10-K 1 kbr1231201510-k.htm 10-K 10-K


 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM 10-K
ý
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015
OR
¨
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the transition period from             to
Commission File Number: 1-33146
 
 
 
KBR, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
20-4536774
(State of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
601 Jefferson Street, Suite 3400, Houston, Texas
 
77002
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(713) 753-3011
(Registrant's telephone number including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock par value $0.001 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  ¨    No  ý

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes  ý    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).     Yes  ý    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.      ý

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
ý
Accelerated filer
 
¨
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes  ¨    No  ý

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2015 was approximately $2.8 billion, determined using the closing price of shares of the registrant's common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on that date of $19.48.

As of January 29, 2016, there were 142,177,753 shares of KBR, Inc. Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding.
 
  
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.
 




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
Page
 
 
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
 
 



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Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains certain statements that are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides safe harbor provisions for forward-looking information. Some of the statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical fact are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “expect” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future financial performance and results of operations.

We have based these statements on our assumptions and analyses in light of our experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors we believe are appropriate in the circumstances. Forward-looking statements by their nature involve substantial risks and uncertainties that could significantly affect expected results, and actual future results could differ materially from those described in such statements. While it is not possible to identify all factors, factors that could cause actual future results to differ materially include the risks and uncertainties described under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” contained in Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Many of these factors are beyond our ability to control or predict. Any of these factors, or a combination of these factors, could materially and adversely affect our future financial condition or results of operations and the ultimate accuracy of the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of our future performance, and our actual results and future developments may differ materially and adversely from those projected in the forward-looking statements. We caution against putting undue reliance on forward-looking statements or projecting any future results based on such statements or on present or prior earnings levels. In addition, each forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of the particular statement, and we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement.


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PART I

Item 1. Business

General

KBR, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, "KBR" or "the Company") is an engineering, construction and services company supporting the global hydrocarbons and international government services market sectors. We offer an extensive portfolio of proprietary technology and consulting services; engineering, construction, procurement and asset maintenance services; and base operational, logistics, life support and asset management services, through our Technology & Consulting, Engineering & Construction and Government Services business segments. Information regarding business segment disclosures included in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements and "Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" is incorporated by reference into this Item 1.

KBR, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware on March 21, 2006 prior to an exchange offer transaction that separated us from our former parent, Halliburton Company, which was completed on April 5, 2007. We trace our history and culture to two businesses, The M.W. Kellogg Company ("Kellogg") and Brown & Root, Inc. ("Brown & Root"). Kellogg dates back to a pipe fabrication business that was founded in New York in 1901 and evolved into a technology and service provider for petroleum refining and petrochemicals processing. Brown & Root was founded in Houston, Texas in 1919 and built the world’s first offshore platform in 1947. Brown & Root was acquired by Halliburton in 1962 and Kellogg was acquired by Halliburton in 1998 through its merger with Dresser Industries.

Our Business Segments

In 2014, we reorganized into three core and two non-core business segments as follows:

Core business segments

Technology & Consulting
Engineering & Construction
Government Services

Non-core business segments

Non-strategic Business
Other

Our business segments are described below.

Technology & Consulting ("T&C"). Our T&C business segment combines proprietary KBR technologies, knowledge-based services and our three specialty consulting brands, Granherne, Energo and GVA, under a single customer-facing global business.  This segment provides licensed technologies and consulting services to the oil and gas value chain, from wellhead to crude refining and specialty chemicals production.  In addition to sharing many of the same customers, these brands share the approach of early and continuous customer involvement to deliver an optimal solution to meet the customer’s objectives through early planning and scope definition, advanced technologies and project lifecycle support.
Engineering & Construction ("E&C"). Our E&C business segment leverages our operational and technical excellence as a global provider of engineering, procurement, construction ("EPC"), commissioning and maintenance services for oil and gas, refining, petrochemicals and chemicals customers.   E&C is managed on a geographic basis in order to facilitate close proximity to our customers and our people, while utilizing a consistent global execution strategy. 
Government Services ("GS"). Our GS business segment focuses on long term service contracts with annuity streams particularly for the governments of the United Kingdom ("U.K."), Australia and United States ("U.S.").
Non-strategic Business. Our Non-strategic Business segment represents the operations or activities that we intend to exit upon completion of existing contracts. This segment also included businesses we exited upon sale to third parties described in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements.

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Other. Our Other business segment includes our corporate expenses and general and administrative expenses that do not individually meet the criteria for group presentation and are not allocated to the business segments above in addition to any future activities that do not individually meet the criteria for segment presentation. 
Our Business Strategy

We provide our customers with a diverse portfolio of capital project delivery and services across the entire engineering, construction and operations project lifecycle. Our core competencies are front-end development and planning, conceptual design, differentiated technologies, front-end engineering design ("FEED"), engineering, project management, procurement, construction, construction management, logistics, commissioning, operations and maintenance. We deliver these services through the offerings of our three core business segments:

Technology & Consulting
A broad spectrum of front-end services and solutions, including licensing of technology, basic engineering and design ("BED"), proprietary equipment ("PEQ"), plant automation, remote monitoring, catalysts and related specialist consulting services to the hydrocarbons, petrochemicals, chemicals and fertilizer markets.
Specialized front-end consulting services related to field development planning, technology selection and capital expenditure optimization; plant integrity management; and specialized naval architecture technology (drillships, floating production, storage and offshore ("FPSO"), and floating production units ("FPUs") and structural engineering; feasibility studies, revamp studies, planning/development and construction studies for oil and gas (upstream industry) and liquefied natural gas ("LNG"), refining, petrochemicals, chemicals and fertilizers (downstream industry).
Engineering & Construction

Project delivery solutions from conceptual planning, through FEED and execution planning, to full EPC delivery and ongoing asset services, such as maintenance and turnarounds. E&C provides engineering services and EPC project delivery for the development, construction and commissioning of projects in the offshore and onshore oil and gas industries and LNG/gas-to-liquids ("GTL") markets, as well as the refining, petrochemicals, chemicals and fertilizers industries.
Offshore oil and gas services focused on the entire hydrocarbons value chain from subsea umbilicals, risers and flowlines ("SURF") to fixed and floating platforms, including hulls, moorings and risers ("HMR"); and onshore oil and gas services across the complete hydrocarbons industry including unconventional oil and gas ("UCOG").
Government Services

A wide range of services, including remote life-support services, logistics, program, and risk management services, resilience planning, base operations services and training for the governments of the U.S., U.K., Australia and other focus countries, across the world.

Services ranging from construction, refurbishment, operations and maintenance of housing and associated facilities for military personnel to home base and operations support, embassy and critical infrastructure support, life-support programs, heavy equipment transportation, and non-military government facilities management and integration. Our objective is to capitalize on new opportunities resulting from demands from governments and the industry for project execution efficiencies and tight budget planning and control in response to governments’ requirements to deal with new threats globally.

Competitive Advantages
We operate in global markets with customers who demand added value, know-how, technology and delivery solutions, and we seek to differentiate ourselves in areas we believe we have a competitive advantage, including:
Health, Safety, Security & Environment
World-class planning, assessment, and execution practices and performance

Customer Relationships
Customer objectives are placed at the center of our planning and delivery

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Project Delivery
A reputation for successful delivery of large, complex and difficult projects globally - using world-class processes (the 'KBR Way')

Technical Excellence
Quality, world-class technology, know-how and technical solutions

People
Distinctive, competitive and customer-focused culture, through our people ('One KBR')

Asset Services
Comprehensive asset services through long-term contracts

Financial Strength
Through liquidity, capital capacity and ability to support warranties

Risk Management
Robust risk management processes

We conduct business in approximately 70 countries. Based on the location of projects executed, our operations in countries other than the U.S. accounted for 57%, 63% and 66% of our consolidated revenues during 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements for selected geographic information.

We have summarized our revenues by geographic location as a percentage of total revenues below:
 
Years ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
United States
43
%
 
37
%
 
34
%
Australia
16
%
 
22
%
 
25
%
Canada
4
%
 
12
%
 
10
%
Middle East
15
%
 
11
%
 
13
%
Europe
10
%
 
10
%
 
8
%
Africa
3
%
 
4
%
 
8
%
Latin America
3
%
 
2
%
 
1
%
Other
6
%
 
2
%
 
1
%
Total
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%

We market substantially all of our project and service offerings through our business segments. The markets we serve are highly competitive and for the most part require substantial resources and highly-skilled and experienced technical personnel. A large number of companies are competing in the markets served by our business, including U.S.-based companies such as Bechtel Corporation, Fluor Corporation, Jacobs Engineering, AECOM, and international-based companies such as AMEC Foster Wheeler, Chicago Bridge and Iron, Chiyoda Corporation ("Chiyoda"), JGC Corporation ("JGC"), McDermott International, Petrofac, Saipem, Technip, John Wood Group PLC and Worley Parsons. Since the markets for our services are vast and extend across multiple geographic regions, we cannot make a definitive estimate of the total number of our competitors.

Our operations in some countries may be adversely affected by unsettled political conditions, acts of terrorism, civil unrest, force majeure, war or other armed conflict, expropriation or other governmental actions, inflation and foreign currency exchange controls and fluctuations. We strive to manage or mitigate these risks through a variety of means including contract provisions, contingency planning, insurance schemes, hedging and other risk management activities. See "Item 1A. Risk Factors," "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Discussion about Market Risk" and Note 20 to our consolidated financial statements for information regarding our exposures to foreign currency fluctuations, risk concentration and financial instruments used to manage our risks.


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Acquisitions, Dispositions and Other Transactions

Dispositions

During the fourth quarter of 2015, we completed the sale of our Infrastructure Americas business for $18 million in net cash proceeds within our Non-strategic Business segment. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements for more information. We also closed on the sale of our U.K. office facility located in Greenford for net cash proceeds of $33 million within our E&C business segment and a U.S. office facility located in Birmingham, Alabama for net cash proceeds of $6 million within our Non-strategic Business segment. See Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements for more information.

During the second quarter of 2015, we completed the sale of our Building Group subsidiary for $23 million in net cash proceeds within our Non-strategic Business segment. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements for more information.

Other Transactions

During the third quarter of 2015, we executed an agreement with Bernhard Capital Partners ("BCP") to establish the Brown & Root Industrial Services joint venture which is accounted for within our E&C business segment. In connection with the formation of the joint venture, we contributed our Industrial Services Americas business and received cash consideration of $48 million and a 50% interest in the joint venture.

Also during the third quarter of 2015, we acquired a minority interest in EPIC Piping LLC ("EPIC"), a pipe fabrication business, within our E&C business segment. We contributed the majority of our Canada pipe fabrication and module assembly business to the partnership, excluding the seven completed loss projects, and $19 million in cash.

See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements for more information.

Joint Ventures and Alliances

We enter into joint ventures and alliances with other industry participants in order to reduce exposure and diversify risk, increase the number of opportunities that can be pursued, capitalize on the strengths of each party and provide greater flexibility in delivering our services based on cost and geographical efficiency. Clients of our E&C business segment frequently require EPC contractors to work in teams given the size and complexity of global projects that may cost billions of dollars to complete. Our significant joint ventures and alliances are described below. All joint venture ownership percentages presented are stated as of December 31, 2015.

We are working with JGC and Chiyoda for the design, procurement, fabrication, construction, commissioning and testing of the Ichthys Onshore LNG export facility in Darwin, Australia. The project is being executed using two joint ventures of which we own a 30% equity interest in each joint venture. The investments are accounted for within our E&C business segment using the equity method of accounting.

Additionally, we are working with JGC, Hatch Associates and Clough Projects Australia for the design, procurement, fabrication, construction, commissioning and testing of the Gorgon onshore LNG project located on Barrow Island off the northwest coast of Western Australia. We hold a 30% interest in the joint venture which is reported within our E&C business segment and consolidated for financial accounting purposes.

Aspire Defence Holdings Limited ("Aspire Defence") is a joint venture currently owned by KBR and two financial investors to upgrade and provide a range of services to the British Army’s garrisons at Aldershot and around the Salisbury Plain in the U.K. We own a 45% interest in Aspire Defence and a 50% interest in each of the two joint ventures that provide the construction and related support services to Aspire Defence. The investments are accounted for within our GS business segment using the equity method of accounting.

Mantenimiento Marino de Mexico (“MMM”) is a joint venture formed under a Partners Agreement with Grupo R affiliated entities. The Partners Agreement covers five joint venture entities executing Mexican contracts with Petróleos Mexicanos ("PEMEX"). MMM was set up under Mexican maritime law in order to hold navigation permits to operate in Mexican waters. The scope of the business is to render maintenance, repair and restoration services of offshore oil and gas platforms and provisions of quartering in the territorial waters of Mexico. We own a 50% interest in MMM and in each of the four other joint ventures and account for our investment in these entities within our E&C business segment using the equity method of accounting.


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Brown & Root Industrial Services is a joint venture with BCP and offers maintenance services, turnarounds and small capital expenditure projects, primarily in North America. We own a 50% interest in this joint venture and account for this investment within our E&C business segment using the equity method of accounting.

Additionally, we have a minority interest in EPIC, in which BCP also holds a controlling interest. We entered into an agreement with EPIC that gives us access to EPIC's pipe fabrication facilities in Louisiana and Texas. We account for our interest in EPIC within our E&C business segment using the equity method of accounting.

Backlog of Unfulfilled Orders

Backlog is our estimate of the U.S. dollar amount of revenues we expect to realize in the future as a result of executing awarded contracts. For projects within our unconsolidated joint ventures, we have included our percentage ownership of the joint venture’s estimated revenues in backlog to provide an indication of future work to be performed. Our backlog was $12.3 billion and $10.9 billion at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. We estimate that, as of December 31, 2015, 38% of our backlog will be recognized as revenues within one year. All backlog is attributable to firm orders at December 31, 2015 and 2014. For additional information regarding backlog see our discussion within “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

Contracts

Our contracts are broadly categorized as cost-reimbursable, fixed-price or “hybrid” contracts containing both cost-reimbursable and fixed-price scopes of work. Our fixed-price contracts may include cost escalation and other features that allow for increases in price should certain events occur or conditions change. Change orders on fixed-price contracts are routinely approved as work scopes change resulting in adjustments to our fixed price.

Fixed-price contracts, which include unit-rate contracts (essentially a fixed-price contract with the only variable being units of work to be performed), are for a fixed sum to cover all costs and any profit element for a defined scope of work. Fixed-price contracts entail significant risk to us because they require us to predetermine the work to be performed, the project execution schedule and the costs associated with the work. Although fixed-price contracts involve greater risk than cost-reimbursable contracts, they also are potentially more profitable since the owner/customer pays a premium to transfer project risks to us.

Cost-reimbursable contracts include contracts where the price is variable based upon our actual costs incurred for time and materials and for reimbursable labor hours. Profit on cost-reimbursable contracts may be a fixed amount, a mark-up applied to costs incurred or a combination of the two. Cost-reimbursable contracts are generally less risky than fixed-price contracts because the owner/customer retains many of the project risks.

Our GS business segment performs work under cost-reimbursable contracts with the U.K. Ministry of Defence ("MoD"), the U.S. Department of Defense (“DoD”) and other governmental agencies that are generally subject to applicable statutes and regulations. If the government concludes costs charged to a contract are not reimbursable under the terms of the contract or applicable procurement regulations, these costs are disallowed or, if already reimbursed, we may be required to refund the reimbursed amounts to the customer. Such conditions may also include interest and other financial penalties. If performance issues arise under any of our government contracts, the government retains the right to pursue remedies, which could include termination under any affected contract. Furthermore, the government has the contractual right to terminate or reduce the amount of work under our contracts at any time. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for more information.

Significant Customers

We provide services to a diverse customer base, including:

international oil companies ("IOC"s) and national oil companies ("NOC"s);
independent refiners;
petrochemical, fertilizer and chemical producers;
manufacturers;
domestic and foreign governments; and
regulated electric utilities.


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A considerable percentage of revenues is generated from transactions with Chevron Corporation ("Chevron") primarily from a major LNG project in Australia, which is nearing completion within our E&C business segment. No other customers represented 10% or more of consolidated revenues in any of the periods presented. The information in the following table has summarized data related to our revenues from Chevron.
Revenue and percent of consolidated revenues attributable to major customers by year:
 
Years ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Dollars in millions, except percentage amounts
$
%
 
$
%
 
$
%
Chevron revenue
523

10
%
 
1,069

17
%
 
1,859

26
%

Information relating to our customer concentration is described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors”. Also, see further explanations in "Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations".

Raw Materials and Suppliers

Equipment and materials essential to our business are obtained from a variety of sources throughout the world. The principal equipment and materials we use in our business are subject to availability and price fluctuations due to customer demand, producer capacity and market conditions. We monitor the availability and price of equipment and materials on a regular basis. Our procurement department seeks to leverage our size and buying power to ensure that we have access to key equipment and materials at the best possible prices and delivery schedules. While we do not currently foresee any significant lack of availability of equipment and materials in the near term, the availability of these items may vary significantly from year to year and any prolonged unavailability or significant price increases for equipment and materials necessary to our projects and services could have a material adverse effect on our business. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for more information.

Intellectual Property

We have developed or otherwise have the right to license leading technologies, including technologies held under license from third parties, used for the production of a variety of petrochemicals and chemicals and in the areas of olefins, refining, fertilizers, coal gasification and semi-submersible technology. We also license a variety of technologies for the transformation of raw materials into commodity chemicals such as phenol used in the production of consumer-end products. In addition, we are a licensor of ammonia process technologies used in the conversion of natural gas to ammonia. We believe our technology portfolio and experience in the commercial application of these technologies and related know-how differentiates us, enhances our margins and encourages customers to utilize our broad range of EPC and construction services.

Our rights to make use of technologies licensed to us are governed by written agreements of varying durations, including some with fixed terms that are subject to renewal based on mutual agreement. Generally, each agreement may be further extended and we have historically been able to renew existing agreements before they expire. We expect these and other similar agreements to be extended so long as it is mutually advantageous to both parties at the time of renewal. However, the majority of our license fees tend to result in a one-time payment per agreement rather than ongoing royalty-type payments. For technologies we own, we protect our rights, know-how and trade secrets through patents and confidentiality agreements. Our expenditures for research and development activities were immaterial in each of the past three fiscal years.

Seasonality

Our operations are not generally affected by seasonality. However, weather and natural phenomena can temporarily affect the performance of our services.

Employees

As of December 31, 2015, we had approximately 22,000 employees world-wide, of which approximately 8% were subject to collective bargaining agreements. Based upon the geographic diversification of our employees, we believe any risk of loss from employee strikes or other collective actions would not be material to the conduct of our operations taken as a whole.


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Health and Safety

We are subject to numerous health and safety laws and regulations. In the U.S., these laws and regulations include the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Act and comparable state legislation, the Mine Safety and Health Administration laws, and safety requirements of the Departments of State, Defense, Energy and Transportation of the U.S. government. We are also subject to similar requirements in other countries in which we have extensive operations, including the U.K. where we are subject to the various regulations enacted by the Health and Safety Act of 1974.

These laws and regulations are frequently changing and it is impossible to predict the effect of such laws and regulations on us in the future. We actively seek to maintain a safe, healthy and environmentally friendly work place for all of our employees and those who work with us. However, we provide some of our services in high-risk locations and may incur substantial costs to maintain the safety and security of our personnel in these locations.

We embarked on a global Zero Harm initiative in order to reinforce health, safety, security and environment as key components of the KBR culture and lifestyle.  This initiative incorporates three dynamic components, Zero Harm, 24/7 and courage to care which empowers individuals to take responsibility for their health and safety, as well as that of their colleagues.

Environmental Regulation

Information relating to environmental regulations is described in "Item 1A. Risk Factors” and in Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements, and the information discussed therein is incorporated by reference into this Item 1.

Compliance

Conducting our business with ethics and integrity is a key priority for KBR. We are subject to numerous compliance-related laws and regulations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA"), the U.K. Bribery Act, other applicable anti-bribery legislation and laws and regulations regarding trade and exports. We are also governed by our own Code of Business Conduct and other compliance-related corporate policies and procedures that mandate compliance with these laws. Our Code of Business Conduct is a guide for every employee in applying legal and ethical practices to our everyday work. The Code of Business Conduct describes not only our standards of integrity but also some of the specific principles and areas of the law that are most likely to affect our business. We regularly train our employees regarding anti-bribery issues and our Code of Business Conduct.

Website Access

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are made available free of charge on our Internet website at www.kbr.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we have electronically filed the material with, or furnished it to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). The public may read and copy any materials we have filed with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet website that contains our reports, proxy and information statements and our other SEC filings. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. We have posted on our website our Code of Business Conduct, which applies to all of our employees and Directors and serves as a code of ethics for our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer and other persons performing similar functions.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Risks Related to Operations of our Business

Our results of operations depend on the award of new contracts and the timing of the performance of these contracts.

A substantial portion of our revenues is directly or indirectly derived from new contract awards. Reductions in the number and amounts of new awards, delays in the timing of the awards or potential cancellations of such prospects as a result of economic conditions, material and equipment pricing and availability or other factors could adversely impact our long-term projected results. It is particularly difficult to predict whether or when we will receive large-scale international and domestic projects as these contracts frequently involve a lengthy and complex bidding and selection process, which is affected by a number of factors, such as market conditions as well as governmental and environmental approvals. Since a significant portion of our revenues is generated from such projects, our results of operations and cash flows can fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter depending on the timing of our contract awards and the commencement or progress of work under awarded contracts. In addition, many of these

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contracts are subject to financing contingencies and, as a result, we are subject to the risk that the customer will not be able to secure the necessary financing for the project to proceed.

The uncertainty of our contract award timing can also present difficulties in matching workforce size with contract needs. In some cases, we maintain and bear the cost of a ready workforce that is larger than necessary under existing contracts in anticipation of future workforce needs for expected contract awards. If an expected contract award is delayed or not received, we may incur additional costs resulting from reductions in staff or redundancy of facilities which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The nature of our contracts, particularly those that are fixed-price, subjects us to risks associated with cost over-runs, operating cost inflation and potential claims for liquidated damages.

We conduct our business under various types of contracts where costs must be estimated in advance of our performance. Approximately 22% of the value of our backlog is attributable to fixed-price contracts, which include our unit-rate contracts where we bear a significant portion of the risk of cost over-runs. These types of contracts are priced, in part, on cost and scheduling estimates that are based on assumptions including prices and availability of labor, equipment and materials as well as productivity, performance and future economic conditions. If these estimates prove inaccurate, if there are errors or ambiguities as to contract specifications or if circumstances change due to, among other things, unanticipated technical problems, difficulties in obtaining permits or approvals, changes in local laws or labor conditions, weather delays, changes in the costs of equipment and materials or our suppliers’ or subcontractors’ inability to perform, then cost overruns may occur. We may not be able to obtain compensation for additional work performed or expenses incurred. Additionally, we may be required to pay liquidated damages upon our failure to meet schedule or performance requirements of our contracts. Our failure to accurately estimate the resources and time required for fixed-price contracts or our failure to complete our contractual obligations within the time frame and costs committed could result in reduced profits or, in certain cases, a loss for that contract. If the contract is significant, or we encounter issues that impact multiple contracts, cost overruns could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are unable to attract and retain a sufficient number of affordable trained engineers, craft labor, and other skilled workers, our ability to pursue projects may be adversely affected and our costs may increase.

Our rate of growth and the success of our business depend upon our ability to attract, develop and retain a sufficient number of affordable trained engineers, craft labor and other skilled workers either through direct hire or acquisition of other firms employing such professionals. The market for these professionals is competitive. If we are unable to attract and retain a sufficient number of skilled personnel, our ability to pursue projects may be adversely affected, the costs of executing our existing and future projects may increase and our financial performance may decline.

Dependence on craft labor, subcontractors and equipment manufacturers could adversely affect our profits.
We rely on local craft labor, third-party subcontractors as well as third party equipment manufacturers to complete our projects. To the extent that we cannot engage craft labor, subcontractors or acquire equipment or materials, our ability to complete a project in a timely fashion or at a profit may be impaired. If the amount we are required to pay for these goods and services exceeds the amount we have estimated in bidding for fixed-price contracts, we could experience losses in the performance of these contracts. In addition, if a subcontractor or a manufacturer is unable to deliver its services, equipment or materials according to the negotiated terms for any reason, including the deterioration of its financial condition, we may be required to purchase the services, equipment or materials from another source at a higher price. This may reduce the profit we expect to realize or result in a loss on a project for which the services, equipment or materials were needed.

We conduct a portion of our engineering and construction operations through joint ventures and partnerships exposing us to risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control.

We conduct a portion of our EPC operations through large project-specific joint ventures where control may be shared with unaffiliated third parties. As with any joint venture arrangement, differences in views among the joint venture participants may result in delayed decisions or in failures to agree on major issues. We also cannot control the actions of our joint venture partners, including any nonperformance, default or bankruptcy of our joint venture partners, and we typically share liabilities on a joint and several basis with our joint venture partners under these arrangements. If our partners do not meet their contractual obligations, the joint venture may be unable to adequately perform and deliver its contracted services, requiring us to make additional investments or perform additional services to ensure the adequate performance and delivery of services to our customer. We could be liable for both our obligations and those of our partners, which may result in reduced profits or, in some cases, significant losses on the

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project. Additionally, these factors could have a material adverse effect on the business operations of the joint venture and, in turn, our business operations and reputation.

Operating through joint ventures in which we have a minority interest could result in us having limited control over many decisions made with respect to projects and internal controls relating to projects. These joint ventures may not be subject to the same requirements regarding internal controls and internal control reporting that we follow. As a result, internal control issues may arise, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, in order to establish or preserve relationships with our joint venture partners, we may agree to risks and contributions of resources that are proportionately greater than the returns we could receive, which could reduce our income and returns on these investments compared to what we may have received if the risks and resources we contributed were always proportionate to our returns.

The nature of our engineering and construction business exposes us to potential liability claims and contract disputes which may exceed or be excluded from existing insurance coverage.

We engage in engineering and construction activities for large facilities where design, construction or systems failures can result in substantial injury or damage to employees or other third parties or delays in completion or commencement of commercial operations, exposing us to legal proceedings, investigations and disputes. The nature of our business results in clients, subcontractors and vendors occasionally presenting claims against us for recovery of costs they incurred in excess of what they expected to incur or for which they believe they are not contractually liable. When it is determined that we have liability, we may not be covered by insurance or, if covered, the dollar amount of these liabilities may exceed our policy limits. Our professional liability coverage is on a “claims-made” basis covering only claims actually made during the policy period currently in effect. In addition, even where insurance is maintained for such exposures, the policies have deductibles, which result in our assumption of exposure for a layer of coverage with respect to any such claims. Any liability not covered by our insurance, in excess of our insurance limits or if covered by insurance but subject to a high deductible could result in a significant loss for us, which may reduce our profits and cash available for operations.

We occasionally bring claims against project owners for additional costs exceeding the contract price or for amounts not included in the original contract price. These types of claims occur due to matters such as owner-caused delays or changes from the initial project scope which may result in additional direct and indirect costs. Often these claims can be the subject of lengthy arbitration or litigation proceedings, and it is difficult to accurately predict when these claims will be fully resolved. When these types of events occur and unresolved claims are pending, we may invest significant working capital in projects to cover cost overruns pending the resolution of the relevant claims. A failure to promptly recover on these types of claims could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity and financial results.

International and political events may adversely affect our operations.

A significant portion of our revenues is derived from foreign operations, which exposes us to risks inherent in doing business in each of the countries where we transact business. The occurrence of any of the risks described below could have a material adverse effect on our business operations and financial performance. With respect to any particular country, these risks may include, but not be limited to:

expropriation and nationalization of our assets in that country;
political and economic instability;
civil unrest, acts of terrorism, force majeure, war or other armed conflict;
currency fluctuations, devaluations and conversion restrictions;
confiscatory taxation or other adverse tax policies; or
governmental activities or judicial actions that limit or disrupt markets, restrict payments, limit the movement of funds, result in the deprivation of contract rights or result in the inability for us to obtain or retain licenses required for operation.

Due to the unsettled political conditions in many oil-producing countries and other countries where we provide governmental logistical support, our financial performance is subject to the adverse consequences of war, the effects of terrorism, civil unrest, strikes, currency controls and governmental actions. Our operations are conducted in areas that have significant political risk. In addition, military action or unrest in such locations as the Middle East could restrict the supply of oil and gas, disrupt our operations in the region and elsewhere and increase our costs related to security worldwide.


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We may have additional tax liabilities associated with our domestic and international operations.

We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions, many of which are developing countries. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes due to lack of clear and concise tax laws and regulations in certain jurisdictions. It is not unlikely that laws may be changed or clarified and such changes may require material changes to our tax provisions. We are audited by various U.S. and foreign tax authorities and in the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination may be uncertain. Although we believe that our tax estimates are reasonable, the final outcome of tax audits and related litigation could be materially different from that which is reflected in our financial statements. In addition, because of the changing nature of our projects, geographic locations, etc. our effective tax rates in future years may differ materially from previous years.

We work in international locations where there are high security risks, which could result in harm to our employees and contractors or substantial costs.

Some of our services are performed in high-risk locations, including but not limited to, Iraq, Afghanistan, certain parts of Africa and the Middle East, where the country or surrounding area is suffering from political, social or economic issues, war or civil unrest. In those locations where we have employees or operations, we have and may continue to incur substantial costs to maintain the safety of our personnel. Despite these precautions, we have suffered the loss of employees and contractors that has resulted in claims and litigation. In the future, the safety of our personnel in these and other locations may continue to be at risk, exposing us to the potential loss of additional employees and contractors that could lead to future claims and litigation.

We ship a significant amount of cargo using seagoing vessels exposing us to certain maritime risks.

We execute different projects in remote locations around the world. Depending on the type of contract, location and the nature of the work, we may charter seagoing vessels under time and bareboat charter arrangements and assume certain risks typical of those agreements. Such risks may include damage to the ship, liability for cargo and liability which charterers and vessel operators have to third parties “at law.” In addition, we ship a significant amount of cargo and are subject to hazards of the shipping and transportation industry.

Demand for our services depends on demand and capital spending by customers in their target markets, many of which are cyclical in nature.

Demand for many of our services in our commodity-based markets depends on capital spending by oil and natural gas companies, including national and international oil companies, and by industrial companies, which is directly affected by trends in oil, natural gas and commodities prices. Market prices for oil, natural gas and commodities have significantly declined within the past year reducing the revenues and earnings of our customers. As a result, several leading international and national oil companies have announced their intention to reduce capital expenditures in 2016. Capital expenditures for refining and distribution facilities by large oil and gas companies have a significant impact on the activity levels of our businesses. Demand for LNG facilities for which we provide services could decrease in the event of a sustained reduction in the price and demand for crude oil or natural gas. Perceptions of longer-term lower oil and natural gas prices by oil and gas companies or longer-term higher material and contractor prices impacting facility costs can similarly reduce or defer major expenditures given the long-term nature of many large-scale projects. Prices of oil, natural gas and commodities are subject to large fluctuations in response to relatively minor changes in supply and demand, market uncertainty and a variety of other factors that are beyond our control. Factors affecting the prices of oil, natural gas and other commodities include, but are not limited to:

worldwide or regional political, social or civil unrest, military action and economic conditions;
the level of demand for oil, natural gas, and industrial services;
governmental regulations or policies, including the policies of governments regarding the use of energy and the exploration for and production and development of their oil and natural gas reserves;
a reduction in energy demand as a result of energy taxation or a change in consumer spending patterns;
global economic growth or decline;
the global level of oil and natural gas production;
global weather conditions and natural disasters;
oil refining capacity;
shifts in end-customer preferences toward fuel efficiency and the use of natural gas;
potential acceleration of the development and expanded use of alternative fuels;
environmental regulation, including limitations on fossil fuel consumption based on concerns about its relationship to climate change; and
reduction in demand for the commodity-based markets in which we operate.

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Crude oil and natural gas prices are extremely volatile. A continued decline in the price of oil and natural gas could adversely affect our results of operations.

Current global economic conditions, including the significant decline in oil and gas prices, have reduced and continue to negatively impact our customers' willingness and ability to fund their projects. These conditions reduce customer's revenues and earnings and make it difficult for our customers to accurately forecast and plan future business trends and activities, thereby causing our clients to slow or curtail spending on our services, or seek contract terms more favorable to them.

Our revenues are highly dependent on capital expenditures for LNG, refining and distribution facilities and other investments by oil and gas companies.  The demand for these facilities and the ability of our customers to obtain capital on attractive terms to finance these projects is also substantially dependent upon crude oil and natural gas prices. As seen in the recent decline in oil and natural gas prices, these commodities are subject to large fluctuations in response to changes in supply and demand, market uncertainty and a variety of other factors that are beyond our control. Demand for the services we provide could significantly decrease in the event of a sustained reduction in demand for crude oil or natural gas, or a continued decline in oil and gas prices. Oil and gas companies (our customers) have begun to reduce or defer their major expenditures due to perceptions of long-term decline in crude oil and natural gas prices and other market uncertainties. 

Our backlog is subject to unexpected adjustments and cancellations and, therefore, may not be a reliable indicator of our future revenues or earnings.

As of December 31, 2015, our backlog was approximately $12.3 billion. We cannot guarantee that the revenues projected in our backlog will be realized or that the projects will be profitable. Many of our contracts are subject to cancellation, termination or suspension at the discretion of the customer. From time to time, changes in project scope may occur with respect to contracts reflected in our backlog and could reduce the dollar amount of our backlog and the timing of the revenues and profits that we actually earn. Projects may remain in our backlog for an extended period of time because of the nature of the project and the timing of the particular services or equipment required by the project. Delays, suspensions, cancellations, payment defaults, scope changes and poor project execution could materially reduce or eliminate profits that we actually realize from projects in backlog. We cannot predict the impact that future economic conditions may have on our backlog, which could include a diminished ability to replace backlog once projects are completed or could result in the termination, modification or suspension of projects currently in our backlog. Such developments could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Intense competition in the engineering and construction industry could reduce our market share and profits.

We serve markets that are global and highly competitive and in which a large number of multinational companies compete. These highly competitive markets require substantial resources and capital investment in equipment, technology and skilled personnel. Our projects are frequently awarded through a competitive bidding process, which is standard in our industry. We are constantly competing for project awards based on pricing, schedule and the breadth and technical sophistication of our services. Any increase in competition or reduction in our competitive capabilities could have a material adverse effect on the margins we generate from our projects as well as our ability to maintain or increase market share.

A portion of our revenues is generated by large, recurring business from certain significant customers. A loss, cancellation or delay in projects by our significant customers in the future could negatively affect our revenues.

While we provide services to a diverse customer base, including international and national oil and gas companies, independent refiners, petrochemical producers, fertilizer producers and domestic and foreign governments, a considerable percentage of our revenues, particularly in our E&C business segment, is generated from transactions with certain significant customers. Revenues from Chevron represented 10% of our total consolidated revenues for the year ended December 31, 2015. The loss of our significant customers, or the cancellation or delay in their projects, could adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.


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If we are unable to enforce our intellectual property rights, or if our intellectual property rights become obsolete, our competitive position could be adversely impacted.

We utilize a variety of intellectual property rights in providing services to our customers. We view our portfolio of process and design technologies as one of our competitive strengths and we use it as part of our efforts to differentiate our service offerings. We may not be able to successfully preserve these intellectual property rights in the future, and these rights could be invalidated, circumvented, challenged or infringed upon. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries in which our services may be sold do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Since we license technologies from third parties, there is a risk that our relationships with licensors may terminate, expire or be interrupted or harmed. In some, but not all cases, we may be able to obtain the necessary intellectual property rights from alternative sources. If we are unable to protect and maintain our intellectual property rights, or if there are any successful intellectual property challenges or infringement proceedings against us, our ability to differentiate our service offerings could diminish. In addition, if our intellectual property rights or work processes become obsolete, we may not be able to differentiate our service offerings and some of our competitors may be able to offer more attractive services to our customers. As a result, our business and financial performance could be materially and adversely affected.

Our current business strategy includes the possibility of acquisitions, which may present certain risks and uncertainties.

We may seek business acquisitions as a means of broadening our offerings and capturing additional market opportunities by our business segments and we may be exposed to certain additional risks resulting from these activities. These risks include, but are not limited to the following:

valuation methodologies may not accurately capture the value proposition;
future completed acquisitions may not be integrated within our operations with the efficiency and effectiveness initially expected, resulting in a potentially significant detriment to the associated product/service line financial results and posing additional risks to our operations as a whole;
we may have difficulty managing our growth from acquisition activities;
key personnel within an acquired organization may resign from their related positions resulting in a significant loss to our strategic and operational efficiency associated with the acquired company;
the effectiveness of our daily operations may be reduced by the redirection of employees and other resources to acquisition activities;
we may assume liabilities of an acquired business (e.g. litigation, tax liabilities, contingent liabilities, environmental issues), including liabilities that were unknown at the time of the acquisition, that pose future risks to our working capital needs, cash flows and the profitability of related operations;
we may assume unprofitable projects that pose future risks to our working capital needs, cash flows and the profitability of related operations;
business acquisitions may include substantial transactional costs to complete the acquisition that exceed the estimated financial and operational benefits; or
future acquisitions may require us to obtain additional equity or debt financing, which may not be available on attractive terms, if at all. Moreover, to the extent an acquisition results in additional goodwill, it will reduce our tangible net worth, which might have an adverse effect on our credit capacity.

We rely on information technology ("IT") systems to conduct our business, and disruption, failure or security breaches of these systems could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We rely heavily on IT systems in order to achieve our business objectives.  We also rely upon industry accepted security measures and technology to secure confidential and proprietary information maintained on our IT systems.  However, our portfolio of hardware and software products, solutions and services and information contained within our enterprise IT systems may be vulnerable to damage or disruption caused by circumstances beyond our control such as catastrophic events, cyber-attacks, other malicious activities from unauthorized third parties, power outages, natural disasters, computer system or network failures, or computer viruses.  The failure of our IT systems to perform as anticipated for any reason could disrupt our business and result in decreased performance, significant remediation costs, transaction errors, loss of data, processing inefficiencies, downtime, litigation and the loss of suppliers or customers. We have experienced security threats in the past, none of which we considered to be significant to our business or results of operations, but future significant disruptions or failures could have a material adverse effect on our business operations, financial performance and financial condition.


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An impairment of all or part of our goodwill or our intangible assets could have a material adverse impact on our net earnings and net worth.

As of December 31, 2015, we had $324 million of goodwill and $35 million of intangible assets recorded on our consolidated balance sheets. Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair market value of net assets acquired in business combinations. If our market capitalization drops significantly below the amount of net equity recorded on our balance sheets, it might indicate a decline in our fair value and would require us to further evaluate whether our goodwill has been impaired. We perform an annual and an interim analysis, as appropriate, of our goodwill to determine if it has become impaired. The analysis requires us to make assumptions in estimates of fair value of our reporting units. If actual results are significantly different from the estimates, we may be required to write down the impaired portion of goodwill. An impairment of all or a part of our goodwill or intangible assets could have a material adverse effect on our net earnings and net worth.

Our use of the percentage-of-completion method of revenue recognition could result in a reduction or reversal of previously recorded revenues and profits.

A substantial portion of our revenues and profits are measured and recognized using the percentage-of-completion method of revenue recognition. Our use of this accounting method results in recognition of revenues and profits over the life of a contract, based generally on the proportion of costs incurred to date to total costs expected to be incurred for the entire project, the ratio of hours performed to date to our estimate of total expected hours at completion, or the physical progress on the project. The effects of revisions to estimated revenues and estimated costs are recorded when the amounts are known or can be reasonably estimated. Such revisions could occur in any period and their effects could be material. Although we have historically made reasonably reliable estimates of the progress towards completion of long-term engineering, program management, construction management or construction contracts, the uncertainties inherent in the estimating process make it possible for actual costs to vary materially from estimates, including reductions or reversals of previously recorded revenues and profits.

Our reorganization activities may not achieve the results we expect, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

In 2014, we announced and began to implement reorganization activities, which included the decision to no longer bid on certain types of work and exit certain non-strategic businesses. This decision resulted in a significant reduction in our forecasts of future cash flows for three of our previous reporting units and triggered a goodwill impairment test. There can be no assurance that our reorganization activities will produce the cost savings we anticipate in the expected time frame. Any delay or failure to achieve the expected cost savings would likely cause our future earnings to be lower than anticipated.

Risks Related to our Government Operations Business

The U.S. government awards its contracts through a rigorous competitive process and our efforts to obtain future contracts from the U.S. government may be unsuccessful.

The U.S. government conducts a rigorous competitive process for awarding most contracts. In the services arena, the U.S. government uses multiple contracting approaches. Historically, omnibus contract vehicles have been used for work that is done on a contingency or as-needed basis. In more predictable “sustainment” environments, contracts may include both fixed-price and cost-reimbursable elements. The U.S. government has also favored multiple award task order contracts in which several contractors are selected as eligible bidders for future work. Such processes require successful contractors to continually anticipate customer requirements and develop rapid-response bid and proposal teams as well as have supplier relationships and delivery systems in place to react to emerging needs. We will face rigorous competition and pricing pressures for any additional contract awards from the U.S. government, and we may be required to qualify or continue to qualify under the various multiple award task order contract criteria. It may be more difficult for us to win future awards from the U.S. government and we may have other contractors sharing in any U.S. government awards that we win. In addition, negative publicity regarding findings stemming from audits by the Defense Contract Audit Agency (the "DCAA"), congressional investigations and litigation may adversely affect our ability to obtain future awards. See "Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Analysis - U.S. Government Matters."


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Demand for our services provided under government contracts are directly affected by spending by our customers.

We derive a portion of our revenues from contracts with agencies and departments of the U.K., Australia and U.S. governments, which is directly affected by changes in government spending and availability of adequate funding. Additionally, U.S. government regulations generally include the right for government agencies to modify, delay, curtail, renegotiate or terminate contracts at their convenience any time prior to their completion. As a defense contractor, our financial performance is affected by the allocation and prioritization of defense spending. Factors that could affect current and future government spending include:

policy or spending changes implemented by the current administration, defense department or other government agencies;
changes, delays or cancellations of government programs or requirements;
adoption of new laws or regulations that affect companies providing services to the governments;
curtailment of the governments’ outsourcing of services to private contractors; or
level of political instability due to war, conflict or natural disasters.

We face uncertainty with respect to our government contracts due to the fiscal and economic and budgetary challenges facing our customers. Potential contract cancellations, modifications or terminations may arise from resolution of these issues and could cause our revenues, profits and cash flows to be lower than our current projections. The loss of work we perform for governments or decreases in governmental spending and outsourcing could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.

Our U.S. government contract work is regularly reviewed and audited by our customer, U.S. government auditors and others, and these reviews can lead to withholding or delay of payments to us, non-receipt of award fees, legal actions, fines, penalties and liabilities and other remedies against us.

U.S. government contracts are subject to specific regulations such as the Federal Acquisition Regulation ("FAR"), the Truth in Negotiations Act, the Cost Accounting Standards ("CAS"), the Service Contract Act and DoD security regulations. Failure to comply with any of these regulations, requirements or statutes may result in contract price adjustments, financial penalties or contract termination. Our U.S. government contracts are subject to audits, cost reviews and investigations by U.S. government contracting oversight agencies such as the DCAA. The DCAA reviews the adequacy of, and our compliance with, our internal control systems and policies, including our labor, billing, accounting, purchasing, property, estimating, compensation and management information systems. The DCAA has the authority to conduct audits and reviews to determine if KBR is complying with the requirements under FAR and CAS, pertaining to the allocation, period assignment and allowability of costs assigned to U.S. government contracts. The DCAA presents its report findings to the Defense Contract Management Agency ("DCMA"). Should the DCMA determine that we have not complied with the terms of our contract and applicable statutes and regulations, payments to us may be disallowed, which could result in adjustments to previously reported revenues and refunding of previously collected cash proceeds. Additionally, we may be subject to qui tam litigation brought by private individuals on behalf of the U.S. government under the Federal False Claims Act, which could include claims for treble damages.

Given the demands of working for the U.S. government, we may have disagreements or experience performance issues. When performance issues arise under any of our U.S. government contracts, the U.S. government retains the right to pursue remedies, which could include termination under any affected contract. If any contract were so terminated, our ability to secure future contracts could be adversely affected, although we would receive payment for amounts owed for our allowable costs under cost-reimbursable contracts. Other remedies that could be sought by our government customers for any improper activities or performance issues include sanctions such as forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspensions or debarment from doing business with the government. Further, the negative publicity that could arise from disagreements with our customers or sanctions as a result thereof could have an adverse effect on our reputation in the industry, reduce our ability to compete for new contracts and may also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Some of our U.S. government work requires KBR and certain of its employees to qualify for and retain a government-issued security clearance.

A KBR subsidiary currently holds a U.S. government-issued facility security clearance and certain of its employees have qualified for and hold U.S. government-issued personal security clearances which are necessary in order to qualify for and ultimately perform certain of our U.S. government contracts. Our facility security clearance could be marked as "invalid" for several reasons including unapproved foreign ownership, control or influence, mishandling of classified materials, or failure to properly report required activities. An inability to maintain our facility security clearance could disqualify us from bidding for and winning new contracts with security requirements as well as termination of any existing contracts requiring such clearances.

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Risks Related to Governmental Regulations and Law

We could be adversely impacted if we fail to comply with international export and domestic laws, which are the subject of rigorous enforcement by the U.S. government.

To the extent that we export products, technical data and services outside of the United States, we are subject to laws and regulations governing trade and exports, including, but not limited to, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, the Export Administration Regulations and trade sanctions against embargoed countries, which are administered by the Office of Foreign Asset Control within the Department of the Treasury. A failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in civil or criminal sanctions, including the imposition of fines upon us as well as the denial of export privileges and debarment from participation in U.S. government contracts. U.S. government contract violations could result in the imposition of civil and criminal penalties or sanctions, contract termination, forfeiture of profit or suspension of payment, any of which could make us lose our status as an eligible U.S. government contractor and cause us to suffer serious harm to our reputation. Any suspension or termination of our U.S. government contractor status could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We are subject to anti-bribery laws in the U.S. and other jurisdictions, violations of which could include suspension or debarment of our ability to contract with the U.S. state or local governments, U.S. government agencies or the U.K. MoD, third-party claims, loss of customers, adverse financial impact, damage to reputation and adverse consequences on financing for current or future projects.

The FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar anti-bribery laws ("Anti-bribery Laws") in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Our policies mandate compliance with these Anti-bribery Laws. We operate in many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with Anti-bribery Laws may conflict with local customs and practices. We train our staff concerning Anti-bribery Laws and we also inform our partners, subcontractors, agents and other third parties who work for us or on our behalf that they must comply with the requirements of these Anti-bribery Laws. We also have procedures and controls in place to monitor internal and external compliance. We cannot provide complete assurance that our internal controls and procedures will always protect us from the reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees or third parties working on our behalf. If we are found to be liable for violations of these laws (either due to our own acts or our inadvertence, or due to the acts or inadvertence of others), we could suffer from criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our work sites are inherently dangerous and we are subject to various environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. If we fail to maintain safe work sites or to comply with these laws and regulations, we may incur significant costs and penalties that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our work sites often expose our employees and others to chemical and manufacturing processes, large pieces of mechanized equipment, and moving vehicles. Failure to implement effective safety procedures may result in injury, disability or loss of life to these parties. In addition, the projects may be delayed and we may be exposed to litigation or investigations.

Our operations are subject to a variety of environmental, health and safety laws and regulations governing the generation, management and use of regulated materials, the discharge of materials into the environment, the remediation of environmental contamination associated with the release of hazardous substances and human health and safety. Violations of these laws and regulations can cause significant delays and additional costs to a project. When we perform our services, our personnel and equipment may be exposed to radioactive and hazardous materials and conditions. We may be subject to claims alleging personal injury, property damage or natural resource damages by employees, customers and third parties as a result of alleged exposure to or contamination by hazardous substances. In addition, we may be subject to fines, penalties or other liabilities arising under environmental safety laws. A claim, if not covered by insurance at all or only partially, could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Various U.S. federal, state, local, and foreign environmental laws and regulations may impose liability for property damage and costs of investigation and cleanup of hazardous or toxic substances on property currently or previously owned by us or arising out of our waste management or environmental remediation activities. These laws may impose responsibility and liability without regard to knowledge or causation of the presence of contaminants. The liability under these laws is joint and several. The ongoing costs of complying with existing environmental laws and regulations could be substantial and have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Changes in the environmental laws and regulations, remediation obligations, enforcement actions, stricter interpretations of existing requirements, future discovery of contamination or claims for

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damages to persons, property, natural resources or the environment could result in material costs and liabilities that we currently do not anticipate.

Risks Related to Financial Conditions and Markets

Current or future economic conditions in the credit markets may negatively affect the ability to operate our or our customers’ businesses, finance working capital, implement our acquisition strategy and access our cash and short-term investments.

We finance our business using cash provided by operations, but also depend on the availability of credit, including letters of credit and surety bonds. Our ability to obtain capital or financing on satisfactory terms will depend in part upon prevailing market conditions as well as our operating results. If adequate credit or funding is not available, or is not available on terms satisfactory to us, there could be a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance.

Disruptions of the capital markets could also adversely affect our clients’ ability to finance projects and could result in contract cancellations or suspensions, project delays and payment delays or defaults by our clients. In addition, clients may be unable to fund new projects, may choose to make fewer capital expenditures or otherwise slow their spending on our services or to seek contract terms more favorable to them. Our government clients may face budget deficits that prohibit them from funding proposed and existing projects or that cause them to exercise their right to terminate our contracts with little or no prior notice. Furthermore, any financial difficulties suffered by our subcontractors or suppliers could increase our cost or adversely impact project schedules. These disruptions could materially impact our backlog and financial performance.

In addition, we are subject to the risk that the counterparties to our Credit Agreement (as defined below) may be unable to meet their contractual obligations to us if they suffer catastrophic demands on their liquidity. We also routinely enter into contracts with counterparties, including vendors, suppliers and subcontractors that may be negatively affected by events in the capital markets. If those counterparties are unable to perform their obligations to us or our clients, we may be required to provide additional services or make alternate arrangements on less favorable terms with other parties to ensure adequate performance and delivery of service to our clients. These circumstances could also lead to disputes and litigation with our partners or clients, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

Furthermore, our cash balances and short-term investments are maintained in accounts held at major banks and financial institutions located primarily in North America, the U.K. and Australia. Deposits are in amounts that exceed available insurance. Although none of the financial institutions in which we hold our cash and investments have gone into bankruptcy, been forced into receivership or have been seized by their governments, there is a risk that this may occur in the future. If this were to occur, we would be at risk of not being able to access our cash and investments which may result in a temporary liquidity crisis that could impede our ability to fund operations.

We may be unable to obtain new contract awards if we are unable to provide our customers with letters of credit, surety bonds or other credit enhancements.

Customers may require us to provide credit enhancements, including letters of credit, bank guarantees or surety bonds. We are often required to provide performance guarantees to customers to indemnify the customer should we fail to perform our obligations under the contract. Failure to provide the required credit enhancements on terms required by a customer may result in an inability to bid, win or comply with the contract. Historically, we have had adequate letters of credit capacity but such capacity beyond our Credit Agreement is generally at the provider’s sole discretion. Due to events that affect the banking and insurance markets generally, letters of credit or surety bonds may be difficult to obtain or may only be available at significant cost. Moreover, many projects are often very large and complex, which often necessitates the use of a joint venture, often with a market competitor, to bid on and perform the contract. However, entering into joint ventures or partnerships exposes us to the credit and performance risk of third parties, many of whom may not be financially strong. If our joint ventures or partners fail to perform, we could suffer negative results. In addition, future projects may require us to obtain letters of credit that extend beyond the term of our current Credit Agreement. Any inability to bid for or win new contracts due to the failure of obtaining adequate letters of credit, surety bonding or other customary credit enhancements could have a material adverse effect on our business prospects and future revenues.

Our Credit Agreement imposes restrictions that limit our operating flexibility and may result in additional expenses, and this credit agreement may not be available if financial covenants are violated or if an event of default occurs.

Our Credit Agreement provides a credit line of $1 billion and matures in September 2020 (our "Credit Agreement"). It contains a number of covenants restricting, among other things, our ability to incur liens and indebtedness, sell assets, repurchase our equity shares and make certain types of investments. We are also subject to certain financial covenants, including maintenance

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of a maximum ratio of consolidated debt to consolidated EBITDA and a minimum consolidated net worth as defined in the Credit Agreement.

A breach of any covenant or our inability to comply with the required financial ratios could result in a default under our Credit Agreement, and we can provide no assurance that we will be able to obtain the necessary waivers or amendments from our lenders to remedy a default. In the event of any default not cured or waived, the lenders are not obligated to provide funding or issue letters of credit and could elect to require us to apply available cash to collateralize any outstanding letters of credit and declare any outstanding borrowings, together with accrued interest and other fees, to be immediately due and payable, thus requiring us to apply available cash to repay any borrowings then outstanding. If we are unable to cash collateralize our letters of credit or repay borrowings with respect to our Credit Agreement when due, our lenders could proceed against the guarantees of our major domestic subsidiaries. If any future indebtedness under our Credit Agreement is accelerated, we can provide no assurance that our assets would be sufficient to repay such indebtedness in full.

Provisions in our charter documents, Delaware law and our Credit Agreement may inhibit a takeover or impact operational control which could adversely affect the value of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as Delaware corporate law, contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change of control or changes in our management that a stockholder might consider favorable. These provisions include, among others, prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, advance notice for making nominations at meetings of stockholders, providing for the State of Delaware as the exclusive forum for lawsuits concerning certain corporate matters and the issuance of preferred stock with rights that may be senior to those of our common stock without stockholder approval. These provisions would apply even if a takeover offer may be considered beneficial by some of our stockholders. If a change of control or change in management is delayed or prevented, the market price of our common stock could decline. Additionally, our Credit Agreement contains a default provision that is triggered upon a change in control of at least 25%.

We are subject to significant foreign exchange and currency risks that could adversely affect our operations and our ability to reinvest earnings from operations. Our ability to mitigate our foreign exchange risk through hedging transactions may be limited.

We generally attempt to denominate our contracts in U.S. Dollars or in the currencies of our costs. However, we do enter into contracts that subject us to currency risk exposure, primarily when our contract revenues are denominated in a currency different from the contract costs. A significant portion of our consolidated revenues and consolidated operating expenses are in foreign currencies. As a result, we are subject to significant foreign currency risks, including risks resulting from changes in currency exchange rates and limitations on our ability to reinvest earnings from operations in one country to fund the financing requirements of our operations in other countries.

The governments of certain countries have or may in the future impose restrictive exchange controls on local currencies and it may not be possible for us to engage in effective hedging transactions to mitigate the risks associated with fluctuations of a particular currency. We are often required to pay all or a portion of our costs associated with a project in the local currency. As a result, we generally attempt to negotiate contract terms with our customer, who is often affiliated with the local government, or has a significant local presence, to provide that we are only paid in the local currency for amounts that match our local expenses. If we are unable to match our local currency costs with revenues in the local currency, we would be exposed to the risk of adverse changes in currency exchange rates.

If we need to sell or issue additional common shares to finance future acquisitions, our existing shareholder ownership could be diluted.

Part of our business strategy is to expand into new markets and enhance our position in existing markets, both domestically and internationally, which may include the acquiring and merging of complementary businesses. To successfully fund and complete such potential acquisitions, we may issue additional equity securities that may result in dilution of our existing shareholder ownership's earnings per share.

We make equity investments in privately financed projects in which we could sustain significant losses.

We participate in privately financed projects that enable governments and other customers to finance large-scale projects, such as the acquisition and maintenance of major military equipment, capital projects and service purchases. These projects typically include the facilitation of nonrecourse financing, the design and construction of facilities and the provision of operation and maintenance services for an agreed-upon period after the facilities have been completed. We may incur contractually reimbursable costs and typically make investments prior to an entity achieving operational status or receiving project financing.

20



If a project is unable to obtain financing, we could incur losses on our investments and any related contractual receivables. After completion of these projects, the return on our investments can be dependent on the operational success of the project and market factors which may not be under our control. As a result, we could sustain a loss on our equity investment in these projects.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.Properties
We own or lease properties in domestic and foreign locations. The following locations represent our major facilities.
Location
 
Owned/Leased
 
Description
 
Business Segment
North America:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Birmingham, Alabama
 
Leased
 
Office facilities
 
Engineering & Construction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Houston, Texas
 
Leased
 
Office facilities
 
All and Other
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
 
Leased
 
Office facilities
 
Engineering & Construction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Newark, Delaware
 
Leased
 
Office facilities
 
Engineering & Construction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Europe, Middle East and Africa:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Leatherhead, United Kingdom
 
Owned
 
Office facilities
 
Engineering & Construction and Government Services
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia
 
Leased
 
Office facilities
 
Engineering & Construction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asia-Pacific:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Singapore
 
Leased
 
Office facilities
 
Technology & Consulting and Engineering & Construction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sydney, Australia
 
Leased
 
Office facilities
 
Engineering & Construction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perth, Australia
 
Leased
 
Office and project facilities
 
Engineering & Construction

We also own or lease numerous small facilities that include sales offices and project offices throughout the world and lease office space in other buildings owned by unrelated parties. Our owned property is unencumbered and we believe all properties that we currently occupy are suitable for their intended use.

Item 3.Legal Proceedings

Information relating to various commitments and contingencies is described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and in Notes 14 and 15 to our consolidated financial statements, and the information discussed therein is incorporated by reference into this Item 3.

Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.


21



PART II

Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “KBR.” The following table sets forth, on a per share basis for the periods indicated, the high and low sales prices per share for our common stock as reported by the New York Stock Exchange and dividends declared. In the fourth quarter of 2015, we declared a dividend of $0.08 per share on October 28, 2015.
 
 
Common Stock Price Range
 
Dividends
Declared
Per Share
 
 
High
 
Low
 
Fiscal Year 2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
First quarter ended March 31, 2015
 
$
18.35

 
$
14.00

 
$
0.08

Second quarter ended June 30, 2015
 
$
20.77

 
$
14.30

 
$
0.08

Third quarter ended September 30, 2015
 
$
19.65

 
$
15.64

 
$
0.08

Fourth quarter ended December 31, 2015
 
$
19.94

 
$
16.34

 
$
0.08

Fiscal Year 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
First quarter ended March 31, 2014
 
$
34.77

 
$
26.34

 
$
0.08

Second quarter ended June 30, 2014
 
$
28.29

 
$
22.48

 
$
0.08

Third quarter ended September 30, 2014
 
$
24.44

 
$
18.77

 
$
0.08

Fourth quarter ended December 31, 2014
 
$
20.48

 
$
14.65

 
$
0.08

At January 29, 2016, there were 108 shareholders of record. In calculating the number of shareholders, we consider clearing agencies and security position listings as one shareholder for each agency or listing.
Share Repurchases
On February 25, 2014, our Board of Directors authorized a $350 million share repurchase program, which replaced and terminated the August 26, 2011 share repurchase program. The authorization does not obligate the Company to acquire any particular number of common shares and may be commenced, suspended or discontinued without prior notice. The share repurchases are intended to be funded through the Company’s current and future cash and the authorization does not have an expiration date.
Under our Credit Agreement, we are permitted to repurchase our equity shares provided that no such repurchases shall be made from the proceeds borrowed under the Credit Agreement and that the aggregate purchase price and dividends paid after September 25, 2015 does not exceed the Distribution Cap. As of December 31, 2015, the remaining availability under the Distribution Cap was approximately $698 million. The declaration, payment or increase of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon, among other things, future earnings, general financial condition and liquidity, success in business activities, capital requirements and general business conditions. Since January 2007, we have repurchased $793 million of our outstanding common stock and have paid $286 million in dividends.

22




The following is a summary of share repurchases of our common stock settled during the three months ended December 31, 2015.
Purchase Period
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased (1)
 
Average
Price Paid
per Share
 
Total Number  of
Shares  Purchased
as Part of  Publicly
Announced Plan
 
Dollar Value of Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the Plan
October 1 – 31, 2015
736

 
$
17.83

 

 
$
248,455,904

November 3 – 28, 2015
814,671

 
$
18.89

 
814,648

 
$
233,068,430

December 1 – 31, 2015
1,450,530

 
$
17.48

 
1,431,599

 
$
208,030,228

Total
2,265,937

 
$
17.99

 
2,246,247

 
$
208,030,228

  
 
(1)
In connection with the settlement of income tax and related benefit withholding obligations arising from issuance of share-based equity awards under the KBR Stock and Incentive Plan, we acquired 736 shares at an average price of $17.83, 23 shares at an average price of $18.15 and 18,931 shares at an average price of $17.03 in October, November and December, respectively, for a total of 19,690 shares at an average price of $17.06.
.




23



Performance Graph

The chart below compares the cumulative total shareholder return on shares of our common stock for the five-year period ended December 31, 2015, with the cumulative total return on the Dow Jones Heavy Construction Industry Index and the Russell 1000 Index for the same period. The comparison assumes the investment of $100 on December 31, 2010 and reinvestment of all dividends. The shareholder return is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

 
12/31/2010
 
12/31/2011
 
12/31/2012
 
12/31/2013
 
12/31/2014
 
12/31/2015
KBR
$
100.00

 
$
92.08

 
$
99.53

 
$
106.09

 
$
56.39

 
$
56.29

Dow Jones Heavy Construction
100.00

 
82.13

 
99.22

 
129.68

 
96.09

 
84.45

Russell 1000
100.00

 
99.49

 
113.34

 
147.85

 
164.21

 
162.42


24



Item 6.Selected Financial Data
The following table presents selected financial data for the last five years and should be read in conjunction with “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements.
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
Dollars in millions, except per share amounts
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
5,096

 
$
6,366

 
$
7,214

 
$
7,770

 
$
9,103

Gross profit (loss)
 
325

 
(65
)
 
417

 
518

 
640

Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
 
149

 
163

 
137

 
151

 
158

Impairment of goodwill, asset impairments and restructuring charges (a)
 
(70
)
 
(660
)
 

 
(180
)
 

Operating income (loss) (b)
 
310

 
(794
)
 
308

 
299

 
587

Net income (loss) (c)
 
226

 
(1,198
)
 
171

 
202

 
540

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
(23
)
 
(64
)
 
(96
)
 
(58
)
 
(60
)
Net income (loss) attributable to KBR
 
203

 
(1,262
)
 
75

 
144

 
480

Basic net income (loss) attributable to KBR per share
 
$
1.40

 
$
(8.66
)
 
$
0.50

 
$
0.97

 
$
3.18

Diluted net income (loss) attributable to KBR per share
 
$
1.40

 
$
(8.66
)
 
$
0.50

 
$
0.97

 
$
3.16

Cash dividends declared per share
 
$
0.32

 
$
0.32

 
$
0.24

 
$
0.28

 
$
0.20

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet Data (as of the end of period):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets (d)
 
$
3,412

 
$
4,078

 
$
5,422

 
$
5,752

 
$
5,651

Long-term nonrecourse project-finance debt
 
51

 
63

 
78

 
84

 
88

Total shareholders’ equity
 
$
1,052

 
$
935

 
$
2,439

 
$
2,511

 
$
2,442

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Financial Data (as of the end of period):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Backlog of unfulfilled orders (e)
 
$
12,333

 
$
10,859

 
$
14,118

 
$
14,931

 
$
10,931

 

(a)
Included in 2015 are asset impairment and restructuring charges of $70 million. The 2014 balance includes a goodwill impairment charge of $446 million related to three of our previous reporting units, impairment of long-lived assets charge of $171 million and restructuring charges of $43 million. Included in 2012 is a goodwill impairment charge of $178 million related to one of our previous reporting units and a $2 million long-lived asset impairment charge.
(b)
Includes gains on disposal of assets of $61 million, $7 million, $2 million, $32 million and $3 million for the years ended 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, and 2011, respectively.
(c)
Included in 2014 is $421 million of tax expense primarily related to valuation allowance on U.S. federal, foreign and state net operating loss carryforwards, foreign tax credit carryforwards, other deferred tax assets and foreign tax expense.
(d)
The impact of adopting Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2015-17 resulted in a decrease in total assets of $121 million, $16 million, $15 million, and $15 million for the years ended 2014, 2013, 2012, and 2011, respectively.
(e)
Prior to the second quarter of 2015, the amount included in backlog for long term contracts associated with the U.K. government's privately financed initiatives or projects was limited to five years. In the second quarter of 2015, we modified our backlog policy and now record the estimated value of all work forecast to be performed under these arrangements.

25



Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Introduction

Management’s discussion and analysis (“MD&A”) should be read in conjunction with Part I of this Form 10-K as well as the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Overview

During 2015, we delivered on the strategic objectives we established in the fourth quarter of 2014, which included: (1) focusing on differentiated offerings in our core markets, with emphasis on global sales, commercial rigor and consistent delivery, (2) rebalancing our business portfolio, streamlining operations and reducing costs, (3) continuing in our efforts to proactively resolve legacy disputes and litigation and (4) retaining a strong balance sheet while employing a balanced capital allocation policy. In conjunction with our strategic initiative, effective December 2014, we reorganized our business into three segments, T&C, E&C and GS to focus on our core strengths in global hydrocarbons and international government services. Our corporate expenses and other operations that do not individually meet the criteria for group presentation are now included in our Other business segment, while operations we intend to exit upon completing the existing contracts are in our Non-strategic Business segment. Each business segment, excluding our Other business segment, reflects a reportable segment led by a separate business segment president who reports directly to our chief operating decision maker ("CODM"). See "Item 1. Business" for a description of the business segments.

Business Environment

Our portfolio includes process technologies, energy project technical consulting, engineering, program management, construction, asset life cycle solutions and other related services. We provide these services to a wide range of customers across the hydrocarbons value chain and to various international and U.S. governmental agencies. The demand for our services depends on the level of capital and operating expenditures of our customers, which is often considered against prevailing market conditions and the availability of resources to support and fund projects. The significant decline in commodity prices has resulted in some of our oil and gas customers taking steps to defer, suspend or terminate capital expenditures.

Upstream oil projects have experienced the largest reductions in capital expenditures, as the effect of declining oil prices has been more pronounced in this sector. We continue to see other opportunities in the hydrocarbons market, including midstream gas projects such as LNG to satisfy future demand, and across the downstream sector, which will benefit from low feedstock prices. We believe that success in gas monetization, specifically LNG, is driven by the fundamental economic profile of these types of projects and requires the same focus in the selection of sustainable solutions. To deliver positive outcomes in these areas we collaborate with our customers using integrated teams, from project conceptualization and technical solutions selection through project award and implementation.

The current environment of low feedstock and energy prices has created strong downstream infrastructure investment in the U.S. Continued investment in the U.S. downstream market is expected to be supported, under the current market conditions, by international demand for petrochemicals and byproducts, derived from low gas prices. We expect investors to continue to reevaluate international downstream infrastructure investments for opportunities in the U.S. that offer low feedstock (i.e. natural gas) for their projects.

We expect continued opportunities within our global GS business as we drive higher value and lower cost solutions to support governments’ increasing training needs, operation, maintenance and sustainment requirements amidst generally lower operating budgets.

We believe KBR has a balanced portfolio of upstream, midstream and downstream solutions as well as recurring government services outsourcing opportunities, which together provide us with less exposure to the oil price declines than some of our peers.

Overview of Financial Results

2015 was a transformational year on the path towards KBR achieving the strategic objectives outlined during our Analyst Day in New York, NY, on December 11, 2014. In 2015, we successfully restructured our business, refocused the company around our core strengths in the hydrocarbons and international government services businesses, rebalanced our business portfolio through sales of businesses or through formation of strategic partnerships, significantly reduced our overhead costs and deployed a balanced capital allocation strategy while maintaining a strong balance sheet. Exiting 2015, we are well on track to successfully complete our business transformation by the end of 2016.

26




During the year we made significant progress in winding down activities related to our Non-strategic business segment. We completed two of three fixed-price EPC Power projects, with the third EPC power project expected to be completed in 2017. We also completed the sale of our Building Group and Infrastructure Americas businesses.

We made strong progress rebalancing our business portfolio to enhance the value creation for certain businesses that were under review by the company. We executed agreements to establish two strategic relationships within our E&C business segment. These relationships allowed us to (1) establish the Brown & Root Industrial Services 50/50 joint venture, where we contributed our Industrial Services Americas business in order to grow this business in North America, and (2) acquired a minority interest in a Gulf Coast pipe fabrication business, where we contributed a majority of our Canadian pipe fabrication and module assembly business. During 2015, we completed the last of the seven loss-making Canadian pipe fabrication and module assembly projects, further reducing the risk in KBR’s portfolio during the year.

In our GS business segment, we have been in the process of closeout of the legacy LogCAP III contract with the U.S. government which concluded in 2011. The U.S. government audits through 2011 are now complete with $9 million in questioned costs remaining out of approximately $46 billion in audited, incurred costs through 2011. We expect to conclude discussions regarding the questioned $9 million during 2016. We maintain provisions for all incurred cost audits and believe our settlement amount on the $9 million in disputed costs will fall within our previously provisioned amounts, further reducing risk in our legacy portfolio. However, we still have $173 million subject to issued and outstanding Form 1s. We were also successful in having numerous tort cases against us relating to alleged exposure to sodium dichromate from work performed under the LogCAP III contract dismissed on the merits. Although these cases are being appealed, we believe our risk of loss has been significantly reduced.

We made significant progress in reducing our operating expenses against our year-end 2016 strategic target of $200 million in annualized savings. To-date, we have identified and actioned more than $165 million of the $200 million in savings across the company.

Our transformation in 2015 has made KBR a leaner, more efficient and more customer-focused organization with improved operational capabilities delivering consistent and improved financial results.

Our financial results for the year ended December 31, 2015 were significantly improved from the year ended December 31, 2014. We generated net income in 2015 of $203 million compared to a net loss of $1.3 billion in 2014. Restructuring charges, impairments of goodwill and other assets and tax valuation allowances totaling approximately $1.1 billion were included in the results of 2014.

Our E&C business segment, where we execute large EPC projects, generated revenues of $3.5 billion and gross profit of $224 million during 2015. This business segment continues to deliver solid operational performance and successful execution on two mega-LNG projects in Australia. The business segment continues to actively pursue opportunities for LNG, floating LNG ("FLNG”), oil & gas, ammonia and chemicals projects and expects growth in services contracts executed by our Brown & Root Industrial Services joint venture. We have completed work on the seven loss making Canadian pipe fabrication and module assembly projects. The majority of our Canadian pipe fabrication and module assembly business has now been contributed to a separate third party pipe fabrication business as part of our minority ownership in that entity.

Our Non-strategic Business segment completed two of three fixed-price EPC Power projects with the remaining project scheduled for completion in 2017. During the year this segment contributed positive earnings of $27 million versus a loss of $227 million in 2014.

Our GS business segment decreased its gross loss by $29 million to a $3 million loss in 2015 compared to a $32 million loss in 2014. This segment is experiencing increased activity from new awards and expansions on existing U.S. government contracts, however, it continues to be adversely impacted by legal fees associated with the LogCAP III and Restore Iraqi Oil ("RIO") legacy projects. This segment has secured a major contract to support the U.K. Ministry of Defence ("MoD") Military Flying Training Systems program in January 2016 and is well positioned for a second large-scale contract with the U.K. MoD.

Our T&C business segment provides licensed technologies and consulting services to the oil and gas value chain, from wellhead to crude refining and specialty chemicals production. Gross profits increased by $24 million to $77 million in 2015 driven by a profitable mix of projects and cost reductions.


27



Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
 
2014 vs. 2013
Dollars in millions
2015
 
2014
 
$
 
%
 
2013
 
$
 
%
Revenues
$
5,096

 
$
6,366

 
$
(1,270
)
 
(20
)%
 
$
7,214

 
$
(848
)
 
(12
)%

The decrease in consolidated revenues in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily due to reduced activity within our E&C business segment from the substantial completion of one of the major LNG projects in Australia. The decrease in revenues was also attributable to the completion or substantial completion of several projects in the U.S., Middle East and Canada as well as the elimination of $126 million of revenues related to the deconsolidation of our Industrial Services Americas business in the third quarter of 2015. These decreases were partially offset by increased work or ramp up on chemicals and ammonia projects in the U.S. and a new oil and gas project in Europe. Our revenues were also impacted by activity within our Non-strategic Business segment, including the elimination of $141 million of revenues related to the Building Group, which we sold at the end of the second quarter of 2015, and the continued wind-down on two power projects that are nearing completion. In addition, the decline in both proprietary equipment sales and awards of new consulting contracts from upstream oil related projects within our T&C business segment contributed to the decrease.

The decrease in consolidated revenues in 2014 compared to 2013 was primarily driven by reduced activity within our E&C business segment resulting from the completion or near completion of EPC projects in our LNG/GTL markets, partially offset by new awards of refining, petrochemicals and chemicals projects. Lower overall volumes associated with our GS business segment's support and logistics activities in Iraq and Afghanistan for the U.S. and U.K. governments, respectively, also contributed to the decline. Additionally, the reduction in revenues was due to completion of several building projects within our Non-strategic Business segment.

Gross Profit (Loss)
 
 
 
 
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
 
2014 vs. 2013
Dollars in millions
2015
 
2014
 
$
 
%
 
2013
 
$
 
%
Gross profit (loss)
$
325

 
$
(65
)
 
$
390

 
600
%
 
$
417

 
$
(482
)
 
(116
)%

The increase in consolidated gross profit in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily due to losses and charges that were recognized during 2014 on projects within our E&C and Non-strategic Business segments that did not recur in 2015. Gross profit was also impacted by the recognition of favorable settlements in the third quarter of 2015 within our Non-strategic Business segment, ongoing execution on base operations and other contracts within our GS business segment and reduced overhead spending within our E&C business segment. This increase was partially offset by reduced activity on the major LNG project discussed above.

The decrease in consolidated gross profit in 2014 compared to 2013 was primarily attributable to an increase in estimated costs to complete projects within our Non-strategic Business segment and reduced volumes resulting from completion of our GS contracts discussed above. Within our E&C business segment, reduced volume as we reached peak activity in 2013 on certain EPC projects, higher estimated costs to complete certain projects and the positive impact of a fee negotiation in 2013, which did not recur in 2014, contributed to the reduction in gross profit. The impact of these decreases was partially offset by the reduction in losses within our E&C business segment on our Canadian pipe fabrication and module assembly projects in 2014 compared to 2013.

Equity in Earnings of Unconsolidated Affiliates
 
 
 
 
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
 
2014 vs. 2013
Dollars in millions
2015
 
2014
 
$
 
%
 
2013
 
$
 
%
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
$
149

 
$
163

 
$
(14
)
 
(9
)%
 
$
137

 
$
26

 
19
%

The decrease in equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily due to an insurance recovery and reduced costs on a joint venture project within our GS business segment in 2014 that did not recur in 2015 as well a reduction in volume due to the substantial completion of construction activities on this project during 2015. This decrease was offset by increased earnings on our offshore maintenance joint venture in Mexico in our E&C business segment.


28



The increase in equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates in 2014 compared to 2013 was primarily due to increased activity and progress on an LNG project joint venture within our E&C business segment and by an insurance recovery and reduced costs on a joint venture project in our GS business segment, offset by a reduction in volume as we neared completion of construction activities on this project.
General and Administrative Expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
 
2014 vs. 2013
Dollars in millions
2015
 
2014
 
$
 
%
 
2013
 
$
 
%
General and administrative expenses
$
(155
)
 
$
(239
)
 
$
84

 
35
%
 
$
(248
)
 
$
9

 
4
%

The decrease in general and administrative expenses in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily due to lower information technology support costs resulting from the cancellation of our enterprise resource planning ("ERP") implementation project in the fourth quarter of 2014, reduced overhead costs resulting from headcount reductions and other cost savings initiatives implemented at the end of 2014 and during 2015. General and administrative expenses in 2015 included $113 million related to corporate activities and $42 million related to the business segments.

The decrease in general and administrative expenses in 2014 compared to 2013 was primarily due to lower information technology support costs and reduced overhead costs resulting from headcount reductions and cost savings initiatives implemented at the end of 2013 and during 2014. Our general and administrative expenses for 2014 and 2013 included $35 million each related to our ERP project. Amortization on the completed phase of the project was $15 million and $7 million for 2014 and 2013, respectively. General and administrative expenses in 2014 included $174 million related to corporate and $65 million related to the business segments.

Impairment and Restructuring Charges
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
 
2014 vs. 2013
Dollars in millions
2015
 
2014
 
$
 
%
 
2013
 
$
 
%
Impairment of goodwill
$

 
$
(446
)
 
$
446

 
100
%
 
$

 
$
(446
)
 
(100
)%
Asset impairment and restructuring charges
$
(70
)
 
$
(214
)
 
$
144

 
67
%
 
$

 
$
(214
)
 
(100
)%

Asset impairment charges in 2015 reflects $22 million of charges within our E&C and Other business segments on the remaining portion of one of our ERP assets, which we abandoned during the year. We also recognized $9 million of impairment on leasehold improvements as a result of early termination of lease arrangements during 2015 related to leases within our E&C and Other business segments.

Restructuring charges in 2015 reflects $12 million in charges as a result of early termination of lease arrangements primarily within our E&C and Non-strategic Business segments and severance of $27 million within our E&C and T&C business segments as the result of workforce reduction efforts primarily related to our announcement at the end of 2014.

In 2014, we recognized goodwill impairment of $446 million related to the remaining goodwill associated with our Roberts and Schaefer ("R&S") and BE&K, Inc. acquisitions as a result of our decision to exit related businesses and the continued business decline in certain markets.

Asset impairment charges in 2014 reflects the impairment of $135 million for a portion of our ERP project we did not expect would provide us any future benefits, the recognition of a $31 million impairment of R&S intangible assets and $5 million of impairment charges related to leasehold improvements on the terminated leases and other properties.

Restructuring charges in 2014 reflect $29 million of severance charges as a result of workforce reductions and lease termination charges of $14 million as a result of terminated leases in several locations.

See Notes 8 and 9 to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion on our goodwill and asset impairment and restructuring charges.


29



Gain on Disposition of Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
 
2014 vs. 2013
Dollars in millions
2015
 
2014
 
$
 
%
 
2013
 
$
 
%
Gain on disposition of assets
$
61

 
$
7

 
$
54

 
771
%
 
$
2

 
$
5

 
250
%

The gain on disposition of assets in 2015 primarily reflects the gain recognized on the sale of our U.K. office location within our E&C business segment and our Infrastructure Americas business within our Non-strategic Business segment. This also includes the gain recognized in our E&C business segment for the deconsolidation and transfer of our Industrial Services business to the Brown & Root Industrial Services joint venture and the sale of our Building Group subsidiary within our Non-strategic Business segment in the second quarter. See Notes 2 and 10 to our consolidated financial statements for additional information.

Non-operating Income (Expenses)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
 
2014 vs. 2013
Dollars in millions
2015
 
2014
 
$
 
%
 
2013
 
$
 
%
Non-operating income (expenses)
$
2

 
$
17

 
$
(15
)
 
(88
)%
 
$
(8
)
 
$
25

 
313
%

Non-operating income includes interest income, interest expense, foreign exchange gains and losses and other non-operating income or expense items. The decrease in non-operating income in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily due to the gain on a negotiated settlement with our former parent as well as the reversal of associated interest under a tax sharing agreement recognized in 2014 that did not recur in 2015. Also contributing to operating income were foreign exchange gains of $9 million in 2015 due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the majority of our foreign currencies compared to losses in 2014.

The change to non-operating income in 2014 compared to non-operating expense in 2013 was primarily attributable to a $24 million gain related to a negotiated dispute settlement with our former parent in 2014.

Provision for Income Taxes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
 
2014 vs. 2013
Dollars in millions
2015
 
2014
 
$
 
%
 
2013
 
$
 
%
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
$
312

 
$
(777
)
 
$
1,089

 
140%
 
$
300

 
$
(1,077
)
 
n/m
Provision for income taxes
$
(86
)
 
$
(421
)
 
$
335

 
80%
 
$
(129
)
 
$
(292
)
 
n/m
 
n/m - not meaningful

The decrease in income tax expense in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily due to the absence of the nondeductible goodwill impairment loss, the increase in our valuation allowance for deferred tax assets and the recognition of taxes on undistributed earnings which impacted 2014 income taxes.

The increase in income tax expense in 2014 compared to 2013 was primarily due to the recognition of income tax expense of $421 million in 2014 on our loss before provision for income taxes instead of recognizing a tax benefit primarily as a result of the nondeductible goodwill impairment loss, an increase in our valuation allowance for deferred tax assets and recognition of taxes on undistributed earnings.
    
A reconciliation of our effective tax rates for 2015, 2014 and 2013 to the U.S. statutory federal rate is presented in Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements.


30



Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests
  
 
 
 
 
2015 vs. 2014
 
 
 
2014 vs. 2013
Dollars in millions
2015
 
2014
 
$
 
%
 
2013
 
$
 
%
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
$
(23
)
 
$
(64
)
 
$
(41
)
 
(64
)%
 
$
(96
)
 
$
(32
)
 
(33
)%

The decrease in net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily due to reduced joint venture earnings resulting from the substantial completions of an LNG project joint venture in Australia in our E&C business segment.

The decrease in net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in 2014 compared to 2013 is primarily due to earnings from the renegotiation of fees and cost recoveries on a joint venture project which were recognized in our E&C business segment in 2013 but did not recur in 2014.


31



Results of Operations by Business Segment

We analyze the financial results for each of our five business segments. The business segments presented are consistent with our reportable segments discussed in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements.

Years Ended December 31,
  
 

 

2015 vs. 2014

 

2014 vs. 2013
Dollars in millions
2015

2014

$

%

2013

$

%
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Technology & Consulting
$
324

 
$
353

 
$
(29
)
 
(8
)%
 
$
330

 
$
23

 
7
 %
Engineering & Construction
3,454

 
4,584

 
(1,130
)
 
(25
)%
 
4,956

 
(372
)
 
(8
)%
Government Services
663

 
638

 
25

 
4
 %
 
931

 
(293
)
 
(31
)%
  Other

 

 

 
 %
 

 

 
 %
Subtotal
$
4,441

 
$
5,575

 
$
(1,134
)
 
(20
)%
 
$
6,217

 
$
(642
)
 
(10
)%
Non-strategic Business
655

 
791

 
(136
)
 
(17
)%
 
997

 
(206
)
 
(21
)%
Total
$
5,096

 
$
6,366

 
$
(1,270
)
 
(20
)%
 
$
7,214

 
$
(848
)
 
(12
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross profit (loss)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Technology & Consulting
$
77

 
$
53

 
$
24

 
45
 %
 
$
69

 
$
(16
)
 
(23
)%
Engineering & Construction
224

 
141

 
83

 
59
 %
 
263

 
(122
)
 
(46
)%
Government Services
(3
)
 
(32
)
 
29

 
91
 %
 
90

 
(122
)
 
(136
)%
Other

 

 

 
 %
 

 

 
 %
Subtotal
$
298

 
$
162

 
$
136

 
84
 %
 
$
422

 
$
(260
)
 
(62
)%
Non-strategic Business
27

 
(227
)
 
254

 
112
 %
 
(5
)
 
(222
)
 
n/m

Total
$
325

 
$
(65
)
 
$
390

 
n/m

 
$
417

 
$
(482
)
 
(116
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Technology & Consulting
$

 
$

 
$

 
 %
 
$

 
$

 
 %
Engineering & Construction
104

 
90

 
14

 
16
 %
 
76

 
14

 
18
 %
Government Services
45

 
73

 
(28
)
 
(38
)%
 
61

 
12

 
20
 %
Other

 

 

 
 %
 

 

 
 %
Subtotal
$
149

 
$
163

 
$
(14
)
 
(9
)%
 
$
137

 
$
26

 
19
 %
Non-strategic Business

 

 

 
 %
 

 

 
 %
Total
$
149

 
$
163

 
$
(14
)
 
(9
)%
 
$
137

 
$
26

 
19
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total general and administrative expense
$
(155
)
 
$
(239
)
 
$
84

 
35
 %
 
$
(248
)
 
$
9

 
4
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Impairment of goodwill
$

 
$
(446
)
 
$
(446
)
 
(100
)%
 
$

 
$
446

 
100
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asset impairment and restructuring charges
$
(70
)
 
$
(214
)
 
$
(144
)
 
(67
)%
 
$

 
$
214

 
100
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gain on disposition of assets
$
61

 
$
7

 
$
54

 
771
 %
 
$
2

 
$
5

 
250
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total operating income (loss)
$
310

 
$
(794
)
 
$
1,104

 
139
 %
 
$
308

 
$
(1,102
)
 
(358
)%
 
n/m - not meaningful


32



Technology & Consulting

T&C revenues decreased by $29 million, or 8%, to $324 million in 2015 compared to $353 million in 2014 due to a decrease in proprietary equipment sales and awards of new consulting contracts from upstream oil projects partially offset by higher technology revenues related to several petrochemicals, ammonia and refining projects.

T&C gross profit increased by $24 million, or 45%, to $77 million in 2015 compared to $53 million in 2014 due to higher profitability on the mix of projects executed, a larger number of license milestones achieved and significant overhead reductions during 2015.

T&C revenues increased by $23 million, or 7%, to $353 million in 2014 compared to $330 million in 2013 driven largely by an increase in proprietary equipment supply on several ammonia plants and an increase in the number of consulting projects.  This improvement was partially offset by a reduction in volume attributable to delays in project awards and a decline in BED activities on several projects.

T&C gross profit decreased by $16 million, or 23%, to $53 million in 2014 compared to $69 million in 2013 due primarily to the project delays and decline in BED activities discussed above, offset by the impact to gross profit of the increased revenues from proprietary equipment supply and consulting projects.

Engineering & Construction

E&C revenues decreased by $1.1 billion, or 25%, to $3.5 billion in 2015 compared to $4.6 billion in 2014. This decrease resulted primarily from reduced activity on a major LNG project in Australia, the completion of Canadian pipe fabrication and module assembly projects which had peak activity in 2014, reduced activity in the construction market and the elimination of revenues resulting from the deconsolidation of our Industrial Services Americas business during the third quarter.

E&C gross profit increased by $83 million, or 59%, to $224 million in 2015 compared to $141 million in 2014. This increase was primarily due to Canadian pipe fabrication and module assembly projects, which had profit in 2015 resulting from negotiated settlements and closeout activities compared to recognition of losses in 2014, and reduced overheads in 2015. This increase was partially offset by reduced activity on a major LNG project in Australia.

E&C equity in earnings in unconsolidated affiliates increased by $14 million, or 16%, to $104 million in 2015 compared to $90 million in 2014. The increase was primarily attributable to our offshore maintenance joint venture in Mexico, which had increased earnings in 2015 due to the vessels being in dry dock during 2014 and a benefit of $15 million due to an adjustment in the second quarter of 2015 to correct transactions between the unconsolidated affiliates associated with that Mexican joint venture. The increase was partially offset by reduced earnings on an LNG project joint venture in Australia and reduced earnings on our ammonia plant joint venture in Egypt.

E&C revenues decreased by $372 million, or 8%, to $4.6 billion in 2014 compared to $5.0 billion in 2013. This decrease was primarily due to lower activity on LNG projects, as they neared completion in 2014, and reduced activity in the Construction market. These decreases were partially offset by increased activity on contracts for downstream projects in the U.S., on several Canadian pipe fabrication, module assembly and construction projects, on an upstream project in Azerbaijan and an increase in KBR services on an LNG project joint venture in Australia.

E&C gross profit decreased by $122 million, or 46%, to $141 million in 2014 compared to $263 million in 2013 due to higher activity and incentive fees on an LNG project in Australia in 2013 that did not recur in 2014 and a reduction in gross profit resulting from an increase in estimated costs to complete certain projects. These decreases were partially offset by reduced losses on our Canadian pipe fabrication and module assembly projects, start-up work on an ammonia plant in the U.S. and charges taken on LNG projects in 2013 that did not recur in 2014.

E&C equity in earnings in unconsolidated affiliates increased by $14 million, or 18%, to $90 million in 2014 compared to $76 million in 2013 due primarily to increased progress on an LNG project in Australia. This increase was partially offset by reduced earnings on the MMM joint venture in Mexico, as the vessels were out of contract for a significant portion of 2014.


33



Government Services

GS revenues increased by $25 million, or 4% to $663 million in 2015 compared to $638 million in 2014. This increase was driven primarily from the expansion of existing U.S. government contracts, partially offset by the effect of reduced troop numbers on services under U.K. MoD and NATO contracts in Afghanistan. Revenues were also positively impacted by favorable settlement of disputes with the U.S. government on some of our legacy projects.

GS gross loss decreased by $29 million, or 91% to a loss of $3 million in 2015 compared to a loss of $32 million in 2014. This improvement was driven by increased activity on U.S. government contracts discussed above, partially offset by the reduction in Afghanistan-related support activities. The positive impact of the favorable settlement of disputes with the U.S. government on some of our legacy projects includes the recognition of $18 million in legal fees related to these legacy contracts during 2015.

GS equity in earnings in unconsolidated affiliates decreased by $28 million, or 38% to $45 million in 2015 compared to $73 million in 2014. This decrease was driven primarily by an insurance recovery on a joint venture for a U.K. MoD project in 2014 that did not recur in 2015 as well as the impact of reaching substantial completion of construction activities on this project.

GS revenues decreased by $293 million, or 31% to $638 million in 2014 compared to $931 million in 2013. This decline was driven by a $246 million reduction in revenues from U.S. government contracts supporting military activities in Iraq in early 2014, and a $45 million reduction in revenues from U.K. MoD and NATO contracts supporting military operations in Afghanistan as a result of gradually reducing troop numbers. These decreases were partially offset by new awards of U.S. government construction and base support contracts in Europe and Africa as well as the award of a long term contract with the U.K. Metropolitan Police. Settlement of outstanding items and adjustments to reserves for questioned costs on our U.S. government legacy contracts, resulted in a $94 million reduction in revenues.

GS gross profit decreased by $122 million, or 136% to a gross loss of $32 million in 2014 compared to gross profit of $90 million in 2013. This decline was primarily driven by the completion of the U.S. government contracts in Iraq along with the reduced U.K. MoD and NATO support activities discussed above. Additionally, an increase in our estimate of costs to complete a roads program management contract in Qatar and a construction management contract with the U.S. government in Europe contributed to reduced gross profit. The settlements and reserves for questioned costs on the U.S. government legacy contracts discussed above also reduced gross profit by $66 million.

GS equity in earnings in unconsolidated affiliates increased by $12 million, or 20% to $73 million in 2014 compared to $61 million in 2013. This increase was primarily due to an insurance recovery on a joint venture for a U.K. MoD project, offset by a reduction in volume as we near completion of construction activities on this joint venture project.

Non-strategic Business

Non-strategic Business revenues decreased by $136 million, or 17%, to $655 million in 2015 compared to $791 million in 2014. This decrease was due to the sale of Building Group in the second quarter of 2015 and the near completion of several power and construction projects partially offset by increased activity on power and infrastructure projects that began in the second half of 2014.

Non-strategic Business gross profit increased by $254 million to a profit of $27 million in 2015 compared to a loss of $227 million in 2014. This increase was due to the non-recurrence of charges recognized during 2014 on a power project, improved performance and favorable settlements on power projects in the third quarter of 2015 as well as overhead savings resulting from the Building Group sale mentioned above and headcount reductions which began in late 2014.

Non-strategic Business revenues decreased by $206 million, or 21%, to $791 million in 2014 compared to $997 million in 2013. This was largely due to the completion or near completion of several building construction projects, partially offset by higher revenues from increased activity on two power projects.

Non-strategic Business gross loss increased by $222 million to $227 million in 2014 compared to $5 million in 2013. This increase in gross loss was primarily due to a $173 million impact from an increase in the estimate of costs to complete three power projects, resulting in losses or reduced margins on these projects, a settlement on a minerals project and increased legal reserves on an infrastructure project.


34



Changes in Estimates

Information relating to our changes in estimates is discussed in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements and the information discussed therein is incorporated by reference into this Item 7.

Acquisitions, Dispositions and Other Transactions

Information relating to various acquisitions, dispositions and other transactions is described in Notes 2, 7 and 10 to our consolidated financial statements and the information discussed therein is incorporated by reference into this Item 7.

Backlog of Unfilled Orders

Backlog generally represents the dollar amount of revenues we expect to realize in the future as a result of performing work on contracts and our pro-rata share of work to be performed by unconsolidated joint ventures. We generally include total expected revenues in backlog when a contract is awarded under a legally binding commitment. In many instances, arrangements included in backlog are complex, nonrepetitive and may fluctuate depending on estimated revenues and contract duration. Where contract duration is indefinite and clients can terminate for convenience at any time without having to compensate us for periods beyond the date of termination, projects included in backlog are limited to the estimated amount of expected revenues within the following twelve months. Certain contracts provide maximum dollar limits, with actual authorization to perform work under the contract agreed upon on a periodic basis with the customer. In these arrangements, only the amounts authorized are included in backlog. For projects where we act solely in a project management capacity, we only include the value of our services of each project in backlog. Previously, for long term contracts associated with the U.K. government's privately financed initiatives or projects ("PFIs" also "service concession arrangements"), the amount included in backlog was limited to five years. Effective in the second quarter of 2015, we modified our backlog policy and now record the estimated value of all work forecast to be performed under the PFI contracts. The reason for the change is that under these PFI contracts, the client is obligated to pay us certain amounts spanning periods beyond five years even if the client terminates the contracts for convenience. This change only relates to backlog of unfilled orders and does not alter our longstanding policies for revenue recognition; therefore, it has no impact on our financial statements. The $5 billion included in the change in policy column below represents our estimate of revenues related to payment obligations for periods beyond five years.

We have included in the table below our proportionate share of unconsolidated joint ventures' estimated revenues. Since these projects are accounted for under the equity method, only our share of future earnings from these projects will be recorded in our results of operations. Our proportionate share of backlog for projects related to unconsolidated joint ventures totaled $8.5 billion including the PFI change discussed above, at December 31, 2015 and $4.3 billion at December 31, 2014. We consolidate joint ventures which are majority-owned and controlled or are variable interest entities ("VIEs") in which we are the primary beneficiary. Our backlog included in the table below for projects related to consolidated joint ventures with noncontrolling interests includes 100% of the backlog associated with those joint ventures and totaled $285 million at December 31, 2015 and $928 million at December 31, 2014.


35



The following table summarizes our backlog by business segment:
Dollars in millions
December 31, 2014
 
New Awards
 
Change in Policy (a)
 
Other (b)
 
Net Workoff (c)
 
December 31, 2015
Technology & Consulting
$
400

 
$
348

 
$

 
$
6

 
$
(324
)
 
$
430

Engineering & Construction
7,788

 
1,789

 

 
(871
)
 
(3,558
)
 
5,148

Government Services
1,763

 
166

 
5,358

 
(63
)
 
(708
)
 
6,516

Subtotal
9,951

 
2,303

 
5,358

 
(928
)
 
(4,590
)
 
12,094

Non-strategic Business
908

 
49

 

 
(63
)
 
(655
)
 
239

Total backlog
$
10,859

 
$
2,352

 
$
5,358

 
$
(991
)
 
$
(5,245
)
 
$
12,333

 
(a)
Change in policy was implemented in the second quarter of 2015.
(b)
These amounts include adjustments for (i) changes in scope, (ii) effects of changes in foreign exchange rates, (iii) elimination of 50% of backlog associated with our Industrial Services Americas business, which we transferred to the Brown & Root Industrial Services joint venture in the third quarter of 2015 and (iv) elimination of our proportionate share of non-partner costs related to our unconsolidated joint ventures.
(c)
These amounts include the workoff of our projects as well as our proportionate share of the workoff of our unconsolidated joint ventures' projects.

We estimate that as of December 31, 2015, 38% of our backlog will be executed within one year. As of December 31, 2015, 22% of our backlog was attributable to fixed-price contracts, 49% was attributable to service concession arrangements, and 29% of our backlog was attributable to cost-reimbursable contracts. For contracts that contain both fixed-price and cost-reimbursable components, we classify the components as either fixed-price or cost-reimbursable according to the composition of the contract; however, except for smaller contracts, we characterize the entire contract based on the predominant component.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash and equivalents totaled $883 million at December 31, 2015 and $970 million December 31, 2014 and consisted of the following:

 
December 31,
Dollars in millions
2015
 
2014
Domestic U.S. cash
$
360

 
$
200

International cash
470

 
690

Joint venture cash
53

 
80

Total
$
883

 
$
970


Domestic cash relates to cash balances held by U.S. entities and is largely used to support obligations of those businesses as well as general corporate needs such as the payment of dividends to shareholders and potential repurchases of our outstanding common stock.

The international cash balances may be available for general corporate purposes but are subject to local restrictions such as capital adequacy requirements and local obligations such as maintaining sufficient cash balances to support our underfunded U.K. pension plan and other obligations incurred in the normal course of business by those foreign entities. Repatriated foreign cash may become subject to U.S. income taxes.

Joint venture cash balances reflect the amounts held by joint venture entities that we consolidate for financial reporting purposes. Such amounts are limited to joint venture activities and are not readily available for general corporate purposes but portions of such amounts may become available to us in the future should there be a distribution of dividends to the joint venture partners. We expect that the majority of the joint venture cash balances will be utilized for the corresponding joint venture projects.

Cash generated from operations is our primary source of operating liquidity. Our cash balances are held in numerous locations throughout the world. We believe that existing cash balances and internally generated cash flows are sufficient to support our day-to-day domestic and foreign business operations for at least the next 12 months.

36




Our international cash balances are primarily held in Australia and the Netherlands. As part of our cash repatriation strategy, we have provided cumulative income taxes on certain foreign earnings which allow for repatriation of approximately $140 million of international cash without recognizing additional tax expense. See Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion on our foreign cash repatriation strategy.

Our operating cash flow can vary significantly from year to year and is affected by the mix, terms and percentage of completion of our engineering and construction projects. We sometimes receive cash through billings to our customers on our larger engineering and construction projects and those of our consolidated joint ventures in advance of incurring the related costs. In other projects our net investment in the project costs may be greater than available project cash and we may utilize other cash on hand or availability under our Credit Agreement to satisfy any periodic operating cash requirements.

Engineering and construction projects generally require us to provide credit support to our customers in the form of letters of credit, surety bonds or guarantees. Our ability to obtain new project awards in the future may be dependent on our ability to maintain or increase our letter of credit and surety bonding capacity, which may be further dependent on the timely release of existing letters of credit and surety bonds. As the need for credit support arises, letters of credit will be issued under our Credit Agreement or arranged with our banks on a bilateral, syndicated or other basis. We believe we have adequate letter of credit capacity under our existing Credit Agreement and bilateral lines, as well as adequate surety bond capacity under our existing lines to support our operations and current backlog for the next twelve months.

As of December 31, 2015, substantially all of our excess cash was held in commercial bank time deposits and money market funds with the primary objectives of preserving capital and maintaining liquidity.

Cash flows activities summary
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31,
Dollars in millions
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Cash flows provided by operating activities
 
$
47

 
$
170

 
$
297

Cash flows provided by (used in) investing activities
 
101

 
(44
)
 
(62
)
Cash flows used in financing activities
 
(192
)
 
(210
)
 
(148
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
 
(43
)
 
(52
)
 
(34
)
Increase (decrease) in cash and equivalents
 
$
(87
)
 
$
(136
)
 
$
53


Operating activities. Cash provided by operations totaled $47 million in 2015 and was primarily attributable to distributions of earnings received from unconsolidated affiliates of $92 million and fluctuations in our working capital accounts. This increase was partially offset by contributions of approximately $48 million to our pension funds.

Cash provided by operations totaled $170 million in 2014 and was primarily attributable to distributions of earnings received from unconsolidated affiliates of $249 million and fluctuations in our working capital accounts. This increase was partially offset by contributions of approximately $48 million to our pension funds.

Cash provided by operations totaled $297 million in 2013 and resulted from our earnings, working capital and distributions of earnings received from unconsolidated affiliates of $180 million, partially offset by our payment of $108 million in outstanding performance bonds to PEMEX Exploration and Production ("PEP"), other uses driven by taxes and contributions of approximately $54 million to our pension funds. See Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of the performance bonds.

Investing activities. Cash provided by investing activities totaled $101 million in 2015, which was primarily due to $130 million in proceeds from sale of assets or investments. This increase was partially offset by a payment of $19 million to acquire an investment in a partnership.

Cash used in investing activities totaled $44 million and $62 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively, which was primarily due to purchases of property, plant and equipment associated with information technology projects which have now largely been cancelled.

Financing activities. Cash used in financing activities totaled $192 million in 2015 and included $62 million for the purchase of treasury stock, $40 million for our purchase of a noncontrolling interest in a joint venture, $47 million for dividend payments

37



to common shareholders, $28 million for distributions to noncontrolling interests and $11 million for principal payments on short- and long-term borrowings consisting primarily of nonrecourse debt of our Fasttrax VIE.

Cash used in financing activities totaled $210 million in 2014 and included $106 million for the purchase of treasury stock, $47 million for dividend payments to common shareholders, $61 million for distributions to noncontrolling interests and $11 million for principal payments on short- and long-term borrowings consisting primarily of nonrecourse debt of our Fasttrax joint venture. The uses of cash were partially offset by $10 million of investments from noncontrolling interests and $4 million of proceeds from the exercise of stock options.

Cash used in financing activities totaled $148 million in 2013 and included $7 million for the purchase of treasury stock, $36 million for dividend payments to common shareholders, $109 million for distributions to noncontrolling interests and $14 million for principal payments on short- and long-term borrowings consisting primarily of nonrecourse debt of our Fasttrax VIE and computer software purchases financed in 2010. The uses of cash were partially offset by $9 million of investments from noncontrolling interests and $6 million of proceeds from the exercise of stock options.

Future sources of cash. Future sources of cash include cash flows from operations, cash derived from working capital management, and cash borrowings under our Credit Agreement as well as potential litigation proceeds.

Future uses of cash. Future uses of cash will primarily relate to working capital requirements, capital expenditures, dividends, share repurchases and strategic investments. Our capital expenditures will be focused primarily on facilities and equipment to support our businesses. In addition, we will use cash to fund pension obligations, payments under operating leases and various other obligations, including potential litigation payments, as they arise.

Other factors potentially affecting liquidity

Power project losses. Our reserve for estimated losses on uncompleted contracts included in "other current liabilities" on our consolidated balance sheets includes $47 million at December 31, 2015 related to a power project. These accrued losses will result in future cash expenditures in excess of customer receipts. Based on current contracts and work authorizations, we anticipate completion of this project in 2017.

Credit Agreement

On September 25, 2015, we entered into a new $1 billion, unsecured revolving credit agreement (the "Credit Agreement") with a syndicate of banks replacing the previous agreement which was scheduled to mature in December 2016. The Credit Agreement is guaranteed by certain of the Company's domestic subsidiaries, matures in September 2020 and is available for cash borrowings and the issuance of letters of credit related to general corporate needs. Subject to certain conditions, we may request (i) that the aggregate commitments under the Credit Agreement be increased by up to an additional $500 million, and (ii) that the maturity date of the Credit Agreement be extended by two additional one-year terms.

Amounts drawn under the Credit Agreement will bear interest at variable rates, per annum, based either on (i) the London interbank offered rate ("LIBOR") plus an applicable margin of 1.375% to 1.75%, or (ii) a base rate plus an applicable margin of 0.375% to 0.75%, with the base rate equal to the highest of (a) reference bank’s publicly announced base rate, (b) the Federal Funds Rate plus 0.5%, or (c) LIBOR plus 1%. The amount of the applicable margin to be applied will be determined by the Company’s ratio of consolidated debt to consolidated EBITDA for the prior four fiscal quarters, as defined in the Credit Agreement. The Credit Agreement provides for fees on letters of credit issued under the Credit Agreement at a rate equal to the applicable margin for LIBOR-based loans, except for performance letters of credit, which are priced at 50% of such applicable margin. KBR pays an annual issuance fee of 0.125% of the face amount of a letter of credit and pays a commitment fee of 0.225% to 0.25%, per annum, on any unused portion of the commitment under the Credit Agreement based on the Company's consolidated leverage ratio. As of December 31, 2015, there were $127 million in letters of credit and no cash borrowings outstanding.

The Credit Agreement contains customary covenants, as defined by the agreement, which include financial covenants requiring maintenance of a ratio of consolidated debt to consolidated EBITDA not greater than 3.5 to 1 and a minimum consolidated net worth of $1.2 billion plus 50% of consolidated net income for each quarter beginning September 30, 2015 and 100% of any increase in shareholders’ equity attributable to the sale of equity interests, but excluding any adjustments in shareholders' equity attributable to changes in foreign currency translation adjustments. As of December 31, 2015, we were in compliance with our financial covenants.

The Credit Agreement contains a number of other covenants restricting, among other things, our ability to incur additional liens and indebtedness, enter into asset sales, repurchase our equity shares and make certain types of investments. Our subsidiaries

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are restricted from incurring indebtedness, except if such indebtedness relates to purchase money obligations, capitalized leases, refinancing or renewals secured by liens upon or in property acquired, constructed or improved in an aggregate principal amount not to exceed $200 million at any time outstanding. Additionally, our subsidiaries may incur unsecured indebtedness not to exceed $200 million in aggregate outstanding principal amount at any time. We are also permitted to repurchase our equity shares, provided that no such repurchases shall be made from proceeds borrowed under the Credit Agreement, and that the aggregate purchase price and dividends paid after September 25, 2015, does not exceed the Distribution Cap (equal to the sum of $750 million plus the lesser of (1) $400 million and (2) the amount received by us in connection with the arbitration and subsequent litigation of the PEP contracts as discussed in Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements). As of December 31, 2015, the remaining availability under the Distribution Cap was approximately $698 million.

Nonrecourse Project Finance Debt

Information relating to our nonrecourse project debt is described in Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements and the information discussed therein is incorporated by reference into this Item 7.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

Letters of credit, surety bonds and guarantees. In connection with certain projects, we are required to provide letters of credit, surety bonds or guarantees to our customers. Letters of credit are provided to certain customers and counterparties in the ordinary course of business as credit support for contractual performance guarantees, advanced payments received from customers and future funding commitments. We have approximately $2.2 billion in committed and uncommitted lines of credit to support the issuance of letters of credit and as of December 31, 2015, we have utilized $593 million of our present capacity under lines of credit. Surety bonds are also posted under the terms of certain contracts to guarantee our performance. The letters of credit outstanding included $127 million issued under our Credit Agreement and $466 million issued under uncommitted bank lines as of December 31, 2015. Of the letters of credit outstanding under our Credit Agreement, there are no letters of credit that have expiry dates beyond the maturity date of the Credit Agreement. Of the total letters of credit outstanding, $236 million relate to our joint venture operations where the letters of credit are posted using our capacity to support our pro-rata share of obligations under various contracts executed by joint ventures of which we are a member. As the need arises, future projects will be supported by letters of credit issued under our Credit Agreement or other lines of credit arranged on a bilateral, syndicated or other basis. We believe we have adequate letter of credit capacity under our Credit Agreement and bilateral lines of credit to support our operations for the next twelve months.

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Commitments and other contractual obligations. The following table summarizes our significant contractual obligations and other long-term liabilities as of December 31, 2015:
 
Payments Due
Dollars in millions
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
Thereafter
 
Total
Operating leases (a)
$
98

 
$
83

 
$
72

 
$
61

 
$
56

 
$
350

 
$
720

Purchase obligations (b)
8

 
1

 
1

 
1

 
1

 
1

 
13

Pension funding obligation (c)
41

 
41

 
41

 
41

 
41

 
125

 
330

Nonrecourse project finance debt
10

 
10

 
10

 
11

 
12

 
8

 
61

Total (d)
$
157

 
$
135

 
$
124

 
$
114

 
$
110

 
$
484

 
$
1,124

 
(a)
Amounts presented are net of subleases.
(b)
In the ordinary course of business, we enter into commitments for the purchase or lease of software, materials, supplies and similar items. The purchase obligations can span several years depending on the duration of the projects. The purchase obligations disclosed above do not include purchase obligations that we enter into with vendors in the normal course of business that support existing contracting arrangements with our customers. We expect to recover such obligations from our customers.
(c)
Included in our pension obligations are payments related to our agreement with the trustees of our international plan. The agreement calls for minimum contributions of £28 million in 2016 through 2023. The foreign funding obligations were converted to U.S. dollars using the conversion rate as of December 31, 2015. KBR, Inc. has provided a guarantee for up to £125 million in support of Kellogg Brown & Root (U.K.) Limited's obligation to make payments to the plan in respect of its liability under the U.K. Pensions Act 1995.
(d)
Not included in the total are uncertain tax positions recorded pursuant to Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 740 - Income Taxes, which totaled $257 million as of December 31, 2015. The ultimate timing of settlement of these obligations cannot be determined with reasonable assurance and have been excluded from the table above. See Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion on income taxes.

Transactions with Joint Ventures

We perform many of our projects through incorporated and unincorporated joint ventures. In addition to participating as a joint venture partner, we often provide engineering, procurement, construction, operations or maintenance services to the joint venture as a subcontractor. Where we provide services to a joint venture that we control and therefore consolidate for financial reporting purposes, we eliminate intercompany revenues and expenses on such transactions. In situations where we account for our interest in the joint venture under the equity method of accounting, we do not eliminate any portion of our revenues or expenses. We recognize the profit on our services provided to joint ventures that we consolidate and joint ventures that we record under the equity method of accounting primarily using the percentage-of-completion method.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Information relating to recent accounting pronouncements is described in Note 21 to our consolidated financial statements and the information discussed therein is incorporated by reference into this Item 7.

U.S. Government Matters

Information relating to U.S. government matters commitments and contingencies is described in Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements and the information discussed therein is incorporated by reference into this Item 7.

Legal Proceedings

Information relating to various commitments and contingencies is described in Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements and the information discussed therein is incorporated by reference into this Item 7.

Critical Accounting Estimates


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The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP") requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the determination of financial positions, cash flows and results of operations. Our critical accounting policies are described below to provide a better understanding of our estimates and assumptions about future events that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Significant accounting estimates are important to the representation of our financial position and results of operations and require our most difficult, subjective or complex judgments. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions we believe to be reasonable according to the current facts and circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.

We believe the following are the critical accounting policies used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, as well as the significant estimates and assumptions affecting the application of these policies. Our accounting policies are more fully described in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements.

Engineering and Construction Contracts. Revenues from the performance of contracts for which specifications are provided by the customer for the construction of facilities, the production of goods or the provision of related services is accounted for using the percentage-of-completion method. These contracts include services essential to the construction or production of tangible property, such as design, EPC and EPC management. We account for these contracts in accordance with ASC 605-35, Revenue Recognition, Construction-Type and Production-Type Contracts.

At the outset of each contract, we prepare a detailed analysis of our estimated cost to complete the project. Risks relating to service delivery, usage, productivity and other factors are considered in the estimation process. Our project personnel regularly evaluate the estimated costs, revenues and progress and adjust the estimates accordingly.

We measure the progress towards completion of the project to determine the amount of revenues and profit to be recognized in each reporting period. Profit is recorded based upon the product of estimated contract profit-at-completion times the current percentage-complete for the contract. Our progress estimates are based upon estimates of the total cost to complete the project, which considers, among other things, the current project schedule and anticipated completion date, as well as estimates of the extent of progress toward completion. While progress is generally based upon costs incurred in relation to total estimated costs at completion, we also use alternative methods including physical progress, labor hours incurred to total estimated labor hours at completion or others depending on the type of project.

Our estimate of total revenues includes estimates of probable liquidated damages and certain probable claims and unapproved change orders. When estimating the amount of total gross profit or loss on a contract, we include certain unapproved change orders or claims to our clients as adjustments to revenues and claims to vendors, subcontractors and others as adjustments to total estimated costs. Claims against others are recorded up to the extent of the lesser of the amounts management expects to recover or to costs incurred and include no profit until such time as they are finalized and approved. See Note 5 to our consolidated financial statements for our discussion on unapproved change orders and claims.

At least quarterly, significant projects are reviewed by management. We have a long history of working with multiple types of projects and in preparing cost estimates. However, there are many factors that impact future costs, including but not limited to weather, inflation, labor and community disruptions, timely availability of materials, productivity and other factors as outlined in "Item 1A. Risk Factors". These factors can affect the accuracy of our estimates and materially impact our future reported earnings.

For contracts containing multiple deliverables we analyze each activity within the contract to ensure that we adhere to the separation guidelines of ASC 605 - Revenue Recognition and ASC 605-25 - Multiple-Element Arrangements.

Estimated Losses on Uncompleted Contracts and Changes in Contract Estimates. We record provisions for total estimated losses on uncompleted contracts in the period in which such losses are identified. The cumulative effects of revisions to contract revenues and estimated completion costs are recorded in the accounting period in which the amounts become evident and can be reasonably estimated. These revisions can include such items as the effects of change orders and claims, warranty claims, liquidated damages or other contractual penalties, adjustments for audit findings on U.S. government contracts and contract closeout settlements. Information relating to our changes in estimates is discussed in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements and the information discussed therein is incorporated by reference into this Item 7.

Accounting for Government Contracts. Some of the services provided to the U.S. government are performed on cost-reimbursable contracts. Generally, these contracts may contain base fees (a fixed profit percentage applied to our actual costs to complete the work).


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Revenues are recognized at the time services are performed, and such revenues include base fees, estimated direct project costs incurred and an allocation of indirect costs. Indirect costs are applied using rates approved by our government customers. The general, administrative and overhead cost reimbursement rates are estimated periodically in accordance with government contract accounting regulations and may change based on actual costs incurred or based upon the volume of work performed. Revenues are reduced for our estimate of costs that either are in dispute with our customer or have been identified as potentially unallowable pursuant to the terms of the contract or the federal acquisition regulations.

Similar to many cost-reimbursable contracts, these government contracts are typically subject to audit and adjustment by our customer. Each contract is unique; therefore, the level of confidence in our estimates for audit adjustments varies depending on how much historical data we have with a particular contract. KBR excludes from billings to the U.S. government costs that are expressly unallowable, or mutually agreed to be unallowable, or not allocable to government contracts based on the applicable regulations. Revenues recorded for government contract work are reduced for our estimate of potentially unallowable costs related to issues that may be categorized as disputed or unallowable as a result of cost overruns or the audit process. Our estimates of potentially unallowable costs are based upon, among other things, our internal analysis of the facts and circumstances, terms of the contracts and the applicable provisions of the FAR, quality of supporting documentation for costs incurred and subcontract terms, as applicable. From time to time, we engage outside counsel to advise us in determining whether certain costs are allowable. We also review our analysis and findings with the administrative contracting officer ("ACO"), as appropriate. In some cases, we may not reach agreement with the DCAA or the ACO regarding potentially unallowable costs which may result in our filing of claims in various courts such as the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals ("ASBCA") or the COFC. We only include amounts in revenues related to disputed and potentially unallowable costs when we determine it is probable that such costs will result in revenue. We generally do not recognize additional revenues for disputed or potentially unallowable costs for which revenues have been previously reduced until we reach agreement with the DCAA or the ACO that such costs are allowable.

Goodwill Impairment Testing. Our October 1, 2015 annual impairment test for goodwill was a quantitative analysis using a two-step process that involves comparing the estimated fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. The fair values of reporting units were determined using a combination of two methods, one utilizing market earnings multiples (the market approach) and the other derived from discounted cash flow models with estimated cash flows based on internal forecasts of revenues and expenses over a specified period plus a terminal value (the income approach).

Under the market approach, we estimate fair value by applying earnings and revenue market multiples ranging from 4.08 to 13.42 times earnings and 0.3 to 1.3 times revenue. The income approach estimates fair value by discounting each reporting unit’s estimated future cash flows using a weighted-average cost of capital that reflects current market conditions and the risk profile of the reporting unit. To arrive at our future cash flows, we use estimates of economic and market assumptions, including growth rates in revenues, costs, estimates of future expected changes in operating margins, tax rates and cash expenditures. Future revenues are also adjusted to match changes in our business strategy. The risk-adjusted discount rates applied to our future cash flows under the income approach ranged from 12% to 15.4%. We believe these two approaches are appropriate valuation techniques and we generally weight the two resulting values equally as an estimate of a reporting unit's fair value for the purposes of our impairment testing. However, we may weigh one value more heavily than the other when conditions merit doing so. Other significant estimates and assumptions include terminal value growth rates, future estimates of capital expenditures and changes in future working capital requirements. The fair value derived from the weighting of these two methods provides appropriate valuations that, in the aggregate, reasonably reconcile to our market capitalization, taking into account observable control premiums.

In addition to the earnings and revenue multiples and the discount rates disclosed above, certain other judgments and estimates are used in our goodwill impairment test. Given this, if market conditions change compared to those used in our market approach, or if actual future results of operations fall below the projections used in the income approach, our goodwill could become impaired in the future.

At the annual testing date of October 1, 2015, our market capitalization exceeded the carrying value of our consolidated net assets by $1.7 billion and the fair value of all our reporting units substantially exceeded their respective carrying amounts as of that date.

The fair value for two reporting units in our E&C business segment with goodwill of $42 million and $33 million, respectively, exceeded their carrying values by 38% and 26%, respectively, based on projected growth rates and other market inputs that are more sensitive to the risk of future variances due to competitive market conditions and reporting unit project execution. If future variances for these assumptions are negative and significant, the fair value of these reporting units may not substantially exceed their carrying values in future periods.

Deferred Taxes and Tax Contingencies. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements for discussion on income taxes.

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Legal and Investigation Matters. As discussed in Notes 14 and 15 to our consolidated financial statements, as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, we have accrued an estimate of the probable and estimable costs for the resolution of some of our legal and investigation matters. For other matters for which the liability is not probable and reasonably estimable, we have not accrued any amounts. Attorneys in our legal department monitor and manage all claims filed against us and review all pending investigations. Generally, the estimate of probable costs related to these matters is developed in consultation with internal and external legal counsel representing us. Our estimates are based upon an analysis of potential results, assuming a combination of litigation and settlement strategies. The precision of these estimates and the likelihood of future changes depend on a number of underlying variables and a range of possible outcomes. We attempt to resolve these matters through settlements, mediation and arbitration proceedings, when possible. If the actual settlement costs, final judgments or fines, differ from our estimates after appeals, our future financial results may be materially and adversely affected. We record adjustments to our initial estimates of these types of contingencies in the periods when the change in estimate is identified.

Pensions. Our pension benefit obligations and expenses are calculated using actuarial models and methods. Two of the more critical assumptions and estimates used in the actuarial calculations are the discount rate for determining the current value of benefit obligations and the expected rate of return on plan assets. Other assumptions and estimates used in determining benefit obligations and plan expenses include inflation rates and demographic factors such as retirement age, mortality and turnover. These assumptions and estimates are evaluated periodically and are updated accordingly to reflect our actual experience and expectations.

The discount rate used to determine the benefit obligations was computed using a yield curve approach that matches plan specific cash flows to a spot rate yield curve based on high quality corporate bonds. The expected long-term rate of return on assets was determined by a stochastic projection that takes into account asset allocation strategies, historical long-term performance of individual asset classes, an analysis of additional return (net of fees) generated by active management, risks using standard deviations and correlations of returns among the asset classes that comprise the plans' asset mix. Plan assets are comprised primarily of equity securities, fixed income funds and securities, hedge funds, real estate and other funds. As we have both domestic and international plans, these assumptions differ based on varying factors specific to each particular country or economic environment.
The discount rate utilized to calculate the projected benefit obligation at the measurement date for our U.S. pension plan increased to