10-K 1 ccoh201610-k.htm 10-K Document


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K 
[X]
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, or
[  ]
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from ________ to _________.
Commission File Number 001-32663
CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
86-0812139
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
200 East Basse Road, Suite 100
San Antonio, Texas
78209
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(210) 832-3700
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Class A Common Stock, $.01 par value per share
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  YES [  ]  NO  [X]
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.  YES [ ]  NO [X]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes [X] No [  ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes [X] No [  ]
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  [X]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act  Large accelerated filer [ ] Accelerated filer [X] Non-accelerated filer [  ] Smaller reporting company [  ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes [  ] No [X]
As of June 30, 2016, the aggregate market value of the common stock beneficially held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $277.2 million based on the closing sales price of the Class A common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
On February 20, 2017, there were 47,300,987 outstanding shares of Class A common stock (excluding 633,851 shares held in treasury) and 315,000,000 outstanding shares of Class B common stock.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2017 Annual Meeting, expected to be filed within 120 days of our fiscal year end, are incorporated by reference into Part III.




CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR HOLDINGS, INC.
INDEX TO FORM 10-K
 
 
Page
Number
PART I
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
PART III
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
 
Item 15.
Item 16.




PART I
ITEM 1.  BUSINESS
The Company
Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc. (“the Company”), a Delaware corporation, provides clients with advertising opportunities through billboards, street furniture displays, transit displays and other out-of-home advertising displays, such as wallscapes and spectaculars, which we own or operate in key markets worldwide.  Our business consists of two reportable operating segments:  Americas and International.  As of December 31, 2016, we owned or operated over 590,000 advertising displays worldwide.  For the year ended December 31, 2016, we generated consolidated revenue of approximately $2.7 billion, with $1.3 billion and $1.4 billion from our Americas and International segments, respectively.
Our History
We were incorporated in August 1995 under the name “Eller Media Company.”  In 1997, Clear Channel Communications, Inc., now iHeartCommunications, Inc. (“iHeartCommunications”), our parent company, entered the outdoor advertising industry with its acquisition of Eller Media Company.  We changed our name to Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc. in August 2005.
On November 11, 2005, we became a publicly traded company through an initial public offering, or IPO, in which we sold 10%, or 35.0 million shares, of our Class A common stock.  Prior to our IPO, we were an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of iHeartCommunications.  As of December 31, 2016, iHeartCommunications, through its subsidiaries, owned all of our outstanding shares of Class B common stock and 10,726,917 shares of our Class A common stock, collectively representing approximately 89.9% of the outstanding shares of our common stock and approximately 99% of the total voting power of our common stock.
Prior to or at the time of our IPO, we entered into agreements with iHeartCommunications that govern the relationship between iHeartCommunications and us and provide for, among other things, the provision of services by iHeartCommunications to us and the allocation of employee benefit, tax and other liabilities and obligations attributable to our operations.  These agreements include the Master Agreement, Corporate Services Agreement, Employee Matters Agreement, Tax Matters Agreement and Trademark License Agreement.  All of the agreements relating to our ongoing relationship with iHeartCommunications were made in the context of a parent-subsidiary relationship and the terms of these agreements may be more or less favorable to us than if they had been negotiated with unaffiliated third parties.
iHeartCommunications has the right to terminate these agreements in various circumstances.  As of the date of the filing of this report, no notice of termination of any of these agreements has been received from iHeartCommunications.
As long as iHeartCommunications continues to own shares of our common stock representing more than 50% of the total voting power of our common stock, it will have the ability to direct the election of all members of our Board of Directors and, therefore, to exercise a controlling influence over our business and affairs, including any determinations with respect to mergers or other business combinations, our acquisition or disposition of assets, our incurrence of indebtedness, our issuance of any additional common stock or other equity securities, our repurchase or redemption of common stock or any preferred stock, if applicable, and our payment of dividends in certain situations.  Similarly, iHeartCommunications will have the power to determine the outcome of matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including the power to prevent an acquisition or any other change in control, and to take other actions that might be favorable to iHeartCommunications.
On July 30, 2008, iHeartCommunications completed its merger with a subsidiary of CC Media Holdings, Inc., now iHeartMedia, Inc. (“iHeartMedia”), a company formed by a group of private equity funds sponsored by Bain Capital Partners, LLC and Thomas H. Lee Partners, L.P.  iHeartCommunications is now owned indirectly by iHeartMedia.
Our corporate headquarters are in San Antonio, Texas and we have executive offices in New York, New York. Our headquarters are located at 200 East Basse Road, Suite 100, San Antonio, Texas 78209 (telephone: 210-822-2828).
Our Business Segments
We have two reportable business segments, Americas outdoor advertising (“Americas”) and International outdoor advertising (“International”), which represented 47% and 53% of our 2016 revenue, respectively.
We are a leading global outdoor advertising company providing clients with advertising opportunities through billboards, street furniture displays, transit displays and other out-of-home advertising displays. Through our extensive display inventory, we have the ability to deliver innovative, effective marketing campaigns for advertisers and marketing, creative and strategic partners in communities across the Americas and internationally.

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We focus on building the leadership position of our diverse global assets and maximizing our financial performance while serving our local communities.  We intend to continue to execute upon our long-standing outdoor advertising strategies, while closely managing expenses and focusing on achieving operating efficiencies throughout our businesses.  Part of our long-term strategy is to pursue the technology of digital displays, including flat screens, LCDs and LEDs, as additions to traditional methods of displaying our clients’ advertisements.  We are currently installing these technologies in certain markets, both domestically and internationally.
For more information about our revenue, gross profit and assets by segment and our revenue and long-lived assets by geographic area, see Note 12 to our Consolidated Financial Statements located in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Americas Outdoor Advertising
We are one of the largest outdoor advertising companies in North America (based on revenues), which includes the United States, Canada and Latin America.  Approximately 90% of our revenue in our Americas segment was derived from the United States in each of the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014.  As of December 31, 2016, we own or operate approximately 99,000 display structures in our Americas segment with operations in 43 of the 50 largest markets in the United States, including all of the 20 largest markets.
In the first quarter of 2016, Americas outdoor sold nine non-strategic outdoor markets including Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, Des Moines, Iowa, Ft. Smith, Arkansas, Memphis, Tennessee, Portland, Oregon, Reno, Nevada, Seattle, Washington and Wichita, Kansas for approximately $592.3 million in cash and certain advertising assets in Florida. During the first quarter of 2016, Americas segment also entered into an agreement to sell its Indianapolis, Indiana market in exchange for certain assets in Atlanta, Georgia, plus approximately $41.2 million in cash. The transaction closed in January 2017.
Our Americas assets consist of printed and digital billboards, street furniture and transit displays, airport displays and wallscapes and other spectaculars, which we own or operate under lease management agreements. Our Americas business is focused on metropolitan areas with dense populations.
Strategy
We seek to capitalize on our Americas network and diversified product mix to maximize revenue. Our strategy focuses on pursuing the technology of digital displays, as well as leveraging our diversified product mix and long-standing presence in many of our existing markets, which provides us with the ability to launch new products and test new initiatives in a reliable and cost-effective manner.
Promote Outdoor Media Spending.  Given the attractive industry fundamentals of outdoor media and our depth and breadth of relationships with both local and national advertisers, we believe we can drive outdoor advertising's share of total media spending by using our dedicated national sales team to highlight the value of outdoor advertising relative to other media.  We have made and continue to make significant investments in research tools that enable our clients to better understand how our displays can successfully reach their target audiences and promote their advertising campaigns. Also, we are working closely with clients, advertising agencies and other diversified media companies to develop more sophisticated systems that will provide improved audience metrics for outdoor advertising, including our new programmatic effort to sell digital billboard advertisements using automated advertisement sales technology to introduce ease and efficiency to the out-of-home ad sales process and enable better targeting of digital billboard advertising.
Continue to Deploy Digital Displays.  Our long-term strategy for our outdoor advertising businesses includes pursuing the technology of digital displays, including flat screens, LCDs and LEDs, as additions to traditional methods of displaying our clients’ advertisements. Digital outdoor advertising provides significant advantages over traditional outdoor media. Our electronic displays are linked through centralized computer systems to instantaneously and simultaneously and rapidly change advertising copy on a large number of displays, allowing us to sell more advertising opportunities to advertisers. The ability to change copy by time of day and quickly change messaging based on advertisers’ needs creates additional flexibility for our customers. Although digital displays require more capital to construct compared to printed bulletins, the advantages of digital allow us to penetrate new accounts and categories of advertisers, as well as serve a broader set of needs for existing advertisers. Digital displays allow for high-frequency, 24-hour advertising changes in high-traffic locations and allow us to offer our clients optimal flexibility, distribution, circulation and visibility. We expect this trend to continue as we increase our quantity of digital inventory. As of December 31, 2016, we had deployed more than 1,100 digital billboards in 28 markets in the United States.

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Sources of Revenue
Americas generated 47%, 48% and 46% of our revenue in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.  Americas revenue is derived from the sale of advertising copy placed on our printed and digital displays.  Our display inventory consists primarily of billboards, street furniture displays and transit displays.  The margins on our billboard contracts, including those related to digital billboards, tend to be higher than those on contracts for other displays, due to their greater size, impact and location along major roadways that are highly trafficked.  Billboards comprise approximately two-thirds of our display revenues.  The following table shows the approximate percentage of revenue derived from each category for our Americas inventory:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Billboards:
 
 
 
 
 
Bulletins
59
%
 
58
%
 
58
%
Posters
10
%
 
12
%
 
12
%
Street furniture displays
7
%
 
6
%
 
7
%
Transit displays
16
%
 
15
%
 
16
%
Spectaculars/wallscapes
4
%
 
5
%
 
3
%
Other
4
%
 
4
%
 
4
%
Total
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%
Our Americas segment generates revenues from local and national sales.  Our advertising rates are based on a number of different factors including location, competition, size of display, illumination, market and gross ratings points.  Gross ratings points are the total number of impressions delivered, expressed as a percentage of a market population, of a display or group of displays.  The number of impressions delivered by a display is measured by the number of people passing the site during a defined period of time.  For all of our billboards in the United States, we use independent, third-party auditing companies to verify the number of impressions delivered by a display.
While location, price and availability of displays are important competitive factors, we believe that providing quality customer service and establishing strong client relationships are also critical components of sales.  In addition, we have long-standing relationships with a diversified group of advertising brands and agencies that allow us to diversify client accounts and establish continuing revenue streams.
Billboards
Our billboard inventory primarily includes bulletins and posters.
Bulletins.   Bulletins vary in size, with the most common size being 14 feet high by 48 feet wide.  Digital bulletins display static messages that resemble standard printed bulletins when viewed, but also allow advertisers to change messages throughout the course of a day, and may display advertisements for multiple customers.  Our electronic displays are linked through centralized computer systems to instantaneously and simultaneously change advertising copy as needed.  Because of their greater size, impact, high-frequency and 24-hour advertising changes, we typically receive our highest rates for digital bulletins.  Almost all of the advertising copy displayed on printed bulletins is computer printed on vinyl and transported to the bulletin where it is secured to the display surface.  Bulletins generally are located along major expressways, primary commuting routes and main intersections that are highly visible and heavily trafficked.  Our clients may contract for individual bulletins or a network of bulletins, meaning the clients’ advertisements are rotated among bulletins to increase the reach of the campaign.  Our client contracts for bulletins, either printed or digital, generally have terms ranging from four weeks to one year.
Posters.   Printed posters are approximately 11 feet high by 23 feet wide, and the printed junior posters are approximately 5 feet high by 11 feet wide.  Digital posters are available in addition to the traditional poster-size and junior poster-size.  Similar to digital bulletins, digital posters display static messages that resemble standard printed posters when viewed, and are linked through centralized computer systems to instantaneously and simultaneously change messages throughout the course of a day.  Advertising copy for printed posters is digitally printed on a single piece of polyethylene material that is then transported and secured to the poster surfaces.  Advertising copy for printed junior posters is printed using silk screen, lithographic or digital process to transfer the designs onto paper that is then transported and secured to the poster surfaces.  Posters generally are located in commercial areas on primary and secondary routes near point-of-purchase locations, facilitating advertising campaigns with greater demographic targeting than those displayed on bulletins.  Our poster rates typically are less than our bulletin rates, and our client

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contracts for posters generally have terms ranging from four weeks to one year.  Premiere displays, which consist of premiere panels and squares, are innovative hybrids between bulletins and posters that we developed to provide our clients with an alternative for their targeted marketing campaigns.  The premiere displays use one or more poster panels, but with vinyl advertising stretched over the panels similar to bulletins.  Our intent is to combine the creative impact of bulletins with the additional reach and frequency of posters.
Street Furniture Displays
Our street furniture displays include advertising surfaces on bus shelters, information kiosks, freestanding units and other public structures, are available in both printed and digital formats, and are primarily located in major metropolitan areas and along major commuting routes.  Generally, we are responsible for the construction and maintenance of street furniture structures.  Contracts for the right to place our street furniture displays in the public domain and sell advertising space on them are awarded by municipal and transit authorities in competitive bidding processes governed by local law.  Generally, these contracts have terms ranging from 10 to 20 years.  As compensation for the right to sell advertising space on our street furniture structures, we pay the municipality or transit authority a fee or revenue share that is either a fixed amount or a percentage of the revenue derived from the street furniture displays.  Typically, these revenue sharing arrangements include payments by us of minimum guaranteed amounts.  Client contracts for street furniture displays typically have terms ranging from four weeks to one year, and are typically for network packages of multiple street furniture displays.
Transit Displays
Our transit displays are advertising surfaces on various types of vehicles or within transit systems, including on the interior and exterior sides of buses, trains, trams, and within the common areas of rail stations and airports, and are available in both printed and digital formats.  Similar to street furniture, contracts for the right to place our displays on such vehicles or within such transit systems and to sell advertising space on them generally are awarded by public transit authorities in competitive bidding processes or are negotiated with private transit operators.  Generally, these contracts have terms ranging from five to ten years.  Our client contracts for transit displays generally have terms ranging from four weeks to one year.
Other Displays
The balance of our display inventory consists of spectaculars and wallscapes.  Spectaculars are customized display structures that often incorporate video, multidimensional lettering and figures, mechanical devices and moving parts and other embellishments to create special effects.  The majority of our spectaculars are located in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Times Square in New York City and the Gardiner Expressway in Toronto.  Client contracts for spectaculars typically have terms of one year or longer.  A wallscape is a display that drapes over or is suspended from the sides of buildings or other structures.  Generally, wallscapes are located in high-profile areas where other types of outdoor advertising displays are limited or unavailable.  Clients typically contract for individual wallscapes for extended terms. 
Advertising Inventory and Markets
As of December 31, 2016, we owned or operated approximately 99,000 display structures in our Americas segment with operations in 43 of the 50 largest markets in the United States, including all of the 20 largest markets.  Therefore, no one property is material to our overall operations.  We believe that our properties are in good condition and suitable for our operations.
Our displays are located on owned land, leased land or land for which we have acquired permanent easements.  The majority of the advertising structures on which our displays are mounted require permits.  Permits are granted for the right to operate an advertising structure as long as the structure is used in compliance with the laws and regulations of the applicable jurisdiction.
Production
In a majority of our markets, our local production staff performs the full range of activities required to create and install advertising copy.  Production work includes creating the advertising copy design and layout, coordinating its printing and installing the copy on displays.  We provide creative services to smaller advertisers and to advertisers not represented by advertising agencies.  National advertisers often use preprinted designs that require only installation.  Our creative and production personnel typically develop new designs or adopt copy from other media for use on our inventory.  Our creative staff also can assist in the development of marketing presentations, demonstrations and strategies to attract new clients.
Construction and Operation
We typically own the physical structures on which our clients’ advertising copy is displayed.  We manage the construction of our structures centrally and erect them on sites we either lease or own or for which we have acquired permanent easements.  The site lease terms generally range from one to 20 years.  In addition to the site lease, we must obtain a permit to build the sign. 

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Permits are typically issued in perpetuity by the state or local government and typically are transferable or renewable for a minimal, or no, fee.  Printed bulletin and poster advertising copy is either printed with computer generated graphics on a single sheet of vinyl or placed on lithographed or silk-screened paper sheets supplied by the advertiser.  These advertisements are then transported to the site and in the case of vinyl, wrapped around the face of the site, and in the case of paper, pasted and applied like wallpaper to the site.  The operational process also includes conducting visual inspections of the inventory for display defects and taking the necessary corrective action within a reasonable period of time.
Client Categories
In 2016, the top five client categories in our Americas segment were business services, automotive, technology, beverage and travel.
Competition
The outdoor advertising industry in the Americas is fragmented, consisting of several large companies involved in outdoor advertising, such as OUTFRONT Media Inc. and Lamar Advertising Company, as well as numerous smaller and local companies operating a limited number of displays in a single market or a few local markets.  We also compete with other advertising media in our respective markets, including broadcast and cable television, radio, print media, direct mail, mobile, social media, online and other forms of advertisement. Outdoor advertising companies compete primarily based on ability to reach consumers, which is driven by location of the display.
International Outdoor Advertising
Our International segment includes our operations in Europe and Asia, with approximately 34%, 34% and 35% of our revenue in this segment derived from France and the United Kingdom for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014.  As of December 31, 2016, we owned or operated more than 490,000 displays across 19 countries.
During the second quarter of 2016, International sold its business in Turkey for cash proceeds of $0.5 million.
During the fourth quarter of 2016, International sold its business in Australia for cash proceeds of $195.7 million, net of cash retained by the purchaser and closing costs.
Our International assets consist of street furniture and transit displays, billboards, mall displays, SmartBike programs and other spectaculars, which we own or operate under lease agreements.  Our International business is focused on densely populated metropolitan areas.
Strategy
Similar to our Americas business, we believe our International business has attractive industry fundamentals, including the ability to reach a broad audience and drive foot traffic to the point-of-sale, making outdoor a cost-effective medium for advertisers as measured by cost per thousand persons reached compared to other traditional media.  Our International business focuses on the following strategies:
Promote Overall Outdoor Media Spending.  Our strategy is to promote growth in outdoor advertising’s share of total media spending by demonstrating the strength of our medium.  As part of this effort, we are focusing on developing and implementing improved outdoor audience delivery measurement systems to provide advertisers with tools to plan their campaigns and determine how effectively their message is reaching the desired audience.
Differentiate on Sales and Marketing. For over five years, we have spent time and resources building commercial capabilities through a company wide sales force effectiveness program and an upgrade in our sales and marketing talent. These capabilities allow us to build and nurture relationships with our clients and their agencies as well as to offer packages and products that meet our clients’ advertising needs. Going forward, particular areas of focus include pricing, packaging and programmatic selling. Our new proprietary programmatic platform enables marketers to buy digital out of home inventory in audience-based packages, giving them the unique ability to manage their campaigns on a self-service basis.
Capitalize on Product and Geographic Opportunities.  We are also focused on growing our relevance to our advertising customers by continuously optimizing our display portfolio and targeting investments in promising market segments. We have continued to innovate and introduce new products in our markets based on local demand. Our street furniture business generates the largest portion of our revenue and that is where we plan to focus much of our investment. We plan to continue to evaluate municipal contracts that may come up for bid and will make prudent investments where we believe we can generate attractive returns.

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Continue to Deploy Digital Display Networks.  Our digital outdoor displays are a dynamic medium, which enables our customers to engage in real-time, tactical, topical and flexible advertising. We will continue our focused and dedicated digital strategy and remain committed to the development of digital out-of-home communication solutions. Through our digital brand, Clear Channel Play, we are able to offer networks of digital displays in multiple formats and multiple environments including bus shelters, billboards, airports, transit, malls and flagship locations. Part of our long-term strategy is to pursue the diversification of our product offering by introducing novel technologies, such as beacons, small cells, wayfinding stations and provision of wifi in our street furniture network, as additions to traditional methods of displaying our clients’ advertisements. We are currently installing these technologies in a number of our markets. We seek to achieve greater consumer engagement and flexibility by delivering powerful, flexible and interactive campaigns that open up new possibilities for advertisers to engage with their target audiences. We had more than 9,600 digital displays in 15 countries across Europe and Asia as of December 31, 2016.
Sources of Revenue
Our International segment generated 53%, 52% and 54% of our revenue in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.  Our International display inventory consists primarily of street furniture displays, billboards, transit displays and other out-of-home advertising displays. The following table shows the approximate percentage of revenue derived from each inventory category of our International segment:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Street furniture displays
52%
 
52%
 
50%
Billboards
17%
 
19%
 
20%
Transit displays
10%
 
9%
 
10%
Other (1)
21%
 
20%
 
20%
Total
100%
 
100%
 
100%
(1)
Includes advertising revenue from mall displays, other small displays, and non-advertising revenue from sales of street furniture equipment, cleaning and maintenance services, operation of SmartBike programs and production revenue.
Our International segment generates the majority of its revenue from the sale of advertising space on street furniture displays, billboards, retail displays and transit displays. Similar to our Americas business, advertising rates generally are based on the gross ratings points of a display or group of displays. In some of the countries where we have operations, the number of impressions delivered by a display is weighted to account for such factors as illumination, proximity to other displays and the speed and viewing angle of approaching traffic.
While location, price and availability of displays are important competitive factors, we believe that providing quality customer service and establishing strong client relationships are also critical components of sales.  Our entrepreneurial culture allows local management to operate their markets as separate profit centers, encouraging customer cultivation and service.
Street Furniture Displays
Our International street furniture displays, available in printed and digital formats, are substantially similar to their Americas street furniture counterparts, and include bus shelters, freestanding units, various types of kiosks, benches and other public structures.  Internationally, contracts with municipal and transit authorities for the right to place our street furniture in the public domain and sell advertising on such street furniture typically provide for terms ranging from two to 15 years. The major difference between our International and Americas street furniture businesses is in the nature of the municipal contracts.  In our International outdoor business, these contracts typically require us to provide the municipality with a broader range of metropolitan amenities such as bus shelters with or without advertising panels, information kiosks and public wastebaskets, as well as space for the municipality to display maps or other public information.  In exchange for providing such metropolitan amenities and display space, we are authorized to sell advertising space on certain sections of the structures we erect in the public domain.  Our International street furniture is typically sold to clients as network packages of multiple street furniture displays, with contract terms ranging from one to two weeks.  Client contracts are also available for longer terms.

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Billboards
The sizes of our International billboards are not standardized.  The billboards vary in both format and size across our networks, with the majority of our International billboards being similar in size to our posters used in our Americas business.
Our billboard inventory is primarily comprised of premium billboards and classic billboards and is available in printed and digital formats.
Premium. Digital premium billboards typically display static messages that resemble standard printed billboards when viewed, but also allow advertisers to change messages throughout the course of a day, and may display advertisements for multiple customers. Our electronic displays are linked through centralized computer systems to instantaneously and simultaneously change advertising copy as needed. Because of their greater size, impact, high frequency and 24-hour advertising changes, digital premium billboards typically deliver our highest rates. Almost all of the advertising copy displayed on printed premium billboards is digitally-printed and transported to the billboard where it is secured to the display surface. Premium billboards generally are located along major expressways, primary commuting routes and main intersections that are highly visible and heavily trafficked. Our clients may contract for individual billboards or a network of billboards.
Classic. Digital and printed classic billboards are available in a variety of formats across our markets. Similar to digital premium billboards, classic digital billboards typically display static messages that resemble standard printed posters when viewed, and are linked through centralized computer systems to instantaneously and simultaneously change messages throughout the course of a day. Advertising copy for printed classic billboards is digitally printed then transported and secured to the poster surfaces. Classic billboards generally are located in commercial areas on primary and secondary routes near point-of-purchase locations, facilitating advertising campaigns with greater demographic targeting than those displayed on premium billboards. Classic billboards typically deliver lower rates than our premium billboards. Our intent is to combine the creative impact of premium billboards with the additional reach and frequency of classic billboards.
Our billboards are primarily sold to clients as network packages with contract terms typically ranging from one to two weeks. Long-term client contracts are also available and typically have terms of up to one year. We lease the majority of our billboard sites from private landowners, usually for one to ten years.
Retail Displays
Our retail displays are mainly standalone advertising structures in or in close proximity to retail outlets such as malls and supermarkets. The right to place our displays in these locations and to sell advertising space on them generally is awarded by retail outlet operators such as large retailers or mall operators either through private tenders or bilateral negotiations. Upfront investment and ongoing maintenance costs vary across contracts. Contracts with mall operators and retailers have terms ranging from three to ten years. Our client contracts for retail displays, either printed or digital, generally have terms ranging from one week to two weeks.
Transit Displays
Our International transit display contracts are substantially similar to their Americas transit display counterparts. They are advertising surfaces on various types of vehicles or within transit systems, including on the interior and exterior sides of buses, trains, trams and within the common areas of rail stations and airports, and are available in both printed and digital formats. Similar to street furniture, contracts for the right to place our displays on such vehicles or within such transit systems and to sell advertising space on them generally are awarded by public transit authorities in competitive bidding processes or are negotiated with private transit operators. Our transit display contracts often require us to make only a minimal initial investment and few ongoing maintenance expenditures. Contracts with public transit authorities or private transit operators typically have terms ranging from two to five years. Our client contracts for transit displays, either printed or digital, generally have terms ranging from one week to one year, or longer.
Other International Displays and Services
The balance of our revenue from our International segment consists primarily of advertising revenue from other small displays and non-advertising revenue from sales of street furniture equipment, cleaning and maintenance services, and production and creative services revenue.  Our International inventory includes other small displays that are counted as separate displays since they form a substantial part of our network and International outdoor advertising revenue.  We also have a SmartBike bicycle rental program which provides bicycles for rent to the general public in several municipalities.  In exchange for operating these bike rental programs, we generally derive revenue from advertising rights to the bikes, bike stations, additional street furniture

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displays and/or a share of rental income from the local municipalities.  In several of our International markets, we sell equipment or provide cleaning and maintenance services as part of street furniture contracts with municipalities.
Advertising Inventory and Markets
As of December 31, 2016, we owned or operated more than 490,000 displays in our International segment, with operations across 19 countries.  Our International display count includes display faces, which may include multiple faces on a single structure, as well as small, individual displays.  As a result, our International display count is not comparable to our Americas display count, which includes only unique displays.  No one property is material to our overall operations.  We believe that our properties are in good condition and suitable for our operations.
Production
The majority of our International clients are advertisers targeting national or regional audiences whose business generally is placed with us through media or advertising agencies. These agencies often provide to our International clients creative services to design and produce the advertising copy, which is delivered to us either in digital format or in the traditional format of physical printed advertisements. For digital advertising campaigns, the digital advertisement is received by our content management system and is then distributed to our digital displays. For traditional advertising campaigns, the printed advertisement - whether in paper or vinyl - is shipped to centralized warehouses operated by us. The copy is then sorted and delivered to sites where it is installed on our displays.
Construction and Operation
The International manufacturing process largely consists of two elements: the manufacture and installation of advertising structures and the weekly preparation of advertising posters for distribution throughout our networks. We outsource the manufacturing of advertising structures to third parties and regularly seek competitive bids. We use a wide range of suppliers located in many of our markets, although much of our inventory is manufactured in China and Turkey. The design of street furniture structures (such as bus shelters, bicycle racks and kiosks) is typically done in conjunction with a third party design or architectural firm and followed by a competitive bidding process to select a manufacturer. Our street furniture sites are posted by our own employees or subcontractors who also clean and maintain the sites. The decision to use our own employees or subcontractors is made on a market-by-market basis taking into consideration the mix of products in the market and local labor costs.
Client Categories
In 2016, the top five client categories in our International segment, based on International revenue derived from these categories, were retail, entertainment, telecommunications, food and food products, and automotive, accessories and equipment.
Competition
The international outdoor advertising industry is competitive, consisting of several large companies involved in outdoor advertising, such as JCDecaux SA and ExterionMedia (UK) Limited, as well as numerous smaller and local companies operating a limited number of displays in a single market or a few local markets.  We also compete with other advertising media in our respective markets, including broadcast and cable television, radio, print media, direct mail, online, mobile and other forms of advertisement.  Outdoor companies compete primarily based on ability to reach consumers, which is driven by location of the display.
Our business requires us to obtain and renew contracts with municipalities and other governmental entities, which frequently require us to participate in competitive bidding processes at each renewal. Many of these contracts typically have terms ranging from two to 15 years and have revenue share, capital expenditure requirements and/or fixed payment components. Competitive bidding processes are complex and sometimes lengthy.  Substantial costs may be incurred in connection with preparing bids for such processes. Our competitors, individually or through relationships with third parties, may be able to provide municipalities with different or greater capabilities or prices or benefits than we can provide. In the past we have not, and most likely in the future will not, be awarded all of the contracts on which we bid. There can be no assurance that we will win any particular bid, or that we will be able to replace any revenues lost upon expiration or completion of a contract. Our inability to renew existing contracts can also result in significant expenses from the removal of our displays. Furthermore, if and when we do obtain a contract, we are generally required to incur significant start-up expenses. The costs of bidding on contracts and the start-up costs associated with new contracts we may obtain may significantly reduce our cash flow and liquidity. The success of our business also depends generally on our ability to obtain and renew contracts with private landlords.
Employees
As of December 31, 2016, we had approximately 1,400 domestic employees and approximately 4,400 international employees, of which approximately 5,100 were in direct operations and 700 were in administrative or corporate related activities.

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Approximately 100 of our employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements in their respective countries. We are a party to numerous collective bargaining agreements, none of which represent a significant number of employees.  We believe that our relationship with our employees is good.
Seasonality
Required information is located within Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Regulation of our Business
The outdoor advertising industry in the United States is subject to governmental regulation at the federal, state and local levels. These regulations may include, among others, restrictions on the construction, repair, maintenance, lighting, upgrading, height, size, spacing and location and permitting of and, in some instances, content of advertising copy being displayed on outdoor advertising structures.  In addition, international regulations have a significant impact on the outdoor advertising industry.  International regulation of the outdoor advertising industry can vary by municipality, region and country, but generally limits the size, placement, nature and density of out-of-home displays. Other regulations may limit the subject matter and language of out-of-home displays.
From time to time, legislation has been introduced in both the United States and foreign jurisdictions attempting to impose taxes on revenue from outdoor advertising or for the right to use outdoor advertising assets. Several jurisdictions have imposed such taxes as a percentage of our outdoor advertising revenue generated in that jurisdiction.  In addition, some jurisdictions have taxed our personal property and leasehold interests in advertising locations using various valuation methodologies.  We expect U.S. and foreign jurisdictions to continue to try to impose such taxes as a way of increasing revenue.  In recent years, outdoor advertising also has become the subject of targeted taxes and fees.  These laws may affect prevailing competitive conditions in our markets in a variety of ways.  Such laws may reduce our expansion opportunities or may increase or reduce competitive pressure from other members of the outdoor advertising industry.  No assurance can be given that existing or future laws or regulations, and the enforcement thereof, will not materially and adversely affect the outdoor advertising industry.  However, we contest laws and regulations that we believe unlawfully restrict our constitutional or other legal rights and may adversely impact the growth of our outdoor advertising business.
In the United States, federal law, principally the Highway Beautification Act (“HBA”), regulates outdoor advertising on Federal-Aid Primary, Interstate and National Highway Systems roads within the United States (“controlled roads”). The HBA regulates the size and placement of billboards, requires the development of state standards, mandates a state’s compliance program, promotes the expeditious removal of illegal signs and requires just compensation for takings.
To satisfy the HBA’s requirements, all states have passed billboard control statutes and regulations that regulate, among other things, construction, repair, maintenance, lighting, height, size, spacing and the placement and permitting of outdoor advertising structures.  We are not aware of any state that has passed control statutes and regulations less restrictive than the prevailing federal requirements on the federal highway system, including the requirement that an owner remove any non-grandfathered, non-compliant signs along the controlled roads, at the owner’s expense and without compensation.  Local governments generally also include billboard control as part of their zoning laws and building codes regulating those items described above and include similar provisions regarding the removal of non-grandfathered structures that do not comply with certain of the local requirements.  Some local governments have initiated code enforcement and permit reviews of billboards within their jurisdiction. In some instances we have had to remove billboards as a result of such reviews.
As part of their billboard control laws, state and local governments regulate the construction of new signs.  Some jurisdictions prohibit new construction, some jurisdictions allow new construction only to replace or relocate existing structures and some jurisdictions allow new construction subject to the various restrictions discussed above.  In certain jurisdictions, restrictive regulations also limit our ability to relocate, rebuild, repair, maintain, upgrade, modify or replace existing legal non-conforming billboards.
U.S. federal law neither requires nor prohibits the removal of existing lawful billboards, but it does mandate the payment of compensation if a state or political subdivision compels the removal of a lawful billboard along the controlled roads.  In the past, state governments have purchased and removed existing lawful billboards for beautification purposes using federal funding for transportation enhancement programs, and these jurisdictions may continue to do so in the future. From time to time, state and local government authorities use the power of eminent domain and amortization to remove billboards.  Amortization is the required removal of legal non-conforming billboards (billboards which conformed with applicable laws and regulations when built, but which do not conform to current laws and regulations) or the commercial advertising placed on such billboards after a period of years. Pursuant to this concept, the governmental body asserts that just compensation is earned by continued operation of the billboard over that period of time. Although amortization is prohibited along all controlled roads, amortization has been upheld

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along non-controlled roads in limited instances where permitted by state and local law. Thus far, we have been able to obtain satisfactory compensation for, or relocation of, our billboards purchased or removed as a result of these types of governmental action, although there is no assurance that this will continue to be the case in the future.
We have introduced and intend to expand the deployment of digital billboards that display static digital advertising copy from various advertisers that change up to several times per minute. We have encountered some existing regulations in the U.S. and across some international jurisdictions that restrict or prohibit these types of digital displays.  However, since digital technology for changing static copy has only recently been developed and introduced into the market on a large scale, and is in the process of being introduced more broadly in our international markets, existing regulations that currently do not apply to digital technology by their terms could be revised to impose greater restrictions. These regulations, or actions by third parties, may impose greater restrictions on digital billboards due to alleged concerns over aesthetics or driver safety.
Available Information
You can find more information about us at our Internet website located at www.clearchanneloutdoor.com. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports are available free of charge through our Internet website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The contents of our website are not deemed to be part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any of our other filings with the SEC.
The SEC maintains an internet website that contains these reports at www.sec.gov. Any materials we file with the SEC may also be read or copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. Information concerning the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at (800) 732-0330.
ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS
Risks Related to Our Business
Our results have been in the past, and could be in the future, adversely affected by economic uncertainty or deteriorations in economic conditions
We derive revenues from the sale of advertising.  Expenditures by advertisers tend to be cyclical, reflecting economic conditions and budgeting and buying patterns.  Periods of a slowing economy or recession, or periods of economic uncertainty, may be accompanied by a decrease in advertising. For example, the global economic downturn that began in 2008 resulted in a decline in advertising and marketing by our customers, which resulted in a decline in advertising revenues across our businesses. This reduction in advertising revenues had an adverse effect on our revenue, profit margins, cash flow and liquidity. Global economic conditions have been slow to recover and remain uncertain.  If economic conditions do not continue to improve, economic uncertainty increases or economic conditions deteriorate again, global economic conditions may once again adversely impact our revenue, profit margins, cash flow and liquidity.  Furthermore, because a significant portion of our revenue is derived from local advertisers, our ability to generate revenues in specific markets is directly affected by local and regional conditions, and unfavorable regional economic conditions also may adversely impact our results.  In addition, even in the absence of a downturn in general economic conditions, an individual business sector or market may experience a downturn, causing it to reduce its advertising expenditures, which also may adversely impact our results.
To service our debt obligations and to fund our operations and our capital expenditures, we require a significant amount of cash to meet our needs, which depends on many factors beyond our control
Our ability to service our debt obligations and to fund our operations and our capital expenditures for display construction, renovation or maintenance requires a significant amount of cash.  Our primary sources of liquidity are cash on hand, cash flow from operations, the revolving promissory note with iHeartCommunications and our senior revolving credit facility.  Based on our current and anticipated levels of operations and conditions in our markets, we believe that cash on hand, cash flow from operations, borrowing capacity under the senior revolving credit facility and borrowing capacity under or repayment of amounts outstanding under the revolving promissory note with iHeartCommunications will enable us to meet our working capital, capital expenditure, debt service and other funding requirements for at least the next twelve months.  However, our ability to fund our working capital, capital expenditures, debt service and other obligations depends on our future operating performance and cash from operations, which are in turn subject to prevailing economic conditions and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. If our future operating performance does not meet our expectations or our plans materially change in an adverse manner or prove to be materially inaccurate, we may need additional financing.  In addition, the purchase price of possible acquisitions, capital expenditures for deployment of digital billboards and/or other strategic initiatives could require additional indebtedness or equity financing on our part.  Adverse securities and credit market conditions could significantly affect the availability of equity or debt financing. Consequently, there can be no assurance that such financing, if permitted under the terms of our financing

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agreements, will be available on terms acceptable to us or at all. The inability to obtain additional financing in such circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and on our ability to meet our obligations or pursue strategic initiatives. Additional indebtedness could increase our leverage and make us more vulnerable to economic downturns and may limit our ability to withstand competitive pressures.
We face intense competition in the outdoor advertising business
We operate in a highly competitive industry, and we may not be able to maintain or increase our current advertising revenues.  We compete for advertising revenue with other outdoor advertising businesses, as well as with other media, such as radio, newspapers, magazines, television, direct mail, mobile devices, satellite radio and Internet-based services, within their respective markets.  Market shares are subject to change for various reasons including through consolidation of our competitors through processes such as mergers and acquisitions, which could have the effect of reducing our revenue in a specific market.  Our competitors may develop technology, services or advertising media that are equal or superior to those we provide or that achieve greater market acceptance and brand recognition than we achieve.  It also is possible that new competitors may emerge and rapidly acquire significant market share in any of our business segments.  An increased level of competition for advertising dollars may lead to lower advertising rates as we attempt to retain customers or may cause us to lose customers to our competitors who offer lower rates that we are unable or unwilling to match.
Our business is dependent on our management team and other key individuals
Our business is dependent upon the performance of our management team and other key individuals.  Although we have entered into agreements with some members of our management team and certain other key individuals, we can give no assurance that all or any of our management team and other key individuals will remain with us, or that we won’t continue to make changes to the composition of, and the roles and responsibilities of, our management team. Competition for these individuals is intense and many of our key employees are at-will employees who are under no legal obligation to remain with us, and may decide to leave for a variety of personal or other reasons beyond our control. If members of our management or key individuals decide to leave us in the future, if we decide to make further changes to the composition of, or the roles and responsibilities of, these individuals, or if we are not successful in attracting, motivating and retaining other key employees, our business could be adversely affected.
The success of our street furniture and transit products businesses is dependent on our obtaining key municipal concessions, which we may not be able to obtain on favorable terms
Our street furniture and transit products businesses require us to obtain and renew contracts with municipalities and transit authorities. Many of these contracts, which require us to participate in competitive bidding processes at each renewal, typically have terms ranging from 2 to 15 years and have revenue share, capital expenditure requirements and/or fixed payment components. Competitive bidding processes are complex and sometimes lengthy and substantial costs may be incurred in connection with preparing bids.
Our competitors, individually or through relationships with third parties, may be able to provide different or greater capabilities or prices or benefits than we can provide. In the past we have not been, and most likely in the future will not be, awarded all of the contracts on which we bid. The success of our business also depends generally on our ability to obtain and renew contracts with private landlords. There can be no assurance that we will win any particular bid, be able to renew existing contracts or be able to replace any revenue lost upon expiration or completion of a contract. Our inability to renew existing contracts may also result in significant expenses from the removal of our displays. Furthermore, if and when we do obtain a contract, we are generally required to incur significant start-up expenses. The costs of bidding on contracts and the start-up costs associated with new contracts we may obtain may significantly reduce our cash flow and liquidity.
This competitive bidding process presents a number of risks, including the following:
we expend substantial cost and managerial time and effort to prepare bids and proposals for contracts that we may not win;
we may be unable to estimate accurately the revenue derived from and the resources and cost structure that will be required to service any contract we win; and
we may encounter expenses and delays if our competitors challenge awards of contracts to us in competitive bidding, and any such challenge could result in the resubmission of bids on modified specifications, or in the termination, reduction or modification of the awarded contract.
Our inability to successfully negotiate, renew or complete these contracts due to third-party or governmental demands and delay and the highly competitive bidding processes for these contracts could affect our ability to offer these products to our

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clients, or to offer them to our clients at rates that are competitive to other forms of advertising, without adversely affecting our financial results.
Our financial performance may be adversely affected by many factors beyond our control
Certain factors that could adversely affect our financial performance by, among other things, decreasing overall revenues, the numbers of advertising customers, advertising fees or profit margins include:
unfavorable fluctuations in operating costs, which we may be unwilling or unable to pass through to our customers;
our inability to successfully adopt or our being late in adopting technological changes and innovations that offer more attractive advertising alternatives than what we offer, which could result in a loss of advertising customers or lower advertising rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial performance;
unfavorable shifts in population and other demographics, which may cause us to lose advertising customers as people migrate to markets where we have a smaller presence or which may cause advertisers to be willing to pay less in advertising fees if the general population shifts into a less desirable age or geographical demographic from an advertising perspective;
adverse political effects and acts or threats of terrorism or military conflicts; and
unfavorable changes in labor conditions, which may impair our ability to operate or require us to spend more to retain and attract key employees.
In addition, on June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom (the "U.K.") held a referendum in which voters approved an exit of the U.K. from the European Union (the "E.U."), commonly referred to as "Brexit". International outdoor is currently headquartered in the U.K. and transacts business in many key European markets. As a result of the referendum, it is expected that the British government will begin negotiating the terms of the U.K.'s withdrawal from the E.U. It is unclear how these negotiations will impact the economies of the U.K., the E.U. and other countries. This uncertainty may cause our customers to closely monitor their costs and reduce the amount they spend on advertising. In addition, the announcement of Brexit caused the British pound's currency rate to weaken against the U.S. dollar. Any of these or similar effects of Brexit could adversely impact our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.
Future dispositions, acquisitions and other strategic transactions could pose risks
We frequently evaluate strategic opportunities both within and outside our existing lines of business. We expect from time to time to pursue strategic dispositions of certain businesses, as well as acquisitions. These dispositions or acquisitions could be material. Our strategy involves numerous risks, including:
our dispositions may negatively impact revenues from our national, regional and other sales networks;
our dispositions may make it difficult to generate cash flows from operations sufficient to meet our anticipated cash requirements, including our debt service requirements;
our acquisitions may prove unprofitable and fail to generate anticipated cash flows;
to successfully manage our large portfolio of outdoor advertising and other businesses, we may need to:
recruit additional senior management as we cannot be assured that senior management of acquired businesses will continue to work for us and we cannot be certain that our recruiting efforts will succeed, and
expand corporate infrastructure to facilitate the integration of our operations with those of acquired businesses, because failure to do so may cause us to lose the benefits of any expansion that we decide to undertake by leading to disruptions in our ongoing businesses or by distracting our management;
we may enter into markets and geographic areas where we have limited or no experience;
we may encounter difficulties in the integration of operations and systems; and
our management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns.
Dispositions and acquisitions of outdoor advertising businesses may require antitrust review by U.S. federal antitrust agencies and may require review by foreign antitrust agencies under the antitrust laws of foreign jurisdictions. We can give no assurances that the DOJ, the FTC or foreign antitrust agencies will not seek to bar us from disposing of or acquiring outdoor advertising businesses or impose stringent undertaking on our business as a condition to the completion of an acquisition in any market where we already have a significant position.
Government regulation of outdoor advertising may restrict our outdoor advertising operations
U.S. federal, state and local regulations have a significant impact on the outdoor advertising industry and our business. One of the seminal laws is the HBA, which regulates outdoor advertising on controlled roads in the United States. The HBA regulates the size and location of billboards, mandates a state compliance program, requires the development of state standards, promotes the expeditious removal of illegal signs and requires just compensation for takings. Construction, repair, maintenance,

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lighting, upgrading, height, size, spacing, the location and permitting of billboards and the use of new technologies for changing displays, such as digital displays, are regulated by federal, state and local governments. From time to time, states and municipalities have prohibited or significantly limited the construction of new outdoor advertising structures.  Changes in laws and regulations affecting outdoor advertising, or changes in the interpretation of those laws and regulations, at any level of government, including the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate, could have a significant financial impact on us by requiring us to make significant expenditures or otherwise limiting or restricting some of our operations. Due to such regulations, it has become increasingly difficult to develop new outdoor advertising locations.
From time to time, certain state and local governments and third parties have attempted to force the removal of our displays under various state and local laws, including zoning ordinances, permit enforcement and condemnation. Similar risks also arise in certain of our international jurisdictions.  Certain zoning ordinances provide for amortization  which is the required removal of legal non-conforming billboards (billboards which conformed with applicable laws and regulations when built, but which do not conform to current laws and regulations) or the commercial advertising placed on such billboards after a period of years. Pursuant to this concept, the governmental body asserts that just compensation is earned by continued operation of the billboard over that period of time. Although amortization is prohibited along all controlled roads, amortization has been upheld along non-controlled roads in limited instances where permitted by state and local law. Other regulations limit our ability to rebuild, replace, repair, maintain and upgrade non-conforming displays. In addition, from time to time third parties or local governments assert that we own or operate displays that either are not properly permitted or otherwise are not in strict compliance with applicable law. If we are increasingly unable to resolve such allegations or obtain acceptable arrangements in circumstances in which our displays are subject to removal, modification or amortization, or if there occurs an increase in such regulations or their enforcement, our operating results could suffer.
A number of state and local governments have implemented or initiated taxes, fees and registration requirements in an effort to decrease or restrict the number of outdoor signs and/or to raise revenue.  From time to time, legislation also has been introduced in international jurisdictions attempting to impose taxes on revenue from outdoor advertising or for the right to use outdoor advertising assets.  In addition, a number of jurisdictions have implemented legislation or interpreted existing legislation to restrict or prohibit the installation of digital billboards, and we expect these efforts to continue. The increased imposition of these measures, and our inability to overcome any such measures, could reduce our operating income if those outcomes require removal or restrictions on the use of preexisting displays or limit growth of digital displays.  In addition, if we are unable to pass on the cost of these items to our clients, our operating income could be adversely affected.
International regulation of the outdoor advertising industry can vary by municipality, region and country, but generally limits the size, placement, nature and density of out-of-home displays. Other regulations limit the subject matter, animation and language of out-of-home displays. Our failure to comply with these or any future international regulations could have an adverse impact on the effectiveness of our displays or their attractiveness to clients as an advertising medium and may require us to make significant expenditures to ensure compliance and avoid certain penalties or contractual breaches. As a result, we may experience a significant impact on our operations, revenue, international client base and overall financial condition.
Regulations and consumer concerns regarding privacy and data protection, or any failure to comply with these regulations, could hinder our operations
We collect and utilize demographic and other information, including personally identifiable information, from and about our consumers, business partners and advertisers.  We are subject to numerous federal, state and foreign laws and regulations relating to consumer protection, information security, data protection and privacy, among other things.  Many of these laws are still evolving, new laws may be enacted and any of these laws could be amended or interpreted in ways that could harm our business.  In addition, changes in consumer expectations and demands regarding privacy and data protection could restrict our ability to collect, use, disclose and derive economic value from demographic and other information related to our consumers, business partners and advertisers.  Such restrictions could limit our ability to offer targeted advertising opportunities to our business partners and advertisers.  Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to comply with these laws and regulations, any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our policies or applicable regulatory requirements related to consumer protection, information security, data protection and privacy could result in a loss of confidence in us, damage to our brands, the loss of consumers, business partners and advertisers, as well as proceedings against us by governmental authorities or others, which could hinder our operations and adversely affect our business.
If our security measures are breached, we could lose valuable information, suffer disruptions to our business, and incur expenses and liabilities including damages to our relationships with business partners and advertisers
Although we have implemented physical and electronic security measures that are designed to protect against the loss, misuse and alteration of our websites, digital assets and proprietary business information as well as, consumer, business partner and advertiser personally identifiable information, no security measures are perfect and impenetrable and we may be unable to

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anticipate or prevent unauthorized access.  A security breach could occur due to the actions of outside parties, employee error, malfeasance or a combination of these or other actions.  If an actual or perceived breach of our security occurs, we could lose competitively sensitive business information or suffer disruptions to our business operations, information processes or internal controls.  In addition, the public perception of the effectiveness of our security measures or services could be harmed; we could lose consumers, business partners and advertisers.  In the event of a security breach, we could suffer financial exposure in connection with penalties, remediation efforts, investigations and legal proceedings and changes in our security and system protection measures. Currently, not all of our systems are fully compliant with PCI-DSS standards and, as a result, we may face additional liability in the event of a security breach involving payment card information.
Restrictions on outdoor advertising of certain products may restrict the categories of clients that can advertise using our products
Out-of-court settlements between the major U.S. tobacco companies and all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories include a ban on the outdoor advertising of tobacco products.  Other products and services may be targeted in the U.S. in the future, including alcohol products.  Most European Union countries, among other nations, also have banned outdoor advertisements for tobacco products and regulate alcohol advertising.  Regulations vary across the countries in which we conduct business.  Any significant reduction in advertising of products due to content-related restrictions could cause a reduction in our direct revenues from such advertisements and an increase in the available space on the existing inventory of billboards in the outdoor advertising industry.
Environmental, health, safety and land use laws and regulations may limit or restrict some of our operations
As the owner or operator of various real properties and facilities, we must comply with various foreign, federal, state and local environmental, health, safety and land use laws and regulations. We and our properties are subject to such laws and regulations relating to the use, storage, disposal, emission and release of hazardous and non-hazardous substances and employee health and safety as well as zoning restrictions. Historically, we have not incurred significant expenditures to comply with these laws. However, additional laws which may be passed in the future, or a finding of a violation of or liability under existing laws, could require us to make significant expenditures and otherwise limit or restrict some of our operations.
We are exposed to foreign currency exchange risks because a portion of our revenue is received in foreign currencies and translated to U.S. dollars for reporting purposes
We generate a portion of our revenues in currencies other than U.S. dollars. Changes in economic or political conditions, including Brexit, in any of the foreign countries in which we operate could result in exchange rate movement, new currency or exchange controls or other currency restrictions being imposed. Because we receive a portion of our revenues in currencies from the countries in which we operate, exchange rate fluctuations in any such currency could have an adverse effect on our profitability. A portion of our cash flows are generated in foreign currencies and translated to U.S. dollars for reporting purposes, and certain of the indebtedness held by our international subsidiaries is denominated in U.S. dollars, and, therefore, significant changes in the value of such foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and our ability to meet interest and principal payments on our indebtedness.
Given the volatility of exchange rates, we cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively manage our currency transaction and/or translation risks. It is possible that volatility in currency exchange rates will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. We expect to experience economic losses and gains and negative and positive impacts on our operating income as a result of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.
Doing business in foreign countries exposes us to certain risks not expected to occur when doing business in the United States
Doing business in foreign countries carries with it certain risks that are not found when doing business in the United States.  These risks could result in losses against which we are not insured.  Examples of these risks include:
potential adverse changes in the diplomatic relations of foreign countries with the United States;
hostility from local populations;
the adverse effect of foreign exchange controls
government policies against businesses owned by foreigners;
investment restrictions or requirements;
expropriations of property without adequate compensation;
the potential instability of foreign governments;
the risk of insurrections;
risks of renegotiation or modification of existing agreements with governmental authorities;
difficulties collecting receivables and otherwise enforcing contracts with governmental agencies and others in some foreign legal systems;
withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by subsidiaries;

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changes in tax structure and level; and
changes in laws or regulations or the interpretation or application of laws or regulations.
Our International operations involve contracts with, and regulation by, foreign governments.  We operate in many parts of the world that experience corruption to some degree.  Although we have policies and procedures in place that are designed to promote legal and regulatory compliance (including with respect to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act), our employees, subcontractors and agents could take actions that violate applicable anticorruption laws or regulations.  Violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Relationship with iHeartCommunications
Because iHeartCommunications controls substantially all of the total voting power of our common stock, investors will not be able to affect the outcome of any stockholder vote
As of December 31, 2016, iHeartCommunications indirectly owned (1) all of our outstanding shares of Class B common stock and (2) 10,726,917 shares of our Class A common stock, collectively representing approximately 89.9% of the outstanding shares of our common stock.  Each share of our Class B common stock entitles its holder to 20 votes and each share of our Class A common stock entitles its holder to one vote on all matters on which stockholders are entitled to vote.  As a result, as of December 31, 2016, iHeartCommunications controlled approximately 99% of the total voting power of our common stock.
As long as iHeartCommunications continues to own shares of our common stock representing more than 50% of the total voting power of our common stock, it will have the ability to direct the election of all members of our board of directors and, therefore, to exercise a controlling influence over our business and affairs, including any determinations with respect to mergers or other business combinations, our acquisition or disposition of assets, our incurrence of indebtedness, our issuance of any additional common stock or other equity securities, our repurchase or redemption of common stock or preferred stock, if applicable, and our payment of dividends in certain situations.  Similarly, iHeartCommunications will have the power to determine the outcome of matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including the power to prevent an acquisition or any other change in control.  Because iHeartCommunications’ interests as our controlling stockholder may differ from other stockholders’ interests, actions taken by iHeartCommunications with respect to us may not be favorable to all stockholders.
Our agreements with iHeartCommunications impose obligations on, and iHeartCommunications’ financing agreements effectively impose restrictions on, our ability to finance operations and capital needs, make acquisitions and engage in other business activities
We have entered into a Master Agreement, a Corporate Services Agreement, an Employee Matters Agreement, a Tax Matters Agreement, a Trademark License Agreement and a number of other agreements with iHeartCommunications setting forth various matters governing our relationship with iHeartCommunications while it remains a significant stockholder in us.  These agreements allow iHeartCommunications to retain control over many aspects of our operations.  We are not able to terminate these agreements or amend them in a manner we deem more favorable so long as iHeartCommunications continues to own shares of our common stock representing more than 50% of the total voting power of our common stock.  iHeartCommunications’ financing agreements also impose a number of restrictions on us.
Pursuant to the Corporate Services Agreement, we are obligated to use various corporate services provided by iHeartCommunications and its affiliates, including treasury, payroll and other financial services, certain executive officer services, human resources and employee benefit services, legal services, information systems and network services and procurement and sourcing support.  Also pursuant to the Corporate Services Agreement, substantially all of the cash generated from our domestic Americas operations is transferred daily into accounts of iHeartCommunications (after satisfying our controlled disbursement accounts and the funding requirements of the trustee accounts under the senior notes and the senior subordinated notes issued by Clear Channel Worldwide Holdings, Inc., an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of ours), where funds of ours and of iHeartCommunications are commingled, and recorded as “Due from/to iHeartCommunications” on the consolidated balance sheet.  Net amounts owed between us and iHeartCommunications are evidenced by revolving promissory notes.  We do not have any material committed external sources of capital independent from iHeartCommunications, and iHeartCommunications is not required to provide us with funds to finance our working capital or other cash requirements. In addition, we have no access to the cash transferred from us to iHeartCommunications other than our right to demand payment by iHeartCommunications of the amounts owed to us under the revolving promissory note. 
The “Due from iHeartCommunications” note previously was the subject of derivative litigation filed by our stockholders in the Delaware Court of Chancery.  Pursuant to the terms of the settlement, our board of directors established a committee for the specific purpose of monitoring the Due from iHeartCommunications note.  That committee has the non-exclusive authority to demand payments under the Due from iHeartCommunications note under certain specified circumstances tied to

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iHeartCommunications’ liquidity or the amount outstanding under the Due from iHeartCommunications note as long as our board of directors declares a simultaneous dividend equal to the amount so demanded.  Any future repayments and simultaneous dividends would further reduce the amount of the Due from iHeartCommunications note asset that is available to us as a source of liquidity for ongoing working capital, capital expenditure, debt service, special dividend and other funding requirements.
If iHeartCommunications were to become insolvent, we would be an unsecured creditor of iHeartCommunications.  In such event, we would be treated the same as other unsecured creditors of iHeartCommunications and, if we were not repaid or otherwise entitled to the full amounts outstanding under such note, or could not obtain such amounts on a timely basis, we could experience a liquidity shortfall.  At December 31, 2016 and 2015, the asset recorded in “Due from iHeartCommunications” on the consolidated balance sheet was $885.7 million and $930.8 million, respectively. 
In addition, the Master Agreement and, in some cases, iHeartCommunications’ financing agreements, include restrictive covenants that, among other things, restrict our ability to:
issue any shares of capital stock or securities convertible into capital stock;
incur additional indebtedness;
make certain acquisitions and investments;
repurchase our stock;
dispose of certain assets; and
merge or consolidate.
The rights of iHeartCommunications under these agreements may allow iHeartCommunications to delay or prevent an acquisition of us that our other stockholders may consider favorable.  In addition, the restrictions contained in these agreements limit our ability to finance operations and capital needs, make acquisitions or engage in other business activities, including our ability to grow and increase our revenue or respond to competitive changes.
The terms of our arrangements with iHeartCommunications may be more or less favorable than we would be able to obtain from an unaffiliated third party, and we may be unable to replace the services iHeartCommunications provides us in a timely manner or on comparable terms
We negotiated our arrangements with iHeartCommunications in the context of a parent-subsidiary relationship prior to the initial public offering of our Class A common stock.  Although iHeartCommunications is contractually obligated to provide us with services during the term of the Corporate Services Agreement, we cannot assure you these services will be sustained at an appropriate level, or that we will be able to replace these services in a timely manner or on comparable terms.  In addition, we cannot provide assurance that the amount we pay iHeartCommunications for the services will be as favorable to us as that which may be available for comparable services provided by unrelated third parties.  Other agreements with iHeartCommunications also govern our relationship with iHeartCommunications and provide for the allocation of employee benefit, tax and other liabilities and obligations attributable to our operations.  The agreements also contain terms and provisions that may be more favorable than terms and provisions we might have obtained in arm’s length negotiations with unaffiliated third parties.  If iHeartCommunications ceases to provide services to us pursuant to those agreements, our costs of procuring those services from third parties may increase.
Conflicts of interest may arise between iHeartCommunications and us that could be resolved in a manner unfavorable to us
Questions relating to conflicts of interest may arise between iHeartCommunications and us in a number of areas relating to our past and ongoing relationships.  iHeartCommunications is owned indirectly by iHeartMedia. Two of our directors serve as directors of iHeartMedia. Three of our other directors are affiliated with iHeartMedia and its stockholders.  In addition, five of our executive officers serve as executive officers of iHeartMedia, including our CEO who also serves as the CEO of iHeartCommunications.
Areas in which conflicts of interest between iHeartCommunications and us could arise include, but are not limited to, the following:
Cross officerships, directorships and stock ownership.  The ownership interests of our directors or executive officers in the common stock of iHeartMedia or service as a director or officer of both iHeartMedia and us could create, or appear to create, conflicts of interest when directors and executive officers are faced with decisions that could have different implications for the two companies.  For example, these decisions could relate to: (1) the nature, quality and cost of services rendered to us by iHeartCommunications; (2) disagreement over the desirability of a potential acquisition opportunity; (3) employee retention or recruiting; or (4) our capital structure, including our level of indebtedness and our dividend policy.
Intercompany transactions.  From time to time, iHeartCommunications or its affiliates may enter into transactions with us or our subsidiaries or other affiliates.  Although the terms of any such transactions will be established based

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upon negotiations between employees of iHeartCommunications and us and, when appropriate, subject to the approval of the independent directors on our board or a committee of disinterested directors, there can be no assurance the terms of any such transactions will be as favorable to us or our subsidiaries or affiliates as may otherwise be obtained in arm’s length negotiations.
Intercompany agreements. We have entered into certain agreements with iHeartCommunications pursuant to which it provides us certain management, administrative, accounting, tax, legal and other services, for which we reimburse iHeartCommunications on a cost basis.  In addition, we entered into a number of intercompany agreements covering matters such as tax sharing and our responsibility for certain liabilities previously undertaken by iHeartCommunications for certain of our businesses.  Pursuant to the Corporate Services Agreement between iHeartCommunications and us, we are contractually obligated to utilize the services of certain executive officers of iHeartCommunications as our executive officers until iHeartCommunications owns shares of our common stock representing less than 50% of the total voting power of our common stock, or we provide iHeartCommunications with six months prior written notice of termination.  The terms of these agreements were established while we were a wholly owned subsidiary of iHeartCommunications and were not the result of arm’s length negotiations.  In addition, conflicts could arise in the interpretation or any extension or renegotiation of these existing agreements.
Intercompany financing. iHeartCommunications may request and may exert pressure on us to engage in transactions for the purpose of supporting its liquidity needs, such as financings or asset sales, which may negatively affect our business operations, cash flows or capital structure.  In its Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 23, 2017, iHeartCommunications stated its forecast of future cash flows indicates that such cash flows would not be sufficient for it to meet its obligations, including payment of the outstanding receivables based credit facility balance at maturity on December 24, 2017, as they become due in the ordinary course of business for a period of at least 12 months following February 23, 2017. While iHeartCommunications stated that it believes that the refinancing or the extension of the maturity date of the receivables based credit facility, combined with current funds and expected future cash flows, will be sufficient to enable it to meet its obligations as they become due in the ordinary course of business for a period of at least 12 months, there is no assurance that the receivables based credit facility will be extended in a timely manner or on acceptable terms, or at all.
If iHeartCommunications engages in the same type of business we conduct or takes advantage of business opportunities that might be attractive to us, our ability to successfully operate and expand our business may be hampered
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, subject to any contractual provision to the contrary, iHeartCommunications will have no obligation to refrain from:
engaging in the same or similar business activities or lines of business as us; or
doing business with any of our clients, customers or vendors.
In addition, the corporate opportunity policy set forth in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation addresses potential conflicts of interest between our company, on the one hand, and iHeartCommunications or iHeartMedia and its officers and directors who are officers or directors of our company, on the other hand.  The policy provides that if iHeartCommunications or iHeartMedia acquires knowledge of a potential transaction or matter which may be a corporate opportunity for both iHeartCommunications and us, we will have renounced our interest in the corporate opportunity.  It also provides that if one of our directors or officers who is also a director or officer of iHeartCommunications or iHeartMedia learns of a potential transaction or matter that may be a corporate opportunity for both iHeartCommunications and us, (1) we will have renounced our interest in the corporate opportunity, unless that opportunity is expressly offered to that person in writing solely in his or her capacity as our director or officer, and (2) the director or officer will have no duty to communicate or present that corporate opportunity to us and will not be liable to us or our stockholders for breach of fiduciary duty by reason of iHeartCommunications’ actions with respect to that corporate opportunity.
This policy could result in iHeartCommunications having rights to corporate opportunities in which both we and iHeartCommunications have an interest.
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) rules and, as a result, qualify for, and intend to rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that may not provide as many protections as those afforded to stockholders of other companies
iHeartCommunications owns shares of our common stock representing more than 50% of the total voting power of our common stock and, as a result, we have elected to be treated as a “controlled company” under the NYSE corporate governance standards.  As a controlled company, we are exempt from the provisions of the NYSE’s corporate governance standards requiring that: (1) a majority of our board consists of independent directors; (2) we have a nominating and governance committee composed entirely of independent directors and governed by a written charter addressing the nominating and governance committee’s purpose

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and responsibilities; and (3) we have a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the compensation committee’s purpose and responsibilities.  Although we currently have a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the compensation committee’s purpose and responsibilities, we currently do not have a nominating and governance committee and a majority of our board of directors currently does not consist of independent directors.  We intend to continue using certain of these exemptions and, as a result: (1) we may not create or maintain a nominating and governance committee; (2) the nominating and governance committee (if one is created) and the compensation committee may not consist entirely of independent directors; and (3) our board of directors may not consist of a majority of independent directors.  Accordingly, you may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the NYSE corporate governance requirements.
We do not have control over our tax decisions and could be liable for income taxes owed by iHeartCommunications
As long as iHeartCommunications continues to own shares of our common stock representing at least 80% of the total voting power and value of our common stock, we and certain of our subsidiaries will be included in iHeartCommunications’ consolidated group for U.S. federal income tax purposes for all pre-merger periods and iHeartMedia’s consolidated group for post-merger periods.  In addition, we or one or more of our subsidiaries may be included in the combined, consolidated or unitary tax returns of iHeartCommunications for pre-merger periods and iHeartMedia for post-merger periods or one or more of its subsidiaries for foreign, state and local income tax purposes.  Under the Tax Matters Agreement, we pay to iHeartCommunications the amount of federal, foreign, state and local income taxes that we would be required to pay to the relevant taxing authorities if we and our subsidiaries filed combined, consolidated or unitary tax returns and were not included in the combined, consolidated or unitary tax returns of iHeartCommunications or its subsidiaries.  In addition, by virtue of its controlling ownership and the Tax Matters Agreement, iHeartCommunications effectively controls all of our tax decisions.  The Tax Matters Agreement provides that iHeartCommunications has the sole authority to respond to and conduct all tax proceedings (including tax audits) relating to us, to file all income tax returns on our behalf and to determine the amount of our liability to (or entitlement to payment from) iHeartCommunications under the Tax Matters Agreement.  This arrangement may result in conflicts of interest between iHeartCommunications and us.  For example, under the Tax Matters Agreement, iHeartCommunications is able to choose to contest, compromise, or settle any adjustment or deficiency proposed by the relevant taxing authority in a manner that may be beneficial to iHeartCommunications and detrimental to us.
Moreover, notwithstanding the Tax Matters Agreement, federal law provides that each member of a consolidated group is liable for the group’s entire tax obligation.  Thus, to the extent iHeartCommunications or other members of the group fail to make any United States federal income tax payments required by law, we would be liable for the shortfall.  Similar principles may apply for foreign, state and local income tax purposes where we file combined, consolidated or unitary returns with iHeartCommunications or its subsidiaries for federal, foreign, state and local income tax purposes.
If iHeartCommunications spins off our Class B common stock to the iHeartMedia stockholders, we have agreed in the Tax Matters Agreement to indemnify iHeartCommunications for its tax-related liabilities in certain circumstances
If iHeartCommunications spins off our Class B common stock to the iHeartMedia’s stockholders in a distribution intended to be tax-free under Section 355 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to herein as the Code, we have agreed in the Tax Matters Agreement to indemnify iHeartCommunications and its affiliates against any and all tax-related liabilities if such a spin-off fails to qualify as a tax-free distribution (including as a result of Section 355(e) of the Code) due to actions, events or transactions relating to our stock, assets or business, or a breach of the relevant representations or covenants made by us in the Tax Matters Agreement.  If neither we nor iHeartCommunications is responsible under the Tax Matters Agreement for any such spin-off not being tax-free under Section 355 of the Code, we and iHeartCommunications have agreed to each be responsible for 50% of the tax-related liabilities arising from the failure of such a spin-off to so qualify.
Risks Related to Our Class A Common Stock
Our stock ownership by iHeartCommunications, provisions in our agreements with iHeartCommunications and our corporate governance documents and Delaware law may delay or prevent an acquisition of us that our other stockholders may consider favorable, which could decrease the value of your shares of Class A common stock
As long as iHeartCommunications continues to own shares of our common stock representing more than 50% of the total voting power of our common stock, it will have the ability to control decisions regarding an acquisition of us by a third party.  As a controlled company, we are exempt from some of the corporate governance requirements of the NYSE, including the requirement that our board of directors consist of a majority of independent directors.  In addition, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, bylaws and Delaware law contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us without the consent of our board of directors.  These provisions include restrictions on the ability of our stockholders to remove directors, supermajority voting requirements for stockholders to amend our organizational documents, restrictions on a classified board of directors and limitations on action by our stockholders by written consent.  Some of these provisions, such as the limitation on

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stockholder action by written consent, only become effective once iHeartCommunications no longer controls us.  In addition, our board of directors has the right to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval, which could be used to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer.  Delaware law also imposes certain restrictions on mergers and other business combinations between us and any holder of 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock.  These restrictions under Delaware law do not apply to iHeartCommunications while it retains at least 15% or more of our Class B common stock.  Although we believe these provisions protect our stockholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics and thereby provide for an opportunity to receive a higher bid by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our board of directors, these provisions apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some stockholders.
If iHeartCommunications spins off our Class B common stock to the iHeartMedia stockholders and such shares do not convert into Class A common stock upon a sale or other transfer subsequent to such distribution, the voting rights of our Class A common stock will continue to be disproportionately lower than the voting rights of our Class B common stock
In connection with any distribution of shares of our Class B common stock to iHeartMedia’s common stockholders in a spin-off, iHeartCommunications may elect in its sole discretion whether our Class B common stock so distributed will automatically convert into shares of Class A common stock upon a transfer or sale by the recipient subsequent to the spin-off or whether the Class B common stock will continue as Class B common stock after the distribution.  In the event the Class B common stock does not convert into Class A common stock upon a sale or transfer subsequent to a spin-off, the voting rights of Class A common stock will continue to be disproportionately lower than the voting rights of our Class B common stock.  Therefore, the holders of our Class B common stock will continue to be able to direct the election of all the members of our board of directors and exercise a controlling influence over our business and affairs.
An increase in the concentration of our stock ownership by iHeartCommunications could depress the market price for shares of our Class A common stock
As a result of the significant concentration of our stock ownership, we have a relatively small public float compared to the number of our shares outstanding, which may adversely affect the trading price for our Class A common stock because investors may perceive disadvantages in owning stock in companies with controlling stockholders.  On August 9, 2010, iHeartCommunications, our indirect parent entity, announced a stock purchase program under which iHeartCommunications or its subsidiaries may purchase up to an aggregate of $100 million of our Class A common stock and/or the Class A common stock of iHeartMedia.  During 2011, 2014 and 2015, a subsidiary of iHeartCommunications purchased 10,726,917 shares of our Class A common stock. The stock purchase program concluded in 2015; however, future stock purchases would result in additional concentration of our stock ownership and further reduce our public float.  As of December 31, 2016, iHeartCommunications, through its subsidiaries, held approximately 89.9% of our outstanding shares of common stock.
Future sales or distributions of our shares by iHeartCommunications could depress the market price for shares of our Class A common stock
iHeartCommunications is not subject to any contractual obligation that would prohibit it from selling, spinning off, splitting off or otherwise disposing of any shares of our common stock and it has a contractual right, pursuant to demand registration rights described in the Registration Rights Agreement between us and iHeartCommunications, to distribute its shares of our common stock to iHeartMedia stockholders. iHeartCommunications may sell all or part of the shares of our common stock it owns or distribute those shares to the iHeartMedia stockholders. Accordingly, we cannot assure you iHeartCommunications will maintain its ownership of our common stock. Sales or distributions by iHeartCommunications of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market or to the iHeartMedia stockholders could adversely affect prevailing market prices for our Class A common stock.
We currently do not pay regularly-scheduled dividends on our Class A common stock
We paid a special dividend on March 15, 2012, a special dividend on November 8, 2013 in connection with the settlement of litigation, a special dividend on August 11, 2014, a special dividend on January 7, 2016, a special dividend on February 4, 2016 and a special dividend on February 23, 2017.  We do not pay regularly-scheduled dividends and are subject to restrictions on our ability to pay dividends should we seek to do so in the future.  We are a holding company with no independent operations and no significant assets other than the stock of our subsidiaries.  We, therefore, are dependent upon the receipt of dividends or other distributions from our subsidiaries to pay dividends.  In addition, Clear Channel Worldwide Holdings, Inc.’s (“CCWH”) senior notes and CCWH’s senior subordinated notes contain restrictions on our ability to pay dividends.  If we elect not to pay dividends in the future or are prevented from doing so, the price of our Class A common stock must appreciate in order to realize a gain on your investment.  This appreciation may not occur.

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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful
We have a substantial amount of indebtedness.  At December 31, 2016, we had $5.1 billion of total indebtedness outstanding, including: (1) $2.7 billion aggregate principal amount of CCWH’s senior notes, net of unamortized discounts of $4.9 million, which mature in November 2022; (2) $2.2 billion aggregate principal amount of CCWH’s senior subordinated notes, which mature in March 2020; (3) $223.2 million aggregate principal amount outstanding of international subsidiary senior notes, net of unamortized discounts of $1.8 million, which mature in December 2020; and (4) $14.8 million of other debt. This large amount of indebtedness could have negative consequences for us, including, without limitation:
requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow to the payment of principal and interest on indebtedness, thereby reducing cash available for other purposes, including to fund operations and capital expenditures, invest in new technology and pursue other business opportunities;
limiting our liquidity and operational flexibility and limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes;
limiting our ability to adjust to changing economic, business and competitive conditions;
requiring us to defer planned capital expenditures, reduce discretionary spending, sell assets, restructure existing indebtedness or defer acquisitions or other strategic opportunities;
limiting our ability to refinance any of the indebtedness or increasing the cost of any such financing;
making us more vulnerable to an increase in interest rates, a downturn in our operating performance, a decline in general economic or industry conditions or a disruption in the credit markets; and
making us more susceptible to negative changes in credit ratings, which could impact our ability to obtain financing in the future and increase the cost of such financing.
If compliance with the debt obligations materially hinders our ability to operate our business and adapt to changing industry conditions, we may lose market share, our revenue may decline and our operating results may suffer.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We may not be able to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets or operations, seek additional capital or refinance our indebtedness.  We may not be able to take any of these actions, and these actions may not be successful or permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations.  Furthermore, these actions may not be permitted under the terms of our existing or future debt agreements.
Our ability to refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and increase our debt service obligations and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. The terms of existing or future debt instruments may restrict us from adopting some of these alternatives. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. If we cannot make scheduled payments on our indebtedness we will be in default under one or more of our debt agreements and, as a result we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.
Because we derive all of our operating income from our subsidiaries, our ability to repay our debt depends upon the performance of our subsidiaries and their ability to dividend or distribute funds to us
We derive all of our operating income from our subsidiaries. As a result, our cash flow and the ability to service our indebtedness depend on the performance of our subsidiaries and the ability of those entities to distribute funds to us. We cannot assure you that our subsidiaries will be able to, or be permitted to, pay to us the amounts necessary to service our debt.
The documents governing our indebtedness and iHeartCommunications’ indebtedness contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business
Our material financing agreements and iHeartCommunications’ material financing agreements contain various covenants restricting, among other things, our ability to:
make acquisitions or investments;
make loans or otherwise extend credit to others;
incur indebtedness or issue shares or guarantees;

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redeem, repurchase or retire our subordinated debt;
create liens;
enter into transactions with affiliates;
sell, lease, transfer or dispose of assets;
merge or consolidate with other companies; and
make a substantial change to the general nature of our business.
These restrictions could affect our ability to operate our business and may limit our ability to react to market conditions or take advantage of potential business opportunities as they arise.  For example, such restrictions could adversely affect our ability to finance our operations, make strategic acquisitions, investments or alliances, restructure our organization or finance our capital needs.  Additionally, our ability to comply with these covenants and restrictions may be affected by events beyond our control.  These include prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions.  If we breach any of these covenants or restrictions, we could be in default under the agreements governing our indebtedness and, as a result, we would be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.
Downgrades in our and iHeartCommunications’ credit ratings may adversely affect our borrowing costs, limit our financing options, reduce our flexibility under future financings and adversely affect our liquidity, and also may adversely impact our business operations
Our and iHeartCommunications’ corporate credit ratings are speculative-grade. Our and iHeartCommunications' corporate credit ratings and ratings outlook are subject to review by rating agencies from time to time and, on various occasions, have been downgraded. In the future, our or iHeartCommunications' corporate credit rating and rating outlook could be further downgraded. Any further reductions in our and iHeartCommunications’ credit ratings could increase our borrowing costs, reduce the availability of financing to us or increase the cost of doing business or otherwise negatively impact our business operations.
Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a safe harbor for forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf.  This report contains various forward-looking statements which represent our expectations or beliefs concerning future events, including, without limitation, our future operating and financial performance, our ability to comply with the covenants in the agreements governing our indebtedness and the availability of capital and the terms thereof.  Statements expressing expectations and projections with respect to future matters are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.  We caution that these forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties and are subject to many variables which could impact our future performance.  These statements are made on the basis of management’s views and assumptions, as of the time the statements are made, regarding future events and performance.  There can be no assurance, however, that management’s expectations will necessarily come to pass.  Actual future events and performance may differ materially from the expectations reflected in our forward-looking statements.  We do not intend, nor do we undertake any duty, to update any forward-looking statements.
A wide range of factors could materially affect future developments and performance, including but not limited to:
risks associated with weak or uncertain global economic conditions and their impact on the capital markets, including the effects of Brexit;
other general economic and political conditions in the United States and in other countries in which we currently do business, including those resulting from recessions, political events and acts or threats of terrorism or military conflicts;
industry conditions, including competition;
the level of expenditures on advertising;
legislative or regulatory requirements;
fluctuations in operating costs;
technological changes and innovations;
changes in labor conditions and management;
capital expenditure requirements;
risks of doing business in foreign countries;
fluctuations in exchange rates and currency values;
the outcome of pending and future litigation;
taxes and tax disputes;
changes in interest rates;
shifts in population and other demographics;
access to capital markets and borrowed indebtedness;

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our ability to implement our business strategies;
the risk that we may not be able to integrate the operations of acquired businesses successfully;
the risk that our cost savings initiatives may not be entirely successful or that any cost savings achieved from those initiatives may not persist;
our ability to generate sufficient cash from operations or other liquidity-generating transactions and our need to allocate significant amounts of our cash to make payments on our indebtedness, which in turn could reduce our financial flexibility and ability to fund other activities;
the impact of our substantial indebtedness, including the effect of our leverage on our financial position and earnings;
the risk that our strategic revenue and efficiency initiatives may not be entirely successful or that any cost savings achieved from such strategic revenue and efficiency initiatives may not persist;
our relationship with iHeartCommunications, including its ability to elect all of the members of our board of directors and its ability as our controlling stockholder to determine the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders and certain additional matters governed by intercompany agreements between us;
the impact of the above and similar factors on iHeartCommunications, our primary direct or indirect external source of capital, which could have a significant need for capital in the future; and
certain other factors set forth in our other filings with the SEC.
This list of factors that may affect future performance and the accuracy of forward-looking statements is illustrative and is not intended to be exhaustive.  Accordingly, all forward-looking statements should be evaluated with the understanding of their inherent uncertainty.
ITEM 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.  PROPERTIES
Our worldwide corporate headquarters is in San Antonio, Texas, where iHeartCommunications leases space in an executive office building and a data and administrative service center.  The headquarters of our Americas operations is in New York, New York and the headquarters of our International operations is in London, England.  In addition, certain of our executive and other operations are located in New York, New York and London, England.
The types of properties required to support each of our outdoor advertising branches include offices, production facilities and structure sites.  An outdoor branch and production facility is generally located in an industrial or warehouse district.
With respect to each of the Americas and International segments, we primarily lease our outdoor display sites and own or have acquired permanent easements for relatively few parcels of real property that serve as the sites for our outdoor displays.  Our leases generally range from month-to-month to year-to-year and can be for terms of 10 years or longer, and many provide for renewal options.
There is no significant concentration of displays under any one lease or subject to negotiation with any one landlord.  We believe that an important part of our management activity is to negotiate suitable lease renewals and extensions.  For additional information regarding our properties, see “Item 1. Business.”
ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We currently are involved in certain legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business and, as required, have accrued an estimate of the probable costs for the resolution of those claims for which the occurrence of loss is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated.  These estimates have been developed in consultation with counsel and are based upon an analysis of potential results, assuming a combination of litigation and settlement strategies.  It is possible, however, that future results of operations for any particular period could be materially affected by changes in our assumptions or the effectiveness of our strategies related to these proceedings.  Additionally, due to the inherent uncertainty of litigation, there can be no assurance that the resolution of any particular claim or proceeding would not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Although we are involved in a variety of legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business, a large portion of our litigation arises in the following contexts: commercial disputes; misappropriation of likeness and right of publicity claims; employment and benefits related claims; governmental fines; intellectual property claims; and tax disputes.
International Investigations

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On April 21, 2015, inspections were conducted at our premises in Denmark and Sweden as part of an investigation by Danish competition authorities. On the same day, we received a communication from the U.K. competition authorities, also in connection with the investigation by Danish competition authorities. We are cooperating with the national competition authorities. At this time, the outcome of this investigation is uncertain.
Stockholder Litigation
On May 9, 2016, a stockholder of the Company filed a derivative lawsuit in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, captioned GAMCO Asset Management Inc. v. iHeartMedia Inc. et al., C.A. No. 12312-VCS. The complaint names as defendants iHeartCommunications, Inc. (“iHeartCommunications”), the Company’s indirect parent company, iHeartMedia, Inc. (“iHeartMedia”), the parent company of iHeartCommunications, Bain Capital Partners, LLC and Thomas H. Lee Partners, L.P. (together, the “Sponsor Defendants”), iHeartMedia’s private equity sponsors and majority owners, and the members of the Company’s board of directors. The Company also is named as a nominal defendant. The complaint alleges that the Company has been harmed by the intercompany agreements with iHeartCommunications, the Company’s lack of autonomy over its own cash and the actions of the defendants in serving the interests of iHeartMedia, iHeartCommunications and the Sponsor Defendants to the detriment of the Company and its minority stockholders. Specifically, the complaint alleges that the defendants have breached their fiduciary duties by causing the Company to: (i) continue to loan cash to iHeartCommunications under the intercompany note at below-market rates; (ii) abandon its growth and acquisition strategies in favor of transactions that would provide cash to iHeartMedia and iHeartCommunications; (iii) issue new debt in the CCIBV note offering (the “CCIBV Note Offering”) to provide cash to iHeartMedia and iHeartCommunications through a dividend; and (iv) effect the sales of certain outdoor markets in the U.S. (the “Outdoor Asset Sales”) to provide cash to iHeartMedia and iHeartCommunications through a dividend. The complaint also alleges that iHeartMedia, iHeartCommunications and the Sponsor Defendants aided and abetted the directors’ breaches of their fiduciary duties. The complaint further alleges that iHeartMedia, iHeartCommunications and the Sponsor Defendants were unjustly enriched as a result of these transactions and that these transactions constituted a waste of corporate assets for which the defendants are liable to the Company. The plaintiff is seeking, among other things, a ruling that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties to the Company and that iHeartMedia, iHeartCommunications and the Sponsor Defendants aided and abetted the board of directors’ breaches of fiduciary duty, rescission of payments to iHeartCommunications and its affiliates pursuant to dividends declared in connection with the CCIBV Note Offering and Outdoor Asset Sales, and an order requiring iHeartMedia, iHeartCommunications and the Sponsor Defendants to disgorge all profits they have received as a result of the alleged fiduciary misconduct.
On July 20, 2016, the defendants filed a motion to dismiss plaintiff's verified stockholder derivative complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. On November 23, 2016, the Court granted defendants’ motion to dismiss all claims brought by the plaintiff.  On December 19, 2016, the plaintiff filed a notice of appeal of the ruling.
ITEM 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The following information with respect to our executive officers is presented as of February 23, 2017:
Name
 
Age
 
Position
Robert W. Pittman
 
63
 
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Richard J. Bressler
 
59
 
Chief Financial Officer
Scott R. Wells
 
48
 
Chief Executive Officer – Clear Channel Outdoor Americas
C. William Eccleshare
 
61
 
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer – Clear Channel Outdoor International
Steven J. Macri
 
48
 
Senior Vice President – Corporate Finance
Scott D. Hamilton
 
47
 
Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary
Robert H. Walls, Jr.
 
56
 
Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
The officers named above serve until their respective successors are chosen and qualified, in each case unless the officer sooner dies, resigns, is removed or becomes disqualified.
Robert W. Pittman is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of iHeartMedia, iHeartCommunications and iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Company. Mr. Pittman was appointed as the Executive Chairman and a director of iHeartMedia and iHeartCommunications on October 2, 2011. He was appointed as Chairman of iHeartMedia and iHeartCommunications on May 17, 2013. He also was appointed as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and a member of the board of managers of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC on April 26, 2013. Prior to October 2, 2011, Mr. Pittman served as the Chairman of Media and Entertainment Platforms for iHeartMedia and iHeartCommunications since November 2010. He has been a member of, and an investor in, Pilot Group, a private equity investment company, since April 2003. Mr. Pittman was formerly Chief Operating Officer of AOL Time Warner, Inc. from May 2002 to July 2002. He also served as Co-Chief Operating Officer of AOL Time Warner, Inc. from January 2001 to May 2002, and earlier, as President and Chief Operating Officer of America Online, Inc. from February 1998 to January 2001. Mr. Pittman serves on the boards of numerous charitable organizations, including the Alliance for Lupus Research, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation and the Robin Hood Foundation, where he has served as past Chairman. Mr. Pittman was selected to serve as a member of our Board because of his service as our Chief Executive Officer, as well as his extensive media experience gained through the course of his career.
Richard J. Bressler is the President, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Director of iHeartMedia, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and iHeartCommuncations and the Chief Financial Officer of the Company.  Mr. Bressler was appointed as the Chief Financial Officer and President of iHeartMedia, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, iHeartCommunications and the Company on July 29, 2013 and as Chief Operating Officer of iHeartMedia, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and iHeartCommunications on February 18, 2015. Prior thereto, Mr. Bressler was a Managing Director at THL. Prior to joining THL, Mr. Bressler was the Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Viacom, Inc. from 2001 through 2005. He also served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Time Warner Digital Media and, from 1995 to 1999, was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Time Warner Inc. Prior to joining Time Inc. in 1988, Mr. Bressler was previously a partner with the accounting firm of Ernst & Young LLP. Mr. Bressler also currently is a director of iHeartMedia, iHeartCommunications and Gartner, Inc., a member of the board of managers of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and Mr. Bressler previously served as a member of the board of directors of American Media Operations, Inc., Nielsen Holdings B.V. and Warner Music Group Corp. and as a member of the J.P. Morgan Chase National Advisory Board. Mr. Bressler holds a B.B.A. in Accounting from Adelphi University.
Scott R. Wells is the Chief Executive Officer of Clear Channel Outdoor Americas at each of the iHeartMedia, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, iHeartCommuncations and the Company and was appointed to this position on March 3, 2015.  Previously, Mr. Wells served as an Operating Partner at Bain Capital since January 2011 and prior to that served as an Executive Vice President at Bain Capital since 2007. Mr. Wells also was one of the leaders of the firm’s operationally focused Portfolio Group. Prior to joining Bain Capital, he held several executive roles at Dell, Inc. (“Dell”) from 2004 to 2007, most recently as Vice President of Public Marketing and On-Line in the Americas. Prior to joining Dell, Mr. Wells was a Partner at Bain & Company, where he focused primarily on technology and consumer-oriented companies. Mr. Wells was a member of our Board from August 2008 until March 2015. He currently serves as a director of Ad Council, the Achievement Network (ANet) and the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA). He has an M.B.A., with distinction, from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and a B.S. from Virginia Tech.

24



C. William Eccleshare is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer- Clear Channel International at each of iHeartMedia, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, iHeartCommuncations and the Company and was appointed to this position on March 2, 2015. Prior to such time, he served as Chief Executive Officer – Outdoor of iHeartMedia, iHeartCommuncations and the Company since January 24, 2012 and as Chief Executive Officer—Outdoor of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC on April 26, 2013.  Prior to January 24, 2012, he served as Chief Executive Officer—Clear Channel Outdoor—International of iHeartMedia and iHeartCommunications since February 17, 2011 and as Chief Executive Officer—International of the Company since September 1, 2009.  Previously, he was Chairman and CEO of BBDO EMEA from 2005 to 2009.  Prior thereto, he was Chairman and CEO of Young & Rubicam EMEA since 2002.
Steven J. Macri is the Senior Vice President-Corporate Finance of iHeartMedia, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, iHeartCommunications and the Company and the Chief Financial Officer of iHeartMedia's iHM segment. Mr. Macri was appointed Senior Vice President - Corporate Finance of iHeartMedia, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, iHeartCommunications and the Company on September 9, 2014 and as the Chief Financial Officer of iHeartMedia division on October 7, 2013. Prior to joining the company, Mr. Macri served as Chief Financial Officer for LogicSource Inc., from March 2012 to September 2013. Prior to joining LogicSource, Mr. Macri was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at Warner Music Group Corp. from September 2008 to December 2011 and prior thereto served as Controller and Senior Vice President-Finance from February 2005 to August 2008. He has an MBA from New York University Stern School of Business and a B.S. in Accounting from Syracuse University.
Scott D. Hamilton is the Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary of iHeartMedia, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, iHeartCommunications and the Company. Mr. Hamilton was appointed Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary of iHeartMedia, iHeartCommunications and the Company on April 26, 2010 and was appointed as Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC on April 26, 2013.  Prior to April 26, 2010, Mr. Hamilton served as Controller and Chief Accounting Officer of Avaya Inc. (“Avaya”), a multinational telecommunications company, from October 2008 to April 2010.  Prior thereto, Mr. Hamilton served in various accounting and finance positions at Avaya, beginning in October 2004.  Prior thereto, Mr. Hamilton was employed by PricewaterhouseCoopers from September 1992 until September 2004 in various roles including audit, transaction services and technical accounting consulting.
Robert H. Walls, Jr. is the Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of iHeartMedia, iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, iHeartCommunications and the Company.  Mr. Walls was appointed the Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of iHeartMedia, iHeartCommunications and the Company on January 1, 2010 and was appointed as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC on April 26, 2013.  On March 31, 2011, Mr. Walls was appointed to serve in the newly-created Office of the Chief Executive Officer for iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC, iHeartCommunications and the Company, in addition to his existing offices.  Mr. Walls served in the Office of the Chief Executive Officer for iHeartMedia Capital I, LLC and iHeartCommunications until October 2, 2011, and served in the Office of the Chief Executive Officer for the Company until January 24, 2012.  Mr. Walls was a founding partner of Post Oak Energy Capital, LP and served as Managing Director through December 31, 2009 and as an advisor to Post Oak Energy Capital, LP through December 31, 2013.

25



PART II
ITEM 5.  MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Shares of our Class A common stock trade on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “CCO.”  There were 73 stockholders of record as of February 20, 2017.  This figure does not include an estimate of the indeterminate number of beneficial holders whose shares may be held of record by brokerage firms and clearing agencies.  The following table sets forth, for the calendar quarters indicated, the reported high and low sales prices of our Class A common stock as reported on the NYSE:
 
Class A
Common Stock
Market Price
 
Class A
Common Stock
Market Price
 
High
Low
 
High
Low
2016
 
 
2015
 
 
First Quarter................
$
4.71

$
3.32

First Quarter................
$
11.00

$
9.01

Second Quarter...........
6.65

4.10

Second Quarter...........
11.61

9.63

Third Quarter..............
7.25

5.84

Third Quarter..............
10.23

7.09

Fourth Quarter............
6.25

4.90

Fourth Quarter............
7.65

4.78

There is no established public trading market for our Class B common stock.  There were 315,000,000 shares of our Class B common stock outstanding on February 20, 2017.  iHeartCommunications indirectly holds all of the shares of Class B common stock outstanding and 10,726,917 shares of Class A common stock, representing 89.9% of the shares outstanding and approximately 99% of the voting power.  The holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock have identical rights, except holders of our Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share while holders of Class B common stock are entitled to 20 votes per share.  The shares of Class B common stock are convertible, at the option of the holder at any time or upon any transfer, into shares of Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis, subject to certain limited exceptions.
Dividend Policy
On March 15, 2012, we paid a special dividend in an amount equal to $6.0832 per share to the holders of record of our Class A and Class B common stock at the close of business on March 12, 2012 and, on November 8, 2013, in connection with the settlement of the derivative litigation related to the Due from iHeartCommunications note, we paid a special dividend in an amount equal to $0.5578 per share to the holders of record of our Class A and Class B common stock at the close of business on November 5, 2013.  On August 11, 2014, we paid a special dividend in an amount equal to $0.4865 per share to the holders of record of our Class A and Class B common stock at the close of business on August 4, 2014.  On January 7, 2016, we paid a special dividend in an amount equal to $0.6026 per share to the holders of record of our Class A and Class B common stock at the close of business on January 4, 2016.  On February 4, 2016, we paid a special dividend in an amount equal to $1.4937 per share to the holders of record of our Class A and Class B common stock at the close of business on February 1, 2016. On February 23, 2017 we paid a special dividend in an amount equal to $0.7797 per share to the holders of our Class A and Class B common stock at the close of business on February 20, 2017. We do not pay regularly scheduled dividends, and our ability to pay dividends on our common stock is subject to restrictions should we seek to do so in the future.
We are a holding company with no independent operations and no significant assets other than the stock of our subsidiaries and the Due from iHeartCommunications note.  We, therefore, are dependent on the receipt of dividends or other distributions from our subsidiaries or repayment by iHeartCommunications of amounts outstanding under the Due from iHeartCommunications note to pay dividends.  On October 19, 2013, in accordance with the terms of the derivative litigation settlement, we established a committee of our board of directors for the specific purpose of monitoring the Due from iHeartCommunications note.  The committee has the non-exclusive authority pursuant to a committee charter to demand repayment under the Due from iHeartCommunications note under certain circumstances related to iHeartCommunications’ liquidity or the amount outstanding under the Due from iHeartCommunications note as long as our board of directors declares a simultaneous dividend equal to the amount so demanded.
In addition, the agreements governing our indebtedness contain restrictions on our ability to pay dividends.  If we were to declare and pay cash dividends in the future, holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock would share equally, on a per share basis, in any such cash dividend.  See “Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial

26



Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources of Capital” and Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Sales of Unregistered Securities
We did not sell any equity securities during 2016 that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933.
Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table sets forth the purchases made during the quarter ended December 31, 2016 by or on behalf of us or an affiliated purchaser of shares of our Class A common stock registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act:
Period
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased(1)
 
Average Price Paid per
Share(1)
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Maximum Number (or Approximate Dollar Value) of
Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or
Programs
October 1 through October 31
 
20,678

 
$
5.75

 

 
$

November 1 through November 30
 

 

 

 

December 1 through December 31
 
2,046

 
4.17

 

 

Total
 
22,724

 
$
5.61

 

 
$

(1)
The shares indicated consist of shares of our Class A common stock tendered by employees to us during the three months ended December 31, 2016 to satisfy the employees’ tax withholding obligation in connection with the vesting and release of restricted shares, which are repurchased by us based on their fair market value on the date the relevant transaction occurs.

27



ITEM 6.  SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables set forth our selected historical consolidated financial and other data as of the dates and for the periods indicated. The selected historical financial data are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the 2016 presentation.  Historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for future periods.  Acquisitions and dispositions impact the comparability of the historical consolidated financial data reflected in this schedule of Selected Financial Data.
The selected historical consolidated financial and other data should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto located within Item 8 of Part II of  this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(In thousands)
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Results of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
2,702,395

 
$
2,806,204

 
$
2,961,259

 
$
2,946,190

 
$
2,946,944

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct operating expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
1,435,569

 
1,494,902

 
1,596,888

 
1,594,728

 
1,603,492

Selling, general and administrative expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
515,202

 
531,504

 
548,519

 
543,572

 
574,662

Corporate expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
117,383

 
116,380

 
130,894

 
124,399

 
115,832

Depreciation and amortization
344,124

 
375,962

 
406,243

 
403,170

 
399,264

Impairment charges (1)
7,274

 
21,631

 
3,530

 
13,150

 
37,651

Other operating income (expense), net
354,688

 
(4,824
)
 
7,259

 
22,979

 
50,943

Operating income
637,531

 
261,001

 
282,444

 
290,150

 
266,986

Interest expense, net
374,892

 
355,669

 
353,265

 
352,783

 
373,876

Interest income on Due from iHeartCommunications
50,309

 
61,439

 
60,179

 
54,210

 
63,761

Equity in earnings (loss) of nonconsolidated affiliates
(1,689
)
 
(289
)
 
3,789

 
(2,092
)
 
843

Loss on extinguishment of debt

 

 

 

 
(221,071
)
Other income (expense), net
(70,151
)
 
12,387

 
15,185

 
998

 
(2,942
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
241,108

 
(21,131
)
 
8,332

 
(9,517
)
 
(266,299
)
Income tax benefit (expense)
(76,675
)
 
(50,177
)
 
8,787

 
(14,809
)
 
107,089

Consolidated net income (loss)
164,433

 
(71,308
)
 
17,119

 
(24,326
)
 
(159,210
)
Less amount attributable to noncontrolling interest
23,002

 
24,764

 
26,709

 
24,134

 
23,902

Net income (loss) attributable to the Company
$
141,431

 
$
(96,072
)
 
$
(9,590
)
 
$
(48,460
)
 
$
(183,112
)
(1)
We recorded non-cash impairment charges of $7.3 million, $21.6 million, $3.5 million, $13.2 million and $37.7 million during 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Our impairment charges are discussed more fully in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Net income (loss) attributable to the Company per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.39

 
$
(0.27
)
 
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.14
)
 
$
(0.54
)
Weighted average common shares
360,294

 
359,508

 
358,565

 
357,662

 
356,915

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted
$
0.39

 
$
(0.27
)
 
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.14
)
 
$
(0.54
)
Weighted average common shares
361,612

 
359,508

 
358,565

 
357,662

 
356,915


28



(In thousands)
As of December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Current assets
$
1,341,435

 
$
1,567,697

 
$
1,056,030

 
$
1,214,143

 
$
1,501,346

Property, plant and equipment, net
1,412,833

 
1,627,986

 
1,905,651

 
2,081,098

 
2,207,744

Total assets
5,718,828

 
6,306,788

 
6,296,629

 
6,685,069

 
7,034,032

Current liabilities
641,718

 
920,613

 
717,829

 
773,590

 
811,405

Long-term debt, net of current maturities
5,110,020

 
5,106,513

 
4,880,526

 
4,861,357

 
4,869,692

Stockholders’ equity (deficit)
(932,788
)
 
(569,667
)
 
(140,941
)
 
160,108

 
446,089


29



ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
OVERVIEW
Format of Presentation
Management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations (“MD&A”) should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related footnotes contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  Our discussion is presented on both a consolidated and segment basis.  Our reportable operating segments are Americas outdoor advertising (“Americas”) and International outdoor advertising (“International”).  Our Americas and International segments provide outdoor advertising services in their respective geographic regions using various digital and traditional display types.
We manage our operating segments primarily focusing on their operating income, while Corporate expenses, Other operating income (expense), net, Interest expense, Interest income on Due from iHeartCommunications, Equity in earnings (loss) of nonconsolidated affiliates, Other income, net and Income tax benefit (expense) are managed on a total company basis and are, therefore, included only in our discussion of consolidated results.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the 2016 presentation.
Description of Our Business
Our revenue is derived from selling advertising space on the displays we own or operate in key markets worldwide, consisting primarily of billboards, street furniture and transit displays.  Part of our long-term strategy is to pursue the technology of digital displays, including flat screens, LCDs and LEDs, as additions to traditional methods of displaying our clients’ advertisements. We are currently installing these technologies in certain markets, both domestically and internationally.
Management typically monitors our business by reviewing the average rates, average revenue per display, occupancy, and inventory levels of each of our display types by market.
We own the majority of our advertising displays, which typically are located on sites that we either lease or own or for which we have acquired permanent easements.  Our advertising contracts with clients typically outline the number of displays reserved, the duration of the advertising campaign and the unit price per display.
The significant expenses associated with our operations include direct production, maintenance and installation expenses as well as site lease expenses for land under our displays including revenue-sharing or minimum guaranteed amounts payable under our billboard, street furniture and transit display contracts.  Our direct production, maintenance and installation expenses include costs for printing, transporting and changing the advertising copy on our displays, the related labor costs, the vinyl and paper costs, electricity costs and the costs for cleaning and maintaining our displays.  Vinyl and paper costs vary according to the complexity of the advertising copy and the quantity of displays.  Our site lease expenses include lease payments for use of the land under our displays, as well as any revenue-sharing arrangements or minimum guaranteed amounts payable that we may have with the landlords.  The terms of our site leases and revenue-sharing or minimum guaranteed contracts generally range from one to 20 years.
Americas
Our advertising rates are based on a number of different factors including location, competition, type and size of display, illumination, market and gross ratings points.  Gross ratings points are the total number of impressions delivered by a display or group of displays, expressed as a percentage of a market population.  The number of impressions delivered by a display is measured by the number of people passing the site during a defined period of time.  For all of our billboards in the United States, we use independent, third-party auditing companies to verify the number of impressions delivered by a display.
Client contract terms typically range from four weeks to one year for the majority of our display inventory in the United States.  Generally, we own the street furniture structures and are responsible for their construction and maintenance.  Contracts for the right to place our street furniture and transit displays and sell advertising space on them are awarded by municipal and transit authorities in competitive bidding processes governed by local law or are negotiated with private transit operators.  Generally, these contracts have terms ranging from 10 to 20 years.
International
Similar to our Americas business, advertising rates generally are based on the gross ratings points of a display or group of displays. The number of impressions delivered by a display, in some countries, is weighted to account for such factors as

30



illumination, proximity to other displays and the speed and viewing angle of approaching traffic.  In addition, because our International advertising operations are conducted in foreign markets, including Europe and Asia, management reviews the operating results from our foreign operations on a constant dollar basis.  A constant dollar basis allows for comparison of operations independent of foreign exchange movements.
Our International display inventory is typically sold to clients through network packages, with client contract terms typically ranging from one to two weeks with terms of up to one year available as well.  Internationally, contracts with municipal and transit authorities for the right to place our street furniture and transit displays typically provide for terms ranging from three to 15 years. The major difference between our International and Americas street furniture businesses is in the nature of the municipal contracts.  In our International business, these contracts typically require us to provide the municipality with a broader range of metropolitan amenities in exchange for which we are authorized to sell advertising space on certain sections of the structures we erect in the public domain.  A different regulatory environment for billboards and competitive bidding for street furniture and transit display contracts, which constitute a larger portion of our business internationally, may result in higher site lease costs in our International business.
Macroeconomic Indicators
Our advertising revenue for our Americas and International segments is highly correlated to changes in gross domestic product (“GDP”) as advertising spending has historically trended in line with GDP, both domestically and internationally. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, estimated U.S. GDP growth for 2016 was 1.6%. Internationally, our results are impacted by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates as well as the economic conditions in the foreign markets in which we have operations.
Relationship with iHeartCommunications
There are several agreements which govern our relationship with iHeartCommunications including the Master Agreement, Corporate Services Agreement, Employee Matters Agreement, Tax Matters Agreement and Trademark and License Agreement.  iHeartCommunications has the right to terminate these agreements in various circumstances.  As of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, no notice of termination of any of these agreements has been received from iHeartCommunications.  Our agreements with iHeartCommunications continued under the same terms and conditions subsequent to iHeartCommunications’ merger.
In accordance with the Master Agreement, our branch managers follow a corporate policy allowing iHeartCommunications to use, without charge, Americas’ displays they believe would otherwise be unsold.  iHeartCommunications bears the cost of producing the advertising and we bear the costs of installing and removing this advertising.
Under the Corporate Services Agreement, iHeartCommunications provides management services to us.  These services are charged to us based on actual direct costs incurred or allocated by iHeartCommunications based on headcount, revenue or other factors on a pro rata basis.  For the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, we recorded approximately $36.0 million, $30.1 million and $31.2 million, respectively, as a component of corporate expenses for these services.
The Trademark License Agreement entitles us to use (1) on a nonexclusive basis, the "Clear Channel" trademark and the Clear Channel "outdoor" trademark logo with respect to day-to-day operations of our business worldwide and on the Internet, and (2) certain other Clear Channel marks in connection with our business. On February 9, 2017, we entered into a binding option and letter of intent with iHeartMedia granting us a binding option to purchase the registered trademarks and domain names owned by iHeartMedia and its subsidiaries that incorporate one or more of the words "Clear" and/or "Channel," and any translations or derivations of any of the foregoing, together with any goodwill associated therewith. This option is exercisable in our sole and absolute discretion at any time between February 23, 2018 and February 23, 2019.
On August 9, 2010, iHeartCommunications announced that its board of directors approved a stock purchase program under which iHeartCommunications or its subsidiaries may purchase up to an aggregate of $100.0 million of our Class A common stock and/or the Class A common stock of iHeartMedia. As of December 31, 2014, an aggregate $34.2 million was available under this program. In January 2015, a subsidiary of iHeartCommunications purchased an additional 2,000,000 shares of the Company's Class A common stock for $20.4 million. On April 2, 2015, a subsidiary of iHeartCommunications purchased an additional 2,172,946 shares of the Company's Class A common stock for $22.2 million. As a result of this purchase, the stock purchase program concluded. The purchase of shares in excess of the amount available under the stock purchase program was separately approved by the iHeartCommunications' board of directors. As of December 31, 2016, iHeartCommunications' and its subsidiaries held 10,726,917 shares of the Company's Class A common stock and all of the Company's class B common stock, which represented 89.9% of the outstanding shares of the Company's common stock on a fully-diluted basis.

31



Executive Summary
The key developments in our business for the year ended December 31, 2016 are summarized below:
Consolidated revenue decreased $103.8 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding a $47.6 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated revenue decreased $56.2 million during 2016 compared to 2015.
We sold nine non-strategic U.S. markets in the first quarter of 2016. We sold our businesses in Turkey and Australia in the second and fourth quarters of 2016, respectively. The markets had total revenues of $123.5 million in 2016 and $248.9 million in 2015 and we realized a net gain of $349.3 million on the sales of the markets.
We spent $13.0 million on strategic revenue and efficiency initiatives during 2016 to realign and improve our on-going business operations—a decrease of $7.3 million compared to 2015.

Revenues and expenses “excluding the impact of foreign exchange movements” in this Management’s Discussion & Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is presented because management believes that viewing certain financial results without the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency rates facilitates period to period comparisons of business performance and provides useful information to investors.  Revenues and expenses “excluding the impact of foreign exchange movements” are calculated by converting the current period’s revenues and expenses in local currency to U.S. dollars using average foreign exchange rates for the prior period. 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Consolidated Results of Operations
The comparison of our historical results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2016 to the year ended December 31, 2015 is as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
Revenue
$
2,702,395

 
$
2,806,204

 
(3.7)%
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Direct operating expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
1,435,569

 
1,494,902

 
(4.0)%
Selling, general and administrative expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
515,202

 
531,504

 
(3.1)%
Corporate expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
117,383

 
116,380

 
0.9%
Depreciation and amortization
344,124

 
375,962

 
(8.5)%
Impairment charges
7,274

 
21,631

 
(66.4)%
Other operating income (expense), net
354,688

 
(4,824
)
 
(7,452.6)%
Operating income
637,531

 
261,001

 
144.3%
Interest expense
374,892

 
355,669

 
 
Interest income on Due from iHeartCommunications
50,309

 
61,439

 
 
Equity in earnings (loss) of nonconsolidated affiliates
(1,689
)
 
(289
)
 
 
Other income, net
(70,151
)
 
12,387

 
 
Income (loss) before income taxes
241,108

 
(21,131
)
 
 
Income tax expense
(76,675
)
 
(50,177
)
 
 
Consolidated net income (loss)
164,433

 
(71,308
)
 
 
Less amount attributable to noncontrolling interest
23,002

 
24,764

 
 
Net income (loss) attributable to the Company
$
141,431

 
$
(96,072
)
 
 
Consolidated Revenue
Consolidated revenue decreased $103.8 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding a $47.6 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated revenue decreased $56.2 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease in consolidated revenue is primarily due to the sale of certain U.S. markets and International businesses which generated $248.9 million in revenue in 2015 and $123.5 million in 2016. This decrease was partially offset by revenues from new digital assets and new contracts.

32



Consolidated Direct Operating Expenses
Consolidated direct operating expenses decreased $59.3 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $29.0 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated direct operating expenses decreased $30.3 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Lower direct operating expenses was primarily due to the sale of certain U.S. markets and International businesses.
Consolidated Selling, General and Administrative (“SG&A”) Expenses
Consolidated SG&A expenses decreased $16.3 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $9.9 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated SG&A expenses decreased $6.4 million during 2016 compared to 2015. SG&A expenses were lower primarily due to the sale of nine non-strategic U.S. markets in the first quarter of 2016, and were partially offset by higher variable compensation expenses.
Corporate Expenses
Corporate expenses increased $1.0 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $4.1 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, corporate expenses increased $5.1 million during 2016 compared to 2015 primarily resulting from higher litigation costs and higher expenses related to non-cash compensation plans.
Revenue and Efficiency Initiatives
Included in the amounts for direct operating expenses, SG&A and corporate expenses discussed above are expenses of $13.0 million and $20.3 million incurred in 2016 and 2015, respectively, in connection with our strategic revenue and efficiency initiatives. The costs were incurred to improve revenue growth, enhance yield, reduce costs, and organize each business to maximize performance and profitability.  These costs consist primarily of severance related to workforce initiatives, consolidation of locations and positions, consulting expenses and other costs incurred in connection with streamlining our businesses. These costs are expected to provide benefits in future periods as the initiative results are realized.  Of these costs for 2016, $2.7 million are reported within direct operating expenses, $7.8 million are reported within SG&A and $2.5 million are reported within corporate expense.  In 2015, such costs totaled $9.2 million, $4.3 million, and $6.8 million, respectively.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization decreased $31.8 million during 2016 compared to 2015 primarily due to assets becoming fully depreciated or fully amortized, the sale of certain U.S. markets and International businesses, as well as the impact of movements in foreign exchange rates.
Impairment Charges
We perform our annual impairment test on our goodwill, billboard permits, and other intangible assets as of July 1 of each year.  In addition, we test for impairment of property, plant and equipment whenever events and circumstances indicate that depreciable assets might be impaired.  As a result of these impairment tests, during 2016, we recorded an impairment charge of $7.3 million during 2016 related to goodwill in one International business.  During 2015, we recognized a $21.6 million impairment charge related to billboard permits in one Americas market.  Please see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a further description of the impairment charges.
Other Operating Income (Expense), Net
Other operating income, net of $354.7 million in 2016 primarily related to the net gain of $278.3 million on sale of nine non-strategic markets in the first quarter of 2016 and the net gain of $127.6 million on sale on our business in Australia in the fourth quarter of 2016, partially offset by the $56.6 million loss, which includes $32.2 million in cumulative translation adjustments, on the sale of our business in Turkey in the second quarter of 2016. In the first quarter of 2016, Americas sold nine non-strategic markets including Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, Des Moines, Iowa, Ft. Smith, Arkansas, Memphis, Tennessee, Portland, Oregon, Reno, Nevada, Seattle, Washington and Wichita, Kansas for net proceeds of $592.3 million in cash and certain advertising assets in Florida.
Other operating expense, net of $4.8 million in 2015 primarily related to acquisition/disposition transaction costs.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased $19.2 million in 2016 compared to 2015, primarily due to the issuance by Clear Channel International B.V. of its 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020 during the fourth quarter of 2015.

33



Interest Income on Due From iHeartCommunications
Interest income decreased $11.1 million during 2016 compared to 2015 due to the decrease in the average outstanding balance on the Due from iHeartCommunications note.
Equity in Loss of Nonconsolidated Affiliates
Equity in loss of nonconsolidated affiliates of $1.7 million and $0.3 million for 2016 and 2015, respectively, included the loss from our equity investments in our Americas and International segments.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other expense was $70.2 million for 2016. Other income was $12.4 million for 2015. These amounts relate primarily to net foreign exchange gains and losses recognized in connection with intercompany notes denominated in foreign currencies. The decline in value during 2016 of the British pound against the Euro impacted Euro-denominated notes payable by one of our UK subsidiaries, which was the primary driver of the foreign exchange loss in 2016.
Income Tax Benefit (Expense)
Our operations are included in a consolidated income tax return filed by iHeartMedia.  However, for our financial statements, our provision for income taxes was computed as if we file separate consolidated federal income tax returns with our subsidiaries.
The effective tax rate for 2016 was 31.8% and was primarily impacted by the deferred tax benefits recorded in the current period for the release of valuation allowances in the U.S. and France. The release of the valuation allowance of $32.9 million in the U.S. was primarily due to the taxable income generated from the sale of nine non-strategic U.S. outdoor markets during the first quarter of 2016 and the release of valuation allowance in France of $43.3 million was due to positive evidence that now exists related to the Company’s ability to utilize certain net operating loss carryforwards in the future. The deferred tax benefits described above were partially offset by $54.7 million in tax expense attributable to the sale of our business in Australia during the period.
The effective tax rate for 2015 was (237.5)% and was primarily impacted by the $32.9 million valuation allowance recorded during the period as additional deferred tax expense. The valuation allowance was recorded against a portion of the U.S. Federal and State net operating losses due to the uncertainty of the ability to utilize those losses in future periods.  Additionally, the Company recorded additional taxes due to the inability to benefit from losses in certain foreign jurisdictions.
Americas Outdoor Advertising Results of Operations
Our Americas outdoor operating results were as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
Revenue
$
1,278,413

 
$
1,349,021

 
(5.2)%
Direct operating expenses
570,310

 
597,382

 
(4.5)%
SG&A expenses
225,415

 
233,254

 
(3.4)%
Depreciation and amortization
185,654

 
204,514

 
(9.2)%
Operating income
$
297,034

 
$
313,871

 
(5.4)%
Americas revenue decreased $70.6 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $7.7 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas revenue decreased $62.9 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease in revenue is due to the $102.7 million impact of the sale of nine non-strategic U.S. markets in the first quarter of 2016. The decrease in revenue resulting from these sales was partially offset by increased revenues from digital billboards from new deployments and higher occupancy on existing digital billboards, as well as new airport contracts, and higher revenues in Latin America.
Americas direct operating expenses decreased $27.1 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $3.6 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas direct operating expenses decreased $23.5 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease in direct operating expenses was driven by a $35.4 million decrease in direct operating expenses resulting from the sale of the nine non-strategic markets in the first quarter of 2016, partially offset by higher site lease expenses related to new airport contracts. Americas SG&A expenses decreased $7.9 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $2.1 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas SG&A expenses decreased $5.8 million during 2016 compared to 2015. This decrease was due to a $20.4 million decrease in SG&A expenses resulting from the sale of the nine non-

34



strategic U.S. markets in the first quarter of 2016, partially offset by higher variable compensation expense related to higher revenues.
Depreciation and amortization decreased $18.9 million. Excluding the $0.8 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, depreciation and amortization decreased $18.1 million primarily due to the sale of the nine non-strategic U.S. markets in the first quarter of 2016 and assets becoming fully depreciated or fully amortized.
International Outdoor Advertising Results of Operations
Our International operating results were as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
Revenue
$
1,423,982

 
$
1,457,183

 
(2.3)%
Direct operating expenses
865,259

 
897,520

 
(3.6)%
SG&A expenses
289,787

 
298,250

 
(2.8)%
Depreciation and amortization
152,758

 
166,060

 
(8.0)%
Operating income
$
116,178

 
$
95,353

 
21.8%
International revenue decreased $33.2 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $39.9 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International revenue increased $6.7 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The increase in revenue is due to growth across most of our markets including China, Italy, Spain, Sweden, France and Belgium, primarily from new digital assets and new contracts. This growth was partially offset by a $22.7 million decrease in revenue resulting from the sale of our businesses in Turkey and Australia in the second and fourth quarters of 2016, respectively, as well as lower revenue in the United Kingdom as a result of the London bus shelter contract not being renewed.
International direct operating expenses decreased $32.2 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $25.4 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International direct operating expenses decreased $6.8 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease was driven by a $14.6 million decrease in direct operating expenses resulting from the sale of our businesses in Turkey and Australia and lower rent expense due to lower revenue in the United Kingdom as a result of the London bus shelter contract not being renewed. These decreases were partially offset by higher site lease and production expenses in countries experiencing revenue growth. International SG&A expenses decreased $8.5 million during 2016 compared to 2015. Excluding the $7.8 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International SG&A expenses decreased $0.7 million during 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease in SG&A expenses was primarily due to a $3.0 million decrease resulting from the sale of our businesses in Turkey and Australia, partially offset by higher variable compensation expenses.
Included in 2015 International Outdoor direct operating expenses and SG&A expenses are $8.2 million and $3.2 million, respectively, recorded in the fourth quarter of 2015 to correct for accounting errors included in the results of our Netherlands subsidiary reported in prior years. Such corrections are not considered to be material to the prior year financial results.
Depreciation and amortization decreased $13.3 million. Excluding the $5.5 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, depreciation and amortization decreased $7.8 million primarily due to assets becoming fully depreciated or fully amortized.

35



Consolidated Results of Operations
The comparison of our historical results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2015 to the year ended December 31, 2014 is as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change
Revenue
$
2,806,204

 
$
2,961,259

 
(5.2)%
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Direct operating expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
1,494,902

 
1,596,888

 
(6.4)%
Selling, general and administrative expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
531,504

 
548,519

 
(3.1)%
Corporate expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
116,380

 
130,894

 
(11.1)%
Depreciation and amortization
375,962

 
406,243

 
(7.5)%
Impairment charges
21,631

 
3,530

 
512.8%
Other operating (expense) income, net
(4,824
)
 
7,259

 
(166.5)%
Operating income
261,001

 
282,444

 
(7.6)%
Interest expense
355,669

 
353,265

 
 
Interest income on Due from iHeartCommunications
61,439

 
60,179

 
 
Equity in earnings (loss) of nonconsolidated affiliates
(289
)
 
3,789

 
 
Other income, net
12,387

 
15,185

 
 
Loss before income taxes
(21,131
)
 
8,332

 
 
Income tax benefit (expense)
(50,177
)
 
8,787

 
 
Consolidated loss
(71,308
)
 
17,119

 
 
Less amount attributable to noncontrolling interest
24,764

 
26,709

 
 
Net loss attributable to the Company
$
(96,072
)
 
$
(9,590
)
 
 
Consolidated Revenue
Consolidated revenue decreased $155.1 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding a $229.0 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated revenue increased $73.9 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Americas revenue decreased $1.6 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $23.4 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas revenue increased $21.8 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily driven by higher revenues from digital billboards and our Spectacolor business. International revenue decreased $153.4 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $205.6 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International revenue increased $52.2 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily driven by new contracts and the impact of sales initiatives.
Consolidated Direct Operating Expenses
Consolidated direct operating expenses decreased $102.0 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding an $146.6 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated direct operating expenses increased $44.6 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Americas direct operating expenses decreased $8.4 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $13.1 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas direct operating expenses increased $4.7 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to higher variable site lease expenses related to the increase in revenues. International direct operating expenses decreased $93.6 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $133.5 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International direct operating expenses increased $39.9 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily as a result of higher variable costs associated with higher revenue, as well as higher spending on strategic efficiency initiatives.
Consolidated SG&A Expenses
Consolidated SG&A expenses decreased $17.0 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding a $51.1 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, consolidated SG&A expenses increased $34.1 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Americas SG&A expenses decreased $0.4 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $6.0 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas SG&A expenses increased $5.6 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily in Latin America. International SG&A expenses decreased $16.6 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $45.0 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International SG&A expenses increased $28.4 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to higher compensation expense, including commissions in connection with higher revenues.

36



Corporate Expenses
Corporate expenses decreased $14.5 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $3.5 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, corporate expenses decreased $11.0 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Corporate expenses were primarily impacted by lower spending related to our strategic revenue and efficiency initiatives, partially offset by higher variable compensation expense.
Revenue and Efficiency Initiatives
Included in the amounts for direct operating expenses, SG&A and corporate expenses discussed above are expenses of $20.3 million incurred in 2015 in connection with our strategic revenue and efficiency initiatives. The costs were incurred to improve revenue growth, enhance yield, reduce costs, and organize each business to maximize performance and profitability. These costs consist primarily of severance related to workforce initiatives, consolidation of locations and positions, consulting expenses and other costs incurred in connection with streamlining our businesses. These costs are expected to provide benefits in future periods as the initiative results are realized. Of these costs for 2015, $9.2 million are reported within direct operating expenses, $4.3 million are reported within SG&A and $6.8 million are reported within corporate expense. In 2014, such costs totaled $3.5 million, $6.7 million, and $20.0 million, respectively.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization decreased $30.3 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to assets becoming fully depreciated or fully amortized as well as the impact of movements in foreign exchange rates.
Impairment Charges
We perform our annual impairment test on our goodwill, billboard permits, and other intangible assets as of July 1 of each year. In addition, we test for impairment of property, plant and equipment whenever events and circumstances indicate that depreciable assets might be impaired. As a result of these impairment tests, during 2015, we recorded impairment charges of $21.6 million during 2015 related to billboard permits in one Americas outdoor market. During 2014, we recognized a $3.5 million other intangible assets impairment charge in our Americas segment primarily related to a decline in the estimated fair value of permanent easements in two markets. Please see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a further description of the impairment charges.
Other Operating Income, Net
Other operating expense, net of $4.8 million in 2015 primarily related to acquisition/disposition transaction costs.
Other operating income, net of $7.3 million in 2014 primarily related to the gain on the sale of certain outdoor assets in our Americas segment.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased $2.4 million in 2015 compared to 2014.
Interest Income on Due From iHeartCommunications
Interest income increased $1.3 million during 2015 compared to 2014 due to the increase in the average outstanding balance on the Due from iHeartCommunications note.
Equity in Earnings (Loss) of Nonconsolidated Affiliates
Equity in loss of nonconsolidated affiliates of $0.3 million for 2015 included the loss from our equity investments in our Americas and International segments.
Equity in earnings of nonconsolidated affiliates of $3.8 million for 2014 included the earnings from our equity investments in our Americas and International segments.
Other Income, Net
Other income of $12.4 million and $15.2 million for 2015 and 2014, respectively, primarily related to foreign exchange gains on short-term intercompany accounts.

37



Income Tax (Expense) Benefit
Our operations are included in a consolidated income tax return filed by iHeartMedia. However, for our financial statements, our provision for income taxes was computed as if we file separate consolidated federal income tax returns with our subsidiaries.
The effective tax rate for 2015 was (237.5)% and was primarily impacted by the $32.9 million valuation allowance recorded during the period as additional deferred tax expense. The valuation allowance was recorded against a portion of the U.S. Federal and State net operating losses due to the uncertainty of the ability to utilize those losses in future periods. Additionally, the Company recorded additional taxes due to the inability to benefit from losses in certain foreign jurisdictions.
The effective tax rate for 2014 was (105.5)%, primarily impacted by our benefits and charges from tax amounts associated with our foreign earnings that are taxed at rates different from the federal statutory rate and an inability to benefit from losses in certain foreign jurisdictions. In addition, we recorded $20.0 million in net tax benefits associated with a decrease in unrecognized tax benefits resulting from the expiration of statutes of limitations to assess taxes in the United Kingdom and several state jurisdictions.
Americas Results of Operations
Our Americas operating results were as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change
Revenue
$
1,349,021

 
$
1,350,623

 
(0.1)%
Direct operating expenses
597,382

 
605,771

 
(1.4)%
SG&A expenses
233,254

 
233,641

 
(0.2)%
Depreciation and amortization
204,514

 
203,928

 
0.3%
Operating income
$
313,871

 
$
307,283

 
2.1%
Americas revenue decreased $1.6 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $23.4 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas revenue increased $21.8 million during 2015 compared to 2014 driven primarily by an increase in revenues from digital billboards as a result of new deployments, as well as from our Spectacolor business, partially offset by lower advertising revenues from our static bulletins and posters, and our airports business.
Americas direct operating expenses decreased $8.4 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $13.1 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas direct operating expenses increased $4.7 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to higher variable site lease expenses related to the increase in revenues. Americas SG&A expenses decreased $0.4 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $6.0 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, Americas SG&A expenses increased $5.6 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to higher expenses in Latin America.
International Advertising Results of Operations
Our International operating results were as follows:
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
%
 
2015
 
2014
 
Change
Revenue
$
1,457,183

 
$
1,610,636

 
(9.5)%
Direct operating expenses
897,520

 
991,117

 
(9.4)%
SG&A expenses
298,250

 
314,878

 
(5.3)%
Depreciation and amortization
166,060

 
198,143

 
(16.2)%
Operating income
$
95,353

 
$
106,498

 
(10.5)%
International revenue decreased $153.4 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $205.6 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International revenue increased $52.2 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily driven by new contracts along with higher occupancy and higher rates for our transit and street furniture products, particularly

38



digital, in certain European countries, including Sweden, Norway, Italy and the UK, as well as from new contracts in Australia and China.
International direct operating expenses decreased $93.6 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $133.5 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International direct operating expenses increased $39.9 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily as a result of higher variable costs associated with higher revenue, as well as site lease termination fees on lower-margin boards incurred in connection with strategic revenue and efficiency initiatives. International SG&A expenses decreased $16.6 million during 2015 compared to 2014. Excluding the $45.0 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, International SG&A expenses increased $28.4 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to higher compensation expense, including commissions in connection with higher revenues.
Depreciation and amortization decreased $32.1 million. Excluding the $19.5 million impact from movements in foreign exchange rates, depreciation and amortization decreased $12.6 million primarily due to assets becoming fully depreciated or fully amortized.
Also included in International Outdoor direct operating expenses and SG&A expenses are $8.2 million and $3.2 million, respectively, recorded in the fourth quarter of 2015 to correct for accounting errors included in the results for our Netherlands subsidiary reported in prior years. Such corrections are not considered to be material to the current year or prior year financial results.
Reconciliation of Segment Operating Income to Consolidated Operating Income
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Americas Outdoor Advertising
$
297,034

 
313,871

 
307,283

International Outdoor Advertising
116,178

 
95,353

 
106,498

Impairment charges
(7,274
)
 
(21,631
)
 
(3,530
)
Corporate and other (1)
(123,095
)
 
(121,768
)
 
(135,066
)
Other operating income, net
354,688

 
(4,824
)
 
7,259

Consolidated operating income
$
637,531

 
$
261,001

 
$
282,444

(1)
Corporate and other includes expenses related to Americas and International and as well as overall executive, administrative and support functions.
Share-Based Compensation Expense
As of December 31, 2016, there was $14.8 million of unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested share-based compensation arrangements that will vest based on service conditions.  Based on the terms of the award agreements, this cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately three years.  In addition, as of December 31, 2016, there was $0.7 million of unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested share-based compensation arrangements that will vest based on market, performance and service conditions.  This cost will be recognized when it becomes probable that the performance condition will be satisfied.
Share-based compensation expenses are recorded in corporate expenses and were $10.2 million, $8.4 million and $7.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

39



LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Cash Flows
The following discussion highlights cash flow activities during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014.
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Cash provided by (used for):
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
310,293

 
$
298,933

 
$
348,423

Investing activities
$
551,499

 
$
(257,725
)
 
$
(206,431
)
Financing activities
$
(726,499
)
 
$
199,054

 
$
(261,309
)
Operating Activities
2016
Cash provided by operating activities was $310.3 million in 2016 compared to $298.9 million of cash provided in 2015.  Our consolidated net loss included $121.3 million of non-cash items in 2016.  Our consolidated net income in 2015 included $413.0 million of non-cash items. Non-cash items affecting our net loss include impairment charges, depreciation and amortization, deferred taxes, provision for doubtful accounts, amortization of deferred financing charges and note discounts, net, share-based compensation, gain on disposal of operating and fixed assets, equity in (earnings) loss of nonconsolidated affiliates and other reconciling items, net as presented on the face of the consolidated statement of cash flows.  The increase in cash provided by operating activities is primarily attributed to changes in working capital balances, particularly accounts receivable, which was driven primarily by lower revenues and improved collections, partially offset by an increase in cash paid for interest.
2015
Cash provided by operating activities was $298.9 million in 2015 compared to $348.4 million of cash provided in 2014.  Our consolidated net loss included $413.0 million of net non-cash items in 2015.  Our consolidated net loss in 2014 included $373.7 million of net non-cash items. Non-cash items affecting our net loss include impairment charges, depreciation and amortization, deferred taxes, provision for doubtful accounts, amortization of deferred financing charges and note discounts, net, share-based compensation, gain on disposal of operating and fixed assets, gain on marketable securities, equity in (earnings) loss of nonconsolidated affiliates, loss on extinguishment of debt, and other reconciling items, net as presented on the face of the consolidated statement of cash flows.  The decrease in cash provided by operating activities is primarily attributed to a decrease in net income as well as changes in working capital balances, particularly accounts receivable.
2014
Cash provided by operating activities in 2014 was $348.4 million compared to $414.6 million in 2013.  Our consolidated net loss included $373.7 million of net non-cash items in 2014.  Our consolidated net loss in 2013 included $385.7 million of net non-cash items. Non-cash items affecting our net loss include impairment charges, depreciation and amortization, deferred taxes, provision for doubtful accounts, amortization of deferred financing charges and note discounts, net, share-based compensation, gain on disposal of operating and fixed assets, gain on marketable securities, equity in (earnings) loss of nonconsolidated affiliates, loss on extinguishment of debt, and other reconciling items, net as presented on the face of the consolidated statement of cash flows.  Cash paid for interest was $1.0 million higher in 2014 compared to the prior year due to the timing of accrued interest payments from refinancing transactions. 
Investing Activities
2016
Cash provided by investing activities of $551.5 million during 2016 primarily reflected $592.3 million of net cash proceeds from the sale of nine non-strategic outdoor markets including Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, Des Moines, Iowa, Ft. Smith, Arkansas, Memphis, Tennessee, Portland, Oregon, Reno, Nevada, Seattle, Washington and Wichita, Kansas, and the sale of our business in Australia for $195.7 million, net of cash retained by the purchaser and closing costs. Those sale proceeds were partially offset by $229.8 million used for capital expenditures.  We spent $81.4 million in our Americas segment primarily related to the construction of new advertising structures such as digital displays, $143.8 million in our International segment primarily related to street furniture advertising structures, and $4.6 million by Corporate primarily related to equipment and software.

40



2015
Cash used for investing activities of $257.7 million during 2015 reflected our capital expenditures of $218.3 million.  We spent $82.2 million in our Americas segment primarily related to the construction of new advertising structures such as digital displays, $132.6 million in our International segment primarily related to street furniture advertising and digital billboard structures, and $3.5 million by Corporate primarily related to equipment and software. Other cash provided by investing activities were $11.3 million of proceeds from sales of other operating and fixed assets.
2014
Cash used for investing activities of $206.4 million during 2014 reflected our capital expenditures of $231.2 million.  We spent $109.7 million in our Americas segment primarily related to the construction of new advertising structures such as digital displays, $117.5 million in our International segment primarily related to new advertising structures such as billboards and street furniture and renewals of existing contracts, and $4.0 million by Corporate primarily related to equipment and software.  Other cash provided by investing activities were $12.9 million of proceeds from sales of other operating and fixed assets.
Financing Activities
2016
Cash used for financing activities of $726.5 million during 2016 primarily reflected two cash dividends paid in the aggregate amount of $755.5 million, partially offset by net transfers of $45.1 million in cash from iHeartCommunications, which represents the activity in the “Due from iHeartCommunications” account.
2015
Cash provided by financing activities of $199.1 million during 2015 primarily reflected the proceeds from the issuance of $225.0 million of senior notes by our subsidiary Clear Channel International B.V. We also received $17.0 million in cash from iHeartCommunications, which represents the activity in the “Due from/to iHeartCommunications” account.
On December 20, 2015, our board of directors declared a special cash dividend of $217.8 million that was paid on January 7, 2016 and was reflected as cash used for financing activities in the first quarter of 2016.
2014
Cash used for financing activities of $261.3 million during 2014 primarily reflected the $175.0 million dividend paid as well as net transfers of $68.8 million in cash to iHeartCommunications, which represents the activity in the “Due from/to iHeartCommunications” account.  Other cash used for financing activities included net payments to noncontrolling interests of $19.0 million.
Anticipated Cash Requirements
Our primary sources of liquidity are cash on hand, cash flow from operations, the revolving promissory note with iHeartCommunications and our senior revolving credit facility.  As of December 31, 2016, we had $542.0 million of cash on our balance sheet, including $180.1 million of cash held outside the U.S. by our subsidiaries, a portion of which is held by non-wholly owned subsidiaries or is otherwise subject to certain restrictions and not readily accessible to us.  We disclose in Item 8 of our Form 10-K within Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, that our policy is to permanently reinvest the earnings of our non-U.S. subsidiaries as these earnings are generally redeployed in those jurisdictions for operating needs and continued functioning of their businesses.  We have the ability and intent to indefinitely reinvest the undistributed earnings of consolidated subsidiaries based outside of the United States.  If any excess cash held by our foreign subsidiaries were needed to fund operations in the United States, we could presently repatriate available funds without a requirement to accrue or pay U.S. taxes.  This is a result of significant deficits, as calculated for tax law purposes, in our foreign earnings and profits, which gives us flexibility to make future cash distributions as non-taxable returns of capital. 
Our primary uses of liquidity are for our working capital, capital expenditure, debt service, special dividend and other funding requirements.  Based on our current and anticipated levels of operations and conditions in our markets, we believe that cash on hand, cash flows from operations, repayment of amounts outstanding under the revolving promissory note with iHeartCommunications and borrowing capacity under our senior revolving credit facility will enable us to meet our working capital, capital expenditure, debt service, special dividend and other funding requirements, including the debt service on the CCWH Senior Notes, the CCWH Subordinated Notes and the CCIBV Senior Notes for at least the next 12 months.  We believe our long-term plans, which include promoting outdoor media spending, capitalizing on our diverse geographic and product opportunities and the continued deployment of digital displays, will enable us to continue generating cash flows from operations sufficient to meet our liquidity and funding requirements long term.  However, our anticipated results are subject to significant uncertainty.

41



Our ability to fund our working capital, capital expenditures, debt service, special dividend and other obligations depends on our future operating performance and cash from operations.  If our future operating performance does not meet our expectations or our plans materially change in an adverse manner or prove to be materially inaccurate, we may need additional financing.  We may not be able to secure any such additional financing on terms favorable to us or at all.
In the first quarter of 2016, we paid $757.8 million in special cash dividends to our stockholders.  As described under “Uses of Capital-Special Dividends” below, in the first quarter of 2016, we paid a $217.8 million dividend from the proceeds of the issuance of 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020 by Clear Channel International B.V. ("CCIBV"), one of our indirect subsidiaries, and a $540.0 million dividend with the proceeds of a $300 million repayment under the Due from iHeartCommunications note and the sale of our outdoor business in nine non-strategic markets. During the fourth quarter of 2016, we sold our business in Australia for cash proceeds of $195.7 million, net of cash retained by the purchaser and closing costs. On February 9, 2017, we declared a special cash dividend to our stockholders of $282.5 million, to be paid using proceeds from the sales of certain non-strategic U.S. markets and of our business in Australia. We paid the dividend on February 23, 2017, of which 89.9% or approximately $254.0 million was paid to iHeartCommunications, with the remaining 10.1% or approximately $28.5 million paid to our public stockholders. The payment of these special dividends reduces the amount of cash available to us for future working capital, capital expenditure, debt service and other funding requirements.   Similarly, the repayment of the $300.0 million under the Due from iHeartCommunications note reduced the amount of the Due from iHeartCommunications note asset that is available to us as a source of liquidity.  Future special cash dividends will be dependent upon, among other things, our having sufficient available cash.
In addition to any special dividends that our board of directors may declare using the proceeds of any liquidity-generating transactions or other available cash, we may declare special dividends using the proceeds of payments from iHeartCommunications under the Due from iHeartCommunications note.  Our board of directors has established a committee that has the non-exclusive authority to demand payments under the Due from iHeartCommunications note under certain specified circumstances tied to iHeartCommunications’ liquidity or the amount outstanding under the Due from iHeartCommunications note, as long as our board of directors declares a simultaneous dividend equal to the amount so demanded.  Any future repayments and dividends would further reduce the amount of the Due from iHeartCommunications note asset that is available to us as a source of liquidity for ongoing working capital, capital expenditure, debt service, special dividend and other funding requirements.
As our controlling stockholder, iHeartCommunications may request and may exert pressure on us to engage in transactions for the purpose of supporting its liquidity needs, such as financings or asset sales, which may negatively affect our business operations or our capital structure.  In its Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 23, 2017, iHeartCommunications stated that its forecast of future cash flows indicates that such cash flows would not be sufficient for it to meet its obligations, including payment of the outstanding receivables based credit facility balance at maturity on December 24, 2017, as they become due in the ordinary course of business for a period of at least 12 months following February 23, 2017. While iHeartCommunications stated that it believes that the refinancing or the extension of the maturity date of the receivables based credit facility, combined with current funds and expected future cash flows, will be sufficient to enable it to meet its obligations as they become due in the ordinary course of business for a period of at least 12 months following February 23, 2017, there is no assurance that the receivables based credit facility will be extended in a timely manner or on acceptable terms, or at all.
iHeartCommunications provides the day-to-day cash management services for our cash activities and balances in the U.S. We do not have any material committed external sources of capital other than iHeartCommunications, and iHeartCommunications is not required to provide us with funds to finance our working capital or other cash requirements. We have no access to the cash transferred from us to iHeartCommunications under the cash management arrangement other than our right to demand payment by iHeartCommunications of the amounts owed to us under the Due from iHeartCommunications note. As of December 31, 2016, iHeartCommunications had $845.0 million recorded as “Cash and cash equivalents” on its consolidated balance sheets, of which $542.0 million was held by us and our subsidiaries, and we had $885.7 million due to us from iHeartCommunications under the Due from iHeartCommunications note.  Further deterioration in the financial condition or liquidity of iHeartCommunications could result in its inability to repay amounts due to us under the Due from iHeartCommunications note when demanded or at maturity, and could also have the effect of increasing our borrowing costs or impairing our access to capital markets. If iHeartCommunications were to become insolvent or file for bankruptcy, we would be an unsecured creditor of iHeartCommunications. In that event, we would be treated the same as other unsecured creditors of iHeartCommunications and, if we were not repaid or otherwise entitled to amounts outstanding or previously paid under the revolving promissory note, or could not obtain cash previously transferred to iHeartCommunications on a timely basis or retain cash previously received from iHeartCommunications, we could experience a liquidity shortfall.
We were in compliance with the covenants contained in our material financing agreements as of December 31, 2016.  Our ability to comply with the maintenance covenant in our senior secured credit facility may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions.

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In its Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 23, 2017, iHeartCommunications stated that it was in compliance with the covenants contained in its material financing agreements as of December 31, 2016, other than a payment default on notes held by a subsidiary of iHeartCommunications that has informed iHeartCommunications it does not intend to collect the principal amount due or exercise or request enforcement of any remedy with respect to the payment default under the applicable indenture.  iHeartCommunications stated that this payment default is below the $100.0 million cross-default threshold in iHeartCommunications' debt documents. iHeartCommunications similarly stated in its Annual Report that its future results are subject to significant uncertainty and there can be no assurance it will be able to maintain compliance with these covenants.  iHeartCommunications stated in its Annual Report that these covenants include a requirement in its senior secured credit facilities that it receive an opinion from its auditors in connection with its year-end audit that is not subject to a "going concern" or like qualification or exception. Moreover, iHeartCommunications stated in its Annual Report that its ability to comply with the covenants in its material financing agreements may be affected by events beyond its control, including the uncertainties described under "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liquidity and Capital Resources-Anticipated Cash Requirements" in its Annual Report and prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions.  As discussed therein, the breach of any covenants set forth in iHeartCommunications’ financing agreements would result in a default thereunder, and an event of default would permit the lenders under a defaulted financing agreement to declare all indebtedness thereunder to be immediately due and payable. In addition, iHeartCommunications stated in its Annual Report that if iHeartCommunications is unable to repay its obligations under any secured credit facility, the lenders could proceed against any assets that were pledged to secure such facility.  Finally, iHeartCommunications stated in its Annual Report that a default or acceleration under any of its material financing agreements could cause a default under other obligations that are subject to cross-default and cross-acceleration provisions.
We frequently evaluate strategic opportunities both within and outside our existing lines of business.  We expect from time to time to dispose of certain businesses and may pursue acquisitions.  These dispositions or acquisitions could be material.
Sources of Capital
As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, we had the following debt outstanding, cash and cash equivalents and amounts due from iHeartCommunications:
 
December 31,
(In millions)
2016
 
2015
Clear Channel Worldwide Holdings Senior Notes due 2022
$
2,725.0

 
$
2,725.0

Clear Channel Worldwide Holdings Senior Subordinated Notes due 2020
2,200.0

 
2,200.0

Senior Revolving Credit Facility due 2018

 

Clear Channel International B.V. Senior Notes due 2020
225.0

 
225.0

Other debt
14.8

 
19.0

Original issue discount
(6.7
)
 
(7.8
)
Long-term debt fees
(41.1
)
 
(50.4
)
Total debt
5,117.0

 
5,110.8

Less:  Cash and cash equivalents
542.0

 
412.7

Less:  Due from iHeartCommunications
885.7

 
930.8

 
$
3,689.3

 
$
3,767.3

We may from time to time repay our outstanding debt or seek to purchase our outstanding equity securities.  Such transactions, if any, will depend on prevailing market conditions, our liquidity requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors.
Promissory Notes with iHeartCommunications
We maintain accounts that represent net amounts due to or from iHeartCommunications, which are recorded as “Due from/to iHeartCommunications” on our consolidated balance sheets.  The accounts represent our revolving promissory note issued by us to iHeartCommunications and the Due from iHeartCommunications note, in each case in the face amount of $1.0 billion, or if more or less than such amount, the aggregate unpaid principal amount of all advances.  The accounts accrue interest pursuant to the terms of the promissory notes and are generally payable on demand or when they mature on December 15, 2017.  Included in the accounts are the net activities resulting from day-to-day cash management services provided by iHeartCommunications.  Such day-to-day cash management services relate only to our cash activities and balances in the U.S. and exclude any cash activities and balances of our non-U.S. subsidiaries.  As of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the asset recorded in “Due from

43



iHeartCommunications” on our consolidated balance sheet was $885.7 million and $930.8 million, respectively.  As of December 31, 2016, we had no borrowings under the cash management note to iHeartCommunications.
In accordance with the terms of the settlement for the derivative litigation filed by our stockholders regarding the Due from iHeartCommunications note, as previously disclosed, we established a committee of our board of directors, consisting of our independent and disinterested directors, for the specific purpose of monitoring the Due from iHeartCommunications note.  This committee has the non-exclusive authority to demand payments under the Due from iHeartCommunications note under certain specified circumstances tied to iHeartCommunications’ liquidity or the amount outstanding under the Due from iHeartCommunications note, as long as our board of directors declares a simultaneous dividend equal to the amount so demanded.  The committee last made a demand under the Due from iHeartCommunications note on August 11, 2014.  If future demands are made in accordance with the terms of the committee charter, we will declare a simultaneous dividend equal to the amount so demanded, which would further reduce the amount of the “Due from iHeartCommunications” asset that is available to us as a source of liquidity for ongoing working capital, capital expenditure, debt service and other funding requirements.
The net interest income for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 was $50.3 million, $61.4 million and $60.2 million, respectively. At December 31, 2016, the fixed interest rate on the “Due from iHeartCommunications” account was 6.5%, which is equal to the fixed interest rate on the CCWH senior notes. On October 23, 2013, in accordance with the terms of the settlement, the interest rate on the Due from iHeartCommunications note was amended such that if the outstanding balance on the Due from iHeartCommunications note exceeds $1.0 billion and under certain other circumstances tied to iHeartCommunications’ liquidity, the rate will be variable but will in no event be less than 6.5% nor greater than 20%.
Our working capital requirements and capital for general corporate purposes, including acquisitions and capital expenditures, may be provided to us by iHeartCommunications, in its sole discretion, pursuant to a revolving promissory note issued by us to iHeartCommunications or pursuant to repayment of the Due from iHeartCommunications note.  If we are unable to obtain financing from iHeartCommunications, we may need to obtain additional financing from banks or other lenders, or through public offerings or private placements of debt or equity, strategic relationships or other arrangements at some future date.  As stated above, we may be unable to successfully obtain additional debt or equity financing on satisfactory terms or at all.
As long as iHeartCommunications maintains a significant interest in us, pursuant to the Master Agreement between iHeartCommunications and us, iHeartCommunications will have the option to limit our ability to incur debt or issue equity securities, among other limitations, which could adversely affect our ability to meet our liquidity needs.  Under the Master Agreement with iHeartCommunications, we are limited in our borrowings from third parties to no more than $400.0 million at any one time outstanding, without the prior written consent of iHeartCommunications.
CCWH Senior Notes
As of December 31, 2016, CCWH senior notes represented $2.7 billion aggregate principal amount of indebtedness outstanding, which consisted of $735.8 million aggregate principal amount of Series A Senior Notes due 2022 (the “Series A CCWH Senior Notes”) and $1,989.2 million aggregate principal amount of Series B CCWH Senior Notes due 2022 (the “Series B CCWH Senior Notes”).  The CCWH Senior Notes are guaranteed by us, Clear Channel Outdoor, Inc. (“CCOI”) and certain of our direct and indirect subsidiaries.
The CCWH Senior Notes are senior obligations that rank pari passu in right of payment to all unsubordinated indebtedness of CCWH and the guarantees of the CCWH Senior Notes rank pari passu in right of payment to all unsubordinated indebtedness of the guarantors.  Interest on the CCWH Senior Notes is payable to the trustee weekly in arrears and to the noteholders on May 15 and November 15 of each year.
At any time prior to November 15, 2017, CCWH may redeem the CCWH Senior Notes, in whole or in part, at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the CCWH Senior Notes plus a “make-whole” premium, together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the redemption date. CCWH may redeem the CCWH Senior Notes, in whole or in part, on or after November 15, 2017, at the redemption prices set forth in the applicable indenture governing the CCWH Senior Notes plus accrued and unpaid interest to the redemption date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, neither CCOH nor any of its subsidiaries is permitted to make any purchase of, or otherwise effectively cancel or retire any Series A CCWH Senior Notes or Series B CCWH Senior Notes if, after giving effect thereto and, if applicable, any concurrent purchase of or other addition with respect to any Series B CCWH Senior Notes or Series A CCWH Senior Notes, as applicable, the ratio of (a) the outstanding aggregate principal amount of the Series A CCWH Senior Notes to (b) the outstanding aggregate principal amount of the Series B CCWH Senior Notes shall be greater than 0.25, subject to certain exceptions.
The indenture governing the Series A CCWH Senior Notes contains covenants that limit us and our restricted subsidiaries ability to, among other things:

44



incur or guarantee additional debt to persons other than iHeartCommunications and its subsidiaries (other than us) or issue certain preferred stock;
create liens on its restricted subsidiaries’ assets to secure such debt;
create restrictions on the payment of dividends or other amounts to us from our restricted subsidiaries that are not guarantors of the CCWH Senior Notes;
enter into certain transactions with affiliates; and
merge or consolidate with another person, or sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its assets.
In addition, the indenture governing the Series A CCWH Senior Notes provides that if CCWH (i) makes an optional redemption of the Series B CCWH Senior Notes or purchases or makes an offer to purchase the Series B CCWH Senior Notes at or above 100% of the principal amount thereof, then CCWH shall apply a pro rata amount to make an optional redemption or purchase a pro rata amount of the Series A CCWH Senior Notes or (ii) makes an asset sale offer under the indenture governing the Series B CCWH Senior Notes, then CCWH shall apply a pro rata amount to make an offer to purchase a pro rata amount of Series A CCWH Senior Notes.
The indenture governing the Series A CCWH Senior Notes does not include limitations on dividends, distributions, investments or asset sales.
The indenture governing the Series B CCWH Senior Notes contains covenants that limit us and our restricted subsidiaries ability to, among other things:
incur or guarantee additional debt or issue certain preferred stock;
redeem, repurchase or retire our subordinated debt;
make certain investments;
create liens on its or its restricted subsidiaries’ assets to secure debt;
create restrictions on the payment of dividends or other amounts to it from its restricted subsidiaries that are not guarantors of the CCWH Senior Notes;
enter into certain transactions with affiliates;
merge or consolidate with another person, or sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its assets;
sell certain assets, including capital stock of its subsidiaries;
designate its subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries; and
pay dividends, redeem or repurchase capital stock or make other restricted payments.
The Series A CCWH Senior Notes indenture and Series B CCWH Senior Notes indenture restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness but permit us to incur additional indebtedness based on an incurrence test.  In order to incur (i) additional indebtedness under this test, our debt to adjusted EBITDA ratios (as defined by the indentures) must be lower than 7.0:1 and 5.0:1 for total debt and senior debt, respectively and (ii) additional indebtedness that is subordinated to the CCWH Senior Notes under this test, our debt to adjusted EBITDA ratios (as defined by the indentures) must be lower than 7.0:1 for total debt.  The indentures contain certain other exceptions that allow us to incur additional indebtedness. The Series B CCWH Senior Notes indenture also permits us to pay dividends from the proceeds of indebtedness or the proceeds from asset sales if our debt to adjusted EBITDA ratios (as defined by the indentures) are lower than 7.0:1 and 5.0:1 for total debt and senior debt, respectively. The Series A CCWH Senior Notes indenture does not limit our ability to pay dividends.  Because our consolidated leverage ratio exceeded the limit in the incurrence tests described above, we are not currently permitted to incur additional indebtedness using the incurrence test in the Series A CCWH Senior Notes indenture and the Series B CCWH Senior Notes indenture, and we are not currently permitted to pay dividends from the proceeds of indebtedness or the excess proceeds from asset sales under the Series B CCWH Senior Notes indenture. There are other exceptions in these indentures that allow us to incur additional indebtedness and pay dividends. The exceptions in the Series B CCWH Senior Notes indenture that allow us to pay dividends include (i) $525.0 million of dividends made pursuant to general restricted payment baskets and (ii) dividends made using proceeds received upon a demand by us of amounts outstanding under the revolving promissory note issued by iHeartCommunications to us.
Consolidated leverage ratio, defined as total debt divided by EBITDA (as defined by the CCWH Senior Notes indentures) for the preceding four quarters was 7.8:1 at December 31, 2016, and senior leverage ratio, defined as senior debt divided by EBITDA (as defined by the CCWH Senior Notes indentures) for the preceding four quarters was 4.2:1 at December 31, 2016.  As required by the definition of EBITDA in the CCWH Senior Notes indentures, our EBITDA for the preceding four quarters of $661.2 million is calculated as operating income (loss) before depreciation, amortization, impairment charges and other operating income (expense), net, plus share-based compensation, and is further adjusted for the following: (i) costs incurred in connection with severance, the closure and/or consolidation of facilities, retention charges, consulting fees and other permitted activities; (ii) extraordinary, non-recurring or unusual gains or losses or expenses; (iii) non-cash charges; and (iv) various other items.

45



The following table reflects a reconciliation of EBITDA (as defined by the CCWH Senior Notes indentures) to operating income and net cash provided by operating activities for the four quarters ended December 31, 2016:
 
Four Quarters Ended
(In millions)
December 31, 2016
EBITDA (as defined by the CCWH Senior Notes indentures)
$
661.2

Less adjustments to EBITDA (as defined by the CCWH Senior Notes indentures):
 
Costs incurred in connection with severance, the closure and/or consolidation of facilities, retention charges, consulting fees and other permitted activities
(15.3
)
Extraordinary, non-recurring or unusual gains or losses or expenses (as referenced in the definition of EBITDA in the CCWH Senior Notes indentures)
(9.8
)
Non-cash charges
(10.5
)
Other items
18.4

Less: Depreciation and amortization, Impairment charges, Other operating income, net and Share-based compensation expense
(6.5
)
Operating income
637.5

Plus: Depreciation and amortization, Impairment charges, Gain (loss) on disposal of operating and fixed assets and Share-based compensation expense
(1.8
)
Less: Interest expense
(374.9
)
Plus: Interest income on Due from iHeartCommunications
50.3

Less: Current income tax expense
(45.3
)
Plus: Other income, net
(70.7
)
Adjustments to reconcile consolidated net loss to net cash provided by operating activities (including Provision for doubtful accounts, Amortization of deferred financing charges and note discounts, net and Other reconciling items, net)
90.7

Change in assets and liabilities, net of assets acquired and liabilities assumed
24.5

Net cash provided by operating activities
$
310.3

CCWH Senior Subordinated Notes
As of December 31, 2016, CCWH Subordinated Notes represented $2.2 billion of aggregate principal amount of indebtedness outstanding, which consist of $275.0 million aggregate principal amount of 7.625% Series A Senior Subordinated Notes due 2020 (the “Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes”) and $1,925.0 million aggregate principal amount of 7.625% Series B Senior Subordinated Notes due 2020 (the “Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes”).  Interest on the CCWH Subordinated Notes is payable to the trustee weekly in arrears and to the noteholders on March 15 and September 15 of each year.
The CCWH Subordinated Notes are CCWH’s senior subordinated obligations and are fully and unconditionally guaranteed, jointly and severally, on a senior subordinated basis by us, CCOI and certain of our other domestic subsidiaries. The CCWH Subordinated Notes are unsecured senior subordinated obligations that rank junior to all of CCWH’s existing and future senior debt, including the CCWH Senior Notes, equally with any of CCWH’s existing and future senior subordinated debt and ahead of all of CCWH’s existing and future debt that expressly provides that it is subordinated to the CCWH Subordinated Notes. The guarantees of the CCWH Subordinated Notes rank junior to each guarantor’s existing and future senior debt, including the  CCWH Senior Notes, equally with each guarantor’s existing and future senior subordinated debt and ahead of each guarantor’s existing and future debt that expressly provides that it is subordinated to the guarantees of the CCWH Subordinated Notes.
CCWH may redeem the CCWH Subordinated Notes, in whole or in part, at the redemption prices set forth in the applicable indenture governing the CCWH Subordinated Notes plus accrued and unpaid interest to the redemption date. Neither us nor any of our subsidiaries is permitted to make any purchase of, or otherwise effectively cancel or retire any Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes or Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes if, after giving effect thereto and, if applicable, any concurrent purchase of or other addition with respect to any Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes or Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes, as applicable, the ratio of (a) the outstanding aggregate principal amount of the Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes to (b) the outstanding aggregate principal amount of the Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes shall be greater than 0.25, subject to certain exceptions.
The indenture governing the Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes contains covenants that limit us and our restricted subsidiaries ability to, among other things:

46



incur or guarantee additional debt to persons other than iHeartCommunications and its subsidiaries (other than us) or issue certain preferred stock;
create restrictions on the payment of dividends or other amounts to us from our restricted subsidiaries that are not guarantors of the notes;
enter into certain transactions with affiliates; and
merge or consolidate with another person, or sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of CCOH’s assets.
In addition, the indenture governing the Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes provides that if CCWH (i) makes an optional redemption of the Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes or purchases or makes an offer to purchase the Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes at or above 100% of the principal amount thereof, then CCWH shall apply a pro rata amount to make an optional redemption or purchase a pro rata amount of the Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes or (ii) makes an asset sale offer under the indenture governing the Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes, then CCWH shall apply a pro rata amount to make an offer to purchase a pro rata amount of Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes.
The indenture governing the Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes does not include limitations on dividends, distributions, investments or asset sales.
The indenture governing the Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes contains covenants that limit us and our restricted subsidiaries ability to, among other things:
incur or guarantee additional debt or issue certain preferred stock;
make certain investments;
create restrictions on the payment of dividends or other amounts to us from our restricted subsidiaries that are not guarantors of the notes;
enter into certain transactions with affiliates;
merge or consolidate with another person, or sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets;
sell certain assets, including capital stock of our subsidiaries;
designate our subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries; and
pay dividends, redeem or repurchase capital stock or make other restricted payments.
The Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes indenture and Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes indenture restrict CCOH’s ability to incur additional indebtedness but permit us to incur additional indebtedness based on an incurrence test.  In order to incur additional indebtedness under this test, our debt to adjusted EBITDA ratios (as defined by the indentures) must be lower than 7.0:1.  The indentures contain certain other exceptions that allow us to incur additional indebtedness. The Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes indenture also permits us to pay dividends from the proceeds of indebtedness or the proceeds from asset sales if its debt to adjusted EBITDA ratios (as defined by the indentures) is lower than 7.0:1.  The Series A CCWH Senior Subordinated Notes indenture does not limit our ability to pay dividends.  Because our consolidated leverage ratio exceeded the limit in the incurrence tests described above, we are not currently permitted to incur additional indebtedness using the incurrence test in the Series A CCWH Subordinated Notes indenture and the Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes indenture, and we are not currently permitted to pay dividends from the proceeds of indebtedness or the excess proceeds from asset sales under the Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes indenture. There are other exceptions in these indentures that allow us to incur additional indebtedness and pay dividends. The exceptions in the Series B CCWH Subordinated Notes indenture that allow us to pay dividends include (i) $525.0 million of dividends made pursuant to general restricted payment baskets and (ii) dividends made using proceeds received upon a demand by us of amounts outstanding under the revolving promissory note issued by iHeartCommunications to us.
CCIBV Senior Notes
As of December 31, 2016, Clear Channel International B.V., an international subsidiary of ours, had $225.0 million aggregate principal amount outstanding of its 8.75% Senior Notes due 2020 (“CCIBV Senior Notes”).
The CCIBV Senior Notes mature on December 15, 2020 and bear interest at a rate of 8.75% per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year.  The CCIBV Senior Notes are guaranteed by certain of our International outdoor business’s existing and future subsidiaries. The Company does not guarantee or otherwise assume any liability for the CCIBV Senior Notes. The notes are senior unsecured obligations that rank pari passu in right of payment to all unsubordinated indebtedness of Clear Channel International B.V., and the guarantees of the notes are senior unsecured obligations that rank pari passu in right of payment to all unsubordinated indebtedness of the guarantors of the notes.
Clear Channel International B.V. may redeem the notes at its option, in whole or part, at any time prior to December 15, 2017, at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes redeemed, plus a make-whole premium, plus accrued and unpaid interest to the redemption date. Clear Channel International B.V. may redeem the notes, in whole or in part, on or after

47



December 15, 2017, at the redemption prices set forth in the indenture plus accrued and unpaid interest to the redemption date. At any time on or before December 15, 2017, Clear Channel International B.V. may elect to redeem up to 40% of the aggregate principal amount of the notes at a redemption price equal to 108.75% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest to the redemption date, with the net proceeds of one or more equity offerings.
The indenture governing the CCIBV Senior Notes contains covenants that limit Clear Channel International B.V.’s ability and the ability of its restricted subsidiaries to, among other things: (i) pay dividends, redeem stock or make other distributions or investments; (ii) incur additional debt or issue certain preferred stock; (iii) transfer or sell assets; (iv) create liens on assets; (v) engage in certain transactions with affiliates; (vi) create restrictions on dividends or other payments by the restricted subsidiaries; and (vii) merge, consolidate or sell substantially all of Clear Channel International B.V.’s assets.
Senior Revolving Credit Facility Due 2018
During the third quarter of 2013, we entered into a five-year senior secured revolving credit facility with an aggregate principal amount of $75.0 million.  The revolving credit facility may be used for working capital needs, to issue letters of credit and for other general corporate purposes.  As of December 31, 2016, there were no amounts outstanding under the revolving credit facility, and $65.4 million of letters of credit under the revolving credit facility which reduce availability under the facility. The revolving credit facility contains a springing covenant that requires us to maintain a secured leverage ratio (as defined in the revolving credit facility) of not more than 1.5:1 that is tested at the end of a quarter if availability under the facility is less than 75% of the aggregate commitments under the facility.  We were in compliance with the secured leverage ratio covenant as of December 31, 2016.
Other Debt
Other debt consists primarily of loans with international banks.  As of December 31, 2016, approximately $14.8 million was outstanding as other debt.
iHeartCommunications’ Debt Covenants
The iHeartCommunications’ senior secured credit facility contains a significant financial covenant which requires iHeartCommunications to comply on a quarterly basis with a financial covenant limiting the ratio of its consolidated secured debt, net of cash and cash equivalents, to consolidated EBITDA for the preceding four quarters (maximum of 8.75:1).  In its Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 23, 2017, iHeartCommunications stated that it was in compliance with this covenant as of December 31, 2016.
Dispositions and Other
In the first quarter of 2016, Americas outdoor sold nine non-strategic outdoor markets including Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, Des Moines, Iowa, Ft. Smith, Arkansas, Memphis, Tennessee, Portland, Oregon, Reno, Nevada, Seattle, Washington and Wichita, Kansas for net proceeds of $592.3 million in cash and certain advertising assets in Florida. We recognized a net gain of $278.3 million related to the sale, which is included within Other operating income (expense), net.
In the second quarter of 2016, International outdoor sold its business in Turkey. As a result, we recognized a net loss of $56.6 million, which includes $32.2 million in cumulative translation adjustments that were recognized upon sale of the subsidiaries in Turkey.
In the fourth quarter 2016, International outdoor sold its business in Australia for cash proceeds of $195.7 million. As a result, we recognized a net gain of $127.6 million, which is net of $14.6 million in cumulative translation adjustments that were recognized upon the sale of our business in Australia.
During 2014, we sold our 50% interest in Buspak, recognizing a gain on the sale of $4.5 million.

48



Uses of Capital
Capital Expenditures
Our capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 were as follows:
(In millions)
Years Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Americas advertising
$
81.4

 
$
82.2

 
$
109.7

International advertising
143.8

 
132.6

 
117.5

Corporate
4.6

 
3.5

 
4.0

Total capital expenditures
$
229.8

 
$
218.3

 
$
231.2

Our capital expenditures are not of significant size individually and primarily relate to the ongoing deployment of digital displays and improvements to traditional displays in our Americas segment as well as new billboard and street furniture contracts and renewals of existing contracts in our International segment.
See the Contractual Obligations table under “Commitments and Contingencies” and Note 5 to our Consolidated Financial Statements located in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Company's future capital expenditure commitments.
Part of our long-term strategy is to pursue the technology of digital displays, including flat screens, LCDs and LEDs, as alternatives to traditional methods of displaying our clients’ advertisements.  We are currently installing these technologies in certain markets.  We believe cash flow from operations will be sufficient to fund these expenditures because we expect enhanced margins through: (i) lower cost of production as the advertisements will be digital and controlled by a central computer network, (ii) decreased down time on displays because the advertisements will be digitally changed rather than manually posted paper or vinyl on the face of the display, and (iii) incremental revenue through more targeted and time specific advertisements.
Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees
We are currently involved in certain legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business and, as required, have accrued our estimate of the probable costs for resolution of those claims for which the occurrence of loss is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. These estimates have been developed in consultation with counsel and are based upon an analysis of potential results, assuming a combination of litigation and settlement strategies. It is possible, however, that future results of operations for any particular period could be materially affected by changes in our assumptions or the effectiveness of our strategies related to these proceedings.  Please see Item 3. Legal Proceedings within Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our short and long term cash requirements include minimum annual guarantees for our street furniture contracts and operating leases.  Noncancelable contracts and operating lease requirements are included in our direct operating expenses, which historically have been satisfied by cash flows from operations.  For 2017, we are committed to $137.4 million and $335.6 million for minimum annual guarantees and operating leases, respectively.  Our long-term commitments for minimum annual guarantees, operating leases and capital expenditure requirements are included in the table below.
Certain agreements relating to acquisitions provide for purchase price adjustments and other future contingent payments based on the financial performance of the acquired companies generally over a one to five year period.  The aggregate of these contingent payments, if performance targets are met, would not significantly impact our financial position or results of operations.
In addition to the scheduled maturities on debt issued by CCWH and CCIBV, we have future cash obligations under various types of contracts.  We lease office space, certain equipment and the majority of the land occupied by our advertising structures under long-term operating leases.  Some of our lease agreements contain renewal options and annual rental escalation clauses (generally tied to the consumer price index), as well as provisions for our payment of utilities and maintenance.
We have minimum franchise payments associated with non-cancelable contracts that enable us to display advertising on such media as buses, trains, bus shelters and terminals.  The majority of these contracts contain rent provisions that are calculated as the greater of a percentage of the relevant advertising revenue or a specified guaranteed minimum annual payment.

49



The scheduled maturities of the CCWH Senior Notes, CCWH Subordinated Notes, CCIBV Senior Notes and other debt outstanding, and our future minimum rental commitments under non-cancelable lease agreements, minimum payments under other non-cancelable contracts, capital expenditure commitments and other long-term obligations as of December 31, 2016, are as follows:
(In thousands)
Payments due by Period
Contractual Obligations
Total
 
2017
 
2018-2019
 
2020-2021
 
Thereafter
Long-term Debt:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CCWH Senior Notes
$
2,725,000

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
2,725,000

CCWH Senior Subordinated Notes
2,200,000

 

 

 
2,200,000

 

CCIBV Senior Notes
225,000

 

 

 
225,000

 

Other Long-term Debt
14,798

 
6,972

 
928

 
644

 
6,254

Interest payments on long-term debt (1)
1,658

 
368

 
732

 
460

 
98

Non-cancelable operating leases 
2,556,307

 
335,574

 
554,757

 
454,936

 
1,211,040

Non-cancelable contracts
1,745,506

 
363,137

 
555,692

 
415,443

 
411,234

Employment contracts

 

 

 

 

Capital expenditures
77,716

 
49,618

 
11,797

 
4,059

 
12,242

Unrecognized tax benefits (2)
23,772

 

 

 

 
23,772

Other long-term obligations (3)
235,539

 
(1,109
)
 
10,864

 
19,880

 
205,904

Total
$
11,172,278

 
$
1,084,723

 
$
1,737,431

 
$
3,742,285

 
$
4,607,839

(1)
Interest payments on long-term debt consist primarily of interest on the CCWH Senior Notes, the CCWH Senior Subordinated Notes and the CCIBV Senior Notes.
(2)
The non-current portion of the unrecognized tax benefits is included in the “Thereafter” column as we cannot reasonably estimate the timing or amounts of additional cash payments, if any, at this time.  For additional information, see Note 7 included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(3)
Other long-term obligations consist of $39.5 million related to asset retirement obligations recorded pursuant to ASC 410-20, which assumes the underlying assets will be removed at some period over the next 55 years.  Also included in the table is $55.5 million related to retirement plans and $140.7 million related to other long-term obligations with a specific maturity.
SEASONALITY
Typically, both our Americas and International segments experience their lowest financial performance in the first quarter of the calendar year, with International historically experiencing a loss from operations in that period.  Our International segment typically experiences its strongest performance in the second and fourth quarters of the calendar year.  We expect this trend to continue in the future.
MARKET RISK
We are exposed to market risks arising from changes in market rates and prices, including movements in equity security prices, foreign currency exchange rates and inflation.
Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk
We have operations in countries throughout the world.  Foreign operations are measured in their local currencies.  As a result, our financial results could be affected by factors such as changes in foreign currency exchange rates or weak economic conditions in the foreign markets in which we have operations.  We believe we mitigate a small portion of our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations with a natural hedge through borrowings in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.  Our foreign operations reported net income of $121.1 million for year ended December 31, 2016.  We estimate a 10% increase in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies would have decreased our net income for the year ended December 31, 2016 by $12.1 million.  A 10% decrease in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies would have increased our net income for the year ended December 31, 2016 by a corresponding amount.
This analysis does not consider the implications that such currency fluctuations could have on the overall economic activity that could exist in such an environment in the U.S. or the foreign countries or on the results of operations of these foreign entities.

50



Inflation
Inflation is a factor in the economies in which we do business and we continue to seek ways to mitigate its effect.  Inflation has affected our performance in terms of higher costs for wages, salaries and equipment.  Although the exact impact of inflation is indeterminable, we believe we have offset these higher costs by increasing the effective advertising rates of most of our outdoor display faces.
NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
During the second quarter of 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40): Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity's Ability to Continue as a Going Concern. This update provides U.S. GAAP guidance on management’s responsibility in evaluating whether there is substantial doubt about a company’s ability to continue as a going concern and about related footnote disclosures. For each reporting period, the Company will be required to evaluate whether there are conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about a company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year from the date the financial statements are issued. The amendments in this update are effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and for interim periods thereafter. Early application is permitted. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
During the third quarter of 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date. This update provides a one-year deferral of the effective date for ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.  ASU No. 2014-09 provides guidance for the recognition, measurement and disclosure of revenue resulting from contracts with customers and will supersede virtually all of the current revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP.  The standard is effective for the first interim period within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The two permitted transition methods under the new standard are the full retrospective method, in which case the standard would be applied to each prior reporting period presented and the cumulative effect of applying the standard would be recognized at the earliest period shown, or the modified retrospective method, in which case the cumulative effect of applying the standard would be recognized at the date of initial application. The Company expects to utilize the full retrospective method. The Company has substantially completed its evaluation of the potential changes from adopting the new standard on its future financial reporting and disclosures which included reviews of contractual terms for all of the Company’s significant revenue streams and the development of an implementation plan. The Company continues to execute on its implementation plan, including detailed policy drafting and training of segment personnel. Based on its evaluation, the Company does not expect material changes to its 2016 or 2017 consolidated revenues, operating income or balance sheets as a result of the implementation of this standard.
During the first quarter of 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The new leasing standard presents significant changes to the balance sheets of lessees. Lessor accounting is updated to align with certain changes in the lessee model and the new revenue recognition standard which was issued in the third quarter of 2015. The standard is effective for annual periods, and for interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2018.  The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the provisions of this new standard on its consolidated financial statements.
During the second quarter of 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718). This update changes the accounting for certain aspects of share-based payments to employees. Income tax effects of share-based payment awards will be recognized in the income statement with the vesting or settlement of the awards and the record keeping for additional paid-in capital pools will no longer be necessary. Additionally, companies can make a policy election to either estimate forfeitures or recognize them as they occur. The standard is effective for annual periods, and for interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2016. The Company does not expect the provisions of this new standard to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
During the second quarter of 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326). The new standard changes the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. Entities will be required to use a model that will result in the earlier recognition of allowances for losses for trade and other receivables, held-to-maturity debt securities, loans and other instruments. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, the losses will be recognized as allowances rather than as reductions in the amortized cost of the securities. For an SEC filer, the standard is effective for annual periods, and for interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2019.  The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the provisions of this new standard on its consolidated financial statements.
During the third quarter of 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230). The new standard addresses the classification of cash flows related to certain cash receipts and cash payments. Additionally, the standard clarifies how the predominance principle should be used when cash receipts and cash payments have aspects of more than one class of cash flows. First, an entity will apply the guidance in Topic 230 and other applicable topics. If there is no guidance for those cash receipts and cash payments, an entity will determine each separately identifiable source or use and classify the receipt or payment based on the nature of the cash flow. If a receipt or payment has aspects of more than one class of cash flows and

51



cannot be separated, the classification will depend on the predominant source or use. The standard is effective for annual periods, and for interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the provisions of this new standard on its consolidated financial statements.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
The preparation of our financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of expenses during the reporting period.  On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates that are based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.  The result of these evaluations forms the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the reported amount of expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources.  Because future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty, actual results could differ from our assumptions and estimates, and such difference could be material.  Our significant accounting policies are discussed in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  Management believes that the following accounting estimates are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results, and they require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, resulting from the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain.  The following narrative describes these critical accounting estimates, the judgments and assumptions and the effect if actual results differ from these assumptions.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We evaluate the collectability of our accounts receivable based on a combination of factors.  In circumstances where we are aware of a specific customer’s inability to meet its financial obligations, we record a specific reserve to reduce the amounts recorded to what we believe will be collected.  For all other customers, we recognize reserves for bad debt based on historical experience for each business unit, adjusted for relative improvements or deteriorations in the agings and changes in current economic conditions.
If our agings were to improve or deteriorate resulting in a 10% change in our allowance, we estimated that our bad debt expense for the year ended December 31, 2016 would have changed by approximately $2.2 million.
Leases
The most significant estimates used by management in accounting for leases and the impact of these estimates are as follows:
Expected lease term Our expected lease term includes both contractual lease periods and cancelable option periods where failure to exercise such options would result in an economic penalty. The expected lease term is used in determining whether the lease is accounted for as an operating lease or a capital lease. A lease is considered a capital lease if the lease term exceeds 75% of the leased asset's useful life. The expected lease term is also used in determining the depreciable life of the asset. An increase in the expected lease term will increase the probability that a lease may be considered a capital lease and will generally result in higher interest and depreciation expense for a leased property recorded on our balance sheet.
Incremental borrowing rate The incremental borrowing rate is primarily used in determining whether the lease is accounted for as an operating lease or a capital lease. A lease is considered a capital lease if the net present value of the minimum lease payments is greater than 90% of the fair market value of the property. An increase in the incremental borrowing rate decreases the net present value of the minimum lease payments and reduces the probability that a lease will be considered a capital lease.
Fair market value of leased asset The fair market value of leased property is generally estimated based on comparable market data as provided by third-party sources. Fair market value is used in determining whether the lease is accounted for as an operating lease or a capital lease. A lease is considered a capital lease if the net present value of the minimum lease payments equals or exceeds 90% of the fair market value of the leased property. A higher fair market value reduces the likelihood that a lease will be considered a capital lease.
Long-lived Assets
Long-lived assets, including structures and other property, plant and equipment and definite-lived intangibles, are reported at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. We estimate the useful lives for various types of advertising structures and other long-lived assets based on our historical experience and our plans regarding how we intend to use those assets. Advertising structures have different lives depending on their nature, with large format bulletins generally having longer depreciable lives and posters and other displays having shorter depreciable lives. Street furniture and transit displays are depreciated over their estimated useful lives or appropriate contractual periods, whichever is shorter. Our experience indicates that the estimated useful

52



lives applied to our portfolio of assets have been reasonable, and we do not expect significant changes to the estimated useful lives of our long-lived assets in the future. When we determine that structures or other long-lived assets will be disposed of prior to the end of their useful lives, we estimate the revised useful lives and depreciate the assets over the revised period. We also review long-lived assets for impairment when events and circumstances indicate that depreciable and amortizable long-lived assets might be impaired and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than the carrying amounts of those assets. When specific assets are determined to be unrecoverable, the cost basis of the asset is reduced to reflect the current fair market value.
We use various assumptions in determining the remaining useful lives of assets to be disposed of prior to the end of their useful lives and in determining the current fair market value of long-lived assets that are determined to be unrecoverable. Estimated useful lives and fair values are sensitive to factors including contractual commitments, regulatory requirements, future expected cash flows, industry growth rates and discount rates, as well as future salvage values. Our impairment loss calculations require management to apply judgment in estimating future cash flows, including forecasting useful lives of the assets and selecting the discount rate that reflects the risk inherent in future cash flows.
If actual results are not consistent with our assumptions and judgments used in estimating future cash flows and asset fair values, we may be exposed to future impairment losses that could be material to our results of operations.
Annual Impairment Test
The Company performs its annual impairment test on indefinite-lived intangible assets and goodwill as of July 1 of each year.
Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets
Indefinite-lived intangible assets, such as our billboard permits, are reviewed annually for possible impairment using the direct valuation method as prescribed in ASC 805-20-S99. Under the direct valuation method, the estimated fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible assets was calculated at the market level as prescribed by ASC 350-30-35.  Under the direct valuation method, it is assumed that rather than acquiring indefinite-lived intangible assets as a part of a going concern business, the buyer hypothetically obtains indefinite-lived intangible assets and builds a new operation with similar attributes from scratch.  Thus, the buyer incurs start-up costs during the build-up phase which are normally associated with going concern value.  Initial capital costs are deducted from the discounted cash flows model which results in value that is directly attributable to the indefinite-lived intangible assets.
Our key assumptions using the direct valuation method are market revenue growth rates, market share, profit margin, duration and profile of the build-up period, estimated start-up capital costs and losses incurred during the build-up period, the risk-adjusted discount rate and terminal values.  This data is populated using industry normalized information representing an average asset within a market.
On July 1, 2016, we performed our annual impairment test in accordance with ASC 350-30-35, resulting in no impairment charge
In determining the fair value of our billboard permits, the following key assumptions were used:
Industry revenue growth forecast at 3.0% was used for the initial four-year period;
3.0% revenue growth was assumed beyond the initial four-year period;
Revenue was grown over a build-up period, reaching maturity by year 2;
Operating margins gradually climb to the industry average margin of up to 56.1%, depending on market size, by year 3; and
Assumed discount rate of 7.5%.

While we believe we have made reasonable estimates and utilized appropriate assumptions to calculate the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets, it is possible a material change could occur.  If future results are not consistent with our assumptions and estimates, we may be exposed to impairment charges in the future.  The following table shows the decline in the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets that would result from a 100 basis point decline in our discrete and terminal period revenue growth rate and profit margin assumptions, and a 100 basis point increase in our discount rate assumption:
(In thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Description
 
Revenue growth rate
 
Profit margin
 
Discount rate
Billboard permits
 
$
1,138,600

 
$
162,800

 
$
1,162,700


53



The estimated fair value of our billboard permits at July 1, 2016 was $4.0 billion while the carrying value was $1.0 billion. The estimated fair value of our billboard permits at July 1, 2015 was $3.1 billion while the carrying value was $1.1 billion.
Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in business combinations.  We test goodwill at interim dates if events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill might be impaired.  The fair value of our reporting units is used to apply value to the net assets of each reporting unit.  To the extent that the carrying amount of net assets would exceed the fair value, an impairment charge may be required to be recorded.
The discounted cash flow approach we use for valuing goodwill as part of the two-step impairment testing approach involves estimating future cash flows expected to be generated from the related assets, discounted to their present value using a risk-adjusted discount rate.  Terminal values are also estimated and discounted to their present value.
On July 1, 2016, we performed our annual impairment test in accordance with ASC 350-30-35, resulting in a goodwill impairment charge of $7.3 million related to one of our International outdoor markets. In determining the fair value of our reporting units, we used the following assumptions:
Expected cash flows underlying our business plans for the periods 2016 through 2020. Our cash flow assumptions are based on detailed, multi-year forecasts performed by each of our operating segments, and reflect the advertising outlook across our businesses.
Cash flows beyond 2020 are projected to grow at a perpetual growth rate, which we estimated at 3.0%.
In order to risk adjust the cash flow projections in determining fair value; we utilized a discount rate of approximately 8.0% to 11.5% for each of our reporting units.

Based on our annual assessment using the assumptions described above, a hypothetical 10% reduction in the estimated fair value in each of our reporting units would not result in a material impairment condition.
While we believe we have made reasonable estimates and utilized appropriate assumptions to calculate the estimated fair value of our reporting units, it is possible a material change could occur. If future results are not consistent with our assumptions and estimates, we may be exposed to impairment charges in the future. The following table shows the decline in the fair value of each of our reportable segments that would result from a 100 basis point decline in our discrete and terminal period revenue growth rate and profit margin assumptions and a 100 basis point increase in our discount rate assumption:
(In thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Description
 
Revenue growth rate
 
Profit margin
 
Discount rates
Americas
 
$
860,000

 
$
180,000

 
$
820,000

International
 
$
330,000

 
$
210,000

 
$
260,000

Tax Provisions
Our estimates of income taxes and the significant items giving rise to the deferred tax assets and liabilities are shown in the notes to our consolidated financial statements and reflect our assessment of actual future taxes to be paid on items reflected in the financial statements, giving consideration to both timing and probability of these estimates. Actual income taxes could vary from these estimates due to future changes in income tax law or results from the final review of our tax returns by federal, state or foreign tax authorities.
We use our judgment to determine whether it is more likely than not that our deferred tax assets will be realized.  Deferred tax assets are reduced by valuation allowances if the Company believes it is more than likely than not that some portion or the entire asset will not be realized.
We use our judgment to determine whether it is more likely than not that we will sustain positions that we have taken on tax returns and, if so, the amount of benefit to initially recognize within our financial statements.  We regularly review our uncertain tax positions and adjust our unrecognized tax benefits (UTBs) in light of changes in facts and circumstances, such as changes in tax law, interactions with taxing authorities and developments in case law.  These adjustments to our UTBs may affect our income tax expense.  Settlement of uncertain tax positions may require use of our cash.
Litigation Accruals

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We are currently involved in certain legal proceedings.  Based on current assumptions, we have accrued an estimate of the probable costs for the resolution of those claims for which the occurrence of loss is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated.  Future results of operations could be materially affected by changes in these assumptions or the effectiveness of our strategies related to these proceedings.
Management’s estimates have been developed in consultation with counsel and are based upon an analysis of potential results, assuming a combination of litigation and settlement strategies.
Asset Retirement Obligations
ASC 410-20 requires us to estimate our obligation upon the termination or nonrenewal of a lease, to dismantle and remove our billboard structures from the leased land and to reclaim the site to its original condition.
Due to the high rate of lease renewals over a long period of time, our calculation assumes all related assets will be removed at some period over the next 55 years.  An estimate of third-party cost information is used with respect to the dismantling of the structures and the reclamation of the site.  The interest rate used to calculate the present value of such costs over the retirement period is based on an estimated risk-adjusted credit rate for the same period.  If our assumption of the risk-adjusted credit rate used to discount current year additions to the asset retirement obligation decreased approximately 1%, our liability as of December 31, 2016 would not be materially impacted.  Similarly, if our assumption of the risk-adjusted credit rate increased approximately 1%, our liability would not be materially impacted.
Share-Based Compensation
Under the fair value recognition provisions of ASC 718-10, share-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award.  Determining the fair value of share-based awards at the grant date requires assumptions and judgments about expected volatility and forfeiture rates, among other factors.  If actual results differ significantly from these estimates, our results of operations could be materially impacted.

55



ITEM 7A.  QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Required information is located within Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 8.  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 
The Board of Directors and Stockholders
Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc.
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, and the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss), changes in stockholders’ equity (deficit) and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2016. Our audits also included the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a)2. These financial statements and schedule are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements and schedule based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc. and subsidiaries at December 31, 2016 and 2015, and the consolidated results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2016, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also, in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly in all material respects the information set forth therein.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 23, 2017 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
San Antonio, Texas
February 23, 2017

56



CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(In thousands)
December 31,
 
December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
CURRENT ASSETS
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
541,995

 
$
412,743

Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $22,398 in 2016 and $25,348 in 2015
593,070

 
697,583

Prepaid expenses
111,569

 
127,730

Assets held for sale
55,602

 
295,075

Other current assets
39,199

 
34,566

Total Current Assets
1,341,435

 
1,567,697

PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
 
 
 
Structures, net
1,196,676

 
1,391,880

Other property, plant and equipment, net
216,157

 
236,106

INTANGIBLE ASSETS AND GOODWILL
 
 
 
Indefinite-lived intangibles
960,966

 
971,327

Other intangibles, net
299,617

 
342,864

Goodwill
696,263

 
758,575

OTHER ASSETS
 
 
 
Due from iHeartCommunications
885,701

 
930,799

Other assets
122,013

 
107,540

Total Assets
$
5,718,828

 
$
6,306,788

CURRENT LIABILITIES
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
86,870

 
$
100,210

Accrued expenses
480,872

 
507,665

Dividends payable

 
217,017

Deferred income
67,005

 
91,411

Current portion of long-term debt
6,971

 
4,310

Total Current Liabilities
641,718

 
920,613

Long-term debt
5,110,020

 
5,106,513

Deferred tax liability
640,567

 
608,910

Other long-term liabilities
259,311

 
240,419

STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT
 
 
 
Noncontrolling interest
149,886

 
187,775

Preferred stock, $.01 par value, 150,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding

 

Class A common stock, par value $.01 per share, authorized 750,000,000 shares, issued 47,947,123 and 46,661,114 shares in 2016 and 2015, respectively
479

 
467

Class B common stock, $.01 par value, 600,000,000 shares authorized, 315,000,000 shares issued and outstanding
3,150

 
3,150

Additional paid-in capital
3,431,667

 
3,961,515

Accumulated deficit
(4,127,206
)
 
(4,268,637
)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(386,658
)
 
(451,833
)
Cost of shares (633,851 in 2016 and 233,868 in 2015) held in treasury
(4,106
)
 
(2,104
)
Total Stockholders’ Deficit
(932,788
)
 
(569,667
)
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Deficit
$
5,718,828

 
$
6,306,788

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

57



CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR HOLDINGS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(In thousands, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Revenue
$
2,702,395

 
$
2,806,204

 
$
2,961,259

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Direct operating expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
1,435,569

 
1,494,902

 
1,596,888

Selling, general and administrative expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
515,202

 
531,504

 
548,519

Corporate expenses (excludes depreciation and amortization)
117,383

 
116,380

 
130,894

Depreciation and amortization
344,124

 
375,962

 
406,243

Impairment charges
7,274

 
21,631

 
3,530

Other operating income (expense), net
354,688

 
(4,824
)
 
7,259

Operating income
637,531

 
261,001

 
282,444

Interest expense
374,892

 
355,669