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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington D.C. 20549
 Form 10-K
 (Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
Or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 For the transition period from                    to             
 
Commission File Number 001-33160
 Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 20-2436320
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
3801 South Oliver
Wichita, Kansas 67210
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code) 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(316) 526-9000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None. Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbolName of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per shareSPRNew York Stock Exchange
Stock Purchase RightsSPRNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes   No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting companyEmerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark whether the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of Exchange Act. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No x
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price of the class A common stock on July 02, 2020, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange was approximately $2,466,868,099.
As of February 11, 2021, the registrant had outstanding 105,420,191 shares of class A common stock, $0.01 par value per share.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed not later than 120 day after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K are incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Annual Report”) includes “forward-looking statements.”- that involve many risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “continue,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “model,” “objective,” “outlook,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and other similar words, or phrases, or the negative thereof, unless the context requires otherwise. These statements are based on circumstances as of the date on which the statements are made and they reflect management’s current views with respect to future events and are subject to risks and uncertainties, both known and unknown. Our actual results may vary materially from those anticipated in forward-looking statements. We caution investors not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements.

Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those reflected in such forward-looking statements and that should be considered in evaluating our outlook include, but are not limited to, the following:
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and operations, including on the demand for our and our customers' products and services, on trade and transport restrictions, on the global aerospace supply chain, on our ability to retain the skilled work force necessary for production and development, and generally on our ability to effectively manage the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business operations;
demand for our products and services and the general effect of economic or geopolitical conditions, or other events, such as pandemics, in the industries and markets in which we operate in the U.S. and globally;
the timing and conditions surrounding the full worldwide return to service (including receiving the remaining regulatory approvals) of the B737 MAX, future demand for the aircraft, and any residual impacts of the B737 MAX grounding on production rates for the aircraft;
our reliance on Boeing and Airbus for a significant portion of our revenues;
the business condition and liquidity of our customers and their ability to satisfy their contractual obligations to the Company;
the certainty of our backlog, including the ability of customers to cancel or delay orders prior to shipment;
our ability to accurately estimate and manage performance, cost, margins, and revenue under our contracts, and the potential for additional forward losses on new and maturing programs;
our accounting estimates for revenue and costs for our contracts and potential changes to those estimates;
our ability to continue to grow and diversity our business, execute our growth strategy, and secure replacement programs, including our ability to enter into profitable supply arrangements with additional customers;
the outcome of product warranty or defective product claims and the impact settlement of such claims may have on our accounting assumptions;
our dependence on our suppliers, as well as the cost and availability of raw materials and purchased components;
our ability and our suppliers' ability to meet stringent delivery (including quality and timeliness) standards and accommodate changes in the build rates of aircraft;
our ability to maintain continuing, uninterrupted production at our manufacturing facilities and our suppliers’ facilities;
competitive conditions in the markets in which we operate, including in-sourcing by commercial aerospace original equipment manufacturers;
our ability to successfully negotiate, or re-negotiate, future pricing under our supply agreements with Boeing, Airbus and other customers;
our ability to effectively integrate the acquisition of select assets of Bombardier along with other acquisitions that we pursue, and generate synergies and other cost savings therefrom, while avoiding unexpected costs, charges, expenses, and adverse changes to business relationships and business disruptions;
the possibility that our cash flows may not be adequate for our additional capital needs;
any reduction in our credit ratings;
our ability to access the capital markets to fund our liquidity needs, and the costs and terms of any additional financing;
our ability to avoid or recover from cyber or other security attacks and other operations disruptions;
legislative or regulatory actions, both domestic and foreign, impacting our operations, including the effect of changes in tax laws and rates and our ability to accurately calculate and estimate the effect of such changes;
our ability to recruit and retain a critical mass of highly skilled employees;
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our relationships with the unions representing many of our employees, including our ability to avoid labor disputes and work stoppages with respect to our union employees;
spending by the U.S. and other governments on defense;
pension plan assumptions and future contributions;
the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting;
the outcome or impact of ongoing or future litigation, arbitration, claims, and regulatory actions or investigations, including our exposure to potential product liability and warranty claims;
adequacy of our insurance coverage;
our ability to continue selling certain receivables through our supplier financing programs; and
the risks of doing business internationally, including fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, impositions of tariffs or embargoes, trade restrictions, compliance with foreign laws, and domestic and foreign government policies.

These factors are not exhaustive and it is not possible for us to predict all factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those reflected in our forward-looking statements. These factors speak only as of the date hereof, and new factors may emerge or changes to the foregoing factors may occur that could impact our business. As with any projection or forecast, these statements are inherently susceptible to uncertainty and changes in circumstances. Except to the extent required by law, we undertake no obligation to, and expressly disclaim any obligation to, publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. You should review carefully the section captioned “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report for a more complete discussion of these and other factors that may affect our business.



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PART I
Item 1.    Business
Our Company
Unless the context otherwise indicates or requires, as used in this Annual Report, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company” refer to Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. References to “Spirit” refer only to our subsidiary, Spirit AeroSystems, Inc., and references to “Spirit Holdings” or “Holdings” refer only to Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc.
The Company, incorporated in Delaware with its headquarters in Wichita, Kansas, is one of the largest independent non-Original Equipment Manufacturer (“OEM”) commercial aerostructures designers and manufacturers in the world. We design, engineer, and manufacture large, complex, and highly engineered commercial aerostructures such as fuselages, nacelles (including thrust reversers), struts/pylons, wing structures, and flight control surfaces. In addition to supplying commercial aircraft structures, we also design, engineer, and manufacture structural components for military aircraft and other applications. A portion of our defense business is classified by the U.S. Government and cannot be specifically described; however, it is included in our consolidated financial statements. We are a critical partner to our commercial and defense customers due to the broad range of products we currently supply to them and our leading design and manufacturing capabilities using both metallic and composite materials. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, we generated net revenues of $3,404.8 million and had net loss of $(870.3) million.
Operating Segments and Products
We operate in three principal segments: Fuselage Systems, Propulsion Systems, and Wing Systems. Our largest customer, The Boeing Company (“Boeing”), represents a substantial portion of our revenues in all segments. Further, our second largest customer, Airbus Group SE and its affiliates (collectively, "Airbus”), represents a substantial portion of revenues in the Wing Systems segment. We serve customers in addition to Boeing and Airbus across our three principal segments; however, these customers currently do not represent a significant portion of our revenues and are not expected to in the near future. All other activities fall within the All Other segment, principally made up of sundry sales of miscellaneous services, tooling contracts, and sales of natural gas through a tenancy-in-common with other companies that have operations in Wichita, Kansas that accounted for 3% of the net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020.
SegmentPercentage of Net Revenues for the Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2020LocationsCommercial ProgramsNon-Classified Defense Programs
Fuselage Systems51%McAlester, OK; Wichita, KS; Kinston, NC; San Antonio, TX; St.-Nazaire, France; Subang, Malaysia; Biddeford, ME; Casablanca, Morocco; Belfast, Northern IrelandB737, B747, B767, B777, B787, A220, A350 XWB, Learjet 75, Global 5000, Global 6000, Challenger 350, Challenger 650Sikorsky CH-53K Trident D5, Standard Missile , Common Hypersonic Glide Body (C-HGB), NASA MSR, NASA Mars 2020, Bell V-280
Propulsion Systems23%Wichita, KS; San Antonio, TX; Dallas, TX; Biddeford, ME; Belfast, Northern IrelandB737, B747, B767, B777, B787, Rolls-Royce BR725 and BR710 Engines, Mitsubishi Regional Jet, A220, Challenger 650, Irkut MC-21, IAE V2500Trident D5, Standard Missile, Patriot Missile, THAAD
Wing Systems23%Tulsa and McAlester, OK; Prestwick, Scotland; San Antonio, TX; Subang, Malaysia; Kinston, NC; Casablanca, Morocco; Belfast, Northern IrelandB737, B747, B767, B777, B787, A320 family, A220, A330, A350 XWB, Global 5000, Global 6000, Global 7500, Learjet 75Various
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Fuselage Systems. The Fuselage Systems segment includes development, production, and marketing of the following:
The forward section of the aerostructure, which houses the flight deck, passenger cabin, and cargo area;
The mid and rear fuselage sections;
Other structure components of the fuselage, including floor beams.

Net revenue in the Fuselage Systems segment amounted to $1,725.9 million, $4,206.2 million, and $4,000.8 million in 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.

Propulsion Systems. The Propulsion Systems segment includes development, production, and marketing of the following:
Nacelles (including thrust reversers) - aerodynamic structure surrounding engines;
Struts/pylons - structure that connects the engine to the wing;
Other structural engine components; and
Related spares and MRO services.

Net revenue in the Propulsion Systems segment amounted to $784.5 million, $2,057.8 million, and $1,702.5 million in 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.

Wing Systems. The Wing Systems segment includes development, production, and marketing of parts, assemblies and a fully integrated wing including:
Horizontal and vertical stabilizers;
Flaps and slats - flight control surfaces;
Wing structures - framework that consists mainly of spars, ribs, fixed leading edge, stringers, trailing edges, and flap track beams; fully functional and tested wing systems.

Net revenue in the Wing Systems segment amounted to $798.6 million, $1,588.3 million, and $1,513.0 million in 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.
Our Manufacturing, Engineering, and Support Services
Manufacturing
Our expertise is in designing, engineering, and manufacturing large-scale, complex aerostructures. As of December 31, 2020, we maintain ten state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities in Wichita, Kansas; Tulsa, Oklahoma; McAlester, Oklahoma; Kinston, North Carolina; San Antonio, Texas; Prestwick, Scotland; Saint-Nazaire, France; Subang, Malaysia; Casablanca, Morocco; and Belfast, Northern Ireland.
Our core manufacturing competencies include:
composites design and manufacturing processes;
leading mechanized and automated assembly and fastening techniques;
large-scale skin fabrication using both metallic and composite materials;
chemical etching and metal bonding expertise;
monolithic structures technology; and
precision metal forming producing complex contoured shapes in sheet metal and extruded aluminum.
Our manufacturing expertise is supported by our state-of-the-art equipment. We have thousands of major pieces of equipment installed in our customized manufacturing facilities. We intend to continue to make the appropriate investments in our facilities to support and maintain our industry-leading manufacturing expertise.
Engineering
The Company is an industry leader in aerospace engineering with access to talent across the globe. The purpose of the engineering organization is to provide continuous support for new and ongoing designs, technology innovation, development for customer advancements, and production-related process improvements. We possess a broad base of engineering skills for design, analysis, test, certification, tooling, and support of major fuselage, wing, and propulsion assemblies using both metallic and composite materials. In addition, our regulatory certification expertise helps ensure associated designs and design changes are compliant with applicable regulations.
Our industry-leading engineering capabilities are key strategic factors differentiating us from our competitors.
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Spirit AeroSystems Aftermarket Solutions ("SAAS”)
Through SAAS, we provide rotable assets, components, repair solutions, and engineering services. Our inventory of rotable assets is available for lease, exchange, and purchase. Additionally, our global repair stations are staffed with technicians specializing in advanced composite repair techniques. We provide MRO services for both metallic and composite components, either on site or at certified MRO stations. We are equipped with original production manufacturing tooling and specialize in service bulletin maintenance for the Company's nacelle components.
ProductDescriptionAircraft Program
MROCertified repair stations that provide complete on-site repair and overhaul; maintains global partnerships to support MRO servicesB737, B747, B767, B777, B787 and Rolls-Royce BR725, ERJ, CRJ, E4B, A320
Rotable AssetsMaintain a pool of rotable assets for sale, exchange, and/or leaseB737, B747, B767, B777, Rolls-Royce, BR725, ERJ, CRJ, E4B, A320
Engineering ServicesEngineering, tooling, and measurement services. On-call field service representatives.Multiple programs
Business Development
The Company’s core products include fuselages, struts/pylons, nacelles, and wing components, and we continue to focus on business growth through the application of key strengths, including design for manufacturability, materials utilization expertise, targeted automation, advanced tooling and testing concepts, and determinate assembly to enable cost-effective, highly efficient production. We invest in new technology to bring the most advanced techniques, manufacturing, and automation to our customers.
The Company applies extensive experience in advanced material systems, manufacturing technologies, and prototyping to continually invent and patent new technologies that improve quality, lower costs, and increase production capabilities. Our business growth is focused on application of these strengths to expand into new addressable commercial, defense and transportation markets and customers.
Defense Business
In addition to providing aerostructures for commercial aircraft, we also design, engineer and manufacture structural components for military aircraft. We have been awarded a significant amount of work for Boeing’s P-8, C40, and KC-46 Tanker. The Boeing P-8, C40, and KC-46 Tanker are commercial aircraft modified for military use. Other military programs for which we provide products are Unmanned Aerial Vehicle applications ("UAV"), Ministry of Defense U.K., BAE systems and includes the development of the Sikorsky CH-53K, and B-21 Raider. With the acquisition of Fiber Materials Inc. (“FMI”) in early 2020, and partnership with the National Institute for Aviation Research ("NIAR") in Wichita, we have been able to expand our offering in Hypersonics and high temperature carbon composites. We are also under contract to complete the Future Vertical Lift Capability Set III Competitive Demonstration and Risk Reduction efforts. This phase is the competitive Pre-EMD efforts prior to a program of record contract award. Our statement of work is the fuselage structure for the Bell Helicopter V-280 Valor tilt-rotor offering. A portion of our defense business is classified by the U.S. Government, including the B-21 Raider program, and cannot be specifically described. The operating results of these classified contracts are included in our consolidated financial statements. The business risks associated with classified contracts historically have not differed materially from those of our other U.S. Government contracts. Our internal controls addressing the financial reporting of classified contracts are consistent with our internal controls for our non-classified contracts.
The following table summarizes by product and program what we currently have under contract.
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ProductApplicable SegmentDescriptionMilitary Program
Fixed Wing AircraftVarious SystemsFabrication, bonding, assembly, testing, tooling, processing, engineering analysis, and trainingVarious
RotorcraftFuselage SystemsForward cockpit and cabin, fuselageSikorsky CH-53K, Bell V-280
Missiles & HypersonicsFuselage, Wing, and Propulsion SystemsSolid rocket motor throats and nozzles, Re-entry vehicle thermal protection systemsTrident D5, Standard Missile, Common Hypersonic Glide Body (C-HGB), NASA MSR, NASA Mars 2020, Patriot Missile, THAAD

Fabrication Business
The Company offers customers a wide range of solutions including machining, skin and sheet metal fabrication, and chemical processing. These capabilities are utilized for both internal and external sourcing and include the following:
FabricationDescription
Machine Fabrication
5-axis machining capabilities: high-speed aluminum fabrication up to 23 feet, seat track machining, and extensive hard metal capabilities
3- and 4-axis machining capabilities: range of hard metal capabilities, multi-spindle machines, and manufactured parts
Sheet Metal Fabrication
Includes stretch and hydro forming, roll, hammer, profiling, gauge reduction of extrusions and aluminum heat treat, as well as subassemblies
Chemical Processing
Includes a range of hard and soft metals with one of the largest automated lines in the industry
Skin FabricationInclude skin stretch forming up to 1,500 tons, laser scribe, trim and drill, and chemical milling
Our Customers
Our revenues are substantially dependent on Boeing and Airbus. The loss of either of these customers would have a material adverse effect on the Company. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, approximately 60% and 23% of our net revenues were generated from sales to Boeing and Airbus, respectively. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, approximately 79% and 16% of our net revenues were generated from sales to Boeing and Airbus, respectively. We are currently the sole-source supplier for nearly all of the products we sell to Boeing and Airbus.
Boeing
We are the largest independent supplier of aerostructures to Boeing and manufacture aerostructures for every Boeing commercial aircraft currently in production, including the majority of the airframe content for the Boeing B737, and the Boeing B787, Boeing’s next generation twin aisle composite aircraft. We supply these products through long-term supply agreements that cover the life of these programs, including any commercial derivative models. These supply agreements are described in more detail under “Our Relationship with Boeing” below. We believe our relationship with Boeing will allow us to continue to be an integral partner with Boeing in the designing, engineering, and manufacturing of complex aerostructures.
Airbus
We originally became a supplier to Airbus in April 2006 through the acquisition of BAE Aerostructures and subsequently won additional work packages with Airbus. We are one of the largest content suppliers of wing systems for the Airbus A320 family and a significant supplier for the Airbus A350 XWB. Under our supply agreement with Airbus for the A320 and A330, we supply products for the life of the aircraft program. For the A350 XWB program, we have long-term requirement contracts with Airbus. In addition, we build the fully integrated wing for the A220 aircraft. We believe we can leverage our relationship
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with Airbus and our history of delivering high-quality products to further increase our sales to Airbus and continue to partner with Airbus on new programs going forward.
Other Customers
Other customers include Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Bombardier, Rolls-Royce, and Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation.
U.S. and International Customer Mix
Although most of our revenues are obtained from sales inside the U.S., we generated $767.2 million, $1,296.8 million, and $1,254.9 million in sales to international customers for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively, primarily to Airbus. The international revenue is included primarily in the Wing Systems segment. All other segment revenues are primarily from U.S. sales. Approximately 19% of our long-lived assets based on book value are located in the United Kingdom ("U.K.") with approximately another 4% of our long-lived assets located in countries outside the U.S. and the U.K.
Our Relationship with Boeing
A significant portion of Spirit’s operations related to Boeing aerostructures was owned and controlled by Boeing until 2005. On February 7, 2005, Spirit Holdings became a standalone Delaware company, and commenced operations on June 17, 2005 through the acquisition of Boeing’s operations in Wichita, Kansas, Tulsa, Oklahoma, and McAlester, Oklahoma (the “Boeing Acquisition”) by an investor group led by Onex Partners LP and Onex Corporation (together with its affiliates, “Onex”). As of August 2014, Onex no longer held any investment in the Company. Boeing’s commercial aerostructures manufacturing operations in Wichita, Kansas and Tulsa and McAlester, Oklahoma, are referred to in this Annual Report as “Boeing Wichita.”
In connection with the Boeing Acquisition, we entered into long-term supply agreements under which we are Boeing’s exclusive supplier for substantially all of the products and services provided by Boeing Wichita to Boeing prior to the Boeing acquisition. These supply agreements include products for Boeing’s B737, B747, B767, and B777 commercial aircraft programs, as well as for certain products for Boeing’s B787 program. These supply agreements cover the life of these programs, including any commercial derivative models.
Supply Agreement with Boeing for B737, B747, B767, and B777 Programs ("Sustaining Programs")
Overview. Two documents effectively comprise the Sustaining Programs’ supply contract: (1) the Special Business Provisions (“Sustaining SBP”), which sets forth the specific terms of the Sustaining Programs’ supply arrangement, and (2) the General Terms Agreement (“Sustaining GTA,” and, together with the Sustaining SBP (and any related purchase order or contract), as amended, the “Sustaining Agreement”), which sets forth other general contractual provisions, including provisions relating to termination, events of default, assignment, ordering procedures, inspections, and quality controls.
The Sustaining Agreement is a requirements contract that covers certain products, including fuselages, struts/pylons, and nacelles (including thrust reversers), wings and wing components, as well as tooling, for the Sustaining Programs for the life of these programs, including any commercial derivative models. During the term of the Sustaining Agreement, and absent a default by Spirit, Boeing is obligated to purchase from Spirit all of its requirements for products covered by the Sustaining Agreement. Although Boeing is not required to maintain a minimum production rate, Boeing is subject to a maximum production rate above which it must negotiate with us regarding responsibility for recurring and non-recurring expenditures related to a capacity increase. Boeing owns substantially all of the tooling used in production or inspection of products covered by the Sustaining Agreement.
Pricing. On September 22, 2017, Boeing and Spirit entered into Amendment 30 to the Sustaining SBP that generally established pricing terms for the Sustaining Program models (excluding the B777X) through December 31, 2022 (with certain limited exceptions) and provided that Boeing and Spirit would negotiate follow-on pricing for periods beyond January 1, 2023 beginning 24 months prior to January 1, 2023. In addition, the amendment provided that the parties would make certain investments for rate increases on the B737 program and implemented updated payment terms.
On December 21, 2018, Boeing and Spirit executed a Collective Resolution 2.0 Memorandum of Agreement (the “2018 MOA”). The 2018 MOA established, among other items, pricing for certain programs through December 31, 2030, including the B737NG (including the P8), B737 MAX, B767 (but excluding 767-2C for which pricing is separately established), and the B777 freighters and 777-9 (pricing for the B777 300ER and 200LR was previously established and pricing for the B777-8 is subject to future negotiation). In addition, the 2018 MOA established B737 pricing based on production rates above and below current production levels, investments for tooling and capital for certain B737 rate increases, a joint cost reduction program for
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the B777X (a joint cost reduction program for the B737 is separately established), and the release of certain liabilities and claims asserted by both parties, including the B737 disruption activity claim. The parties further agreed to reconvene in 2028 to negotiate pricing beyond 2030. Consistent with the 2018 MOA, on January 30, 2019, Boeing and Spirit executed SBP Amendment #40 to implement the December 2018 MOA terms and conditions applicable to the Sustaining Programs.
On February 6, 2020, Boeing and Spirit entered into a Memorandum of Agreement (the “2020 MOA”) extending B737 MAX pricing terms through 2033 (previously, the pricing was through December 31, 2030) and updated payment terms.

Advances on the B737 Program.   On April 12, 2019, Boeing and the Company executed a Memorandum of Agreement (the “2019 MOA”). Under the 2019 MOA, the Company received an advance payment from Boeing in the amount of $123.0 million during the third quarter of 2019. The 2020 MOA provided that the $123.0 million advance would be repaid by offset against the purchase price for year 2022 shipset deliveries. In addition, the 2020 MOA provided that Boeing will pay $225 million to Spirit in the first quarter of 2020, consisting of (i) $70 million in support of Spirit’s inventory and production stabilization, of which $10 million will be repaid by Spirit in 2021, and (ii) $155 million as an incremental pre-payment for costs and shipset deliveries over the next two years. These payments were made to Spirit on February 6, 2020.
Termination of Airplane Program. If Boeing decides not to initiate or continue production of a Sustaining Program model or commercial derivative because it determines there is insufficient business basis for proceeding, Boeing may terminate such model or derivative, including any order therefore, by written notice to Spirit. In the event of such a termination, Boeing would be liable to Spirit for any orders issued prior to the date of the termination notice and may also be liable for certain termination costs.
Events of Default and Remedies. Events of default under the Sustaining Agreement include Spirit’s failure to deliver products when and as required, and failure to maintain a required system of quality assurance, among other things. Certain events of default may allow Boeing to cancel orders under or terminate the Sustaining Agreement.
Intellectual Property. All technical work product and works of authorship produced by or for Spirit with respect to any work performed by or for Spirit pursuant to the Sustaining Agreement are the exclusive property of Boeing. All inventions conceived by or for Spirit with respect to any work performed by or for Spirit pursuant to the Sustaining Agreement and any patents claiming such inventions are the exclusive property of Spirit, except that Boeing will own any such inventions that Boeing reasonably believes are applicable to the B787 Program, and Boeing may seek patent protection for such B787 inventions or hold them as trade secrets; provided that, if Boeing does not seek patent protection, Spirit may do so.
B787 Supply Agreement with Boeing (“B787 Program”)
Overview. Two documents effectively comprise the B787 Program supply contract: (1) the Special Business Provisions (“787 SBP”), which sets forth the specific terms of the B787 Program’s supply arrangement and (2) the General Terms Agreement (“787 GTA,” and, together with 787 SBP and (any related purchase order or contract), as amended, the “B787 Agreement”), which sets forth other general contractual provisions, including provisions relating to termination, events of default, assignment, ordering procedures, inspections, and quality controls. The B787 Agreement is a requirements contract pursuant to which Spirit is Boeing’s exclusive supplier for the forward fuselage, fixed, and movable leading wing edges, engine pylons, and related tooling for the B787.
Pricing. On September 22, 2017, Boeing and Spirit entered into Amendment #25 to the B787 Agreement that established pricing terms for the B787-8, -9, and -10 models through line unit 1405 and provided that Boeing and Spirit would negotiate follow-on pricing for line units 1406 and beyond beginning 24 months prior to the scheduled delivery date for line unit 1405. The amendment also implemented updated payment terms and required the Company to repay Boeing $236.0 million less certain adjustments, as a retroactive adjustment for payments that were based on interim pricing. This amount was repaid in October 2017.
On December 21, 2018, Boeing and Spirit executed the 2018 MOA, which also established, among other things, pricing for the B787 for line unit 1004 through line unit 2205, and agreed to establish a joint cost reduction program for the B787. Consistent with the 2018 MOA, on January 30, 2019, Boeing and Spirit executed Amendment #28 to the B787 Agreement to implement the 2018 MOA terms and conditions applicable to the B787 Program.
Advance Payments. Boeing has made advance payments to Spirit under the B787 Agreement, which are required to be repaid to Boeing by way of offsets against the purchase price for future shipset deliveries. Advance repayments were scheduled to be spread evenly over the remainder of the first 1,000 B787 shipsets delivered to Boeing, except that pursuant to an amendment to the B787 Agreement entered into in April 2014, advance repayments were suspended from April 1, 2014 through March 31, 2015, and any repayments that otherwise would have become due during such 12-month period will be made by offset against the purchase price for shipset 1,001 through 1,120. Repayments resumed in 2015. The 2018 MOA also provided
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for the suspension of advance repayments with respect to the B787 beginning with line number 818; to resume at a lower rate of $450,319 per shipset at line number 1135 and continue through line number 1605.
In the event Boeing does not take delivery of a sufficient number of shipsets to repay the full amount of advances prior to the termination of the B787 Program or the B787 Agreement, any advances not then repaid will be applied against any outstanding payments then due by Boeing to us, and any remaining balance will be repaid in annual installments of $42.0 million due on December 15th of each year until the advance payments have been fully recovered by Boeing. Accordingly, portions of the advance repayment liability are included as current and long-term liabilities in our balance sheet. As of December 31, 2020, the amount of advance payments received by us from Boeing not yet repaid was $212.1 million.
Termination of Airplane Program. If Boeing decides not to continue production of the B787 Program because it determines, after consultation with Spirit, that there is an insufficient business basis for proceeding, Boeing may terminate the B787 Program, including any orders, by written notice to Spirit. In the event of such a termination, Boeing will be liable to Spirit for costs incurred in connection with any orders issued prior to the date of the termination notice and may also be liable for certain termination costs and for compensation for any tools, raw materials or work-in-process requested by Boeing in connection with the termination.
Events of Default and Remedies. Events of default under the B787 Agreement include Spirit’s failure to deliver products when and as required, and failure to maintain a required system of quality assurance, among other things. Certain events of default may allow Boeing to cancel orders under or terminate the B787 Agreement.

Intellectual Property. The B787 Agreement established three classifications for patented invention and proprietary information: (1) intellectual property developed by Spirit during activity under the B787 Agreement (“Spirit IP”); (2) intellectual property developed jointly by Boeing and Spirit during that activity (“Joint IP”); and (3) all other intellectual property developed during activity under the B787 Agreement (“Boeing IP”).

Boeing may use Spirit IP for work on the B787 Program and Spirit must license it to third parties for work on such program. Each party is free to use Joint IP in connection with work on the B787 Program and other Boeing programs, but each must obtain the consent of the other to use it for other purposes. Spirit is entitled to use Boeing IP for the B787 Program, and may require Boeing to license it to subcontractors for the same purpose.

The foregoing descriptions of the various agreements between Spirit and Boeing do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the full text of each agreement as filed with the SEC, subject to certain omissions of confidential portions pursuant to requests for confidential treatment filed separately with the SEC. Please see Item 15 to this Annual Report.
Intellectual Property
We have several patents pertaining to our processes and products. No individual patent or group of patents is of material importance. We also rely on trade secrets, confidentiality agreements, unpatented knowledge, creative products development, and continuing technological advancement to maintain our competitive position.
Competition
Although we are one of the largest independent non-OEM aerostructures suppliers based on annual revenues, with an estimated 23% share of the global non-OEM aerostructures market, this market remains highly competitive and fragmented. Our primary competition currently comes from either work performed internally by OEMs or other tier-one suppliers, and direct competition continues to grow. The Company continues to focus on design and manufacturing processes and tools, and cost reduction initiatives. The Company intends to compete by optimizing parts fabricated and assembled by the Company versus parts outsourced from the supply chain. Additionally, we compete by developing technologies and processes that leverage the Company's unique knowledge and capabilities to create value for our customers.

In commercial aerostructures, our principal competitors among OEMs include Boeing, Airbus (including its wholly-owned subsidiaries Stelia Aerospace and Premium Aerotec GmbH), Bombardier, Embraer Brazilian Aviation Co., and Leonardo.

Our principal competitors among non-OEM tier-1 aerostructures suppliers include Aernnova, GKN Aerospace, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Inc., Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Safran Nacelles, Sonaca, Subaru Corporation, Triumph Group, Inc. (“Triumph”), and Latecoere S.A.

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The Company continues to build a larger presence in the defense aerostructures market. The Company's competition in defense aerostructures includes Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon United Technologies, Leonardo, GKN, Triumph, BAE Systems, Korea Aerospace Industries, and Turkish Aerospace Industries.
Expected Backlog
As of December 31, 2020, our expected backlog associated with large commercial aircraft, business and regional jets, and military equipment deliveries, calculated based on contractual and historical product prices and expected delivery volumes, was approximately $34.2 billion a decrease of $8.3 billion from our corresponding estimate as of December 31, 2019. As of December 31, 2020, we adjusted our backlog to align with Boeing’s reporting position under ASC606 primarily due to 737 MAX and 777X, and aircraft order cancellations which contributed to a reduction of our backlog. The B737 MAX backlog is approximately 54% of our total backlog. Backlog is calculated based on the number of units the Company is under contract to produce on our fixed quantity contracts, and Boeing’s and Airbus’ announced backlog on our supply agreements (which are based on orders from customers). The number of units may be subject to cancellation or delay by the customer prior to shipment, depending on contract terms. The level of unfilled orders at any given date during the year may be materially affected by the timing of our receipt of firm orders and additional airplane orders, and the speed with which those orders are filled. Accordingly, our expected backlog as of December 31, 2020 may not necessarily represent the actual amount of deliveries or sales for any future period. For additional information on backlog, please see Item 1A. “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Business - Our backlog is subject to change due to the COVID-19 pandemic and other factors.”
Suppliers and Materials
The principal raw materials used in our manufacturing operations are aluminum, titanium, steel, and carbon fiber. We also purchase metallic parts, non-metallic parts, and machined components. In addition, we procure subassemblies from various manufacturers that are used in the final aerostructure assembly. From time to time, we also review our make-versus-buy strategy to determine whether it would be beneficial to us to outsource work that we currently produce in-house or vice versa.
We have long-standing relationships with hundreds of manufacturing suppliers. Our strategy is to enter into long-term contracts with suppliers to secure competitive pricing. Our exposure to rising costs of raw material is limited to some extent through leveraging relationships with our OEM customers’ high-volume contracts.
We continue to seek and develop sourcing opportunities in North America, Europe, and Asia to achieve a competitive global cost structure. Over 25 countries are represented in our international network of suppliers.
For additional information on our suppliers, please see Item 1A. “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Business.”
Research and Development
We believe that a world-class research and development focus helps maintain our position as an advanced partner to our OEM customers’ new product development teams. As a result, our research and development spend was $38.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, $54.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, and $42.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Through our research, we strive to develop unique intellectual property and technologies that will improve our products and our customers' products and, at the same time, position us to win work on new products. Our development effort primarily focuses on preparing for the initial production of new products and improving manufacturing processes on our current work. It also serves as an ongoing process that helps develop ways to reduce production costs and streamline manufacturing processes.
Our research and development is geared toward the architectural design of and manufacturing processes for our principal products: fuselage systems, propulsion systems, and wing systems. We are currently focused on research in areas such as advanced metallic joining, low-cost composites, acoustic attenuation, efficient structures, systems integration, advanced design and analysis methods, and new material systems. Other items that are expensed relate to research and development that is not funded by the customer. We collaborate with universities, research facilities, and technology partners in our research and development.
For additional information on research and development, please see Item 1A. “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Business - Our success depends in part on the success of our research and development initiatives.”
Regulatory Matters
Environmental. Our operations and facilities are subject to various environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, including federal, state, local, and foreign government requirements governing, among other matters, the emission, discharge, handling, and disposal of regulated materials, the investigation and remediation of contaminated sites, and permits required in
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connection with our operations. We continually monitor our operations and facilities to ensure compliance with these laws and regulations; however, management cannot provide assurance that future changes in such laws or the enforcement thereof, or the nature of our operations will not require us to make significant additional expenditures to ensure continued compliance. Further, we could incur substantial costs, including costs to reduce air emissions, clean-up costs, fines and sanctions, and third-party property damage, or personal injury claims as a result of violations of or liabilities under environmental laws, relevant common law or the environmental permits required for our operations. It is reasonably possible that costs incurred to ensure continued environmental compliance could have a material impact on our results of operations, capital expenditures, financial condition, competitive condition, or cash flows if additional work requirements or more stringent clean-up standards are imposed by regulators, new areas of soil, air, and groundwater contamination are discovered, and/or expansions of work scope are prompted by the results of investigations.
Government Contracts. Companies engaged in supplying defense-related equipment and services to U.S. Government agencies, either directly or by subcontract, are subject to business risks specific to the defense industry. These risks include the ability of the U.S. Government to unilaterally terminate existing contracts, suspend, or debar us from receiving new prime contracts or subcontracts, reduce the value of existing contracts, audit our contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs, and control and potentially prohibit the export of our products, among other things. If a contract was terminated for convenience, we could recover the costs we have incurred or committed, settlement expenses, and profit on the work completed prior to termination. However, if the termination is a result of our failure to perform, we may be liable for excess costs incurred by the prime contractor in procuring undelivered items from another source. In addition, failure to follow the requirements of the National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (“NISPOM”) or any other applicable U.S. Government industrial security regulations could, among other things, result in termination of our facility securities clearances (each a "FCL"), which in turn would preclude us from being awarded classified contracts or, under certain circumstances, performing on our existing classified contracts.
Commercial Aircraft. The commercial aircraft component industry is highly regulated by the Federal Aviation Administration (the "FAA"), the European Aviation Safety Agency (“EASA”), and other agencies throughout the world. The military aircraft component industry is governed by military quality specifications. We, and the components we manufacture, are required to be certified by one or more of these entities or agencies, and, in some cases, by individual OEMs, to engineer and service parts and components used in specific aircraft models. In addition, the FAA requires that various maintenance routines be performed on aircraft components. We believe that we currently satisfy or exceed these maintenance standards in our repair and overhaul services.
Export Control. The technical data and components used in the design and production of our products, as well as many of the products and technical data we export, either as individual items or as components incorporated into aircraft, are subject to compliance with U.S. export control laws. Collaborative agreements that we may have with foreign persons, including manufacturers or suppliers, are also subject to U.S. export control laws.
Health and Safety. Our operations are also subject to a variety of worker and community safety laws. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (“OSHA”) mandates general requirements for safe workplaces for all employees. In addition, OSHA provides special procedures and measures for the handling of certain hazardous and toxic substances. Our management believes that our operations are in material compliance with OSHA’s health and safety requirements.
For additional information on regulatory matters, please see Item 1A. “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Business.”
Human Capital
Employees. Our people are our greatest asset. Leadership is committed to creating a culture of responsibility and achievement that supports our employees’ growth and development. We encourage our employees to be motivated, determined, embrace diversity, show their flexibility, and give back to the communities where we do business. By allowing employees to thrive, the Company creates a stronger and more dedicated team.
At December 31, 2020, we had approximately 14,500 employees: 9,700 located in our five U.S. facilities, 2,900 located in our Belfast facilities, 900 located at our Prestwick facility, 700 located in our Malaysia facility, 200 located at Morocco facility, and 100 in our France facility. During 2020, the Company continued workforce reductions to align with reduced production rates in light of reduced global aviation demand.
Values. The Company operates according to three key values that enable it to meet commitments to all stakeholders — employees, customers, suppliers, investors and communities. These values are:

Transparency - Being open, honest and respectful with communication; sharing ideas and building trust by making intentions clear;
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Collaboration - Aligning actions with others; working together to achieve the best outcomes; and
Inspiration - Encouraging the best from others; leading by example to ensure innovation is a component of success.
Adopting and incorporating the Company's values into day-to-day tasks and activities enables the Company to be a Trusted Partner. Practicing transparency, collaboration and inspiration—individually and collectively—allows the Company to be customer focused, provide on-time delivery, maintain and improve quality and ensure safety for all.
Code of Business Conduct. The Company is committed to the highest ethical standards and to complying with all laws and regulations applicable to the Company’s business. To support and articulate its commitment and responsibility in this regard, the Company has adopted the Code of Business Conduct (the “Code”). The Code addresses a number of topics, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, conflicts of interest, safeguarding assets, insider trading, and general adherence to laws and regulations. All directors and employees, including executive officers, must comply with the Code. The Code is available on the Company’s website at http://investor.spiritaero.com/corporate-governance/OD/default.aspx.
Diversity and Inclusion. The Company is committed to creating a world class company — one that is actively working to build an inclusive culture, where all employees diverse skills and talents are valued. The company values the full range of differences, perspectives and abilities that our employees bring to the workplace. We strive to create an environment where all employees feel welcomed and a sense of belonging.
The Company is committed to promoting diversity not only because it is the right thing to do, but because greater diversity results in greater innovation and growth. People who come from different backgrounds have different ways of seeing the world. Combining those perspectives helps the Company find new ways to solve problems and innovate for the future. The Company maximizes the power of diversity in people, knowledge and technology by (among other things):
Attracting, retaining and developing a diverse workforce;
Recognizing and respecting the diversity of the marketplace; and
Working and partnering with vendors from a diverse supplier base.
Talent Management. Retention and development of talent, and calibration of talent to meet the Company’s strategy, is critical to our success. We seek to provide our employees with opportunities for learning and development, mentoring and career planning. Our employees participate in performance development programs annually. We periodically conduct business climate surveys to measure engagement and alignment with our values. Our management and salaried talent retention rate was 94% (excluding retirements and reductions in force) in 2020.
Health and Safety. The Company takes steps to ensure that it complies in all material respects with applicable legal, regulatory and other requirements related to preventing pollution, injury and ill health, and employs industry-leading, technologically sound and economically feasible control mechanisms, procedures and processes. In addition, the Company provides training, education, safety monitoring and auditing, health-awareness programs, and ergonomic support in the Company's offices and factories. We are committed to the safety and health of our employees and work to eliminate all injuries and accidents. We evaluate safety performance through multiple indicators, including OSHA recordable injury rates and lost-time incidents,
Impact of COVID-19. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have enacted our crisis management and response process as part of our enterprise risk management program to help us navigate the challenges we face due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Actions that we have taken include the following:
Organized global teams to monitor the situation and recommend appropriate actions;
Implemented travel restrictions for our employees;
Enforced social-distancing standards throughout the workplace and mandated mask use;
Initiated consistent and ongoing cleaning of high-touch work spaces;
Established processes aligned with CDC guidelines to work with exposed individuals on necessary quarantine periods and the process to return to work; and
Implemented working from home where practicable.

Other actions taken in response to the pandemic – including with respect to preserving liquidity – are referenced elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining Agreements
Our principal U.S. collective bargaining agreements were with the following unions as of December 31, 2020:
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UnionPercent of our U.S. Employees RepresentedStatus of the Agreements with Major Union
The International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM)52%We have two major agreements - one expires in June 2023 and one expires in December 2024.
The Society of Professional Engineering Employees in Aerospace (SPEEA)22%We have two major agreements - one expires in December 2024 and one expires in January 2026.
The International Union, Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW)8%We have one major agreement expiring in December 2025.
The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW)1%We have one major agreement expiring in September 2023.
Approximately 57% of our Prestwick employees are represented by one union, Unite (Amicus Section). In 2013, the Company negotiated two separate ten-year pay agreements with the Manual Staff bargaining and the Monthly Staff bargaining groups of the Unite union. These agreements fundamentally cover basic pay and variable at risk pay, while other employee terms and conditions generally remain the same from year to year until both parties agree to change them. The current pay agreements expire December 31, 2022.
In France, our employees are represented by CFTC (“Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens or French Confederation of Christian Workers”) and FO (“Force Ouvrière or Labor Force”). The Company negotiates yearly on compensation and once every four years on issues related to gender equality and work-life balance. The next election to determine union representation will occur in July 2023.
In the U.K. (Belfast), approximately 84% of the employees are part of the collective group represented by the Trade Unions in Belfast with approximately 73% being members of a Trade Union. Unite the Union is the largest representing approximately 93% of such employees, with General, Municipal, Boilermakers making up the balance. The last wage agreement covered the period from January 2016 to January 2019. No negotiations were held in 2020 due to the impact of COVID-19 and our pending acquisition of Shorts Brothers plc. It is anticipated that negotiations will occur in the first half of 2021.
In Morocco, approximately 43% of our employees are represented by Union Marocain du Travail ("UMT"). We negotiated a three year agreement with UMT that expires in December 2022.
None of our Malaysia employees are currently represented by a union.
We consider our relationships with our employees to be satisfactory.

Available Information
Our Internet address is http://www.spiritaero.com. The content on our website is available for information purposes only. It should not be relied upon for investment purposes, nor is it incorporated by reference into this Annual Report.
We make available through our Internet website, under the heading “Investors,” our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, Proxy Statements, and amendments to those reports after we electronically file such materials with the SEC. Copies of our key corporate governance documents, including Spirit Holdings' Bylaws. The Corporate Governance Guidelines, the Code, the Transactions with Related Persons Policy, the Finance Code of Professional Conduct, and charters for our Audit Committee, Risk Committee, Compensation Committee, and Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee are also available on our website.
The SEC maintains an Internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy information statement, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Our filed Annual and Quarterly Reports, Current Reports, Proxy Statement and other reports previously filed with the SEC are available through the SEC's website.



Item 1A. Risk Factors

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An investment in our securities involves risks and uncertainties. The risks and uncertainties set forth below are those that we believe may materially and adversely affect us, our future business or results of operations, our industry, or investments in our securities. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of or that we deem immaterial may also materially and adversely affect us, our future business or results of operations, or investments in our securities.

RISK FACTORS SUMMARY

The risks contained in the Risk Factors Summary are not exhaustive and it is not possible for us to predict all risks that could cause the Company's actual results to differ materially. The risks speak only as of the date hereof, and new risks may emerge or changes to the foregoing risks may occur that could impact our business.
We are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties, including risks related to significant unusual events, our business, our industry, employment matters and certain general risks, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Risks that we deem material include, but are not limited to, the following:
Risks Relating to Our Business
Our business, financial results, and prospects are dependent on global aviation demand. The COVID-19 pandemic has had and is expected to continue to have a significant negative impact on aviation demand, our business and our industry.
Our business depends largely on sales of components for a single aircraft program, the B737 MAX, which has had significant reductions in production rate, including suspensions, relating to the B737 MAX grounding and the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional suspensions or reductions in, or increases in, the B737 MAX production rate may create financial and disruption risks for the Company and its suppliers on the program, which, may in turn, affect the Company's ability to comply with contractual obligations.
Because we depend on Boeing and Airbus, as our largest customers, our business will be negatively affected if either Boeing or Airbus reduces the number of products it purchases from us or if either experiences business difficulties or breaches its obligations to us.
Our backlog is subject to change due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the B737 MAX grounding, and related cancellations.
We use estimates in accounting for revenue and cost for our contracts. Changes in our estimates could adversely affect our future financial performance.
Our business depends, in part, on securing work for replacement programs.
Our business depends on our ability to maintain a healthy supply chain, meet production rate requirements, and timely delivery of products that meet or exceed stringent quality standards.
Our operations depend on our ability to maintain continuing, uninterrupted production at our manufacturing facilities and our suppliers’ facilities.
Interruptions in deliveries of or increased prices for components or raw materials used in our products could delay production and/or materially adversely affect our business.
Our business could be materially adversely affected by product warranty obligations or defective product claims.
The profitability of certain programs depends significantly on the assumptions surrounding satisfactory settlement of customer claims and assertions.
Our acquisitions expose us to risks, including the risk that we may not be able to successfully integrate these businesses or achieve expected operating synergies.
We face risks as we work to successfully execute on new or maturing programs.
Prolonged periods of inflation where we do not have adequate inflation protections in our customer contracts could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
The outcome of legal proceedings and government inquiries and investigations involving our business is unpredictable, and an adverse decision in any such matter could have a material effect on our business.
We do not own most of the program-specific intellectual property and tooling used in our business.
Our global footprint subjects us to the risks of doing business in foreign countries.
Our results could be adversely affected by economic and geopolitical considerations.
We may not be able to generate sufficient taxable income to fully realize our deferred tax assets.
Our business is subject to regulation in the U.S. and internationally.
The U.S. Government is a significant customer of certain of our customers and we and they are subject to specific U.S. Government contracting rules and regulations.
Our operations could be negatively impacted by service interruptions, data corruption or misuse, cyber attacks, network security breaches or GDPR violations.
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We operate in a very competitive business environment.
Our commercial business is cyclical and sensitive to commercial airlines’ profitability.
Our success depends in part on the success of our research and development initiatives.
Risks Related to Employment Matters
In order to be successful, we must attract, retain, train, motivate, develop and transition key employees, and failure to do so could harm our business.
We could be required to make future contributions to our defined benefit pension and post-retirement benefit plans and our costs may substantially increase in connection with such plans as a result of adverse changes in interest rates and the capital markets, changes in actuarial assumptions and legislative or other regulatory actions.
Increases in labor costs, potential labor disputes, and work stoppages at our facilities or the facilities of our suppliers or customers could materially adversely affect our financial performance.
Risks Related to Our Debt and Liquidity
Declines in our financial condition or expected performance or reductions in our credit ratings could limit the Company’s ability to obtain future financing, increase its borrowing, adversely affect the market price of its securities, or otherwise impair its business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our debt could adversely affect our financial condition and our ability to operate our business due to significant restrictions in our Credit Agreement, which could also adversely affect our operating flexibility and put us at a competitive disadvantage.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
We cannot make any guarantees with respect to dividends on our Common Stock.
Spirit Holdings’ certificate of incorporation, rights plan, bylaws and our supply agreements with Boeing contain provisions that could discourage others from acquiring us and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

Risks Related to Our Business

Our business, financial results, and prospects are dependent on global aviation demand. The COVID-19 pandemic has had and is expected to continue to have a significant negative impact on aviation demand, our business and our industry.
We largely support commercial aerostructures customers, and our financial results and prospects are almost entirely dependent on global aviation demand and the resulting production rates of our customers. In response to COVID-19 impacts, our customers, including Boeing and Airbus, have decreased production rates across many programs and may further adjust production rates or suspend production in the future. Suspensions in our production rates or prolonged reductions to rates have in the past resulted in, and could in the future result in, significant challenges and negative impacts on our business, operations and financial performance.
COVID-19’s impact on our 2020 financial performance resulted in a significant strain on our liquidity and debt balance. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had a debt balance of approximately $3,034.3 million, most of which was unsecured debt, and a cash balance of $2,350.5 million. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had a debt balance of approximately $3,873.6 million, more than 50% was secured debt, and a cash balance of $1,873.3 million.
The extent to which the pandemic will continue to negatively affect our business and results of operations will depend on many changing factors and developments, without limitation, the following:
the severity, extent, and duration of the pandemic, its impact on the aircraft industry and aviation demand, and any additional production suspensions or reductions relating to the pandemic;
the effectiveness and availability of vaccines and the public’s willingness to receive such vaccines or treatments;
continued travel restrictions and bans, bans on public gatherings, and closures of non-essential businesses;
economic stimulus efforts, including continued federal assistance for airlines;
economic recessions resulting from the pandemic;
any inability of significant portions of our workforce to work effectively, including because of illness, remote work, reduced salaries, quarantines, social distancing, government actions, or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic;
the possibility that we may experience lawsuits or regulatory actions due to COVID-19 spread in the workplace;
our ability to maintain our compliance practices and procedures, financial reporting processes and related controls, and manage the complex accounting issues presented by the COVID-19 pandemic;
the impact on the Company’s vendors and outsourced business processes and their process and controls documentation;
potential failure or reduced capacity of third parties on which the Company relies, including suppliers, lenders, and other business partners, to meet the Company’s obligations and needs;
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the impact on our contracts with our customers and suppliers, including force majeure provisions;
the impact on, and subsequent volatility of, the financial markets;
the availability and cost of credit to the Company; and
the impact of government health and protection policies to future air traffic demand.
Several of these effects have already occurred and any or all of these items may occur or recur, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. While the Company has taken action to reduce costs, increase liquidity and strengthen its financial position in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, there can be no assurance that our actions will mitigate the impact of the pandemic on our business.
We expect that the COVID-19 pandemic will have a significant negative impact on our business for the duration of the pandemic and for an indeterminate time thereafter until demand grows closer to 2019 levels. We expect our business will not improve until our customers are willing to produce aircraft at sufficient levels, which depends upon the public’s willingness to use aircraft travel, the success of vaccination programs across the globe, sufficient OEM demand and orders (without suspension) from airlines, and the ability of airlines to weather the crisis and expand. This may not occur, if ever, until well after the broader global economy begins to improve. Further, we expect that the pandemic recovery time for wide-body aircraft may be longer than for narrow-body aircraft due to reduced traveler demand and lower volumes of international travel. If the pandemic worsens or there is significant uncertainty on the aviation industry’s recovery, we may find it difficult to obtain additional financing and/or fund our operations and meet our debt repayment obligations.
Our business depends largely on sales of components for a single aircraft program, the B737 MAX. The B737 MAX production rate was significantly reduced and, from time to time, suspended as a result of the B737 MAX grounding and COVID-19 pandemic. Additional suspensions or reductions in, or increases in, the B737 MAX production rate may create financial and disruption risks for the Company and its suppliers on the program, which, may in turn, affect the Company's ability to comply with contractual obligations.
For the twelve months ended December 31, 2018, 2019, and 2020, approximately 56%, 53%, and 19% of our net revenues were generated from sales of components to Boeing for the B737 aircraft, respectively. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, our revenues from the B737 aircraft were significantly impacted by grounding and COVID-19 pandemic. While we have entered into long-term supply agreements with Boeing to continue to provide components for the B737 for the life of the aircraft program, including commercial and military P-8 derivatives, Boeing does not have any obligation to purchase components from us for any replacement for the B737 that is not a commercial derivative model as defined by the Sustaining Agreement. The contract is a requirements contract, and Boeing can reduce the purchase volume at any time.
In March 2019, the B737 MAX fleet was grounded in the U.S. and internationally following the accidents involving two B737 MAX aircraft. At Boeing’s direction, Spirit suspended all B737 MAX production beginning on January 1, 2020. Subsequently, there were a number of changes to 2020 production rates as a result of the grounding and COVID-19 impacts. These production changes created significant disruption for the Company and its B737 MAX suppliers.
If production levels for the MAX program are reduced beyond current expectations due to depressed demand or otherwise, or if we have difficulties in managing our cost structure to take into account changes in production schedules or to accommodate a ramp-up in production, our liquidity position may worsen absent our ability to procure additional financing, we may trigger an event of default under our credit facilities, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely impacted.
Boeing’s deliveries of the B737 MAX resumed in December 2020, but the rate at which deliveries will continue and continued impacts of the grounding remain uncertain. We have made significant assumptions with respect to the B737 program regarding the number of units to be delivered in 2021 (161 units), the period during which those units are likely to be produced, and the units’ expected sales prices, production costs, program tooling and other non-recurring costs, and routine warranty costs. In addition, we have made assumptions regarding estimated costs expected to be incurred until resuming a normal production rate consistent with 2019 production levels to determine which costs should be (i) included in program inventory and (ii) expensed when incurred as abnormal production costs. Any changes in these estimates and/or assumptions with respect to the B737 program could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations, and/or cash flows.
Because we depend on Boeing and Airbus, as our largest customers, our sales, cash flows from operations, and results of operations will be negatively affected if either Boeing or Airbus reduces the number of products it purchases from us or if either experiences business difficulties or breaches its obligations to us.

Boeing is our largest customer, and Airbus is our second-largest customer. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, approximately 60% and 23% of our net revenues were generated from sales to Boeing and Airbus, respectively. Although part of our strategy is to diversify our customer base, we cannot assure that we will be successful in doing so. Even if we are successful in obtaining new customers, we expect that Boeing and Airbus will continue to account for a substantial portion of our sales. Our contracts with Boeing and Airbus are requirements contracts that do not require specific minimum purchase
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volumes, and either Boeing or Airbus can reduce its purchase volume at any time. If either of these customers reduces the requirements under our agreements (as Boeing did in 2019 and 2020 due to the MAX grounding and the COVID-19 pandemic and other customers did in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic), terminates the agreements or portions of them (due to our breach), a termination for convenience (which is a provision included in most of the contracts, or otherwise), experiences a major disruption in its business (such as a strike, work stoppage, slowdown, or a supply chain problem) or experiences a deterioration in its business, financial condition, access to credit, or liquidity, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Any monetary damages we receive from Airbus or Boeing as a result of a contractual termination may not be sufficient to cover our actual damages.

Our backlog is subject to change due to the COVID-19 pandemic and other factors.

From time to time, we disclose our expected backlog associated with large commercial aircraft, business and regional jets, and military equipment deliveries, calculated based on contractual and historical product prices and expected delivery volumes. Our backlog declined throughout 2020 due to cancellations related to the B737 MAX grounding and the COVID-19 pandemic, and the pandemic may also extend or delay the time in which we expect to realize value from our backlog. Additional impacts from the pandemic or other global events may cause our backlog to further deteriorate due to order cancellations or delays. Additionally, we adjusted the calculation of our backlog to contemplate material impacts related to adjustments reported under ASC606.

Backlog is calculated based on the number of units the Company is under contract to produce on our fixed quantity contracts, and Boeing’s and Airbus’ announced backlog on our supply agreements (which are based on orders from customers). Accordingly, we rely on latest available information from Boeing and Airbus to calculate our backlog, which may not reflect expected cancellations related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of units may be subject to cancellation or delay by the customer prior to shipment, depending on contract terms. The level of unfilled orders at any date during the year may be materially affected by the timing of our receipt of firm orders and additional airplane orders, and the speed with which those orders are filled. Accordingly, our expected backlog does not necessarily represent the actual amount of deliveries or sales for any future period.

We use estimates in accounting for revenue and cost for our contracts. Changes in our estimates could adversely affect our future financial performance.

The Company recognizes revenue using the principles of Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC') Topic 606 , Revenue from contracts with customers (“ASC 606”), and estimates revenue and cost for contracts that span a period of multiple years. This method of accounting requires judgment on a number of underlying assumptions to develop our estimates such as favorable trends in volume, learning curve efficiencies, and future pricing from suppliers that reduce our production costs. However, several factors may cause the costs we incur in fulfilling these contracts to vary substantially from our original estimates such as technical problems, delivery reductions, materials shortages, supplier difficulties, and multiple other events. Other than certain increases in raw material costs that can generally be passed on to our customers, in most instances we must fully absorb cost overruns. Due to the significant length of time over which some revenue streams are generated, the variability of future period estimated revenue and cost may be adversely affected if circumstances or underlying assumptions change. If our estimated costs exceed our estimated revenues under a fixed-price contract, we will be required to recognize a forward loss on the affected program, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. The risk particularly applies to products such as the B787 and A350, in that our performance at the contracted price depends on our being able to achieve production cost reductions as we gain production experience. During the fourth quarter of 2020, there were further disruptions and delays as a result of increased inspections and associated rework requests from Boeing on the B787 program. Further production rate changes or claims relating to inspection and rework requests may result in additional incremental forward loss charges.

Further, some of our long-term supply agreements, such as the Sustaining Agreement and the B787 Agreement, provide for the re-negotiation of established pricing terms at specified times in the future. If such negotiations result in costs that exceed our revenue under a fixed-price contract, or operating margins that our lower than our current margins, we may need to recognize a forward loss on the affected program, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Additionally, variability of future period estimated revenue and cost may result in recording additional valuation allowances against future deferred tax assets, which could adversely affect our future financial performance.

Our business depends, in part, on securing work for replacement programs.

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While we have entered into long-term supply agreements with respect to the Sustaining Programs, Boeing does not have any obligation to purchase components from us for any subsequent variant of these aircrafts that is not a commercial derivative as defined by the Sustaining Agreement. If we are unable to obtain significant aerostructures supply business for any variant of these aircrafts for which we provide significant content, such as the B737 MAX, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Our business depends on our ability to maintain a healthy supply chain, meet production rate requirements, and timely deliver products that meet or exceed stringent quality standards.

Our business depends on our ability to maintain a healthy supply chain, achieve planned production rate targets, and meet or exceed stringent performance and reliability standards. The supply chain for large commercial aerostructures is complex and involves hundreds of suppliers and their technical employees from all over the world.

Operational issues, including delays or defects in supplier components, could result in significant out-of-sequence work and increased production costs, as well as delayed deliveries to customers. Our suppliers’ failure to provide parts that meet our technical specifications could materially adversely affect production schedules and contract profitability. We may not be able to find acceptable alternatives, and any such alternatives could result in increased costs for us and possible forward losses on certain contracts. Even if acceptable alternatives are found, the process of locating and securing such alternatives might be disruptive to our business and might lead to termination of our supply agreements with our customers.

Our suppliers continue to encounter financial difficulty due to the pandemic and residual effects of the B737 MAX grounding. Absent financial support, suppliers may not be able to meet commitments under their agreements with us. If any suppliers fail to supply critical parts and we are not able to secure timely and adequate replacements, we may breach our obligations to our customers. As a result of a breach, customers generally may terminate their agreements or proceed against us for damages and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely impacted.
Additionally, the Company’s ability to meet production rate increases is dependent upon several factors, including expansion and alignment of its production facilities, tooling, and equipment; improved efficiencies in its production line; on-time delivery of component parts from the Company’s suppliers; adequate supply of skilled labor; and implementation of customer customizations upon demand. If the Company fails to meet the quality or delivery expectations or requirements of its customers, disruptions in manufacturing lines could result, which could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s ability to meet commitments to its customers and on its future financial results.
In some cases, in order to meet these increases in production rates, we will need to make significant capital expenditures to expand our capacity and improve our performance or find alternative solutions such as outsourcing some of our existing work to free up additional capacity. While some of these expenditures will be reimbursed by our customers, we could be required to bear a significant portion of the costs. In addition, the increases in production rates could cause disruptions in our manufacturing lines, which could materially adversely impact our ability to meet our commitments to our customers, and have a resulting adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations depend on our ability to maintain continuing, uninterrupted production at our manufacturing facilities and our suppliers’ facilities.

Our manufacturing facilities or our suppliers’ manufacturing facilities could be damaged or disrupted by a natural disaster, war, terrorist activity, interruption of utilities, public health crises (such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic), or sustained mechanical failure. Although we have obtained property damage and business interruption insurance where we deem appropriate, a sustained mechanical failure of a key piece of equipment, major catastrophe (such as a fire, flood, tornado, hurricane, major snow storm, or other natural disaster), war, or terrorist activities in any of the areas where we or our suppliers conduct operations could result in a prolonged interruption of all or a substantial portion of our business. Any disruption resulting from these events could cause significant delays in shipments of products and the loss of sales and customers. We may not have insurance to adequately compensate us for any of these events. A large portion of our operations takes place at one facility in Wichita, Kansas, and any significant damage or disruption to this facility in particular would materially adversely affect our ability to service our customers. Additionally, while any insurance proceeds may cover certain business interruption expenses, certain deductibles and limitations will apply and no assurance can be made that all recovery costs will be covered.



Interruptions in deliveries of components or raw materials, or increased prices for components or raw materials used in our products could delay production and/or materially adversely affect our financial performance, profitability, margins, and revenues.
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We are highly dependent on the availability of essential materials and purchased components from our suppliers, some of which are available only from a sole source or limited sources. Our dependency upon regular deliveries from particular suppliers of components and raw materials means that interruptions or stoppages in such deliveries could materially adversely affect our operations until arrangements with alternate suppliers, to the extent alternate suppliers exist, could be made. If any of our suppliers were unable or were to refuse to deliver materials to us for an extended period of time, or if we were unable to negotiate acceptable terms for the supply of materials with these or alternative suppliers, our business could suffer and be materially affected.

Our continued supply of materials is subject to a number of risks including:

the destruction of or damage to our suppliers’ equipment, facilities or their distribution infrastructure;
global economic conditions, embargoes, force majeure events, domestic or international acts of hostility, terrorism, pandemic, or other events impacting our suppliers’ ability to perform;
a work stoppage or strike by our suppliers’ employees;
the failure of our suppliers to provide materials of the requisite quality or in compliance with specifications;
the failure of our suppliers to satisfy U.S. and international import and export control laws;
the failure of our suppliers to meet regulatory standards;
the failure, shortage, or delay in the delivery of raw materials to our suppliers;
imposition of tariffs and similar import limitations on us or our suppliers; and
contractual amendments and disputes with our suppliers.

In addition, our profitability is affected by the prices of the components and raw materials, such as titanium, aluminum, steel, and carbon fiber, used in the manufacturing of our products. These prices may fluctuate based on factors beyond our control, including world oil prices, changes in supply and demand, general economic conditions, labor costs, competition, import duties, tariffs, currency exchange rates, hostilities in jurisdictions that affect raw materials and, in some cases, government regulation. Although our supply agreements with Boeing and Airbus allow us to pass on to our customers certain unusual increases in component and raw material costs in limited situations, we may not be fully compensated by the customers for the entirety of any such increased costs.

Our business could be materially adversely affected by product warranty obligations or defective product claims.

We are exposed to liabilities that are unique to the products and services we provide. Our operations expose us to potential rework obligations, liabilities for warranty or other claims with respect to aircraft components that have been designed, manufactured, or serviced by us or our suppliers. We maintain insurance for certain risks, but the amount of our insurance coverage may not cover all claims or liabilities and we may be forced to bear substantial costs. Material obligations in excess of our insurance coverage (or other third-party indemnification) could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

In addition, if our products are found to be defective and lacking in quality, or if one of our products causes an accident, our reputation could be damaged and our ability to retain and attract customers could be materially adversely affected.

The profitability of certain programs depends significantly on the assumptions surrounding satisfactory settlement of customer claims and assertions.

For certain of our programs, we regularly commence work or incorporate customer requested changes prior to negotiating pricing terms for engineering work or the product that has been modified. We typically have the contractual right to negotiate pricing for customer directed changes. In those cases, we assert to our customers our contractual rights to obtain the additional revenue or cost reimbursement we expect to receive upon finalizing pricing terms. An expected recovery value of these assertions is incorporated into our contract profitability estimates. Our inability to recover these expected values, among other factors, could result in the recognition of a forward loss on these programs and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Our acquisitions expose us to risks, including the risk that we may not be able to successfully integrate these businesses or achieve expected operating synergies.

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As part of our business strategy, we may merge with or acquire businesses and/or form joint ventures and strategic alliances. For example, the Company closed the Bombardier Acquisition (as defined below) on October 30, 2020. Combining our businesses may be more difficult, costly, or time consuming than expected. In addition, events outside of our control, including changes in regulation and laws as well as economic trends, could adversely affect our ability to realize the expected benefits from the acquisition. The success of this acquisition and other acquisitions will depend on, among other things, our ability to realize the anticipated benefits and cost savings from combining our and the acquired businesses in a manner that facilitates growth opportunities and realizes anticipated synergies and cost savings. These anticipated benefits and cost savings may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected or could have other adverse effects that we do not currently foresee. Further, the integration of these companies involves a number of risks, including, but not limited to the diversion of management’s attention to the integration of operations, difficulties in the assimilation of different cultures and practices, reliance on sellers under transition services agreements, (including, without limitation, the transition services agreement with Bombardier), as well as in the assimilation of geographically dispersed operations and personnel, difficulties in the integration of departments, systems (including accounting, production, IT, and other critical systems), technologies, books and records and procedures, as well as in maintaining uniform standards, controls (including internal accounting controls), procedures, and policies and compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other applicable anti-bribery laws.

We face risks as we work to successfully execute on new or maturing programs.

New or maturing programs with new technologies typically carry risks associated with design responsibility, development of new production tools, hiring and training of qualified personnel, increased capital and funding commitments, ability to meet customer specifications, delivery schedules, and unique contractual requirements, supplier performance, ability of the customer to meet its contractual obligations to us, and our ability to accurately estimate costs associated with such programs. In addition, any new or maturing aircraft program may not generate sufficient demand or may experience technological problems or significant delays in the regulatory certification or manufacturing and delivery schedule. If we were unable to perform our obligations under new or maturing programs to the customer’s satisfaction or manufacture products at our estimated costs, if we were unable to successfully perform under revised design and manufacturing plans or successfully resolve claims and assertions, or if a new or maturing program in which we had made a significant investment was terminated or experienced weak demand, delays or technological problems could result and our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Some of these risks have affected our maturing programs to the extent that we have recorded significant forward losses and maintain certain of our maturing programs at zero or low margins due to our inability to overcome the effects of these risks, which was greatly exacerbated by significantly reduced current and future production volumes related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We continue to face similar risks as well as the potential for default, quality problems, or inability to meet weight requirements and these could result in continued zero or low margins or additional forward losses, and the risk of having to write-off additional inventory if it were deemed to be unrecoverable over the life of the program. In addition, beginning new work on existing programs also carries risks associated with the transfer of technology, knowledge, and tooling.

In order to perform on new or maturing programs we may be required to construct or acquire new facilities requiring additional up-front investment costs. In the case of significant program delays and/or program cancellations, we could be required to bear certain unrecoverable construction and maintenance costs and incur potential impairment charges for the new facilities. Also, we may need to expend additional resources to determine an alternate revenue-generating use for the facilities. Likewise, significant delays in the construction or acquisition of a plant site could impact production schedules.

Prolonged periods of inflation where we do not have adequate inflation protections in our customer contracts could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

A majority of our sales are conducted pursuant to long-term contracts that set fixed unit prices. Certain, but not all, of these contracts provide for price adjustments for inflation or abnormal escalation. Although we have attempted to minimize the effect of inflation on our business through contractual protections, the presence of longer pricing periods within our contracts increases the likelihood that there will be sustained or higher than anticipated increases in costs of labor or material. Furthermore, if one of the raw materials on which we are dependent (e.g. aluminum, titanium, or composite material) were to experience an isolated price increase without inflationary impacts on the broader economy, we may not be entitled to inflation protection under certain of our contracts. If our contractual protections do not adequately protect us in the context of substantial cost increases, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

The outcome of legal proceedings and government inquiries and investigations involving our business is unpredictable, and an adverse decision in any such matter could have a material effect on our financial position and results of operations.

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We are involved in a number of legal proceedings including the proceedings disclosed in Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees. These claims may divert financial and management resources that would otherwise be used to benefit our operations. No assurances can be given that the results of these matters will be favorable to us. An adverse resolution of any of these lawsuits could have a material impact on our financial position and results of operations. In addition, we are sometimes subject to government inquiries and investigations of our business due, among other things, to the heavily regulated nature of our industry and our participation in government programs. Any such inquiry or investigation could potentially result in an adverse ruling against us, which could have a material impact on our financial position and operating. If we are unsuccessful in any action related to this matter, we may be required to pay a significant amount of monetary damages that may be in excess of our insurance coverage.

We do not own most of the program specific intellectual property and tooling used in our business.

Our business depends on using certain intellectual property and tooling that we have rights to use under license grants from our customers. If these licenses are terminated due to a default or otherwise, our business may be materially affected. In addition, we license some of the intellectual property needed for performance under some of our supply contracts from our customers under those supply agreements. We must honor our contractual commitments to our customers related to intellectual property and comply with infringement laws governing our use of intellectual property. In the event we obtain new business from new or existing customers, we will need to pay particular attention to these contractual commitments and any other restrictions on our use of intellectual property to make sure that we will not be using intellectual property improperly in the performance of such new business. In the event we use any such intellectual property improperly, we could be subject to an infringement or misappropriation claim by the owner or licensee of such intellectual property.

In the future, our entry into new markets may be facilitated by obtaining additional license grants from our customers. If we are unable to negotiate additional license rights on acceptable terms (or at all) from these customers, our ability to enter new markets may be restricted.

Our global footprint subjects us to the risks of doing business in foreign countries.

We have activities and operations globally (through wholly owned indirect or direct subsidiaries and joint ventures), including in the United Kingdom, France, Malaysia, Morocco and China. In addition, we derive a significant portion of our revenues from sales by Boeing and Airbus to customers outside the U.S and, for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, direct sales to our non-U.S. customers accounted for approximately 23% of our net revenues. We expect that our and our customers’ international sales will continue to account for a significant portion of our net revenues for the foreseeable future. As a result, we are subject to risks of doing business internationally, including:

changes in regulatory requirements applicable to our industry and business, including without limitation, changes in tariffs (imposed or threatened) on imports, including tariffs imposed in a retaliatory manner on U.S. exports, embargoes, export controls, and other trade restrictions or barriers;
changes in the political, economic, legal, tax and social conditions in the countries we do business in;
changes in policies and initiatives including with respect to foreign exchange, foreign investment, and government industrial cooperation requirements;
the ability to secure clearances, approvals or licenses, including any requirements mandated by the U.S. Commerce Department, to maintain the ability to provide product or services to certain countries or customers;
compliance with foreign labor laws, which generally provide for increased notice, severance and consultation requirements compared to U.S. laws; difficulties enforcing intellectual property and contractual rights in certain jurisdictions; the complexity and necessity of using foreign representatives and consultants;
uncertainties and restrictions concerning the availability of funding credit or guarantees;
potential or actual withdrawal or modification of international trade agreements;
modifications to sanctions imposed on other countries; changes to immigration policies that may present risks to companies that rely on foreign employees or contractors;
compliance with antitrust and competition regulations;
differences in business practices;
the difficulty of management and operation of an enterprise spread over various countries;
compliance with a variety of foreign laws, as well as U.S. laws affecting the activities of U.S. companies abroad, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other applicable anti-bribery laws; and
economic and geopolitical developments and conditions, including domestic or international hostilities, acts of terrorism and governmental reactions, inflation, trade relationships, and military and political alliances.

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While these factors and the effect of these factors are difficult to predict, adverse developments in one or more of these areas could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations in the future.

Our results could be adversely affected by economic and geopolitical considerations.

The commercial airline industry is impacted by the strength of the global economy and the geopolitical events around the world. Possible exogenous shocks such as expanding conflicts or political unrest, renewed terrorist attacks against the industry, or pandemics have in the past caused, and could in the future cause, precipitous declines in air traffic. Any protracted economic slump, adverse credit market conditions, future terrorist attacks, war, or health concerns could cause airlines to cancel or delay the purchase of additional new aircraft, which could result in a deterioration of commercial airplane backlogs. If demand for new aircraft decreases, there would likely be a decrease in demand for our commercial aircraft products, and our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Changes in the U.K.’s economic and other relationships with the European Union (the “EU”) due to the U.K.’s departure from the EU on January 31, 2020 (referred to as “Brexit”) could adversely affect the Company. New provisional rules regarding the relationship between the U.K. and the EU took effect on January 1, 2021. Such rules govern trade, aviation, and various employee related matters, among other things. The effect of the new rules is still being determined. Because the Company currently operates and conducts business in the U.K. and in EU, potential adverse consequences of Brexit such as global market uncertainty, volatility in currency exchange rates, greater restrictions on imports and exports between the U.K. and other countries and increased regulatory complexities could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We are pursuing growth opportunities in a number of newly developed and emerging markets. These investments may expose us to heightened risks of economic, geopolitical, or other events, including governmental takeover (nationalization) of our manufacturing facilities or intellectual property, restrictive exchange or import controls, disruption of operations as a result of systemic political or economic instability, outbreak of war or expansion of hostilities, and acts of terrorism, each of which could have a substantial adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Further, the U.S. Government, other governments, and international organizations could impose additional sanctions that could restrict us from doing business directly or indirectly in or with certain countries or parties, which could include affiliates.

We may not be able to generate sufficient taxable income to fully realize our domestic deferred tax assets.

At December 31, 2020, we have recognized a valuation allowance against nearly all of our domestic net deferred tax assets. Changes that are adverse to the Company could result in the need to record additional a deferred tax asset valuation allowances resulting in a charge to results of operations and a decrease to total stockholders’ equity.

Our business is subject to regulation in the U.S. and internationally.

The manufacturing of our products is subject to numerous federal, state, and foreign governmental regulations including related to environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. The number of laws and regulations that are being enacted or proposed by various governmental bodies and authorities are increasing. Compliance with these regulations is difficult and expensive. If we fail to adhere, or are alleged to have failed to adhere, to any applicable federal, state, or foreign laws or regulations, or if such laws or regulations negatively affect sales of our products, our business, prospects, results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows may be adversely affected by penalties or sanctions or reputational degradation. In addition, our future results could be adversely affected by changes in applicable federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations, or the interpretation or enforcement thereof.

Our operations involve the use of large amounts of hazardous substances and regulated materials and generate many types of wastes, including emissions of hexavalent chromium and volatile organic compounds, and certain chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon solvents, greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Spills and releases of these materials may subject us to clean-up liability for remediation and claims of alleged personal injury, property damage, and damage to natural resources, and we may become obligated to reduce our emissions of hexavalent chromium, volatile organic compounds and/or greenhouse gases. We cannot give any assurance that the aggregate amount of future remediation costs and other environmental liabilities will not be material.

The Company's chemical milling and vapor degreasing processes use various regulated substances that are identified as TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) initial chemicals evaluated in risk assessments prescribed by the Lautenburg Chemical Safety Act in the U.S., and therefore may be subject to additional regulations in the near future. The Company is investigating
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the use of alternative solvents and processes, including control technologies which may require material expenditures, however this business will remain dependent on the availability, use and cost of these materials for the immediate future. To the extent these alternative solutions are not viable, or any enacted regulation does not provide an exception, there could be material capital expenditures required to comply with elimination of the chemicals used in our current processes.

In connection with prior acquisitions, we may be indemnified or insured, subject to certain contractual limitations and conditions, for certain clean-up costs and other losses, liabilities, expenses, and claims related to existing environmental conditions on the acquired properties. If indemnification or insurance is not sufficient to cover any potential environmental liability, we may be required to make material expenditures.

In the future, contamination may be discovered at or emanating from our facilities or at off-site locations where we send waste. The remediation of such newly discovered contamination, related claims for personal injury or damages, or the enactment of new laws or a stricter interpretation of existing laws, may require us to make additional expenditures, some of which could be material. See Item 1. “Business - Regulatory Matters.”

In addition, increased concern over climate change has led to new and proposed legislative and regulatory initiatives. New or revised laws and regulations in this area could directly and indirectly affect the Company, its customers, or its suppliers by increasing production costs or otherwise impacting operations. Compliance with any new or more stringent laws or regulations, or stricter interpretations of existing laws, could require additional expenditures by the Company and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

As a manufacturer and exporter of defense and dual-use technical data and commodities, we are subject to U.S. laws and regulations governing international trade and exports, including, but not limited to, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, administered by the U.S. Department of State, and the Export Administration Regulations, administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce. Collaborative agreements that we may have with foreign persons, including manufacturers and suppliers, are also subject to U.S. export control laws. In addition, we are subject to trade sanctions against embargoed countries, which are administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control within the U.S. Department of the Treasury. A determination that we have failed to comply with one or more of these export controls or trade sanctions could result in civil or criminal penalties, including the imposition of fines upon us as well as the denial of export privileges and debarment from participation in U.S. government contracts. Additionally, restrictions may be placed on the export of technical data and goods in the future as a result of changing geopolitical conditions. Any one or more of such sanctions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The U.S. Government is a significant customer of certain of our customers and we and they are subject to specific U.S. Government contracting rules and regulations.
We provide aerostructures to defense aircraft manufacturers. Our defense customers’ businesses, and by extension, our business, is affected by the U.S. Government’s continued commitment to programs under contract with our customers. Contracts with the U.S. Government generally permit the government to terminate contracts partially or completely, with or without cause, at any time. An unexpected termination of a significant government contract, a reduction in expenditures by the U.S. Government for aircraft using our products, lower margins resulting from increasingly competitive procurement policies, a reduction in the volume of contracts awarded to us, or substantial cost overruns could materially reduce our cash flow and results of operations. We bear the potential risk that the U.S. Government may unilaterally suspend our defense customers or us from new contracts pending the resolution of alleged violations of procurement laws or regulations.

Decline in the U.S. defense budget or change of defense strategies or funding priorities (as a result of political environment, macroeconomic conditions and the ability of the U.S. Government to enact legislation or otherwise) may reduce demand for our defense customers’ aircraft or lead to competitive procurement conditions, which may reduce our defense business sales or margins. Further, changes in U.S. government procurement policies, regulations, initiatives and requirements may adversely impact our ability to grow our defense business.

The FAA prescribes standards and qualification requirements for aerostructures, including virtually all commercial airline and general aviation products, and licenses component repair stations within the U.S. Comparable agencies, such as the EASA in Europe, regulate these matters in other countries. If we fail to qualify for or obtain a required license for one of our products or services or lose a qualification or license previously granted, the sale of the subject product or service would be prohibited by law until such license is obtained or renewed and our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In addition, designing new products to meet existing regulatory requirements and retrofitting installed products to comply with new regulatory requirements can be expensive and time consuming.
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A FCL is required for a company to be awarded and perform on classified contracts for the Department of Defense (“DOD”) and certain other agencies of the U.S. Government. If we were to violate the terms and requirements of the NISPOM or any other applicable U.S. Government industrial security regulations, we could lose our FCLs. We cannot give any assurance that we will be able to maintain our FCLs. If for some reason our FCLs are invalidated or terminated, we may not be able to continue to perform under our classified contracts in effect at that time, and we would not be able to enter into new classified contracts, which could adversely affect our revenues.

Under applicable federal regulations for defense contractors, we are required to comply with the Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (“CMMC”) program in the next several years and other similar cybersecurity requirements. Compliance with the CMMC is costly and complex. To the extent that we are unable to comply with the CMMC or other requirements, we may be unable to maintain or grow our business with the DOD or its prime customers.

Our operations could be negatively impacted by service interruptions, data corruption or misuse, cyber attacks, network security breaches or GDPR violations.

We rely on information technology networks and systems to manage and support a variety of business activities, including procurement and supply chain, engineering support, and manufacturing. These networks and systems, some of which are managed by third-parties (including, without limitation, under the transition services agreement with Bombardier with respect to the Bombardier Acquisition), are susceptible to damage, disruptions, or shutdowns due to failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases or components thereof, power outages, hardware failures, computer viruses, attacks by computer hackers or insiders, telecommunication failures, user errors, or catastrophic events. If these networks and systems suffer severe damage, disruption, or shutdown and our business continuity plans do not effectively resolve the issues in a timely manner, our manufacturing process could be disrupted, resulting in late deliveries or even no deliveries if there is a total shutdown. This could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and we could face financial losses.

Further, we routinely experience cyber security threats and attempts to gain access to sensitive information, as do our customers, suppliers, and other third parties with which we work. We have established threat detection, monitoring, and mitigation processes and procedures and are continually exploring ways to improve these processes and procedures. However, the scope and impact of any future incident cannot be predicted and we cannot provide assurance that these processes and procedures will be sufficient to prevent cyber security threats from materializing. If threats do materialize, we could experience significant financial or information losses and/or reputational harm. If we are unable to protect sensitive or confidential information from these threats, our customers or governmental authorities could question the adequacy of our threat mitigation and detection processes and procedures and, as a result, our present and future business could be negatively impacted.

The EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) imposes a range of compliance obligations applicable to the collection, use, retention, security, processing, and transfer of personally identifiable information of EU residents. Violations of the GDPR may result in significant fines and sanctions. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with the GDPR, or any other privacy, data protection, information security, or consumer protection-related privacy laws and regulations could result in financial losses and have an adverse effect on our reputation.

We operate in a very competitive business environment.

As the Company seeks to further diversify its program portfolio and product offerings and expand its customer base, we face substantial competition from both OEMs and non-OEM aerostructures suppliers. OEMs may choose not to outsource production of aerostructures due to, among other things, their own direct labor and other overhead considerations and capacity utilization at their own facilities. Consequently, traditional factors affecting competition, such as price and quality of service, may not be significant determinants when OEMs decide whether to produce a part in-house or to outsource.

Some of our non-OEM competitors have greater resources than we do and may be able to adapt more quickly to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements, or devote greater resources to the promotion and sale of their products than we can. Consolidation of or partnerships among our competitors could also increase their financial resources, market penetration and purchasing power. Providers of aerostructures have traditionally competed on the basis of cost, technology, quality, and service. We believe that developing and maintaining a competitive advantage will require continued investment in product development, engineering, supply-chain management, and sales and marketing, and we may not have enough resources to make such investments.

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It is very difficult for new aerostructures suppliers to compete against incumbent suppliers for work under an existing contract, because the OEM and the supplier typically spend significant amounts of time and capital on design, manufacture, testing, and certification of tooling and other equipment. A supplier change would require further testing and certification and the expensive movement of existing tooling or the development of new tooling, and would likely result in production delays and additional costs to both the OEM and the new supplier. These high switching costs may make it more difficult for us to bid competitively against existing suppliers and less likely that an OEM will be willing to switch suppliers during the life of an aircraft program, which could materially adversely affect our ability to obtain new work on existing aircraft programs.

Our commercial business is cyclical and sensitive to commercial airlines’ profitability.

Our customers’ business, and therefore our own, is directly affected by the financial condition of commercial airlines and other economic factors, including global economic conditions and geopolitical considerations that affect the demand for air transportation. Specifically, our commercial business is dependent on the demand from passenger airlines and cargo carriers for the production of new aircraft. Accordingly, demand for our commercial products is tied to the worldwide airline industry’s ability to finance the purchase of new aircraft and the industry’s forecasted demand for seats, flights, routes, and cargo capacity. Availability of financing to non-U.S. customers depends in part on the continued operations of the U.S. Export-Import Bank. Additionally, the size and age of the worldwide commercial aircraft fleet affects the demand for new aircraft and, consequently, for our products. Such factors, in conjunction with evolving economic conditions, cause the market in which we operate to be cyclical to varying degrees, thereby affecting our business and operating results.

Our success depends in part on the success of our research and development initiatives.

In order for us to remain competitive, we will need to expend significant capital to research and develop technologies, purchase new equipment and machines, or to train our employees in the new methods of production and service. We spent $38.8 million on research and development during the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. Our expenditures on our research and development efforts may not create any new sales opportunities or increases in productivity that are commensurate with the level of resources invested.

We are in the process of developing specific technologies and capabilities in pursuit of new business and in anticipation of customers going forward with new programs. If any such programs do not go forward or are not successful, or if we are unable to generate sufficient new business, we may be unable to recover the costs incurred in anticipation of such programs or business and our profitability and revenues may be materially adversely affected.

While the Company intends to continue committing financial resources and effort to the development of innovative new technologies, any strain on the Company’s liquidity, such as the strain caused by the B737 MAX grounding and COVID-19 impacts, will reduce the Company’s ability to expend capital to develop such technologies.

Risks Related to Employment Matters

In order to be successful, we must attract, retain, train, motivate, develop and transition key employees, and failure to do so could harm our business.

In order to be successful, we must attract, retain, train, motivate, develop, and transition qualified executives and other key employees, including those in managerial, manufacturing, and engineering positions. Competition for experienced employees in the aerospace industry, and particularly in Wichita, Kansas, where the majority of our manufacturing and executive offices are located, is intense. The failure to successfully hire executives and key employees or to implement succession plans for executives and key employees, or the loss of any executives and key employees, could have a significant impact on our operations. Further, changes in our management team may be disruptive to our business and any failure to successfully transition and assimilate key new hires or promoted employees could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

In 2020, the Company announced significant workforce reductions to assist with alleviating costs due to the B737 MAX grounding and the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company’s ability to ramp up in production rates across multiple programs and on the B737 MAX program will depend, in part, on the Company’s ability to hire key employees to fill any gaps left by the workforce reductions. If the Company is unable to hire such key employees, production could be adversely impacted.

In addition, the Company’s operations and strategy require that we employ a critical mass of highly skilled employees with industry experience and engineering, technical, or mechanical skills. As the Company experiences an increase in retirements, the level of skill replacing our experienced workers is being impacted due to the availability of skilled labor in the market and
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low unemployment rates. Our inability to attract and retain skilled employees may adversely impact our ability to meet our customers’ expectations, the cost and schedule of development projects, and the cost and efficiency of existing operations.

We could be required to make future contributions to our defined benefit pension and post-retirement benefit plans as a result of adverse changes in interest rates and the capital markets. Adverse changes in the securities markets or interest rates, changes in actuarial assumptions, and legislative or other regulatory actions could substantially increase the costs of these plans and could result in a requirement to contribute additional funds to the plans, including the Shorts Pension acquired in the Bombardier Acquisition.

Our estimates of liabilities and expenses for pensions and other post-retirement benefits incorporate significant assumptions including the rate used to discount the future estimated liability, the long-term rate of return on plan assets, and several assumptions relating to the employee workforce (salary increases, medical costs, retirement age, and mortality). A dramatic decrease in the fair value of our plan assets resulting from movements in the financial markets or a decrease in discount rates may cause the status of our plans to go from an over-funded status to an under-funded status and result in cash funding requirements to meet any minimum required funding levels. Our results of operations, liquidity, or shareholders’ equity in a particular period could be affected by a decline in the rate of return on plan assets, the rate used to discount the future estimated liability, or changes in employee workforce assumptions.

As part of the Bombardier Acquisition, the Company acquired Short Brothers plc ("Shorts"), which sponsors the Shorts Pension, a defined benefit pension plan that is closed to new participants. The Shorts Pension is not yet closed to the future accrual of additional benefits for current participants. Spirit acts as parent guarantor to the Shorts Pension for the limited amount of £112 million.

Following future valuations of the Shorts Pension’s assets and liabilities or following future discussions with the Shorts Pension’s trustee, the annual funding obligation and/or the arrangements to ensure adequate funding for the Shorts Pension may change. The future valuations under the Shorts Pension are affected by a number of assumptions and factors, including legislative or other regulatory changes; assumptions regarding interest rates, currency rates, inflation, mortality, and retirement rates; the investment strategy and performance of the Shorts Pension’s assets; and actions by the U.K. Pensions Regulator. Volatile economic conditions caused by COVID-19 or other events could increase the risk that the funding requirements increase following the next triennial valuation. The U.K. Pensions Regulator also has powers under the Pensions Act 2004 to impose a contribution notice or a financial support direction on Shorts (and other persons connected with the Company or Shorts) if, in the case of a contribution notice, the U.K. Pensions Regulator reasonably believes such person has been party to an act, or deliberate failure to act, intended to avoid pension liabilities or that is materially detrimental to the pension plan, or, in the case of a financial support direction, if a plan employer is a service company or insufficiently resourced and the Pensions Regulator considers it is reasonable to act against such a person. A significant increase in the funding requirements for Shorts Pension could result in the imposition of additional financial contributions to the Shorts Pension and, if such required contributions are significant, could have a material adverse effect on Shorts or our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Increases in labor costs, potential labor disputes, and work stoppages at our facilities or the facilities of our suppliers or customers could materially adversely affect our financial performance.

Our financial performance is affected by the availability of qualified personnel and the cost of labor. A majority of our workforce is represented by unions. If our workers were to engage in a strike, work stoppage, or other slowdown, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations, which could cause us to be unable to deliver products to our customers on a timely basis and could result in a breach of our supply agreements. This could result in a loss of business and an increase in our operating expenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, our non-unionized labor force may become subject to labor union organizing efforts, which could cause us to incur additional labor costs and increase the related risks that we now face.

Due to the receipt of occasional government incentives, we have certain commitments to keep our programs in their current locations. This may prevent us from being able to offer our products at prices that are competitive in the marketplace and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate new business.

In addition, many aircraft manufacturers, airlines, and aerospace suppliers have unionized work forces. Any strikes, work stoppages, or slowdowns experienced by aircraft manufacturers, airlines, or aerospace suppliers could reduce our customers’ demand for additional aircraft structures or prevent us from completing production of our aircraft structures.

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Risks Related to our Debt and Liquidity

Declines in our financial condition or expected performance or reductions in our credit ratings could limit the Company’s ability to obtain future financing, increase its borrowing, adversely affect the market price of its securities, or otherwise impair its business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business requires significant capital. A decline in our financial condition or expected performance for any reason could limit our ability to access the credit and capital markets, increase our borrowing costs, and/or affect the market price of our securities. There can be no assurance that we will be able to access the capital or credit markets or, if we do have such access, that it will be on favorable terms.

As of December 31, 2020, our corporate credit ratings were B by Standard & Poor’s Global Ratings (“S&P”), and B2 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”). Throughout 2020, S&P and Moody’s downgraded our credit rating on a number of occasions. On January 13, 2020, Moody’s downgraded Spirit’s credit rating from Baa3 to Ba2. On January 31, 2020, S&P downgraded Spirit’s credit rating from BBB- to BB. On April 14, 2020, Moody’s further downgraded Spirit’s credit rating from Ba2 to Ba3, and on April 14, 2020, S&P downgraded Spirit’s credit rating from BB to BB-. On June 25, 2020, S&P downgraded Spirit’s credit rating to B+. On July 21, 2020, Moody’s downgraded Spirit’s credit rating to B2 with a negative outlook. On September 24, 2020, Moody’s affirmed its rating. On August 3, 2020, S&P downgraded Spirit’s credit rating to B with a stable outlook. On September 22, 2020, S&P affirmed its rating. As compared to the Company’s prior investment grade rating, these ratings and our current credit condition affects, among other things, our ability to access new capital. Further negative changes to these ratings may result in more stringent covenants and higher interest rates under the terms of any new debt.

The ratings reflect the agencies’ assessment of our ability to pay interest and principal on our debt securities and credit agreements. A rating is not a recommendation to purchase, sell, or hold securities. Each rating is subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating organization. Each rating agency has its own methodology for assigning ratings and, accordingly, each rating should be considered independently of all other ratings. Lower ratings would typically result in higher interest costs of debt securities when they are sold, could make it more difficult to issue future debt securities, could require us to provide creditors with more restrictive covenants, which would limit our flexibility and ability to pay dividends and may require us to pledge additional collateral under our credit facility. Any downgrade in our credit ratings could have a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition.

Limitations on our ability to access the capital or credit markets, unfavorable terms or general reductions in liquidity may adversely and materially impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our debt could adversely affect our financial condition and our ability to operate our business. The terms of our Credit Agreement impose significant operating restrictions on our company and our subsidiaries, which could also adversely affect our operating flexibility and put us at a competitive disadvantage by preventing us from capitalizing on business opportunities.

As of December 31, 2020, we had total debt of $3,873.6 million. In addition to our debt, as of December 31, 2020, we had $19.6 million of letters of credit and letters of guarantee outstanding.

The terms of our Credit Agreement impose significant restrictions on us, and subject to certain exceptions, limit our ability, among other things, to:

incur additional debt or issue preferred stock with certain terms;
pay dividends or make distributions to our stockholders over certain amounts;
repurchase or redeem our capital stock;
make investments;
incur liens;
enter into transactions with our stockholders and affiliates;
sell certain assets;
acquire the assets of, or merge or consolidate with, other companies;
incur restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to make distributions or transfer assets to us; and
consider strategic transactions.

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These restrictions could have consequences, including the following:

making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions or other general corporate requirements;
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows to be dedicated to debt service payments instead of other purposes;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
limiting our financial flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in the industry in which we compete;
having a material adverse effect on us if we fail to comply with the covenants in the Credit Agreement or in the indentures governing our long-term bonds or in the instruments governing our other debt; and
increasing our cost of borrowing.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain compliance with the covenants in the agreements governing our indebtedness in the future or, if we fail to do so, that we will be able to obtain waivers from the lenders and/or amend the covenants. Additionally, the terms of any future indebtedness we may incur could include more restrictive covenants. If we incur additional debt, the risks related to our high level of debt could intensify.

In addition, if we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt and meet our other commitments, we may need to refinance all or a portion of our debt, sell material assets or operations, or raise additional debt or equity capital. We cannot provide assurance that we could affect any of these actions on a timely basis, on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that these actions would be sufficient to meet our capital requirements. In addition, the terms of our existing or future debt agreements may restrict us from effecting certain or any of these alternatives.

Risks Related to our Common Stock

We cannot make any guarantees with respect to dividends on our Common Stock.

On February 6, 2020, the Company announced that its Board of Directors, or Board, reduced its quarterly dividend to a penny per share to preserve liquidity until B737 MAX production reaches higher levels. The Board regularly evaluates the Company's capital allocation strategy and dividend policy. Any future determination to continue to pay dividends, or to pay higher dividends, will be at the discretion of our Board and will depend upon, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements and contractual restrictions, including the requirements of financing agreements to which we may be a party. No assurance can be given that cash dividends will be declared and paid at historical levels or at all.

Spirit Holdings’ certificate of incorporation, rights plan, by-laws and our supply agreements with Boeing contain provisions that could discourage others from acquiring us and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

Provisions of Spirit Holdings’ certificate of incorporation and by-laws may discourage, delay, or prevent a merger or acquisition that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. In addition, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace or remove our current Board. These provisions include:

advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the Board or for proposing matters that can be acted on by stockholders at stockholder meetings; and
the authority of the Board to issue, without stockholder approval, up to 10 million shares of preferred stock with such terms as the Board may determine.

In addition, Spirit Holdings adopted a limited duration stockholder rights agreement (the “rights plan”) on April 22, 2020 and declared a dividend of one right for each outstanding share of Common Stock as of May 1, 2020, the record date. The rights generally become exercisable if a person or group (including a group of persons who agree to act in concert with each other) acquires beneficial ownership of 10% or more of Spirit Holdings’ Common Stock in a transaction not approved by the Board. Passive investors in Spirit Holdings are permitted to hold up to 20% without triggering the exercise of the rights. In the event the rights become exercisable, each holder of a right (other than the acquiring person or group, whose rights will become void and will not be exercisable) will have the right to purchase, upon payment of the exercise price and in accordance with the terms of the rights plan, a number of shares of Common Stock having a market value of twice the exercise price. In addition, if Spirit Holdings is acquired in a merger or other business combination after an acquiring person acquires 50% or more of the
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Common Stock, each holder of the right would thereafter have the right to purchase, upon payment of the exercise price and in accordance with the terms of the rights plan, a number of shares of Common Stock of the acquiring person having a market value of twice the exercise price. The acquiring person or group would not be entitled to exercise these rights. The rights plan expires, without any further action being required to be taken by Board, on April 22, 2021.

In addition, our supply agreements with Boeing include provisions giving Boeing the ability to terminate the agreements in the event any of certain disqualified persons acquire a majority of Spirit’s direct or indirect voting power or all or substantially all of Spirit’s assets. See Item 1. “Business - Our Relationship with Boeing.”


Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
    None.


Item 2.    Significant Properties

The location, primary use, approximate square footage and ownership status of our principal properties as of December 31, 2020 are set forth below:

LocationPrimary UseApproximate
Square Footage
Owned/Leased
United States   
Wichita, Kansas(1)
Primary Manufacturing12.9 millionOwned/Leased
Facility/Offices/Warehouse  
Tulsa, OklahomaManufacturing Facility1.77 millionLeased
McAlester, OklahomaManufacturing Facility139,000Owned
Kinston, North CarolinaPrimary Manufacturing/Office/Warehouse851,000Leased
San Antonio, TexasManufacturing/Warehouse320,000Leased
Dallas, TexasManufacturing50,000Leased
Biddeford, MaineManufacturing180,000Owned
United Kingdom   
Prestwick, ScotlandManufacturing Facility956,000Owned
Belfast, Northern IrelandManufacturing Facility/Offices3.0 millionOwned/Leased
Malaysia   
Subang, MalaysiaManufacturing386,000Owned/Leased
France   
Saint-Nazaire, FrancePrimary Manufacturing/Office58,800Leased
Africa
Casablanca, MoroccoPrimary Manufacturing310,000Owned
_______________________________________

(1)87% of the Wichita facility is owned.

Our physical assets consist of 20.7 million square feet of building space located on 1,557 acres in eleven facilities. We produce our fuselage systems and propulsion systems from our primary manufacturing facility located in Wichita, Kansas with some fuselage work done in our McAlester, Oklahoma; Kinston, North Carolina; San Antonio TX; Saint Nazaire, France; Subang, Malaysia; Biddeford, Maine; and Casablanca, Morocco facilities. We produce wing systems in our manufacturing facilities in Tulsa and McAlester, Oklahoma; Kinston, North Carolina; Prestwick, Scotland; San Antonio, Texas; Casablanca, Morocco; Belfast, Northern Ireland and Subang, Malaysia. The McAlester, Oklahoma site supplies machined parts and sub-
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assemblies to the Wichita and Tulsa facilities, and is now offering services to third parties as part of our focus on leveraging our fabrication and assembly expertise. In July 2019, we entered into a lease for a facility in San Antonio, Texas specializes in sheet metal fabrication, machining, metal finishing and kitting. As previously announced, the McAlester, Oklahoma and San Antonio, Texas facilities are expected to be closed after transfer of work from these sites is completed, which we anticipate will take place during the first half of 2021. On October 30, 2020, the Company purchased assets including facilities from Bombardier Inc. and its affiliates (“Bombardier”) in Belfast, Northern Ireland; Casablanca, Morocco; and Dallas, Texas.

The Wichita facility, which includes the Company's corporate offices, is comprised of 650 acres, 8.0 million square feet of manufacturing space, 1.9 million square feet of offices and laboratories for the engineering and design group and 3.0 million square feet for support functions and warehouses. A total of 568,000 square feet are currently vacant, with 280,000 square feet of that planned to support increases in rates across programs and the expansion of fabrication and assembly work. The Wichita site has access to transportation by rail, road, and air via the runways of McConnell Air Force Base. Additionally, a 6,000 square foot lease commenced in January 2019 on the Wichita State University (WSU) campus to establish an innovative relationship between Spirit and WSU through NIAR and the WSU Campus of Applied Sciences and Technology. The three areas of strategic focus are joint strategic research projects, applied learning opportunities for WSU students, and improved workforce training services to meet the growing demands of the aerospace industry.

The Tulsa facility consists of 1.77 million square feet of building space set on 147 acres. The Tulsa plant is located five miles from an international shipping port (Port of Catoosa) and is located next to the Tulsa International Airport. The McAlester site, which manufactures parts and sub-assemblies, consists of 139,000 square feet of building space on 90 acres and we expect the site will be closed after transfer of work is completed, which we anticipate will take place during the first half of 2021.

The Wichita and Tulsa manufacturing facilities have significant scale to accommodate the very large structures that are manufactured there, including, in Wichita, entire fuselages. Three of the U.S. facilities are in close proximity, with approximately 175 miles between Wichita and Tulsa. Currently, these U.S. facilities utilize approximately 95% of the available building space.

The Kinston, North Carolina facility supports the manufacturing of composite panels and wing components. The primary manufacturing site and off-site leased spaces total 318 acres and 851,000 square feet. In addition to the primary manufacturing facility, this includes three additional buildings leased from the North Carolina Global Transpark Authority: a 27,800 square foot warehouse/office supporting receiving needs, a 26,400 square foot warehouse providing tooling storage, and a 121,000 square foot manufacturing facility supporting light manufacturing.

The San Antonio, Texas site is located within one mile of the San Antonio International Airport. The 320,000 square foot site specializes in sheet metal fabrication, machining, minor assembly, and chemical processing. Parts for several of Spirit's programs, including the B737 and the B787 are manufactured at the facility. Spirit acquired the facility to maintain the flow of parts and improve delivery performance. The site is expected to be closed in 2021, after the transfer of work is completed.

The Dallas, Texas operation is in a 50,000 square foot leased facility with proximity to the Dallas/Fort Worth logistical hub and is within seven miles of the Dallas Love Field Airport. This is a world class MRO/CRO facility that specializes in nacelle and flight control surfaces. They facility has FAA/EASA Part 145 & Part 21G certificates and service customers across the Americas.

The Biddeford, Maine site was purchased in 2020 and consists of 180,000 square feet at two locations on 21.65 acres. The primary function of these sites is carbon/carbon composite and thermal protection system manufacturing.

Prestwick facility consists of 956,000 square feet of building space, comprised of 464,000 square feet of manufacturing space, 268,000 square feet of office space, and 224,000 square feet of warehouse/support space. This facility is set on 93 acres. The Aerospace Innovation Center, a new 70,000 square foot facility, was completed and opened for business in February 2021. The Prestwick plant is located within close proximity to the motorway network that provides access between England and continental Europe. It is also easily accessible by air (at Prestwick International Airport) or by sea. A portion of the Prestwick facility is leased to the Regional Aircraft division of BAE Systems and certain other tenants.

The Belfast, Northern Ireland facility consists of seven sites on 189 acres within 12 miles of the main factory at Queens Island totaling 3.0 million square feet. Five of the sites are owned totaling 1.0 million square feet, and two sites are leased totaling 2.0 million square feet. The operations conducted at these sites include machined parts, auto-riveting and major aerostructures final assembly; fabrication and wing assembly for the A220; composite fabrication for multi-programs; sheet
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metal fabrication, metal bonding, chem-milling, composite parts manufacturing, and panel fabrication and assembly; nacelle production and MRO repair for multi-programs; and engineering services.

The Malaysian manufacturing plant is located at the Malaysia International Aerospace Center in Subang. The 386,000 square foot leased facility is set on 45 acres and is centrally located with easy access to Kuala Lumpur, as well as nearby ports and airports. The facility assembles composite panels for wing components and sub-structures for fuselage.

The Saint-Nazaire, France site was built on 6.25 acres and totals 58,800 square feet. This facility receives center fuselage frame sections for the Airbus A350 XWB from the facility in Kinston, North Carolina. Sections designed and manufactured in North Carolina are shipped across the Atlantic, received in Saint-Nazaire, and assembled before being transported to Airbus.

The Casablanca, Morocco site rests on 19 acres and totals 310,000 square feet with access to the Moroccan aeronautical hub, with the Mohammod V Airport being within two miles of the site. Operations in Casablanca include CRJ nacelle and flight commands, fuselage work on the Learjet 75, mid fuselage work on the A220, nacelle work on the A320neo, and mid fuselage work on the C350.







Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
Information concerning the litigation and other legal proceedings in which the Company is involved may be found in Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees, under the sub-heading “Litigation” in this Annual Report and that information is hereby incorporated by reference.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

Executive Officers of the Registrant
Listed below are the names, ages, positions held, and biographies of all executive officers of Spirit Holdings. Executive officers hold office until their successors are appointed, or until their death, retirement, resignation, or removal.
Tom Gentile III, 56. Mr. Gentile became President and Chief Executive Officer on August 1, 2016. From April 2016 to July 2016, Mr. Gentile served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer. From 2014 to April 2016, Mr. Gentile served as President and Chief Operating Officer of GE Capital where he oversaw GE Capital’s global operations, IT, and capital planning and served on its board of directors. Mr. Gentile had been employed by GE since 1998, and prior to his most recent position with GE, held the position of President and CEO of GE Healthcare’s Healthcare Systems division from 2011 until 2014 and the position of President and CEO of GE Aviation Services from 2008 until 2011. Mr. Gentile received his Bachelor of Arts degree in economics and Master of Business Administration degree from Harvard University, and also studied International Relations at the London School of Economics.
Mark Suchinski, 54. Mr. Suchinski became Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer on January 29, 2020. Mr. Suchinski has been with Spirit since 2006 and served as Spirit Holdings' and Spirit’s Vice President, Controller and Principal Accounting Officer from February 2014 to February 2018. Most recently, Mr. Suchinski served as Spirit’s Vice President, Quality, beginning in August 2019 and as Spirit’s Vice President, Boeing 787 Program, from February 2018 to August 2019. Prior to February 2014, he held the following roles at Spirit: October 2013 to February 23, 2014 - Vice President, Treasurer and Financial Planning; August 2012 to October 2013 - Vice President, Finance and Treasurer; from July 2010 to August 2012, Vice President, Financial Planning & Analysis and Corporate Contracts; from January 2009 to July 2010, Controller – Fuselage Segment; and from September 2006 to January 2009, Controller – Aerostructures Segment. Prior to joining Spirit in 2006, he was at Home Products International, where he held the position of Corporate Controller from 2000 to 2004 and the position of Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer from 2004 to 2006. Prior to that, he held financial leadership positions of controller and senior finance manager at other companies. He also spent three years in public accounting. Mr. Suchinski received his Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting from DePaul University.
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William (Bill) Brown, 58. Mr. Brown has served as Senior Vice President, Boeing Programs, since October 1, 2018. Previously, from 2014 to 2018, Mr. Brown served as Senior Vice President and General Manager, Oklahoma Operations, Business and Regional Jets and Global Customer Support. Mr. Brown assumed responsibility of Oklahoma Operations in December 2014 and responsibility of Business and Regional Jets in September 2017. Mr. Brown joined Spirit and Spirit Holdings' in May 2014 as Senior Vice President, Global Customer Support and Services. Previously, Mr. Brown served as Executive Vice President for Global Operations and President for Global Customer Service and Support at Beechcraft from 2007 to May 2014. Prior to joining Beechcraft, Mr. Brown served as President and General Manager of AAR Aircraft Services in Oklahoma and held senior-level positions with Independence Air, Avborne Inc. and Midwest Airlines. Mr. Brown received his Bachelor of Science degree in Aviation Management from Oklahoma State University and his Masters of Business Administration degree from Colorado State University. He also holds an A&P license and is a commercial instrument pilot.
Terry George, 59. Mr. George became Senior Vice President of Boeing 737 Program and Operations and Advanced Manufacturing Strategy on January 29, 2020. From July 2018 to January 29, 2020, Mr. George served as Vice President of New Product Development and Advanced Manufacturing Strategy. In this role, he was responsible for the Company’s factory automation strategy and implementation and new aircraft development. Additional roles include: Vice President and General Manager of Airbus Programs, Kinston, NC from July 2016 – 2018, several positions on the 787 program including Vice President of 787 Program Management, Senior Director and Director of 787 Operations, product line manager for the 787 Composites Fabrication and lastly, part of the Life Cycle Product team for the 787 program from June 2003 – April 2005. Mr. George began his career at Boeing in July 1983 in Industrial Engineering and was named manager on the 737 program in 1991. In 1995, he was named product line manager of Automated Fastening for the 737 program. Mr. George earned his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Business Administration, both from Wichita State University.

Duane Hawkins, 62. Mr. Hawkins is Senior Vice President of Spirit Holdings' and President, Defense Division of Spirit AeroSystems, Inc., and has served in that role since July 2020. Prior to that, beginning in October 2018, Mr. Hawkins was Senior Vice President of Defense and Fabrication. Previously, from July 2015 to October 2018, he served as Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boeing, Defense, Business and Regional Jet Programs and Global Customer Support. From July 2013 to June 2015, Mr. Hawkins served as Senior Vice President, Operations. In that position, he had responsibility and oversight for Defense, Supply Chain Management, Fabrication, Global Quality, and Operations, including global footprint, Manufacturing Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and Tooling. Prior to joining Spirit, Mr. Hawkins held several positions at Raytheon Missile Systems between 2002-2013. Mr. Hawkins served as Vice President, Deputy Air Warfare Systems; Vice President, Deputy Land Combat Systems; and Vice President, Deputy Supply Chain Management and Standard Missile Program Director. From 1994 to 2001, Mr. Hawkins was President of Defense Research Inc., and from 1993 to 1994 he was Vice President, Engineering at the company. He was factory manager for Hughes Missile Systems/ General Dynamics from 1991 to 1993, and Chief of Manufacturing Engineering for General Dynamics Missile Systems from 1988 to1991. Mr. Hawkins holds a Bachelor of Science degree in manufacturing/industrial engineering from Brigham Young University and a Master in Business Administration degree from Regis University.

Samantha Marnick, 50. Ms. Marnick has served as Spirit and Spirit Holdings' Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer since July 28, 2020. Ms. Marnick holds the responsibility for a wide range of functions including supply chain management, strategy, M&A activity, corporate administration, human resources, fabrication, research and technology, aftermarket, and regional and business jets. From October 1, 2018 to July 28, 2020, Ms. Marnick served as Spirit and Spirit Holdings' Executive Vice President, Chief Administration Officer and Strategy. From August 2016 to October 1, 2018, Ms. Marnick served as Executive Vice President, Chief Administration Officer. From October 2012 to July 2016, Ms. Marnick served as Senior Vice President, Chief Administration Officer. From January 2011 to September 2012, Ms. Marnick served as Senior Vice President of Corporate Administration and Human Resources. From March 2008 to December 2010, Ms. Marnick served as Vice President, Labor Relations and Workforce Strategy, responsible for labor relations, the global human resource project management office, compensation and benefits, and workforce planning. Ms. Marnick previously served as Director of Communications and Employee Engagement from March 2006 to March 2008. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Marnick was a senior consultant and Principal for Mercer Human Resource Consulting, holding management positions in both the U.K. and in the U.S. Prior to that, Ms. Marnick worked for Watson Wyatt, the U.K.’s Department of Health and Social Security and The British Wool Marketing Board. Ms. Marnick holds a Master degree in Corporate Communication Strategy and Management from the University of Salford.

Kevin Matthies, 51. Mr. Matthies became Senior Vice President, Chief Technology and Quality Officer on July 28, 2020. From January 29, 2020 to July 28, 2020, Mr. Matthies served as Senior Vice President of Quality. From September 2017 to January 29, 2020, Mr. Matthies served as Senior Vice President, Global Fabrication. Mr. Matthies joined Spirit in 2013 and has held various leadership roles in both Airbus and Boeing program management, most recently serving as Vice President, General Manager of the B787 program until September 2017. Prior to joining Spirit, Mr. Matthies spent 26 years at Raytheon Missile Systems, where he most recently served as President of the Javelin joint venture between Raytheon and Lockheed Martin. Mr.
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Matthies is a 33 year veteran of the aerospace industry, having worked in executive positions for Raytheon Missile Systems, Hughes Aircraft Company, and General Dynamics. Mr. Matthies earned a Bachelor degree in Computer Science from California State University, San Bernadino, and a Master degree in Systems Engineering from the University of Arizona. He is a graduate of Raytheon's Leadership Excellence Program and was the recipient of the Raytheon 2010 Corporate Program Leadership Award.

Scott McLarty, 51. Mr. McLarty became Senior Vice President of Airbus Programs in November 2018. Before assuming the senior vice president position, Mr. McLarty was a Vice President with responsibility for the Company's U.K. and Malaysia business units and was responsible for developing the strategy and driving profitable growth. Mr. McLarty joined the Company in April 2006 as part of the acquisition of the U.K. BAE Systems’ Aerostructures business unit which created Spirit AeroSystems (Europe) Ltd. Throughout his extensive career, Mr. McLarty has held a number of leadership roles in Operations, Project Management, Business Improvement, Supply Chain and HR. He has worked on several aircraft programs including Boeing, Airbus, Hawker, Business Jets and Jetstream aircraft. Mr. McLarty has a breadth of experience in the aerospace industry gathered over 26 years and has key skills within project and program management, HR and industrial relations, commercial customer & government relations, business turnaround and driving strategic growth. Mr. McLarty holds external board-level positions and is influential within the industry and supporting bodies including government boards. He is a Chartered Fellow of the Institute of Personnel Development (FCIPD) and a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society. He holds a Fellowship in Aerospace Manufacturing Management (FAMM) gained at Cranfield University.

Mindy McPheeters, 47. Ms. McPheeters is serving as Vice President of Legal, Interim General Counsel and Corporate Secretary effective January 2, 2021. Ms. McPheeters has been an attorney for the Company since 2015 and most recently held the title of Vice President of Legal and Compliance, Deputy General Counsel since August 7, 2020. During her legal career at the Company, Ms. McPheeters has provided legal advice on employment and labor matters since February 2015, she assumed primary responsibility for litigation in July 2017, legal oversight of supply chain and legal operations in March of 2019, and ultimately customer contracts in August of 2020. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. McPheeters served as legal counsel for Delta Dental of Kansas and was a partner at Stinson LLP. Ms. McPheeters earned a Bachelor of Business Administration in Accounting from Wichita State University and her Juris Doctor degree from The University of Kansas.

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Part II

Item 5.    Market for Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share (“Common Stock”), trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SPR,” As of February 11, 2021, there were approximately 2,532 holders of record of Common Stock. The closing price on February 11, 2021 was $38.96 per share as reported by the NYSE.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table represents securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2020.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
Plan CategoryNumber of Securities
to be Issued
Upon Exercise of
Outstanding Options,
Warrants and Rights
Weighted-Average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding Options,
Warrants and Rights
Number of Securities
Remaining Available
for Future Issuances
Under the Equity
Compensation Plans
(Excluding Securities
Reflected in Column (a))
 
 
(a)(5)(6)
(b)(c) 
Restricted Stock Awards    
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
Omnibus Incentive Plan of 2014(1)
466,833 N/A3,956,736 
Employee Stock Purchase(2)
— N/A818,197 
Director Stock Plan(3)
10,129 N/A— 
Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan(4)
28,950 N/A— 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— — —  
Total505,912 — 4,774,933 
_______________________________________
(1)The Omnibus Incentive Plan of 2014, as amended (the “Omnibus Plan”) provides for the issuance of incentive awards to officers, directors, employees, and consultants in the form of restricted stock, restricted stock units, stock appreciation rights, and other equity compensation.
(2)The Company maintains the Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. Employee Stock Purchase Plan (as amended, the “ESPP”).

(3)Under the Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. Amended and Restated Director Stock Plan (as amended, the “DSP”), two non-employee directors are entitled to receive restricted stock units upon their separation from service. Since 2014, no additional shares have been or will be granted under the DSP.

(4)Under the Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. Supplement Executive Retirement Plan (as amended, the “SERP”), various phantom stock units are outstanding. Any payment on account of units may be made in cash or shares of Common Stock at the sole discretion of Holdings. The SERP was approved by stockholders before our initial public offering in 2006.

(5)Subject securities are not included in weighted average price consideration as they are issuable for no consideration.
(6)Represents performance-based long-term incentives that may be issued under the Omnibus Plan. For outstanding performance-based awards, the amount shown reflects the additional amount above target to maximum payout. The amount of shares that could be paid out under the performance-based awards ranges from 0-200% based on actual performance. On the initial grant dates for these performance-based awards, the Company grants shares of restricted stock in the amount that would vest if the Company achieves the award target.

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Stock Performance
The following graph shows a comparison from December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2020 of cumulative total return of our Common Stock, Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index, and the Standard & Poor’s 500 Aerospace & Defense Index. Such returns are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance. We made dividend payments on our Common Stock during the year ended December 31, 2020.

spr-20201231_g1.jpg
 INDEXED RETURNS
Years Ending
Company/IndexBase
Period
12/31/15
12/31/201612/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/2020
Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc
100 116.74 175.59 145.89 148.32 79.69 
S&P 500 Index100 111.96 136.40 130.42 171.49 203.04 
S&P 500 Aerospace & Defense Index100 118.90 168.11 154.54 201.41 169.05 

Dividends
On February 6, 2020, the Company announced that its Board of Directors reduced its quarterly dividend to a penny per share to preserve liquidity until B737 MAX production reaches higher levels. The Board regularly evaluates the Company's capital allocation strategy and dividend policy. Any future determination to continue to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements and contractual restrictions, including the requirements of financing agreements to which we may be a party. No assurance can be given that cash dividends will continue to be declared and paid at historical levels or at all.

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The Company paid cash dividends of $0.12 per share of Common Stock in the first quarter of 2020 and $0.01 per share of Common Stock in the remaining three quarters of 2020. The total amount of dividends paid during 2020 was $15.4 million. On January 27, 2021, the Board declared a $0.01 per share quarterly cash dividend on the outstanding Common Stock of the Company payable on April 9, 2021 to stockholders of record at the close of business on March 19, 2021.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about our repurchases during the three months ended December 31, 2020 of our Common Stock that is registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act.

ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Period (1)
Total Number of Shares Purchased(2)
Average Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Repurchased Under the Plans or Programs (3)
($ in millions other than per share amounts)
October 2, 2020 - November 5, 20203,746 $20.03 — $925.0 
November 6, 2020 - December 3, 2020 8,849 $29.43 — $925.0 
December 4, 2020 - December 31, 20202,983 $37.76 — $925.0 
Total15,578 $29.96 — $925.0 

(1)Our fiscal months often differ from the calendar months except for the month of December, as our fiscal year ends on December 31. For example, December 3, 2020 was the last day of our November 2020 fiscal month.

(2)15,578 shares were transferred to us from employees in satisfaction of tax withholding obligations associated with the vesting of restricted stock awards under the Omnibus Plan. No purchases were made under our Board-approved share repurchase program, described in footnote (3) below.

(3)On October 28, 2018, the Board of Directors increased the capacity of its share repurchase program to $1.0 billion. During the twelve month period ended December 31, 2020, the Company repurchased no shares of common stock. As a result, the total authorization amount remaining under the share repurchase program is $925.0 million. Share repurchases are currently on hold due to the impacts of the B737 MAX grounding and the COVID-19 pandemic. The Credit Agreement imposes additional restrictions on the Company’s ability to repurchase shares.




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Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL INFORMATION AND OTHER DATA
The following table sets forth our selected consolidated financial data for each of the periods indicated. Financial data is derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Spirit Holdings. The audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2020, December 31, 2019, and December 31, 2018 are included in this Annual Report. You should read the information presented below in conjunction with Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our combined and consolidated financial statements and related notes contained elsewhere in the Annual Report.
 Spirit Holdings
 Twelve Months Ended
 December 31, 2020December 31, 2019December 31, 2018December 31, 2017December 31, 2016
 (Dollars in millions, except per share data)
Statement of Income Data:     
Net revenues$3,404.8 $7,863.1 $7,222.0 $6,983.0 $6,792.9 
Cost of sales(1)
3,845.5 6,786.4 6,135.9 6,195.3 5,800.3 
Selling, general and administrative(2)
237.4 261.4 210.4 204.7 230.9 
Impact of severe weather event— — (10.0)19.9 12.1 
Restructuring cost73.0 — — — — 
Research and development38.8 54.5 42.5 31.2 23.8 
Loss on disposal of assets22.9 — — — — 
Operating (loss) income(812.8)760.8 843.2 531.9 725.8 
Interest expense and financing fee amortization(195.3)(91.9)(80.0)(41.7)(57.3)
Other (expense) income, net(3)
(77.8)(5.8)(7.0)44.4 (8.0)
(Loss) income before income taxes and equity in net (loss) income of affiliates(1,085.9)663.1 756.2 534.6 660.5 
Income tax benefit (provision) 220.2 (132.8)(139.8)(180.0)(192.1)
Equity in net income (loss) of affiliates(4.6)(0.2)0.6 0.3 1.3 
Net (loss) income$(870.3)$530.1 $617.0 $354.9 $469.7 
(Loss) earnings per share, basic$(8.38)$5.11 $5.71 $3.04 $3.72 
Shares used in per share calculation, basic103.9 103.6 108.0 116.8 126.1 
(Loss) earnings per share, diluted$(8.38)$5.06 $5.65 $3.01 $3.70 
Shares used in per share calculation, diluted103.9 104.7 109.1 117.9 127.0 
Dividends declared per common share$0.04 $0.48 $0.46 $0.40 $0.10 

(1)Included in 2020 costs of sales are net forward loss charges of ($370.3) million, excess capacity production costs of $278.9 million, and temporary workforce reduction costs of $33.7 million due to COVID-19, net of the U.S. employee retention credit and U.K. government subsidies. Included in 2019 costs of sales are net forward loss charges of ($63.5) million. Included in 2018 costs of sales are net favorable changes in estimates on loss programs of $3.9 million. Included in 2017 costs of sales are net forward loss charges of ($327.3) million. Included in 2016 costs of sales are net forward loss charges of ($118.2) million. Includes cumulative catch-up adjustments of ($30.4) million, ($2.0) million, ($3.8) million, $31.2 million, and $36.6 million for periods prior to the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
(2)Includes non-cash stock compensation expenses of $24.2 million, $36.1 million, $27.4 million, $22.1 million, and $42.5 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
(3)Includes voluntary retirement program costs of $86.5 million offered by the Company for cost alignment and headcount reductions.






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 Spirit Holdings
 Twelve Months Ended
 December 31, 2020December 31, 2019December 31, 2018December 31, 2017December 31, 2016
 (Dollars in millions)
Other Financial Data:     
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities$(744.9)$922.7 $769.9 $573.7 $716.9 
Net cash used in investing activities$(502.0)$(239.7)$(267.8)$(272.8)$(253.4)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities$769.5 $884.4 $(153.5)$(578.7)$(718.7)
Purchase of property, plant, & equipment$(118.9)$(232.2)$(271.2)$(273.1)$(254.0)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
Cash and cash equivalents$1,873.3 $2,350.5 $773.6 $423.3 $697.7 
Accounts receivable, net$484.4 $546.4 $545.1 $722.2 $660.5 
Inventories, net$1,422.3 $1,118.8 $1,012.6 $1,449.9 $1,515.3 
Property, plant & equipment, net$2,503.8 $2,271.7 $2,167.6 $2,105.3 $1,991.6 
Total assets$8,383.9 $7,606.0 $5,685.9 $5,267.8 $5,405.2 
Total debt$3,873.6 $3,034.3 $1,895.4 $1,151.0 $1,086.7 
Long-term debt$3,532.9 $2,984.1 $1,864.0 $1,119.9 $1,060.0 
Total equity$857.0 $1,761.9 $1,238.1 $1,801.5 $1,928.8 


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Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and other financial information appearing in this Annual Report. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and operations, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K captioned “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” for a discussion of important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

Management’s Focus

For the year ended December 31, 2020, management’s focus revolved around preserving and enhancing liquidity and reducing costs in light of the significant impacts of the B737 MAX grounding and COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, management focused on operational execution, with a focus on safety and quality, while working to meet our customers' requirements, and pursuing and completing organic and inorganic growth opportunities.

For the year ended December 31, 2021, management’s focus is expected to be on continued preservation and enhancement of our liquidity and cost reduction in light of the continuing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic; revenue growth and diversification, integrating the Belfast, Morocco and Dallas sites; repaying and/or restructuring debt; and operational execution, with a continuing focus on safety and quality.

COVID-19

During the year ended December 31, 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic continued to have a significant negative impact on the aviation industry, our customers, and our business globally. In response to the pandemic, we and our customers implemented production suspensions and our customers adjusted production rates. Our customers may reduce or alter production rates again if circumstances require. A description of Airbus and Boeing's production rates on our significant programs is included below. We expect the pandemic and its effects to continue to have a significant negative impact on our business for the duration of the pandemic and during the subsequent economic recovery, which could be an extended period of time.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have enacted our crisis management and response process as part of our enterprise risk management program to help us navigate the challenges we face due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Actions that we have taken include the following:
Organized global teams to monitor the situation and recommend appropriate actions;
Implemented travel restrictions for our employees;
Enforced social-distancing standards throughout the workplace and mandated mask use;
Initiated consistent and ongoing cleaning of high-touch work space;
Established processes aligned with CDC guidelines to work with exposed individuals on necessary quarantine periods and the process to return to work; and
Implemented working from home where practicable.

The Company has taken several actions to reduce costs, increase liquidity and strengthen our financial position in light of the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the B737 MAX grounding (further described below), including the following:
Reduced pay for all executives by 20 percent through January 4, 2021;
Reduced 2020-2021 term non-employee director compensation by 15 percent;
Reduced planned capital expenditures and operating expenses;
Suspended share repurchase program;
Reduced quarterly dividends to one penny per share;
Initiated multiple production worker furloughs;
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Reduced pay for all U.S based, salaried employees and implemented a correlating four-day work week, which remains in place for its salaried workforce at its Wichita, Kansas facility through January 4, 2021;
Reduced ~6,800 employees globally including voluntary packages;
Amended and eventually terminated our 2018 Credit Agreement and put into place current Credit Agreement for $400 million;
Issued $1.2 billion in Second Lien 2025 Notes and $500 million in First Lien 2025 Notes; and
Elected to defer the payment of $32.9 million of employer payroll taxes incurred through December 31, 2020, as provided by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the "CARES Act"), of which 50% is required to be deposited by December 2021 and the remaining 50% by December 2022 and accrued a pre-tax benefit related to the Employee Retention Credit related to paid employee furloughs of approximately $16.0 million. The Company will continue to evaluate its eligibility for this credit through June 2021. In addition, as of December 31, 2020 the Company recorded a deferral of $31.5 million of VAT payments until March 2022 under the United Kingdom deferral scheme and received Employee Retention Credit subsidies from U.K. government of approximately $5.4 million.

If OEM production rates decline in the future or the expected pandemic recovery timeline lengthens, the Company will evaluate further cost reduction actions, including additional workforce actions. For additional information, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”

B737 Program

The B737 MAX program is a critical program to the Company. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2018, 2019, and 2020, approximately 56%, 53%, and 19% of our net revenues were generated from sales of components to Boeing for the B737 aircraft, respectively. While we have entered into long-term supply agreements with Boeing to continue to provide components for the B737 for the life of the aircraft program, including commercial and military P-8 derivatives, Boeing does not have any obligation to purchase components from us for any replacement for the B737 that is not a commercial derivative model as defined by the Sustaining Agreement. The contract is a requirements contract and Boeing can reduce the purchase volume at any time.

In March 2019, the B737 MAX fleet was grounded in the U.S. and internationally following the 2018 and 2019 accidents involving two B737 MAX aircraft. On November 18, 2020, the FAA issued an order rescinding the grounding of the B737 MAX and published an Airworthiness Directive specifying design changes that must be made before the aircraft returns to service. Since November 2020, regulators from Brazil, Canada, the EU and U.K. have taken similar actions to unground the B737 MAX and permit return to service after aircraft owners and operators incorporate the required changes to the aircraft. According to Boeing, other global regulatory approvals/certifications are expected in 2021.

Due to impacts of the B737 MAX grounding and the COVID-19 pandemic on the aviation industry, the Company has experienced significant deterioration in its B737 MAX production rates that have significantly reduced the Company’s revenues. A summary of the production rate changes is below.

On April 12, 2019, Boeing and the Company executed a Memorandum of Agreement (the “2019 MOA”) providing that the Company was to maintain its delivery rate of 52 shipsets per month with respect to the B737 MAX. Previously, the Company was expecting to increase production to a rate of 57 shipsets per month in 2019;
On December 19, 2019, Boeing directed the Company to stop all B737 MAX deliveries to Boeing effective January 1, 2020. Accordingly, Spirit suspended all B737 MAX production beginning on January 1, 2020;
On February 6, 2020, Boeing and Spirit entered into a Memorandum of Agreement (the “2020 MOA”) largely superseding the 2019 MOA and providing for Spirit to deliver to Boeing 216 B737 MAX shipsets in 2020;
On May 4, 2020, Boeing and the Company agreed that Spirit would deliver 125 B737 MAX shipsets to Boeing in 2020; and
On June 19, 2020, Boeing directed Spirit to reduce its 2020 B737 production plan from 125 to 72 shipsets (increasing to 31 shipsets per month in 2022).

Boeing's deliveries of the B737 MAX resumed in the fourth quarter of 2020 when the FAA rescinded the order that grounded B737 MAX aircraft in the U.S.. Several air carriers have resumed flights on the aircraft, and Boeing received its first orders for the B737 MAX since the grounding.

In the year ended December 31, 2021, we expect ongoing demand challenges from the 737 MAX grounding will continue to be exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic because other programs that mitigate the strain of the lower B737 MAX
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production rate continue to be suspended or producing at lower rates. We expect air travel demand will improve from 2020 levels as the COVID-19 vaccinations are administered globally; however, any improvement in air travel demand will depend on, among other things, the widespread distribution, use and effectiveness of vaccines and the speed with which COVID-19 may mutate. The overall pace of any recovery of air travel demand will depend on availability and speed of vaccinations, effectiveness of the vaccine on new strains of the COVID-19 virus, government travel restrictions, availability and speed of test results. We expect that domestic air travel demand will recover sooner than international air travel demand and, as a result, we expect that the B737 MAX and other narrowbody production rates will recover to pre-pandemic levels before widebody production rates. For additional information, see Item 1A. "Risk Factors."

B787 Program

In the year ended December 31, 2020, Boeing announced B787 production rate changes from 10 aircraft per month to 5 aircraft per month. This resulted in an incremental forward loss charge of $192.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, During the year ended December 31, 2020 our focus was on achieving cost reductions in our manufacturing and supply chain.

During the fourth quarter of 2020, as Boeing was reviewing its 787 Dreamliner production system, we began analyzing our own 787 production system. That work is ongoing. With the data we have collected so far and based upon requests from Boeing, we have identified potential rework, which we will begin in order to help facilitate the resumption of deliveries by our customer. Further production rate changes or claims relating to inspection and rework costs could result in additional incremental forward loss charges.

Due to B787 production issues, in the first quarter of 2021, B787 employees were temporarily furloughed for three weeks. We expect there will be future headcount reductions to align to reduced production rates.

Airbus Programs

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact both international and global travel and, as a result, all Airbus programs have experienced production rate reductions. Current production rates for Airbus commercial programs are captured below:

A220 Wing average production volume of ~4.2 APM for 2021;
A320 average production volume of 40 APM;
A350 average production volume of 3.5 APM in 2020, increasing to 5 APM end of 2021; and
A330 average production volume of 2 APM.

As a result of customer driven production rate changes, the A350 program recorded forward loss charges of $147.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The A220 wing and mid-fuselage sections acquired from Bombardier had forward loss liabilities of $258.6 million in the opening balance sheet as a result of the application of ASC 805 Business Combinations, see Note 29 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, Acquisitions.


Asco Acquisition
On May 1, 2018, the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary Spirit AeroSystems Belgium Holdings BVBA (“Spirit Belgium”) entered into a definitive agreement (as amended, the “Asco Purchase Agreement”) with certain private sellers providing for the purchase by Spirit Belgium of all of the issued and outstanding equity of S.R.I.F. N.V., the parent company of Asco Industries N.V. (“Asco”). On September 25, 2020, the Company, Spirit Belgium and the Sellers entered into an amendment to the Asco Purchase Agreement (the “Termination Agreement”) pursuant to which the parties agreed to terminate the Asco Purchase Agreement, including all schedules and annexes thereto (other than certain confidentiality agreements) (collectively with the Asco Purchase Agreement, the “Transaction Documents”), effective as of September 25, 2020. Under the Termination Agreement, the parties also agreed to release each other from any and all claims, rights of action, howsoever arising, of every kind and nature, in connection with, arising out of, based upon or related to, directly or indirectly, the Transaction Documents, including any breach, non-performance, action or failure to act under the Transaction Documents.
Bombardier Acquisition

On October 30, 2020, Spirit and Spirit AeroSystems Global Holdings Limited (“Spirit UK”), wholly owned subsidiaries of the Company, completed their previously announced acquisition of the outstanding equity of Shorts and Bombardier Aerospace North Africa SAS ("BANA"), and substantially all the assets of the maintenance, repair and overhaul business in Dallas, Texas (collectively, the “Bombardier Acquired Business”), along with the assumption of certain liabilities of Shorts and BANA (the “Bombardier Acquisition”). For further information, see Note 29 Acquisitions.
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The Company, acting through certain of its subsidiaries, assumed certain liabilities of the acquired entities, including the net pension liabilities under the Shorts Pension scheme and Short’s obligations under a repayable investment agreement with the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy of the U.K. Government. On the first anniversary of closing, Shorts will pay a special contribution of £100 million to the Shorts Pension scheme. The A220 wing and mid-fuselage sections acquired from Bombardier had forward loss liability of $258.6 million in the opening balance sheet as a result of the application of ASC 805 Business Combinations.


Critical Accounting Policies
The preparation of the Company’s financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”) requires management to use estimates and assumptions. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments that may affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, including the impacts of contingent assets and liabilities, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to inventory, revenue, income taxes, financing obligations, warranties, pensions and other post-retirement benefits, and contingencies and litigation. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Management believes that the quality and reasonableness of our most critical accounting policies enable the fair presentation of our financial position and results of operations. However, the sensitivity of financial statements to these methods, assumptions, and estimates could create materially different results under different conditions or using different assumptions. We believe application of these policies requires difficult, subjective, and complex judgments to estimate the effect of inherent uncertainties. This section should be read in conjunction with Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.
Revenues and Profit Recognition
Beginning January 1, 2018, the Company adopted recognition of revenue using the principles of ASC 606 (“ASC 606”), Revenue from contracts with customers. Revenue is recognized when, or as, control of promised products or services transfers to a customer, and the amount recognized reflects the consideration that the Company expected to receive in exchange for those products or services. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, for a further description of revenue recognition under ASC 606. In determining our profits and losses in accordance with this method, we are required to make significant judgments regarding our future costs, variable elements of revenue, the standalone selling price, and other variables. We continually review and update our assumptions based on market trends and our most recent experience. If we make material changes to our assumptions, we may have positive or negative cumulative catch-up adjustments related to revenues previously recognized, and in some cases, we may adjust forward loss reserves. When we experience abnormal production costs such as excess capacity costs the Company will expense the excess costs in the period incurred and report as segment costs of goods sold. These excess costs (actual and estimated future costs) are excluded from the estimates at completion of our accounting contracts with customers. For a broader description of the various types of risks we face related to new and maturing programs, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors”.
Business Combinations and Goodwill
We account for business combinations in accordance with ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations. Transaction costs related to business combinations are expensed as incurred. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed are measured and recognized based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition date, any excess of the purchase consideration when compared to the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. For material acquisitions, we have engaged independent advisory consultants to assist us with determining the fair value of assets acquired, including goodwill, and liabilities assumed based on established business valuation methodologies. Determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires significant judgment, including the amount and timing of expected future cash flows, long-term growth rates and discount rates. In some cases, the Company used discounted cash flow analyses, which were based on our best estimate of future sales, earnings and cash flows after considering such factors as general market conditions, customer budgets, existing firm and future orders, changes in working capital, long term business plans and recent operating performance. Use of different estimates and judgments could yield materially different results. If the initial accounting for the business combination is incomplete by the end of the reporting period in which the acquisition occurs, the business combination is recorded and disclosed on a preliminary basis. Subsequent to the acquisition date, and not later than one year from the acquisition date, adjustments to the initial preliminary recognized amounts are recorded to the extent new information is obtained about the measurement of assets and liabilities that existed as of the date of the acquisition.
The Company assesses goodwill for impairment annually as of the first day of the fourth quarter or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that the fair value of a reporting unit that includes goodwill may be lower than its carrying
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value. We test goodwill for impairment by performing a qualitative assessment or quantitative test at the reporting unit level. In performing a qualitative assessment, we evaluate company-specific, market and industry, economic, and other relevant factors that may impact the fair value of our reporting units or the carrying value of the net assets of the respective reporting unit. If we determine that it is more likely than not that the carrying value of the net assets is more than the fair value of the respective reporting unit, then a quantitative test is performed. Where the quantitative test is used, we compare the carrying value of net assets to the estimated fair value of the respective reporting unit. If the fair value is determined to be less than carrying value, a goodwill impairment loss is recognized for the amount that the carrying amount of the reporting unit, including goodwill, exceeds its fair value, limited to the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.
In accordance with our annual assessment policy, we performed a qualitative assessment of goodwill for impairment as of the beginning of the fourth quarter based on the goodwill balances that existed as of October 1, 2020. The goodwill balance at October 1, 2020 was $78.4 million, of which $76.0 million represents the purchase price in excess of the fair value of the net assets acquired and liabilities assumed in connection with the acquisition of FMI in the first quarter of year 2020. Management concluded through the assessment that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of any of our reporting units is less than the respective carrying value, and therefore, the Company's goodwill as of October 1, 2020 was not impaired. The variability of the factors used in our assessment depends on a number of conditions, including uncertainty associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the impacts of the pandemic could result in an impairment of our goodwill. Our current estimates reflect potential production rate reduction scenarios for our primary customers that are not permanent in nature as we assume there will be an economic recovery from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and global passenger levels will ultimately return to COVID- 19 2019 levels.
After consideration of the Bombardier Acquisition on October 30, 2020 the total amount of goodwill is $565.3 million. As of December 31, 2020, given the preliminary nature of the Bombardier Acquisition purchase price allocation, the Company has not yet allocated the Bombardier acquisition goodwill to the relevant reporting units and/or reportable segments.
Pension

Many of our employees have earned benefits under the defined benefit pension plans. Effective June 17, 2005, pension assets and liabilities were spun-off from three Boeing qualified plans into four qualified Spirit plans for each Spirit employee who did not retire from Boeing by August 1, 2005. Effective December 31, 2005, all four qualified plans were merged together. In addition, Spirit has one nonqualified plan providing supplemental benefits to executives who transferred from a Boeing nonqualified plan to a Spirit plan and elected to keep their benefits in this plan. Both plans are frozen as of the date of the Boeing Acquisition (i.e., no future service benefits are being earned in these plans). The Company intends to fund its qualified pension plan through a trust. Pension assets are placed in trust solely for the benefit of the pension plans’ participants and are structured to maintain liquidity that is sufficient to pay benefit obligations.

On April 1, 2006, as part of the acquisition of BAE Aerostructures, the Company established a U.K. defined benefit pension plan for those employees based in Prestwick that had pension benefits remaining in BAE Systems’ pension plan. Effective December 31, 2013, this Prestwick pension plan was closed and benefits were frozen and thereafter subject only to statutory pension revaluation.
On October 30, 2020, as part of the Bombardier Acquisition, the Company acquired two further defined benefit plans (including the Shorts Pension) for current and former employees at the Belfast location. These plans are currently open to the future accrual of benefits but closed to new hires. In accordance with legislation, each of the U.K. plans and their assets are managed by independent trustee companies.
Accounting guidance require an annual measurement of our projected obligation and plan assets. These measurements are based upon several assumptions, including the discount rate and the expected long-term rate of asset return. Future changes in assumptions or differences between actual and expected outcomes can significantly affect our future annual expense, projected benefit obligation and shareholders’ equity.
The projected benefit obligation and net periodic pension cost are sensitive to discount rates. The projected benefit obligation would decrease by $182.0 million or increase by $193.4 million if the discount rate increased or decreased by 25 basis points. The 2020 net periodic pension cost would increase by $3.5 million or decrease by $3.9 million if the discount rate increased or decreased by 25 basis points at each applicable measurement date. Additionally, net periodic pension cost is also sensitive to changes in the expected long-term rate of asset return. A decrease or increase of 25 basis points in the expected long-term rate of asset return would have increased or decreased 2020 net periodic pension cost by $9.5 million.

For additional information, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors - We could be required to make future contributions to our defined benefit pension and post-retirement benefit plans as a result of adverse changes in interest rates and the capital markets. Adverse changes in the securities markets or interest rates, changes in actuarial assumptions, and legislative or other regulatory
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actions could substantially increase the costs of these plans and could result in a requirement to contribute additional funds to the plans, including the Shorts Pension acquired in the Bombardier Acquisition.”
Income Taxes
Income taxes are accounted for in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) authoritative guidance on accounting for income taxes. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future income tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts for existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Tax rate changes impacting these assets and liabilities are recognized in the period during which the rate change occurs.
Deferred tax assets are periodically evaluated to determine their recoverability and whether or not a valuation allowance is necessary. A valuation allowance, if needed, reduces deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. When determining the amount of net deferred tax assets that are more likely than not to be realized, we assess all available positive and negative evidence. The weight given to the positive and negative evidence is commensurate with the extent to which the evidence may be objectively verified.
This assessment is completed on a taxing jurisdiction and entity filing basis. Based on these criteria and the relative weighting of both the positive and negative evidence available, and in particular the activity surrounding the Company’s prior earnings history including the forward losses previously recognized in the U.S. and U.K., Management determined that it was necessary to establish a valuation allowance against nearly all of its net U.S. and U.K. deferred tax assets at December 31, 2020. This determination was made as the Company anticipates it will enter into a U.S. cumulative loss position during the first half of 2021, as prior period positive earnings fall outside of the three-year measurement period. Additionally, segments of the UK operations are in cumulative loss positions after the inclusion of 2020 losses.
We record income tax provision or benefit based on the pre-tax income earned or net loss incurred in each tax jurisdiction and the tax rate applicable to that income or loss. In the ordinary course of business, there are transactions for which the ultimate tax outcome is uncertain. These uncertainties are accounted for in accordance with FASB authoritative guidance on accounting for the uncertainty in income taxes. The final tax outcome for these matters may be different than management's original estimates made in determining the income tax provision. A change to these estimates could impact the effective tax rate and net income or loss in subsequent periods. We use the flow-through accounting method for tax credits. Under this method, tax credits reduce income tax expense. See Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, Income Taxes, for further discussion.

Results of Operations
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, certain of our operating data:
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Twelve Months Ended
December 31, 2020(1)
December 31, 2019(1)(2)
December 31, 2018(2)
 ($ in millions)
Net revenues$3,404.8 $7,863.1 $7,222.0 
Cost of sales3,845.5 6,786.4 6,135.9 
Gross (loss) profit(440.7)1,076.7 1,086.1 
Selling, general and administrative237.4 261.4 210.4 
Impact of severe weather event— — (10.0)
Restructuring cost73.0 — — 
Research and development38.8 54.5 42.5 
Loss on disposal of assets22.9 — — 
Operating (loss) income (812.8)760.8 843.2 
Interest expense and financing fee amortization(195.3)(91.9)(80.0)
Other expense, net(77.8)(5.8)(7.0)
(Loss) income before income taxes and equity in net (loss) income of affiliates(1,085.9)663.1 756.2 
Income tax benefit (provision)220.2 (132.8)(139.8)
Income before equity in net (loss) income of affiliates(865.7)530.3 616.4 
Equity in net (loss) income of affiliates(4.6)(0.2)0.6 
Net (loss) income$(870.3)$530.1 $617.0 
_______________________________________

(1)See “Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2020 as Compared to Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2019” for detailed discussion of operating data.
(2)See “Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2019 as Compared to Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2018” for detailed discussion of operating data.

Comparative shipset deliveries by model are as follows:
Twelve Months Ended
ModelDecember 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
December 31,
2018
B73771 606 605 
B747
B76728 33 30 
B77739 56 44 
B787112 166 143 
Total Boeing256 867 828 
A220 (1)
43 40 12 
A320 Family466 682 657 
A33020 35 62 
A35062 111 98 
A380— 
Total Airbus591 869 835 
Total Business/Regional Jets (1) (2)
73 55 71 
Total920 1,791 1,734 
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(1)Airbus acquired majority ownership in the C-Series program (subsequently renamed as the A220 program) in July 2018; all C-Series deliveries prior to the third quarter of 2018 are included in business and regional jets and all A220 deliveries subsequent to the acquisition are included in A220. Also included in the business and regional jets are deliveries related to the Bombardier Acquisition.

(2)Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020, total business/regional jet deliveries includes deliveries related to the Bombardier Acquisition.

For purposes of measuring production or shipset deliveries for Boeing aircraft in a given period, the term “shipset” refers to sets of structural fuselage components produced or delivered for one aircraft in such period. For purposes of measuring production or shipset deliveries for Airbus and business and regional jet aircraft in a given period, the term “shipset” refers to all structural aircraft components produced or delivered for one aircraft in such period. For the purposes of measuring wing shipset deliveries, the term “shipset” refers to all wing components produced or delivered for one aircraft in such period. Other components that are part of the same aircraft shipsets could be produced or shipped in earlier or later accounting periods than the components used to measure production or shipset deliveries, which may result in slight variations in production or delivery quantities of the various shipset components in any given period.
Net revenues by prime customer are as follows:
Twelve Months Ended
Prime CustomerDecember 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
December 31,
2018
($ in millions)
Boeing$2,043.8 $6,237.2 $5,677.7 
Airbus773.3 1,250.6 1,180.8 
Other587.7 375.3 363.5 
Total net revenues$3,404.8 $7,863.1 $7,222.0 

Changes in Estimates
During the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, we recognized unfavorable change in estimates of $400.7 million primarily driven by Boeing announced production rate changes on the B787 program from 10 aircraft per month to 5 aircraft per month, Airbus production rate changes on the A350 program from 9 aircraft per month to 4 aircraft per month and rate reductions across all programs due to the COVID-19 pandemic. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, we recognized unfavorable changes in estimates of $65.5 million primarily driven by Boeing announced production rate change on the B787 program from 14 aircraft per month to 10 aircraft per month. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2018, there was a negligible amount of net change in estimates.
Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2020 as Compared to Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2019
Net Revenues. Net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 were $3,404.8 million, a decrease of $4,458.3 million, or 57%, compared with net revenues of $7,863.1 million, for the prior year. The decrease was primarily due to the B737 MAX grounding and lower production activity on the B787, B777, A350, and A320 programs due to COVID-19, partially offset by increased defense activity. Approximately 83% of the Company's net revenues in 2020 came from our two largest customers, Boeing and Airbus.
Deliveries to Boeing decreased to 256 shipsets during 2020, compared to 867 shipsets delivered in the prior year, primarily driven by production decreases on the B737, B777 and B787 programs. Deliveries to Airbus decreased to 591 shipsets during 2020, compared to 869 shipsets delivered in the prior year, primarily driven by decreased production of the A320 and A350 programs. Production deliveries of business/regional jet wing and wing components increased to 73 shipsets during 2020, compared to 55 shipsets delivered in the prior year, primarily driven by the Bombardier Acquisition.
Gross (Loss) Profit. Gross (loss) profit for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 was $(440.7) million, as compared to $1,076.7 million for the same period in the prior year, a decrease of $1,517.4 million. The reduction in gross profit was primarily driven by the B737 MAX grounding, forward loss charges on the B787 and A350 programs due to reduced production rates, excess capacity production costs of $278.9 million, and temporary workforce reduction costs of $33.7 million due in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, net of the U.S. employee retention credit and U.K. government subsidies.
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SG&A and Research and Development.  SG&A expense was $24.0 million lower for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the same period in the prior year, primarily due to a reduction in headcount. Research and development expense for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 was $15.7 million lower as compared to the same period in the prior year primarily due to actions to preserve liquidity in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and B737 MAX grounding.
Restructuring Costs and Disposal of Assets. Restructuring costs were $73.0 million higher for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, compared to the same period in the prior year for cost-alignment and headcount reductions as a result of the B737 MAX grounding and COVID-19 impacts. Losses on disposals of assets were $22.9 million higher for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020.
Operating (Loss) Income.  Operating (loss) income for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 was $(812.8) million, which was $1,573.6 million lower than operating income of $760.8 million for the prior year. The decrease was primarily driven by decreased margins on the B737, B777 and A320 programs, $370.3 million of forward losses mainly driven by the B787 and A350 programs, excess capacity production costs of $278.9 million, and temporary workforce reduction costs of $33.7 million due to COVID-19, net of the U.S. employee retention credit and U.K. government subsidies. The Company also recognized restructuring costs of $73.0 million for cost-alignment and headcount reductions, and a $22.9 million loss from the disposal of assets.
Interest Expense and Financing Fee Amortization.  Interest expense and financing fee amortization for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 included $160.3 million of interest and fees paid or accrued in connection with long-term debt and $17.5 million in amortization of deferred financing costs and original issue discount compared to $78.6 million of interest and fees paid or accrued in connection with long-term debt and $3.6 million in amortization of deferred financing costs and original issue discount for the prior year. The increase in interest expense was primarily as a result of the issuance of $1,200 million of Spirit’s 7.500% Senior Secured Second Lien Notes due 2025 and $500 million of Spirit’s 5.500% Senior Secured First Lien Notes due 2025.
Other (Expense) Income, net.  Other expense for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 was ($77.8) million, compared to other expense of ($5.8) million for the same period in the prior year. Other expense during 2020 was primarily driven by expenses related to a voluntary retirement program offered by the Company for cost alignment and headcount reductions and foreign exchange impact on the financial payment obligation under the repayable investment agreement between Shorts and the United Kingdom's Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy acquired as part of the Bombardier Acquisition.
Benefit (Provision) for Income Taxes. The income tax provision for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, was $220.2 million compared to $(132.8) million for the prior year. The 2020 effective tax rate was 20.3% as compared to 20.0% for 2019. The difference in the effective tax rate recorded for 2020 as compared to 2019 is primarily related to a valuation allowance recorded on nearly all deferred tax assets, a benefit from the CARES Act that enabled the Company to benefit from certain US net operating losses at the former 35% corporate tax rate, the non-deductibility of the wages and benefits related to the Employee Retention Credit, the generation of state income tax credits in a loss year, and the recognition of a previously unrecognized tax benefit due to a statute of limitation expiration.
Segments.  The following table shows segment revenues and operating income for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018:
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Twelve Months Ended
December 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
December 31,
2018
 ($ in millions)
Segment Revenues   
Fuselage Systems$1,725.9 $4,206.2 $4,000.8 
Propulsion Systems784.5 2,057.8 1,702.5 
Wing Systems798.6 1,588.3 1,513.0 
All Other95.8 10.8 5.7 
$3,404.8 $7,863.1 $7,222.0 
Segment Operating (Loss) Income(1)
  
Fuselage Systems(2)
$(454.5)$440.8 $576.1 
Propulsion Systems(3)
(36.8)404.6 283.5 
Wing Systems(4)
(68.1)216.0 226.4 
All Other34.7 3.4 0.3 
(524.7)1,064.8 1,086.3 
Corporate SG&A(237.4)(261.4)(210.4)
Unallocated impact of severe weather event— — 10.0 
Research and development(38.8)(54.5)(42.5)
Unallocated cost of sales(5)
(11.9)11.9 (0.2)
Total operating income$(812.8)$760.8 $843.2 
_______________________________________
(1)Inclusive of forward losses, changes in estimate on loss programs and cumulative catch-up adjustments. These changes in estimates for the periods ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 respectively are further detailed in Note 5, Changes in Estimates.
(2)The year ended December 31, 2020 includes excess capacity production costs of $175.0 million related to the temporary B737 MAX production schedule changes, temporary workforce reduction costs of $19.0 million as a result of COVID-19 pandemic, net of U.S. employee retention credit, $41.3 million of restructuring costs and $22.5 million from loss on disposition of assets.
(3)The year ended December 31, 2020 includes excess capacity production costs of $61.1 million related to the temporary B737 MAX production schedule changes, temporary workforce adjustments costs of $7.2 million for as a result of COVID-19 pandemic net of U.S. employee retention credit and $15.2 million of restructuring costs.
(4)The year ended December 31, 2020 includes excess capacity production costs of $42.9 million related to the temporary B737 MAX and A320 production schedule changes, temporary workforce adjustments costs of $7.5 million as a result of COVID-19 pandemic, net of U.S. employee retention credit and U.K. government subsidies, $16.5 million of restructuring costs and $0.4 million from loss on the disposition of assets.
(5)Includes $(3.1)million, $13.9 million, and $(1.1) million related to warranty reserves for the periods ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Included in unallocated cost of sales for December 31, 2020 is write off of excess material of ($8.1) million.

Fuselage Systems, Propulsion Systems, Wing Systems, and All Other segments represented approximately 51%, 23%, 23%, and 3%, respectively, of our net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. Fuselage Systems, Propulsion Systems, Wing Systems, and All Other segments represented approximately 54%, 26%, 20%, and less than 1%, respectively, of our net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019. Fuselage Systems, Propulsion Systems, Wing Systems, and All Other segments represented approximately 55%, 24%, 21%, and less than 1%, respectively, of our net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2018.

Fuselage Systems.  Fuselage Systems segment net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 were $1,725.9 million, a decrease of $2,480.3 million, or 59%, compared to the same period in the prior year. The decrease in revenue was
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primarily due to lower production volumes on the B737 MAX, B787, B777, and A350 programs due to impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic and B737 MAX grounding partially offset by increased defense activity and revenues from the businesses acquired in the Bombardier Acquisition. Fuselage Systems segment operating margins were (26%) for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, compared to 11% for the same period in the prior year, primarily due to lower margins recognized on the B737 MAX program due to significantly less deliveries, forward losses of $265.4 million on the B787 and A350 programs, excess capacity production costs of $175.0 million, temporary workforce impact of $19.0 million due to the COVID-19 pandemic net of U.S. employee retention credit, and restructuring costs of $41.3 million for cost alignment and headcount reductions. In 2020, the segment recorded unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of $17.5 million and $274.3 million of net forward loss charges. In comparison, during 2019, the segment recorded unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of $1.3 million and $37.9 million of net forward loss charges primarily due to production rate changes on the B787 program.

Propulsion Systems.  Propulsion Systems segment net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 were $784.5 million, a decrease of $1,273.3 million, or 62%, compared to the same period in the prior year. The decrease was primarily due to lower production volumes on the B737 MAX, B777, B787 and BR725 programs due to impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic and B737 MAX grounding. Propulsion Systems segment operating margins were (5%) for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, compared to 20% for the same period in the prior year. This decrease was primarily driven by lower margins due to significantly less deliveries on the B737 MAX, and B777 programs, forward loss charges of $27 million on the B787 program, excess capacity production costs of $61.1 million, and temporary workforce impact of $7.2 million due to the COVID-19 pandemic net of U.S. employee retention credit, and restructuring costs of $15.2 million for cost alignment and headcount reductions. The segment recorded unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of $7.8 million and net forward loss charges of $36.9 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. In comparison, during 2019, the segment recorded unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of $1.2 million and net forward loss charges of $15.1 million.

Wing Systems.  Wing Systems segment net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 were $798.6 million, a decrease of $789.7 million, or 50%, compared to the same period in the prior year. The decrease was primarily due to lower production volumes on the B737 MAX, B777, B787, A320, and A350 programs due to COVID-19 pandemic and B737 MAX grounding, partially offset by increased activity from the Bombardier Acquisition. Wing Systems segment operating margins were (8%) for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 compared to 14% for the same period in the prior year. This decrease was primarily driven by lower margins due to significantly lower deliveries on the B737 and A320 programs, forward loss charges of $47.9 million on the B787 and A350 programs, excess capacity production costs of $42.9 million, temporary workforce impact of $7.5 million due to the COVID-19 pandemic net of U.S. employee retention credit, and U.K government subsidies and restructuring costs of $16.5 million for cost alignment and headcount reductions. In 2020, the segment recorded unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of $5.1 million and $59.1 million of net forward loss charges. In comparison, during 2019, the segment recorded favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of $0.5 million and $10.5 million of net forward loss charges.

All Other.  All Other segment net revenues consist of sundry sales of miscellaneous services, tooling contracts, and natural gas revenues from the Kansas Industrial Energy Supply Company (“KIESC”), a tenancy in common with other Wichita companies established to purchase natural gas where the Company is a major participant. In the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. All Other segment net revenues were $95.8 million, an increase of $85.0 million compared to $10.8 million in the twelve months ended December 31, 2019. The All Other segment recorded 36% operating margins for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 31% operating margins for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, with the increase primarily driven by ventilator production.
Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2019 as Compared to Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2018
Net Revenues.  Net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 were $7,863.1 million, an increase of $641.1 million, or 9%, compared with net revenues of $7,222.0 million, for the prior year. The increase was primarily due to higher production on the B777, B787, A220, and A350 XWB programs, favorable model mix on B737 program, increased SAAS and defense related activity, partially offset by lower production on the A330 program, lower revenue recognized on the A350 XWB program in accordance with pricing terms and lower revenue recognized on certain Boeing nonrecurring programs. Approximately 95% of the Company's net revenues in 2019 came from our two largest customers, Boeing and Airbus.
Deliveries to Boeing increased to 867 shipsets during 2019, compared to 828 shipsets delivered in the prior year, driven by production increases on the B787 and B777 programs. Deliveries to Airbus increased to 869 shipsets during 2019, compared to 835 shipsets delivered in the prior year, primarily driven by higher production of the A320, A350 XWB, and A220 programs partially offset by decreased production on the A330 program. Production deliveries of business/regional jet wing and wing components decreased to 55 shipsets during 2019, compared to 71 shipsets delivered in the prior year, driven by the transfer of the A220 program to total Airbus deliveries in the third quarter of 2018. In total, shipset deliveries increased 3% to 1,791 shipsets in 2019 compared to 1,734 shipsets in 2018.
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Gross Profit. Gross Profit for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 was $1,076.7 million, as compared to $1,086.1 million for the same period in the prior year, a decrease of $9.4 million. The reduction in gross profit was primarily driven by forward loss charge on B787 due to Boeing announced production rate change from 14 aircraft per month to 12 aircraft per month in the third quarter, from 12 aircraft per month to 10 aircraft per month in the fourth quarter, and certain Boeing nonrecurring programs partially offset by increased profit recognized on the B737 due to model mix, B777, A220 and the A350 XWB program.
SG&A and Research and Development.  SG&A expense was $51.0 million higher for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, as compared to the same period in the prior year, primarily due to costs incurred related to the Asco Acquisition and Bombardier Acquisition, increased headcount and absence of a one-time recovery of legal fees related to a court decision in 2018. Research and development expense for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 was $12.0 million higher as compared to the same period in the prior year, due to more internal projects underway.
Operating Income.   Operating income for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 was $760.8 million, which was $82.4 million lower than operating income of $843.2 million for the prior year. The decrease in operating income was primarily due to costs incurred related to the anticipated purchase of Asco and Bombardier, reduced profitability on the B737 program due to B737 MAX grounding and a forward loss charge on B787 due to announced production rate changes.
Interest Expense and Financing Fee Amortization.   Interest expense and financing fee amortization for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 included $78.6 million of interest and fees paid or accrued in connection with long-term debt and $3.6 million in amortization of deferred financing costs and original issue discount, compared to $55.7 million of interest and fees paid or accrued in connection with long-term debt and $18.3 million in amortization of deferred financing costs and original issue discount for the prior year. The increase in interest expense is primarily a result of additional debt taken on in 2018 in anticipation of our ASRs and the planned purchase of Asco. The decrease in deferred financing costs and fees in 2019 compared to 2018 is mainly due to the 2018 Credit Agreement (as defined below) which resulted in a loss on extinguishment of existing debt of $14.4 million included in the $18.3 million of deferred financing costs.
Other (Expense) Income, net.   Other expense for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 was $(5.8) million, compared to other expense of $(7.0) million for the same period in the prior year. Other expense during 2019 was primarily driven by losses on foreign currency forward contracts as the U.S. Dollar strengthened against the Euro, expenses related to a voluntary retirement program offered by the Company in the second quarter of 2019, as well as net losses on the sale of receivables, partially offset by gain on proceeds from a litigation settlement and pension income.
Provision for Income Taxes. The income tax provision for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, was $132.8 million compared to $139.8 million for the prior year. The 2019 effective tax rate was 20.0% as compared to 18.5% for 2018. The difference in the effective tax rate recorded for 2019 as compared to 2018 is primarily related to a reduction in federal tax credits, an adjustment to our one-time transition tax liability, and an increase in income tax in the current year reflecting the finalization of the 2018 amounts related to Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income ("GILTI") and the federal R&D tax credit reported in the tax return as agreed upon with the IRS in the course of the Company’s participation in the Internal Revenue Service’s Compliance Assurance Process (“CAP”) offset by a re-measurement of our net deferred tax asset balance in 2019 and a decrease in the impact of GILTI.
The decrease from the U.S. statutory tax rate is attributable primarily to generation of state income tax and federal research tax credits, foreign rates less than the U.S. rate, and share based compensation excess tax benefit, offset by the impacts of finalizing the 2018 amounts related to GILTI and the federal R&D tax credit and estimated state income tax.
Fuselage Systems.  Fuselage Systems segment net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 were $4,206.2 million, an increase of $205.4 million, or 5%, compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase in net revenues was primarily due to higher production on the B787, B777, and A350 XWB programs and increased SAAS and defense related work, partially offset by lower revenue recognized on certain non-recurring Boeing programs. Fuselage Systems segment operating margins were 11% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, compared to 14% for the same period in the prior year, with the decrease primarily driven by B737 performance, the net forward loss charges recorded on the B787 fuselage program during the third and fourth quarter of 2019 due to announced production rate changes, and decreased margins recognized on the A350 XWB program. In 2019, the segment recorded unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of ($1.3) million, as well as ($37.9) million of net forward loss charges. In comparison, during 2018, the segment recorded unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of ($5.3) million and $3.4 million of favorable changes in estimates on loss programs.
Propulsion Systems.  Propulsion Systems segment net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 were $2,057.8 million, an increase of $355.3 million, or 21%, compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase was primarily due to favorable model mix on B737, and increased production on B787, B777 and A220 programs, partially offset by lower revenue recognized on certain non-recurring Boeing programs. Propulsion Systems segment operating margins were
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20% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, compared to 17% for the same period in the prior year. This increase was primarily driven by the B737, B777 and A220 programs, partially offset by net forward loss charges on B787 due to announced production rate changes. In 2019, the segment recorded unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of ($1.2) million and net forward loss charges of ($15.1) million. In comparison, during 2018, the segment recorded unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of ($0.2) million and net forward loss charges of ($0.7) million.
Wing Systems.  Wing Systems segment net revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 were $1,588.3 million, an increase of $75.3 million, or 5%, compared to the same period in the prior year. This was primarily due to increased production on the B737, B777, B787, and A350 XWB programs. Wing Systems segment operating margins were 14% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 compared to 15% for the same period in the prior year mainly due to forward loss charges on B787 due to announced production rate changes, B737 performance, offset by the favorable performance on A350 XWB. In 2019, the segment recorded favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of $0.5 million and net forward loss charges of ($10.5) million. In comparison, during 2018, the segment recorded favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of $1.7 million and $1.2 million of favorable changes in estimates on loss programs.
All Other.   All Other segment net revenues consist of sundry sales of miscellaneous services, tooling contracts, and natural gas revenues from the Kansas Industrial Energy Supply Company (“KIESC”), a tenancy in common with other Wichita companies established to purchase natural gas where the Company is a major participant. In the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, All Other segment net revenues were $10.8 million, an increase of $5.1 million compared to the same period in the prior year. The All Other segment recorded 31% operating margins for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
We assess our liquidity in terms of our ability to generate cash to fund our operating, investing, and financing activities. Our principal source of liquidity is cash flows from continuing operations. Other than cash flow from continuing operations, sources of our liquidity include cash on hand and borrowings made available by our Credit Agreement and senior notes.
Our cash flows from continuing operations generally have been adversely impacted by the B737 MAX grounding and the COVID-19 pandemic (and resulting production rate changes associated with both events) and we expect the adverse impact to continue until aviation demand recovers. Based on the actions we took in 2020, we anticipate that we will have sufficient liquidity for the next 12 months. However, if the pace and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic recovery are worse than we currently forecast, we may need to obtain additional financing in order to fund our operations and obligations.
While the Company acted quickly to reduce costs in light of lower revenue expectations, the liquidity challenges resulted in the Company needing to issue significant amounts of additional debt. As of December 31, 2019 the Company had a debt balance of approximately $2,827.8 million, most of which was unsecured debt, and a cash balance of $2,350.5 million. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had a debt balance of approximately $3,658.9 million, more than 50% was secured debt and a cash balance of $1,873.3 million. The Company's financial condition will continue to be impacted by COVID-19 for the next several years or until demand recovers. If the pandemic worsens or there is significant uncertainty on the industry’s recovery, we may find it difficult to obtain additional financing and/or fund our operations and meet our debt repayment obligations.
For purposes of assessing our liquidity needs in this section, we have assumed that our customers generally would not further reduce their production rates. For risks that may affect that assumption, see Item 1A “Risk Factors.”
2018 Credit Agreement
On July 12, 2018, the Company entered into a $1,256.0 million senior unsecured Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement among Spirit, as borrower, Holdings, as parent guarantor, the lenders party thereto, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, and the other agents named therein (the “2018 Credit Agreement”), consisting of an $800.0 million revolving credit facility (the “2018 Revolver”), a $206.0 million term loan A facility (the “2018 Term Loan”) and a $250.0 million delayed draw term loan facility (the “2018 DDTL”). Under the 2018 Credit Agreement, the 2018 Revolver, the 2018 Term Loan and the 2018 DDTL were to mature on July 12, 2023.
Spirit amended the 2018 Credit Agreement several times in 2020, including modifications that added security to the 2018 Credit Agreement. Spirit repaid the outstanding balance of the 2018 Revolver on April 30, 2020. On September 30, 2020, Spirit repaid the remaining balances under the 2018 Term Loan and the 2018 DDTL. As of December 31, 2020, the outstanding balance o