10-K 1 oc-20171231x10k.htm 10-K Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
or
r
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number: 1-33100
Owens Corning
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
 
43-2109021
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
One Owens Corning Parkway,
Toledo, OH
 
43659
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(419) 248-8000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ    No  r
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  r    No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ    No  r
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  þ    No  r
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    r
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer  þ      Accelerated filer  r      Non-accelerated filer  r      Smaller reporting company  r      Emerging growth company  r
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. r
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  r    No  þ
On June 30, 2017, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of $0.01 par value common stock (the voting stock of the registrant) held by non-affiliates (assuming for purposes of this computation only that the registrant had no affiliates) was approximately $7,451,085,912.
As of February 15, 2018, 111,747,431 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, were outstanding.




DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Owens Corning’s proxy statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on or about April 19, 2018 (the “2018 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.




 
 
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PART I
 
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
OVERVIEW
Owens Corning was founded in 1938. Since then, the Company has continued to grow as a market-leading innovator of glass fiber technology. Owens Corning is a world leader in composite and building materials systems, delivering a broad range of high-quality products and services. Our products range from glass fiber used to reinforce composite materials for transportation, electronics, marine, infrastructure, wind-energy and other high-performance markets to insulation and roofing for residential, commercial and industrial applications.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms “Owens Corning,” “Company,” “we” and “our” in this report refer to Owens Corning and its subsidiaries. References to a particular year mean the Company’s year commencing on January 1 and ending on December 31 of that year.
SEGMENT OVERVIEW
The Company has three reportable segments: Composites, Insulation and Roofing. Our Composites, Insulation and Roofing reportable segments accounted for approximately 31%, 30% and 39% of our total reportable segment net sales, respectively, in 2017.
Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements contains information regarding net sales to external customers and total assets attributable to each of Owens Corning’s reportable segments and geographic regions, earnings before interest and taxes for each of Owens Corning’s reportable segments, and information concerning the dependence of our reportable segments on foreign operations, for each of the years 2017, 2016 and 2015.
Composites
Owens Corning glass fiber materials can be found in over 40,000 end-use applications within five primary markets: building and construction, transportation, consumer, industrial, and power and energy. Such end-use applications include pipe, roofing shingles, sporting goods, consumer electronics, telecommunications cables, boats, aviation, defense, automotive, industrial containers and wind-energy. Our products are manufactured and sold worldwide. We primarily sell our products directly to parts molders and fabricators. Within the building and construction market, our Composites segment sells glass fiber and/or glass mat directly to a small number of major shingle manufacturers, including our own Roofing segment.
Our Composites segment includes vertically integrated downstream activities. The Company manufactures, fabricates and sells glass reinforcements in the form of fiber. Glass reinforcement materials are also used downstream by the Composites segment to manufacture and sell glass fiber products in the form of fabrics, non-wovens and other specialized products.
Demand for composites is driven by general global economic activity and, more specifically, by the increasing replacement of traditional materials such as aluminum, wood and steel with composites that offer lighter weight, improved strength, lack of conductivity and corrosion resistance. We estimate that over the last 35 years, on average, annual global demand for composite materials grew at about 1.6 times global industrial production growth.
We compete with composite manufacturers worldwide. According to various industry reports and Company estimates, our Composites segment is a world leader in the production of glass fiber reinforcement materials. Primary methods of competition include innovation, quality, customer service and global geographic reach. For our commodity products, price is also a method of competition. Significant competitors to the Composites segment include China Jushi Group Co., Ltd., Chongqing Polycom International Corporation Ltd (CPIC), Johns Manville, Nippon Electric Glass Co. Ltd. (NEG) and Taishan Glass Fiber Co., Ltd.
Typically, our composites plants run continuously throughout the year, and we warehouse much of our production prior to sale since we operate primarily with short delivery cycles.
Insulation
Our insulating products help customers conserve energy, provide improved acoustical performance and offer convenience of installation and use. Our products in the residential channel include thermal and acoustical batts, loosefill insulation, foam sheathing and accessories, and are sold under well-recognized brand names and trademarks such as Owens Corning PINK® FIBERGLAS™ Insulation. Our products in the commercial and industrial channel include glass fiber pipe insulation, energy efficient flexible duct media, bonded and granulated mineral wool insulation, cellular glass insulation and foam insulation used in above- and below-grade construction applications, and are sold under well-recognized brand names and trademarks such as Thermafiber®,



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ITEM 1.
BUSINESS (continued)

FOAMGLAS® and the subsequently-acquired Paroc®. We sell our insulation products primarily to insulation installers, home centers, lumberyards, retailers and distributors in the United States, Canada, Europe and Asia-Pacific.
Demand for Owens Corning’s insulating products is driven by new residential construction, remodeling and repair activity, commercial and industrial construction activity, increasingly stringent building codes and the growing need for energy efficiency. Demand in the segment typically follows seasonal home improvement, remodeling and renovation and residential, commercial and industrial construction industry patterns. Demand for new residential construction in North America typically follows housing starts on a three-month lagged basis, although the new residential construction cycle can elongate due to labor availability and other factors beyond our control. The peak season for home construction and remodeling in our geographic markets generally corresponds with the second and third calendar quarters. Demand for commercial and industrial applications is more heavily tied to industrial production growth in the global markets we serve.
Our Insulation segment competes primarily with manufacturers in the United States and, to a lesser extent, in other geographic regions. According to various industry reports and Company estimates, Owens Corning is North America’s largest producer of residential, commercial and industrial insulation, and the second-largest producer of extruded polystyrene foam insulation. Principal methods of competition include innovation and product design, service, location, quality, price and compatibility of systems solutions. Significant competitors in this segment include CertainTeed Corporation, Dow Chemical, Johns Manville, Knauf Insulation and ROCKWOOL International.
Our Insulation segment includes a diverse portfolio of high, mid and low-temperature products with a geographic mix of United States, Canada, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Latin America, a market mix of residential, commercial, industrial and other markets, and a channel mix of retail, contractor and distribution.
Working capital practices for this segment historically have followed a seasonal cycle. Typically, our insulation plants run continuously throughout the year. This production plan, along with the seasonal nature of the segment, generally results in higher finished goods inventory balances in the first half of the year. Since sales increase during the second half of the year, our accounts receivable balances are typically higher during this period.
Roofing
Our primary products in the Roofing segment are laminate and strip asphalt roofing shingles. Other products include roofing components, synthetic packaging materials and oxidized asphalt. We have been able to meet the growing demand for longer lasting, aesthetically attractive laminate products with modest capital investment.
 
We sell shingles and roofing components primarily through home centers, lumberyards, retailers, distributors and contractors in the United States. Our synthetic packaging materials are used primarily in the construction industry for lumber and metal packaging. Oxidized asphalt is a significant input used in the production of our asphalt roofing shingles. We are vertically integrated and have manufacturing facilities that process asphalt for use in our roofing shingles manufacturing process. In addition, we sell processed asphalt to other shingle manufacturers, to roofing contractors for built-up roofing asphalt systems and to manufacturers in a variety of other industries, including automotive, chemical, rubber and construction. Asphalt input costs and third-party asphalt sales prices are correlated to crude oil prices. As a result, third-party asphalt sales are largely a cost-plus business.
Demand for products in our Roofing segment is generally driven by both residential repair and remodeling activity and by new residential construction. Roofing damage from major storms can significantly increase demand in this segment. As a result, sales in this segment do not always follow seasonal home improvement, remodeling and new construction industry patterns as closely as our Insulation segment.
Our Roofing segment competes primarily with manufacturers in the United States. According to various industry reports and Company estimates, Owens Corning’s Roofing segment is the second largest producer of asphalt roofing shingles in the United States. Principal methods of competition include innovation and product design, proximity to customers, quality and price. Significant competitors in the Roofing segment include CertainTeed Corporation, GAF and TAMKO.
Our manufacturing operations are generally continuous in nature, and we warehouse much of our production prior to sale since we operate with relatively short delivery cycles. One of the raw materials important to this segment is sourced from a sole supplier. We have a long-term supply contract for this material, and have no reason to believe that any availability issues will exist. If this supply was to become unavailable, our production could be interrupted until such time as the supplies again became available or the Company reformulated its products. Additionally, the supply of asphalt, another significant raw material in this segment, has been constricted at times. Although this has not caused an interruption of our production in the past, prolonged asphalt shortages would restrict our ability to produce products in this segment.




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ITEM 1.
BUSINESS (continued)

GENERAL
Major Customers
No one customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated net sales for 2017, 2016 or 2015. A significant portion of the net sales in our Insulation and Roofing segments are generated from large United States home improvement retailers.
Intellectual Property
The Company relies on a combination of intellectual property laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions, to protect our intellectual property, proprietary technology and our brands. Through continuous and extensive use of the color PINK since 1956, Owens Corning became the first owner of a single color trademark registration. In addition to our Owens Corning and PINK brands, the Company has registered, and applied for the registration of, U.S. and international trademarks, service marks, and domain names. Additionally, the Company has filed U.S. and international patent applications, including numerous issued patents, covering certain of our proprietary technology resulting from research and development efforts. Over time, the Company has assembled a portfolio of intellectual property rights including patents, trademarks, service marks, copyrights, domain names, know-how and trade secrets covering our products, services and manufacturing processes. Our proprietary technology is not dependent on any single or group of intellectual property rights and the Company does not expect the expiration of existing intellectual property to have a material adverse affect on the business as a whole. The Company believes the duration of our patents is adequate relative to the expected lives of our products. Although the Company protects its intellectual property and proprietary technology, any significant impairment of, or third-party claim against, our intellectual property rights could harm our business or our ability to compete.
 
Backlog
Our customer volume commitments are generally short-term, and the Company does not have a significant backlog of orders.
Research and Development
The Company’s research and development expense during each of the last three years is presented in the table below (in millions):
Period
Research and
Development Expense
Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2017
$
85

Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2016
$
82

Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2015
$
73


Environmental Control

Owens Corning has established policies and procedures to ensure that its operations are conducted in compliance with all relevant laws and regulations and that enable the Company to meet its high standards for corporate sustainability and environmental stewardship. Our manufacturing facilities are subject to numerous foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the presence of hazardous materials, pollution and protection of the environment, including emissions to air, discharges to water, management of hazardous materials, handling and disposal of solid wastes, and remediation of contaminated sites. All Company manufacturing facilities operate using an ISO 14001 or equivalent environmental management system. The Company’s 2020 Sustainability Goals require significant global reductions in energy use, water consumption, waste to landfill, emissions of greenhouse gases, fine particulate matter and toxic air emissions. The Company is dedicated to continuous improvement in our environmental, health and safety performance and to achieving its 2020 Sustainability Goals.

The Company has not experienced a material adverse effect upon our capital expenditures or competitive position as a result of environmental control legislation and regulations. Operating costs associated with environmental compliance were approximately $32 million in 2017. The Company continues to invest in equipment and process modifications to remain in compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations worldwide.

Our manufacturing facilities are subject to numerous national, state and local environmental protection laws and regulations. Regulatory activities of particular importance to our operations include those addressing air pollution, water pollution, waste disposal and chemical control. It is possible that new laws and regulations will specifically address climate change, toxic air emissions, ozone forming emissions and fine particulate matter. New environmental and chemical regulations could impact our ability to expand production or construct new facilities in every geographic region in which we operate. However, based on



-4-
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS (continued)

information known to the Company, including the nature of our manufacturing operations and associated air emissions, at this time we do not expect any of these new laws, regulations or activities to have a material adverse effect on our results of current operations, financial condition or long-term liquidity.

Owens Corning is involved in remedial response activities and is responsible for environmental remediation at a number of sites, including certain of its currently owned or formerly owned plants. These responsibilities arise under a number of laws, including, but not limited to, the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and similar state or local laws pertaining to the management and remediation of hazardous materials and petroleum. The Company has also been named a potentially responsible party under the United States Federal Superfund law, or state equivalents, at a number of disposal sites. The Company became involved in these sites as a result of government action or in connection with business acquisitions. At the end of 2017, the Company was involved with a total of 20 sites worldwide, including 7 Superfund sites and 13 owned or formerly owned sites. None of the liabilities for these sites are individually significant to the Company.

Remediation activities generally involve a potential range of activities and costs related to soil and groundwater contamination. This can include pre-cleanup activities such as fact finding and investigation, risk assessment, feasibility studies, remedial action design and implementation (where actions may range from monitoring to removal of contaminants, to installation of longer-term remediation systems). A number of factors affect the cost of environmental remediation, including the number of parties involved in a particular site, the determination of the extent of contamination, the length of time the remediation may require, the complexity of environmental regulations, variability in clean-up standards, the need for legal action, and changes in remediation technology. Taking these factors into account, Owens Corning has predicted the costs of remediation reasonably estimated to be paid over a period of years. The Company accrues an amount on an undiscounted basis, consistent with the reasonable estimates of these costs when it is probable that a liability has been incurred. Actual cost may differ from these estimates for the reasons mentioned above.

During the fourth quarter of 2017, the Company recorded a $15 million environmental liability charge to Other expenses, net on the Consolidated Statements of Earnings in the Corporate, Other and Eliminations reporting category, primarily as a result of changes in estimable remediation costs at a single closed U.S. site owned by the Company. Factors contributing to this change in estimate included the complexity of environmental regulations at the site and the completion of a remedial action work plan. The Company expects this recorded amount to be paid over the next ten years, with the majority of the costs expected to be paid over the next three years. At December 31, 2017, the Company had an accrual totaling $17 million for its environmental liabilities, of which the current portion is $11 million. Changes in required remediation procedures or timing of those procedures at existing legacy sites, or discovery of contamination at additional sites, could result in material increases to the Company’s environmental obligations.
Number of Employees
As of December 31, 2017, Owens Corning had approximately 17,000 employees. Approximately 8,000 of such employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements. The Company believes that its relations with employees are good.

AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION
Owens Corning makes available, free of charge, through its website, the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission. These documents are available through the Investor Relations page of the Company’s website at www.owenscorning.com.

ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND OUR INDUSTRY
Low levels of residential or commercial construction activity can have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
A large portion of our products are used in the markets for residential and commercial construction and repair and remodeling. Demand for certain of our products is affected in part by the level of new residential construction in the United States, although typically not until a number of months after the change in the level of construction. Lower demand in the regions and markets where our products are sold could result in lower revenues and lower profitability. Historically, construction activity has been cyclical and is influenced by prevailing economic conditions, including the level of interest rates and availability of financing,



-5-
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS (continued)

inflation, employment levels, consumer spending habits, consumer confidence and other macroeconomic factors outside our control.
We face significant competition in the markets we serve and we may not be able to compete successfully.
All of the markets we serve are highly competitive. We compete with manufacturers and distributors, both within and outside the United States, in the sale of building products and composite products. Some of our competitors may have superior financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do. In some cases, we face competition from manufacturers in countries able to produce similar products at lower costs. We also face competition from the introduction by competitors of new products or technologies that may address our customers’ needs in a better manner, whether based on considerations of pricing, usability, effectiveness, sustainability, quality or other features or benefits. If we are not able to successfully commercialize our innovation efforts, we may lose market share. Price competition or overcapacity may limit our ability to raise prices for our products when necessary, may force us to reduce prices and may also result in reduced levels of demand for our products and cause us to lose market share. In addition, in order to effectively compete, we must continue to develop new products that meet changing consumer preferences and successfully develop, manufacture and market these new products. Our inability to effectively compete could result in the loss of customers and reduce the sales of our products, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our sales may fall rapidly in response to declines in demand because we do not operate under long-term volume agreements to supply our customers and because of customer concentration in certain segments.
Many of our customer volume commitments are short-term; therefore, we do not have a significant manufacturing backlog. As a result, we do not benefit from the hedge provided by long-term volume contracts against downturns in customer demand and sales. Further, we are not able to immediately adjust our costs in response to declines in sales. In addition, although no single customer represents more than 10% of our annual sales, our ability to sell some of the products in Insulation and Roofing are dependent on a limited number of customers, who account for a significant portion of such sales. The loss of key customers for these products, a consolidation of key customers or a significant reduction in sales to those customers, could significantly reduce our revenues from these products. In addition, if key customers experience financial pressure or consolidate, they could attempt to demand more favorable contractual terms, which would place additional pressure on our margins and cash flows. Lower demand for our products, loss of key customers and material changes to contractual terms could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Worldwide economic conditions and credit tightening could have a material adverse impact on the Company.
The Company’s business may be materially and adversely impacted by changes in United States or global economic conditions, including global industrial production rates, inflation, deflation, interest rates, availability of capital, consumer spending rates, energy availability and commodity prices, trade laws, and the effects of governmental initiatives to manage economic conditions. Changes in and/or new laws, regulations and policies that may be enacted in the United States or elsewhere could also materially impact economic conditions and the Company's business and results of operations. Volatility in financial markets and the deterioration of national and global economic conditions could materially adversely impact the Company’s operations, financial results and/or liquidity including as follows:
the financial stability of our customers or suppliers may be compromised, which could result in reduced demand for our products, additional bad debts for the Company or non-performance by suppliers;
one or more of the financial institutions syndicated under the credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility may cease to be able to fulfill their funding obligations, which could materially adversely impact our liquidity;
it may become more costly or difficult to obtain financing or refinance the Company’s debt in the future;
the value of the Company’s assets held in pension plans may decline; and/or
the Company’s assets may be impaired or subject to write-down or write-off.
Uncertainty about global economic conditions may cause consumers of our products to postpone spending in response to tighter credit, negative financial news and/or declines in income or asset values. This could have a material adverse impact on the demand for our products and on our financial condition and operating results. A deterioration of economic conditions would likely exacerbate these adverse effects and could result in a wide-ranging and prolonged impact on general business conditions, thereby negatively impacting our operations, financial results and/or liquidity.



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ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS (continued)

Our level of indebtedness could adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our debt level and degree of leverage could have important consequences, including the following:
our ability to obtain additional debt or equity financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes may be limited;
a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations could be required for the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, and may not be available for other business purposes;
certain of our borrowings are at variable rates of interest, exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates;
if due to liquidity needs we must replace any indebtedness upon maturity, we would be exposed to the risk that we may not be able to refinance such indebtedness;
our ability to adjust to changing market conditions may be limited and place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt; and
we may be vulnerable in a downturn in general economic conditions or in our business, or we may be unable to carry out important capital spending.    
In addition, the credit agreement governing our senior credit facility, the indentures governing our senior notes, the receivables purchase agreement governing our receivables securitization facility and any term loan agreement in place contain various covenants that impose operating and financial restrictions on us and/or our subsidiaries. Additionally, instruments and agreements governing our future indebtedness may impose other restrictive conditions or covenants that could restrict our ability to conduct our business operations or pursue growth strategies.
Adverse weather conditions and the level of severe storms could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
Weather conditions and the level of severe storms can have a significant impact on the markets for residential and commercial construction, repair and improvement, which can in turn impact our business as follows:
generally, any weather conditions that slow or limit residential or commercial construction activity can adversely impact demand for our products; and
a portion of our annual product demand is attributable to the repair of damage caused by severe storms. In periods with below average levels of severe storms, demand for such products could be reduced.
Lower demand for our products as a result of either of these scenarios could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, severely low temperatures may lead to significant and immediate spikes in costs of natural gas, electricity and other commodities that could negatively affect our results of operation.
Our operations require substantial capital, leading to high levels of fixed costs that will be incurred regardless of our level of business activity.
Our businesses are capital intensive, and regularly require capital expenditures to expand operations, maintain equipment, increase operating efficiency and comply with applicable laws and regulations, leading to high fixed costs, including depreciation expense. Also, increased regulatory focus could lead to additional or higher costs in the future. We are limited in our ability to reduce fixed costs quickly in response to reduced demand for our products and these fixed costs may not be fully absorbed, resulting in higher average unit costs and lower gross margins if we are not able to offset this higher unit cost with price increases. Alternatively, we may be limited in our ability to quickly respond to unanticipated increased demand for our products, which could result in an inability to satisfy demand for our products and loss of market share.
We may be exposed to increases in costs of energy, materials and transportation or reductions in availability of materials and transportation, which could reduce our margins and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business relies heavily on certain commodities and raw materials used in our manufacturing processes. Additionally, we spend a significant amount on natural gas inputs and services that are influenced by energy prices, such as asphalt, a large number of chemicals and resins and transportation costs. Price increases for these inputs could raise costs and reduce our margins if we are not able to offset them by increasing the prices of our products, improving productivity or hedging where appropriate. In particular, energy prices could increase as a result of climate change legislation or other environmental mandates. Availability of certain of



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ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS (continued)

the raw materials we use has, from time to time, been limited, and our sourcing of some of these raw materials from a limited number of suppliers, and in some cases a sole supplier, increases the risk of unavailability. For example, if one of the raw materials important to our business is sourced from a sole supplier, our production could be interrupted regardless of whether we have a long-term supply contract for the material. Despite our contractual supply agreements with many of our suppliers, it is possible that we could experience a lack of certain raw materials which could limit our ability to produce our products, thereby materially and adversely impacting our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our results of operations in a given period may be impacted by price volatility in certain wind-generated energy markets in the United States.
In connection with our sustainability goals to reduce greenhouse gas and toxic air emissions, we entered into contracts in the United States, pursuant to which we have agreed to purchase wind-generated electricity from third parties. Under these contracts, we do not take physical delivery of wind-generated electricity. The generated electricity is instead sold by our counterparties to local grid operators at the prevailing market price and we obtain the associated non-tax renewable energy credits. The prevailing market pricing for wind-generated electricity can be affected by factors beyond our control and is subject to significant period over period volatility. For example, wind-generated energy output fluctuates due to climactic and other factors beyond our control and can be constrained by available transmission capacity, thereby significantly impacting pricing. Due to this potential volatility, it is possible that these contracts could have an impact on our results of operations in a given reporting period.
We are subject to risks relating to our information technology systems, and any failure to adequately protect our critical information technology systems could materially affect our operations.
We rely on information technology systems across our operations, including for management, supply chain and financial information and various other processes and transactions. Our ability to effectively manage our business depends on the security, reliability and capacity of these systems. Information technology system failures, network disruptions or breaches of security could disrupt our operations, causing delays or cancellation of customer orders or impeding the manufacture or shipment of products, processing of transactions or reporting of financial results. An attack or other problem with our systems could also result in the disclosure of proprietary information about our business or confidential information concerning our customers or employees, which could result in significant damage to our business and our reputation.
We have put in place security measures designed to protect against the misappropriation or corruption of our systems, intentional or unintentional disclosure of confidential information, or disruption of our operations. However, advanced cybersecurity threats, such as computer viruses, attempts to access information, and other security breaches, are persistent and continue to evolve making them increasingly difficult to identify and prevent. Protecting against these threats may require significant resources, and we may not be able to implement measures that will protect against all of the significant risks to our information technology systems. In addition, we rely on a number of third party service providers to execute certain business processes and maintain certain information technology systems and infrastructure, and any breach of security on their part could impair our ability to effectively operate. Moreover, our operations in certain geographic locations may be particularly vulnerable to security attacks or other problems. Any breach of our security measures could result in unauthorized access to and misappropriation of our information, corruption of data or disruption of operations or transactions, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.



-8-
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS (continued)

We are subject to risks associated with our international operations.
We sell products and operate plants throughout the world. Our international sales and operations are subject to risks and uncertainties, including:
difficulties and costs associated with complying with a wide variety of complex and changing laws, including securities laws, tax laws, employment and pension-related laws, competition laws, U.S. and foreign export and trading laws, and laws governing improper business practices, treaties and regulations;
limitations on our ability to enforce legal rights and remedies;
adverse domestic or international economic and political conditions, business interruption, war and civil disturbance;
changes to tax, currency, or other laws or policies that may adversely impact our ability to repatriate cash from non-United States subsidiaries, make cross-border investments, or engage in other intercompany transactions;
future regulatory guidance and interpretations of the recently-enacted tax legislation commonly known as the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the "Tax Act"), as well as assumptions that the Company makes related to the Tax Act;
changes to tariffs or other import or export restrictions or penalties, including modification or elimination of international agreements covering trade or investment;
costs and availability of shipping and transportation;
nationalization of properties by foreign governments;
currency exchange rate fluctuations between the United States dollar and foreign currencies; and
uncertainty with respect to any potential changes to laws, regulations and policies that could exacerbate the risks described above.
As we continue to expand our business globally, we may have difficulty anticipating and effectively managing these and other risks that our international operations may face, which may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we operate in many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption and we could be adversely affected by violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and similar worldwide anti-corruption laws. The FCPA and similar anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Although we mandate compliance with these anti-corruption laws and maintain an anti-corruption compliance program, we cannot provide assurance that these measures will necessarily prevent violations of these laws by our employees or agents. If we were found to be liable for violations of anti-corruption laws, we could be liable for criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company’s income tax net operating loss and U.S. foreign tax credit carryforwards may be limited and our results of operations may be adversely impacted.
The Company has substantial deferred tax assets related to both U.S. federal and state net operating losses (NOLs) and U.S. foreign tax credits (FTCs) for income tax purposes, which the Company expects generally are available, with some exceptions, to offset future taxable income. However, the Company’s ability to utilize or realize the current carrying value of the NOLs and FTCs may be impacted by certain events, such as changes in tax legislation or the interpretation thereof, or insufficient future taxable income prior to expiration of the NOLs and FTCs, or annual limits imposed under sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code, or by state law, as a result of a change in control. A change in control is generally defined as a cumulative change of more than 50% in the ownership positions of certain stockholders during a rolling three year period. Changes in the ownership positions of certain stockholders could occur as the result of stock transactions by such stockholders and/or by the issuance of stock by the Company. Such limitations may cause the Company to pay income taxes earlier and in greater amounts than would be the case if the NOLs and FTCs were not subject to such limitations. Additionally, uncertainty exists with respect to future regulatory guidance and interpretations of the Tax Act, as well as assumptions that the Company makes related to the Tax Act, which could have an impact on the use of the Company's NOLs and FTCs.



-9-
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS (continued)

Should the Company determine that it is likely that its recorded NOL and FTC benefits are not realizable, the Company would be required to reduce the NOL and FTC tax benefit reflected on its financial statements to the net realizable amount either by a direct adjustment to the NOL and FTC tax benefit or by establishing a valuation allowance and recording a corresponding charge to current earnings. The corresponding charge to current earnings would have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations in the period in which it is recorded. Conversely, if the Company is required to increase its NOL and FTC tax benefit either by a direct adjustment or reversing any portion of the accounting valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets related to its NOLs and FTCs, such credit to current earnings could have a positive effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations in the period in which it is recorded. As of December 31, 2017, a valuation allowance was established on the unrealizable amount of FTCs.
Our intellectual property rights may not provide meaningful commercial protection for our products or brands and third parties may assert that we violate their intellectual property rights, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Owens Corning relies on its intellectual property, including numerous patents, registered trademarks, trade secrets, confidential information, as well as its licensed intellectual property. We monitor and protect against activities that might infringe, dilute, or otherwise harm our patents, trademarks and other intellectual property and rely on the patent, trademark and other laws of the United States and other countries. However, we may be unable to prevent third parties from using our intellectual property without our authorization. To the extent we cannot protect our intellectual property, unauthorized use and misuse of our intellectual property could harm our competitive position and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the laws of some non-United States jurisdictions provide less protection for our proprietary rights than the laws of the United States and we therefore may not be able to effectively enforce our intellectual property rights in these jurisdictions. If we are unable to maintain certain exclusive licenses, our brand recognition and sales could be adversely impacted. Current employees, contractors and suppliers have, and former employees, contractors and suppliers may have, access to trade secrets and confidential information regarding our operations which could be disclosed improperly and in breach of contract to our competitors or otherwise used to harm us.
Third parties may also claim that we are infringing upon their intellectual property rights. If we are unable to successfully defend or license such alleged infringing intellectual property or if we are required to substitute similar technology from another source, our operations could be adversely affected. Even if we believe that such intellectual property claims are without merit, defending such claims can be costly, time consuming and require significant resources. Claims of intellectual property infringement also might require us to redesign affected products, pay costly damage awards, or face injunctions prohibiting us from manufacturing, importing, marketing or selling certain of our products. Even if we have agreements to indemnify us, indemnifying parties may be unable or unwilling to do so.
Our hedging activities to address energy price fluctuations may not be successful in offsetting increases in those costs or may reduce or eliminate the benefits of any decreases in those costs.
In order to mitigate short-term variation in our operating results due to commodity price fluctuations in certain geographic markets, we may hedge a portion of our near-term exposure to the cost of energy, primarily natural gas. The results of our hedging practices could be positive, neutral or negative in any period depending on price changes of the hedged exposures.
Our hedging activities are not designed to mitigate long-term commodity price fluctuations and, therefore, will not protect us from long-term commodity price increases. In addition, in the future, our hedging positions may not correlate to our actual energy costs, which would cause acceleration in the recognition of unrealized gains and losses on our hedging positions in our operating results.
Downgrades of our credit ratings could adversely impact us.
Our credit ratings are important to our cost of capital. The major debt rating agencies routinely evaluate our debt based on a number of factors, which include financial strength and business risk as well as transparency with rating agencies and timeliness of financial reporting. A downgrade in our debt rating could result in increased interest and other expenses on our existing variable interest rate debt, and could result in increased interest and other financing expenses on future borrowings. Downgrades in our debt rating could also restrict our access to capital markets and affect the value and marketability of our outstanding notes.



-10-
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS (continued)

Increases in the cost of labor, union organizing activity, labor disputes and work stoppages at our facilities could delay or impede our production, reduce sales of our products and increase our costs.
The costs of labor are generally increasing, including the costs of employee benefit plans. We are subject to the risk that strikes or other types of conflicts with personnel may arise or that we may become the subject of union organizing activity at additional facilities. In particular, renewal of collective bargaining agreements typically involves negotiation, with the potential for work stoppages or increased costs at affected facilities.
We could face potential product liability and warranty claims, we may not accurately estimate costs related to such claims, and we may not have sufficient insurance coverage available to cover such claims.
Our products are used and have been used in a wide variety of residential and commercial applications. We face an inherent business risk of exposure to product liability or other claims in the event our products are alleged to be defective or that the use of our products is alleged to have resulted in harm to others or to property. We may in the future incur liability if product liability lawsuits against us are successful. Moreover, any such lawsuits, whether or not successful, could result in adverse publicity to us, which could cause our sales to decline.
In addition, consistent with industry practice, we provide warranties on many of our products and we may experience costs of warranty or breach of contract claims if our products have defects in manufacture or design or they do not meet contractual specifications. We estimate our future warranty costs based on historical trends and product sales, but we may fail to accurately estimate those costs and thereby fail to establish adequate warranty reserves for them. We maintain insurance coverage to protect us against product liability claims, but that coverage may not be adequate to cover all claims that may arise or we may not be able to maintain adequate insurance coverage in the future at an acceptable cost. Any liability not covered by insurance or that exceeds our established reserves could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to liability under and may make substantial future expenditures to comply with environmental laws and regulations.
Our manufacturing facilities are subject to numerous foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the presence of hazardous materials, pollution and the protection of the environment, including those governing emissions to air, discharges to water, use, storage and transport of hazardous materials, storage, treatment and disposal of waste, remediation of contaminated sites and protection of worker health and safety.
Liability under these laws involves inherent uncertainties. Environmental liability estimates may be affected by changing determinations of what constitutes an environmental exposure or an acceptable level of cleanup. For example, remediation activities generally involve a potential range of activities and costs related to soil and groundwater contamination. This can include pre-cleanup activities such as fact finding and investigation, risk assessment, feasibility studies, remedial action design and implementation (where actions may range from monitoring to removal of contaminants, to installation of longer-term remediation systems). Please see "Item 1 - Business - Environmental Control” for information on costs and accruals related to environmental remediation. To the extent that the required remediation procedures or timing of those procedures change, additional contamination is identified, or the financial condition of other potentially responsible parties is adversely affected, the estimate of our environmental liabilities may change. Change in required remediation procedures or timing of those procedures at existing legacy sites, or discovery of contamination at additional sites, could result in increases to our environmental obligations. Violations of environmental, health and safety laws are subject to civil, and, in some cases, criminal sanctions. As a result of these uncertainties, we may incur unexpected interruptions to operations, fines, penalties or other reductions in income which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. It is possible that new laws and regulations will specifically address climate change, toxic air emissions, ozone forming emissions and fine particulate matter. New environmental and chemical regulations could impact our ability to expand production or construct new facilities in every geographic region in which we operate. Continued and increased government and public emphasis on environmental issues is expected to result in increased future investments for environmental controls at ongoing operations, which will be charged against income from future operations. Present and future environmental laws and regulations applicable to our operations, and changes in their interpretation, may require substantial capital expenditures or may require or cause us to modify or curtail our operations, which may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.



-11-
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS (continued)

We will not be insured against all potential losses and could be seriously harmed by natural disasters, catastrophes or sabotage.
Many of our business activities globally involve substantial investments in manufacturing facilities and many products are produced at a limited number of locations. These facilities could be materially damaged by natural disasters such as floods, tornados, hurricanes and earthquakes or by sabotage. We could incur uninsured losses and liabilities arising from such events, including damage to our reputation, and/or suffer material losses in operational capacity, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on our senior management team and other skilled and experienced personnel to operate our business effectively, and the loss of any of these individuals or the failure to attract additional personnel could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
We are highly dependent on the skills and experience of our senior management team and other skilled and experienced personnel. These individuals possess sales, marketing, manufacturing, logistical, financial, business strategy and administrative skills that are important to the operation of our business. We cannot assure that we will be able to retain all of our existing senior management personnel. The loss of any of these individuals or an inability to attract additional personnel could prevent us from implementing our business strategy and could adversely impact our business and our future financial condition or results of operations.
We are subject to various legal and regulatory proceedings, including litigation in the ordinary course of business, and uninsured judgments or a rise in insurance premiums may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In the ordinary course of business, we are subject to various legal and regulatory proceedings, which may include but are not limited to those involving antitrust, tax, environmental, intellectual property and other matters, including general commercial litigation. Any claims raised in legal and regulatory proceedings, whether with or without merit, could be time consuming and expensive to defend and could divert management’s attention and resources. Additionally, the outcome of legal and regulatory proceedings may differ from our expectations because the outcomes of these proceedings are often difficult to predict reliably. Various factors and developments can lead to changes in our estimates of liabilities and related insurance receivables, where applicable, or may require us to make additional estimates, including new or modified estimates that may be appropriate due to a judicial ruling or judgment, a settlement, regulatory developments or changes in applicable law. A future adverse ruling, settlement or unfavorable development could result in charges that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in any particular period.
In accordance with customary practice, we maintain insurance against some, but not all, of these potential claims. In the future, we may not be able to maintain insurance at commercially acceptable premium levels. In addition, the levels of insurance we maintain may not be adequate to fully cover any and all losses or liabilities. If any significant judgment or claim is not fully insured or indemnified against, it could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our efforts in acquiring and integrating other businesses, establishing joint ventures or expanding our production capacity are not successful, our business may not grow.
We have historically grown our business through acquisitions, joint ventures and the expansion of our production capacity. Our ability to grow our business through these investments depends upon our ability to identify, negotiate and finance suitable arrangements. If we cannot successfully execute on our investments or receive any required regulatory approvals on a timely basis, we may be unable to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition, integration or expansion costs, we may incur costs in excess of what we anticipate, and our expectations of future results of operations, including cost savings and synergies, may not be achieved. Acquisitions, joint ventures and production capacity expansions involve substantial risks, including:



-12-
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS (continued)

unforeseen difficulties in operations, technologies, products, services, accounting and personnel;
diversion of financial and management resources from existing operations;
unforeseen difficulties related to entering geographic regions, markets or product lines where we do not have prior experience;
risks relating to obtaining sufficient public or private financing;
difficulty in integrating the acquired business’ standards, processes, procedures and controls with our existing operations;
potential loss of key employees;
unanticipated competitive responses;
potential loss of customers; and
undisclosed or undiscovered liabilities or claims.
Our failure to address these risks or other problems encountered in connection with our past or future acquisitions and investments could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of such acquisitions or investments, incur unanticipated liabilities, and harm our business generally. Future acquisitions and investments could also result in dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, or amortization expenses, or write-offs of goodwill, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, the anticipated benefits of our investments may not materialize.
Our ongoing efforts to increase productivity and reduce costs may not result in anticipated savings in operating costs.
Our cost reduction and productivity efforts, including those related to our existing operations, production capacity expansions and new manufacturing platforms, may not produce anticipated results. Our ability to achieve cost savings and other benefits within expected time frames is subject to many estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions are subject to significant economic, competitive and other uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. If these estimates and assumptions are incorrect, if we experience delays, or if other unforeseen events occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
Significant changes in the factors and assumptions used to measure our defined benefit plan obligations, actual investment returns on pension assets and other factors could have a negative impact on our financial condition or liquidity.
We have certain defined benefit pension plans and other post-employment benefit (OPEB) plans. Our future funding requirements for defined benefit pension and OPEB plans depend upon a number of factors and assumptions, including our actual experience against assumptions with regard to interest rates used to determine funding levels; return on plan assets; benefit levels; participant experience (e.g., mortality and retirement rates); health care cost trends; and applicable regulatory changes. To the extent actual results are less favorable than our assumptions, there could be a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Additional risks exist due to the nature and magnitude of our investments, including the implementation of or changes to the investment policy, insufficient market capacity to absorb a particular investment strategy or high volume transactions, and the inability to quickly rebalance illiquid and long-term investments.
As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, our U.S. and worldwide defined benefit pension plans were underfunded by a total of $250 million and $363 million, respectively, and OPEB obligations were underfunded by $230 million and $225 million, respectively. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our pension or OPEB obligations, we could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, seek additional capital, or restructure or refinance our indebtedness.
If we were required to write down all or part of our goodwill or other indefinite-lived intangible assets, our results of operations or financial condition could be materially adversely affected in a particular period.
Declines in the Company’s business may result in an impairment of the Company’s tangible and intangible assets which could result in a material non-cash charge. A significant or prolonged decrease in the Company’s market capitalization, including a decline in stock price, or a negative long-term performance outlook, could result in an impairment of its tangible and intangible assets which results when the carrying value of the Company’s assets exceed their fair value. At least annually, the Company



-13-
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS (continued)

assesses goodwill and intangible assets for impairment. Since the Company utilizes a discounted cash flow methodology to calculate the fair value of its reporting units, weak demand for a specific product line or business could result in an impairment. Accordingly, any determination requiring the write-off of a significant portion of goodwill or intangible assets could negatively impact the Company’s results of operations.
RISKS RELATED TO OWNERSHIP OF OUR COMMON STOCK
The market price of our common stock is subject to volatility.
The market price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include actual or anticipated variations in our operational results and cash flow, our earnings relative to our competition, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts, trading volume, sales by holders of large amounts of our common stock, short selling, market conditions within the industries in which we operate, seasonality of our business operations, the general state of the securities markets and the market for stocks of companies in our industry, governmental legislation or regulation and currency and exchange rate fluctuations, as well as general economic and market conditions, such as recessions.
We are a holding company with no operations of our own and depend on our subsidiaries for cash.
As a holding company, most of our assets are held by our direct and indirect subsidiaries and we will primarily rely on dividends and other payments or distributions from our subsidiaries to meet our debt service and other obligations and to enable us to pay dividends. The ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other payments or distributions to us will depend on their respective operating results and may be restricted by, among other things, the laws of their jurisdiction of organization (which may limit the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends or other payments), agreements of those subsidiaries, agreements with any co-investors in non-wholly-owned subsidiaries, the terms of our credit facility and senior notes and the covenants of any future indebtedness we or our subsidiaries may incur.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws or Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and therefore depress the trading price of our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could depress the trading price of our common stock through provisions that may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our Company or changes in our management that our stockholders may deem advantageous.
Additionally, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder and which may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company.
Dividends on our common stock are declared at the discretion of our Board of Directors.
Since February 2014, the Board has declared a quarterly dividend on our common stock. The payment of any future cash dividends to our stockholders is not guaranteed and will depend on decisions that will be made by our Board of Directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our operating results, financial conditions, contractual restrictions, corporate law restrictions, capital agreements, applicable laws of the State of Delaware and business prospects.
ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.





ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
Composites
Our Composites segment operates out of 29 manufacturing facilities. During 2017, we announced plans to expand our operations in India, and we expect this capacity to be available later in 2018. Principal manufacturing facilities for our Composites segment, all of which are owned by the Company, include the following:
 
Aiken, South Carolina
Jackson, Tennessee
Amarillo, Texas
Kimchon, Korea
Anderson, South Carolina
L’Ardoise, France
Besana, Italy
Rio Claro, Brazil
Chambery, France
Taloja, India
Gastonia, North Carolina
Tlaxcala, Mexico
Gous, Russia
Yuhang, China
Insulation
Our Insulation segment operates out of 35 manufacturing facilities. This figure and listing below excludes the facilities of our 2018 acquisition of Paroc Group Oy, whose European facilities are primarily located in the Nordic region and Eastern Europe. We began operations in our recently constructed Joplin, Missouri facility in 2017. Principal manufacturing facilities for our Insulation segment, all of which are owned by the Company, include the following:
 
Delmar, New York
Rockford, Illinois
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Santa Clara, California
Fairburn, Georgia
Sedalia, Missouri
Guangzhou, Guandong, China
Tallmadge, Ohio
Joplin, Missouri
Tessenderlo, Belgium
Kansas City, Kansas
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Mexico City, Mexico
Wabash, Indiana
Newark, Ohio
Waxahachie, Texas
Roofing
Our Roofing segment operates out of 35 total manufacturing facilities. This number separately counts many roofing and asphalt manufacturing facilities that are located at the same site. Principal manufacturing facilities for our Roofing segment, all of which are owned by the Company, include the following:
 
Brookville, Indiana
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Denver, Colorado
Portland, Oregon
Irving, Texas
Qingdao, China
Kearny, New Jersey
Savannah, Georgia
Medina, Ohio
Silvassa, India
Memphis, Tennessee
Summit, Illinois
We believe that these properties are in good condition and well maintained, and are suitable and adequate to carry on our business. The capacity of each plant varies depending upon product mix.
Our principal executive offices are located in the Owens Corning World Headquarters, Toledo, Ohio, an owned facility of approximately 400,000 square feet. Our research and development activities are primarily conducted at our Science and Technology Center, located on approximately 500 acres of land owned by the Company outside of Granville, Ohio. It consists of approximately 20 structures totaling more than 650,000 square feet. In addition, we have application development and other product and market focused research and development centers in various locations.




ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Environmental Legal Proceedings
In March 2017, Owens Corning Insulating Systems, LLC (OCIS) received a Notice of Violation (NOV) from the California Bay Area Quality Management District (the “District”) alleging that the OCIS facility in Santa Clara, California began operation of a rebuilt furnace without obtaining required air emission permits. In July 2017, OCIS resolved the NOV with the District by entering into a Compliance and Enforcement Agreement (the “Agreement”). Under the Agreement, OCIS paid the District a total penalty of $115,000. OCIS entered into the Agreement to expedite settlement of the matter and does not admit any conduct or condition in violation of any District regulation.

In July 2017, Owens Corning (Shanghai) Fiberglas Co., Ltd., (OCSF) received a NOV from the Shanghai Environmental Protection Agency (“Shanghai”) alleging that the OCSF facility in Shanghai had exceeded Shanghai air emission standards for certain air pollutants. In September 2017, OCSF and Shanghai negotiated a resolution to the NOV under which OCSF agreed to pay Shanghai a penalty of 700,000 Chinese Yuan. This penalty was paid in October 2017. At the time of payment, the penalty amounted to approximately $105,000.

Litigation, Other Regulatory Proceedings and Environmental Matters
Additional information required by this item is incorporated by reference to Note 15, Contingent Liabilities and Other Matters.
 
ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.





EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF OWENS CORNING
The name, age and business experience during the past five years of Owens Corning’s executive officers as of January 1, 2018 are set forth below. Each executive officer holds office until his or her successor is elected and qualified or until his or her earlier resignation, retirement or removal. All those listed have been employees of Owens Corning during the past five years except as indicated.
 
Name and Age
  
Position*
Brian D. Chambers (51)
 
President, Roofing since October 2014; formerly Vice President and General Manager, Roofing (2013)
 
 
 
Julian Francis (51)
 
President, Insulation since October 2014; formerly Vice President and General Manager, Residential Insulation (2012)
 
 
 
Arnaud Genis (53)
  
President, Composites since 2010
 
 
 
Ava Harter (48)

  
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since May 2015; formerly General Counsel, Chief Compliance Officer and Corporate Secretary, Taleris America LLC (2012)
 
 
Michael C. McMurray (52)
  
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since August 2012
 
 
Kelly J. Schmidt (52)
  
Vice President, Controller since April 2011
 
 
Daniel T. Smith (52)
  
Senior Vice President, Organization and Administration since November 2014; formerly Senior Vice President, Information Technology and Human Resources (2012)
 
 
Michael H. Thaman (53)
  
President and Chief Executive Officer since December 2007 and Chairman of the Board since April 2002; Director since 2002
*
Information in parentheses indicates year during the past five years in which service in position began. The last item listed for each individual represents the position held by such individual at the beginning of the five-year period.





Part II
 
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR OWENS CORNING’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Owens Corning’s common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “OC.” The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices per share of, and dividends declared on, Owens Corning common stock for each quarter from January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2017:
 
Period
High
 
Low
 
Declared Dividend
First Quarter 2016
$
47.78

 
$
38.96

 
$
0.18

Second Quarter 2016
$
52.52

 
$
45.46

 
$
0.18

Third Quarter 2016
$
58.69

 
$
50.33

 
$
0.18

Fourth Quarter 2016
$
56.12

 
$
46.45

 
$
0.20

First Quarter 2017
$
62.79

 
$
50.77

 
$
0.20

Second Quarter 2017
$
67.74

 
$
59.26

 
$
0.20

Third Quarter 2017
$
78.31

 
$
63.89

 
$
0.20

Fourth Quarter 2017
$
92.85

 
$
73.45

 
$
0.21

Holders of Common Stock
The number of stockholders of record of Owens Corning’s common stock on February 15, 2018 was 426.
Cash Dividends
The payment of any future cash dividends to our stockholders will depend on decisions that will be made by our Board of Directors and will depend on then existing conditions, including our operating results, financial conditions, contractual restrictions, corporate law restrictions, capital agreements, applicable laws of the State of Delaware and business prospects.
Under the credit agreement applicable to our senior revolving credit facility, the Company may not declare a cash dividend if a default or event of default exists or would come to exist at the time of declaration or if a dividend declaration violates the provisions of our formation documents or other material agreements.
The Company’s subsidiaries are subject to certain restrictions on their ability to pay dividends under the agreements governing our senior revolving credit facility and our receivables securitization facility.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities
None.




-18-

ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR OWENS CORNING’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES (continued)


Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about Owens Corning’s purchases of its common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2017:
 
Period
Total Number of
Shares (or Units)
Purchased
 
 
Average Price
Paid per Share
(or Unit)
 
Total Number of
Shares (or Units)
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs**
 
Maximum Number of
Shares (or Units) that
May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs**
October 1-31, 2017
827

 
 
$
79.28

 

 
7,493,976

November 1-30, 2017
818

 
 
82.54

 

 
7,493,976

December 1-31, 2017
418

 
 
87.66

 

 
7,493,976

Total
2,063

 
$
82.27

 

 
7,493,976

 
*
The Company retained 827, 818 and 418 shares surrendered to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of restricted shares granted to our employees in October, November and December, respectively.
**
On October 24, 2016, the Board of Directors approved a share buy-back program under which the Company is authorized to repurchase up to 10 million shares of the Company's outstanding common stock (the “Repurchase Authorization"). The Repurchase Authorization enables the Company to repurchase shares through open market, privately negotiated, or other transactions. The actual number of shares repurchased will depend on timing, market conditions and other factors and is at the Company's discretion. The Company did not repurchase any shares of its common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2017 under the Repurchase Authorization. As of December 31, 2017, approximately 7.5 million shares remain available for repurchase under the Repurchase Authorization.










 























-19-

ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR OWENS CORNING’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES (continued)





Performance Graph
The annual changes for the five-year period shown in the graph on this page are based on the assumption that $100 had been invested in Owens Corning (OC) stock, the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index ("S&P 500") and the Dow Jones U.S. Building Materials & Fixtures Index ("DJ Bld. Mat.") on December 31, 2012, and that all quarterly dividends were reinvested. The total cumulative dollar returns shown on the graph represent the value that such investments would have had on December 31, 2017.
ocstockperformancecharta02.jpg

Performance Graph
 
 
2012
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
OC
$
100

 
$
110

 
$
99

 
$
131

 
$
146

 
$
264

S&P 500
$
100

 
$
132

 
$
151

 
$
153

 
$
171

 
$
208

DJ Bld. Mat.
$
100

 
$
128

 
$
142

 
$
162

 
$
192

 
$
226






ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
2017(a)
 
2016(b)
 
2015(c)
 
2014(d)
 
2013(e)
 
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Statement of Earnings Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
$
6,384

 
$
5,677

 
$
5,350

 
$
5,260

 
$
5,295

Gross margin
$
1,572

 
$
1,381

 
$
1,153

 
$
976

 
$
966

Marketing and administrative expenses
$
620

 
$
584

 
$
525

 
$
487

 
$
530

Earnings before interest and taxes
$
737

 
$
699

 
$
548

 
$
392

 
$
385

Interest expense, net
$
107

 
$
108

 
$
100

 
$
114

 
$
112

Loss (gain) on extinguishment of debt
$
71

 
$
1

 
$
(5
)
 
$
46

 
$

Income tax expense
$
269

 
$
188

 
$
120

 
$
5

 
$
68

Net earnings
$
290

 
$
399

 
$
334

 
$
228

 
$
205

Net earnings attributable to Owens Corning
$
289

 
$
393

 
$
330

 
$
226

 
$
204

Earnings per common share attributable to Owens Corning common stockholders
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
2.59

 
$
3.44

 
$
2.82

 
$
1.92

 
$
1.73

Diluted
$
2.55

 
$
3.41

 
$
2.79

 
$
1.91

 
$
1.71

Dividend
$
0.81

 
$
0.74

 
$
0.68

 
$
0.64

 
$

Weighted-average common shares
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
111.5

 
114.4

 
117.2

 
117.5

 
118.2

Diluted
113.2

 
115.4

 
118.2

 
118.3

 
119.1

Balance Sheet Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
8,632

 
$
7,741

 
$
7,326

 
$
7,483

 
$
7,572

Long-term debt, net of current portion
$
2,405

 
$
2,099

 
$
1,702

 
$
1,978

 
$
2,012

Total equity
$
4,204

 
$
3,889

 
$
3,779

 
$
3,730

 
$
3,830

  
(a)
During 2017, the Company recorded $48 million of restructuring costs, comprised of $27 million of severance, $17 million of accelerated depreciation and $4 million of other exit costs. In connection with our previously announced acquisitions, mainly Pittsburgh Corning Corporation and Pittsburgh Corning Europe NV (collectively "Pittsburgh Corning"), we recognized $15 million of acquisition-related costs and a $5 million charge related to inventory fair value step-up. Other significant items included $64 million of pension settlement losses from risk mitigation actions, a $15 million environmental liability charge for a closed U.S. site, partially offset by a $29 million litigation settlement gain, net of legal fees. Outside of earnings before interest and taxes, the Company also recorded a $71 million loss on debt extinguishment and an $82 million non-cash income tax charge related to the Tax Act.
(b)
During 2016, the Company recorded $28 million of restructuring costs, comprised of $19 million of accelerated depreciation, $6 million of facility-related charges and $3 million of personnel-related charges. In connection with our previously announced acquisitions, mainly InterWrap Holdings, Inc. ("InterWrap"), we recognized $9 million of acquisition-related costs and a $10 million charge related to inventory fair value step-up.
(c)
During 2015, the Company recorded $2 million of restructuring costs. This was comprised of a $6 million benefit from changes in severance estimates and pension-related adjustments, offset by $3 million in accelerated depreciation and $5 million in other exit costs.
(d)
During 2014, the Company recorded $36 million of restructuring costs, comprised of $34 million of severance costs, $3 million of contract termination costs, and partially offset by $1 million of other related gains. There was also a gain of $45 million related to the sale of the Hangzhou, China facility, a $20 million loss related to the sale of the European Stone Business, $3 million related to the impairment loss on Alcala, Spain facility, and $6 million related to Hurricane Sandy costs. Outside of earnings before interest and taxes, the Company recorded a $46 million loss on debt extinguishment.
(e)
During 2013, the Company recorded $26 million of restructuring costs, comprised of $8 million of severance costs, $9 million of accelerated depreciation and $9 million in other exit costs. There was also $20 million in accelerated depreciation related to a change in the useful life of assets and a $15 million net gain related to Hurricane Sandy insurance activity.



-21-

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS


This Management’s Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) is intended to help investors understand Owens Corning, our operations and our present business environment. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes thereto contained in this report. Unless the context requires otherwise, the terms “Owens Corning,” “Company,” “we” and “our” in this report refer to Owens Corning and its subsidiaries.

GENERAL
Owens Corning is a leading global producer of glass fiber reinforcements and other materials for composites and of residential and commercial building materials. The Company has three reporting segments: Composites, Insulation and Roofing. Through these lines of business, the Company manufactures and sells products worldwide. We maintain leading market positions in many of our major product categories.

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
Net earnings attributable to Owens Corning were $289 million in 2017 compared to $393 million in 2016. The Company reported $737 million in earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) in 2017 compared to $699 million in 2016. The Company generated $855 million in adjusted earnings before interest and taxes (“Adjusted EBIT”) in 2017 compared to $746 million in 2016. See the Adjusted Earnings Before Interest and Taxes paragraph of MD&A for further information regarding EBIT and Adjusted EBIT, including the reconciliation to net earnings attributable to Owens Corning. Segment EBIT performance compared to 2016 increased $51 million in our Insulation segment, increased $49 million in our Roofing segment and increased $27 million in our Composites segment. Within our Corporate, Other and Eliminations category, General corporate expenses and other increased by $18 million.
In our Insulation segment, EBIT in 2017 was $177 million compared to $126 million in 2016, primarily due to higher sales and production volumes, higher selling prices and the impact of our Pittsburgh Corning acquisition. In our Roofing segment, EBIT in 2017 was $535 million compared to $486 million in 2016, primarily driven by higher sales volumes, as overall input cost inflation was largely offset by higher selling prices. In our Composites segment, EBIT in 2017 was $291 million compared to $264 million in 2016, primarily driven by lower furnace rebuild and startup costs.
In 2017, the Company's operating activities provided $1,016 million of cash flow, compared to $943 million in 2016. While net earnings were lower than the prior year, the measurement of cash provided by operating activities does not include the effects of significant non-cash charges and debt extinguishment financing activities.
On June 27, 2017, the Company acquired all outstanding equity of Pittsburgh Corning Corporation and Pittsburgh Corning Europe NV (collectively, "Pittsburgh Corning"), the world’s leading producer of cellular glass insulation systems for commercial and industrial markets, for approximately $563 million, net of cash acquired. This acquisition expands the Company’s position in commercial and industrial product offerings and grows its presence in Europe and Asia. Pittsburgh Corning's operating results since the date of acquisition and a preliminary purchase price allocation have been included in the Company's Insulation segment in the Consolidated Financial Statements.
On February 5, 2018, the Company acquired all outstanding equity of Paroc Group Oy ("Paroc"), a leading producer of mineral wool insulation for building and technical applications in Europe, for an enterprise value of approximately $1.1 billion (900 million Euro). The acquisition of Paroc expands the Company's mineral wool technology, grows its presence in the European insulation market, provides access to a variety of new end-use markets and will increase the Insulation segment's geographic sales mix outside of the U.S. and Canada. Operating results of the acquisition will be included in the Company’s Insulation segment within the Consolidated Financial Statements beginning February 5, 2018. The Company is in the process of valuing certain assets and liabilities, and the purchase price allocation will be completed with finalization of these valuations.
Throughout 2017 and in January 2018, the Company had several financing activities associated with our acquisitions. In June 2017, the Company issued $600 million of 2047 notes with an annual interest rate of 4.30%, and used a portion of the proceeds to fund the purchase of Pittsburgh Corning. In July 2017, a portion of the proceeds was used by the Company to repay all of its outstanding 2019 senior notes and a portion of its outstanding 2036 senior notes, resulting in a $71 million loss on extinguishment of debt. In October 2017, the Company obtained term loan commitments totaling $900 million that were available to be used, in part, to potentially pay a portion of the purchase of the Paroc acquisition. In January 2018, the Company issued $400 million of 2048 senior notes with an annual interest rate of 4.40%. The proceeds from the senior notes, along with borrowings on a $600 million term loan commitment and the Receivables Securitization Facility, were used to fund the purchase of Paroc in February 2018.



-22-

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

In 2017, the Company repurchased 2.3 million shares of the Company’s common stock for $142 million under a previously announced repurchase authorization. As of December 31, 2017, 7.5 million shares remain available for repurchase under the Repurchase Authorization.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Consolidated Results (in millions)
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Net sales
$
6,384

 
$
5,677

 
$
5,350

Gross margin
$
1,572

 
$
1,381

 
$
1,153

% of net sales
25
%
 
24
%
 
22
%
Marketing and administrative expenses
$
620

 
$
584

 
$
525

Other expenses, net
$
130

 
$
16

 
$
7

Earnings before interest and taxes
$
737

 
$
699

 
$
548

Interest expense, net
$
107

 
$
108

 
$
100

Loss (gain) on extinguishment of debt
$
71

 
$
1

 
$
(5
)
Income tax expense
$
269

 
$
188

 
$
120

Net earnings attributable to Owens Corning
$
289

 
$
393

 
$
330

The Consolidated Results discussion below provides a summary of our results and the trends affecting our business, and should be read in conjunction with the more detailed Segment Results discussion that follows.
NET SALES
2017 Compared to 2016: Net sales increased by $707 million in 2017 as compared to 2016. The increase in net sales was driven by higher sales volumes in all three segments, as well as the acquisitions of Pittsburgh Corning into our Insulation segment and InterWrap into our Roofing segment.
2016 Compared to 2015: Net sales increased by $327 million in 2016 as compared to 2015. The increase in net sales was driven by higher sales volumes in our Roofing and Composites segments and the impact of the InterWrap acquisition. This increase was partially offset by lower sales volumes in our Insulation segment and the negative impact of translating sales denominated in foreign currencies into U.S. dollars, primarily in our Composites and Insulation segments.
GROSS MARGIN
2017 Compared to 2016: Gross margin as a percentage of net sales in 2017 was relatively flat compared to 2016. The $191 million improvement was primarily driven by higher sales volumes in all three segments, the gross margin contribution from our acquisitions of InterWrap and Pittsburgh Corning and lower furnace rebuild and startup costs in our Composites segment.
2016 Compared to 2015: Gross margin as a percentage of net sales in 2016 increased about two percentage points compared to 2015. The $228 million improvement was primarily driven by our Roofing segment's higher sales volumes and the benefit of lower input costs, primarily asphalt. The negative impact of production curtailments in our Insulation segment and restructuring and acquisition-related costs were largely offset by the gross margin contribution from the InterWrap acquisition.
RESTRUCTURING AND ACQUISITION-RELATED COSTS
The Company has incurred restructuring, transaction and integration costs related to acquisitions, along with restructuring costs in connection with its global cost reduction and productivity initiatives. These costs are recorded in the Corporate, Other and Eliminations category. Please refer to Notes 7 and 11 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information on the nature of these costs.



-23-

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

The following table presents the impact and respective location of these income (expense) items on the Consolidated Statements of Earnings (in millions):
 
 
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
Location
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Restructuring costs
Cost of sales
 
$
(20
)
 
$
(25
)
 
$
(10
)
Restructuring costs
Other expenses, net
 
(28
)
 
(3
)
 
8

Acquisition-related costs
Marketing and administrative expenses
 
(6
)
 
(6
)
 

Acquisition-related costs
Other expenses, net
 
(9
)
 
(3
)
 

Recognition of acquisition inventory fair value step-up
Cost of sales
 
(5
)
 
(10
)
 

Total restructuring, acquisition and integration-related costs
 
 
$
(68
)
 
$
(47
)
 
$
(2
)
MARKETING AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES
2017 Compared to 2016: Marketing and administrative expenses increased by $36 million in 2017 compared to 2016. The increase was primarily due to higher selling, general and administrative expenses associated with our acquisitions and higher performance-based compensation.
2016 Compared to 2015: Marketing and administrative expenses increased by $59 million in 2016 compared to 2015. The increase was primarily due to higher selling, general and administrative expenses in our Roofing segment (including InterWrap marketing and administrative expenses), higher performance based compensation and acquisition-related costs.
OTHER EXPENSES, NET
2017 Compared to 2016: Other expenses, net increased $114 million in 2017 compared to 2016. The increase was primarily driven by $64 million of pension settlement losses from risk mitigation actions, $25 million of higher restructuring costs reported in this line, $15 million of environmental liability charges, a $10 million charge for the allowance for doubtful accounts, higher acquisition-related costs and increased general corporate expenses. These costs were partially offset by a $29 million litigation settlement gain, net of legal fees.
2016 Compared to 2015: Other expenses, net increased $9 million in 2016 compared to 2015, primarily due to higher restructuring costs.
INTEREST EXPENSE, NET
2017 Compared to 2016: Interest expense, net in 2017 was flat to 2016, as the effect of higher long-term debt following the issuance of our 2047 senior notes was offset by the lower borrowing rate.
2016 Compared to 2015: Interest expense, net in 2016 was $8 million higher than in 2015. The increase was primarily driven by increased long-term debt following the issuance of our 2026 senior notes.
LOSS (GAIN) ON EXTINGUISHMENT OF DEBT
For the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company recognized a $71 million loss on extinguishment of debt in connection with the redemption of its 2019 senior notes and a portion of its 2036 senior notes. For the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company recorded a $1 million loss on extinguishment of debt in connection with the redemption of its 2016 senior notes. For the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company recorded a $5 million gain on extinguishment of debt as a result of purchasing its World Headquarters facility, which had previously been classified as a capital lease.
INCOME TAX EXPENSE
Income tax expense for 2017 was $269 million compared to $188 million in 2016.
The U.S. government enacted the Tax Act legislation on December 22, 2017. The Tax Act made broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code, including but not limited to, a reduction to the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%; a one-



-24-

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

time transition tax on certain unrepatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries (the "Transition Tax"); eliminating the corporate alternative minimum tax (AMT) and changing realization of AMT credits; changing rules related to uses and limitations of NOL carryforwards created in tax years after December 31, 2017; changes to the limitations on available interest expense deductions; and changes to other existing deductions and business-related exclusions.
The SEC issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, "Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" ("SAB 118"), providing guidance on accounting for the Tax Act. SAB 118 provides a measurement period that should not extend beyond one year from the Tax Act enactment date to complete the accounting under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 740, "Income Taxes." In accordance with SAB 118, a company must account for those aspects of the Act for which the accounting under ASC 740 is complete. To the extent that a company’s accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Act is incomplete but it is able to determine a reasonable estimate, it must record a provisional estimate in its financial statements. If a company cannot determine a provisional estimate to be included in the financial statements, it should continue to apply ASC 740 on the basis of the tax laws that were in effect immediately before the enactment of the Tax Act.
The Company has not completed the accounting for income tax effects of the Tax Act. However, we were able to make reasonable estimates to record a provisional adjustment. In connection with our initial analysis, a provisional non-cash charge of $82 million was recorded to tax expense during the period for the changes related to the Tax Act. The provisional adjustment includes reasonable estimates for the Transition Tax resulting in a non-cash charge of $264 million, a benefit of $160 million from the generation of FTCs, a charge of $24 million for a valuation allowance established against the FTC generated, and a deferred tax benefit of $46 million for the impact to our net U.S. deferred taxes liabilities as a result of reduction of the corporate tax rate to 21%. The Company was not yet able to make a reasonable estimate of the U.S. state tax effects of the Tax Act. Therefore, no provisional adjustment was recorded with respect to this item.
The Company’s effective tax rate for 2017 was 48% on pre-tax income of $559 million.  The difference between the 48% effective tax rate and the U.S. federal statutory tax rate of 35% is primarily attributable to the provisional adjustments for the Tax Act, reversal of valuation allowances recorded against certain foreign deferred tax assets, changes in uncertain tax positions and lower foreign tax rates.
New provisions of the Tax Act, including but not limited to, the base erosion anti-abuse tax (BEAT), a new limitation on deductible interest expense, a tax on global intangible low taxed income (GILTI) earned by controlled foreign corporations (CFCs), and limitations on existing deductions, are effective January 1, 2018. The Company continues to evaluate the impact of the tax law changes on future results and monitor the amount of future income levels to fully utilize the U.S. federal NOLs and FTCs, which is substantially similar to the future income levels to fully utilize the U.S. federal NOLs before enactment of the Tax Act.
The realization of deferred tax assets depends on achieving a certain minimum level of future taxable income. Management currently believes that it is at least reasonably possible that the minimum level of taxable income will be met within the next 12 months to reduce the valuation allowances of certain foreign jurisdictions by a range of zero to $6 million.
The Company’s effective tax rate for 2016 was 32% on pre-tax income of $590 million. The difference between the 32% effective tax rate and the U.S. federal statutory rate of 35% is primarily attributable to the reversal of valuation allowances recorded in prior years against French and Spanish deferred tax assets, changes in uncertain tax positions and lower foreign tax rates.
Adjusted Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (“Adjusted EBIT”)
Adjusted EBIT is a non-GAAP measure that excludes certain items that management does not allocate to our segment results because it believes they are not representative of the Company’s ongoing operations. Adjusted EBIT is used internally by the Company for various purposes, including reporting results of operations to the Board of Directors of the Company, analysis of performance and related employee compensation measures. Although management believes that these adjustments result in a measure that provides a useful representation of our operational performance, the adjusted measure should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for net earnings attributable to Owens Corning as prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.



-25-

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

Adjusting income (expense) items to EBIT are shown in the table below (in millions):
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Restructuring costs
$
(48
)
 
$
(28
)
 
$
(2
)
Acquisition-related costs
(15
)
 
(9
)
 

Recognition of acquisition inventory fair value step-up
(5
)
 
(10
)
 

Litigation settlement gain, net of legal fees
29

 

 

Pension settlement losses
(64
)
 

 

Environmental liability charges
(15
)
 

 

Total adjusting items
$
(118
)
 
$
(47
)
 
$
(2
)
 
The reconciliation from net earnings attributable to Owens Corning to EBIT and Adjusted EBIT is shown in the table below (in millions):
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
NET EARNINGS ATTRIBUTABLE TO OWENS CORNING
$
289

 
$
393

 
$
330

Net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests
1

 
6

 
4

NET EARNINGS
290

 
399

 
334

Equity in net earnings (loss) of affiliates

 
(3
)
 
1

Income tax expense
269

 
188

 
120

EARNINGS BEFORE TAXES
559

 
590

 
453

Interest expense, net
107

 
108

 
100

Loss (gain) on extinguishment of debt
71

 
1

 
(5
)
EARNINGS BEFORE INTEREST AND TAXES
737

 
699

 
548

Adjusting items from above
(118
)
 
(47
)
 
(2
)
ADJUSTED EBIT
$
855

 
$
746

 
$
550

Segment Results
EBIT by segment consists of net sales less related costs and expenses and is presented on a basis that is used internally for evaluating segment performance. Certain items, such as general corporate expenses or income and certain other expense or income items, are excluded from the internal evaluation of segment performance. Accordingly, these items are not reflected in EBIT for our reportable segments and are included in the Corporate, Other and Eliminations category, which is presented following the discussion of our reportable segments.



-26-

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

Composites
The table below provides a summary of net sales, EBIT and depreciation and amortization expense for the Composites segment (in millions):
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Net sales
$
2,068

 
$
1,952

 
$
1,902

% change from prior year
6
%
 
3
%
 
-1
 %
EBIT
$
291

 
$
264

 
$
232

EBIT as a % of net sales
14
%
 
14
%
 
12
 %
Depreciation and amortization expense
$
144

 
$
138

 
$
125

NET SALES
2017 Compared to 2016: Net sales in our Composites segment were $116 million higher in 2017 than in 2016, primarily driven by higher sales volumes of approximately 6%. Volume performance benefited from broad-based market strength, particularly the roofing market and other glass non-wovens applications. The favorable impact of translating sales denominated in foreign currencies into United States dollars was largely offset by $18 million of lower selling prices. The remaining change was driven by $10 million of unfavorable product mix (mainly related to higher sales volumes into the roofing market).
2016 Compared to 2015: Net sales in our Composites segment were $50 million higher in 2016 than in 2015. The increase in sales was driven by higher sales volumes of about 6% and higher selling prices of $22 million. These benefits were partially offset by $57 million of unfavorable product mix (mainly related to the prior year's specialty glass sales and higher sales volumes into the roofing market in 2016) and the $22 million negative impact of translating sales denominated in foreign currencies into United States dollars.
EBIT
2017 Compared to 2016: EBIT in our Composites segment was $27 million higher in 2017 than in 2016. The increase was primarily driven by lower furnace rebuild and startup costs of $39 million. The EBIT improvement driven by higher sales volumes was slightly more than offset by lower selling prices and the negative impact of input cost inflation. The remaining change was due to a $10 million charge in the third quarter of 2017 for the allowance for doubtful accounts, primarily due to an estimated uncollectible receivable from a Brazilian customer now in financial reorganization.
2016 Compared to 2015: EBIT in our Composites segment was $32 million higher in 2016 than in 2015. The benefit of higher sales volumes was largely offset by $24 million of unfavorable product mix, which was primarily related to the comparison against the prior year's specialty glass sales and the current year's higher sales volumes into the roofing market. Higher furnace rebuild and startup costs of $28 million were offset about equally by input cost deflation and lower manufacturing costs. The remaining change was driven by higher selling prices of $22 million and one-time benefits from our strategic supply alliances.
OUTLOOK
Global glass reinforcements market demand has historically grown on average as a function of global industrial production and we believe this relationship will continue. In 2018, the Company expects continued global industrial production growth.
 



-27-

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

Insulation
The table below provides a summary of net sales, EBIT and depreciation and amortization expense for the Insulation segment (in millions):
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Net sales
$
2,001

 
$
1,748

 
$
1,850

% change from prior year
14
%
 
-6
 %
 
6
%
EBIT
$
177

 
$
126

 
$
160

EBIT as a % of net sales
9
%
 
7
 %
 
9
%
Depreciation and amortization expense
$
124

 
$
106

 
$
101

NET SALES
2017 Compared to 2016: In our Insulation segment, 2017 net sales were $253 million higher than in 2016. The increase was primarily driven by the $133 million impact of our second quarter 2017 acquisition of Pittsburgh Corning and higher sales volumes of about 6%. The remaining change was driven by higher selling prices of $19 million. The slightly favorable impact of translating sales denominated in foreign currencies into United States dollars was offset by unfavorable channel mix associated with growth in new construction.
2016 Compared to 2015: In our Insulation segment, 2016 net sales were $102 million lower than in 2015. The decrease was primarily driven by lower sales volumes of about 5%, primarily due to the expiration of contract manufacturing agreements at the beginning of 2016 and a commercial dispute with a large residential insulation installer. Favorable customer mix of $35 million was largely offset by lower selling prices of $33 million. The remaining decrease of $22 million was due to the negative impact of translating sales denominated in foreign currencies into United States dollars.
EBIT
2017 Compared to 2016: In our Insulation segment, EBIT increased $51 million in 2017 compared to 2016. Substantially all of the increase was driven by higher sales volumes and higher selling prices. Our second quarter 2017 acquisition of Pittsburgh Corning contributed $15 million of EBIT. Favorable manufacturing performance of $27 million was more than offset (about equally) by $19 million of startup costs for our new mineral wool insulation plant and input cost inflation.
2016 Compared to 2015: In our Insulation segment, EBIT decreased $34 million in 2016 compared to 2015. The change was primarily driven by the $27 million negative impact of lower production volumes. Lower selling prices of $33 million were largely offset by favorable customer mix of $29 million. The $10 million benefit of input cost deflation was offset by lower sales volumes. The remaining decrease of $4 million was driven by negative foreign currency translation.
DEPRECIATION AND AMORTIZATION
In our Insulation segment, depreciation and amortization expense increased by $18 million in 2017 compared to 2016. The change was primarily due to a half-year of depreciation and amortization related to our 2017 Pittsburgh Corning acquisition, including $10 million of depreciation related to property, plant and equipment and $4 million related to amortization of intangible assets. Depreciation and amortization expense was relatively flat in 2016 compared to 2015.
OUTLOOK
During the fourth quarter of 2017, the average Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate (SAAR) of U.S. housing starts was approximately 1.250 million starts, which was flat compared to 1.250 million starts in the fourth quarter of 2016. While the trend in U.S. housing starts has generally been positive over the past few years, the timing and pace of recovery of the United States housing market remains uncertain.

The Company expects its Insulation segment to benefit from an overall strengthening of the U.S. housing market, higher capacity utilization and improved pricing. Additionally, we expect that global industrial production growth will positively impact the Insulation segment's commercial and industrial markets in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. We believe that the geographic, product and channel mix of our portfolio will continue to moderate the impact of any demand-driven variability associated with U.S. new construction.



-28-

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

Roofing
The table below provides a summary of net sales, EBIT and depreciation and amortization expense for the Roofing segment (in millions):
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Net sales
$
2,553

 
$
2,194

 
$
1,766

% change from prior year
16
%
 
24
%
 
1
%
EBIT
$
535

 
$
486

 
$
266

EBIT as a % of net sales
21
%
 
22
%
 
15
%
Depreciation and amortization expense
$
50

 
$
46

 
$
39

NET SALES
2017 Compared to 2016: In our Roofing segment, net sales were $359 million higher in 2017 than in 2016. Sales volumes increased by approximately 9%, due to higher asphalt shingle volumes, from growth across all our key demand drivers, and growth in roofing components. Our early-second quarter 2016 acquisition of InterWrap contributed $86 million of net sales (and was included in the other comparison categories following the one-year post-acquisition period). The remaining increase was driven by higher selling prices of $47 million and favorable customer and product mix. Third-party asphalt sales were up $10 million year-over-year.
2016 Compared to 2015: In our Roofing segment, net sales were $428 million higher in 2016 than in 2015. Sales volumes increased by about 20%, as higher reroof demand, driven by storm activity, and increased demand from new construction contributed to the growth of the U.S. asphalt shingle market. Our second quarter 2016 acquisition of InterWrap contributed $182 million of net sales. The impact of higher sales volumes and the InterWrap acquisition was partially offset by $51 million each of lower selling prices and lower third-party asphalt sales.
EBIT
2017 Compared to 2016: In our Roofing segment, EBIT was $49 million higher in 2017 than in 2016. The increase was primarily driven by higher sales volumes and higher selling prices. Our early-second quarter 2016 acquisition of InterWrap contributed $20 million of EBIT (and was included in the other comparison categories following the one-year post-acquisition period). These benefits were partially offset by $55 million of input cost inflation (about two-thirds of which was related to asphalt), $14 million of higher logistics costs, $8 million of lower EBIT on third-party asphalt sales (resulting from a lag in the timing of input cost inflation and price increases) and slightly higher marketing costs.
2016 Compared to 2015: In our Roofing segment, EBIT was $220 million higher in 2016 than in 2015. The increase was primarily driven by higher sales volumes. The asphalt cost deflation benefit of $108 million was partially offset by lower selling prices. Our second quarter 2016 acquisition of InterWrap contributed $40 million in EBIT for the year. Higher selling, general and administrative expenses, primarily driven by increased sales and marketing costs associated with higher sales volumes and higher performance-based compensation, offset less than half of the benefit of the InterWrap acquisition.
OUTLOOK
In our Roofing business, we expect the factors that have driven margins in recent years, such as growth from new construction and reroof demand, along with higher sales of roofing components, to continue to deliver profitability. Uncertainties that may impact our Roofing margins include demand from storm and other weather events, competitive pricing pressure and the cost and availability of raw materials, particularly asphalt.




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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

Corporate, Other and Eliminations
The table below provides a summary of EBIT and depreciation and amortization expense for the Corporate, Other and Eliminations category (in millions):
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Restructuring costs
$
(48
)
 
$
(28
)
 
$
(2
)
Acquisition-related costs
(15
)
 
(9
)
 

Recognition of acquisition inventory fair value step-up
(5
)
 
(10
)
 

Litigation settlement gain, net of legal fees
29

 

 

Pension settlement losses
(64
)
 

 

Environmental liability charges
(15
)
 

 

General corporate expense and other
(148
)
 
(130
)
 
(108
)
EBIT
$
(266
)
 
$
(177
)
 
$
(110
)
Depreciation and amortization
$
53

 
$
53

 
$
35

EBIT
2017 Compared to 2016: In Corporate, Other and Eliminations, EBIT losses in 2017 were $89 million higher compared to 2016, primarily due to pension settlement losses and environmental liability charges in 2017, higher restructuring costs and higher general corporate expenses, which were partially offset by a litigation settlement gain in 2017. Costs related to our acquisitions (including the inventory fair value step-up recognition) were relatively flat to the prior year. See details of these costs in the table above and further explained in the Restructuring and Acquisition-Related Costs paragraph of MD&A.
General corporate expense and other in 2017 was $18 million higher than in 2016, primarily driven by increased general corporate expenses and slightly higher performance-based compensation. The year-over-year comparison was further negatively impacted by the $6 million pension-related gain that was recognized in 2016.
2016 Compared to 2015: In Corporate, Other and Eliminations, EBIT costs in 2016 were $67 million higher compared to 2015, primarily due to restructuring costs and costs related to our previously announced acquisitions. See details of these costs in the table above and further explained in the Restructuring and Acquisition-Related Costs paragraph of MD&A. The $22 million increase in General corporate expense and other was driven about equally by higher performance-based compensation and increased general corporate expenses, partially offset by a $6 million pension-related gain.
Depreciation and amortization in 2016 was $18 million higher than in 2015, primarily due to accelerated depreciation recorded in 2016 in connection with our Insulation restructuring action and post-acquisition restructuring of InterWrap.

OUTLOOK
In 2018, we expect general corporate expenses to range between $140 million and $150 million.

SAFETY
Working safely is a condition of employment at Owens Corning. We believe this organization-wide expectation provides for a safer work environment for employees, improves our manufacturing processes, reduces our costs and enhances our reputation. Furthermore, striving to be a world-class leader in safety provides a platform for all employees to understand and apply the resolve necessary to be a high-performing, global organization. We measure our progress on safety based on Recordable Incidence Rate (“RIR”) as defined by the United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. For the year ended December 31, 2017, our RIR was 0.50, a slight improvement from the rate in the same period a year ago.




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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

LIQUIDITY, CAPITAL RESOURCES AND OTHER RELATED MATTERS
Liquidity
The Company's primary external sources of liquidity are its Senior Revolving Credit Facility, Receivables Securitization Facility and term loan commitments.
The Company has an $800 million Senior Revolving Credit Facility that has been amended from time to time, which matures in November 2020 and permits incremental term loans under the facility of up to $600 million.
The Company has a $250 million Receivables Securitization Facility which now matures in May 2020, following amendments in March 2017 and May 2017 to extend its maturity. No other significant terms impacting liquidity were amended.
The Company obtained two term loan commitments on October 27, 2017 for $300 million and $600 million, respectively, (collectively, the "Term Loan Commitments"), separate from the $600 million of allowable incremental term loans under the Senior Revolving Credit Facility. The Company entered into the Term Loan Commitments, in part, to pay a portion of the purchase price of the Paroc acquisition. Please refer to the paragraph below for further information on the $600 million term loan borrowing in the first quarter of 2018. The $600 million term loan commitment requires full repayment of borrowings in February 2021. On February 12, 2018, the Company voluntarily reduced the entire $300 million term loan commitment, thus eliminating the availability of credit under the facility.
The following table shows how the Company utilized its primary sources of liquidity (in millions):
 
As of December 31, 2017
 
Term Loan Commitments (a)
Senior Revolving Credit Facility
Receivables Securitization Facility
Facility size
$
900

$
800

$
250

Collateral capacity limitation on availability
n/a
n/a
26

Outstanding borrowings



Outstanding letters of credit
n/a
9

3

Availability on facility
$
900

$
791

$
221

(a) Please refer to the paragraphs immediately above and below for information on subsequent activity in February 2018 related to the Term Loan Commitments.
The Company issued $400 million of 2048 senior notes on January 25, 2018 subject to $11 million of discounts and issuance costs. Interest on the 2048 senior notes is payable semiannually in arrears on January 30 and July 30 each year, beginning on July 30, 2018. The proceeds from the 2048 senior notes, along with borrowings on a $600 term loan commitment and the Receivables Securitization Facility, were used to fund the purchase of Paroc in the first quarter of 2018.
The Company issued $600 million of 2047 senior notes on June 26, 2017 subject to $12 million of discounts and issuance costs. Interest on the 2047 senior notes is payable semiannually in arrears on January 15 and July 15 each year, beginning on January 15, 2018. A portion of the proceeds from the 2047 senior notes was used to fund the purchase of Pittsburgh Corning in the second quarter of 2017 and for general corporate purposes. In the third quarter of 2017, a portion of the proceeds was used by the Company, in addition to borrowings on the Receivables Securitization Facility, to repay portions of the Company's outstanding 2019 senior notes and 2036 senior notes. The Company issued a make-whole call to repay the remaining portion of its outstanding 2019 senior notes, and the redemption was completed in the third quarter of 2017. The Company recognized $71 million of loss on extinguishment of debt in the third quarter of 2017 associated with these actions.
The Company has no significant debt maturities of senior notes before 2022, and both our Senior Revolving Credit Facility and Receivables Securitization Facility mature in 2020. The Company also has a $600 million term loan borrowing that must be repaid by 2021. As of December 31, 2017, the Company had $2.4 billion of total debt and cash and cash equivalents of $246 million.
Cash and cash equivalents held by foreign subsidiaries may be subject to foreign withholding taxes upon repatriation to the U.S. As of December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the Company had $101 million and $53 million, respectively, in cash and cash equivalents in certain of its foreign subsidiaries. The Company's analysis whether to change its indefinite reinvestment assertion



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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

on account of the Tax Act is incomplete. Therefore, we continue to assert indefinite reinvestment in accordance with ASC 740 based on the laws before enactment of the Tax Act and do not provide for foreign withholding taxes on the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries.
As a holding company, we have no operations of our own and most of our assets are held by our direct and indirect subsidiaries. Dividends and other payments or distributions from our subsidiaries will be used to meet our debt service and other obligations and to enable us to pay dividends to our stockholders. Please refer to page 13 of the Risk Factors disclosed in Item 1A of this Form 10-K for details on the factors that could inhibit our subsidiaries' abilities to pay dividends or make other distributions to the parent company.
We expect that our cash on hand, coupled with future cash flows from operations and other available sources of liquidity, including our Senior Revolving Credit Facility and Receivables Securitization Facility, will provide ample liquidity to enable us to meet our cash requirements. Our anticipated uses of cash include capital expenditures, working capital needs, pension contributions, meeting financial obligations, payments of quarterly dividends as authorized by our Board of Directors, acquisitions and reducing outstanding amounts under the Senior Revolving Credit Facility and Receivables Securitization Facility.
We have outstanding share repurchase authorizations and will evaluate and consider repurchasing shares of our common stock, as well as strategic acquisitions, divestitures, joint ventures and other transactions to create stockholder value and enhance financial performance. Such transactions may require cash expenditures beyond current sources of liquidity or generate proceeds.
The credit agreements applicable to our Senior Revolving Credit Facility and the Receivables Securitization Facility contain various covenants that we believe are usual and customary. The Senior Revolving Credit Facility and the Receivables Securitization Facility each include a maximum allowed leverage ratio and a minimum required interest expense coverage ratio. We were in compliance with these covenants as of December 31, 2017.
Cash flows
The following table presents a summary of our cash balance, cash flows, and availability on credit facilities (in millions):
 
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Cash and cash equivalents
$
246

 
$
112

 
$
96

Cash provided by operating activities
$
1,016

 
$
943

 
$
742

Cash used for investing activities
$
(901
)
 
$
(815
)
 
$
(369
)
Cash provided by (used for) financing activities
$
3

 
$
(88
)
 
$
(333
)
Availability on the Senior Revolving Credit Facility
$
791

 
$
791

 
$
791

Availability on the Receivables Securitization Facility
$
221

 
$
248

 
$
228

Availability on the Term Loan Commitments
$
900

 
$

 
$

Cash and cash equivalents: In 2017, the balance of cash and cash equivalents increased by $134 million compared to 2016, primarily due to cash that was retained to complete our Composites expansion in India in 2018 and prepare for our 2018 acquisition of Paroc.
Operating activities: In 2017, the Company generated $1,016 million of cash from operating activities compared to $943 million in 2016. While net earnings were lower than the prior year, cash provided by operating activities excludes the effects of the $71 million loss on extinguishment of debt (which is aggregated with payments on long-term debt in financing activities), non-cash income tax charges related to the Tax Act and non-cash pension settlement charges. Despite higher net sales in 2017, the operating cash flow impact of the change in operating assets and liabilities was relatively neutral to the prior year, representing good working capital discipline. The year-over-year benefit of higher payables was offset by the comparison of higher receivables and inventories in the current year against reductions of both in the prior year.
Investing activities: The $86 million increase in cash used for investing activities in 2017 compared to 2016 was primarily driven by higher spending on acquisitions year-over-year.
Financing activities: Net cash provided by financing activities in 2017 was $3 million compared to $88 million used in 2016. The change year-over-year was primarily driven by lower treasury stock repurchases.



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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

2018 Investments
Capital Expenditures: The Company will continue a balanced approach to the use of its cash flows. Operational cash flow will be used to fund the Company’s growth and innovation. Capital expenditures in 2018 are expected to be approximately $500 million which is roughly $50 million greater than expected depreciation and amortization. Capital spending in excess of depreciation and amortization is primarily due to the remaining spending for our Composites expansion in India and growth projects in our Roofing and Insulation segments, including the construction of a Paroc mineral wool insulation manufacturing line in Poland. The Company will also continue to evaluate projects and acquisitions that provide opportunities for growth in our businesses, and invest in them when they meet our strategic and financial criteria.
 
Tax Net Operating Losses and U.S. Foreign Tax Credits
Upon emergence from bankruptcy and subsequent to the distribution of contingent stock and cash in January 2007, we generated a significant United States federal tax NOL of approximately $3.0 billion. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, our federal tax net operating losses remaining were $0.9 billion and $1.8 billion, respectively. The decrease in U.S. federal tax NOLs is primarily due to the impact of 2017 estimated taxable income and our reasonable estimate from the effects of the Tax Act, but is offset by acquired NOLs from the Pittsburgh Corning acquisition. The company generated a significant U.S. FTC in 2017 of approximately $160 million as a result of changes from the Tax Act. Our NOLs and FTC carryforwards are subject to the limitations imposed under sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code. These limits are triggered when a change in control occurs, and are computed based upon several variable factors including the share price of the Company’s common stock on the date of the change in control. A change in control is generally defined as a cumulative change of more than 50% in the ownership positions of certain stockholders during a rolling three year period.
In addition to the United States federal tax NOLs described above, we have NOLs in various state and foreign jurisdictions which totaled $1.8 billion and $0.5 billion as of December 31, 2017, respectively and $2.2 billion and $0.5 billion as of December 31, 2016, respectively. The state NOLs decreased from prior year based on our estimate of 2017 taxable income and expiring loss years. Foreign NOLs remained unchanged from the prior year. The evaluation of the amount of NOLs and FTCs expected to be realized necessarily involves forecasting the amount of taxable income that will be generated in future years. In assessing the realizability of our deferred tax assets, we have not relied on any material future tax planning strategies. We have forecasted future results in accordance with the recently enacted Tax Act using estimates management believes to be reasonable, which are based on independent evidence such as expected trends resulting from certain leading economic indicators such as global industrial production and new U.S. residential housing starts. In order to fully utilize our NOLs and U.S. FTCs, we estimate that the Company will need to generate future federal, state and foreign earnings before taxes of approximately $2.0 billion, $2.1 billion and $0.5 billion, respectively. Management believes the Company will generate sufficient future taxable income within the statutory limitations in order to fully realize the carrying value of its U.S. federal NOLs. As of December 31, 2017, a valuation allowance was established for U.S. FTC carryforwards and certain state and foreign jurisdictions’ NOL carryforwards.
The realization of deferred income tax assets is dependent on future events. Actual results inevitably will vary from management’s forecasts. Should we determine that it is likely that our deferred income tax assets are not realizable, we would be required to reduce our deferred tax assets reflected on our Consolidated Financial Statements to the net realizable amount by establishing an accounting valuation allowance and recording a corresponding charge to current earnings. Such adjustments could be material to the financial statements. To date, we have recorded valuation allowances against certain of these deferred tax assets totaling $94 million as of December 31, 2017.
Pension contributions
Please refer to Note 13 of the Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company has several defined benefit pension plans. The Company made cash contributions of $72 million and $63 million to the plans during the twelve months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The Company expects to contribute $62 million in cash to its pension plans during 2018. Actual contributions to the plans may change as a result of several factors, including changes in laws that impact funding requirements. The ultimate cash flow impact to the Company, if any, of the pension plan liability and the timing of any such impact will depend on numerous variables, including future changes in actuarial assumptions, legislative changes to pension funding laws, and market conditions.
 
Derivatives
Please refer to Note 4 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.




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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

Fair Value Measurement
Please refer to Notes 1, 4, and 12 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

OFF-BALANCE-SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
The Company has entered into limited off-balance-sheet arrangements, as defined under Securities and Exchange Commission rules, in the ordinary course of business. The Company does not believe these arrangements will have a material effect on the Company’s financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.




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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS
In the ordinary course of business, the Company enters into contractual obligations to make cash payments to third parties. The Company’s known contractual obligations as of December 31, 2017 are as follows (in millions):
 
Payments due by period
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023 and
Beyond
 
Total
Long-term debt obligations
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
600

 
$
1,810

 
$
2,410

Interest on variable rate debt (1), fixed rate debt, capital lease payments
115

 
115

 
114

 
112

 
112

 
1,122

 
1,690

Capital lease obligations
4

 
4

 
5

 
5

 
4

 
9

 
31

Operating lease obligations
68

 
59

 
45

 
32

 
22

 
36

 
262

Purchase obligations (2)
255

 
78

 
71

 
63

 
55

 
111

 
633

Deferred acquisition payments
4

 

 

 
2

 

 

 
6

Pension contributions (3)
62

 

 

 

 

 

 
62

Total (4)
$
508

 
$
256

 
$
235

 
$
214

 
$
793

 
$
3,088

 
$
5,094

 
(1)
Interest on variable rate debt is calculated using the weighted-average interest rate in effect as of December 31, 2017 for all future periods.
(2)
Purchase obligations are commitments to suppliers to purchase goods or services, and include take-or-pay arrangements, capital expenditures, and contractual commitments to purchase equipment. The Company did not include ordinary course of business purchase orders in this amount as the majority of such purchase orders may be canceled and are reflected in historical operating cash flow trends. The Company does not believe such purchase orders will adversely affect our liquidity position.
(3)
Pension contributions include estimated contributions for our defined benefit pension plans. The Company is not presenting estimated payments in the table above beyond 2018 as funding can vary significantly from year to year based upon changes in the fair value of plan assets, funding regulations and actuarial assumptions.
(4)
The Company has not included its accounting for uncertainty in income taxes liability in the contractual obligation table as the timing of payment, if any, cannot be reasonably estimated. The balance of this liability at December 31, 2017 was $35 million.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates and judgments related to these assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. We believe these estimates to be reasonable under the circumstances. Management bases its estimates and judgments on historical experience, expected future outcomes, and on various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
The Company believes that the following accounting estimates are critical to our financial results:
Tax Estimates. The determination of our tax provision is complex due to operations in several tax jurisdictions outside the United States. We apply a more-likely-than-not recognition threshold for all tax uncertainties. Such uncertainties include any claims by the Internal Revenue Service for income taxes, interest, and penalties attributable to audits of open tax years.
In addition, we record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that we believe is more likely than not to be realized. We estimate future taxable income and the effect of tax planning strategies in our consideration of whether deferred tax assets will more likely than not be realized. In the event we were to determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to reduce the net deferred tax assets would be charged to



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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

earnings in the period such determination was made. Conversely, if we were to determine that we would be able to realize our net deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their currently recorded amount, an adjustment to increase the net deferred tax assets would be credited to earnings in the period such determination was made.
The SEC issued SAB 118, which provides guidance on the accounting for the effects of the Tax Act. SAB 118 provides a measurement period that should not extend beyond one year from the Tax Act enactment date to complete the accounting under ASC 740. In accordance with SAB 118, a company must account for those aspects of the Tax Act for which the accounting under ASC 740 is complete. To the extent that a company’s accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Act is incomplete but it is able to determine a reasonable estimate, it must record a provisional estimate in its financial statements. If a company cannot determine a provisional estimate to be included in the financial statements, it should continue to apply ASC 740 on the basis on the provision of the tax laws that were in effect immediately before the enactment of the Tax Act.
Impairment of Assets. The Company exercises judgment in evaluating assets for impairment. Goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment annually, or when circumstances arise which indicate there may be an impairment. Long-lived assets are tested for impairment when economic conditions or management decisions indicate an impairment may exist. These tests require comparing recorded values to estimated fair values for the assets under review.
The Company has recorded its goodwill and conducted testing for potential goodwill impairment at a reporting unit level. Our reporting units represent a business for which discrete financial information is available and segment management regularly reviews the operating results.  The Company has three reporting units; Composites, Insulation and Roofing. The following table summarizes the segment allocation of recorded goodwill on our Consolidated Balance Sheet (in millions):
Segment
December 31, 2017
Percent of Total
Composites
$
58

4
%
Insulation
1,049

70
%
Roofing
400

26
%
Total goodwill
$
1,507

100
%
Goodwill is an intangible asset that is not subject to amortization; however, annual tests are required to be performed to determine whether impairment exists. Prior to performing the two-step impairment process described in ASC 350-20, the guidance permits companies to assess qualitative factors to determine if it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying value. If it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value is greater than its carrying value, then no additional testing is required. If it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value is less than or close to its carrying value then step one of the impairment test must be performed to determine if impairment is required. In 2017, the Company has elected not to perform the qualitative approach, and proceeded in performing a step one analysis.
As part of our quantitative testing process for goodwill, we estimated fair values using a discounted cash flow approach from the perspective of a market participant. Significant estimates in the discounted cash flow approach are cash flow forecasts of our reporting units, the discount rate, the terminal business value and the projected income tax rate. The cash flow forecasts of the reporting units are based upon management’s long-term view of our markets and are the forecasts that are used by senior management and the Board of Directors to evaluate operating performance. The discount rate utilized is management’s estimate of what the market’s weighted average cost of capital is for a company with a similar debt rating and stock volatility, as measured by beta. The projected income tax rates utilized are the statutory tax rates for the countries where each reporting unit operates. The terminal business value is determined by applying a business growth factor to the latest year for which a forecast exists. As part of our goodwill quantitative testing process, the Company evaluates whether there are reasonably likely changes to management’s estimates that would have a material impact on the results of the goodwill impairment testing.
Our annual test of goodwill for impairment was conducted as of October 1, 2017. The fair value of each of our reporting units was in excess of its carrying value and thus, no impairment exists. The fair value of all three reporting units substantially exceeded the carrying value as of the date of our assessment.
Other indefinite-lived intangible assets are the Company’s trademarks. Fair values used in testing for potential impairment of our trademarks are calculated by applying an estimated market value royalty rate to the forecasted revenues of the businesses that utilize those assets. The assumed cash flows from this calculation are discounted using the Company’s weighted average cost of capital. Our annual test of indefinite-lived intangibles was conducted as of October 1, 2017. The fair value of each of our indefinite-



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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

lived intangible assets was in excess of its carrying value and thus, no impairment exists. The fair value of these assets substantially exceeded the carrying value as of the date of our assessment.
Fair values for long-lived asset testing are calculated by estimating the undiscounted cash flows from the use and ultimate disposition of the asset or by estimating the amount that a willing third party would pay. For impairment testing, long-lived assets are grouped at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets and liabilities. The Company groups long-lived assets based on manufacturing facilities that produce similar products either globally or within a geographic region. Management tests asset groups for potential impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Current market conditions have caused the Company to have idle capacity. We consider such temporary idled capacity to be unimpaired because there has not been a significant change in the forecasted long-term cash flows at the asset group level to indicate that the carrying values may not be recoverable. While management’s current strategy is to utilize this capacity to meet expected future demand, any significant decrease in this expectation or change in management’s strategy could result in future impairment charges related to this excess capacity. We evaluated and concluded that there are not any reasonably likely changes to management’s estimates that would indicate that the carrying value of our long-lived assets is unrecoverable.
In addition, changes in management intentions, market conditions, operating performance and other similar circumstances could affect the assumptions used in these impairment tests. Changes in the assumptions could result in impairment charges that could be material to our Consolidated Financial Statements in any given period.
Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits, Accounting for pensions and other postretirement benefits involves estimating the cost of benefits to be provided well into the future and attributing that cost over the time period each employee works. To accomplish this, extensive use is made of assumptions about investment returns, discount rates, inflation, mortality, turnover, and medical costs. Changes in assumptions used could result in a material impact to our Consolidated Financial Statements in any given period.
Two key assumptions that could have a significant impact on the measurement of pension liabilities and pension expense are the discount rate and the expected return on plan assets. For our largest plan, the United States plan, the discount rate used for the December 31, 2017 measurement date was derived by matching projected benefit payments to bond yields obtained from the Towers Watson proprietary United States RATE:Link 40-90 pension discount curve developed as of the measurement date. The Towers Watson United States RATE:Link 40-90 pension discount curve is based on certain corporate bonds rated Aa whose weighted average yields lie within the 40th to 90th percentiles of the bonds considered. Corporate bonds are considered to be AA graded if they receive an AA (or equivalent) rating from either or both of the two primary rating agencies in a given geography. For this purpose, we reference the two agencies with the highest ratings coverage for bonds in each region. Those two agencies are Standard and Poor’s and Moody’s.
The result supported a discount rate of 3.55% at December 31, 2017 compared to 3.95% at December 31, 2016. A 25 basis point increase (decrease) in the discount rate would decrease (increase) the December 31, 2017 projected benefit obligation for the United States pension plans by approximately $27 million. A 25 basis point increase (decrease) in the discount rate would decrease (increase) 2018 net periodic pension cost by less than $1 million.
The expected return on plan assets in the United States was derived by taking into consideration the target plan asset allocation, historical rates of return on those assets, projected future asset class returns and net outperformance of the market by active investment managers and plan related and investment related expenses paid from the plan trust. The Company uses the target plan asset allocation because we rebalance our portfolio to target on a quarterly basis. An asset return model was used to develop an expected range of returns on plan investments over a 20 year period, with the expected rate of return selected from a best estimate range within the total range of projected results. This process resulted in the selection of an expected return of 6.75% at the December 31, 2017 measurement date, which is used to determine net periodic pension cost for the year 2018. This assumption is consistent with the 6.75% return selected at the December 31, 2016 measurement date. A 25 basis point increase (decrease) in return on plan assets assumption would result in a respective decrease (increase) of 2018 net periodic pension cost by approximately $2 million.
The discount rate for our United States postretirement plan was selected using the same method as described for the pension plan. The result supported a discount rate of 3.45% at December 31, 2017 compared to 3.80% at December 31, 2016. A 25 basis point increase (decrease) in the discount rate would decrease (increase) the United States postretirement benefit obligation by approximately $5 million and decrease (increase) 2018 net periodic postretirement benefit cost by less than $1 million.
The methods corresponding to those described above are used to determine the discount rate and expected return on assets for non-U.S. pension and postretirement plans, to the extent applicable.



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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Please refer to Note 1 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
Please refer to Note 15 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Our disclosures and analysis in this report, including Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act"). Forward-looking statements present our current forecasts and estimates of future events. These statements do not strictly relate to historical or current results and can be identified by words such as “anticipate,” "appear," "assume," “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” "forecast," “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” "seek," "should," “strategy,” “will” and other terms of similar meaning or import in connection with any discussion of future operating, financial or other performance. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors and actual results may differ materially from those results projected in the statements. These risks, uncertainties and other factors include, without limitation:
 
relationships with key customers;
levels of residential and commercial construction activity;
competitive and pricing factors;
levels of global industrial production;
demand for our products;
industry and economic conditions that affect the market and operating conditions of our customers, suppliers or lenders;
domestic and international economic and political conditions, policies or other governmental actions, legislation and related regulations or interpretations, in the United States or elsewhere;
foreign exchange and commodity price fluctuations;
our level of indebtedness;
weather conditions;
availability and cost of credit;
availability and cost of energy and raw materials;
issues involving implementation and protection of information technology systems;
labor disputes;
legal and regulatory proceedings, including litigation and environmental actions;
our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards;
research and development activities and intellectual property protection;
interest rate movements;
uninsured losses;
issues related to acquisitions, divestitures and joint ventures;
achievement of expected synergies, cost reductions and/or productivity improvements;
defined benefit plan funding obligations; and
price volatility in certain wind energy markets in the U.S.



-38-

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)

All forward-looking statements in this report should be considered in the context of the risks and other factors described above and as detailed from time to time in the Company’s filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Any forward-looking statements speak only as of the date the statement is made and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise except as required by federal securities laws. It is not possible to identify all of the risks, uncertainties and other factors that may affect future results. In light of these risks and uncertainties, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this report may not occur and actual results may differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. Accordingly, users of this report are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
The Company is exposed to the impact of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates and the prices of various commodities used in the normal course of business. To mitigate some of the near-term volatility in our earnings and cash flows, the Company manages certain of our exposures through the use of financial contracts, contracts for physical delivery of a particular commodity, and derivative financial instruments. The Company’s objective with these instruments is to reduce exposure to near-term fluctuations in earnings and cash flows. The Company’s policy enables the use of foreign currency, interest rate and commodity derivative financial instruments only to the extent necessary to manage exposures as described above. The Company does not enter into such transactions for trading purposes.
A discussion of the Company’s accounting policies for derivative financial instruments, as well as the Company’s exposure to market risk, is included in Notes 1 and 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Please refer to Note 4 for details of the fair values of derivative financial instruments and their classification on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
For purposes of disclosing the market risk inherent in its derivative financial instruments the Company uses sensitivity analysis disclosures that express the potential loss in fair values of market rate sensitive instruments resulting from changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, and commodity prices that assume instantaneous, parallel shifts in exchange rates, interest rate yield curves, and commodity prices. The following analysis provides such quantitative information regarding market risk. There are certain shortcomings inherent in the sensitivity analysis presented, primarily due to the assumption that exchange rates change instantaneously and that interest rates change in a parallel fashion. In addition, the analyses are unable to reflect the complex market reactions that normally would arise from the market shifts modeled.
Foreign Exchange Rate Risk
The Company has transactional foreign currency exposures related to buying, selling, and financing in currencies other than the local currencies in which it operates. The Company enters into various forward contracts, which change in value as foreign currency exchange rates change, to preserve the carrying amount of foreign currency-denominated assets, liabilities, commitments, and certain anticipated foreign currency transactions. Exposures are related to the United States Dollar primarily relative to the Brazilian Real, Chinese Yuan, Indian Rupee, Japanese Yen, and South Korean Won exchange rates. Also, there are additional exposures related to the European Euro primarily versus the Russian Ruble. These transactional risks are mitigated through the use of derivative financial instruments and balancing of cash deposits and loans. The net fair value of derivative financial instruments used to limit exposure to foreign currency risk was less than $1 million and $1 million as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The potential change in fair value at both December 31, 2017 and 2016 for such financial instruments from an increase (decrease) of 10% in the quoted foreign currency exchange rates would be an increase (decrease) of approximately $1 million and $3 million, respectively.
We have translation exposure resulting from translating the financial statements of foreign subsidiaries into United States dollars. Our most significant translation exposures are the Canadian Dollar, Chinese Yuan, European Euro, and Indian Rupee in relation to the United States Dollar. The Company has hedged a portion of the net investment in foreign subsidiaries against fluctuations in the European Euro through derivative financial instruments. The net fair value of these instruments was $31 million and $10 million as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The potential change in fair value at December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 for such financial instruments from an increase (decrease) of 10% in the quoted foreign currency exchange rates would be an increase (decrease) of approximately $60 million and $27 million, respectively.
 
Interest Rate Risk
The Company is subject to market risk from exposure to changes in interest rates due to its financing, investing, and cash management activities. The Company has a Senior Revolving Credit Facility, Receivables Securitization Facility, other floating rate debt and cash and cash equivalents which are exposed to floating interest rates and may impact cash flow. As of December 31, 2017, the



-39-

ITEM 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK (continued)

Company had no borrowings on its Senior Revolving Credit Facility or its Receivables Securitization Facility, with the balance of other floating rate debt of $1 million. As of December 31, 2016, the Company had no borrowings on its Senior Revolving Credit Facility or its Receivables Securitization Facility, with the balance of other floating rate debt of less than $1 million. Cash and cash equivalents were $246 million and $112 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. A one percentage point increase (decrease) in interest rates at both December 31, 2017 and 2016 would increase (decrease) our annual net interest expense by less than $1 million.
The fair market value of the Company’s senior notes are subject to interest rate risk. The following table shows how a one percentage point increase / decrease in interest rates would impact the fair market value of the senior notes:
 
Senior Notes Maturity Year
As of December 31, 2017:
2019
2022
2024
2026
2036
2047
Increase in interest rates
 
 
 
 
 
 
     Decrease in fair value
n/a
4
%
6
%
7
%
11
%
15
%
Decrease in interest rates
 
 
 
 
 
 
     Increase in fair value
n/a
5
%
6
%
8
%
13
%
19
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Senior Notes Maturity Year
As of December 31, 2016:
2019
2022
2024
2026
2036
2047
Increase in interest rates
 
 
 
 
 
 
     Decrease in fair value
2
%
5
%
6
%
8
%
11
%
n/a
Decrease in interest rates
 
 
 
 
 
 
     Increase in fair value
2
%
5
%
7
%
8
%
12
%
n/a
Commodity Price Risk
The Company is exposed to changes in prices of commodities used in its operations, primarily associated with energy, such as natural gas, and raw materials, such as asphalt and polystyrene. The Company enters into cash-settled natural gas swap contracts to protect against changes in natural gas prices that mature within 15 months; however, no financial instruments are currently used to protect against changes in raw material costs. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the net fair value of such swap contracts was less than $1 million and $5 million, respectively. The potential change in fair value at December 31, 2017 and 2016 resulting from an increase (decrease) of 10% change in the underlying commodity prices would be an increase (decrease) of approximately $2 million and $3 million, respectively. This amount excludes the offsetting impact of the price risk inherent in the physical purchase of the underlying commodities.




ITEM 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Pages 51 through 112 of this filing are incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 9.
CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.
 
ITEM 9A.
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
The Company maintains (a) disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act), and (b) internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act).
The Company’s management, with the participation of the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on such evaluation, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that, as of the end of such period, the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures are effective.
There has been no change in the Company's internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2017 that materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
On June 27, 2017, the Company completed its acquisition of Pittsburgh Corning. As a result, the Company's management excluded the operations of Pittsburgh Corning from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017. Pittsburgh Corning represented 4% of the Company's consolidated Total assets as of December 31, 2017 and 2% of the Company's consolidated Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2017. SEC guidelines permit companies to omit an acquired entity's internal control over financial reporting from its management assessment during the first year of the acquisition. We plan to fully integrate Pittsburgh Corning into our internal control over financial reporting in 2018.
A report of the Company’s management on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is contained on page 52 hereof and is incorporated here by reference. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP’s report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting is included in the Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm beginning on page 53 hereof.
 
ITEM 9B.
OTHER INFORMATION
None.





Part III
 
ITEM 10.
DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
Information with respect to directors and corporate governance will be presented in the 2018 Proxy Statement in the sections titled “Information Concerning Directors,” “Governance Information” and “Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance,” and such information is incorporated herein by reference.
Information with respect to executive officers is included herein under Part I, “Executive Officers of Owens Corning.”
Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers
Owens Corning has adopted an Ethics Policy for Chief Executive and Senior Financial Officers that applies to our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Controller. This policy is available on our website (www.owenscorning.com) under “Corporate Governance” located in the "Investing in Owens Corning" section and print copies will be made available free of charge upon request to the Secretary of the Company. To the extent required by applicable SEC rules or New York Stock Exchange listing standards, the Company intends to post any amendments or waivers to the above referenced codes of ethics to our website, under the tab entitled "Corporate Governance".
 
ITEM 11.
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
Information regarding executive officer and director compensation will be presented in the 2018 Proxy Statement under the section titled “Executive Compensation,” exclusive of the subsection titled “Compensation Committee Report,” and the section titled “2017 Non-Management Director Compensation,” and such information is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 12.
SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
Information regarding security ownership of certain beneficial owners and management and related stockholder matters, as well as equity compensation plan information, will be presented in the 2018 Proxy Statement under the sections titled “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” and “Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans,” and such information is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 13.
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
Information regarding certain relationships and related transactions and director independence will be presented in the 2018 Proxy Statement under the sections titled “Certain Transactions with Related Persons,” “Review of Transactions with Related Persons,” “Director Qualifications Standards” and “Director Independence,” and such information is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 14.
PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES
Information regarding principal accounting fees and services will be presented in the 2018 Proxy Statement under the sections titled “Principal Accountant Fees and Services,” and such information is incorporated herein by reference.





Part IV
 
ITEM 15.
EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
 
(a)
DOCUMENTS FILED AS PART OF THIS REPORT
1.See Index to Consolidated Financial Statements on page 51 hereof.
2.See Index to Financial Statement Schedules on page 113 hereof.
EXHIBIT INDEX
Pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, the Company has filed or incorporated by reference certain agreements as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These agreements may contain representations and warranties by the parties. These representations and warranties have been made solely for the benefit of the other party or parties to such agreements and (i) may have been qualified by disclosures made to such other party or parties, (ii) were made only as of the date of such agreements or such other date(s) as may be specified in such agreements and are subject to more recent developments, which may not be fully reflected in the Company’s public disclosure, (iii) may reflect the allocation of risk among the parties to such agreements and (iv) may apply materiality standards different from what may be viewed as material to investors. Accordingly, these representations and warranties may not describe the Company’s actual state of affairs at the date hereof and should not be relied upon.
Exhibit
Number
 
Description
2.1
 
 
 
 
3.1
 
 
 
 
3.2
 
 
 
 
4.1
 
 
 
 
4.2
 
 
 
 
4.3
 
 
 
 
4.4
 
 
 
 
4.6
 

 
 
 
4.7
 

 
 
 
4.8
 

 
 
 




4.9
 

 
 
 
4.10
 
 
 
 
4.11
 
 
 
 
4.12
 
 
 
 
4.13
 
 
 
 
4.14
 
 
 
 
4.15
 
 
 
 
4.16
 
 
 
 
4.17
 
 
 
 
4.18
 
 
 
 
4.19
 
 
 
 
4.20
 
 
 
 
4.21
 
 
 
 
4.22
 
 
 
 
4.23
 
 
 
 




4.24
 

 
 
 
10.1
 
 
 
 
10.2
 
 
 
 
10.3
 
 
 
 
10.4
 
 
 
 
10.5
 
 
 
 
10.6
 
 
 
 
10.7
 
 
 
 
10.8
 
 
 
 
10.9
 
 
 
 
10.10
 
 
 
 
10.11
 

 
 
 
10.12
 
 
 
 
10.13
 
 
 
 
10.14
 
 
 
 
10.15
 
 
 
 




10.16
 
 
 
 
10.17
 
 
 
 
10.18
 
 
 
 
10.19
 
 
 
 
10.20
 
 
 
 
10.21
 
 
 
 
10.22
 
 
 
 
10.23
 
 
 
 
10.24
 
 
 
 
10.25
 
 
 
 
10.26
 
 
 
 
10.27
 
 
 
 
10.28
 
 
 
 
10.29
 
 
 
 
10.30
 
 
 
 
10.31
 
 
 
 




10.32
 
 
 
 
10.33
 
 
 
 
10.34
 
 
 
 
10.35
 
 
 
 
10.36
 
 
 
 
10.37
 
 
 
 
10.38
 
 
 
 
10.39
 
 
 
 
10.40
 
 
 
 
10.41
 
 
 
 
10.42
 
 
 
 
21.1
 
 
 
 
23.1
 
 
 
 
31.1
 
 
 
 
31.2
 
 
 
 
32.1
 
 
 
 
32.2
 
 
 
 
101.INS
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema
 
 
 
101.SCH
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema
 
 
 
101.CAL
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase




 
 
 
101.LAB
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase
 
 
 
101.PRE
 
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase
+ 
Schedules have been omitted pursuant to Item 601(b)(2) of Regulation S-K. Owens Corning agrees to furnish supplementally to the Securities and Exchange Commission a copy of any omitted schedule upon request.

*
Denotes management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement required to be filed as an exhibit pursuant to Form 10-K.
Owens Corning agrees to furnish to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, upon request, copies of all instruments defining the rights of holders of long-term debt of Owens Corning where the total amount of securities authorized under each issue does not exceed 10% of the total assets of Owens Corning and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis.

ITEM 16.
SUMMARY

None.





SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
OWENS CORNING 
 
 
 
 
 
By
  
/s/ Michael H. Thaman
 
February 21, 2018
 
  
Michael H. Thaman,
 
 
 
  
Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer (Principal Executive Officer)
 
 






























Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
/s/ Michael H. Thaman
 
February 21, 2018
 
  
Michael H. Thaman,
 
 
 
  
Chairman of the Board, President,
 
 
 
  
Chief Executive Officer and Director
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
  
/s/ Michael C. McMurray<