0001342874-22-000023.txt : 20220330 0001342874-22-000023.hdr.sgml : 20220330 20220330165637 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001342874-22-000023 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 20-F PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 173 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20211231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20220330 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20220330 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: Ternium S.A. CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001342874 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: STEEL WORKS, BLAST FURNACES ROLLING MILLS (COKE OVENS) [3312] IRS NUMBER: 000000000 STATE OF INCORPORATION: N4 FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 20-F SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-32734 FILM NUMBER: 22787307 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 26, BOULEVARD ROYAL STREET 2: 4TH FLOOR CITY: LUXEMBOURG STATE: N4 ZIP: L-2449 BUSINESS PHONE: (352) 4661-11-3815 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 26, BOULEVARD ROYAL STREET 2: 4TH FLOOR CITY: LUXEMBOURG STATE: N4 ZIP: L-2449 20-F 1 tx-20211231.htm 20-F tx-20211231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 20-F

(Mark One)
Registration statement pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

or
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

or
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

or
Shell company report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Commission file number: 001-3132734

TERNIUM S.A.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

26, Boulevard Royal– 4th floor
L-2449 Luxembourg
(Address of principal executive offices)

Alejandra Hryszkiewicz
26, Boulevard Royal– 4th floor
L-2449 Luxembourg
Tel. +352 26 68 31 52, Fax. +352 26 53 83 49, e-mail: luxembourg@ternium.com
(Name, Telephone, E-Mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
American Depositary SharesTXNew York Stock Exchange
Ordinary Shares, par value $1.00 per shareTXNew York Stock Exchange*



*Ordinary shares of Ternium S.A. are not directly listed for trading but only in connection with the registration of American Depositary Shares which are evidenced by American Depositary Receipts.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
2,004,743,442 ordinary shares, par value $1.00 per share
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes x    No o
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes o    No x
Note – checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
 x
Accelerated FilerNon-accelerated filer
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP o
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board
Other o
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.    Item 17 o    Item 18 o
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes     No x
Please send copies of notices and communications from the Securities and Exchange Commission to:



Diego E. Parise
Mitrani, Caballero & Ruiz Moreno Abogados
   Bouchard 680, 12th Floor
(C1106ABJ) Buenos Aires, Argentina
(54 11) 4590-8600
Patrick S. Brown, Esq.
Sullivan & Cromwell LLP
1888 Century Park East
Los Angeles, California 90067-1725
(310) 712-6600



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 4A.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16A.
Item 16B.
Item 16C.
Item 16D.
Item 16E.
Item 16F.
Item 16G.
Item 16H.
Item 17.
Item 18.
Item 19.
2


CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS
In this annual report, unless otherwise specified or if the context so requires:
References to the “Company” are exclusively to Ternium S.A., a Luxembourg public limited liability company (société anonyme);
References to “Ternium,” “we,” “us” or “our” are to Ternium S.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries;
References to the “Ternium companies” are to the Company’s manufacturing subsidiaries, namely Ternium México S.A. de C.V., or “Ternium Mexico,” a Mexican corporation; Ternium Brasil Ltda., or “Ternium Brasil” (formerly, CSA Siderúrgica do Atlântico Ltda., or CSA), a Brazilian corporation; Ternium Argentina S.A., or “Ternium Argentina”, (formerly Siderar S.A.I.C., or Siderar), an Argentine corporation; Ternium Colombia S.A.S., or “Ternium Colombia”, (formerly Ferrasa S.A.S., or Ferrasa), a Colombian corporation; Ternium del Atlántico S.A.S., or “Ternium del Atlantico”), a Colombian corporation; Ternium Internacional Guatemala S.A., or “Ternium Guatemala,” a Guatemalan corporation; Ternium USA Inc., or “Ternium USA”, a Delaware corporation; Las Encinas S.A. de C.V., or “Las Encinas,” a Mexican corporation; and Consorcio Minero Benito Juárez Peña Colorada S.A. de C.V., or “Consorcio Peña Colorada,” a Mexican corporation, and their respective subsidiaries;
References to “Tenaris” are to Tenaris S.A., a Luxembourg public limited liability company (société anonyme) and a significant shareholder of the Company;
References to “San Faustin” are to San Faustin S.A., a Luxembourg corporation and the Company’s indirect controlling shareholder;
References to “Exiros” are to Exiros B.V., a Dutch corporation, and its subsidiaries under the brand “Exiros”
References to “Tecpetrol” are to Tecpetrol International S.A., a wholly owned subsidiary of San Faustin;
References to “Tenigal” are to Tenigal S.R.L. de C.V., a Mexican company, 51% owned by Ternium and 49% owned by Nippon Steel Corporation, or NSC;
References to “Usiminas” are to Usinas Siderúrgicas de Minas Gerais S.A. – USIMINAS, a Brazilian corporation in which we own a total of 242.6 million ordinary shares and 8.5 million preferred shares, representing 20.4% of Usiminas’ capital. For further information on our investment in Usiminas, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Other Investments-Usiminas” and note 13 to the consolidated financial statements included in this annual report;
References to “ADSs” are to the American Depositary Shares, which are evidenced by American Depositary Receipts, or ADRs;
References to “finished steel products” when used in connection with production capacity are to finished steel products and semi-finished steel products intended to be sold to third parties;
References to “tons” are to metric tons; one metric ton is equal to 1,000 kilograms, 2,204.62 pounds or 1.102 U.S. (short) tons;
References to “billions” are to thousands of millions, or 1,000,000,000; and
References to “Ternium Investments” are to Ternium Investments S.à r.l., a Luxembourg private limited liability company (société à responsabilité limitée), and a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company.

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PRESENTATION OF CERTAIN FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
Accounting Principles
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”), and adopted by the European Union. IFRS differs in certain significant aspects from generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, commonly referred to as U.S. GAAP. Additionally, this annual report includes certain non-IFRS alternative performance measures such as Net Cash, Net Debt and Free Cash Flow. See Exhibit 7.2 for more details on these alternative performance measures. We publish consolidated financial statements presented in increments of a thousand U.S. dollars. This annual report includes our audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019.

Currencies
In this annual report, unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise requires:
“dollars,” “U.S. dollars,” “USD”, “US$” or “$” each refers to the United States of America dollar;
“Mexican pesos” or “MXN” each refers to the Mexican peso;
“Argentine pesos” or “ARS” each refers to the Argentine peso; and
“Brazilian reais” or “BRL” each refers to the Brazilian real.
“Colombian pesos” or “COP” each refers to the Colombian peso.
On December 31, 2021, the U.S. dollar sell exchange rate in Mexico (as published by Banco de México, the Mexican central bank) was MXN20.4672=$1.00; the U.S. dollar sell exchange rate in Brazil (as published by Banco Central do Brasil, the Brazilian central bank) was BRL5.5805=$1.00; the U.S. dollar sell exchange rate in Argentina (as published by Banco Central de la República Argentina, the Argentine central bank) was ARS102.7=$1.00; and the U.S. dollar average exchange rate in Colombia (as published by Banco de la República, the Colombian central bank) was COP3,981=$1.00. Those rates may differ from the actual rates used in preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements. We do not represent that any of these currencies could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or that U.S. dollars could have been or could be converted into any of these currencies.
Rounding; Comparability of Data
Certain monetary amounts, percentages and other figures included in this annual report have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them, and figures expressed as percentages in the text may not total 100% or, as applicable, when aggregated may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the percentages that precede them.
Our Internet Site Is Not Part of this Annual Report
We maintain an Internet website at www.ternium.com. Information contained in or otherwise accessible through our Internet website is not a part of this annual report. All references in this annual report to this Internet site are inactive textual references to this URL, or “uniform resource locator” and are for your informational reference only. We assume no responsibility for the information contained on our website.
Industry Data
Unless otherwise indicated, industry data and statistics (including historical information, estimates or forecasts) in this annual report are contained in or derived from internal or industry sources believed by Ternium to be reliable. Industry data and statistics are inherently predictive and are not necessarily reflective of actual industry conditions. Such statistics are based on market research, which itself is based on sampling and subjective judgments by both the researchers and the respondents, including judgments about what types of products and transactions should be included in the relevant market. In addition, the value of comparisons of statistics for different markets is limited by many factors, including that (i) the markets are defined differently, (ii) the underlying information was gathered by different methods and (iii) different assumptions were applied in compiling the data. Such data and statistics have not been independently verified, and the Company makes no representation as to the accuracy or completeness of such data or any assumptions relied upon therein.

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report and any other oral or written statements made by us to the public may contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of and subject to the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. This annual report contains forward-looking statements, including with respect to certain of our plans and current goals and expectations relating to Ternium’s future financial condition and performance, which are provided to allow potential investors the opportunity to understand management’s beliefs and opinions in respect of the future so that they may use such beliefs and opinions as one factor in evaluating an investment in Ternium’s securities.
Sections of this annual report that by their nature contain forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, Item 3. “Key Information,” Item 4. “Information on the Company,” Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and Item 11. “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.”
We use words such as “aim,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” “contemplate,” “seek to,” “future,” “objective,” “goal,” “should,” “will pursue,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe” and words and terms of similar substance to identify forward-looking statements, but they are not the only way we identify such statements. All forward-looking statements are based on management’s present expectations of future events and are subject to a number of factors and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by those forward-looking statements. These factors include the risks related to our business discussed under Item 3. “Key Information—D. Risk Factors,” and among them, the following:
uncertainties about the behavior of steel consumers in the markets in which Ternium operates and sells its products;
changes in the pricing environments in the countries in which Ternium operates;
the impact in the markets in which Ternium operates of existing and new competitors whose presence may affect Ternium’s customer mix, revenues and profitability;
increases in the prices of raw materials, slabs, energy or other inputs, or other events affecting supply and demand of raw materials, slabs, energy or other inputs, such as supply chain disruptions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic or supply disruptions or costs of raw materials, slabs, energy or other inputs related to the recent Russia- Ukraine armed conflict;
the economic, political, social and regulatory developments and conditions in the countries in which Ternium owns facilities or other countries which have an impact on Ternium’s business activities or investments;
inflation or deflation and foreign exchange rates in the countries in which Ternium operates;
volatility in interest rates;
the performance of the financial markets globally and in the countries in which Ternium operates;
the uncertainties associated with the performance of our investment in Usiminas (including those concerning the operating and financial performance of Usiminas and the Brazilian economy in general and the trading price of Usiminas’ ordinary and preferred shares);
changes in domestic and foreign laws and regulations, including changes relating to tax, trade and foreign exchange matters, or the imposition of tariffs, quotas or other trade barriers;
regional or general changes in asset valuations;
uncertainties as to the result of our iron ore exploration activities or the successful exploitation of our mines;
our ability to successfully implement our business strategy or to grow through acquisitions, greenfield and brownfield projects, joint ventures and other investments;
effects of global events such as pandemics; and
other factors or trends affecting the steel and mining industries generally and our financial condition in particular.
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By their nature, certain disclosures relating to these and other risks are only estimates and could be materially different from what actually occurs in the future. As a result, actual future gains or losses or other occurrences or developments that may affect Ternium’s financial condition and results of operations could differ materially from those that have been estimated. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this annual report. Except as required by law, we are not under any obligation, and expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or alter any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of changes of circumstances or management’s estimates or opinions, new information, future events or otherwise.


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PART I
Item 1.     Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not applicable.
Item 2.     Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
Item 3.     Key Information
A.    Selected Financial Data
Not applicable.
B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D.    Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all other information contained in this annual report, before making any investment decision. Any of these risks and uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on Ternium's business, financial condition and results of operations, which could in turn affect the price of the Company’s shares and ADSs.

Risks Relating to the Steel Industry

A downturn in global or regional economic activity would cause a reduction in worldwide or regional demand for steel, which would have a material adverse effect on the steel industry and Ternium.

Steel demand is sensitive to trends in cyclical industries, such as the construction, automotive, appliance and machinery industries, which are significant markets for Ternium’s products and are also affected by national, regional or global economic conditions. A downturn in economic activity would reduce demand for steel products. This would have a negative effect on Ternium’s business and results of operations. A recession or depression affecting developed economies, or slower growth or recessionary conditions in emerging economies would exact a heavy toll on the steel industry and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

In 2020 the rapid expansion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the surfacing of new strains of the virus in several countries, and the containment measures adopted by governmental authorities triggered a severe fall in global economic activity and precipitated an unprecedented worldwide crisis. We took prompt action to mitigate the impact of the crisis and to adapt our operations on a country-by-country basis to comply with applicable rules and requirements. Although such measures proved to be successful to mitigate the impact of the crisis on us, and most restrictions imposed in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic have been lifted or relaxed in the countries where Ternium operates, if the virus continues to mutate and spread and new preventive measures are imposed in the future, our operations could be further affected adversely impacting our results. In addition, although global activity levels started to improve during the second half of 2020 and steel demand recovered to pre-COVID levels in 2021, there remains considerable uncertainty about the future duration and extent of the pandemic with new and more contagious variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus appearing as well as about the effectiveness of available vaccines and the success of vaccination campaigns. In this uncertain environment our results of operations and financial condition could still be severely affected. For further information on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures adopted in connection therewith, see note 29 “The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on Ternium” of our audited consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

A protracted fall in steel prices or price volatility would have a material adverse effect on the results of Ternium.

Steel prices are volatile and are sensitive to trends in steel demand and raw material costs, such as steel scrap, iron ore and metallurgical coal costs. Historically, the length and nature of business cycles affecting steel demand and raw
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material costs have been unpredictable. For example, U.S. steel prices trended down during most of 2018 and 2019, after peaking during the first half of 2018, as a result of softer steel consumption, increased steel production and, in 2019, lower costs of steel scrap. Steel prices decreased further in 2020 during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic reflecting a depression in steel consumption. However, after an initial slump, steel prices increased steadily during the rest of 2020 and picked at historical record levels in September 2021, as the speed of the recovery in steel production and in the production of steelmaking raw materials fell short of steel demand. Since then, steel prices decreased rapidly under a normalizing steel supply-demand balance scenario until February 2022, when they raised significantly following the start of the Russia-Ukraine armed conflict. A protracted fall in steel prices could adversely affect Ternium’s operating results by means of lower revenues and, eventually, could lead to inventory write-downs.

Even if raw material costs declined, the resulting reduction in steel production costs would not be immediately reflected in Ternium’s operating results as Ternium would first consume existing inventories acquired prior to such raw material cost decrease. In addition, Ternium may be unable to recover, in whole or in part, increased costs of raw materials and energy through increased selling prices on its products, or it may take an extended period of time to do so.

Regional or worldwide excess steel production capacity may lead to unfair trade practices in the international steel markets and/or to intense competition, hampering Ternium’s ability to sustain adequate profitability.

The steel industry is affected by economic cycles, as well as by regional or worldwide production overcapacity. Historically, the steel industry has suffered, especially on downturn cycles, from substantial over-capacity. In the last decade, over-capacity was particularly severe in China. More recently, there are several new steel making and steel processing facilities under construction or ramping-up in North America, which could contribute to an excess of steel production capacity in the coming years in the region. For further information on Ternium’s competition in the Mexican market see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Competition —Steel—Mexico”.

Excess steel production capacity may require several years to be absorbed by demand and, as a consequence, may contribute to an extended period of depressed margins and industry weakness. International trade of steel products conducted under unfair conditions increases particularly during downturn cycles and as a result of production over-capacity. Unfair trade practices may result in the imposition by some countries (that are significant producers and consumers of steel) of antidumping and countervailing duties or other trade measures and may cause fluctuations in international steel trade. The imposition of such trade remedies or temporary tariffs on major steel exporters in significant steel producing countries could in turn exacerbate pressures in other markets, including those in which Ternium operates, as exporters target such other markets to compensate, at least partially, for the loss of business resulting from the imposition of trade remedies or tariffs.

China is the largest steel producing country in the world, accounting for approximately 60% of worldwide crude steel production, and Chinese exports of steel products, including exports to Europe, the United States and Mexico, were subject to the imposition of antidumping and countervailing duties and other trade measures. A decrease in steel consumption in China in the future, including as a result of new variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus appearing, could stimulate aggressive Chinese steel export offers, exerting downward pressure on sales and margins of steel companies operating in other markets and regions, including those in which Ternium operates. Similarly, a downturn in global or regional economic activity could encourage unfair steel trade practices adversely affecting Ternium’s business and results of operations. For further information, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Trade Regulations".

Sales may fall as a result of fluctuations in industry inventory levels or disruptions in Ternium customers’ supply chains.

Inventory levels of steel products held by companies that purchase Ternium’s products can vary significantly from period to period, as customers draw from existing inventory during periods of low investment in construction and other industry sectors that purchase Ternium’s products and accumulate inventory during periods of high investment. As a result, such companies may not purchase additional steel products or maintain their regular purchasing volume. In addition, disruptions in the industry’s supply chain could reduce the demand for Ternium’s products. For example, in 2021 vehicle production was severely affected by a shortage of semiconductors that, in turn, affected Ternium’s steel sales. Fluctuations in steel inventory levels and disruptions in Ternium customers’ supply chains can temporarily affect the demand for, and price of, Ternium’s products and, accordingly, Ternium may not be able to increase or maintain its levels of sales volumes or prices.



8


Intense competition could cause Ternium to lose its share in certain markets and adversely affect its revenues.

The market for Ternium’s steel products is highly competitive, particularly with respect to price, quality and service. In both global and regional markets, Ternium competes against other global and local producers of steel products, which in some cases have greater financial and operating resources, or direct and indirect governmental support. Competition could result in declining margins and reductions in shipments. Ternium’s competitors could use their resources in a variety of ways that may affect Ternium negatively, including by making additional acquisitions, implementing modernization programs, expanding their production capacity, investing more aggressively in product development, and displacing demand for Ternium’s products in certain markets. To the extent that these producers become more efficient, Ternium could confront stronger competition and could fail to preserve its current share of the relevant geographic or product markets. In addition, there has been a trend in the past toward steel industry consolidation among Ternium’s competitors, and current competitors in the steel market could become larger competitors in the future. For further information on Ternium's competitors and their investments, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Competition.”

Moreover, Ternium and other steel makers compete against suppliers of alternative materials, including aluminum, wood, concrete, plastic and ceramics. In particular, certain customers, such as the automotive industry, are increasing their consumption of lighter-weight materials, such as aluminum, composites and carbon fiber, sometimes as a result of regulatory requirements or government initiatives aimed at transitioning to a lower-carbon economy. Competition from these alternative materials could adversely affect the demand for, and consequently the market prices of, certain steel products and, accordingly, could affect Ternium’s sales volumes and revenues.

The recent Russia-Ukraine armed conflict and the consequent wave of international sanctions against Russia are expected to reduce the supply of steelmaking raw materials and steel products in the international markets, including slabs, pulverized coal for injection, and certain metals and ferroalloys.

On February 24, 2022, Russia launched a military attack on Ukraine. In response, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the European Union, among other countries, have imposed a wave of sanctions against certain Russian institutions, companies and citizens. As a result of the armed conflict and related sanctions, energy prices have spiked and foreign trade transactions involving Russian and Ukrainian counterparties have been severely affected.

Russia has a significant participation in the international trade of steel slabs, iron ore pellets, metallurgical coal, pulverized coal for injection, which are relevant inputs for Ternium’s operations. In addition, Ukraine has a relevant participation in the international trade of steel slabs and iron ore pellets. The availability and pricing of these inputs in the international markets are expected to be volatile and could result in limitations to Ternium’s production levels and higher costs, affecting our profitability and results of operations. As a result of the economic sanctions imposed on Russia, we or our contractors (including shipping companies) may not be able to continue purchasing or transporting products from, or making payments to, Ukrainian or Russian suppliers or counterparties; and we may not be able to promptly procure such raw materials from other suppliers, or we may be required to purchase raw materials at increased prices. For further information related to effects of shortages or disruptions in supplies for Ternium’s operations, see Risk Factors “Risks Relating to the Steel Industry - Price fluctuations, shortages or disruptions in the supply of raw materials, slabs, energy and other inputs could adversely affect Ternium’s profitability” and “Risks Relating to the Steel Industry - Ternium depends on a limited number of key suppliers”.

Price fluctuations, shortages or disruptions in the supply of raw materials, slabs, energy and other inputs could adversely affect Ternium’s profitability.

The manufacture of steel-related products requires substantial amounts of steelmaking raw materials, slabs, energy and other inputs from domestic and foreign suppliers. In particular, the Ternium companies consume large quantities of iron ore, metallurgical coal, pulverized coal for injection, scrap, ferroalloys, slabs, natural gas, electricity, oxygen and other gases in operating their blast and electric arc furnaces, as well as its downstream facilities. The availability and pricing of a significant portion of the raw materials, slabs, energy and other inputs used in Ternium’s operations are subject to market conditions, which can be volatile, government regulations or intervention, including import controls, allocation by suppliers, interruptions in production, or other events that can affect continuity of supply and prices, including wars, natural disasters, chronic climate changes, accidents and public health epidemics.

For example, extreme weather conditions in the southern United States and northern Mexico disrupted the stable provision of natural gas and energy in these markets, negatively affecting production in the first quarter of 2021. Furthermore, strong demand from Chinese steel producers coupled with certain supply restrictions imposed in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, among other factors, contributed to a surge in international markets’ iron
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ore prices during the first half of 2021 and metallurgical coal prices during the second half of 2021. In Argentina, shortages of natural gas in the past resulted in supply restrictions that, if repeated in the future, could lead to higher costs of production or production cutbacks at Ternium’s facilities in the country.

In the past, Ternium has usually been able to procure sufficient supplies of raw materials, energy and other inputs to meet its production needs; however, it could be unable to procure adequate supplies in the future. Any protracted interruption, discontinuation or other disruption of the supply of principal inputs to the Ternium companies (including as a result of strikes, lockouts, sanctions and other trade restrictions, accidents or natural disasters, armed conflicts, worldwide price fluctuations, the availability and cost of transportation, global epidemics such as COVID-19 pandemic or other factors) would result in lost sales and would have a material adverse effect on Ternium’s business and results of operations. For further information related to effects of global events see Item 3. Risk Factors “Risks Relating to the Steel Industry - A downturn in global or regional economic activity would cause a reduction in worldwide or regional demand for steel and would have a material adverse effect on the steel industry and Ternium”. For further information related to raw materials, energy and other inputs requirements see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Raw Materials, Slabs, Energy and Other Inputs” and “The recent Russian-Ukraine armed conflict and the consequent wave of international sanctions against Russia are expected to reduce the supply of steelmaking raw materials and steel products in the international markets, including slabs, pulverized coal for injection, and certain metals and ferroalloys.”

Ternium depends on a limited number of key suppliers.

Ternium depends on a limited number of key suppliers for the provision of some of its principal inputs, including Vale, a Brazilian company, for iron ore and KRU Overseas Limited, a Russian company, for pulverized coal for injection. In general, there is a trend in the industry towards consolidation among suppliers of raw materials, slabs and other inputs. The Ternium companies have entered into long-term contracts for the supply of some (but not all) of their principal inputs and it is expected that such agreements will be maintained and, depending on the circumstances, renewed. However, if any key supplier fails to deliver or if existing contracts cannot be renewed in the future, the Ternium companies could face limited access to certain raw materials, slabs, energy or other inputs, or could be subject to higher costs and delays resulting from the need to obtain their input requirements from other suppliers.

Risks Relating To Ternium's Business

If Ternium does not successfully implement its business strategy, its opportunities for growth and its competitive position could be adversely affected.

Ternium plans to continue implementing its business strategy, entailing a focus on sophisticated steel products, the pursuit of strategic growth opportunities and an enhancement of its competitiveness through a full product range offering, operational excellence, differentiated services with a strong distribution network and the attraction and training of talented employees. Any of these components or Ternium’s business strategy could be delayed or abandoned or could cost more than anticipated, any of which could impact its competitive position and reduce its revenue and profitability. For example, Ternium could fail to develop its projects and/or to make acquisitions and/or integrate newly acquired businesses to increase its steel production capacity; or may lose market share in its regional markets. Even if Ternium successfully implements its business strategy or achieves its medium and long-term goals, such strategy or goals may not yield the desired results. For information on Ternium’s business strategy, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Our Business Strategy".

Future acquisitions or other significant investments could have an adverse impact on Ternium’s operations or profits, and Ternium may not realize the benefits it expects from these business decisions.

A key element of Ternium’s business strategy is to identify and pursue growth-enhancing opportunities. As part of that strategy, Ternium regularly considers acquisitions, greenfield and brownfield projects and other significant investments. However, any growth project will depend on market and financing conditions. Ternium must necessarily base any assessment of potential acquisitions or other investments on assumptions with respect to operations, profitability and other matters that may subsequently prove to be incorrect. Furthermore, Ternium may fail to find suitable acquisition targets or fail to consummate its acquisitions under favorable conditions. Ternium grew through several acquisitions, particularly in Mexico. In 2010 Ternium formed, together with Nippon Steel Corporation, or NSC, Tenigal, a company that manufactures and sells hot-dip galvanized and galvannealed steel sheets for the Mexican automotive market; in 2012, Ternium acquired a participation in the control group of Usiminas, the largest flat steel producer in Brazil; in 2014 and 2016, Ternium significantly increased its equity investment in Usiminas; and in 2017, Ternium acquired Ternium Brasil, a Brazilian steel slab producer.

10


Ternium’s acquisitions or other investments may not perform in accordance with its expectations and could have an adverse impact on its operations and profits. Furthermore, Ternium may be unable to successfully integrate any acquired businesses into its operations, realize expected synergies or accomplish the business objectives that were foreseen at the time of deciding any such investment. Moreover, Ternium may also acquire, as part of future acquisitions, assets unrelated to its business, and it may not be able to integrate them or sell them under favorable terms and conditions. These risks, and the fact that the integration of any acquired businesses would require a significant amount of time and resources from Ternium’s management and employees, could have an adverse impact on Ternium’s ongoing business and a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.

Ternium may be required to record a significant charge to earnings if it must reassess its goodwill, other amortizable intangible assets, investments in non-consolidated companies, property, plant and equipment and other long-lived assets.

In accordance with IFRS, management must test for impairment all of Ternium’s assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Assets subject to testing include goodwill, intangible assets, investments in non-consolidated companies, property, plant and equipment and other long-lived assets. In addition, management must test for impairment goodwill at least once a year, whether or not there are indicators of impairment. IFRS requires Ternium to recognize a non-cash charge in an amount equal to any impairment.

The Company reviews periodically the recoverability of its investments. As of December 31, 2021, goodwill in connection with the Company’s Mexican subsidiaries amounted to $662.3 million and the carrying value of the Company’s investment in non-consolidated companies, mainly related to its investment in Usiminas, amounted to $751.5 million. If Ternium’s management determines in the future that the goodwill from its acquisitions, its investments in non-consolidated companies or the carrying value of its property, plant and equipment and other long-lived assets are impaired, Ternium will be required to recognize a non-cash charge against earnings, which could materially adversely affect Ternium’s results of operations and net worth. For example, as of December 31, 2012, September 30, 2014, and December 31, 2015, Ternium wrote down its investment in Usiminas by $275.3 million, $739.8 million and $191.9 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, the carrying value of Ternium’s investment in Usiminas was $681.7 million and Ternium’s ownership stake had a market value of approximately $653.9 million. Any further write-downs to Ternium’s assets could have a material adverse effect on Ternium’s results of operations or net worth.

Failure to successfully implement Usiminas’ business strategy could have a material adverse effect on Ternium’s results, financial condition or net worth.

Since 2012, Ternium is a member of the control group of Usiminas, the largest flat steel producer in Brazil. In 2014, a conflict arose within the Usiminas control group and its board with respect to the governance of Usiminas, including with respect to the rules applicable to the appointment of senior managers, the application of the shareholders’ agreement in matters involving fiduciary duties, and the company’s strategy. Such conflict was resolved in 2018 by an agreement between Ternium, NSC and Usiminas’ employee pension fund (Previdência Usiminas), providing for new governance rules for Usiminas. Under the new Usiminas shareholders’ agreement (“New SHA”), no control group member can, without the consent of other shareholder group or groups, implement any change to Usiminas’ strategy or business practices.

The agreed-upon corporate governance rules for Usiminas include, among others, an alternation mechanism for the nomination of each of the chief executive officer and the chairman of the board of directors, as well as a mechanism for the nomination of other members of Usiminas’ executive board. The right to nominate Usiminas’ chief executive officer and chairman alternates between Ternium and NSC at every 4-year interval, comprising two consecutive 2-year terms. The executive board is composed of six members, including the chief executive officer and five vice-presidents, with Ternium and NSC nominating three members each.

In addition, the New SHA incorporates an exit mechanism consisting of a buy-and-sell procedure, exercisable at any time during the term of the New SHA after November 16, 2022. Such exit mechanism shall apply with respect to shares held by the NSC Group and by the group comprising Ternium’s subsidiaries and Tenaris’s Brazilian subsidiary, Confab Industrial S.A, and would allow either Ternium or NSC to purchase all or a majority of the Usiminas shares held by the other shareholder group.

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If the parties fail to reach consensus, or if a new shareholder conflict were to emerge, Usiminas may not be successful at implementing the measures required to achieve sustainable profitability and, accordingly, Usiminas’ performance could be adversely affected and result in a material adverse effect on Ternium’s results, financial condition or net worth. For further information related to the conflict within the Usiminas control group and the agreement between Ternium, NSC and Previdencia Usiminas on governance rules for Usiminas, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Other Investments—Usiminas”.
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If Ternium does not comply with laws and regulations designed to combat governmental corruption in countries in which it sells its products, Ternium could become subject to fines, penalties or other sanctions and its sales and profitability could suffer.

Ternium conducts business in certain countries known to experience governmental corruption. Although Ternium is committed to conducting business in a legal and ethical manner in compliance with local and international statutory requirements and standards applicable to its business, there is a risk that employees or representatives may take actions that violate applicable laws and regulations that generally prohibit the making of improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business, including laws relating to the 1997 OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws adopted by the main countries in which Ternium operates (including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Colombia), which impose strict criminal liability on companies for corrupt practices undertaken by their employees or representatives.

Labor disputes at Ternium’s operating subsidiaries could result in work stoppages and disruptions to Ternium’s operations.

A substantial majority of Ternium’s employees at its manufacturing subsidiaries are represented by labor unions and are covered by collective bargaining or similar agreements, which are subject to periodic renegotiation. Strikes or work stoppages could occur prior to or during the negotiations leading to new collective bargaining agreements, during wage and benefits negotiations or, occasionally, during other periods for other reasons. Ternium could also suffer plant stoppages or strikes if it were to implement cost reduction plans. From time to time, Ternium takes measures to increase competitiveness; none of the measures taken in the past have resulted in significant labor unrest. However, Ternium cannot assure that this situation will remain stable or that future measures will not result in labor actions against Ternium companies. Any future stoppage, strike, disruption of operations or new collective bargaining agreements could result in lost sales and could increase Ternium’s costs, thereby affecting its results of operations. For further information on the geographic distribution of Ternium's workforce, see Item 6. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees—D. Employees”.

Changes in exchange rates or any limitation in the ability of the Ternium companies to hedge against exchange rate fluctuations could adversely affect Ternium’s business and results.

The operations of the Ternium companies expose them to the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates and changes in foreign exchange regulations. A significant portion of Ternium’s transactions is carried out in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As a result of this foreign currency exposure, exchange rate fluctuations impact the Ternium companies’ results and net worth as reported in their income statements, statements of comprehensive income and statements of financial position in the form of both translation risk and transaction risk. In the ordinary course of business, the Ternium companies may see fit to enter into exchange rate derivatives agreements to manage their exposure to exchange rate changes. Future regulatory or financial restrictions in the countries where Ternium operates may reduce its ability to manage its exposure to exchange rate fluctuations, and thus could cause an adverse impact on Ternium’s results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. For information concerning the effect of the changes in exchange rates on Ternium’s business and results, see Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Overview”.

Cyberattacks could have a material adverse impact on Ternium's business and results of operation.

Ternium relies heavily on information systems to conduct its operations; and digital technologies have an increasingly significant role across our business. Although Ternium devotes significant resources to protect its systems and data, and it continually monitors external developments and available information on threats and security incidents, it has experienced and will continue to experience varying degrees of cyber incidents in the normal conduct of its business, which may occasionally include sophisticated cybersecurity threats such as unauthorized access to data and systems, loss or destruction of data, computer viruses or other malicious code, phishing, spoofing and/or cyberattacks. These
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threats often arise from numerous sources, not all of which are within Ternium's control, such as fraud or malice from third parties, including fraud involving business email, failures of computer servers or other accidental technological failure, electrical or telecommunication outages or other damage to its property or assets. Cyber-attack attempts, such as ransomware, phishing, spoofing and whaling, continued to increase throughout 2021 in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, due to a significant expansion of remote work practices among Ternium’s employees, its customers and suppliers and the increasing digitalization of work. For example, in 2021, Ternium suffered 367 cyber-security attacks mainly consisting of phishing attacks; none of these attacks led to known breaches of Ternium’s business-critical IT systems and, as such, did not result in any material business impact. In response to the increase in the number and sophistication of ransomware attacks, U.S. and EU regulatory agencies have implemented regulations to prevent victims from making ransomware payments and to deter third parties from facilitating or processing such payments to cyber actors. In this context, Ternium enhanced cybersecurity controls and implemented comprehensive processes and procedures to monitor, detect and respond to hacking, malware infection, cybersecurity compromise and other risks. In addition, Ternium has launched awareness and ethical phishing campaigns aimed at protecting it against cyber-threats and it regularly trains its executives and employees to identify and report cybersecurity incidents.

Given the rapidly evolving nature of cyber threats, there can be no assurance that the systems that Ternium has designed to prevent or limit the effects of cyber incidents or attacks and the mitigation actions adopted in connection with such attacks will be sufficient to prevent or detect such incidents or attacks, or to avoid a material adverse impact on its systems when such incidents or attacks do occur. If Ternium’s systems for protecting against cybersecurity risks are circumvented or breached, this could also result in disruptions to its business operations (including but not limited to, defective products, production downtimes or loss of productivity), access to financial reporting systems, the loss of access to critical data or systems, misuse or corruption of critical data and proprietary information (including intellectual property and customer data), as well as damage to Ternium’s reputation with its customers and the market, failure to meet customer requirements, customer dissatisfaction and/or regulatory fines and penalties (including for inadequate protection of persona data and/or failure to notify the competent authorities for such breach) or other financial costs and losses. In addition, given that cybersecurity threats continue to evolve, Ternium will be required to devote additional resources in the future to enhance its protective measures or to investigate and/or remediate any cybersecurity vulnerabilities. Although Ternium has considered contract insurance coverage options for cyber risks, it does not currently maintain cybersecurity insurance, and the insurance it carries for property damage and general liability may not be adequate or available to protect it from damages derived from cyber events, or coverage may be limited. Moreover, any investigation of a cyberattack would take time before completion, during which Ternium would not necessarily know the extent of the actual or potential harm or how best to remediate it, and certain errors or actions could be repeated or compounded before duly discovered and remediated (all or any of which could further increase the costs and consequences arising out of any cyberattack).

The physical risks resulting from climate change, including extreme weather conditions and shifts in weather patterns may adversely impact Ternium’s business.

Ternium’s business has been, and in the future could be, affected by severe weather in areas where it operates, which could materially affect its operations and financial results. Extreme weather events and natural disasters, such as hurricanes, cyclones, droughts, floods and fires could affect businesses’ operations, workforce, markets, infrastructure, raw materials and assets. For example, in 2020 and in 2021, iron ore supplies to our operations in Argentina from Brazil's iron ore mines in the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso do Sul state), which are barged down the Paraguay and Paraná rivers, were disrupted as this waterway recorded very low stages, forcing Ternium Argentina to procure iron ore from alternative sources at higher costs. In addition, during the first quarter of 2021, the provision of natural gas and energy to our operations in Mexico were disrupted by extreme weather conditions in the southern United States and northern Mexico, negatively affecting steel production in the first quarter of 2021.

The communities surrounding our main production sites in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico are vulnerable to flooding due to extreme weather events. In recent years, our operation in Brazil and certain of our operations in Argentina experienced intense rainfall affecting personnel’s access to Ternium’s facilities. In addition, as Ternium’s steel shops in Mexico are located at water stressed areas, its operations could be subject to water shortages and/or increased water costs, in case of severe draughts.

Chronic climate changes, such as changes in precipitation patterns and rising of mean temperatures and sea levels may result in increased operating costs or capital expenditures, due to supply shortages or damage to facilities, personnel evacuation, increased insurance premiums or reduced availability of insurance, decreases in revenue derived from lower sales, disruption of operations or lower production levels, negative impact on workforce and write-offs and/or early retirement of assets, all of which could adversely affect Ternium’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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Risks Relating To Ternium's Mining Activities

Ternium has equity interests in two iron ore mining companies in Mexico: a 100% interest in Las Encinas and a 50% interest in Consorcio Peña Colorada. Ternium's mining activities are subject to the following risks:

Operational accidents and unexpected natural catastrophes may damage the environment, destroy properties and affect production or cause injuries and death, which would adversely impact Ternium's operations and profitability, and result in material liabilities.

Ternium carries out extractive, processing and logistical operations in many geographic locations. Liabilities associated with Ternium’s mining activities include those resulting from tailings and sludge disposal, effluent management, iron ore pulp and fines transportation, and rehabilitation of land disturbed during the mining processes. Ternium’s operations involve the use, handling, storage, discharge and disposal of hazardous substances and the use of natural resources. The iron ore mining industry is generally subject to significant risks and hazards, including environmental pollution, such as spilling or emissions of polluting substances or other hazardous materials; operational incidents, such as open-cut pit wall failures, rock falls, tailings dam breaches or incidents from the storage, transportation or use of explosives; transportation incidents, involving mobile equipment or machinery, slurry pipes and cable transportation; and may also be subject to unexpected natural catastrophes. This could result in environmental damage, damage to or destruction of properties and facilities, personal injury or death, and delays in production. For example, in January 2019, a tailings dam at Vale’s Córrego do Feijão mine in Brumadinho, Brazil, collapsed, releasing a mudflow that resulted in hundreds of people dead or missing. Ternium operates mines with tailings dams in Mexico and could become subject to liabilities arising from similar incidents in the future. Over time, Ternium has conducted stability studies of its tailings dams, with the help of consultant companies, using increasingly strict standards for seismic areas and, as a result, has been carrying out several investment projects to reinforce certain dams and has to carry out several more, some of which are in the process of obtaining approval from environmental authorities. Although Ternium believes that, once completed, ongoing and planned investment projects will further mitigate the risk of incidents, it cannot guarantee that failures or breaches will not occur prior to or after the completion of reinforcement works. For further information, see Item 4. “Information on the Company - B. Business Overview - Mining”.

Ternium may also be subject to claims under federal and local laws and regulations for toxic torts, natural resource damages and other damages, as well as for the investigation and clean-up of soil, surface water, sediments, groundwater and other natural resources. Claims for damages and reclamation may arise out of current or former conditions at sites that Ternium owns, leases or operates or at inactive sites that Ternium currently owns, leased-land sites and third-party waste disposal sites. Ternium may be held responsible for other sites in the future. Ternium also could be subject to litigation for alleged bodily injuries arising from claimed exposure to hazardous substances allegedly used, released, or disposed of by Ternium. Environmental damages caused by Ternium’s operations may result in costs and liabilities that could materially and adversely affect margins, cash flow and profitability. Third-party claims based on environmental or physical damages may exceed the limit of liability of the insurance policies we could have in place.

Required governmental concessions could be subject to prior consultation with native communities, changes or termination, permits and rights of use and occupancy could be difficult to obtain or maintain and taxes or royalties applicable to the mining industry could increase, all of which could adversely affect Ternium's mining activities and operating costs.

Ternium’s mining activities are subject to specific regulations and depend on concessions and authorizations granted by governmental authorities. Increased government intervention or amendments to applicable laws and regulations as well as claims or legal actions from native or local communities or other third parties in Mexico, may alter the terms pursuant to which Ternium is required to pursue exploration, mining and ore processing activities. Selected mining technologies, new taxes and/or royalties may be imposed on mining activities, leading to unexpected capital expenditures and higher costs. For further information on regulatory risks in Mexico, see Risk Factors “Risks Relating to the Countries in Which Ternium Operates - Mexico: Regulatory changes in Mexico could adversely impact Ternium's results of operations and net results.”

Iron ore exploration and exploitation concessions as well as water concessions may be revoked if the competent government authorities determine that Ternium does not comply with its obligations under the respective concession terms and agreements. Furthermore, in order to explore or exploit mines, it is necessary to obtain the right of use and occupancy of the land where the mines are situated. Even though government regulations frequently establish provisions intended to facilitate the establishment of such rights, in some cases it may be difficult to reach and
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maintain agreements with the native or local communities or landowners, or such agreements may be excessively onerous. If Ternium is unable to establish use and occupancy rights on acceptable terms, its mining activities may be compromised. In addition, Ternium’s iron ore mining subsidiaries need to obtain, in the normal course of business, permits for the preparation of new iron ore bodies at the mines and for the expansion of tailings deposit capacity. If Ternium is unable to obtain such permits on a timely basis, it may need to alter its mining and/or production plans, which could lead to unexpected capital expenditures and higher costs.

Ternium's reserve estimates may differ materially from actually recoverable mineral quantities, or its estimates of mine life may prove inaccurate; and market price fluctuations and changes in operating and capital costs may render certain ore reserves uneconomical to mine in the future or cause Ternium to revise its reserve estimates.

Ternium’s reserves are estimated quantities of ore that it has determined can be economically mined and processed under present and anticipated conditions to extract their mineral content. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of reserves and in projecting potential future rates of mineral production, including factors beyond Ternium's control. Reserve calculations involve estimating deposits of minerals that cannot be measured in an exact manner, and the accuracy of any reserve estimate is a function of the quality of available data and engineering and geological interpretation and judgment. Reserve estimates also depend on assumptions relating to the economic viability of extraction, which are established through the application of a life of mine plan for each operation or project providing a positive net present value on a forward-looking basis, using forecasts of operating and capital costs based on historical performance, with forward adjustments based on planned process improvements, changes in production volumes and in fixed and variable proportions of costs, and forecasted fluctuations in costs of raw material, supplies, energy and wages. These forecasts and projections involve assumptions and estimations that, although Ternium believes are reasonable at the time of estimating its reserves, may change in the future and may fail to anticipate geological, environmental or other factors or events that could make it difficult or unprofitable to mine certain ore deposits.

In addition, Ternium’s reserve estimates are of in-place material after adjustments for mining depletion and mining losses and recoveries, with no adjustments made for metal losses due to processing. As a result, no assurance can be given that the indicated amount of ore will be recovered from Ternium’s reserves, or that it will be recovered at the anticipated rates, or that extracted ore will be converted into saleable production over the mine life at levels consistent with its reserve estimates. Reserve estimates may vary from those included in this annual report, and results of mining and production subsequent to the date of an estimate may lead to future revisions of estimates. Estimates of mine life may require revisions based on actual production figures, changes in reserve estimates and other factors. For example, fluctuations in the market prices of minerals, reduced recovery rates or increased operating and capital costs due to inflation, exchange rates, mining duties or other factors could affect Ternium’s mine life projections. To the extent that market price fluctuations or changes in its operating and capital costs increase its costs to explore, locate, extract and process iron ore, Ternium may be required to lower its reserve estimates if certain ore reserves become uneconomical to mine in the future.

Ternium's exploration activities are subject to uncertainties as to the results of such exploration; even if the exploration activities lead to the discovery of ore deposits, the effective exploitation of such deposits remains subject to several risks.

Exploration activities are highly speculative, involve substantial risks and may be unproductive. Ternium may incur substantial costs for exploration which do not yield the expected results. The failure to find sufficient and adequate reserves could adversely affect Ternium’s business. In addition, even if ore deposits are discovered, the ability to pursue exploitation activities may be delayed for a long time during which market conditions may vary. Significant resources and time need to be invested in order to establish ore resources through exploration, define the appropriate processes that shall be undertaken, obtain environmental licenses, concessions and permits (including water usage permits), acquire land, build the necessary facilities and infrastructure for greenfield projects and obtain the ore or extract the metals from the ore. If a project does not turn out to be economically feasible by the time Ternium is able to exploit it, Ternium may incur substantial write-offs.

Inability to complete investment projects required to maintain iron ore and pellets production rates over time could increase Ternium’s steel production costs.

Mining requires continuous investment to sustain production rates. Such investments require, among other things, the design of the project, the awarding of environmental permits and the successful execution of civil works. If Ternium fails to timely carry out the investment projects required to maintain iron ore and pellets production rates over time,
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including tailing dams, Ternium could have to substitute internally produced iron ore with third party purchases, with a consequent increase in steel production costs.

Ternium's expected costs and capital expenditure requirements for exploration, exploitation or restoration activities may vary significantly and affect its financial condition and expected results of operations.

Ternium may be subject to increased costs or delays relating to the acquisition of adequate equipment for the exploration and exploitation of ore deposits, or restoration of exhausted mines. Moreover, Ternium may face increasing costs or capital expenditure requirements related to several factors, including changes in environmental regulations, diminished iron ore reserve grades, deeper pits and operational sections of its mines, iron ore deposits within the pit area that are more difficult to locate or extract, additional maintenance works in dams and ponds, and increased energy supply requirements that may be difficult to obtain. Adverse mining conditions and other situations related to the operation of the mine and related facilities during their life cycle, whether permanent or temporary, may lead to a significant increase in projected capital expenditures and costs, as well as affect Ternium’s ability to produce the expected quantities of mineral. If this occurs, Ternium’s financial condition and expected results of operations may also be negatively affected.

Difficulties in relationships with local communities may adversely affect Ternium’s mining activities and results of operations.

Communities or individuals living or owning land near areas where Ternium operates may take actions to oppose and interfere with its mining activities. Even if a community has an agreement in place with Ternium, internal disputes within that community could result in blockades to disrupt Ternium operations or iron ore transportation, or legal proceedings to suspend mining activity. Although Ternium makes significant efforts to maintain good relationships with such communities, actions taken by them (or by interest groups within those communities), including requesting the government to revoke or cancel Ternium’s concessions or environmental or other permits, may hamper Ternium’s ability to conduct its mining activities as planned, prevent Ternium from fulfilling agreements reached with the government, or significantly increase the cost of exploring and/or exploiting the mines, thereby adversely affecting Ternium’s business and results of operations.

In the past, Ternium faced actions by certain native or local Mexican communities demanding higher compensation or other benefits, or seeking to stop Ternium’s activities. Although attempted legal actions against Ternium did not succeed, Mexican legislation affords judges the power to preemptively suspend environmental or other permits or concessions and take certain other measures to protect the “ejidos” (land jointly owned by native communities) until the claim is resolved. An adverse legal decision suspending or cancelling permits, or the illegal occupation of facilities, could adversely impact Ternium’s mining activities and results of operations.

Risks Relating To The Structure Of The Company

The Company’s dividend payments depend on the results of operations and financial condition of its subsidiaries and could be affected by legal, contractual or other limitations or tax changes.

The Company is a holding company and conducts all its operations through subsidiaries. Dividends or other intercompany transfers of funds from those subsidiaries are the Company’s primary source of funds to pay its expenses, debt service and dividends and to repurchase shares or ADSs.

The ability of the Company’s subsidiaries to pay dividends and make other payments to us will depend on their results of operations and financial condition and could be restricted by applicable corporate and other laws and regulations, including those imposing foreign exchange controls or restrictions on the transfer of money to foreign accounts or the payment of dividends, and agreements and commitments of such subsidiaries. If earnings and cash flows of the Company’s operating subsidiaries are substantially reduced, the Company may not be in a position to meet its operational needs or to pay dividends. For information on exchange controls imposed in Argentina, see “—Risks Relating to the Countries in Which Ternium Operates - Argentina: Argentine exchange controls could negatively impact Ternium Argentina’s operations, or prevent it from paying dividends or transferring cash surpluses abroad, as a result of its inability to access the foreign exchange market."; and note 30 “Foreign exchange restrictions in Argentina” of Ternium’s audited consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

The Company’s ability to pay dividends to shareholders is subject to legal and other requirements and restrictions in effect at the holding company level. For example, the Company may only pay dividends out of net profits, retained
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earnings and distributable reserves and premiums, each as defined and calculated in accordance with Luxembourg law and regulations. In addition, the Company’s dividend distributions (which are currently imputed to a special tax reserve and are therefore not subject to Luxembourg withholding tax) may be subject to Luxembourg withholding tax if current Luxembourg tax law were to change.

The Company’s controlling shareholder may be able to take actions that do not reflect the will or best interests of other shareholders.

As of the date of this annual report, San Faustin beneficially owned 65.03% of the Company's shares and Tenaris, which is also controlled by San Faustin, held 11.46% of the Company’s shares. Rocca & Partners Stichting Administratiekantoor Aandelen San Faustin, (“RP STAK”), holds voting rights in San Faustin sufficient in number to control San Faustin. As a result, RP STAK is indirectly able to elect a substantial majority of the members of the Company’s board of directors and has the power to determine the outcome of most actions requiring shareholder approval, including, subject to the requirements of Luxembourg law, the payment of dividends. The decisions of the controlling shareholder may not reflect the will or best interest of other shareholders. In addition, the Company’s articles of association permit the Company’s board of directors to waive, limit or suppress preemptive rights in certain cases. Accordingly, the Company’s controlling shareholder may cause its board of directors to approve in certain cases an issuance of shares for consideration without preemptive rights, thereby diluting the minority interest in the Company. See “Risks Relating to the Company's ADSs – Holders of shares and ADSs in the United States may not be able to exercise preemptive rights in certain cases”.

Non-controlling interests in the Company's subsidiaries could delay or prevent us from completing our strategy.

The Company does not own 100% of the interests in certain of the Company’s subsidiaries. As of February 28, 2022, 26.03% of Ternium Argentina was held by Administración Nacional de la Seguridad Social, or ANSeS, Argentina’s governmental social security agency, and 11.48% was publicly held. In addition, Ternium holds a 51% ownership interest in Tenigal (NSC holds the remaining 49%); and a 48% equity interest in Techgen S.A. de C.V. (“Techgen”). Ternium also has a participation in the control group of Usiminas. For further information on the Usiminas investment, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Other Investments—Usiminas”. The existence of non-controlling interests in these companies could prevent Ternium from taking actions that, while beneficial to Ternium, might not be beneficial to each relevant subsidiary, considered separately. As a result, the Company could be delayed or prevented from completing its strategy or fully maximizing Ternium’s competitive strengths.

Risks Relating To The Countries In Which Ternium Operates

Negative economic, political, social and regulatory developments in certain markets where Ternium has a significant portion of its operations and assets could hurt Ternium’s shipment volumes or prices, increase its costs or disrupt its manufacturing operations, thereby adversely affecting its results of operations and financial condition.

The results of Ternium’s operations are subject to the risks of doing business in emerging markets, principally in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina and, to a lesser extent, in Colombia, and have been, and could in the future be, affected from time to time to varying degrees by economic, political, social, and regulatory developments, such as nationalization, expropriation or forced divestiture of assets; restrictions on production, domestic sales, imports and exports; travel or trade bans; interruptions in the supply of essential energy inputs; restrictions on the exchange or transfer of currency; inability or increasing difficulties to repatriate income or capital or to make contract payments; inflation; devaluation; or other events, including wars and other international conflicts, natural disasters, chronic climate changes and public health epidemics (such as COVID-19); civil unrest and local security concerns that threaten the safe operation of its facilities and operations; direct and indirect price controls; tax increases and changes (including retroactive) in the interpretation, application or enforcement of tax laws and other claims or challenges; cancellation of contract rights; and delays or denial of governmental approvals. Both the likelihood of such occurrences and their overall effect upon Ternium vary greatly from country to country and are not predictable. Realization of these risks could have an adverse impact on the results of operations and financial condition of Ternium’s subsidiaries located in the affected country and, depending on their materiality, on the results of operations and financial condition of Ternium as a whole.

Mexico

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Ternium has significant manufacturing operations and assets located in Mexico and a majority of its sales are made to customers in this country. The majority of Ternium’s revenues are derived from its Mexican operations and, therefore, are related to market conditions in Mexico and to changes in its economic activity. Ternium’s business could be materially and adversely affected by economic, political and regulatory developments in Mexico.

Political, economic and social conditions and government policies in Mexico could negatively impact Ternium’s business and results of operations.

In the past, Mexico has experienced several periods of slow or negative economic growth, high inflation, high interest rates, currency devaluation and other economic problems. Furthermore, the Mexican national economy tends to reflect changes in the economic environment in the United States and could be affected by changes in the terms of trade. In addition, actions and policies that could be adopted by the Mexican federal government concerning the economy could have a significant impact on market conditions affecting Ternium’s operations in Mexico. If problems such as deterioration in Mexico’s economic conditions re-emerge (for example, as a result of lower revenues due to a decline in the price of oil) or there is a future re-emergence of social instability, political unrest, reduction in government spending, increased government intervention or other adverse social or political developments, foreign exchange and financial markets may exhibit continued volatility, which, depending on its severity and duration, could adversely affect the business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity of Ternium. Moreover, adverse economic conditions in Mexico could result in, among other things, higher interest rates coupled with reduced opportunities for refunding or refinancing, reduced domestic consumption of Ternium’s products, decreased operating results and delays in the completion of ongoing and future capital expenditures.

A Mexican energy reform could adversely impact Ternium’s results of operations and net results.

In March 2021, the Mexican Congress approved a significant reform to the energy market in Mexico. Among other changes, the new Energy Industry Law (“LIE”) grants priority to Mexico’s state-owned electric power generation and distribution company (“CFE”) over private generators in the supply of electric power to the Mexican market and mandates a revision of power generation and transaction agreements between CFE and independent electric power suppliers. In addition, the LIE eliminates mandatory power supply auctions for energy supplies requiring the use of CFE’s distribution network, relaxes the requirements for the granting of clean energy certificates in favor of CFE, and imposes serious restrictions on the renewable energy generation system through self-supply, widely used by private companies. The new LIE was challenged in court and its application is currently suspended. In September 2021, President Andrés Manuel López Obrador submitted to Congress a constitutional reform proposal of the electricity sector, which seeks to reverse the legal framework derived from the 2013 constitutional energy reform that opened the sector to private investment. The congressional debate on the reform started in January 2022 and two-thirds of the votes are required for approval. There is uncertainty about the approval of the constitutional reform and related amendments to the energy market regulation. Approval of proposed changes could negatively affect the operations of Techgen, where Ternium holds a 48% equity interest and which supplies electricity for most of our Mexican operations. At this stage, we cannot fully assess the effects of the energy market reform on Ternium’s operations and the Mexican economy in general and, consequently, on the results of operations and financial conditions of Ternium’s businesses in Mexico.

Violence and crime in Mexico could negatively impact Ternium’s business and operations.

In recent years, there has been a significant increase of violent crimes in Mexico, including the Monterrey area in Nuevo León, where Ternium’s main facilities are located, and Michoacán, where some of Ternium’s mining facilities are placed. Security issues could affect Ternium’s day-to-day operations and could also result in an economic slowdown, reducing domestic demand for its products and thereby having an adverse effect on Ternium’s business. A deterioration of the security situation could result in significant obstacles or additional costs to the implementation of growth plans in Mexico, including delays in the completion of capital expenditures.

Unexpected changes in trade rules with the United States could adversely impact Ternium’s results of operations and net results.

The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (“USMCA”) became effective in July 2020 replacing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). In addition, during 2019 Mexico and the United States agreed to waive a 25% tariff on steel products exported to the United States (which had been imposed during 2018) subject to an agreed premise of continuous monitoring for surges in steel imports and transshipment of non-USMCA material into the
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United States. Furthermore, in 2019 the United States, Mexico and Canada agreed to modify the definition of “North American steel” (with such amendment becoming effective in July 2027), for purposes of vehicles being awarded preferential treatment under USMCA, restricting the defined term to steel melted and poured within the three countries. Uncertainties about potential new trade conflicts could adversely affect the investment climate and economic activity in Mexico. Moreover, amendments to, or the termination of current terms of trade could adversely and materially affect Ternium’s shipments, results of operations and net worth.

Brazil

Ternium has significant manufacturing operations and assets located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and some of its sales are made in Brazil. In addition, Ternium has a participation in Usiminas. Ternium Brasil’s and Usiminas’ profitability could be materially and adversely affected by economic, political, social, fiscal and regulatory developments in Brazil.

Changing economic policies and political conditions in Brazil, which on several occasions in the past resulted in economic uncertainties and recession, may occur in the future, thereby adversely affecting Ternium's business, financial condition and results.

The Brazilian economy has been characterized by frequent and occasionally extensive intervention by the Brazilian government. The Brazilian government has often changed monetary, taxation, credit, tariff and other policies to influence the course of the country’s economy. The Brazilian government’s actions to control inflation and implement other policies have involved hikes in interest rates, wage and price controls, foreign exchange controls and devaluation, freezing of bank accounts, capital controls and restrictions on imports. If repeated in the future, such governmental policies may adversely affect Ternium’s results of operations. The Brazilian government’s policies may also result in increases in tax payments or tariffs, which could adversely affect industry profitability. For example, the Brazilian congress is discussing major changes to the Brazilian tax regime, which, among other things, would replace current federal, state and municipal taxes levied on the trade of good and services with a single national value added tax. In addition, the Brazilian congress is discussing a tax reform proposal focused on income tax. Ternium cannot predict whether, if approved, the new tax regime would result in a net tax burden increase for its operations. Any increase in the applicable tax burden or tariffs could affect Ternium’s projected cash flow and profitability. The Brazilian economy has been affected by inflation, energy shortages, illiquid lending markets and other political, diplomatic, social and economic developments. Uncertainty over whether the Brazilian government will change policies or regulations affecting these or other factors may contribute to economic instability in Brazil. Ternium’s business and results of operations in Brazil could be adversely affected by rapidly changing economic conditions in Brazil or by the Brazilian government’s policy response to such conditions.

Political instability could adversely affect Ternium's business, financial condition and results.

Brazil’s political environment has historically influenced, and continues to influence, the performance of the country’s economy. Political crises have affected public and investor confidence, which resulted in economic deceleration. Brazil has experienced heightened economic and political instability derived from various investigations into allegations of money laundering and corruption being conducted by the Office of the Brazilian Federal Prosecutor, including the Lava Jato investigation, which has had a negative impact on the Brazilian economy and political environment and contributed to a decline in market confidence in Brazil. Ternium cannot predict whether a new political crisis will arise in the future nor its effect on the Brazilian economy and, consequently, on the results of operations and financial conditions of Ternium’s businesses in Brazil.

Inflation may undermine economic growth in Brazil and impact Ternium's costs, thereby adversely affecting its results of operations and financial position.

High levels of inflation have in the past undermined the Brazilian economy and the government’s ability to stimulate economic growth and if a similar situation happened again in the future, Ternium’s results of operations and financial position could be negatively impacted, as Ternium Brasil’s BRL-denominated costs (mainly labor-related costs) would increase, thereby affecting Ternium’s cost-competitiveness. Inflationary pressures may also lead to the imposition of additional government policies to combat inflation and hinder access to Brazilian capital markets, which could adversely affect Ternium’s business and ability to finance operations and capital expenditures, making it impossible to estimate with reasonable certainty Ternium Brasil’s future results of operations.

Argentina
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A significant portion of Ternium’s sales are made in Argentina through its subsidiary, Ternium Argentina. Ternium Argentina’s business could be materially and adversely affected by economic, political, social, fiscal and regulatory developments in Argentina. For more information on Ternium’s sales in Argentina, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview —Sales—Southern Region.”

Economic and political instability in Argentina, which on several occasions resulted in economic uncertainties and recession, may adversely affect Ternium’s business, financial condition and results.

Ternium’s business and results of operations in Argentina depend on local macroeconomic conditions, among other factors. Steel shipments to the Argentine domestic market were severely affected in different opportunities over the last decades. This happened with the 2008-2009 downturn in the global economy; in 2016, when the country faced a significant rebalancing of the economy’s relative prices; in 2018-2019 as the economy was affected by a severe downturn resulting from financial market volatility, high interest rates and heightened political uncertainty during the presidential election process; and, more recently, in 2020 as the economy was affected by the COVID-19 outbreak.

Over the past years, the Argentine economy and capital investment have been affected by, among other factors, political, economic and financial uncertainties as well as government intervention in, or limitations to, the conduct of business in the private sector and other government measures affecting investors’ confidence. The Argentine economy is currently facing significant challenges, including a slow recovery following the COVID-19 pandemic, high and unpredictable inflation rates and a high fiscal deficit in a highly indebted economy, which could affect macroeconomic conditions and economic growth, and cause a drop in demand for Ternium Argentina’s products in the domestic market.

In addition, Argentina has recently reached a final agreement with the International Monetary Fund (“IMF”) on a sovereign debt restructuring process, whose outcome is uncertain. In January 2022, the IMF and the Argentine authorities reached an understanding on key policies as part of their discussions of an IMF-supported program, and in March 2022 the Argentine Congress and the IMF's Executive Board approved the program. Failure to implement any approved program with the IMF could further adversely affect the country’s economy and lessened financial sources could impair Argentina’s ability to foster economic growth.

Ternium’s business and results of operations in Argentina could be adversely affected by rapidly changing economic conditions in Argentina or by the Argentine government’s policy response to such conditions.

Inflation may undermine economic growth in Argentina and impact Ternium’s costs, thereby adversely affecting its results of operations and financial position.

In the past, inflation has undermined the Argentine economy and the government’s ability to stimulate economic growth. Consumer price inflation in Argentina, as reported by INDEC, the Argentine statistics and census bureau, was 50.9% in 2021, 36.1% in 2020 and 53.8% in 2019. Sustained high inflation in Argentina negatively impacts Ternium’s results of operations and financial position, as ARS-denominated costs (mainly labor-related costs) at Ternium Argentina increase, thereby affecting cost-competitiveness and margins. A high inflation economy could undermine Argentina’s foreign competitiveness in international markets and negatively affect economic activity and employment levels. Argentine inflation rate volatility makes it impossible to estimate with reasonable certainty the extent to which activity levels and results of operations of Ternium Argentina could be affected in the future.

The Argentine government has increased taxes on Argentine companies and could further increase the tax burden in the future, which could adversely affect Ternium's results of operations, net results and financial condition.

The sustained and significant devaluation of the Argentine peso against the U.S. dollar coupled with high inflation rates over the last decade have resulted in a material reduction of the real value that Ternium Argentina can deduct as cost of sales or cost of financial investments for tax purposes, thus creating artificial gains that are subject to income tax. Inflation adjustment for tax purposes is limited and subject to significant restrictions. For example, inflation adjustment of inventories and other current assets is permitted only if the consumer price inflation rate surpasses 100% in a 36-month period up to the close of the relevant fiscal year. Until 2020, even if this threshold were to be achieved, only one-sixth (or 16.67%) of the effect of the inflation adjustment could be recorded in the relevant fiscal year, and the balance had to be recorded, in equal installments, over the next five fiscal years. Although such limitation is not applicable for fiscal year 2021 (due to national congress’ failure to approve the 2022 annual budget), it could be reinstated once the new budget is approved by congress or in any other tax law. Furthermore, because inflation
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adjustment of cash positions generated during the current fiscal year is not permitted, high nominal interest rates, which are normally expected in high inflation scenarios, materially overstate the financial income of such cash positions for tax purposes.

In September 2018, the Argentine government suspended certain tax refunds and imposed a new tax that currently levies a 3% rate on exports of goods. Provincial and municipal taxes on Ternium Argentina’s operations have also increased over the last years. In December 2021, the federal government and a significant number of local governments reached a new tax consensus, which replaced the 2017 tax consensus that provided for a gradual decrease of tax burden on Argentine corporations over a five-year period. Ternium cannot predict whether the 2022 budget, or any new tax regime or future tax reform could result in an increase of the tax burden for its operations in Argentina. If the tax burden on Ternium Argentina or its shareholders further increases in the future, Ternium’s results of operations, net results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Argentine exchange controls could negatively impact Ternium Argentina’s operations, or prevent it from paying dividends or transferring cash surpluses abroad, as a result of its inability to access the foreign exchange market.

In the past, the Argentine authorities took several measures to reduce volatility of the ARS/$ exchange rate and implemented formal and informal restrictions on capital inflows into Argentina and capital outflows from Argentina. Certain foreign exchange restrictions that had been gradually lifted in December 2015 were reinstated in 2019 and have continued to tighten over the past two years. The Argentine government tightened controls on the flows of capital by requiring Argentine companies to repatriate all export proceeds from sales of goods and services (including U.S. dollars received through advance payment and pre-financing facilities) and convert such proceeds into Argentine pesos, restricting the purchase of foreign currency for saving purposes, and limiting or conditioning the ability of Argentine companies to access the foreign exchange market.

As of December 31, 2021, Ternium Argentina’s cash and cash equivalents and other investments, held in Argentine financial institutions, amounted to $965 million. For a breakdown of Ternium Argentina’s cash and cash equivalents and other investments as of December 31, 2021, see note 30 “Foreign exchange restrictions in Argentina” to our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report. Since 2019, access to the Argentine foreign exchange market for various purposes (including to repay foreign financial indebtedness, to pay services to related parties or to distribute dividends abroad) has been severely limited. Prior approval from the Argentine central bank, which is rarely (if ever) granted, is required to purchase foreign currency for payment of dividends to foreign shareholders and for other payments to affiliates abroad. Ternium Argentina has requested prior approval to the Argentine central bank for certain payment of services to affiliates abroad and, as of the date of this annual report, no such approvals have been granted.

Foreign exchange restrictions have also begun to affect imports of goods and services. Some of Ternium Argentina’s key steelmaking inputs, including iron ore and metallurgical coal, are imported into Argentina from other markets. In March 2022, the Argentine government imposed further restrictions to access the foreign exchange market for payment of imports. If such restrictions are maintained, or are further tightened, Ternium Argentina could be restricted from making payment of imports for key steelmaking inputs which would adversely affect its operations, or would need to resort to alternative, more expensive arrangements, which would affect its results of operations.

As an environment of volatility and uncertainty remains in place as of the date of this annual report, there is no assurance that the Argentine central bank or other Argentine authority will not further tighten exchange controls or impose new foreign exchange restrictions in the future. Any such additional controls and restrictions could further impair Ternium Argentina’s ability to access the official foreign exchange market, expose Ternium to losses resulting from fluctuations in the exchange rate, affect Ternium’s ability to finance its investments in Argentina and impair Ternium Argentina’s ability to make payments to foreign suppliers or creditors (which could disrupt Ternium Argentina’s operations), pay dividends or royalties abroad, or fund investments or other activities offshore. For more information on our foreign exchange restrictions in Argentina, see note 30 “Foreign exchange restrictions in Argentina” to our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

Restrictions on supply of energy to Ternium Argentina’s operations could curtail its production and negatively impact Ternium’s results of operations.

In the past, Argentina has suffered from an insufficient level of investment in natural gas and electricity supply and transport capacity, coupled with a substantial increase in demand for natural gas and electricity. This, in turn, resulted in shortages of natural gas and electricity to residential users and, in particular, to industrial users, including Ternium Argentina, during seasons of high demand. Ternium Argentina’s operations experienced constraints in their natural gas
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supply requirements and interruptions in their electricity supply at peak hours on many occasions. If natural gas and electricity supply and transport capacity fail to cover the demand for natural gas and electricity on a timely basis, Ternium Argentina’s local production (or that of its main customers and suppliers) could be curtailed, and Ternium Argentina’s sales and revenues could decline, which may adversely affect Ternium Argentina’s results of operations. For further information, see “—Risks Relating to the Steel Industry—Price fluctuations, shortages or disruptions in the supply of raw materials, slabs, energy and other inputs could adversely affect Ternium’s profitability” above.

Certain Regulatory Risks And Litigation Risks

International trade actions or regulations and trade-related legal proceedings could adversely affect Ternium’s sales, revenues and overall business.

International trade-related administrative proceedings, legal actions and restrictions pose a constant risk for Ternium’s international operations and sales throughout the world. Ternium purchases steel products, including significant quantities of steel slabs, from different foreign steel suppliers for its operations in Mexico, Colombia and Argentina. The Mexican, Argentine or Colombian governments may impose or increase duties on steel products imports. Trade liberalization, mainly through free trade agreements, can reduce certain input costs and increase access to foreign markets. On the other hand, greater trade liberalization in Ternium’s domestic markets increases competition. During the last decade, steel exports surged as a consequence of a global downturn and the economic slowdown in China, and the number of antidumping, countervailing, safeguard measures and other trade restrictive actions increased substantially. Accordingly, producers that were restricted from certain markets sought alternative markets for their products. If steel exports were to surge again in the future, Ternium’s share in domestic markets could be eroded by imports, and such market share losses may not be completely offset by increased exports to foreign markets.

Countries may impose restrictive import duties and other restrictions on imports under various trade related laws, such as national security, environmental and intellectual property regulations. The timing and nature of the imposition of trade-related restrictions potentially affecting Ternium’s exports are unpredictable. Trade restrictions on Ternium’s exports could adversely impact Ternium’s ability to sell products abroad and, as a result, Ternium’s profit margins, financial condition and overall business could suffer. One significant source of trade restrictions is unfair competition that could result in the imposition of “antidumping” and “countervailing” duties, as well as “safeguard measures”. These duties can severely limit or altogether prevent exports to relevant markets. In several of Ternium’s export destinations, such as the United States or Europe, safeguard duties and other protective measures have been imposed against a large number of steel imports, such as a 25% tariff on certain steel imports imposed by the United States in 2018. For further information, see Item 4. “Information on the Company-B. Business Overview Regulations-Trade Regulations”.

In addition, certain domestic producers have filed antidumping and/or countervailing duty actions against certain steel imports. Some of these actions have led, or may lead, to restrictions on Ternium’s sales of steel products to certain steel markets and result in lower profit margins. Antidumping and/or countervailing duty actions and other government actions are largely unpredictable and additional duties or restrictions could be imposed in the future, limiting Ternium’s sales to and potential growth in those markets, and increasing costs.

The cost of complying with environmental regulations and potential environmental and product liabilities may increase Ternium’s operating costs and negatively impact Ternium’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Ternium’s steelmaking and mining activities are subject to a wide range of local, provincial and national laws, regulations, permit requirements and decrees relating to the protection of human health and the environment, including laws and regulations relating to hazardous materials and radioactive materials and environmental protection governing air emissions, water discharges and waste management due to the risks inherent in the industries in which Ternium operates. Laws and regulations protecting the environment have become increasingly complex and more stringent in recent years, leading to higher compliance costs.

Furthermore, environmental laws and regulations may, in some cases, impose strict liability for damages to natural resources or threats to public health and safety without regard to negligence or fault. Some environmental laws provide for joint and several strict liability for remediation of spills and releases of hazardous substances. Such laws and regulations may expose Ternium to liability for the conduct of, or conditions caused by, third parties or for actions that complied with applicable laws at the time they were performed.

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While Ternium incurs and will continue to incur expenditures to comply with applicable laws and regulations, there always remains a risk that environmental incidents or accidents may occur that may negatively affect Ternium's reputation or operations. Some of the activities for which Ternium supplies products, such as production of food cans, construction and the automotive industry, are subject to inherent risks that could result in death, personal injury, property damage or environmental pollution, and result in product liability risks that could extend to liability for damages caused by such products. Furthermore, Ternium’s products are also sold to, and used in, certain safety-critical appliances. Actual or claimed defects in Ternium’s products may give rise to claims for losses suffered by customers and expose Ternium to claims for damages. The insurance Ternium maintains will not be available in cases of gross negligence or willful misconduct; in other cases, insurance may not be adequate or available to protect Ternium in the event of a claim, its coverage may be limited, canceled or otherwise terminated, or the amount of insurance may be less than the related impact on enterprise value after a loss.

Climate change legislation and increasing climate regulatory requirements aimed at transitioning to a lower-carbon economy could result in unexpected capital expenditures and costs, negatively affect the Company's competitiveness, reducing its market share and results of operations, and hampering its ability to access adequate financial resources.

There is an increased attention on greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and climate change from different sectors of society. The Paris Agreement, adopted at the 2015 United Nations Climate Conference, sets out the global framework to limit the rising temperature of the planet and to strengthen the countries’ ability to deal with the effects of climate change. The European Green Deal, launched in 2019, focuses on adopting the required policies and measures aimed at reaching zero GHG emissions in Europe by 2050. In 2021, the European Commission made a formal proposal for an EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism, aimed at avoiding carbon leakage from the EU and promoting emissions reductions worldwide.

Government initiatives to reduce GHG emissions, such as the introduction of a carbon tax or carbon-pricing systems, the adoption of “cap-and-trade” systems or other measures to promote the use of renewable energy sources could affect steel production costs. In Argentina, the 2017 tax reform introduced a tax on certain fossil fuels. Natural gas, considered the cleanest fossil fuel, was excluded from such tax. Metallurgical coal and petrochemical coke were exempted as long as they are used as part of an industrial process, other than for energy generation. Effective since March 2018, the tax on fossil fuels is set to increase 10% every year until 2028, when it is expected to reach an average $10 per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted. Similarly, in 2013, Mexico approved carbon taxing rules applicable to fossil fuels (setting a zero tax on natural gas) and in 2019 the government implemented a pilot program for the adoption of an Emissions Trading System (ETS) aimed at reducing GHG emissions, by setting a cap on emissions and allowing for the trade of emission certificates. Although existing carbon pricing mechanisms in Mexico and Argentina do not materially limit or penalize Ternium’s GHG emissions, new carbon pricing mechanisms could be established, increasing Ternium’s production costs.

In addition, the Brazilian congress has been discussing initiatives to introduce carbon emission taxes on industry processes and power generation facilities, which, if applicable to Ternium’s steel production in Brazil, would result in incremental costs. Such increases in costs could affect, in turn, Ternium’s profitability and net results.

If there is no meaningful progress in lowering emissions in the years ahead, there is an increased likelihood of abrupt policy interventions as governments attempt to meet their environmental goals by adopting policy, legal, technology and market changes in the transition to a low-carbon global economy. In addition to incremental production costs, the adoption of new climate change legislation in the countries in which Ternium operates could result in incremental compliance costs and unexpected capital expenditures, affect Ternium’s competitiveness and reduce its market share and results of operations. Shifts in customer preferences and failure to respond to stakeholders’ demands for climate-related measures and environmental standards could harm Ternium’s reputation, adversely affect the ability or willingness of customers or suppliers to do business with Ternium, erode stakeholder support and restrict or reduce access to financial resources.

Risks Relating To the Company's ADSs

The market price for the Company's ADSs could be highly volatile.

Volatility in the price of the Company’s ADSs may be caused by factors within or outside of the Company’s control and may be unrelated or disproportionate to the Company’s operating results. In particular, the announcement of
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potentially adverse developments, such as proposed regulatory changes, new government investigations or the commencement or threat of litigation against Ternium, as well as the announcement of transactions, investments, or changes in strategies or business plans of Ternium or its competitors, could adversely affect the trading price of the Company’s ADSs, regardless of the likely outcome of those developments. Broad market and industry factors could adversely affect the market price of the Company’s ADSs, regardless of their actual effect in operating performance. As an example of this volatility, a high closing price of $42.19 was reached on April 26, 2018, as steel prices in North America spiked reflecting the United States’ imposition of a 25% tariff on certain steel imports, but then fell to a low closing price of $9.84 on March 18, 2020, as the COVID-19 outbreak sent stock market prices sharply down, including the Company’s ADSs. Since then, the Company’s ADSs recovered and reached a high closing price of $56.19 on August 11, 2021, as steel prices reached record levels in the United States and Mexico, reflecting a recovery in steel demand that consistently outpaced steel production capacity restarts. The trading price of the Company’s ADSs could also suffer as a result of developments in emerging markets. Although the Company is organized as a Luxembourg corporation, almost all of its assets and operations are located in Latin America. Financial and securities markets for companies with a substantial portion of their assets and operations in Latin America are, to varying degrees, influenced by political, economic and market conditions in emerging market countries. Although market conditions are different in each country, investor reaction to developments in one country can have significant effects on the securities of issuers with assets or operations in other emerging markets, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Colombia. See “Risks Relating to the Countries in Which Ternium Operates.”

Holders of shares or ADSs may not have access to as much information about the Company as they would in the case of a U.S. domestic issuer.

There may be less publicly available information about the Company than is regularly published by or about U.S. domestic issuers. Also, corporate and securities regulations governing Luxembourg companies may not be as extensive as those in effect in other jurisdictions, and U.S. securities regulations applicable to foreign private issuers, such as the Company, differ in certain respects from those applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. Furthermore, IFRS, the accounting standards in accordance with which the Company prepares its consolidated financial statements, differ in certain material aspects from U.S. GAAP. For a summary of the significant ways in which the Company's corporate governance practices differ from the corporate governance standards required for domestic companies by the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, see Item 16.G "Corporate Governance".

Holders of ADSs may not be able to exercise, or may encounter difficulties in the exercise of, certain rights afforded to shareholders.

Certain shareholders’ rights under Luxembourg law, including the right to participate and vote at general meetings of shareholders, to include items on the agenda for the general meetings of shareholders, to receive dividends and distributions, to bring actions, to examine books and records and to exercise appraisal rights may not be available to holders of ADSs, or may be subject to restrictions and special procedures for their exercise, as holders of ADSs only have those rights that are expressly granted to them in the deposit agreement. The Bank of New York Mellon, or BNY Mellon, as depositary under the ADS deposit agreement, through its custodian agent, is the registered shareholder of the deposited shares underlying the ADSs and therefore only the Depositary can exercise the shareholders’ rights in connection with the deposited shares. For example, if the Company makes a distribution in the form of securities, the Depositary is allowed, at its discretion, to sell the right to acquire those securities on your behalf and to instead distribute the net proceeds to you. Also, under certain circumstances, such as the Company's failure to provide the Depositary with voting materials on a timely basis, you may not be able to vote at general meetings of shareholders by giving instructions to the Depositary. If the Depositary does not receive voting instructions from the holder of ADSs by the prescribed deadline, or the instructions are not in proper form, then the Depositary shall deem such holder of ADSs to have instructed the Depositary to vote the underlying shares represented by ADSs in favor of any proposals or recommendations of the Company (including any recommendation by the Company to vote such underlying shares on any given issue in accordance with the majority shareholder vote on that issue) for which purposes the depositary shall issue a proxy to a person appointed by the Company to vote such underlying shares represented by ADSs in favor of any proposals or recommendations of the Company. Under the ADS deposit agreement, no instruction shall be deemed given and no proxy shall be given with respect to any matter as to which the Company informs the Depositary that (x) it does not wish such proxy given, (y) substantial opposition exists, or (z) the matter materially and adversely affects the rights of the holders of ADSs.

Holders of shares and ADSs in the United States may not be able to exercise preemptive rights in certain cases.

Pursuant to Luxembourg corporate law, existing shareholders of the Company are generally entitled to preferential subscription rights (preemptive rights) in the event of capital increases and issues of shares against cash contributions.
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Under the Company’s articles of association, the board of directors has been authorized for a five-year period (ending in June 2025) to waive, limit or suppress such preemptive subscription rights. Notwithstanding the waiver of any preemptive subscription rights, for as long as the shares of the Company are listed on a regulated market, any issuance of shares for cash within the limits of the authorized share capital shall be subject to the preemptive subscription rights of existing shareholders, except (i) any issuance of shares for, within, in conjunction with or related to, an initial public offering of the shares of the Company on one or more regulated markets (in one or more instances); (ii) any issuance of shares against a contribution other than in cash; (iii) any issuance of shares upon conversion of convertible bonds or other instruments convertible into shares of the Company; provided, however, that the preemptive subscription rights of the then-existing shareholders shall apply in connection with any issuance of convertible bonds or other instruments convertible into shares of the Company for cash; and (iv) any issuance of shares (including by way of free shares or at discount), up to an amount of 1.5% of the issued share capital of the Company, to directors, officers, agents, employees of the Company, its direct or indirect subsidiaries or its affiliates (collectively the "Beneficiaries"), including without limitation, the direct issuance of shares or upon the exercise of options, rights convertible into shares or similar instruments convertible or exchangeable into shares, issued for the purpose of compensation or incentive of the Beneficiaries or in relation thereto (which the board of directors shall be authorized to issue upon such terms and conditions as it deems fit). For further details, see Item 10. “Additional Information—B. Memorandum and Articles of Association”.

Holders of ADSs in the United States may, in any event, not be able to exercise any preemptive rights, if granted, for shares underlying their ADSs unless additional shares and ADSs are registered under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, with respect to those rights or an exemption from registration requirements of the Securities Act is available. The Company intends to evaluate, at the time of any rights offering, the costs and potential liabilities associated with the exercise by holders of shares and ADSs of the preemptive rights for shares, and any other factors it considers appropriate at the time, and then to make a decision as to whether to register additional shares. The Company may decide not to register any additional shares, requiring a sale by the Depositary of the holders’ rights and a distribution of the proceeds thereof. Should the Depositary not be permitted or otherwise be unable to sell preemptive rights, the rights may be allowed to lapse with no consideration to be received by the holders of the ADSs.

It may be difficult to obtain or enforce judgments against the Company outside Luxembourg.

The Company is a société anonyme organized under the laws of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and most of its assets are located in other jurisdictions. Furthermore, most of the Company’s directors and officers reside in other jurisdictions. As a result, investors may not be able to effect service of process upon the Company or its directors or officers. Investors may also not be able to enforce against the Company or its directors or officers in the investors’ domestic courts, judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the domestic laws of the investors’ home countries. Likewise, it may be difficult for investors not domiciled in Luxembourg to bring an original action in a Luxembourg court predicated upon the civil liability provisions of other securities laws, including U.S. federal securities laws, against the Company, its directors or its officers. There is also uncertainty with regard to the enforceability of original actions of civil liabilities predicated upon the civil liability provisions of securities laws, including U.S. federal securities laws, outside the jurisdiction where such judgments have been rendered; and enforceability will be subject to compliance with procedural requirements under applicable local law, including the condition that the judgment does not violate the public policy of the applicable jurisdiction.

Item 4.    Information on the Company
Overview
Ternium is Latin America's leading flat steel producer. It operates in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, the southern United States and Central America through regional manufacturing facilities, service centers and its own distribution network. Our customers range from small businesses to large global companies in the automotive, home appliances, heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), construction, capital goods, container, food and energy industries across the Americas. Ternium’s innovative culture, industrial expertise and long-term view enable it to continuously achieve new breakthroughs in industrial excellence, competitiveness and customer service. Ternium is the leading supplier of flat steel products in Mexico and Argentina, has a significant position as supplier of steel products in Colombia and in other Latin American countries, and is a competitive player in the international steel market. In addition, Ternium participates in the control group of Usiminas, a leading flat steel company in the Brazilian market.
We believe that an adequate environment and occupational health and safety (EHS) performance is key to our long-term sustainability. We have standardized EHS management systems and devote significant resources to EHS projects.
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Our employees are well trained in EHS and our management is accountable for EHS performance. Ternium’s occupational health and safety system is certified under OHSAS 18001, and its environment and energy system is certified under ISO 14001 and ISO 50001. We regularly invest in state-of-the-art technologies to reduce our environmental footprint and minimize safety risks.
We rely on the talent and determination of our employees to successfully shape our company. We provide training to our employees and have developed performance assessment tools to ensure transparency and fairness. We also provide training to our customers and suppliers on diverse topics. Ternium is an equal opportunity employer and aims to foster a workplace environment that attracts and develops talents across all genders, nationalities, generations, cultures, religions and backgrounds, respecting and valuing individual differences. We believe that developing and maintaining strong ties with our communities is fundamental to our long-term sustainability. We work together with local institutions to enhance communities’ education and welfare. We built and operate a technical school in Mexico. We provide scholarships, internships, teachers’ training and infrastructure funding to local schools and health centers. We also organize and fund volunteering programs and health prevention campaigns, and we sponsor sports, social events and arts exhibitions.
Integrity is key to Ternium’s long term sustainability. The Company's board of directors has an audit committee composed of three independent directors. The Company's internal audit department, which meets organizational independence and objectivity standards, reports to the chairman of the board of directors and, with respect to internal control over financial reporting, to the audit committee. The Company has appointed a Business Conduct Compliance Officer, who reports to the chief executive officer and the audit committee. The compliance department oversees SOX certifications and related party transactions. The Company has adopted a Code of Conduct and has established several policies, codes and procedures to ensure transparency and an ethic behavior. Employees are regularly trained on the Company's policies and procedures. In addition, the Company has put in place a Compliance Line to report any violation to its code of conduct and principles.
Ternium aims to have an active role in the world’s efforts to tackle climate change. As a steel company, we are determined to finding ways to reduce the carbon footprint of our operations and of the steel value chain. We partner with different companies and associations to foster the development of low carbon dioxide emitting technologies, as a swift and successful energy transition will be key to achieve these goals. We set a target to reduce by 20% the carbon dioxide emission intensity of our steelmaking facilities by 2030, compared to a 2018 baseline. The main initiatives we plan to carry out to achieve this objective are to increase the participation of renewable sources in the energy mix and of scrap in the metallic mix, to expand our carbon dioxide capture capacity at the DRI facilities, to partially replace metallurgical coal with biomass, to further develop our energy efficiency program and to prioritize lower specific-emission steelmaking technologies when planning organic expansions. We intend to develop new measures to continue decarbonizing Ternium’s operations over the longer term. The main factors that will determine our success to carry out our climate change strategy are related to the further development of emerging steelmaking technologies, prospects for the availability of raw materials, renewable energy and required infrastructure, and the enactment of appropriate government regulations to promote fair trade, among others. As a company focused on supplying advanced steel products, Ternium is well positioned to contribute to the world’s energy transition process. We believe the company will have significant opportunities for the development of innovative products required for renewable energy applications, emerging electric vehicles technologies and green construction strategies, as countries seek to meet their commitments under the Paris Agreement.

A.    History and Development of the Company
The Company
The Company is a société anonyme organized under the laws of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. It was established on December 22, 2003. The Company’s registered office is located at 26 Boulevard Royal – 4th floor, L-2449 Luxembourg. Our agent for U.S. federal securities law purposes is Ternium U.S.A. Incorporated, located at 2200 West Loop South, Suite 945, Houston, TX 77027, United States.

Ternium
Ternium’s origins began in September 1961 with the founding of Propulsora Siderúrgica ("Propulsora"), by San Faustin’s predecessor in Argentina. Propulsora began its operations as a producer of cold-rolled coils in December 1969 and in the early 1990s began to evolve through a series of strategic investments aimed at transforming Propulsora into an integrated steel producer. In 1993, Propulsora merged with Aceros Paraná S.A. (a company formed by the Argentine government in connection with the privatization of Sociedad Mixta Siderúrgica Argentina ("Somisa"), at that time the main integrated producer of flat steel in Argentina) and three other affiliated steel industry companies.
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After the merger, Propulsora changed its name to Siderar, and later to Ternium Argentina. San Faustin held a controlling interest in Siderar, with the remainder being held mainly by Usiminas, certain former employees of Somisa, and public investors.
In December 1997, a consortium formed by San Faustin, Ternium Argentina, Usiminas, Hylsamex, and Siderurgica Venezolana S.A. ("Sivensa"), won the bid in the privatization of a controlling interest in Sidor C.A. ("Sidor"), the largest steel company in Venezuela.
As part of a multiple-step corporate reorganization in 2005, San Faustin reorganized its investments in steel manufacturing, processing and distribution businesses by contributing to the Company San Faustin’s controlling interests in Ternium Argentina and other subsidiaries, in exchange for shares of the Company. In addition, Usiminas and Sivensa exchanged their interests in Ternium Argentina, Sidor and other subsidiaries for shares of the Company. In 2005, we acquired, together with Ternium Argentina, an indirect 99.3% interest in the Mexican company Hylsamex and its subsidiaries.
On January 11, 2006, the Company launched an initial public offering of 24,844,720 ADSs, each representing 10 shares of the Company, in the United States, and subsequently granted the underwriters of the Company’s initial public offering an option to purchase up to 3,726,708 additional ADSs to cover over-allotments in the sale of the ADSs.
On December 28, 2006, we acquired an additional 4.85% interest in Ternium Argentina from CVRD Internacional S.A, thereby increasing our ownership interest in Ternium Argentina to 60.93%.
On April 29, 2007, the Company acquired Grupo Imsa through a cash tender offer and a cash redemption. Grupo Imsa was renamed Ternium Mexico and, effective March 31, 2008, Hylsamex merged with and into Ternium Mexico. In connection with this merger, Ternium Argentina acquired, and currently holds, a 28.73% participation in Ternium Mexico.
On April 29, 2008, the National Assembly of Venezuela passed a resolution declaring that the shares of Sidor, together with all of its assets, were of public and social interest, and authorizing the Venezuelan government to take any action it deemed appropriate in connection with any such assets, including expropriation. On May 11, 2008, the President of Venezuela issued Decree Law 6058 ordering that Sidor and its subsidiaries and associated companies were transformed into state-owned enterprises (“empresas del Estado”), with Venezuela owning not less than 60% of their share capital. On May 7, 2009, Ternium completed the transfer of its entire 59.7% interest in Sidor to Corporación Venezolana de Guayana, a Venezuelan state-owned entity.
On August 25, 2010, Ternium completed the acquisition of a 54% ownership interest in Ferrasa and, indirectly, in its wholly-owned Colombian subsidiaries, Siderúrgica de Caldas S.A.S. and Perfilamos del Cauca S.A.S. On April 7, 2015, Ternium acquired the remaining 46% minority interest in Ferrasa. Through this investment, Ternium expanded its business and commercial presence in Colombia. In 2017, Ferrasa was renamed Ternium Colombia.
In November 2010, Ternium and NSC established Tenigal, with each company holding 51% and 49% participations, respectively. Tenigal completed the construction of a hot dip galvanizing plant in the vicinity of Monterrey City, Mexico, which commenced production in the third quarter of 2013. Tenigal was designed to produce high grade and high quality galvanized and galvannealed automotive steel sheets, including outer panel and high strength qualities.
On January 16, 2012, the Company’s subsidiaries Ternium Investments and Ternium Argentina (together with its wholly-owned subsidiary Prosid Investments S.A., or "Prosid", and the Company’s affiliate, Confab Industrial S.A., a subsidiary of Tenaris, or TenarisConfab), joined the existing control group of Usiminas, a leading steel company in the Brazilian flat steel market, through the acquisition of 84.7, 30.0, and 25.0 million ordinary shares, respectively, and formed the so-called Ternium/Tenaris (T/T) Group.
On October 30, 2014, Ternium Investments acquired 51.4 million additional ordinary shares of Usiminas. On April 20, 2016, Ternium Investments subscribed to 7.0 million preferred shares of Usiminas and Ternium Argentina, together with Prosid, subscribed to an aggregate 1.5 million preferred shares of Usiminas. On July 19, 2016, Usiminas’ extraordinary general shareholders’ meeting homologated a capital increase, and Ternium Investments acquired 62.6 million additional ordinary shares, and Ternium Argentina and Prosid acquired an aggregate 13.8 million additional ordinary shares. As a result of these transactions, Ternium, through its subsidiaries Ternium Investments, Ternium Argentina and Prosid, currently owns 242.6 million ordinary shares of Usiminas (representing 34.4% of Usiminas’ ordinary shares) and 8.5 million of Usiminas’ preferred shares (representing 1.6% of Usiminas’ preferred shares), representing, in the aggregate, 20.4% of Usiminas’ share capital. Ternium Investments, Ternium Argentina, Prosid and
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TenarisConfab are parties to an Usiminas shareholders’ agreement, effective as of April 10, 2018, with NSC, Mitsubishi Corporation do Brasil S.A. and Metal One Corporation (comprising the so-called "NSC Group") and Previdência Usiminas, governing their rights and obligations as shareholders of Usiminas. For further information on our investment in Usiminas, see “—C. Organizational Structure—Other Investments—Usiminas.”
On September 7, 2017, the Company acquired a 100% ownership interest in thyssenkrupp Slab International B.V or tkSI, and its wholly-owned subsidiary CSA from thyssenkrupp AG, or tkAG. Through this investment, Ternium significantly expanded its steel slabs production capacity. As part of this process CSA was renamed Ternium Brasil Ltda. and tkSI was absorbed by the Company's fully-owned subsidiary Ternium Internacional España S.L.
B.    Business Overview
Our Business Strategy
Ternium aims to enhance stakeholder value by further consolidating its position as a leading steel producer in Latin America and a strong player in the Americas, while increasing its differentiation and strengthening its competitiveness. We believe Ternium has built competitive advantages in its main steel markets. Our industrial presence and network of distribution centers and commercial offices increase our ability to offer differentiated logistics and stock management services. Our customers have access to an integrated connectivity platform covering the entire customer relationship process. Ternium also works together with small and medium-sized customers and suppliers in Argentina and Mexico, through the ProPymes program, to help them grow. The prosperity of SMEs and the development of a collaborative industrial network have strengthened our value chain. This effort has led to a virtuous cycle of improved competitiveness, increased exports and imports substituted by new locally manufactured products.
Ternium’s differentiation initiatives have also included investments in state-of-the-art technologies. As part of this strategy Ternium has built its Pesquería Industrial Center in Mexico, which currently comprises a hot-rolling mill, a cold-rolling mill, two galvanizing facilities and a painting line. In addition, Ternium has recently announced the construction at this center of a new cold rolling mill, a hot-dip galvanizing line, a pushpull pickling line and new finishing lines with total capital investment of approximately $1 billion and expected start-up of operations in the first half of 2024. In 2021, Ternium inaugurated a new research and development center in Pesquería. This will enable us to speed up the development of new high-end steel products to be processed in the new facilities in order to satisfy our industrial customers' requirements. Ternium provides technical assistance to its customers through its product research and development area, allowing to maximize the performance of its steel products and the efficiency of the manufacturing processes downstream in the steel industry value chain.
We believe that Ternium has additional growth opportunities in the USMCA trade region. In Mexico, increased steel consumption over the last decades gave way to an attractive steel market with a significant demand for advanced steel products, mainly driven by a dynamic manufacturing industry that destines a significant share of its production to the U.S. market. The Mexican industrial sector has access to the U.S. and Canadian markets through the USMCA, and to other major economic regions and trade blocks through other free trade agreements. Mexico has privileged conditions to host a competitive and innovative manufacturing sector and the country’s geographic location provides a competitive logistics base to reach every major market. Mexican steel producers deliver approximately half of the flat steel demand in the country. We believe that Ternium is very well positioned to compete with foreign producers and gradually substitute imports in the country. Ternium has built a solid differentiation strategy leaning on its unique industrial presence in Mexico, as well as on its market competitiveness. We believe that Ternium is also well positioned to compete in the U.S. steel market.
In South America, Ternium has a significant presence in the Argentine steel market, the third largest in Latin America. The country's manufacturing customers account for approximately half of local flat steel demand, providing ample opportunities for the offering of value added products and services. Ternium has a solid differentiation strategy in Argentina built on its industrial integration in the country, which allows it to offer customized products and value-added services. Ternium also has a significant local presence in Colombia, the fourth largest steel market in Latin America. Ternium is also a competitive player in other steel markets in the region.
We identify three main elements of our business strategy: a focus on sophisticated value-added products, the pursuit of strategic growth opportunities and a relentless quest for competitive industrial operations.
Focus on sophisticated steel products. The incorporation of new technologies, the development of new advanced steel products and the integration of our industrial system are elements of a strategy aimed at increasing the participation of higher margin value-added products in the company’s sales mix. Ternium’s industrial center in Pesquería strengthened our positioning in the high-end market sector, giving way to a gradual replacement of
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imported goods in key industrial segments. The start-up of a new hot-rolling mill in this industrial center in July 2021 represented a technological leap forward in Mexico’s steel production capacity. With this, Ternium broadened its dimensional offerings with the most advanced steel grades, aiming at fulfilling all industry requirements to substitute high-value-added steel imports targeting the demanding and innovative automotive industry, as well as the home appliance, machinery, energy and construction sectors. The recently announced new investments in this industrial center will expand the facility’s advanced-high-strength and ultra-high-strength steels production capabilities, and help it better serve its customers in the automotive, renewable energy and home appliance industries, as well as in the construction and agricultural sectors. For further information on Ternium’s capital expenditures, see “—Capital Expenditure Program.”
Pursuit of strategic growth opportunities. We have a history of strategically growing our businesses through acquisitions and organic growth. We intend to continue identifying and actively pursuing growth-enhancing strategic opportunities to consolidate Ternium’s presence in its main markets and expand it to the rest of the Americas, increase our industrial system integration, broaden our offerings of value-added products, and enhance our production and distribution capabilities. For example, in 2017, Ternium acquired the company that today is called Ternium Brazil, a steel slab producer with facilities located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The plant has an annual production capacity of 5.0 million tons of high-end steel slabs, a deep-water harbor and a 490 MW combined cycle power plant. With this acquisition, total crude steel production capacity of Ternium’s industrial system increased to 12.4 million tons, or approximately by 70%. The incorporation of the Rio de Janeiro facility triggered the expansion program in Pesquería, Mexico, that included the new hot-rolling mill to integrate the Brazilian slab facility to Ternium's industrial system. The combination of high-end steel slabs sourced form the Rio de Janeiro facility and a state-of-the-art hot-rolling mill in Pesquería, enables Ternium to increase its market share in Mexico with a combination of a higher production capacity, a broader dimensional offering, new advanced steel grades, enhanced customer service and reduced lead times in its value chain. The start-up of the new hot-rolling mill also opened-up new growth opportunities for downstream capacity at the Pesquería facility, like the announced construction of a new cold rolling mill, a hot-dip galvanizing line, a pushpull pickling line and new finishing lines. In Colombia, Ternium started up a new reinforcing bar facility in Palmar de Varela in 2020, adding 520,000 tons of annual production capacity of steel bars to Ternium’s industrial system. This investment allowed us to expand our market share in Colombia’s dynamic construction sector, by offering an alternative to imports in the country's northern region. In addition, it has increased our upstream integration in the country. For further information on Ternium’s capital expenditures, see “—Capital Expenditure Program.”
Enhancement of Ternium’s competitive position. In addition to developing a full range of steel products and delivering differentiated services to Ternium’s customer base, we aim to enhance our competitive position by seeking excellence in operational performance, and by attracting and training talented employees. Our quest for operational excellence relies on the cross implementation of managerial, commercial and production best practices. Ternium has a centralized industrial engineering, automation, OH&S and environmental management area. Focused on capacity utilization, quality and maintenance, this area facilitates the improvement of production processes through best practices, a coordinated deployment of new technologies and access to strong internal technical support. Ternium’s broad range of value-added products, just-in-time delivery, inventory management and other services are offered to customers in major steel markets supported by our extended service centers, distribution channels, as well as sales and marketing networks. As part of its differentiation strategy, Ternium aims at further strengthening its presence at local steel markets. In this regard, in 2019 and 2020 Ternium put in place a total of seven new distribution centers in Mexico and Guatemala. We believe that the implementation of Ternium’s managerial, commercial and production best practices in acquired and new facilities and businesses should generate benefits and savings.
Our Sustainable Approach
We believe there are six value drivers that are key to achieve our goals in a sustainable way. These value drivers are:
- delivering on our business strategy;
- improving our safety performance;
- minimizing our environmental footprint;
- realizing our people’s full potential;
- helping communities thrive; and
- strengthening our value chain.

Improving our safety performance. We invest in occupational health and safety (OH&S) projects and manage OH&S matters based on the certainty that all injuries and work-related illnesses can and must be prevented. Risk assessment
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and management of our people’s OH&S are integrated into all our business processes and reflected in Ternium’s OH&S policy. Management is responsible and accountable for OH&S performance as part of a broad set of goals. Ternium is committed to taking every measure to protect the safety and health of its employees, contractors and the communities where it operates. We design strategies to align our culture to our safety vision with the goal of preventing accidents, safely managing our production processes and engaging our employees and our customers and suppliers' managers and employees, through effective communication, so that they embrace our vision and goals. Each of our performance improvement strategies on OH&S is led by a senior manager.

Minimizing our environmental footprint. The protection of the environment is a fundamental value for Ternium. Our Environmental and Energy Policy expresses our commitment to the preservation of the environment. Ternium’s steel and mining operations are subject to environmental laws and regulations. Ternium’s corporate environmental and energy policy requires that each of its business units comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and aims to achieve the highest standards of environmental performance as a basis to ensure a sustainable development. Our environmental performance is monitored through an environmental and energy management system encompassing every production unit.

Ternium's environmental and energy management system is one of the key elements for pursuing excellence in environmental performance. Ternium periodically audits and certifies its systems and procedures. This process helps us identify improvement opportunities, update our environmental management processes and ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Ternium’s steel production facilities environmental and energy management system is certified under ISO 14001. In addition, Ternium’s most demanding operations in terms of energy use are in the process of certifying their energy management system under ISO 50001. The energy management system has already been certified at the Rio de Janeiro unit, at the steel shop and hot-rolling mill of the San Nicolás unit and at the Pesquería unit, and is undergoing the certification process at the steel shop of the Guerrero unit.

In February 2021, Ternium adopted a new decarbonization strategy with a medium-term target to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions intensity rate by 20% in 2030, compared to its 2018 base rate of 1.7 tons of carbon dioxide per ton of steel. The company’s strategy to achieve this target is based upon a multi-faceted approach, including the intensified use of renewable energy at its facilities, increasing the participation of scrap in the metallic mix, increasing carbon capture capacity at the DRI facilities in Mexico, partially replacing coking coal with charcoal at the operations in Brazil and Argentina, developing energy efficiency strategies and prioritizing lower specific-emission steelmaking technologies. Of note in this regard, Ternium has completed the first phase of the project to increase the carbon capture capacity at the DRI facilities in Mexico, and has recently launched the second phase of this project. Ternium has also launched a project at the slab facility in Rio de Janeiro to increase the scrapyard processing capacity.

In addition, in 2021 the company announced a $460 million environmental investment plan to be deployed mostly over the next seven years. Investment projects are mainly related to improvements in particulate emissions control, raw material management and water quality control at the primary areas of the company’s operations in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.

For further information on the environment, see Item 4. “Information on the Company —B. Business Overview — Regulations - Environmental Regulation”. For a description of some of the risks associated with the environment, health and safety, see Item 3. “Key Information—D. Risk Factors.”

Realizing our people’s full potential. The sustainability of Ternium’s performance relies on the competences and skills of existing and new employees and on a successful succession and continuity process. Ternium has a Career Development program and a Succession program for key positions as part of its initiatives to ensure its medium and long-term success. To achieve operational excellence, our teams pursue continuous improvement and innovation, and training is key to achieve this goal. Ternium centralized all training activities in a corporate university: Ternium University. It has the mission of learning, sharing and growing to help employees increase their competences and skills for their current and future positions at the company.

Ternium has adopted policies on Human Rights and Diversity and Work Environment Free of Harassment. We are an equal opportunity employer and aim to foster a workplace environment that attracts and develops talents across all genders, nationalities, generations, cultures, religions and backgrounds, respecting and valuing individual differences. Ternium’s Code of Conduct prohibits unlawful discrimination in employment relations and ensures that every person has the right to apply for employment with Ternium or to be considered for a new position strictly based only on the skills required for such task.

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Helping communities thrive. We believe that an industrial project like Ternium’s can only be sustainable if community and industry grow together. This is the principle guiding our community programs, which focus on four main fields:

-    Education. We are convinced that education is the key to prosperous community growth and thus we have developed and ran educational programs covering the entire school cycle, from elementary to post-graduate, helping children and youngsters to fulfill their potential and become active contributors to society. Our programs include the Roberto Rocca Technical Schools, the Technical Gene program, the AfterSchool Program and Roberto Rocca Scholarships.

-    Culture. As a multi-cultural and multi-lingual company, we enrich and broaden people’s cultural horizons in communities near our facilities, fostering diversity and inclusion by promoting cultural activities. Our programs include the Film Festival and the Photo Library.

-    Volunteer work. We encourage our employees to volunteer for community activities with a special focus on refurbishing schools, aimed at helping those in need and cultivating pride and integration in our communities. With this purpose, we developed the Volunteers in Action program.

-    Health. We seek to improve people’s quality of life and foster welfare. With this purpose, we fund infrastructure projects and improvements at hospitals and health care centers near our facilities.

Abiding by these general directives, our programs have been designed to be implemented at local level, taking into account the particular circumstances of each community where we operate.

Strengthening our value chain. Ternium offers support to small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) through a program that provides a variety of services, including training, industrial assistance, institutional assistance, commercial support and financial aid. With the participation of approximately 1,830 companies, our ProPymes program fosters the development of the industrial value chain in Mexico and Argentina. ProPymes has helped create an industrial network that encourages the professionalization and quest for excellence of SMEs, which, based on knowledge sharing, reciprocal learning and exchange of experiences, aims at the implementation along the value chain of the best practices utilized in the industry.

Integrity. We believe integrity is key to Ternium’s long-term sustainability. With ethical behavior and compliance with law as a core value, we continuously work on building a corporate culture of transparency. The Company has adopted a Code of Conduct incorporating guidelines and standards of integrity and transparency that apply to all directors, officers and employees. As far as the nature of each relation permits, the principles described in the Code of Conduct also apply to relations with our contractors, subcontractors, suppliers and associated persons.

The Code of Conduct also includes guidelines related to the promotion of a healthy and safe workplace environment, respect for human and labor rights, the protection of the environment, our commitment to fair, honest and transparent competition, and the protection of data privacy of our employees and third parties with whom we conduct business. The Company has also adopted a Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers to supplement its Code of Conduct, which applies specifically to the chief executive officer, the chief financial officer, the chief accounting officer or controller, or other persons performing similar functions. In addition, the Company has adopted a Transparency Policy governing relationships with third parties, a Policy on Business Conduct, a Code of Conduct for Suppliers, an Anti-fraud Policy, a Policy on Securities Trading, a Policy on Financial and Accounting Controls, and a Policy on Personal Data Protection. As a condition for employment, certain employees must acknowledge and commit to comply with Ternium’s Code of Conduct and Policy on Business Conduct.

Our Products
Ternium produces mainly finished and semi-finished steel products and iron ore, which are sold either directly to steel manufacturers and steel processors or to end-users after different value-adding processes. We also produce electricity and sell unused balances to the Mexican and Brazilian electric grids.
In the steel segment, steel products include slabs, billets and round bars (steel in its basic, semi-finished state), hot-rolled coils and sheets, bars and stirrups, wire rods, cold-rolled coils and sheets, tin plate, hot dipped galvanized and electrogalvanized sheets and pre-painted sheets, steel pipes and tubular products, beams and roll formed products. Galvanized and pre-painted sheets can be further processed into a variety of corrugated sheets, trapezoidal sheets and other tailor-made products to serve Ternium’s customer requirements. Other products in the steel segment include electricity and pig iron.
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In the mining segment, iron ore is sold as concentrates (fines) and pellets.
Steel products
Slabs, billets and round bars: these products are semi-finished steel forms with dimensions suitable for its processing into specific product types. Slabs are processed into hot-rolled flat products. The use of slabs is determined by their dimensions and by their chemical and metallurgical characteristics. Billets are processed into long steel products, such as wire rods, bars and other shapes. Round bars are processed into seamless tubes.
Hot-rolled products: hot-rolled flat products are used by a variety of industrial consumers in applications such as the manufacturing of wheels, auto parts, pipes, gas cylinders and containers. They are also directly used for the construction of buildings, bridges and railroad cars, and for the chassis of trucks and automobiles. Hot-rolled flat products can be supplied as coils, strips or as sheets cut to a specific length. These products also serve as inputs for the production of cold-rolled products. Merchant bars include specific shape features, such as rounds, flats, angles, squares and channels, which are used by customers to manufacture a wide variety of products such as furniture, stair railings and farm equipment. Reinforcing bars (rebars) and stirrups, obtained from the mechanical transformation of rebars, are used to strengthen concrete highways, bridges and buildings. Rods are commonly drawn into wire products or used to make bolts and nails. Wire rod can be produced in different qualities according to customers’ demands.
Cold-rolled products: cold-rolled products are applied mainly to the automotive, home appliance and capital goods industries, as well as to galvanizers, drummers, distributors and service centers. Cold-rolled coils are sold as coils or cut into sheets or blanks to meet customers’ needs. These products also serve as inputs for the production of coated products.
Coated products: galvanized sheets are produced by adding a layer of zinc to cold-rolled coils, which are afterwards cut into sheets. Galvanized sheets are used in the automotive, construction and home appliances industries. Galvanized coils can also be further processed with a color coating to produce pre-painted sheets, resulting in a product that is mainly sold for building coverings, manufacturing of ceiling systems, panels, air conditioning ducts, refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines and several other uses. Ternium also offers a distinctive type of galvanized product with coating composition that contains approximately 55% aluminum and 44% zinc to improve product performance for the construction industry, including rural, industrial and marine sites. Tinplate, given its resistance to corrosion and its mechanical and chemical characteristics, is mainly sold to the packaging industry for food canning, sprays and paint containers. Tinplate is produced by coating cold-rolled coils with a layer of tin.
Roll-formed and tubular products: these products include tubes for general use, structural tubes, tubes for mechanical applications, conduction tubes, conduction electrical tubes, oil tubes and pre-engineered metal building systems. Tubular products, uncoated or galvanized, have applications in several sectors including home accessories, furniture, scaffolding, automotive, bicycles, hospital equipment, posts for wire mesh garden and poultry tools, handrails, guard-rails, agricultural machinery, industrial equipment, conduction of water, air, gas, oil, high-pressure liquids and special fluids and internal building electrical installations. Beams, including C and Z section steel profiles (purlings) and tubular section beams, are obtained by roll-forming of steel strips and have applications in window frames, stilts, mainstays, crossbeams, building structures, supports, guides and crossbars for installing windows, doors, frames and boards. Other products include insulated panels, roofing and cladding, roof tiles and steel decks. Obtained from the mechanical transformation of flat steel, uncoated, galvanized or pre-painted, these products are used mainly in the construction industry in warehouses, commercial and industrial refrigeration installations, grain storage, poultry and porcine confinement facilities, roofing and side walls for buildings, and terraces and mezzanine floorings. Pre-engineered metal building systems are steel construction systems designed for use in low-rise non-residential buildings, and are constructed from the mechanical transformation of flat steel such as frames, secondary steel members, roofs and walls panels, as well as finishing and accessories.
Other products: other products include mainly electricity and pig iron. Pig iron is a semi-finished product obtained in the blast furnace that is mostly used as metallic charge in the steel shop for the production of crude steel, and also marketed to other steel producers and to manufacturers of iron-based cast products.
Within each of the basic product categories, there is a range of different “items” of varying qualities and prices that are produced either to meet the particular requirements of end users or sold as commodity items.
Iron ore products
Concentrates (fines) and pellets: These products are raw materials used for the production of steel. Iron ore concentrates are iron ore fines with high iron content. Iron ore pellets are produced from iron ore concentrates.
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Ternium ships most of the pellets to its own steel manufacturing operations and it also markets the surplus portion of its iron ore pellets and concentrates, if any, to other steel manufacturers.
Production Facilities and Processes
Ternium has steel production facilities, service centers, distribution centers, or DCs, and mining operations in Mexico, steel production facilities and service centers in the Southern Region, and steel production facilities, service centers and DCs in other markets, specifically Brazil, Colombia, the United States and Central America.
Ternium’s aggregate production capacity of crude steel as of December 31, 2021, calculated based on management estimates of standard productivity, product mix allocations, the maximum number of possible working shifts and a continued flow of supplies to the production process, was approximately 12.5 million tons. Ternium’s aggregate production capacity of finished steel products, calculated based on the same criteria as for crude steel production, was approximately 15.2 million tons. Ternium’s aggregate production capacity of iron ore pellets as of December 31, 2021, was 4.0 million tons. Such iron ore products are mainly sold intercompany for the production of steel products by our steel segment.

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Steel production facilities, service centers and distribution centers
The assets described in this section are owned by Ternium’s operating subsidiaries. The following table provides an overview, by type of asset, of Ternium’s production capacity as of December 31, 2021:
Production assetQuantity
Nominal capacity (thousand tons per year)1
MexicoBrazilArgentinaOtherTotal
Coke Plant1,800 1,040 2,840 
Sinter Plant5,700 1,480 7,180 
Direct Reduced Iron Plant2,710 2,710 
Blast Furnace5,300 3,220 8,520 
Electric Arc Furnace4,190 235 4,425 
Basic Oxygen Furnace5,200 3,500 8,700 
Vacuum Degassing840 3,200 1,200 5,240 
AHF Plant3,000 3,000 
Thin Slab Continuous Caster2,460 2,460 
Slab Continuous Caster5,000 5,630 10,630 
Billet Continuous Caster1,640 230 1,870 
Hot-rolling Mill (flat products)9,910 2,890 12,800 
Skin-Pass Mill3,730 990 4,720 
Hot-rolling Mill (long products)1,190 740 1,930 
Pickling Line5,390 1,910 7,300 
Cold-Rolling Mill (Tandem or Reversing)3,790 1,840 5,630 
Electrolytic Cleaning1,940 230 2,170 
Annealing Line1,520 1,330 2,850 
Temper Mill2,040 2,020 4,060 
Tension-Leveling / Inspection Line10 1,480 1,150 2,630 
Electro-Tinplating line160 160 
Hot Dip Galvanizing Line13 2,390 640 370 3,400 
Electro-Galvanizing Line110 110 
Color-Coating Line810 120 210 1,140 
Slitter32 2,090 500 310 2,900 
Cut to length36 570 1,000 220 1,790 
Roll forming Line34 510 540 230 1,280 
Panel Line80 80 
Profile Line15 140 80 110 330 
Tube Line20 520 190 60 770 
Wire drawing Lines12 100 100 
Wire Mesh Lines40 40 
Rebar Processing Lines2
48 190 190 
1    In this annual report, annual production capacity is calculated based on management estimates of standard productivity, product mix allocations, the maximum number of possible working shifts and a continued flow of supplies to the production process.
2    Includes shears, straighteners, stirrup benders and shaping centers.
Mexico. Ternium has 12 steel production and/or processing units in Mexico, consisting of three integrated steel-making plants (two of which produce long steel products and one of which produces flat steel products and includes two steel service centers); five downstream flat steel processing plants, combining hot-rolling, cold-rolling and/or coating facilities (two of which include steel service centers); and four steel service centers. In addition, Ternium has twelve distribution centers in this region, aimed at serving customers mainly in the construction sector.
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The following table sets forth key items of information regarding Ternium’s principal production units in Mexico:
UnitType of plantLocation
Integrated1
Downstream2
Service
center
Distribution
center
GuerreroXXSan Nicolás d.l.G., Nuevo León
ApodacaXApodaca, Nuevo León
PueblaXPuebla, Puebla
JuventudXXSan Nicolás d.l.G., Nuevo León
ChurubuscoXXMonterrey, Nuevo León
MonclovaXMonclova, Coahuila
UniversidadXSan Nicolás d.l.G., Nuevo León
PesqueríaXPesquería, Nuevo León
Apodaca IndustrialXApodaca, Nuevo León
Apodaca ComercialXApodaca, Nuevo León
Edificios MetálicosXCiénaga de Flores, Nuevo León
San LuisXSan Luis, San Luis Potosí
DC ChihuahuaXChihuahua, Chihuahua
DC BCXTijuana, Baja California
DC NorteXEscobedo, Nuevo León
DC PueblaXPuebla, Puebla
DC GuadalajaraXGuadalajara, Jalisco
DC MéxicoXTultitlán, Estado de México
DC CuliacánXCuliacán, Sinaloa
DC VeracruzXVeracruz, Veracruz
DC MéridaXMérida, Yucatán
DC TuxtlaXTuxtla Gtz, Chiapas
DC LeónXLeón, Guanajuato
DC VillahermosaXVillahermosa, Tabasco
1    “Integrated” refers to a type of steel plant that includes at least steelmaking and hot-rolling facilities.
2    “Downstream” refers to a type of steel plant that includes hot-rolling, cold-rolling and/or steel coating facilities.
Guerrero unit: located in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, the Guerrero unit produces hot-rolled and cold-rolled coils for the industrial, construction and home appliance sectors and for further processing in other Ternium Mexico’s units. It also produces slitted and cut-to-length products for the industrial sector, and profiles and tubes for the industrial and construction sectors. This unit includes two steel service centers, a slab-rolling mill, and an integrated facility based on direct reduced iron ("DRI"), mini-mill steelmaking and thin-slab casting/rolling mill technologies that uses iron ore pellets and steel scrap as main raw materials. The facility sources all of the iron ore from Ternium Mexico’s mining operations. Ternium’s procurement policy for these products is described in greater depth in “—B. B