in the United Kingdom with a bachelor degree in accounting in July 1982.

Mr. Yuk Man Chung was appointed as our non-executive director on November 21, 2006. Mr. Chung has also been an executive director of Melco since May 2006. Mr. Chung joined Melco in December 2003 and assumed the role of chief financial officer. Mr. Chung has served as a director of Melco Leisure since 2008. Before joining Melco, he was the chief financial officer at Megavillage Group from September 2000 to November 2003, a vice-president at Lazard Asia Investment Management (H.K.) Ltd from June 1998 to September 2000, a vice-president at Pacific Century Group, and a qualified accountant with Arthur Andersen from July 1987 to June 1992. Mr. Chung has also been serving as the chairman and chief executive officer of

 

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Entertainment Gaming Asia Inc. (formerly known as Elixir Gaming Technologies, Inc.), a company listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE-Amex), since August 2008 and October 2008, respectively. Mr. Chung obtained a master’s degree in business administration from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University and The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 2008 and is a member of the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants (formerly known as the Hong Kong Society of Accountants) and the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, respectively.

Mr. William Todd Nisbet was appointed as our non-executive director on October 14, 2009. Mr. Nisbet joined Crown, an operator of casinos and integrated resorts, in 2007. In his role as executive vice president — strategy and development at Crown, Mr. Nisbet is responsible for all project development and construction operations of Crown. From August 2000 through July 2007, Mr. Nisbet held the position of executive vice president — project director for Wynn Design and Development, a development subsidiary of Wynn Resorts Limited, or Wynn, an operator of casinos and integrated resorts. Serving this role with Wynn, Mr. Nisbet was responsible for all project development and construction operations undertaken by Wynn. Prior to joining Wynn, Mr. Nisbet was the vice president of operations for Marnell Corrao Associates. During Mr. Nisbet’s 14 years at Marnell Corrao from 1986 to 2000, he was responsible for managing various aspects of the construction of some of Las Vegas’ most elaborate and industry-defining properties. Mr. Nisbet obtained a bachelor of science degree in Finance from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in 1993.

Mr. Rowen Bruce Craigie was appointed as our non-executive director on March 8, 2005. Mr. Craigie is the chief executive officer and director of Crown, an operator of casinos and integrated resorts, having been appointed on its formation in 2007, and a director of Crown Asia Investments and Crown Entertainment Group Holdings. Mr. Craigie is also a director of Crown Melbourne Limited, a casino and integrated resort operator, having been appointed in January 2001, and Burswood Limited, a casino and integrated resort operator, having been appointed in September 2004. Mr. Craigie previously served as the chief executive officer of PBL Gaming from 2006 to 2007 and as the chief executive officer of Crown Melbourne Limited from 2002 to 2007. Mr. Craigie was a director of Consolidated Media Holdings Limited from January 2002 to April 2009. Mr. Craigie joined Crown Melbourne Limited in 1993, was appointed as the executive general manager of its Gaming Machines department in 1996, and was promoted to chief operating officer in 2000. Prior to joining Crown Melbourne Limited, Mr. Craigie was the group general manager for gaming at the TAB in Victoria from 1990 to 1993, and held senior economic policy positions in Treasury and the Department of Industry in Victoria from 1984 to 1990. He obtained a bachelor of economics (honors) degree from Monash University, Melbourne, Australia in 1976.

Mr. James Andrew Charles MacKenzie was appointed as an independent non-executive director on April 24, 2008. Mr. MacKenzie has also served as chairman of Mirvac Group since 2005, Pacific Brands Ltd. since 2008, and Gloucester Coal Limited since 2009. He led the transformation of the Victorian Government’s Personal Injury Schemes from 2000 to 2007 and prior to 2005 he held senior executive positions with ANZ Banking Group, Standard Chartered Bank and Norwich Union plc. A chartered accountant by profession since 1977, Mr. MacKenzie was, prior to 2005, a partner in both the Melbourne and Hong Kong offices of an international accounting firm now part of Deloitte. In 2001, Mr. MacKenzie was awarded the Australian Centenary Medal for services to public administration. He obtained a bachelor of business (accounting and quantitative methods) degree from the Swinburne University of Technology in 1974. Mr. MacKenzie has been a Fellow of both the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia and the Australian Institute of Company Directors since 1974 and 1994, respectively. He is the chairman of our audit committee.

Mr. Thomas Jefferson Wu was appointed as an independent non-executive director on December 18, 2006. Mr. Wu has been the managing director of Hopewell Holdings Limited, a business conglomerate listed on the HKSE, since October 2009. He has served in various roles with the Hopewell Holdings group since 1999, including group controller from March 2000 to June 2001, executive director since June 2001, chief operating officer from January 2002 to August 2002, deputy managing director from August 2003 to June 2007 and co-managing director from July 2007 to September 2009. He has served as the managing director of Hopewell

 

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Highway Infrastructure Limited since July 2003. In 2006, the World Economic Forum selected Mr. Wu as a “Young Global Leader.” He was also awarded a “Directors of the Year” award by the Hong Kong Institute of Directors in November 2010 and an “Asian Corporate Director Recognition” award by Corporate Governance Asia in June 2011. Among other memberships in various trade, political and community organizations, Mr. Wu has been a member of the Advisory Committee of the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong since June 2007 and a member of the Hong Kong-Japan Business Co-operation Committee of the Hong Kong Trade Development Council since January 2010, a council member of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University since April 2009, and a member of the Court of The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology since July 2009. He has also acted as the honorary consultant of the Institute of Accountants Exchange since May 2006, the honorary president of the Association of Property Agents and Realty Developers of Macau since June 2005, and was the vice chairman of The Chamber of Hong Kong Listed Companies from October 2003 to August 2010. Mr. Wu obtained a master’s degree in business administration from Stanford University in 1999 and a bachelor’s degree in mechanical and aerospace engineering from Princeton University in 1994. He is the chairman of our compensation committee, a member of our audit committee and a member of our nominating and corporate governance committee.

Mr. Yiu Wa Alec Tsui was appointed as an independent non-executive director on December 18, 2006. Mr. Tsui has extensive experience in finance and administration, corporate and strategic planning, information technology and human resources management, having served at various international companies. He held key positions at the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong from 1989 to 1993, joined the HKSE in 1994 as an executive director of the finance and operations services division and was its chief executive from February 1997 to July 2000. He was also the chief operating officer of Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited from March to August 2000. He was the chairman of the Hong Kong Securities Institute from 2001 to 2004. He was a consultant of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange from July 2001 to June 2002. Mr. Tsui was an independent non-executive director of each of National Arts Holdings Limited (formerly known as Vertex Group Limited) from March 2002 to April 2009, Synergis Holdings Limited from January 2005 to September 2008, Greentown China Holdings Limited from June 2006 to June 2010 and China Huiyuan Juice Group Limited from September 2006 to July 2010, all of which are companies listed on the HKSE . Mr. Tsui has been the chairman of WAG Worldsec Corporate Finance Limited since 2006 and an independent non-executive director of a number of companies listed on the HKSE, Nasdaq and the Shanghai Stock Exchange, including Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Asia) Limited since August 2000, China Chengtong Development Group Limited since 2003, COSCO International Holdings Limited since 2004, China Power International Development Limited since 2004, China Blue Chemical Limited since 2006, Pacific Online Ltd. since 2007, ATA Inc. since 2008, China Oilfield Services Limited since 2009, and Summit Ascent Holdings Limited since March 2011. Mr. Tsui graduated from the University of Tennessee with a bachelor’s degree in industrial engineering in 1975 and a master of engineering degree in 1976. He completed a program for senior managers in government at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1993. He is the chairman of our nominating and corporate governance committee, a member of our audit committee and a member of our compensation committee.

Mr. Robert Wason Mactier was appointed as an independent non-executive director on December 18, 2006. Mr. Mactier joined the board of directors of STW Communications Group Limited, a publicly listed Australian communications and advertising company, in December 2006 and became its independent non-executive chairman in July 2008. He has also been a non-executive director of Aurora Community Television Limited since 2005. Since 1990, Mr. Mactier has held a variety of executive roles across the Australian investment banking and securities markets. He has been a consultant to UBS AG in Australia since June 2007. From March 1997 to January 2006, Mr. Mactier worked with Citigroup Pty Limited and its predecessor firms in Australia, and prior to this he worked with E.L. & C. Baillieu Limited from November 1994 to February 1997 and Ord Minnett Securities Limited from May 1990 to October 1994. During this time, he has gained broad advisory and capital markets transaction experience and specific industry expertise within the telecommunications, media, gaming, entertainment and technology sectors and across the private equity sectors. Prior to joining the investment banking industry, Mr. Mactier qualified as a chartered accountant in 1987,

 

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working with KPMG from January 1986 to April 1990 across their audit, management consulting and corporate finance practices. He obtained a bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of Sydney, Australia in 1986 and has been a Member of the Australian Institute of Company Directors since 2007. Mr. Mactier is a member of our compensation committee and nominating and corporate governance committee.

Executive Officers

Mr. Geoffrey Stuart Davis is our chief financial officer and he was appointed to his current role in April 2011. Prior to that, he served as our deputy chief financial officer from August 2010 to March 2011 and our senior vice president, corporate finance from 2007, when he joined our company. Prior to joining us, Mr. Davis was a research analyst for Citigroup Investment Research, where he covered the U.S. gaming industry from 2001 to 2007. From 1996 to 2000, he was the vice president of corporate communications for Park Place Entertainment, the largest gaming company in the world at the time. Park Place was spun off from Hilton Hotels Corporation and subsequently renamed Caesars Entertainment. Mr. Davis has been a CFA charter holder since 2000 and obtained a bachelor of arts from Brown University in 1991.

Ms. Stephanie Cheung is our executive vice president and chief legal officer and she was appointed to her current role in December 2008. Prior to that, she held the title general counsel from November 2006, when she joined our company. She also acts as the secretary to our board since she joined our company. Prior to joining us, Ms. Cheung was an of counsel at Troutman Sanders from 2004 to 2006 and prior to that she practiced law with various international law firms in Hong Kong, Singapore and Toronto. Ms. Cheung graduated with a bachelor of laws degree from Osgoode Hall Law School in 1986, and a master’s degree in business administration from York University in 1994. Ms. Cheung is admitted as a solicitor in Ontario, Canada, England and Wales, and Hong Kong.

Mr. Nigel Alan Dean is our executive vice president and chief internal audit officer and he was appointed to his current role in December 2008. Prior to that, he held the title director of internal audit from December 2006, when he joined our company. Prior to joining us, Mr. Dean was general manager-compliance F&A at Coles Myer Ltd from 2003 to 2006, where he was responsible for the implementation of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and other corporate governance compliance programs. Other positions held at Coles Myer included the chief internal auditor from 1995 to 2003 and general manager-internal audit of the Supermarkets Division from 1990 to 1993. Previous experience in external and internal audit included positions with Peat Marwick Mitchell & Co (now KPMG) from 1973 to 1975, Australian Federal Government Auditor-General’s Office from 1975 to 1976, Ford Asia-Pacific from 1976 to 1982, CRA (now RioTinto) from 1982 to 1986, and Elders IXL Group from 1986 to 1990. Mr. Dean has been a Fellow of CPA Australia (formerly known as the Australian Society of Accountants) since 1984 and a Certified Internal Auditor since 2005. He obtained a bachelor of laws degree under a long distance learning course from Deakin University in 2005, a diploma of business studies (accounting) from Swinburne University of Technology (formerly known as Swinburne College of Technology) in 1973 and a master’s degree in business administration from Monash University in 1993.

Ms. Akiko Takahashi is our executive vice president and chief human resources/corporate social responsibility officer and she was appointed to her current role in December 2008. Prior to that, she held the title group human resources director from December 2006, when she joined our company. Prior to joining us, Ms. Takahashi worked as a consultant in her own consultancy company from 2003 to 2006, where she conducted “C-level” executive searches for clients and assisted with brand/service culture alignment for a luxury hotel in New York City, and where her last assignment prior to joining our company was to lead the human resources integration for the international hospitality joint venture in Japan between InterContinential Hotels Group and ANA Hotels. She was the global group director of human resources for Shangri-la Hotels and Resorts, an international luxury hotel group headquartered in Hong Kong, from 1995 to 2003. Between 1993 and 1995, she was the senior vice president of human resources and SVC Quality for Bank of America, Hawaii, FSB. She served as regional human resources manager for Sheraton Hotels Hawaii / Japan from 1985 to 1993. She started her hospitality career as a training manager for Halekulani Hotel. She began her career in the fashion luxury

 

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retail industry in merchandising, operations, training and human resources. Ms. Takahashi attended the University of Hawaii.

Mr. Ying Tat Chan is our chief operating officer and he was appointed to his current role in February 2012. With the elimination of the co-chief operating officer positions in February 2012, Mr. Chan now oversees both gaming and non-gaming activities across City of Dreams, Altira Macau and Mocha Clubs. Previously, since September 2010, he was our co-chief operating officer, gaming. Prior to that, he served as president of Altira Macau from November 2008. Prior to his appointment as president of Altira Macau, Mr. Chan was the chief executive officer of Amax Entertainment Holdings Limited from December 2007 until November 2008. Before joining Amax, Mr. Chan worked with our chief executive officer on special projects from September 2007 to November 2007 and was the general manager of Mocha Clubs from 2004 to 2007. From June 2002 to October 2006, Mr. Chan was the assistant to the Group Managing Director at Melco, and he was involved in the overall strategic development and management of our company. Mr. Chan served in various roles at First Shanghai Financial Holding Limited from 1998 to May 2002, with his last position as assistant to the managing director. He graduated with a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1995 and with a master’s degree in financial management under a long distance learning course from the University of London, the United Kingdom in 1998.

Ms. Ching Hui Hsu is our president of Mocha Clubs, and she was appointed to her current role in December 2008. Ms. Hsu has worked for Mocha Clubs since September 2003. She was Mocha Club’s former financial controller from September 2003 to September 2006 and its chief operating officer from December 2006 to November 2008, overseeing finance, treasury, audit, legal compliance, procurement and administration and human resources functions. Ms. Hsu obtained her bachelor of arts degree in business administration with major in accounting in 1997 from Seattle University and a master’s degree in business administration (with concentration on financial services) from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 2002. Ms. Hsu was qualified as a Certified Public Accountant in the state of Washington, United States in 1998; a member of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in 1999; and an associate member of the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants (formerly known as the Hong Kong Society of Accountants) in 2001.

B. COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

Our directors and executive officers receive compensation in the form of salaries, discretionary bonuses, equity awards, contributions to pension schemes and other benefits. The aggregate amount of compensation paid, and benefits in kind granted, including contingent or deferred compensation accrued for the year, to all the directors and executive officers of our company as a group, amounted to approximately US$14.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2011.

Bonus Plan

We offer our management employees, including senior executive officers, the ability to participate in our company’s discretionary annual bonus plan. As part of this plan, employees may receive compensation in addition to their base salary upon satisfactory achievement of certain financial, strategic and individual objectives. Directors are excluded from this plan. The discretionary annual bonus plan is administered at the sole discretion of our company and our compensation committee.

Equity Awards

In 2011, we issued options to acquire 3,101,358 of our ordinary shares pursuant to a share incentive plan our board adopted in November 2006, or the 2006 Share Incentive Plan, to directors and senior executive officers of our company with exercise prices of US$2.5233 per share, or US$7.57 per ADS, and 1,833,577 restricted shares with grant date fair value at US$2.5233 per share, or US$7.57 per ADS. The options expire ten years after the date of grant. In 2011, 47,556 restricted shares held by the directors and senior executive officers

 

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were forfeited. No further awards will be granted under the 2006 Share Incentive Plan and all subsequent awards will be issued under a share incentive plan that was conditionally adopted in October 2011 and became effective in December 2011, or the 2011 Share Incentive Plan. See “— E. Share Ownership” for descriptions of the 2006 Share Incentive Plan and the 2011 Share Incentive Plan.

Pension, Retirement or Similar Benefits

For the year ended December 31, 2011, we set aside or accrued US$273,489 to provide pension, retirement or similar benefits to our senior executive officers. Our directors, other than Mr. Lawrence Ho who participates in his capacity as our chief executive officer, do not participate in such schemes. For a description of the pension scheme in which our senior executive officers in Hong Kong participate, see “— D. Employees.”

C. BOARD PRACTICES

Composition of Board of Directors

Our board consists of ten directors, including three directors nominated by each of Melco and Crown and four independent directors. Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5605(b)(1) generally requires that a majority of an issuer’s board of directors must consist of independent directors, but provides for certain phase-in periods under Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5615(c)(3). However, Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5615(a)(3) permits foreign private issuers like us to follow “home country practice” in certain corporate governance matters. Walkers, our Cayman Islands counsel, has provided a letter to Nasdaq certifying that under Cayman Islands law, we are not required to have a majority of independent directors serving on our board. We rely on this “home country practice” exception and do not have a majority of independent directors serving on our board.

Duties of Directors

Under Cayman Islands law, our directors have a fiduciary duty to act honestly, in good faith and with a view to our best interests. Our directors also have a duty to exercise the skill they actually possess and such care and diligence that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in comparable circumstances. In fulfilling their duty of care to us, our directors must ensure compliance with our memorandum and articles of association, as amended and restated from time to time. An individual shareholder or we, as the company, have (as applicable) the right to seek damages if a duty owed by our directors is breached.

The functions and powers of our board include, among others:

 

   

convening shareholders’ annual general meetings and reporting its work to shareholders at such meetings;

 

   

declaring dividends and distributions;

 

   

appointing officers and determining the term of office of officers;

 

   

exercising the borrowing powers of our company and mortgaging the property of our company; and

 

   

approving the transfer of shares of our company, including the registering of such shares in our share register.

In September 2011, our board adopted Hong Kong corporate governance guidelines, which took effect upon the listing of our company in Hong Kong, to satisfy the requirements of the HKSE, with the intention of strengthening our corporate governance practice.

 

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Terms of Directors and Executive Officers

Our officers are elected by and serve at the discretion of the board of directors. Our directors are not subject to a term of office and hold office until such time as they are removed from office by special resolution or the unanimous written resolution of all shareholders. A director will be removed from office automatically if, among other things, the director (i) becomes bankrupt or makes any arrangement or composition with his creditors; or (ii) dies or is found by our company to be or becomes of unsound mind.

Committees of the Board of Directors

Our board established an audit committee, a compensation committee and a nominating and corporate governance committee in December 2006. Each committee has its defined scope of duties and terms of reference within its own charter, which empowers the committee members to make decisions on certain matters. The charters of these board committees were adopted by our board on November 28, 2006 and have been amended and restated on several occasions, with the latest version of the nominating and corporate governance committee charter adopted in December 2011 and the latest versions of the audit committee charter and the compensation committee charter adopted in March 2012 to satisfy the requirements of the HKSE. The charters may be found on our website. Each of these committees consists entirely of directors whom our board has determined to be independent under the “independence” requirements of the Nasdaq corporate governance rules. The current membership and summary of the charters under which each committee operates are provided below.

Audit Committee

Our audit committee consists of Messrs. Thomas Jefferson Wu, Alec Tsui and James MacKenzie, and is chaired by Mr. MacKenzie. Each of our audit committee members also satisfies the “independence” requirements of Rule 10A-3 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. We believe that Mr. MacKenzie qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert” as defined in Item 16A of Form 20-F. The purpose of the committee is to assist our board in overseeing and monitoring:

 

   

the integrity of the financial statements of our company;

 

   

the qualifications and independence of our independent auditors;

 

   

the performance of our independent auditors;

 

   

the integrity of our systems of internal accounting and financial controls;

 

   

legal and regulatory issues relating to the financial statements of our company, including the oversight of the independent auditor, the review of the financial statements and related material, the internal audit process and the procedure for receiving complaints regarding accounting, internal accounting controls, auditing or other related matters;

 

   

the disclosure, in accordance with our relevant policies, of any material information regarding the quality or integrity of our financial statements, which is brought to its attention by our disclosure committee; and

 

   

the integrity and effectiveness of our internal audit function and risk management policies, procedures and practices.

The duties of the audit committee include:

 

   

reviewing and recommending to our board for approval, the appointment, re-appointment or removal of the independent auditor, after considering its annual performance evaluation of the independent

 

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auditor and after considering a tendering process for the appointment of the independent auditor every five years;

 

   

approving the remuneration and terms of engagement of the independent auditor and pre-approving all auditing and non-auditing services permitted to be performed by our independent auditors;

 

   

at least annually, obtaining a written report from our independent auditor describing matters relating to its independence and quality control procedures;

 

   

discussing with our independent auditor and our management, among other things, the integrity of the financial statements, including whether any material information brought to their attention should be disclosed, issues regarding accounting and auditing principles and practices and the management’s internal control report;

 

   

reviewing and recommending the financial statements to our disclosure committee for inclusion within our quarterly earnings releases and to our board for inclusion in our half-year and annual reports;

 

   

approving all material related party transactions brought to its attention, without further approval of our board except for those which are non-exempt connected transactions under the listing rules of the HKSE;

 

   

establishing and overseeing procedures for the handling of complaints and whistleblowing;

 

   

approving the internal audit charter and annual audit plans, and undertaking an annual performance evaluation of the internal audit function;

 

   

assessing and approving any policies and procedures to identify, accept, mitigate, allocate or otherwise manage various types of risks presented by management, and making recommendations with respect to our risk management process;

 

   

reviewing our financial controls, internal control and risk management systems, and discussing with our management the system of internal control and ensuring that our management has discharged its duty to have an effective internal control system including the adequacy of resources, the qualifications and experience of our accounting and financial staff, and their training programs and budget;

 

   

together with our board, evaluating the performance of the audit committee on an annual basis;

 

   

assessing the adequacy of its charter; and

 

   

cooperating with the other board committees in any areas of overlapping responsibilities.

Compensation Committee

Our compensation committee consists of Messrs. Thomas Jefferson Wu, Alec Tsui and Robert Mactier, and is chaired by Mr. Wu. The purpose of the compensation committee is to discharge the responsibilities of the board relating to compensation of our executives, including by designing (in consultation with management and our board), recommending to our board for approval, and evaluating the executive and director compensation plans, policies and programs of our company.

Members of the compensation committee are not prohibited from direct involvement in determining their own compensation. Our chief executive officer may not be present at any compensation committee meeting during which his compensation is deliberated.

 

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The duties of the compensation committee include:

 

   

overseeing the development and implementation of compensation programs in consultation with our management;

 

   

at least annually, making recommendations to our board with respect to the compensation arrangements for our non-executive directors, and approving compensation arrangements for our executive directors and executive officers, including the chief executive officer;

 

   

at least annually, reviewing and making recommendations to our board with respect to our general compensation scheme, incentive compensation plans and equity-based plans, and overseeing the administration of these plans and discharging any responsibilities imposed on the compensation committee by any of these plans;

 

   

reviewing and approving the compensation payable to our executive director and executive officers in connection with any loss or termination of their office or appointment;

 

   

reviewing and approving any benefits in kind received by any director or executive officer where such benefits are not provided for under the relevant employment terms;

 

   

reviewing executive officer and director indemnification and insurance matters;

 

   

overseeing our regulatory compliance with respect to compensation matters, including our policies on restrictions on compensation plans and loans to officers;

 

   

together with the board, evaluating the performance of the compensation committee on an annual basis;

 

   

assessing the adequacy of its charter; and

 

   

cooperating with the other board committees in any areas of overlapping responsibilities.

Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

Our nominating and corporate governance committee consists of Messrs. Thomas Jefferson Wu, Alec Tsui and Robert Mactier, and is chaired by Mr. Tsui. The purpose of the nominating and corporate governance committee is to assist our board in discharging its responsibilities regarding:

 

   

the identification of qualified candidates to become members and chairs of the board committees and to fill any such vacancies, and reviewing the appropriateness of the continued service of directors;

 

   

ensuring that our board meets the criteria for independence under the Nasdaq corporate governance rules, and that at least three of the board members are independent non-executive directors as required under the listing rules of the HKSE, and nominating directors who meet such independence criteria;

 

   

oversight of our compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, in particular the legal and regulatory requirements of Macau (including the relevant laws related to the gaming industry), the Cayman Islands, the SEC, Nasdaq and the HKSE;

 

   

the development and recommendation to our board of a set of corporate governance principles applicable to our company; and

 

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the disclosure, in accordance with our relevant policies, of any material information (other than that regarding the quality or integrity of our financial statements), which is brought to its attention by the disclosure committee.

The duties of the committee include:

 

   

making recommendations to our board for its approval, the appointment or re-appointment of any members of our board and the chairs and members of its committees, including evaluating any succession planning;

 

   

reviewing on an annual basis the appropriate skills, knowledge and characteristics required of board members and of the committees of our board, and making any recommendations to improve the performance of our board and its committees;

 

   

developing and recommending to our board such policies and procedures with respect to nomination or appointment of members of our board and chairs and members of its committees or other corporate governance matters as may be required pursuant to any SEC or Nasdaq rules, the listing rules of the HKSE, or otherwise considered desirable and appropriate;

 

   

developing a set of corporate governance principles and reviewing such principles at least annually;

 

   

deciding whether any material information (other than that regarding the quality or integrity of our financial statements), which is brought to its attention by the disclosure committee, should be disclosed;

 

   

reviewing and monitoring the training and continuous professional development of our directors and senior management, pursuant to the listing rules of the HKSE;

 

   

developing, reviewing and monitoring the code of conduct and compliance manual applicable to employees and directors, pursuant to the listing rules of the HKSE;

 

   

together with the board, evaluating the performance of the committee on an annual basis;

 

   

assessing the adequacy of its charter; and

 

   

cooperating with the other board committees in any areas of overlapping responsibilities.

Interested Transactions

A director may vote in respect of any contract or transaction in which he or she is interested, provided that the nature of the interest of any directors in such contract or transaction is disclosed by him or her at or prior to its consideration and any vote in that matter.

Remuneration and Borrowing

The directors may recommend remuneration to be paid to the directors. The compensation committee assists the directors in reviewing and approving the compensation structure for the directors. The directors may exercise all the powers of our company to borrow money and to mortgage or charge its undertaking, property and

 

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uncalled capital, and to issue debentures or other securities whether outright or as security for any debt obligations of our company or of any third party.

Qualification

There is no shareholding qualification for directors.

Benefits Upon Termination

Our directors are not currently entitled to benefits when they cease to be directors.

Employment Agreements

We have entered into an employment agreement with each of our executive officers. The terms of the employment agreements are substantially similar for each executive officer, except as noted below. We may terminate an executive officer’s employment for cause, at any time, without notice or remuneration, for certain acts of the officer, including, but not limited to, a serious criminal act, willful misconduct to our detriment or a failure to perform agreed duties. Furthermore, either we or an executive officer may terminate employment at any time without cause upon advance written notice to the other party. Except in the case of Mr. Lawrence Ho, upon notice to terminate employment from either the executive officer or our company, our company may limit the executive officer’s services for a period until the termination of employment. Each executive officer (or his estate, as applicable) is entitled to accrued amounts in relation to such executive officer’s employment with us upon termination due to disability or death. We will indemnify an executive officer for his or her losses based on or related to his or her acts and decisions made in the course of his or her performance of duties within the scope of his or her employment.

Each executive officer has agreed to hold, both during and after the termination of his or her employment agreement, in strict confidence and not to use, except as required in the performance of his or her duties in connection with the employment or as compelled by law, any of our or our customers’ confidential information or trade secrets. Each executive officer also agrees to comply with all material applicable laws and regulations related to his or her responsibilities at our company as well as all material written corporate and business policies and procedures of our company.

Each executive officer is prohibited from gambling at any of our company’s facilities during the term of his or her employment and six months following the termination of such employment agreement.

Each executive officer has agreed to be bound by non-competition and non-solicitation restrictions during the term of his or her employment and for certain periods following the termination of such employment agreement. Specifically, each executive officer has agreed not to (i) assume employment with or provide services as a director for any of our competitors who operate in a restricted area for six months following termination of employment; (ii) solicit or seek any business orders from our customers for one year following termination of employment; or (iii) seek directly or indirectly, to solicit the services of any of our employees for one year following termination of employment. The restricted area is defined as Asia or Australasia or any other country or region in which our company operates.

 

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D. EMPLOYEES

Employees

We had 11,071, 10,913 and 10,482 employees as of December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The following table sets forth the number of employees categorized by the areas of operations and as a percentage of our workforce as of December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009. Staff remuneration packages are determined taking into account market conditions and the performance of the individuals concerned, and are subject to review from time to time.

 

     December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009  
     Number of
Employees
     Percentage
of Total
    Number of
Employees
     Percentage
of Total
    Number of
Employees
     Percentage
of Total
 

Mocha Clubs

     777         7.0     777         7.1     757         7.2

Altira Macau

     2,351         21.3        2,609         23.9        2,753         26.3   

City of Dreams(1)

     7,532         68.0        6,941         63.6        6,569         62.7   

Corporate and centralized services(1)

     411         3.7        586         5.4        403         3.8   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     11,071         100.0     10,913         100.0     10,482         100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

Note:
(1) Includes project management staff for Studio City.

None of our employees is a member of any labor union and we are not party to any collective bargaining or similar agreement with any of our employees. We believe that our relationship with our employees is good. We recruited a significant number of employees in 2009 to cater for the opening of City of Dreams in June 2009 for which we developed human resources outreach programs in Macau and hosted several recruitment events in cities throughout China.

We have implemented a number of human resource initiatives over recent years for the benefit of our employees and their families. These initiatives include a unique in-house learning academy, an on-site high school diploma program, scholarship awards, corporate management trainee programs as well as fast track promotion training initiatives jointly coordinated with the School of Continuing Study of Macau University of Science & Technology and Macao Technology Committee.

Our Macau employees participate in the government-managed social security fund scheme, under which we are required to make a monthly fixed contribution to fund the benefits for each resident employee. The Macau government is responsible for the planning, management and supervision of this social security fund scheme, including collecting and investing the contributions and paying out the pensions to the retired employees. We do not have any obligations to pay any pension to any retired employees under this scheme.

Our Hong Kong employees participate in the mandatory provident fund scheme, or the MPF Scheme, which we operate. For these employees, with the exception of executive officers, our and the employees’ contributions to the MPF Scheme are each set at 5% of the employees’ relevant income up to a maximum of HK$1,000 per employee per month. For executive officers, the employees’ contributions to the MPF Scheme are set at 5% of the employees’ salaries up to a maximum of HK$1,000 per employee per month, and our contribution to the MPF Scheme is set at 10% of the employees’ base salaries. The excess of contributions over our mandatory portion, which is 5% of the employees’ salaries up to a maximum of HK$1,000 per employee per month, are treated as our voluntary contribution and are vested to executive officers at 10% per year with full vesting in 10 years. Our contributions to the MPF Scheme are fully and immediately vested to the employees once they are paid. The MPF Scheme was established under trust with the assets of the funds held separately from ours by independent trustees.

 

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Our subsidiaries in the United States and other jurisdictions operate a number of defined contribution schemes. Contributions to the defined contribution schemes are made at a certain percentage of the employees’ payroll in accordance with applicable minimum mandatory requirements.

The total amounts of contributions made by us for such retirement schemes for each of the three years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 were US$5.4 million, US$5.1 million and US$5.0 million, respectively.

E. SHARE OWNERSHIP

Share Ownership of Directors and Members of Senior Management

Except as disclosed in Item 7, each of our directors and members of senior management individually owns less than 1% of our outstanding ordinary shares.

For the ownership of our ordinary shares pursuant to options and restricted shares granted to directors under our 2006 Share Incentive Plan and our 2011 Share Incentive Plan, see “— Share Incentive Plans” below.

None of our directors or members of senior management who are shareholders have different voting rights from other shareholders of our company.

Share Incentive Plans

2006 Share Incentive Plan

We adopted the 2006 Share Incentive Plan to attract and retain the best available personnel for positions of substantial responsibility, provide additional incentives to employees, directors and consultants and to promote the success of our business. The 2006 Share Incentive Plan has been succeeded by our 2011 Share Incentive Plan. No further awards may be granted under the 2006 Share Incentive Plan. All subsequent awards will be issued under the 2011 Share Incentive Plan. Awards previously granted under the 2006 Share Incentive Plan shall remain subject to the terms and conditions of the 2006 Share Incentive Plan.

The following paragraphs describe the principal terms included in the 2006 Share Incentive Plan.

Types of Awards. The awards permitted to be granted under our 2006 Share Incentive Plan included options to purchase our shares and restricted shares.

Eligibility. We were permitted to grant awards to employees, directors and consultants of our company or any of our related entities, including Melco, Crown, other joint venture entities of Melco or Crown, our own subsidiaries or any entities in which we hold a substantial ownership interest. However, we could grant options that are intended to qualify as incentive share options only to our employees.

Maximum Number of Shares. Under the 2006 Share Incentive Plan, the maximum aggregate number of shares which could be issued pursuant to all awards (including shares issuable upon exercise of options) was 100,000,000 over 10 years.

Plan Administration. Our compensation committee would administer the 2006 Share Incentive Plan and determine the provisions and terms and conditions of each award grant.

Award Agreement. Awards granted were to be evidenced by an award agreement that sets forth the terms, conditions and limitations for each award.

 

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Exercise Price and Term of Awards. In general, the plan administrator would determine the exercise price of an option and set forth the price in the award agreement. The exercise price could be a fixed or variable price related to the fair market value of our shares. If we granted an incentive share option to an employee who, at the time of that grant, owned shares representing more than 10% of the voting power of all classes of our share capital, the exercise price could not be less than 110% of the fair market value of our shares on the date of that grant. The term of each award would be stated in the award agreement, and would not exceed 10 years from the date of the grant.

Vesting Schedule. In general, the plan administrator determined, or the award agreement would specify, the vesting schedule.

See “— B. Compensation of Directors and Executive Officers” for awards granted to our directors and executive officers under the 2006 Share Incentive Plan.

As of December 31, 2011 the unvested share options granted under the 2006 Share Incentive Plan represented approximately 0.599% of our issued share capital. If all the unvested share options were to be exercised and vested during the year ended December 31, 2011 on an unaudited pro-forma basis, there would be a dilution effect on the shareholdings of our shareholders of approximately 0.599% and basic earnings per share of US$0.0011.

A summary of the outstanding awards granted under the 2006 Share Incentive Plan as of December 31, 2011, is presented below:

 

     Exercise
Price/Grant Date Fair
Value per ADS (US$)
   Number of
Unvested Share
Options/Restricted
Shares
     Vesting Period

Share Options

        

2008 Long Term Incentive Plan

   12.04 – 14.08      88,157       4 years

2009 Cancel and Re-issue Program

   4.28      1,174,629       4 years

2009 Long Term Incentive Plan

   3.04 – 3.26      2,258,238       4 years

2010 Long Term Incentive Plan

   3.75 – 3.98      1,450,212       3 to 4 years

2011 Long Term Incentive Plan

   7.57      4,937,685       3 years
     

 

 

    
        9,908,921      
     

 

 

    

Restricted Shares

        

2008 Long Term Incentive Plan

   3.99 – 12.95      148,199       4 years

2009 Long Term Incentive Plan

   3.26      310,596       4 years

2010 Long Term Incentive Plan

   3.75 – 4.66      789,516       2 to 4 years

2011 Long Term Incentive Plan

   7.57      2,754,192       3 years
     

 

 

    
        4,002,503      
     

 

 

    

 

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Details of the movement in share options granted under the 2006 Share Incentive Plan during the year ended December 31, 2011 are as follows:

 

                        Number of share options  

Name or category of
participants

 

Date of grant of
share options

 

Exercisable period

  Exercise
price of
share
options
(per share)
US$
    Share price
at date of
grant of
share options
US$
    Outstanding as
at January 1,
2011
    Granted
during
the year
    Reclassified
during
the year
    Exercised
during
the
year  (2)
    Cancelled
during
the year
    Lapsed
during
the
year
    Outstanding
as at
December 31,
2011
 

Directors:

                     

Lawrence Yau Lung Ho

  March 17, 2009   March 17, 2010 to March 16, 2019     1.09        1.09        724,692                                           724,692   
  March 17, 2009   March 17, 2011 to March 16, 2019     1.09        1.09        724,692                                           724,692   
  March 17, 2009   March 17, 2012 to March 16, 2019     1.09        1.09        724,692                                           724,692   
  March 17, 2009   March 17, 2013 to March 16, 2019     1.09        1.09        724,698                                           724,698   
  November 25, 2009   November 25, 2010 to March 17, 2018     1.43        1.43        188,763                                           188,763   
  November 25, 2009   November 25, 2011 to March 17, 2018     1.43        1.43        188,763                                           188,763   
  November 25, 2009   November 25, 2012 to March 17, 2018     1.43        1.43        188,763                                           188,763   
  November 25, 2009   November 25, 2013 to March 17, 2018     1.43        1.43        188,769                                           188,769   
  March 23, 2011   March 23, 2012 to March 22, 2021     2.52        2.52               482,115                                    482,115   
  March 23, 2011   March 23, 2013 to March 22, 2021     2.52        2.52               482,115                                    482,115   
  March 23, 2011   March 23, 2014 to March 22, 2021     2.52        2.52               482,268                                    482,268   
         

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Sub-total:

            3,653,832        1,446,498                                    5,100,330   
         

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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                        Number of share options  

Name or category of
participants

 

Date of grant of
share options

 

Exercisable period

  Exercise
price of
share
options
(per share)
US$
    Share price
at date of
grant of
share options
US$
    Outstanding as
at January 1,
2011
    Granted
during
the year
    Reclassified
during
the year
    Exercised
during
the
year  (2)
    Cancelled
during
the year
    Lapsed
during
the
year
    Outstanding
as at
December 31,
2011
 

Yuk Man Chung

  March 18, 2008   March 18, 2009 to March 17, 2018     4.01        4.01        14,157                                           14,157   
  March 18, 2008   March 18, 2010 to March 17, 2018     4.01        4.01        14,157                                           14,157   
  March 18, 2008   March 18, 2011 to March 17, 2018     4.01        4.01        14,157                                           14,157   
  March 18, 2008   March 18, 2012 to March 17, 2018     4.01        4.01        14,157                                           14,157   
  March 17, 2009   March 17, 2010 to March 16, 2019     1.09        1.09        34,509                                           34,509   
  March 17, 2009   March 17, 2011 to March 16, 2019     1.09        1.09        34,509                                           34,509   
  March 17, 2009   March 17, 2012 to March 16, 2019     1.09        1.09        34,509                                           34,509   
  March 17, 2009   March 17, 2013 to March 16, 2019     1.09        1.09        34,509                                           34,509   
         

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Sub-total:

            194,664                                           194,664   
         

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Yiu Wa Alec Tsui

  September 10, 2007   September 10, 2008 to September 9, 2017     5.06        4.42        5,982                                           5,982   
  September 10, 2007   September 10, 2009 to September 9, 2017     5.06        4.42        11,967                                           11,967   
  September 10, 2007   September 10, 2010 to September 9, 2017     5.06        4.42        17,952                                           17,952   
  September 10, 2007   September 10, 2011 to September 9, 2017     5.06        4.42        23,946                                           23,946   
  March 18, 2008   March 18, 2009 to March 17, 2018     4.01        4.01        14,157                                           14,157   
  March 18, 2008   March 18, 2010 to March 17, 2018     4.01        4.01        14,157                                           14,157   
  March 18, 2008   March 18, 2011 to March 17, 2018     4.01        4.01        14,157                                           14,157   
  March 18, 2008   March 18, 2012 to March 17, 2018     4.01        4.01        14,157                                           14,157   
  March 17, 2009   March 17, 2010 to March 16, 2019     1.09        1.09        34,509