0001342874-21-000031.txt : 20210331 0001342874-21-000031.hdr.sgml : 20210331 20210331162100 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001342874-21-000031 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 20-F PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 166 CONFORMED PERIOD OF REPORT: 20201231 FILED AS OF DATE: 20210331 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20210331 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: Ternium S.A. CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001342874 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION: STEEL WORKS, BLAST FURNACES ROLLING MILLS (COKE OVENS) [3312] IRS NUMBER: 000000000 STATE OF INCORPORATION: N4 FISCAL YEAR END: 1231 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 20-F SEC ACT: 1934 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 001-32734 FILM NUMBER: 21793637 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 26, BOULEVARD ROYAL STREET 2: 4TH FLOOR CITY: LUXEMBOURG STATE: N4 ZIP: L-2449 BUSINESS PHONE: (352) 4661-11-3815 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 26, BOULEVARD ROYAL STREET 2: 4TH FLOOR CITY: LUXEMBOURG STATE: N4 ZIP: L-2449 20-F 1 tx-20201231.htm 20-F tx-20201231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 20-F

(Mark One)
Registration statement pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

or
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

or
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

or
Shell company report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Commission file number: 001-3132734

TERNIUM S.A.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

26, Boulevard Royal– 4th floor
L-2449 Luxembourg
(Address of principal executive offices)

Alejandra Hryszkiewicz
26, Boulevard Royal– 4th floor
L-2449 Luxembourg
Tel. +352 26 68 31 52, Fax. +352 26 53 83 49, e-mail: luxembourg@ternium.com
(Name, Telephone, E-Mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
American Depositary SharesTXNew York Stock Exchange
Ordinary Shares, par value $1.00 per shareTXNew York Stock Exchange*



*Ordinary shares of Ternium S.A. are not directly listed for trading but only in connection with the registration of American Depositary Shares which are evidenced by American Depositary Receipts.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
2,004,743,442 ordinary shares, par value $1.00 per share
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes x    No o
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes o    No x
Note – checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
 x
Accelerated FilerNon-accelerated filer
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP o
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board
Other o
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.    Item 17 o    Item 18 o
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes     No x
Please send copies of notices and communications from the Securities and Exchange Commission to:



Diego E. Parise
Mitrani, Caballero & Ruiz Moreno Abogados
   Bouchard 680, 12th Floor
(C1106ABJ) Buenos Aires, Argentina
(54 11) 4590-8600
Patrick S. Brown, Esq.
Sullivan & Cromwell LLP
1888 Century Park East
Los Angeles, California 90067-1725
(310) 712-6600



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 4A.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16A.
Item 16B.
Item 16C.
Item 16D.
Item 16E.
Item 16F.
Item 16G.
Item 16H.
Item 17.
Item 18.
Item 19.
2


CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS
In this annual report, unless otherwise specified or if the context so requires:
References to the “Company” are exclusively to Ternium S.A., a Luxembourg public limited liability company (société anonyme);
References to “Ternium,” “we,” “us” or “our” are to Ternium S.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries;
References to the “Ternium companies” are to the Company’s manufacturing subsidiaries, namely Ternium México S.A. de C.V., or “Ternium Mexico,” a Mexican corporation; Ternium Brasil Ltda., or “Ternium Brasil” (formerly, CSA Siderúrgica do Atlântico Ltda., or CSA), a Brazilian corporation; Ternium Argentina S.A., or “Ternium Argentina”, (formerly Siderar S.A.I.C., or Siderar), an Argentine corporation; Ternium Colombia S.A.S., or “Ternium Colombia”, (formerly Ferrasa S.A.S., or Ferrasa), a Colombian corporation; Ternium del Atlántico S.A.S., or “Ternium del Atlantico”), a Colombian corporation; Ternium Internacional Guatemala S.A., or “Ternium Guatemala,” a Guatemalan corporation; Ternium USA Inc., or “Ternium USA”, a Delaware corporation; Las Encinas S.A. de C.V., or “Las Encinas,” a Mexican corporation; and Consorcio Minero Benito Juárez Peña Colorada S.A. de C.V., or “Consorcio Peña Colorada,” a Mexican corporation, and their respective subsidiaries;
References to “Tenaris” are to Tenaris S.A., a Luxembourg public limited liability company (société anonyme) and a significant shareholder of the Company;
References to “San Faustin” are to San Faustin S.A., a Luxembourg corporation and the Company’s indirect controlling shareholder;
References to “Exiros” are to Exiros B.V., a Dutch corporation, and its subsidiaries under the brand “Exiros”
References to “Tecpetrol” are to Tecpetrol International S.A., a wholly owned subsidiary of San Faustin;
References to “Tenigal” are to Tenigal S.R.L. de C.V., a Mexican company, 51% owned by Ternium and 49% owned by Nippon Steel Corporation, or NSC;
References to “Usiminas” are to Usinas Siderúrgicas de Minas Gerais S.A. – USIMINAS, a Brazilian corporation in which we own a total of 242.6 million ordinary shares and 8.5 million preferred shares, representing 20.4% of Usiminas’ capital. For further information on our investment in Usiminas, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Other Investments-Usiminas” and note 14 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report;
References to “ADSs” are to the American Depositary Shares, which are evidenced by American Depositary Receipts, or ADRs;
References to “finished steel products” when used in connection with production capacity are to finished steel products and semi-finished steel products intended to be sold to third parties;
References to “tons” are to metric tons; one metric ton is equal to 1,000 kilograms, 2,204.62 pounds or 1.102 U.S. (short) tons;
References to “billions” are to thousands of millions, or 1,000,000,000; and
References to “Ternium Investments” are to Ternium Investments S.à r.l., a Luxembourg private limited liability company (société à responsabilité limitée), and a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company.

3


PRESENTATION OF CERTAIN FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
Accounting Principles
We prepare the consolidated financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”), and adopted by the European Union. IFRS differs in certain significant respects from generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, commonly referred to as U.S. GAAP. Additionally, this annual report includes certain non-IFRS alternative performance measures such as EBITDA, net debt position, net debt over last twelve months EBITDA and free cash flow. See Exhibit 7.2 for more details on these alternative performance measures. We publish consolidated financial statements presented in increments of a thousand U.S. dollars. This annual report includes our audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018.

Currencies
In this annual report, unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise requires:
“dollars,” “U.S. dollars,” “USD”, “US$” or “$” each refers to the United States of America dollar;
“Mexican pesos” or “MXN” each refers to the Mexican peso;
“Argentine pesos” or “ARS” each refers to the Argentine peso; and
“Brazilian reais” or “BRL” each refers to the Brazilian real.
“Colombian pesos” or “COP” each refers to the Colombian peso.
On December 31, 2020, the U.S. dollar sell exchange rate in Mexico (as published by Banco de México, the Mexican central bank) was MXN19.91=$1.00; the U.S. dollar sell exchange rate in Brazil (as published by Banco Central do Brasil, the Brazilian central bank) was BRL5.20=$1.00; the U.S. dollar sell exchange rate in Argentina (as published by Banco Central de la República Argentina, the Argentine central bank) was ARS84.15=$1.00; and the U.S. dollar average exchange rate in Colombia (as published by Banco de la República, the Colombian central bank) was COP3,433=$1.00. Those rates may differ from the actual rates used in preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements. We do not represent that any of these currencies could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or that U.S. dollars could have been or could be converted into any of these currencies.
Rounding; Comparability of Data
Certain monetary amounts, percentages and other figures included in this annual report have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them, and figures expressed as percentages in the text may not total 100% or, as applicable, when aggregated may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the percentages that precede them.
Our Internet Site Is Not Part of this Annual Report
We maintain an Internet website at www.ternium.com. Information contained in or otherwise accessible through our Internet website is not a part of this annual report. All references in this annual report to this Internet site are inactive textual references to this URL, or “uniform resource locator” and are for your informational reference only. We assume no responsibility for the information contained on this website.
Industry Data
Unless otherwise indicated, industry data and statistics (including historical information, estimates or forecasts) in this annual report are contained in or derived from internal or industry sources believed by Ternium to be reliable. Industry data and statistics are inherently predictive and are not necessarily reflective of actual industry conditions. Such statistics are based on market research, which itself is based on sampling and subjective judgments by both the researchers and the respondents, including judgments about what types of products and transactions should be included in the relevant market. In addition, the value of comparisons of statistics for different markets is limited by many factors, including that (i) the markets are defined differently, (ii) the underlying information was gathered by different methods and (iii) different assumptions were applied in compiling the data. Such data and statistics have not been independently verified, and the Company makes no representation as to the accuracy or completeness of such data or any assumptions relied upon therein.

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report and any other oral or written statements made by us to the public may contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of and subject to the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and under applicable securities laws. This annual report contains forward-looking statements, including with respect to certain of our plans and current goals and expectations relating to Ternium’s future financial condition and performance, which are provided to allow potential investors the opportunity to understand management’s beliefs and opinions in respect of the future so that they may use such beliefs and opinions as one factor in evaluating an investment in Ternium’s securities.
Sections of this annual report that by their nature contain forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, Item 3. “Key Information,” Item 4. “Information on the Company,” Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and Item 11. “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.”
We use words such as “aim,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” “contemplate,” “seek to,” “future,” “objective,” “goal,” “should,” “will pursue,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe” and words and terms of similar substance to identify forward-looking statements, but they are not the only way we identify such statements. All forward-looking statements are based on management’s present expectations of future events and are subject to a number of factors and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by those forward-looking statements. These factors include the risks related to our business discussed under Item 3. “Key Information—D. Risk Factors,” and among them, the following:
uncertainties about the behavior of steel consumers in the markets in which Ternium operates and sells its products;
changes in the pricing environments in the countries in which Ternium operates;
the impact in the markets in which Ternium operates of existing and new competitors whose presence may affect Ternium’s customer mix, revenues and profitability;
increases in the prices of raw materials, other inputs or energy, or other events affecting supply and demand of raw materials, other inputs or energy, such as the events following the collapse of a tailings dam at a mine in Brumadinho, Brazil;
the economic, political, social and regulatory developments and conditions in the countries in which Ternium owns facilities or other countries which have an impact on Ternium’s business activities or investments;
inflation or deflation and foreign exchange rates in the countries in which Ternium operates;
volatility in interest rates;
the performance of the financial markets globally and in the countries in which Ternium operates;
the uncertainties associated with the performance of our investment in Usiminas (including those concerning the operating and financial performance of Usiminas and the Brazilian economy in general and the trading price of Usiminas’ ordinary and preferred shares);
changes in domestic and foreign laws and regulations, including changes relating to tax, trade and foreign exchange matters, or the imposition of tariffs, quotas or other trade barriers;
regional or general changes in asset valuations;
uncertainties as to the result of our iron ore exploration activities or the successful exploitation of our mines;
our ability to successfully implement our business strategy or to grow through acquisitions, greenfield and brownfield projects, joint ventures and other investments;
effects of global events such as pandemics; and
other factors or trends affecting the steel and mining industries generally and our financial condition in particular.
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By their nature, certain disclosures relating to these and other risks are only estimates and could be materially different from what actually occurs in the future. As a result, actual future gains or losses or other occurrences or developments that may affect Ternium’s financial condition and results of operations could differ materially from those that have been estimated. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this annual report. Except as required by law, we are not under any obligation, and expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or alter any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of changes of circumstances or management’s estimates or opinions, new information, future events or otherwise.
PART I
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Item 1.     Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not applicable.
Item 2.     Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
Item 3.     Key Information
A.    Selected Financial Data
The selected consolidated financial data set forth below have been derived from the consolidated financial statements for each of the years and at the dates indicated herein. Ternium's consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with IFRS, and were audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers, société coopérative, Cabinet de révision agréé, or “PwC Luxembourg¨), an independent registered public accounting firm. PwC Luxembourg is a member firm of PwC International Ltd., or "PwC".
For a discussion of the currencies used in this annual report, exchange rates and accounting principles affecting the financial information contained in this annual report, see “Presentation of Certain Financial and Other Information—Accounting Principles” and “Currencies”.
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Selected consolidated income statement dataFor the year ended December 31,
In thousand U.S. dollars (except number of shares and per share data)
2020(1)
2019201820172016
Net sales8,735,435 10,192,818 11,454,807 9,700,296 7,223,975 
Cost of sales(7,099,923)(8,452,440)(8,483,328)(7,403,025)(5,384,390)
Gross profit1,635,512 1,740,378 2,971,479 2,297,271 1,839,585 
Selling, general and administrative expenses(762,882)(897,475)(876,764)(824,247)(687,942)
Other operating income (expenses), net(2)
206,843 21,663 13,656 (16,240)(9,925)
Operating income1,079,473 864,566 2,108,371 1,456,784 1,141,718 
Finance expense(46,644)(88,284)(131,172)(114,583)(89,971)
Finance income49,421 29,071 21,236 19,408 14,129 
Other financial (expenses) income, net19,554 (39,756)(69,640)(69,915)37,957 
Equity in earnings of non-consolidated companies57,555 60,967 102,772 68,115 14,624 
Profit before income tax expense1,159,359 826,564 2,031,567 1,359,809 1,118,457 
Income tax expense(291,488)(196,519)(369,435)(336,882)(411,528)
Profit for the year867,871 630,045 1,662,132 1,022,927 706,929 
Attributable to:
Owners of the parent778,468 564,269 1,506,647 886,219 595,644 
Non-controlling interest89,403 65,776 155,485 136,708 111,285 
Profit for the year867,871 630,045 1,662,132 1,022,927 706,929 
Depreciation and amortization631,051 661,112 589,299 474,299 406,890 
Weighted average number of shares outstanding (3)
1,963,076,776 1,963,076,776 1,963,076,776 1,963,076,776 1,963,076,776 
Basic earnings per share ($)(4)(5)
0.40 0.29 0.77 0.45 0.30 
Basic earnings per ADS ($)(4)(5)
3.97 2.87 7.67 4.51 3.03 
Dividends paid per share ($)n/a— 0.12 0.11 0.10 
Dividends paid per ADS ($)n/a— 1.20 1.10 1.00 

(1)The functional currency of Ternium's subsidiary Ternium Argentina has changed from the Argentine Peso to the US dollar. This change is prospective from January 1, 2020, and does not affect the balances at December 31, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016, nor results or cash flows for the years then ended.
(2)Other operating income, net, in 2020 included a $186.0 million non-cash gain related to the derecognition of a contingency on ICMS tax benefits at Ternium Brasil (imposto sobre circulação de mercadorias e prestação de serviços). For more information see Item 8 “Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Outstanding Legal Proceedings—ICMS deferral tax benefit – Action of Unconstitutionality.”
(3)Of the 2,004,743,442 shares issued as of December 31, 2020, the Company held 41,666,666 that were repurchased from Usiminas on February 15, 2011. Such shares were not considered outstanding for purposes of the calculation of the weighted average number of shares.
(4)International Accounting Standard N° 1 (IAS 1) (revised) requires that income for the year as shown in the income statement include the portion attributable to non-controlling interest. Basic earnings per share and basic earnings per ADS, however, continue to be calculated on the basis of income attributable solely to the owners of the parent.
(5)Diluted earnings per share and per ADS (expressed in $ per share or ADS) equals basic earnings per share or ADS, respectively.
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Selected consolidated balance sheet dataAt December 31,
In thousand U.S. dollars (except number of shares and per share data)
2020(1)
2019201820172016
Non-current assets8,289,460 8,757,320 8,121,824 7,727,283 5,622,556 
Property, plant and equipment, net6,504,681 6,539,581 5,817,609 5,349,753 4,135,977 
Other non-current assets(2)(3)
1,784,779 2,217,739 2,304,215 2,377,530 1,486,579 
Current assets4,566,775 4,178,213 4,426,038 4,395,283 2,700,314 
Cash and cash equivalents537,882 519,965 250,541 337,779 183,463 
Other current assets4,023,927 3,656,150 4,173,348 4,054,741 2,506,603 
Non-current assets classified as held for sale4,966 2,098 2,149 2,763 10,248 
Total assets12,856,235 12,935,533 12,547,862 12,122,566 8,322,870 
Capital and reserves attributable to the owners of the parent7,286,115 6,611,665 6,393,255 5,010,424 4,391,298 
Non-controlling interest1,157,038 1,103,208 1,091,321 842,347 775,295 
Non-current liabilities2,559,485 3,452,535 3,236,756 3,442,521 1,324,785 
Borrowings1,327,289 1,628,892 1,637,101 1,716,337 396,742 
Deferred tax liabilities346,485 403,278 474,431 513,357 609,004 
Other non-current liabilities(3)
885,711 1,420,365 1,125,224 1,212,827 319,039 
Current liabilities1,853,597 1,768,125 1,826,530 2,827,274 1,831,492 
Borrowings395,604 559,782 399,856 1,505,570 821,893 
Other current liabilities1,457,993 1,208,343 1,426,674 1,321,704 1,009,599 
Total liabilities4,413,082 5,220,660 5,063,286 6,269,795 3,156,277 
Total equity and liabilities12,856,235 12,935,533 12,547,862 12,122,566 8,322,870 
Number of shares1,963,076,776 1,963,076,776 1,963,076,776 1,963,076,776 1,963,076,776 
(1)The functional currency of Ternium's subsidiary Ternium Argentina has changed from the Argentine Peso to the US dollar. This change is prospective from January 1, 2020, and does not affect the balances at December 31, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016, nor results or cash flows for the years then ended.
(2)Includes goodwill mainly related to the acquisition of the Company's Mexican subsidiaries for a total amount of $662.3 million as of December 31 of each year.
(3)In 2020, the Company recognized a $186.0 million non-cash gain related to the derecognition of a contingency on ICMS tax benefits at Ternium Brasil (imposto sobre circulação de mercadorias e prestação de serviços), including a $380.1 million reduction in other non-current liabilities and a $194.1 million reduction in other non-current assets. For more information see Item 8 “Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Outstanding Legal Proceedings—ICMS deferral tax benefit – Action of Unconstitutionality.”


B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D.    Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all other information contained in this annual report, before making any investment decision. Any of these risks and uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on Ternium's business, financial condition and results of operations, which could in turn affect the price of the Company’s shares and ADSs.

Risks Relating to the Steel Industry

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A downturn in global or regional economic activity would cause a reduction in worldwide or regional demand for steel and would have a material adverse effect on the steel industry and Ternium.

Steel demand is sensitive to trends in cyclical industries, such as the construction, automotive, appliance and machinery industries, which are significant markets for Ternium’s products and are also affected by national, regional or global economic conditions. A downturn in economic activity would reduce demand for steel products. This would have a negative effect on Ternium’s business and results of operations. A recession or depression affecting developed economies, or slower growth or recessionary conditions in emerging economies would exact a heavy toll on the steel industry and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

A novel strain of coronavirus (“COVID-19”) surfaced in China in December 2019, and subsequently spread to the rest of the world in early 2020. The rapid expansion of the virus, the surfacing of new strains of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in several countries, and the containment measures adopted by governmental authorities triggered a severe fall in global economic activity and precipitated an unprecedented worldwide crisis. Global activity levels started to improve during the second half of 2020; however, there remains considerable uncertainty about the future duration and extent of the pandemic with new and more contagious variants of the virus appearing and the vaccination programs yet in their early stages. Although restrictions imposed in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic have been lifted or relaxed in the countries where Ternium operates, it is currently not possible to predict whether such measures will be further relaxed, reinstated or made more stringent. We took prompt action to mitigate the impact of the crisis and to adapt our operations on a country-by-country basis to comply with applicable rules and requirements. Although such measures proved to be successful, if the virus continues to spread and new preventive measures are imposed in the future, our operations could again be affected and adversely impact our results. For further information, see Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Results of Operations— Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020 compared to Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019—Overview” in this annual report.

A protracted fall in steel prices would have a material adverse effect on the results of Ternium, as could price volatility.

Steel prices are volatile and are sensitive to trends in steel demand and raw material costs, such as steel scrap, iron ore and metallurgical coal costs. Historically, the length and nature of business cycles affecting steel demand and raw material costs have been unpredictable. For example, U.S. steel prices trended down during most of 2018 and 2019, after peaking during the first half of 2018, as a result of softer steel consumption, increased steel production and, in 2019, lower costs of steel scrap. Steel prices decreased further in 2020 during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic reflecting a depression in steel consumption. However, after an initial slump, steel prices increased steadily during the rest of 2020 and reached very high levels in the first quarter of 2021, as the speed of the recovery in steel production and in the production of steelmaking raw materials fell short of steel demand. A fall in steel prices could adversely affect Ternium’s operating results by means of lower revenues and could also lead to inventory write-downs.

Even if raw material costs were to accompany the decrease in steel prices, the resulting reduction in steel production costs would take several months to be reflected in Ternium's operating results as Ternium would first consume older inventories acquired prior to such raw material cost decrease. In addition, Ternium may be unable to recover, in whole or in part, increased costs of raw materials and energy through increased selling prices on its products, or it may take an extended period of time to do so.

Regional or worldwide excess steel production capacity may lead to unfair trade practices in the international steel markets and/or to intense competition, hampering Ternium’s ability to sustain adequate profitability.

In addition to economic cycles, the steel industry can also be affected by regional or worldwide production overcapacity. Historically, the steel industry has suffered, especially on downturn cycles, from substantial over-capacity. As a result of a slowdown in steel demand growth and a protracted increase in steel production capacity in the last decade, there are signs of over-capacity in all steel markets, particularly in China, which impacted the profitability of the steel industry and Ternium. Currently, global steel production capacity exceeds global steel demand, which has affected, and could affect again in the future, global steel prices. Moreover, there are several new steel making and steel processing facilities under construction or
with announced construction both in Mexico and the United States, which could contribute to a significant increase in excess steel production capacity in North America in the coming years. For further information on Ternium’s competition in the Mexican market see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Competition —Steel—Mexico”.

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Excess steel production capacity may require several years to be absorbed by demand and, as a consequence, may contribute to an extended period of depressed margins and industry weakness. International trade of steel products conducted under unfair conditions increases particularly during downturn cycles and as a result of production over-capacity. Unfair trade practices may result in the imposition by some countries (that are significant producers and consumers of steel) of antidumping and countervailing duties or other trade measures, and may cause fluctuations in international steel trade. The imposition of such trade remedies or temporary tariffs on major steel exporters in significant steel producing countries could in turn exacerbate pressures in other markets, including those in which Ternium operates, as exporters target such other markets to compensate, at least partially, for the loss of business resulting from the imposition of trade remedies or tariffs.

China is the largest steel producing country in the world, accounting for approximately 60% of worldwide steel production, and Chinese exports of steel products, including exports to Europe, the United States and Mexico, were subject to the imposition of antidumping and countervailing duties and other trade measures. A decrease in steel consumption in China in the future, including as a result of new waves of COVID-19 infections, could stimulate aggressive Chinese steel export offers, exerting downward pressure on sales and margins of steel companies operating in other markets and regions, including those in which Ternium operates. Similarly, a downturn in global or regional economic activity could stimulate unfair steel trade practices and, accordingly, may adversely affect Ternium's business and results of operations. For further information, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulations—Trade Regulations".

Sales may fall as a result of fluctuations in industry inventory levels.

Inventory levels of steel products held by companies that purchase Ternium’s products can vary significantly from period to period. These fluctuations can temporarily affect the demand for, and price of, Ternium’s products, as customers draw from existing inventory during periods of low investment in construction and other industry sectors that purchase Ternium’s products and accumulate inventory during periods of high investment and, as a result, such companies may not purchase additional steel products or maintain their regular purchasing volume. Accordingly, Ternium may not be able to increase or maintain its levels of sales volumes or prices.

Intense competition could cause Ternium to lose its share in certain markets and adversely affect its revenues.

The market for Ternium’s steel products is highly competitive, particularly with respect to price, quality and service. In both global and regional markets, Ternium competes against other global and local producers of steel products, which in some cases have greater financial and operating resources, or direct and indirect governmental support. Competition from such steel producers could result in declining margins and reductions in shipments. Ternium’s competitors could use their resources in a variety of ways that may affect Ternium negatively, including by making additional acquisitions, implementing modernization programs, expanding their production capacity, investing more aggressively in product development, and displacing demand for Ternium’s products in certain markets. To the extent that these producers become more efficient, Ternium could confront stronger competition and could fail to preserve its current share of the relevant geographic or product markets. In addition, there has been a trend in the past toward steel industry consolidation among Ternium’s competitors, and current competitors in the steel market could become larger competitors in the future. For further information on Ternium's competitors and their investments, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Competition.”

Moreover, Ternium and other steel makers compete against suppliers of alternative materials, including aluminum, wood, concrete, plastic and ceramics. In particular, certain customers, such as the automotive industry, are increasing their consumption of lighter-weight materials, such as aluminum, composites and carbon fiber, sometimes as a result of regulatory requirements. Competition from these alternative materials could adversely affect the demand for, and consequently the market prices of, certain steel products and, accordingly, could affect Ternium’s sales volumes and revenues.

Price fluctuations or shortages in the supply of raw materials, energy and other inputs could adversely affect Ternium’s profitability.

Like other manufacturers of steel-related products, Ternium’s operations require substantial amounts of raw materials, energy and other inputs from domestic and foreign suppliers. In particular, the Ternium companies consume large quantities of iron ore, metallurgical coal, slabs, scrap, ferroalloys, natural gas, electricity, oxygen and other gases in operating their blast and electric arc furnaces. The prices of these raw materials, energy and other inputs can be volatile. Also, the availability and price of a significant portion of such raw materials, energy and other inputs used in
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Ternium’s operations are subject to market conditions, government regulations or other events affecting supply and demand, including wars, natural disasters and public health epidemics. For example, strong iron ore demand from Chinese steel producers coupled with certain supply restrictions, due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the wet season in Australia among other factors, contributed to a recent surge in iron ore prices in the international markets. In Argentina, shortages of natural gas in the past resulted in supply restrictions that, if repeated in the future, could lead to higher costs of production or production cutbacks at Ternium’s facilities in Argentina. Extreme weather conditions in the southern United States and northern Mexico disrupted the stable provision of natural gas and energy in these markets, negatively affecting production in the first quarter of 2021 for approximately 80,000 tons. In addition, in the past, Ternium has usually been able to procure sufficient supplies of raw materials, energy and other inputs to meet its production needs; however, it could be unable to procure adequate supplies in the future. Any protracted interruption, discontinuation or other disruption of the supply of principal inputs to the Ternium companies (including as a result of strikes, lockouts, trade restrictions, accidents or natural disasters, worldwide price fluctuations, the availability and cost of transportation, global epidemics such as COVID-19 or other problems) would result in lost sales and would have a material adverse effect on Ternium’s business and results of operations. For further information related to effects of global events see Item 3. “Key Information —D. Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Steel Industry - A downturn in global or regional economic activity would cause a reduction in worldwide or regional demand for steel and would have a material adverse effect on the steel industry and Ternium". For further information related to raw materials, energy and other inputs requirements see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Raw Materials, Slabs, Energy and Other Inputs.”

Ternium depends on a limited number of key suppliers.

Ternium depends on certain key suppliers for their requirements of some of its principal inputs, including Vale for iron ore, BHP Billiton and Warrior for metallurgical coal and Carbo One for pulverized coal. In general, there is a trend in the industry towards consolidation among suppliers of iron ore and other raw materials. The Ternium companies have entered into long-term contracts for the supply of some (but not all) of their principal inputs and it is expected that they will maintain and, depending on the circumstances, renew these contracts. However, if any of the key suppliers fails to deliver or there is a failure to renew these contracts, the Ternium companies could face limited access to some raw materials, energy or other inputs, or higher costs and delays resulting from the need to obtain their input requirements from other suppliers.

Risks Relating To Ternium's Business

If Ternium does not successfully implement its business strategy, its opportunities for growth and its competitive position could be adversely affected.

Ternium plans to continue implementing its business strategy of enhancing its position as a competitive steel producer, focusing on higher margin value-added products, pursuing strategic growth opportunities, implementing Ternium’s best practices in acquired and new businesses, providing services to a wider range of customers in the local and export markets, improving utilization levels of its plants, increasing efficiency and further reducing production costs. For example, after the acquisition of a steel slab production plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Ternium began the construction of a hot-rolling mill in its facility in Pesquería, Mexico to integrate the Rio de Janeiro unit to its industrial system. For information on Ternium’s capital expenditures, see “—B. Business Overview—Capital Expenditure Program". Any of these components or Ternium’s business strategy could be delayed or abandoned or could cost more than anticipated, any of which could impact its competitive position and reduce its revenue and profitability. For example, Ternium could fail to develop its projects and/or to make acquisitions and/or integrate newly acquired businesses to increase its steel production capacity, or may lose market share in its regional markets. Even if Ternium successfully implements its business strategy, such strategy may not yield the desired goals.

Future acquisitions or other significant investments could have an adverse impact on Ternium’s operations or profits, and Ternium may not realize the benefits it expects from these business decisions.

A key element of Ternium’s business strategy is to identify and pursue growth-enhancing opportunities. As part of that strategy, Ternium regularly considers acquisitions, greenfield and brownfield projects and other significant investments. However, any growth project will depend on market and financing conditions. Ternium must necessarily base any assessment of potential acquisitions or other investments on assumptions with respect to operations, profitability and other matters that may subsequently prove to be incorrect. Furthermore, Ternium may fail to find suitable acquisition targets or fail to consummate its acquisitions under favorable conditions. Ternium grew through
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several acquisitions, particularly in Mexico. Ternium’s most recent acquisition was that of Ternium Brasil, a Brazilian steel slab producer, in 2017. Ternium also formed, together with Nippon Steel Corporation, or NSC, Tenigal, a company that manufactures and sells hot-dip galvanized and galvannealed steel sheets for the Mexican automotive market. In 2012, Ternium acquired a participation in the control group of Usiminas, the largest flat steel producer in Brazil, and in 2014 and 2016, Ternium significantly increased its equity investment in Usiminas.

Ternium's acquisitions or other investments may not perform in accordance with its expectations and could have an adverse impact on its operations and profits. Furthermore, Ternium may be unable to successfully integrate any acquired businesses into its operations, realize expected synergies or accomplish the business objectives that were foreseen at the time of deciding any such investment. Moreover, Ternium may also acquire, as part of future acquisitions, assets unrelated to its business, and it may not be able to integrate them or sell them under favorable terms and conditions. These risks, and the fact that the integration of any acquired businesses would require a significant amount of time and resources from Ternium’s management and employees, could have an adverse impact on Ternium’s ongoing business and a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.

Ternium may be required to record a significant charge to earnings if it must reassess its goodwill, other amortizable intangible assets, or investments in non-consolidated companies.

In accordance with IFRS, management must test for impairment all of Ternium’s assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Assets subject to testing include goodwill, intangible assets and investments in non-consolidated companies. In addition, management must test for impairment goodwill at least once a year whether or not there are indicators of impairment. IFRS requires Ternium to recognize a non-cash charge in an amount equal to any impairment.

As of December 31, 2020, goodwill in connection with the Company's Mexican subsidiaries amounted to $662.3 million and the carrying value of our investment in non-consolidated companies, mainly related to its investment in Usiminas, amounted to $471.3 million. If Ternium’s management determines in the future that the goodwill from its acquisitions or its investments in non-consolidated companies are impaired, Ternium will be required to recognize a non-cash charge against earnings, which could materially adversely affect Ternium’s results of operations and net worth.

If Usiminas is not able to successfully implement its business strategy, or if the business conditions in Brazil or in the global steel and mining industries were to be worse than expected, the Company may be required to record a significant charge to earnings in the form of a further impairment of its investment in Usiminas, which could have a material adverse effect on Ternium’s results, financial condition or net worth.

Since 2012, Ternium is a member of the control group of Usiminas, the largest flat steel producer in Brazil. In 2014, a conflict arose within the Usiminas control group and its board with respect to the governance of Usiminas, including with respect to the rules applicable to the appointment of senior managers, the application of the shareholders’ agreement in matters involving fiduciary duties, and the company’s strategy. Such conflict was resolved by an agreement between Ternium, NSC and Usiminas’ employee pension fund (Previdência Usiminas, formerly known as Caixa do Empregados do Usiminas), providing for new governance rules for Usiminas. Under the new Usiminas shareholders’ agreement, no control group member can, without the consent of other shareholder group or groups, implement any change to Usiminas’ strategy or business practices. If the parties fail to reach consensus, changes at Usiminas that may be necessary to achieve sustainable profitability may not take place or may fail to be implemented. For further information related to the conflict within the Usiminas control group and the agreement between Ternium, NSC and Previdencia Usiminas on governance rules for Usiminas, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Other Investments—Usiminas”.

The Company reviews periodically the recoverability of its investment in Usiminas, and as of December 31, 2012, September 30, 2014, and December 31, 2015, Ternium wrote down its investment in Usiminas by $275.3 million, $739.8 million and $191.9 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, the carrying value of Ternium’s investment in Usiminas was $422.9 million and Ternium’s ownership stake had a market value of approximately $756.3 million. The Company reviews the economic policies of Brazil and market expectations relating to the BRL/$ exchange rate on an ongoing basis and will continue to evaluate their impact on the drivers used to calculate the value in use of Ternium’s investment in Usiminas. These matters could lead to further changes in the carrying value of Ternium’s investment in Usiminas, either through currency translation adjustments, impairment charges or recoveries of
13


impairment charges. Any further write-downs to Ternium’s investment in Usiminas could have a material adverse effect on Ternium’s results of operations or net worth.

If Ternium does not comply with laws and regulations designed to combat governmental corruption in countries in which it sells its products, Ternium could become subject to fines, penalties or other sanctions and its sales and profitability could suffer.

Ternium conducts business in certain countries known to experience governmental corruption. Although Ternium is committed to conducting business in a legal and ethical manner in compliance with local and international statutory requirements and standards applicable to its business, there is a risk that employees or representatives may take actions that violate applicable laws and regulations that generally prohibit the making of improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business, including laws relating to the 1997 OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws adopted by the main countries in which Ternium operates (including Argentina, Mexico and Brazil), which impose strict criminal liability on companies for corrupt practices undertaken by their employees or representatives.

Labor disputes at Ternium’s operating subsidiaries could result in work stoppages and disruptions to Ternium’s operations.

A substantial majority of Ternium’s employees at its manufacturing subsidiaries are represented by labor unions and are covered by collective bargaining or similar agreements, which are subject to periodic renegotiation. Strikes or work stoppages could occur prior to or during the negotiations leading to new collective bargaining agreements, during wage and benefits negotiations or, occasionally, during other periods for other reasons. Ternium could also suffer plant stoppages or strikes if it were to implement cost reduction plans. From time to time, Ternium takes measures in order to become more competitive; none of the measures taken in the past have resulted in significant labor unrest. However, Ternium cannot assure that this situation will remain stable or that future measures will not result in labor actions against Ternium companies. Any future stoppage, strike, disruption of operations or new collective bargaining agreements could result in lost sales and could increase Ternium’s costs, thereby affecting its results of operations. For further information on the geographic distribution of Ternium's workforce, see Item 6. “Directors, Senior Management and Employees—D. Employees”.

Changes in exchange rates or any limitation in the ability of the Ternium companies, including associates, to hedge against exchange rate fluctuations could adversely affect Ternium’s business and results.

The operations of the Ternium companies expose them to the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates and changes in foreign exchange regulations. A significant portion of Ternium’s sales is carried out in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As a result of this foreign currency exposure, exchange rate fluctuations impact the Ternium companies’ results and net worth as reported in their income statements, statements of comprehensive income and statements of financial position in the form of both translation risk and transaction risk. In the ordinary course of business, the Ternium companies may see fit to enter from time to time into exchange rate derivatives agreements to manage their exposure to exchange rate changes. Future regulatory or financial restrictions in the countries where Ternium operates may reduce its ability to manage its exposure to exchange rate fluctuations, and thus could cause an adverse impact on Ternium’s results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. For information concerning the effect of the changes in exchange rates on Ternium’s business and results, see Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Overview”.

Cyberattacks could have a material adverse impact on Ternium's business and results of operation.

Ternium relies heavily on information systems to conduct its business. Although Ternium devotes significant resources to protect its systems and data, from time to time it experiences varying degrees of cyber incidents in the normal conduct of its business, which may occasionally include sophisticated cybersecurity threats such as unauthorized access to data and systems, loss or destruction of data, computer viruses or other malicious code, phishing, spoofing and/or cyberattacks. These threats often arise from numerous sources, not all of which are within Ternium's control, such as fraud or malice from third parties, including fraud involving business email, failures of computer servers or other accidental technological failure, electrical or telecommunication outages or other damage to its property or assets. Cyber-attack attempts, such as ransomware, phishing, spoofing and whaling, increased in 2020 in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, due to a significant expansion of remote work practices among Ternium’s employees, its customers and suppliers. In this context, we deployed additional controls to upgrade monitoring, detection and
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response capabilities against hacking, malware infection, cybersecurity compromise and other risks. For example, in September 2020, we detected a cyber-attack attempt, aimed at encrypting our data, by intruders who tried to exploit a vulnerability in a device that allows remote access to certain users. The prevention systems detected this attempt, and we took prompt action to block the intruders before they could infect our servers. Ternium’s operations were not affected and no information was compromised. Although the actions adopted proved to be successful in stopping the attempted attack, had the attack been successful, it would have probably resulted in ransomware and could have disrupted our operations. Following this cyber-attack attempt, we reinforced our cybersecurity protection system by strengthening internal network segmentation, restricting access to systems by user, upgrading intrusion detection tools and antivirus software, reviewing and adjusting system updating processes, shielding passwords for accounts with privileged access to certain Microsoft Windows platforms, enhancing monitoring tools, and launching an awareness campaign on cybersecurity incidents.

Given the rapidly evolving nature of cyber threats, there can be no assurance that the systems that Ternium has designed to prevent or limit the effects of cyber incidents or attacks and the mitigation actions adopted in connection with such attacks will be sufficient to prevent or detect such incidents or attacks, or to avoid a material adverse impact on its systems when such incidents or attacks do occur. While Ternium attempts to mitigate these risks, it remains vulnerable to additional known or unknown threats, including theft, misplacement or loss of data, programming errors, employee errors and/or dishonest behavior that could potentially lead to the compromising of sensitive information, improper use of its systems or networks, as well as unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification or destruction of such information, systems and/or networks.

Extreme weather conditions may adversely impact Ternium’s business.

Extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, cyclones, droughts, floods and fires could affect businesses’ operations, workforce, markets, infrastructure, raw materials and assets. For example, during 2020, iron ore supplies to our operations in Argentina from Brazil's iron ore mines in the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso do Sul state), which are barged down the Paraguay and Paraná rivers, were disrupted as this waterway achieved one of its lowest stage on record, forcing Ternium Argentina to procure iron ore from alternative sources at higher costs. In addition, during the first quarter of 2021, the provision of natural gas and energy to our operations in Mexico were disrupted by extreme weather conditions in the southern United States and northern Mexico, negatively affecting steel production in the first quarter of 2021 for approximately 80,000 tons. The communities surrounding our main production sites in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico are vulnerable to flooding due to extreme weather events, which could lead to the evacuation of personnel, disruption of our operations and activities or curtailment in our supply chain, resulting in losses and remediation costs, thus negatively affecting our financial condition. In addition, impacts of climate change, such as sea level rise, coastal storm surge, inland flooding from intense rainfall, freeze, and hurricane-strength winds could damage our facilities or disrupt our operations.

Risks Relating To Ternium's Mining Activities

Ternium has equity interests in two iron ore mining companies in Mexico: a 100% interest in Las Encinas and a 50% interest in Consorcio Peña Colorada. Ternium's mining activities are subject to the following risks:

Operational accidents and unexpected natural catastrophes may damage the environment, destroy properties and affect production or cause injuries and death, which would adversely impact Ternium's operations and profitability, and result in material liabilities.

Ternium carries out extractive, processing and logistical operations, including tailings dams, in many geographic locations. Liabilities associated with Ternium's mining activities include those resulting from tailings and sludge disposal, effluent management, iron ore pulp and fines transportation, and rehabilitation of land disturbed during the mining processes. Ternium's operations involve the use, handling, storage, discharge and disposal into the environment of hazardous substances and the use of natural resources. The iron ore mining industry is generally subject to significant risks and hazards, including environmental pollution, such as spilling or emissions of polluting substances or other hazardous materials; operational incidents, such as open-cut pit wall failures, rock falls, tailings dam breaches or incidents from the storage, transportation or use of explosives; transportation incidents, involving mobile equipment or machinery, slurry pipes and cable transportation; and may also be subject to unexpected natural catastrophes. This could result in environmental damage, damage to or destruction of properties and facilities, personal injury or death, and delays in production. For example, in January 2019, a tailings dam at Vale’s Córrego do Feijão mine in Brumadinho, Brazil, collapsed, releasing a mudflow that resulted in hundreds of people dead or missing and the collapse in 2015 of the Samarco dam, operated by Vale and BHP, resulted in the death of 19 people. Ternium operates mines with tailings dams in Mexico and could become subject to liabilities arising from similar incidents in the future.
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Over time, Ternium has conducted stability studies of its tailings dams, with the help of consultant companies, using increasingly strict standards for seismic areas and, as a result, has been carrying out several investment projects to reinforce certain dams and has to carry out several more, some of which are in the process of obtaining approval from environmental authorities. Although Ternium believes that, once completed, ongoing and planned investment projects will further mitigate the risk of incidents, it cannot guarantee that failures or breaches will not occur prior to or after the completion of reinforcement works. For further information, see Item 4. “Information on the Company - B. Business Overview - Mining”.

Ternium may also be subject to claims under federal and local laws and regulations for toxic torts, natural resource damages and other damages, as well as for the investigation and clean-up of soil, surface water, sediments, groundwater and other natural resources. Claims for damages and reclamation may arise out of current or former conditions at sites that Ternium owns, leases or operates or at inactive sites that Ternium currently owns, leased-land sites and third-party waste disposal sites. Ternium may be held responsible for other sites in the future. Ternium also could be subject to litigation for alleged bodily injuries arising from claimed exposure to hazardous substances allegedly used, released, or disposed of by Ternium. Environmental damages caused by Ternium's operations may result in costs and liabilities that could materially and adversely affect margins, cash flow and profitability. Third-party claims based on environmental or physical damages may exceed the limit of liability of the insurance policies we could have in place.

Required governmental concessions could be subject to changes or termination, permits and rights of use and occupancy could be difficult to obtain or maintain and taxes or royalties applicable to the mining industry could increase, all of which could adversely affect Ternium's mining activities and operating costs.

Ternium's mining activities are subject to specific regulations and depend on concessions and authorizations granted by governmental authorities. Amendments to applicable laws and regulations in Mexico may change the terms pursuant to which Ternium is required to pursue exploration, mining and ore processing activities. Selected mining technologies, new taxes and/or royalties may be imposed on mining activities, leading to unexpected capital expenditures and higher costs.

Iron ore exploration and exploitation concessions as well as water concessions may be revoked if the competent government authorities determine that Ternium does not comply with its obligations under the respective concession terms and agreements. Furthermore, in order to explore or exploit mines, it is necessary to obtain the right of use and occupancy of the land where the mines are situated. Even though government regulations frequently establish provisions intended to facilitate the establishment of such rights, in some cases it may be difficult to reach and maintain agreements with the landowners or such agreements may be excessively onerous. If Ternium is unable to establish use and occupancy rights on acceptable terms, its mining activities may be compromised. In addition, Ternium’s iron ore mining subsidiaries need to obtain, in the normal course of business, permits for the preparation of new iron ore bodies at the mines and for the expansion of tailings deposit capacity. If Ternium is unable to obtain such permits on a timely basis, it may need to alter its mining and/or production plans, which could lead to unexpected capital expenditures and higher costs.

Ternium's reserve estimates may differ materially from actually recoverable mineral quantities, or its estimates of mine life may prove inaccurate; and market price fluctuations and changes in operating and capital costs may render certain ore reserves uneconomical to mine in the future or cause Ternium to revise its reserve estimates.

Ternium’s reserves are estimated quantities of ore that it has determined can be economically mined and processed under present and anticipated conditions to extract their mineral content. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of reserves and in projecting potential future rates of mineral production, including factors beyond Ternium's control. Reserve calculations involve estimating deposits of minerals that cannot be measured in an exact manner, and the accuracy of any reserve estimate is a function of the quality of available data and engineering and geological interpretation and judgment. Reserve estimates also depend on assumptions relating to the economic viability of extraction, which are established through the application of a life of mine plan for each operation or project providing a positive net present value on a forward-looking basis, using forecasts of operating and capital costs based on historical performance, with forward adjustments based on planned process improvements, changes in production volumes and in fixed and variable proportions of costs, and forecasted fluctuations in costs of raw material, supplies, energy and wages. These forecasts and projections involve assumptions and estimations that, although Ternium believes are reasonable at the time of estimating its reserves, may change in the future and may fail to anticipate geological, environmental or other factors or events that could make it difficult or unprofitable to mine certain ore deposits.
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In addition, Ternium's reserve estimates are of in-place material after adjustments for mining depletion and mining losses and recoveries, with no adjustments made for metal losses due to processing. As a result, no assurance can be given that the indicated amount of ore will be recovered from Ternium's reserves, or that it will be recovered at the anticipated rates, or that extracted ore will be converted into saleable production over the mine life at levels consistent with its reserve estimates. Reserve estimates may vary from those included in this annual report, and results of mining and production subsequent to the date of an estimate may lead to future revisions of estimates. Estimates of mine life may require revisions based on actual production figures, changes in reserve estimates and other factors. For example, fluctuations in the market prices of minerals, reduced recovery rates or increased operating and capital costs due to inflation, exchange rates, mining duties or other factors could affect Ternium's mine life projections. To the extent that market price fluctuations or changes in its operating and capital costs increase its costs to explore, locate, extract and process iron ore, Ternium may be required to lower its reserve estimates if certain ore reserves become uneconomical to mine in the future.

Ternium's exploration activities are subject to uncertainties as to the results of such exploration; even if the exploration activities lead to the discovery of ore deposits, the effective exploitation of such deposits remains subject to several risks.

Exploration activities are highly speculative, involve substantial risks and may be unproductive. Ternium may incur substantial costs for exploration which do not yield the expected results. The failure to find sufficient and adequate reserves could adversely affect Ternium's business. In addition, even if ore deposits are discovered, the ability to pursue exploitation activities may be delayed for a long time during which market conditions may vary. Significant resources and time need to be invested in order to establish ore resources through exploration, define the appropriate processes that shall be undertaken, obtain environmental licenses, concessions and permits (including water usage permits), acquire land, build the necessary facilities and infrastructure for greenfield projects and obtain the ore or extract the metals from the ore. If a project does not turn out to be economically feasible by the time Ternium is able to exploit it, Ternium may incur substantial write-offs.

Inability to complete investment projects required to maintain iron ore and pellets production rates over time could increase Ternium’s steel production costs.

Mining requires continuous investment to sustain production rates. Such investments require, among other things, the design of the project, the awarding of environmental permits and the successful execution of civil works. If Ternium fails to timely carry out the investment projects required to maintain iron ore and pellets production rates over time, including tailing dams, Ternium could have to substitute internally produced iron ore with third party purchases, with a consequent increase in steel production costs.

Ternium's expected costs and capital expenditure requirements for exploration, exploitation or restoration activities may vary significantly and affect its financial condition and expected results of operations.

Ternium may be subject to increased costs or delays relating to the acquisition of adequate equipment for the exploration and exploitation of ore deposits, or restoration of exhausted mines. Moreover, Ternium may face increasing costs or capital expenditure requirements related to several factors, including changes in environmental regulations, diminished iron ore reserve grades, deeper pits and operational sections of its mines, iron ore deposits within the pit area that are more difficult to locate or extract, additional maintenance works in dams and ponds, and increased energy supply requirements that may be difficult to obtain. Adverse mining conditions and other situations related to the operation of the mine and related facilities during their life cycle, whether permanent or temporary, may lead to a significant increase in projected capital expenditures and costs, as well as affect Ternium's ability to produce the expected quantities of mineral. If this occurs, Ternium's financial condition and expected results of operations may also be negatively affected.

Difficulties in relationships with local communities may adversely affect Ternium's mining activities and results of operations.

Communities or individuals living or owning land near areas where Ternium operates may take actions to oppose and interfere with its mining activities. Even if a community has an agreement in place with Ternium, internal disputes within that community could result in blockades to disrupt Ternium operations or iron ore transportation, or legal proceedings to suspend mining activity. Although Ternium makes significant efforts to maintain good relationships with such communities, actions taken by them (or by interest groups within those communities) may hamper Ternium's
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ability to conduct its mining activities as planned, request the government to revoke or cancel its concessions or environmental or other permits, prevent Ternium from fulfilling agreements reached with the government, or significantly increase the cost of exploring and/or exploiting the mines, thereby adversely affecting Ternium's business and results of operations.

In the past, Ternium faced actions by certain native or local Mexican communities demanding higher compensation or other benefits, or seeking to stop Ternium's activities. Although attempted legal actions against Ternium did not succeed, Mexican legislation affords judges the power to preemptively suspend environmental or other permits or concessions and take certain other measures to protect the ejidos (land jointly owned by native communities) until the claim is resolved. An adverse legal decision suspending or cancelling permits, or the illegal occupation of facilities, could adversely impact Ternium's mining activities and results of operations.

Risks Relating To The Structure Of The Company

The Company’s dividend payments depend on the results of operations and financial condition of its subsidiaries and could be affected by legal, contractual or other limitations or tax changes.

The Company is a holding company and conducts all its operations through subsidiaries. Dividends or other intercompany transfers of funds from those subsidiaries are the Company’s primary source of funds to pay its expenses, debt service and dividends and to repurchase shares or ADSs.

The ability of the Company’s subsidiaries to pay dividends and make other payments to us will depend on their results of operations and financial condition and could be restricted by applicable corporate and other laws and regulations, including those imposing foreign exchange controls or restrictions on the transfer of money to offshore accounts or the payment of dividends, and agreements and commitments of such subsidiaries. If earnings and cash flows of the Company’s operating subsidiaries are substantially reduced, the Company may not be in a position to meet its operational needs or to pay dividends. For information on exchange controls imposed in Argentina, see Item 3. “Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Countries in Which Ternium Operates - Argentina: Argentine exchange controls could prevent Ternium from paying dividends or other amounts from cash generated by Ternium Argentina's operations".

The Company’s ability to pay dividends to shareholders is subject to legal and other requirements and restrictions in effect at the holding company level. For example, the Company may only pay dividends out of net profits, retained earnings and distributable reserves and premiums, each as defined and calculated in accordance with Luxembourg law and regulations. In addition, the Company’s dividend distributions (which are currently imputed to a special tax reserve and are therefore not subject to Luxembourg withholding tax) may be subject to Luxembourg withholding tax if current Luxembourg tax law were to change.

The Company’s controlling shareholder may be able to take actions that do not reflect the will or best interests of other shareholders.

As of the date of this annual report, San Faustin beneficially owned 62.02% of Ternium's outstanding voting shares and Tenaris, which is also controlled by San Faustin, held 11.46% of Ternium's outstanding voting shares. Rocca & Partners Stichting Administratiekantoor Aandelen San Faustin, or RP STAK, holds voting rights in San Faustin sufficient in number to control San Faustin. As a result, RP STAK is indirectly able to elect a substantial majority of the members of the Company’s board of directors and has the power to determine the outcome of most actions requiring shareholder approval, including, subject to the requirements of Luxembourg law, the payment of dividends. The decisions of the controlling shareholder may not reflect the will of other shareholders. In addition, the Company’s articles of association permit the Company’s board of directors to waive, limit or suppress preemptive rights in certain cases. Accordingly, the Company’s controlling shareholder may cause its board of directors to approve in certain cases an issuance of shares for consideration without preemptive rights, thereby diluting the minority interest in the Company.

Non-controlling interests in the Company's subsidiaries could delay or prevent us from completing our strategy.

The Company does not own 100% of the interests in certain of the Company's subsidiaries. As of February 26, 2021, 26.03% of Ternium Argentina was held by Administración Nacional de la Seguridad Social, or ANSeS, Argentina’s governmental social security agency, and 11.48% was publicly held. ANSeS became a significant shareholder of Ternium Argentina in the last quarter of 2008 as a result of the nationalization of Argentina’s private pension system,
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which caused assets under administration of Argentina’s private pension funds-including significant interests in publicly traded companies, such as Ternium Argentina, held by such funds-to be transferred to ANSeS. In addition, Ternium holds a 51% ownership interest in Tenigal, and NSC holds the remaining 49%. Ternium also has a participation in the control group of Usiminas. For further information on the Usiminas investment, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Other Investments—Usiminas”. The existence of non-controlling interests in these companies could prevent Ternium from taking actions that, while beneficial to Ternium, might not be beneficial to each relevant subsidiary, considered separately. As a result, the Company could be delayed or prevented from completing the Company's strategy or fully maximizing Ternium’s competitive strengths.

Risks Relating To The Countries In Which Ternium Operates

Negative economic, political, social and regulatory developments in certain markets where Ternium has a significant portion of its operations and assets could hurt Ternium’s shipment volumes or prices, increase its costs or disrupt its manufacturing operations, thereby adversely affecting its results of operations and financial condition.

The results of Ternium’s operations are subject to the risks of doing business in emerging markets, principally in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina and to a lesser extent in Colombia, and have been, and could in the future be, affected from time to time to varying degrees by economic, political, social, and regulatory developments, such as nationalization, expropriation or forced divestiture of assets; restrictions on production, domestic sales, imports and exports; travel or trade bans; interruptions in the supply of essential energy inputs; restrictions on the exchange or transfer of currency; inability or increasing difficulties to repatriate income or capital or to make contract payments; inflation; devaluation; or other events, including wars and other international conflicts, natural disasters and public health epidemics (such as COVID-19); civil unrest and local security concerns that threaten the safe operation of its facilities and operations; direct and indirect price controls; tax increases and changes (including retroactive) in the interpretation, application or enforcement of tax laws and other claims or challenges; cancellation of contract rights; and delays or denial of governmental approvals. Both the likelihood of such occurrences and their overall effect upon Ternium vary greatly from country to country and are not predictable. Realization of these risks could have an adverse impact on the results of operations and financial condition of Ternium’s subsidiaries located in the affected country and, depending on their materiality, on the results of operations and financial condition of Ternium as a whole.

Mexico

Ternium has significant manufacturing operations and assets located in Mexico and a majority of its sales are made to customers in this country. The majority of Ternium’s revenues from its Mexican operations, therefore, are related to market conditions in Mexico and to changes in its economic activity. Ternium’s business could be materially and adversely affected by economic, political and regulatory developments in Mexico.

Political, economic and social conditions and government policies in Mexico could negatively impact Ternium’s business and results of operations.

In the past, Mexico has experienced several periods of slow or negative economic growth, high inflation, high interest rates, currency devaluation and other economic problems. Furthermore, the Mexican national economy tends to reflect changes in the economic environment in the United States and could be affected by changes in the terms of trade. In addition, actions and policies that could be adopted by the Mexican federal government concerning the economy could have a significant impact on market conditions affecting Ternium’s operations in Mexico. If problems such as deterioration in Mexico’s economic conditions re-emerge (for example, as a result of lower revenues due to a decline in the price of oil) or there is a future re-emergence of social instability, political unrest, reduction in government spending or other adverse social or political developments, foreign exchange and financial markets may exhibit continued volatility, which, depending on its severity and duration, could adversely affect the business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity of Ternium. Moreover, adverse economic conditions in Mexico could result in, among other things, higher interest rates coupled with reduced opportunities for refunding or refinancing, reduced domestic consumption of Ternium’s products, decreased operating results and delays in the completion of ongoing and future capital expenditures.

Regulatory changes in Mexico could adversely impact Ternium's results of operations and net results.

In the past, Mexico went through various economic and labor reforms such as new labor regulations introduced in 2012 and a comprehensive tax reform adopted in 2014, which resulted in a deferred tax loss of $22.3 million in
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Ternium’s 2013 results. More recently, in March 2021, the Mexican Congress approved a new law that significantly reforms the energy market in Mexico. Among other changes, the new law grants priority to Mexico's state-owned electric power generation and distribution company (CFE) over its competitors in the supply of electric power to the Mexican market and mandates a revision of power generation and transaction agreements between CFE and independent electric power suppliers. The law, which remains subject to implementing regulations by the competent authorities, has already been challenged in court by affected players. At this stage, Ternium cannot fully assess the effects of the energy market reform on its operations and the Mexican economy in general and, consequently, on the results of operations and financial conditions of Ternium’s businesses in Mexico. Any additional new changes to Mexican regulations could adversely impact Ternium’s results of operations and net results.

Violence and crime in Mexico could negatively impact Ternium’s business and operations.

In recent years, there has been a significant increase of violent crimes in Mexico, including the Monterrey area in Nuevo León, where Ternium's main facilities are located, and Michoacán, where some of Ternium's mining facilities are placed. Security issues could affect Ternium's day-to-day operations and could also result in an economic slowdown, reducing domestic demand for its products and thereby having an adverse effect on Ternium's business. A deterioration of the security situation could result in significant obstacles or additional costs to the implementation of growth plans in Mexico, including delays in the completion of capital expenditures.

Unexpected changes in trade rules with the United States could adversely impact Ternium's results of operations and net results.

The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, or USMCA, became effective in July 2020 replacing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). In addition, during 2019 Mexico and the United States agreed to waive a 25% tariff on steel products exported to the United States, which had been imposed during 2018, subject to an agreed premise of continuous monitoring for surges in steel imports and transshipment of non- USMCA material into the United States. Furthermore, in 2019 the United States, Mexico and Canada agreed to modify the definition of "North American steel" (with such amendment becoming effective in July 2027), for purposes of vehicles being awarded preferential treatment under USMCA, restricting the defined term to steel melted and poured within the three countries. Uncertainties about potential new trade conflicts could adversely affect the investment climate and economic activity in Mexico. Moreover, amendments to, or the termination of current terms of trade could adversely and materially affect Ternium’s shipments, results of operations and net worth.

Brazil

Ternium has significant manufacturing operations and assets located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and some of its sales are made in Brazil. Ternium Brasil’s profitability could be materially and adversely affected by economic, political, social, fiscal and regulatory developments in Brazil.

Changing economic policies and political conditions in Brazil, which on several occasions in the past resulted in economic uncertainties and recession, may occur in the future, thereby adversely affecting Ternium's business, financial condition and results.

The Brazilian economy has been characterized by frequent and occasionally extensive intervention by the Brazilian government. The Brazilian government has often changed monetary, taxation, credit, tariff and other policies to influence the course of the country’s economy. The Brazilian government’s actions to control inflation and implement other policies have involved hikes in interest rates, wage and price controls, foreign exchange controls and devaluation, freezing of bank accounts, capital controls and restrictions on imports. If repeated in the future, such governmental policies may adversely affect Ternium's results of operations. The Brazilian government’s policies may also result in increases in tax payments or tariffs, which could adversely affect industry profitability. For example, the Brazilian congress is discussing major changes to the Brazilian tax regime, which, among other things, would replace current federal, state and municipal taxes levied on the trade of good and services with a single national value added tax. Ternium cannot predict whether, if approved, the new tax regime would result in a net tax burden increase for its operations. Any increase in the applicable tax burden or tariffs may make it more difficult for Ternium to maintain its projected cash flow and profitability. The Brazilian economy has been affected by inflation, energy shortages, illiquid lending markets and other political, diplomatic, social and economic developments. Uncertainty over whether the Brazilian government will change policies or regulations affecting these or other factors may contribute to economic instability in Brazil. Ternium's business and results of operations in Brazil could be adversely affected by rapidly changing economic conditions in Brazil or by the Brazilian government’s policy response to such conditions.
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Political instability could adversely affect Ternium's business, financial condition and results.

Brazil’s political environment has historically influenced, and continues to influence, the performance of the country’s economy. Political crises have affected public and investor confidence, which resulted in economic deceleration. Brazil has experienced heightened economic and political instability derived from various investigations into allegations of money laundering and corruption being conducted by the Office of the Brazilian Federal Prosecutor, including the Lava Jato investigation, which has had a negative impact on the Brazilian economy and political environment and contributed to a decline in market confidence in Brazil. Ternium cannot predict whether a new political crisis will arise in the future nor its effect on the Brazilian economy and, consequently, on the results of operations and financial conditions of Ternium’s businesses in Brazil.

Inflation may undermine economic growth in Brazil and impact Ternium's costs, thereby adversely affecting its results of operations and financial position.

High levels of inflation have in the past undermined the Brazilian economy and the government’s ability to stimulate economic growth. Although consumer price inflation in Brazil has been moderate in recent years, if inflation were to increase again in the future, Ternium's results of operations and financial position could be negatively impacted, as BRL-denominated costs (mainly labor-related costs) at Ternium Brasil increase, thereby affecting Ternium's cost-competitiveness. Inflationary pressures may also lead to the imposition of additional government policies to combat inflation and hinder access to Brazilian capital markets, which could adversely affect Ternium's business and ability to finance operations and capital expenditures, making it impossible to estimate with reasonable certainty future results of operations of Ternium Brasil.

Argentina

A significant portion of Ternium's sales are made in Argentina through its subsidiary, Ternium Argentina. Most of Ternium Argentina’s sales revenue is affected by market conditions in Argentina and changes in Argentina’s gross domestic product, or GDP, and per capita disposable income. Accordingly, Ternium Argentina’s business could be materially and adversely affected by economic, political, social, fiscal and regulatory developments in Argentina. For more information on Ternium’s sales in Argentina, see Item 4. “Information on the Company—B. Business Overview —Sales—Southern Region.”

Economic and political instability in Argentina, which on several occasions resulted in economic uncertainties and recession, may adversely affect Ternium's business, financial condition and results.

Ternium's business and results of operations in Argentina depend on macroeconomic conditions, among other factors. Steel shipments to the Argentine domestic market were severely affected in different opportunities over the last decades. This happened with the 2008-2009 downturn in the global economy, in 2016 when the country faced a significant rebalancing of the economy’s relative prices, in 2018-2019 as the economy was affected by a severe downturn resulting from financial market volatility, high interest rates and heightened political uncertainty during the presidential election process, and in 2020 as the economy was affected by the COVID-19 outbreak.

Over the past years, the Argentine economy has been affected and capital investment has declined significantly due to, among other factors, political, economic and financial uncertainties as well as government intervention in, or limitations to, the conduct of business in the private sector and other government measures affecting investor confidence.

The Argentine economy is currently facing significant challenges, including an economic recession that has been exacerbated by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and a lockdown and other containment measures, high and unpredictable inflation rates and a high fiscal deficit. An unpredictable development of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the measures to contain it, high inflation rates and a high fiscal deficit may affect growth and may cause a drop in demand for Ternium Argentina’s products in the domestic market.

In addition, Argentina is currently undergoing a sovereign debt restructuring process with the International Monetary Fund, or IMF, whose outcome is uncertain. Failure to achieve a successful debt restructuring with the IMF could further adversely affect the country's economy and lessened financial sources could impair Argentina's ability to foster economic growth.

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Ternium's business and results of operations in Argentina could be adversely affected by rapidly changing economic conditions in Argentina or by the Argentine government’s policy response to such conditions.

Inflation may undermine economic growth in Argentina and impact Ternium's costs, thereby adversely affecting its results of operations and financial position.

In the past, inflation has undermined the Argentine economy and the government’s ability to stimulate economic growth. Consumer price inflation in Argentina, as reported by INDEC, the Argentine statistics and census bureau, was 36.1% in 2020, 53.8% in 2019 and 47.6% in 2018. Sustained high inflation in Argentina negatively impacts Ternium's results of operations and financial position, as ARS-denominated costs (mainly labor-related costs) at Ternium Argentina increase, thereby affecting cost-competitiveness and margins. A high inflation economy could undermine Argentina’s foreign competitiveness in international markets and negatively affect economic activity and employment levels. Argentine inflation rate volatility makes it impossible to estimate with reasonable certainty the extent to which activity levels and results of operations of Ternium Argentina could be affected in the future.

The Argentine government has increased taxes on Argentine companies and could further increase the fiscal burden in the future, which could adversely affect Ternium's results of operations, net results and financial condition.

Since 2018, Argentine companies are allowed to make inflation adjustments on the value of inventories for tax purposes as long as consumer price inflation surpasses certain threshold (a 36-month cumulative inflation rate of 100% up to the close of the relevant fiscal year). As a result of the significant devaluation of the Argentine peso against the U.S. dollar and high inflation rates over the last decade, the real value that Ternium Argentina was permitted to deduct as depreciation for investments in plant, property and equipment and as cost of sales, has materially decreased, thus creating artificial gains for tax purposes which resulted in effective tax rates that are higher than statutory tax rates. In addition, provincial taxes on Ternium Argentina’s sales have increased over the last years. During September 2018, the Argentine government suspended tax rebates and imposed a new general tax on exports of goods. The initial tax rate was 5% with a cap of ARS3 per each U.S. dollar worth of exports, but for the year 2021 this was changed to 3% with no cap. A 2017 tax bill that would have gradually decreased the tax burden on Argentine corporations over a five-year period was suspended for the fiscal years 2020 and 2021. Ternium cannot predict whether any new tax regime or future fiscal reform may result in a net tax burden increase for its operations. If the tax burden on Ternium Argentina’s operations or its shareholders is increased again in the future, Ternium’s results of operations, net results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Argentine exchange controls could prevent Ternium from paying dividends or other amounts from cash generated by Ternium Argentina’s operations.

In the past, the Argentine authorities took several measures to reduce volatility of the ARS/$ exchange rate, and implemented formal and informal restrictions on capital inflows into Argentina and capital outflows from Argentina. Certain foreign exchange restrictions that had been gradually lifted in December 2015 were reinstated in 2019. The Argentine government tightened controls on the flows of capital by requiring Argentine companies to repatriate export proceeds from sales of goods and services, restricting the purchase of foreign currency for saving purposes, and limiting or conditioning the ability of Argentine companies to access the Argentine foreign exchange market either to purchase foreign currency or to transfer funds abroad (including for the purchase of goods and payment of services and royalties, principal and interest on foreign debt, and dividends). As a result, Ternium Argentina is currently required to repatriate to Argentina all export proceeds (including U.S. dollars received through advance payment and pre-financing facilities) and convert such proceeds into Argentine pesos within the deadlines set forth by applicable central bank regulations. With limited exceptions, prior approval from the Argentine central bank is required to purchase foreign currency for payment of dividends to foreign shareholders and for other payments to affiliates or third parties abroad. Throughout 2020, the Argentine central bank has increased foreign exchange restrictions aimed at limiting the purchase of foreign currency. There is no assurance that the Argentine central bank or other Argentine authority will not tighten exchange controls or impose new foreign exchange restrictions in the future. The existing controls and restrictions, and any others that may be imposed in the future, could expose Ternium to losses resulting from fluctuations in the exchange rate, affect Ternium’s ability to finance its investments and operations in Argentina and impair Ternium Argentina’s ability to make payments to foreign creditors, pay dividends abroad, or fund investments or other activities offshore. Restrictions on the import of key steelmaking inputs for Ternium Argentina’s operations could adversely affect its production and revenues and negatively impact Ternium’s results of operations. For more information on our foreign exchange restrictions in Argentina, see note 30 “Foreign exchange restrictions in Argentina” to our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.

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Restrictions on the import of key steelmaking inputs for Ternium Argentina’s operations could adversely affect its
production and revenues and negatively impact Ternium’s results of operations.

Some of Ternium Argentina’s key steelmaking inputs, including iron ore and metallurgical coal, are imported into Argentina. In the past, payments on imports of goods and services were subject to prior governmental approval. Although most restrictions on import payments have been lifted, the reinstatement of such restrictions could delay imports and adversely affect Ternium's business, operations and growth projects in Argentina. In addition, Ternium Argentina’s exports could also be affected by import restrictions if third countries adopt counter-trade measures.

Restrictions on supply of energy to Ternium Argentina’s operations could curtail its production and negatively impact Ternium’s results of operations.

In the past, Argentina has suffered from an insufficient level of investment in natural gas and electricity supply and transport capacity, coupled with a substantial increase in demand for natural gas and electricity. This, in turn, resulted in shortages of natural gas and electricity to residential users and, in particular, to industrial users, including Ternium Argentina, during seasons of high demand. Ternium Argentina’s operations experienced constraints in their natural gas supply requirements and interruptions in their electricity supply at peak hours on many occasions. If natural gas and electricity supply and transport capacity fail to cover the demand for natural gas and electricity on a timely basis, Ternium Argentina’s local production (or that of its main customers and suppliers) could be curtailed, and Ternium Argentina’s sales and revenues could decline, which may adversely affect Ternium Argentina’s results of operations. For further information, see “—Risks Relating to the Steel Industry—Price fluctuations or shortages in the supply of raw materials, energy and other inputs could adversely affect Ternium’s profitability” above.

Certain Regulatory Risks And Litigation Risks

International trade actions or regulations and trade-related legal proceedings could adversely affect Ternium’s sales, revenues and overall business.

International trade-related administrative proceedings, legal actions and restrictions pose a constant risk for Ternium’s international operations and sales throughout the world. Ternium purchases steel products, including significant quantities of steel slabs, from diverse local and foreign suppliers for its operations in Mexico, Colombia and Argentina. The Mexican, Argentine or Colombian governments may impose or increase duties on steel products imports. For example, on June 30, 2020, Mexican authorities were requested to initiate an administrative investigation procedure on imports of steel slabs from Brazil and Russia during the years 2017, 2018 and 2019, on allegations of unfair trade practices. Trade liberalization, mainly through free trade agreements, can reduce certain input costs and increase access to many foreign markets. However, greater trade liberalization in Ternium's domestic markets increases competition in such markets. During the last decade, steel exports surged as a consequence of a global downturn and an economic slowdown in China, and the number of antidumping, countervailing, safeguard measures and other actions limiting trade increased substantially. Accordingly, producers that were restricted from certain markets sought alternative markets for their products. If steel exports were to surge again in the future, Ternium’s domestic market share could be eroded by foreign imports, and increased exports to foreign markets where import barriers have been reduced may not completely offset domestic market share losses resulting from increased foreign competition.

Countries may impose restrictive import duties and other restrictions on imports under various national trade and trade related laws, such as national security, environmental and intellectual property issues. The timing and nature of the imposition of trade-related restrictions potentially affecting Ternium’s exports are unpredictable. Trade restrictions on Ternium’s exports could adversely affect Ternium’s ability to sell products abroad and, as a result, Ternium’s profit margins, financial condition and overall business could suffer. One significant source of trade restrictions is unfair competition that could result in the imposition of “antidumping” and “countervailing” duties, as well as “safeguard measures”. These duties can severely limit or altogether prevent exports to relevant markets. In several of Ternium’s export destinations, such as the United States or Europe, safeguard duties and other protective measures have been imposed against a large number of steel imports such as a 25% tariff on certain steel imports imposed by the United States in 2018. For further information, see Item 4. “Information on the Company-B. Business Overview Regulations-Trade Regulations”.

In addition, certain domestic producers have filed antidumping and/or countervailing duty actions against certain steel imports, including slabs. Some of these actions have led or may lead to restrictions on Ternium’s sales of some types of steel products to certain steel markets and higher costs. Antidumping and/or countervailing duty actions and other government actions are largely unpredictable and additional duties or restrictions could be imposed in the future, limiting Ternium’s sales to and potential growth in those markets, and increasing costs.
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The cost of complying with environmental regulations and potential environmental and product liabilities may increase Ternium's operating costs and negatively impact Ternium's business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Ternium's steelmaking and mining activities are subject to a wide range of local, provincial and national laws, regulations, permit requirements and decrees relating to the protection of human health and the environment, including laws and regulations relating to hazardous materials and radioactive materials and environmental protection governing air emissions, water discharges and waste management due to the risks inherent in the industries in which Ternium operates. Laws and regulations protecting the environment have become increasingly complex and more stringent in recent years, leading to higher costs of compliance.

Furthermore, environmental laws and regulations may, in some cases, impose strict liability for damages to natural resources or threats to public health and safety without regard to negligence or fault. Some environmental laws provide for joint and several strict liability for remediation of spills and releases of hazardous substances. Such laws and regulations may expose Ternium to liability for the conduct of, or conditions caused by, third parties or for actions that complied with applicable laws at the time they were performed.

While Ternium incurs and will continue to incur expenditures to comply with applicable laws and regulations, there always remains a risk that environmental incidents or accidents may occur that may negatively affect Ternium's reputation or operations. Some of the activities for which Ternium supplies products, such as production of food cans, construction and the automotive industry, are subject to inherent risks that could result in death, personal injury, property damage or environmental pollution, and result in product liability risks that could extend to liability for damages caused by such products. Furthermore, Ternium’s products are also sold to, and used in, certain safety-critical appliances. Actual or claimed defects in Ternium's products may give rise to claims for losses suffered by customers and expose Ternium to claims for damages. Liability insurance may not be adequate or available to protect Ternium in the event of a claim, coverage may be limited, canceled or otherwise terminated, or the coverage amount may be lower than the related impact on enterprise value after a loss.

Climate change legislation and increasing climate regulatory requirements could result in unexpected capital expenditures and costs, negatively affect the Company's reputation and competitiveness, reducing its market share and results of operations, and hampering its ability to access adequate financial resources.

The Paris Agreement, adopted at the 2015 United Nations Climate Conference, sets out the global framework to limit the rising temperature of the planet and to strengthen the countries’ ability to deal with the effects of climate change. If there is no meaningful progress in lowering emissions in the years ahead, there is an increased likelihood of abrupt policy interventions as governments attempt to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement adopting policy, legal, technology and market changes in the transition to a low-carbon global economy. Although existing carbon pricing mechanisms in Mexico, Argentina and Colombia do not materially limit or penalize Ternium’s greenhouse gas emissions, new carbon pricing mechanisms could be established. In addition, the Brazilian Congress is discussing initiatives to impose carbon emission taxes on industry processes and power generation facilities, which could apply to Ternium's steel production in Brazil. Adoption of new climate change legislation in the countries in which Ternium operates could result in incremental compliance costs and unexpected capital expenditures, and, eventually, affect our competitiveness and reduce our market share and results of operations. In addition, failure to respond to stakeholders’ demand for climate-related measures and environmental standards could harm our reputation, erode stakeholders' support and restrict access to financial resources.

Risks Relating To the Company's ADSs

The market price for the Company's ADSs could be highly volatile.

Volatility in the price of the Company's ADSs may be caused by factors within or outside of the Company's control and may be unrelated or disproportionate to the Company's operating results. In particular, announcements of potentially adverse developments, such as proposed regulatory changes, new government investigations or the commencement or threat of litigation against Ternium, as well as announcements of transactions, investments, or changes in strategies or business plans of Ternium or its competitors, could adversely affect the trading price of the Company's ADSs, regardless of the likely outcome of those developments. Broad market and industry factors could adversely affect the market price of the Company's ADSs, regardless of their actual effect in operating performance.
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As an example of this volatility, from a high closing price of $32.24 on January 15, 2014, the price of the Company's ADSs fell to a low closing price of $10.56 on January 15, 2016. In the 2016-2017 period, the price of the Company's ADSs recovered and reached a high closing price of $42.19 on April 26, 2018, but then fell to a low closing price of $9.84 on March 18, 2020, as the COVID-19 outbreak sent stock market prices sharply down, including the Company's ADSs. Since then, the Company's ADSs recovered to a closing price of $30.71 on February 26, 2021. The trading price of the Company's ADSs could also suffer as a result of developments in emerging markets. Although the Company is organized as a Luxembourg corporation, almost all of its assets and operations are located in Latin America. Financial and securities markets for companies with a substantial portion of their assets and operations in Latin America are, to varying degrees, influenced by political, economic and market conditions in emerging market countries. Although market conditions are different in each country, investor reaction to developments in one country can have significant effects on the securities of issuers with assets or operations in other emerging markets, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Colombia. See “Risks Relating to the Countries in Which Ternium Operates.”

Holders of shares or ADSs may not have access to as much information about the Company as they would in the case of a U.S. domestic issuer.

There may be less publicly available information about the Company than is regularly published by or about U.S. domestic issuers. Also, corporate and securities regulations governing Luxembourg companies may not be as extensive as those in effect in other jurisdictions, and U.S. securities regulations applicable to foreign private issuers, such as the Company, differ in certain respects from those applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. Furthermore, IFRS, the accounting standards in accordance with which the Company prepares its consolidated financial statements, differ in certain material aspects from the accounting standards used in the United States.

Holders of ADSs may not be able to exercise, or may encounter difficulties in the exercise of, certain rights afforded to shareholders.

Certain shareholders’ rights under Luxembourg law, including the right to participate and vote at general meetings of shareholders, to include items on the agenda for the general meetings of shareholders, to receive dividends and distributions, to bring actions, to examine books and records and to exercise appraisal rights may not be available to holders of ADSs, or may be subject to restrictions and special procedures for their exercise, as holders of ADSs only have those rights that are expressly granted to them in the deposit agreement. The Bank of New York Mellon, or BNY Mellon, as depositary under the ADS deposit agreement, through its custodian agent, is the registered shareholder of the deposited shares underlying the ADSs and therefore only the Depositary can exercise the shareholders’ rights in connection with the deposited shares. For example, if the Company makes a distribution in the form of securities, the depositary is allowed, at its discretion, to sell the right to acquire those securities on your behalf and to instead distribute the net proceeds to you. Also, under certain circumstances, such as the Company's failure to provide the Depositary with voting materials on a timely basis, you may not be able to vote by giving instructions to the Depositary. If the depositary does not receive voting instructions from the holder of ADSs or the instructions are not in proper form, then the depositary shall deem such holder of ADSs to have instructed the depositary to vote the underlying shares represented by ADSs in favour of any proposals or recommendations of the Company (including any recommendation by the Company to vote such underlying shares on any given issue in accordance with the majority shareholder vote on that issue) for which purposes the depositary shall issue a proxy to a person appointed by the Company to vote such underlying shares represented by ADSs in favor of any proposals or recommendations of the Company. Under the ADS deposit agreement, no instruction shall be deemed given and no proxy shall be given with respect to any matter as to which the Company informs the depositary that (x) it does not wish such proxy given, (y) substantial opposition exists, or (z) the matter materially and adversely affects the rights of the holders of ADSs.

Holders of the Company's shares and ADSs in the United States may not be able to exercise preemptive rights in certain cases.

Pursuant to the Luxembourg Company Law, existing shareholders of the Company are generally entitled to preferential subscription rights (preemptive rights) in the event of capital increases and issues of shares against cash contributions. Under the Company’s articles of association, the board of directors has been authorized for a five-year period (ending in June 2025) to waive, limit or suppress such preemptive subscription rights. Notwithstanding the waiver of any preemptive subscription rights, for as long as the shares of the Company are listed on a regulated market, any issuance of shares for cash within the limits of the authorized share capital shall be subject to the pre-emptive subscription rights of existing shareholders, except (i) any issuance of shares for, within, in conjunction with or related to, an initial public offering of the shares of the Company on one or more regulated markets (in one or more instances); (ii) any issuance of shares against a contribution other than in cash; (iii) any issuance of shares upon conversion of
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convertible bonds or other instruments convertible into shares of the Company; provided, however, that the preemptive subscription rights of the then-existing shareholders shall apply in connection with any issuance of convertible bonds or other instruments convertible into shares of the Company for cash; and (iv) any issuance of shares (including by way of free shares or at discount), up to an amount of 1.5% of the issued share capital of the Company, to directors, officers, agents, employees of the Company, its direct or indirect subsidiaries or its affiliates (collectively the "Beneficiaries"), including without limitation, the direct issuance of shares or upon the exercise of options, rights convertible into shares or similar instruments convertible or exchangeable into shares, issued for the purpose of compensation or incentive of the Beneficiaries or in relation thereto (which the board of directors shall be authorized to issue upon such terms and conditions as it deems fit). For further details, see Item 10. “Additional Information—B. Memorandum and Articles of Association”.

Holders of ADSs in the United States may, in any event, not be able to exercise any preemptive rights, if granted, for shares underlying their ADSs unless additional shares and ADSs are registered under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, with respect to those rights or an exemption from registration requirements of the Securities Act is available. The Company intends to evaluate, at the time of any rights offering, the costs and potential liabilities associated with the exercise by holders of shares and ADSs of the preemptive rights for shares, and any other factors it considers appropriate at the time, and then to make a decision as to whether to register additional shares. The Company may decide not to register any additional shares, requiring a sale by the Depositary of the holders’ rights and a distribution of the proceeds thereof. Should the Depositary not be permitted or otherwise be unable to sell preemptive rights, the rights may be allowed to lapse with no consideration to be received by the holders of the ADSs.

It may be difficult to obtain or enforce judgments against the Company outside Luxembourg.

The Company is a public limited liability company (société anonyme) organized under the laws of Luxembourg, and most of its assets are located in other jurisdictions. Furthermore, most of the Company’s directors and officers reside in other jurisdictions. As a result, investors may not be able to effect service of process upon the Company or its directors or officers. Investors may also not be able to enforce against the Company or its directors or officers in the investors’ domestic courts, judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the domestic laws of the investors’ home countries. Likewise, it may be difficult for investors not domiciled in Luxembourg to bring an original action in a Luxembourg court predicated upon the civil liability provisions of other securities laws, including U.S. federal securities laws, against the Company, its directors or its officers. There is also uncertainty with regard to the enforceability of original actions of civil liabilities predicated upon the civil liability provisions of securities laws, including U.S. federal securities laws, outside the jurisdiction where such judgments have been rendered; and enforceability will be subject to compliance with procedural requirements under applicable local law, including the condition that the judgment does not violate the public policy of the applicable jurisdiction.

Item 4.    Information on the Company
Overview
Ternium is Latin America’s leading flat steel producer with an annual crude steel production capacity of 12.4 million tons. It operates in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, the southern United States and Central America through regional manufacturing facilities, service centers and its own distribution network. In addition, Ternium participates in the control group of Usiminas, a leading flat steel company in the Brazilian market. Our customers range from small businesses to large global companies in the automotive, home appliances, heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), construction, capital goods, container, food and energy industries across the Americas. Ternium’s industrial system has various production technologies that provide a diversified cost structure, based on different types of raw material and energy sources, and a flexible production configuration. The industrial system includes proprietary iron ore mines and processing facilities, steelmaking facilities, finishing facilities, service centers and a broad distribution network to offer slabs, billets, hot-rolled products, cold-rolled products, galvanized and electro-galvanized sheets, pre-painted sheets, tinplate, welded pipes, rebars and wire rods as well as slit and cut-to-length products.
Ternium's innovative culture, industrial expertise and long-term view enable us to continuously achieve new breakthroughs in industrial excellence, competitiveness and customer service. Ternium is the leading supplier of flat steel products in Mexico and Argentina, has a significant position as supplier of steel products in Colombia and in other Latin American countries, and is a competitive player in the international steel market for steel products. Through its network of commercial offices in several countries in Latin America, the United States and Europe, Ternium maintains an international presence that allows it to reach customers outside its local markets, achieves
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improved effectiveness in the supply of products and in the procurement of semi-finished steel, and maintains a fluent commercial relationship with its customers by providing continuous services and assistance.

Ternium's value proposition aims to achieve profitable operations on a sustainable basis, through a management approach that comprehends the interests of shareholders, employees, customers and suppliers, as well as of the community. We devote significant resources to environment and occupational health and safety matters (EHS), as we believe these are key to our long-term sustainability. We regularly invest in state-of-the-art technologies to reduce our environmental footprint and minimize safety risks. We believe we have developed strong ties to the communities near our operations. We work together with local institutions to enhance the communities' education and welfare. We support small and medium-sized customers and suppliers through our ProPymes program to strengthen the steel value chain in our markets. ProPymes has helped create an industrial network that encourages the professionalization and quest for excellence of SMEs. We believe integrity is also key to Ternium's long term sustainability. Our employees are trained and accountable for ensuring transparency. The Company has established various policies, codes and procedures for this purpose.

A.    History and Development of the Company
The Company
Our legal and commercial name is Ternium S.A. The Company was organized as a public limited liability company (société anonyme) under the laws of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg on December 22, 2003. Our Luxembourg office is located at 26 Boulevard Royal – 4th floor, L-2449 Luxembourg, telephone number +352 2668 3152. Our agent for U.S. federal securities law purposes is Ternium U.S.A. Incorporated, located at 2200 West Loop South, Suite 945, Houston, TX 77027, United States.
Ternium
Ternium’s origins began in September 1961 with the founding of Propulsora Siderúrgica ("Propulsora"), by San Faustin’s predecessor in Argentina. Propulsora began its operations as a producer of cold-rolled coils in December 1969 and in the early 1990s began to evolve through a series of strategic investments aimed at transforming Propulsora into an integrated steel producer. In 1993, Propulsora merged with Aceros Paraná S.A. (a company formed by the Argentine government in connection with the privatization of Sociedad Mixta Siderúrgica Argentina ("Somisa"), at that time the main integrated producer of flat steel in Argentina) and three other affiliated steel industry companies. After the merger, Propulsora changed its name to Siderar, and later to Ternium Argentina. San Faustin held a controlling interest in Siderar, with the remainder being held mainly by Usiminas, certain former employees of Somisa, and public investors.
In December 1997, a consortium formed by San Faustin, Ternium Argentina, Usiminas, Hylsamex, and Siderurgica Venezolana S.A. ("Sivensa"), won the bid in the privatization of a controlling interest in Sidor C.A. ("Sidor"), the largest steel company in Venezuela.
As part of a multiple-step corporate reorganization in 2005, San Faustin reorganized its investments in steel manufacturing, processing and distribution businesses by contributing to the Company San Faustin’s controlling interests in Ternium Argentina and other subsidiaries, in exchange for shares of the Company. In addition, Usiminas and Sivensa exchanged their interests in Ternium Argentina, Sidor and other subsidiaries for shares of the Company. In 2005, we acquired, together with Ternium Argentina, an indirect 99.3% interest in the Mexican company Hylsamex and its subsidiaries.
On January 11, 2006, the Company launched an initial public offering of 24,844,720 ADSs, each representing 10 shares of the Company, in the United States, and subsequently granted the underwriters of the Company’s initial public offering an option to purchase up to 3,726,708 additional ADSs to cover over-allotments in the sale of the ADSs.
On December 28, 2006, we acquired an additional 4.85% interest in Ternium Argentina from CVRD Internacional S.A, thereby increasing our ownership interest in Ternium Argentina to 60.93%.
On April 29, 2007, the Company entered into an agreement with Grupo Imsa and Grupo Imsa’s controlling shareholders regarding Ternium’s control of Grupo Imsa. Under the agreement, the Company, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, made a cash tender offer under applicable Mexican law for all of the issued and outstanding share capital of Grupo Imsa, which resulted in the acquisition of 25,133,856 shares, representing 9.3% of the issued and outstanding share capital of Grupo Imsa. Concurrently with the consummation of the tender offer, on July 26, 2007, all
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the shares of Grupo Imsa that were not tendered into the tender offer (including the shares owned by Grupo Imsa’s majority shareholders), representing 90.7% of Grupo Imsa’s issued and outstanding share capital, were redeemed for cash pursuant to a capital reduction effected at the same price per share. Following this capital reduction, we became the sole shareholder of Grupo Imsa.
In 2007, Grupo Imsa was renamed Ternium Mexico and, effective March 31, 2008, Hylsamex merged with and into Ternium Mexico. In connection with this merger, Ternium Argentina acquired, and currently holds, a 28.7% participation in Ternium Mexico.
On April 29, 2008, the National Assembly of Venezuela passed a resolution declaring that the shares of Sidor, together with all of its assets, were of public and social interest, and authorizing the Venezuelan government to take any action it deemed appropriate in connection with any such assets, including expropriation. On May 11, 2008, the President of Venezuela issued Decree Law 6058 ordering that Sidor and its subsidiaries and associated companies were transformed into state-owned enterprises (“empresas del Estado”), with Venezuela owning not less than 60% of their share capital. On May 7, 2009, Ternium completed the transfer of its entire 59.7% interest in Sidor to Corporación Venezolana de Guayana, a Venezuelan state-owned entity.
On August 25, 2010, Ternium completed the acquisition of a 54% ownership interest in Ferrasa and, indirectly, in its wholly-owned Colombian subsidiaries, Siderúrgica de Caldas S.A.S. and Perfilamos del Cauca S.A.S. On April 7, 2015, Ternium acquired the remaining 46% minority interest in Ferrasa. Through this investment, Ternium expanded its business and commercial presence in Colombia. In 2017, Ferrasa was renamed Ternium Colombia.
In November 2010, Ternium and NSC established Tenigal, with each company holding 51% and 49% participations, respectively. Tenigal completed the construction of a hot dip galvanizing plant in the vicinity of Monterrey City, Mexico, which commenced production in the third quarter of 2013. Tenigal was designed to produce high grade and high quality galvanized and galvannealed automotive steel sheets, including outer panel and high strength qualities.
On January 16, 2012, the Company’s subsidiaries Ternium Investments and Ternium Argentina (together with its wholly-owned subsidiary Prosid Investments S.A., or "Prosid", and the Company’s affiliate, Confab Industrial S.A., a subsidiary of Tenaris, or TenarisConfab), joined the existing control group of Usiminas, a leading steel company in the Brazilian flat steel market, through the acquisition of 84.7, 30.0, and 25.0 million ordinary shares, respectively, and formed the so-called Ternium/Tenaris (T/T) Group.
On October 30, 2014, Ternium Investments acquired 51.4 million additional ordinary shares of Usiminas. On April 20, 2016, Ternium Investments subscribed to 7.0 million preferred shares of Usiminas and Ternium Argentina, together with Prosid, subscribed to an aggregate 1.5 million preferred shares of Usiminas. On July 19, 2016, Usiminas’ extraordinary general shareholders’ meeting homologated a capital increase, and Ternium Investments acquired 62.6 million additional ordinary shares, and Ternium Argentina and Prosid acquired an aggregate 13.8 million additional ordinary shares. As a result of these transactions, Ternium, through its subsidiaries Ternium Investments, Ternium Argentina and Prosid, currently owns 242.6 million ordinary shares of Usiminas (representing 34.5% of Usiminas’ ordinary shares) and 8.5 million of Usiminas’ preferred shares (representing 1.6% of Usiminas’ preferred shares), representing, in the aggregate, 20.4% of Usiminas’ share capital. Ternium Investments, Ternium Argentina, Prosid and TenarisConfab are parties to an Usiminas shareholders’ agreement, effective as of April 10, 2018, with NSC, Mitsubishi Corporation do Brasil S.A. and Metal One Corporation (comprising the so-called "NSC Group") and Previdência Usiminas, governing their rights and obligations as shareholders of Usiminas. For further information on our investment in Usiminas, see “—C. Organizational Structure—Other Investments—Usiminas.”
On September 7, 2017, the Company acquired a 100% ownership interest in thyssenkrupp Slab International B.V or tkSI, and its wholly-owned subsidiary CSA from thyssenkrupp AG, or tkAG. Through this investment, Ternium significantly expanded its steel slabs production capacity. As part of this process CSA was renamed Ternium Brasil Ltda. and tkSI was absorbed by the Company's fully-owned subsidiary Ternium Internacional España S.L.
For information on Ternium’s capital expenditures, see “—B. Business Overview—Capital Expenditure Program.”
B.    Business Overview
Our Business Strategy
Our main strategic objective is to enhance shareholder value by strengthening Ternium’s position as a competitive producer of steel products, in a manner consistent with minority shareholders’ rights, while further consolidating
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Ternium’s position as a leading steel producer in Latin America and a strong competitor in the Americas. The main elements of this strategy are:
Focus on higher margin value-added products. We intend to continue to shift Ternium’s sales mix toward higher margin value-added products, such as cold-rolled sheets and coated and tailor-made products, and services, such as just-in-time delivery and inventory management. For example, Ternium is making progress on the construction of a new hot rolling mill at its facility in Pesquería, Mexico. For further information on Ternium’s capital expenditures, see “—Capital Expenditure Program.”
Pursue strategic growth opportunities. We have a history of strategically growing our businesses through acquisitions and joint ventures. In addition to pursuing organic growth, we intend to continue to identify and actively pursue growth-enhancing strategic opportunities to consolidate Ternium’s presence in its main markets and expand it to the rest of the Americas, increase its upstream integration, expand its offerings of value-added products, increase its steel production, and increase its distribution capabilities. For example, on September 7, 2017, Ternium acquired a 100% ownership interest in tkSI and its wholly-owned subsidiary CSA from tkAG. CSA (currently Ternium Brasil) is a steel slab producer with a steelmaking facility located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and has an annual production capacity of 5 million tons of high-end steel slabs, a deep-water harbor and a 490 MW combined cycle power plant. The above-mentioned investment in a new state-of-the-art hot rolling mill in Pesquería, Mexico, which was announced after the addition of the Rio de Janeiro facility to Ternium’s industrial system, constitutes a logical next step: the Rio de Janeiro facility together with the new hot-rolling mill in Pesquería would enable Ternium to expand its product range in Mexico with a broader dimensional offering and the most advanced steel grades, and reduce lead times in the value chain targeting the demanding and innovative automotive industry, as well as the home appliance, HVAC, machinery, energy and construction sectors. In addition, during 2019, the Company commenced operation of its new hot-dip galvanizing and painting lines in Pesquería, adding 350,000 and 120,000 tons of annual production capacity to Ternium's industrial system, respectively, and incorporating the most advanced painting technology to the Mexican steel industry. These facilities provide high-end value-added products for the HVAC and automotive industries. Furthermore, during 2020, Ternium started-up a new reinforcing bar facility in Colombia to integrate its operations and expand its market share in the country's construction sector. For further information on the acquisition of CSA, see “—A. History and Development of the Company—Ternium.” For further information on Ternium’s capital expenditures, see “—Capital Expenditure Program.” For a description of some of the risks associated with Ternium’s growth strategy, see Item 3. “Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Ternium's Business—Future acquisitions or other significant investments could have an adverse impact on Ternium’s operations or profits, and Ternium may not realize the benefits it expects from these business decisions.”
Implement Ternium’s best practices. We believe that the implementation of Ternium’s managerial, commercial and production best practices in acquired and new facilities and businesses should generate benefits and savings.
Maximize the benefits arising from Ternium’s broad distribution network. We intend to maximize the benefits arising from Ternium’s broad network of distribution, sales and marketing services to reach customers in major steel markets with a comprehensive range of value-added products and services and to continue to expand its customer base and improve its product mix.
Enhance Ternium’s position as a competitive steel producer. We are focused on improving utilization levels of our plants, increasing efficiency and further reducing production costs through, among other measures, capital investments and further integration of our facilities. In addition, we aim at obtaining better purchase conditions and prices by combining the demand of products and services by both Ternium and Tenaris. We pursue this goal through Exiros, a purchase and sale agency which we own 50% / 50% with Tenaris. Exiros has offices in various countries and is in charge of the procurement of a majority of our purchases of raw materials and other products or services. For further information, see Item 7. “Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party Transactions—Purchase Agency Services and Sales of Materials”.
Our Sustainable Approach
Delivering on Ternium’s business strategy is one of the Company’s focus areas to achieve its goals. Ternium’s six value drivers are:
- Delivering on the Company’s business strategy;
- Improving our safety performance;
- Minimizing the Company’s environmental footprint;
- Realizing our people’s full potential;
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- Strengthening the Company’s value chain; and
- Helping communities thrive.

Improving our safety performance and minimizing the Company’s environmental footprint. We devote significant resources to environment and occupational health and safety matters (EHS), as we believe they are key to our long-term sustainability. We have standardized EHS management systems. Our employees are well trained in EHS and our management is accountable for EHS performance. Ternium's occupational health and safety system is certified under OHSAS 18001, and its environment and energy system is certified under ISO 14001 and ISO 50001. We regularly invest in state-of-the art technologies to reduce our environmental footprint and minimize safety risks.

We rank occupational health and safety performance as a top priority, with the conviction that all injuries and work-related illnesses should be prevented. Our goals are to prevent all work-related injuries and illnesses and achieve zero accidents, identify and eliminate operational hazards, operate in compliance with established protocols, raise people’s awareness of non-compliance risks, identify and rectify unsafe acts or situations, promote healthy and safe operations in the steel industry value chain and evaluate supplier’s occupational health and safety policies and performance.

The protection of the environment is one of our fundamental values. We seek to achieve the highest standards of environmental and energy performance in order to minimize the environmental footprint of our operations. Our goals are to use natural resources responsibly, minimize consumption of raw materials and minimize waste generation, pursue excellence in environmental performance, preserve water and air quality and maximize the energy efficiency of Ternium’s infrastructure, and protect biodiversity. We continuously incorporate state-of-the-art technologies to reduce our environmental footprint.

As a member of worldsteel, we are signatories of worldsteel's sustainability policy and join its efforts, through our participation in several programs, to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Based on the worldsteel’s Step Up Program findings, which we joined in 2019, we seek to identify opportunities to improve the efficiency of our operations, mainly related to raw materials usage, energy input, materials yields and maintenance models.

We have adopted a new decarbonization strategy with a medium-term target to reduce Ternium’s carbon dioxide emissions intensity rate by 20% in 2030, compared to its 2018 base rate of 1.7 tons of carbon dioxide per ton of steel. The Company’s strategy to achieve this 2030 reduction target is based upon a multi-faceted approach, including the intensified use of renewable energy at our facilities, increasing the participation of scrap in the metallic mix, increasing carbon capture capacity at our DRI facilities in Mexico, partially replacing coking coal with charcoal at our operations in Brazil and Argentina, developing energy efficiency strategies and prioritizing lower specific-emission steelmaking technologies.

We intend to continue analyzing and developing measures to decarbonize our operations over the longer-term, based upon current and emerging steel-making technologies, prospects for the availability of raw materials and other inputs, renewable energy and required infrastructure, and appropriate government regulations to promote fair trade, among other guiding factors. The Company’s board of directors has nominated its Vice-Chairman, Mr. Daniel Agustín Novegil, to oversee, on a quarterly basis, Ternium’s climate change strategy.

The Company has launched a new environmental investment plan to be developed in seven years in an amount of approximately $460 million. Investment projects will focus mainly on improvements in emissions control, raw material management and water quality control at the primary areas of our operations in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.

For further information on the environment, see Item 4. “Information on the Company —B. Business Overview — Regulations - Environmental Regulation”.

For a description of some of the risks associated with the environment, health and safety, see Item 3. “Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Extreme weather conditions may adversely impact Ternium’s business - Climate change legislation and increasing climate regulatory requirements could result in unexpected capital expenditures and costs, negatively affect the company's reputation and competitiveness, reducing its market share and results of operations, and hampering its ability to access adequate financial resources - Operational accidents and unexpected natural catastrophes may damage the environment, destroy properties and affect production or cause injuries and death, which would adversely impact Ternium's operations and profitability, and result in material liabilities – and - The cost of complying with environmental regulations and potential environmental and product liabilities may increase Ternium's operating costs and negatively impact Ternium's business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.”

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Realizing our people’s full potential. Ternium has a human resources policy guiding our efforts in managing talent and attracting and retaining motivated employees. Ternium is an equal opportunity employer that embraces diversity in its different forms, including age, gender, nationality, race, ethnicity and creed. We believe that the coexistence of diverse perspectives helps our teams achieve rational solutions to challenges and more effectively and creatively accomplish their goals.

Strengthening the Company’s value chain. We support approximately 1,800 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), customers and suppliers through our ProPymes program to strengthen the steel value chain in our markets. ProPymes provides training, industrial and business consultancy, institutional assistance, commercial support and financial aid. The program plays an active role at universities, business schools, government agencies and industrial associations. ProPymes has helped create an industrial network that encourages the professionalization and quest for excellence of SMEs. ProPymes program institutionalizes the cooperation between Ternium and the Company’s SME customers and suppliers. We work with SMEs to help them reach their potential, enhancing their professional, management and financial capabilities, and helping them participate competitively in both domestic and foreign markets.

Helping communities thrive. We believe that developing strong ties to our communities is also fundamental to Ternium’s long-term sustainability. We are committed to making a difference and strengthening a sense of pride in belonging to the communities where we operate. Our goals are to foster education and to support initiatives that strengthen our communities, such as the funding of health care infrastructure and humanitarian initiatives and promotion of cultural activities. We believe we are having a significant positive impact on Ternium's communities, both from a human perspective as well as in terms of economic development. In recent years, we have concentrated our community action on four main areas: education, culture, volunteer work and health. We work together with local institutions to enhance the communities' education and welfare. We provide scholarships, internships, teachers' training and infrastructure funding. We also organize and fund volunteering programs and health prevention campaigns, and sponsor sports, social and arts events.

For a description of some of the risks associated with communities where Ternium operates, see Item 3. “Key Information—D. Risk Factors— Difficulties in relationships with local communities may adversely affect Ternium's mining activities and results of operations.”

Integrity. In addition to our comprehensive approach to value creation with its six value drivers, we believe integrity is key to Ternium’s long-term sustainability and continuously work on building a corporate culture of transparency. The Company’s board of directors has an audit committee solely composed of independent directors and an internal audit department, which reports to the Chairman of the board of directors and, with respect to internal control over financial reporting, to the audit committee and meets organizational independence and objectivity standards. Ternium has a Business Conduct Compliance Officer reporting to the CEO and a compliance department that oversees, among other things, certifications required under applicable SEC regulation and related party transactions. Our employees are trained and accountable for ensuring transparency. The Company has established various policies, codes and procedures for this purpose. We encourage active participation of all areas, emphasizing the importance of asking for guidance in case of red flags or ambiguous situations. In addition, the company has put in place confidential channels to report alleged breaches of the Code of Conduct and its principles. Ternium implements the necessary actions to avoid retaliation against those who use these channels in good faith.

Our Products
The Ternium companies produce mainly finished and semi-finished steel products and iron ore, which are sold either directly to steel manufacturers and steel processors or to end-users after different value-adding processes. We also produce electricity and sell unused balances to the Mexican and Brazilian electric grids.
In the steel segment, steel products include slabs, billets and round bars (steel in its basic, semi-finished state), hot-rolled coils and sheets, bars and stirrups, wire rods, cold-rolled coils and sheets, tin plate, hot dipped galvanized and electrogalvanized sheets and pre-painted sheets, steel pipes and tubular products, beams and roll formed products. Galvanized and pre-painted sheets can be further processed into a variety of corrugated sheets, trapezoidal sheets and other tailor-made products to serve Ternium’s customer requirements. Other products in the steel segment include electricity and pig iron.
In the mining segment, iron ore is sold as concentrates (fines) and pellets.
Steel products
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Slabs, billets and round bars: These products are semi-finished steel forms with dimensions suitable for its processing into specific product types. Slabs are processed into hot-rolled flat products. The use of slabs is determined by their dimensions and by their chemical and metallurgical characteristics. Billets are processed into long steel products, such as wire rods, bars and other shapes. Round bars are processed into seamless tubes.
Hot-rolled products: Hot-rolled flat products are used by a variety of industrial consumers in applications such as the manufacturing of wheels, auto parts, pipes, gas cylinders and containers. They are also directly used for the construction of buildings, bridges and railroad cars, and for the chassis of trucks and automobiles. Hot-rolled flat products can be supplied as coils, strips or as sheets cut to a specific length. These products also serve as inputs for the production of cold-rolled products. Merchant bars include specific shape features, such as rounds, flats, angles, squares and channels, which are used by customers to manufacture a wide variety of products such as furniture, stair railings and farm equipment. Reinforcing bars (rebars) and stirrups, obtained from the mechanical transformation of rebars, are used to strengthen concrete highways, bridges and buildings. Rods are commonly drawn into wire products or used to make bolts and nails. Wire rod can be produced in different qualities according to customers’ demands.
Cold-rolled products: Cold-rolled products are applied mainly to the automotive, home appliance and capital goods industries, as well as to galvanizers, drummers, distributors and service centers. Cold-rolled coils are sold as coils or cut into sheets or blanks to meet customers’ needs. These products also serve as inputs for the production of coated products.
Coated products: Galvanized sheets are produced by adding a layer of zinc to cold-rolled coils, which are afterwards cut into sheets. Galvanized sheets are used in the automotive, construction and home appliances industries. Galvanized coils can also be further processed with a color coating to produce pre-painted sheets, resulting in a product that is mainly sold for building coverings, manufacturing of ceiling systems, panels, air conditioning ducts, refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines and several other uses. Ternium also offers a distinctive type of galvanized product with coating composition that contains approximately 55% aluminum and 44% zinc to improve product performance for the construction industry, including rural, industrial and marine sites. Tinplate, given its resistance to corrosion and its mechanical and chemical characteristics, is mainly sold to the packaging industry for food canning, sprays and paint containers. Tinplate is produced by coating cold-rolled coils with a layer of tin.
Roll-formed and tubular products: These products include tubes for general use, structural tubes, tubes for mechanical applications, conduction tubes, conduction electrical tubes, oil tubes and pre-engineered metal building systems. Tubular products, uncoated or galvanized, have applications in several sectors including home accessories, furniture, scaffolding, automotive, bicycles, hospital equipment, posts for wire mesh garden and poultry tools, handrails, guard-rails, agricultural machinery, industrial equipment, conduction of water, air, gas, oil, high-pressure liquids and special fluids and internal building electrical installations. Beams, including C and Z section steel profiles (purlings) and tubular section beams, are obtained by roll-forming of steel strips and have applications in window frames, stilts, mainstays, crossbeams, building structures, supports, guides and crossbars for installing windows, doors, frames and boards. Other products include insulated panels, roofing and cladding, roof tiles and steel decks. Obtained from the mechanical transformation of flat steel, uncoated, galvanized or pre-painted, these products are used mainly in the construction industry in warehouses, commercial and industrial refrigeration installations, grain storage, poultry and porcine confinement facilities, roofing and side walls for buildings, and terraces and mezzanine floorings. Pre-engineered metal building systems are steel construction systems designed for use in low-rise non-residential buildings, and are constructed from the mechanical transformation of flat steel such as frames, secondary steel members, roofs and walls panels, as well as finishing and accessories.
Other products: Other products include mainly electricity and pig iron. Pig iron is a semi-finished product obtained in the blast furnace that is mostly used as metallic charge in the steel shop for the production of crude steel, and also marketed to other steel producers and to manufacturers of iron-based cast products.
Within each of the basic product categories, there is a range of different “items” of varying qualities and prices that are produced either to meet the particular requirements of end users or sold as commodity items.
Iron ore products
Concentrates (fines) and pellets: These products are raw materials used for the production of steel. Iron ore concentrates are iron ore fines with high iron content. Iron ore pellets are produced from iron ore concentrates. Ternium ships most of the pellets to its own steel manufacturing operations and it also markets the surplus portion of its iron ore pellets and concentrates, if any, to other steel manufacturers.
Production Facilities and Processes
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Ternium has steel production facilities, service centers, distribution centers, or DCs, and mining operations in Mexico, steel production facilities and service centers in the Southern Region, and steel production facilities, service centers and DCs in other markets, specifically Brazil, Colombia, the United States and Central America.
Ternium’s aggregate production capacity of crude steel as of December 31, 2020, calculated based on management estimates of standard productivity, product mix allocations, the maximum number of possible working shifts and a continued flow of supplies to the production process, was approximately 12.4 million tons. Ternium’s aggregate production capacity of finished steel products, calculated based on the same criteria as for crude steel production, was approximately 11.7 million tons. Ternium’s aggregate production capacity of iron ore pellets as of December 31, 2020, was 4.0 million tons. Such iron ore products are mainly sold intercompany for the production of steel products by our steel segment.

Steel production facilities, service centers and distribution centers
The assets described in this section are owned by Ternium’s operating subsidiaries. The following table provides an overview, by type of asset, of Ternium’s production capacity as of December 31, 2020:
Production assetQuantity
Nominal capacity (thousand tons per year)1
MexicoBrazilArgentinaOtherTotal
Coke Plant1,800 1,040 2,840 
Sinter Plant5,700 1,480 7,180 
Direct Reduced Iron Plant2,710 2,710 
Blast Furnace5,300 3,220 8,520 
Electric Arc Furnace