10-K 1 ooma-10k_20170131.htm 10-K ooma-10k_20170131.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2017

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                 to                

Commission File Number: 001-37493

 

Ooma, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

06-1713274

 

 

 

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

1880 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, California 94303

(Address of principal executive offices)

(650) 566-6600

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share; Common Stock traded on the New York Stock Exchange LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files).    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

(Do not check if a small reporting company)

 

Small reporting company

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    YES      NO  

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of July 31, 2016, the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $79.8 million (based on the closing price of $8.50 per share on July 31, 2016 on the New York Stock Exchange).  Shares of the Registrant’s common stock held by each executive officer, director and holder of 10% or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded because such persons may be deemed affiliates.  This calculation does not reflect a determination that certain persons are affiliates of the Registrant for any other purpose.

The number of shares of the Registrant's common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2017 was 18,245,827.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Information required by Part III of this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference to the Registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

3

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

16

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

47

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

47

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

47

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

49

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

50

Item 6.

 

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

 

52

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

54

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

72

Item 8.

 

Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

73

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

103

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

103

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

103

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

104

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

104

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

104

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

104

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

104

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

105

Signatures

 

106

Exhibits

 

107

 

 

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 31, 2017, including the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors,” and “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The words “believe,” “will,” “may,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “should,” “plan,” “expect,” “predict,” “could,” “potentially” and similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes are intended to identify forward-looking statements.

These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

 

our future financial performance, including trends in revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses and income taxes;

 

our estimates of the size of our market opportunity and forecasts of market growth;

 

changes to our business resulting from increased competition or changes in market trends;

 

our ability to develop, launch or acquire new products and services, improve our existing products and services and increase the value of our products and services;

 

our ability to increase our revenue and our revenue growth rate;

 

our ability to anticipate demand for our products;

 

our ability to effectively manage our future growth;

 

our ability to successfully maintain our relationships with our resellers;

 

our ability to attract and retain customers, including our ability to maintain adequate customer care and manage increases in our churn rate;

 

our ability to improve local number portability provisioning and obtain direct inward dialing numbers;

 

our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our brand and intellectual property;

 

government regulation, including compliance with regulatory requirements and changes in market rules, rates and tariffs;

 

our ability to comply with the FCC’s regulations regarding E-911 services;

 

increasing regulation of our services and the imposition of federal, state and municipal sales and use taxes, fees or surcharges on our services;

 

the effects of industry trends on our results of operations;

 

server or system failures that could affect the quality or disrupt the services we provide and our ability to maintain data security;

 

our ability to borrow additional funds and access capital markets, as well as our ability to comply with the terms of our indebtedness and the possibility that we may incur additional indebtedness in the future;

 

the differences between our services, including our emergency calling service, compared to traditional phone services;

 

the sufficiency of our cash and cash equivalents and cash generated from operations to meet our working capital and capital expenditure requirements;

 

our ability to successfully enter new markets and manage our international expansion;

 

our ability to successfully identify, evaluate and consummate acquisitions;

 

the future trading prices of our common stock; and

 

other risk factors included under the section titled “Risk Factors”

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You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described principally in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As a result, we cannot assure you that the results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

The forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. If we update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements. Readers are also urged to carefully review and consider all of the information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as the other documents we make available through the Securities and Exchange Commission’s website at www.sec.gov. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in 2003 as a Delaware corporation.  Our headquarters are located at 1880 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303, and our telephone number is (650) 566-6600.  Our corporate website address is www.ooma.com.  The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.  We have included our website address only as an inactive textual reference and do not intend it to be an active link to our website.

We are subject to the information and periodic reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or Exchange Act, and, in accordance therewith, file periodic reports, proxy statements, and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. Such periodic reports, proxy statements, and other information are available for inspection and copying at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC 20549 or may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains a website at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. We also post on the Investor Relations page of our website, www.ooma.com, a link to our filings with the SEC, our Corporate Governance Guidelines, and Code of Ethics and Business Conduct for Employees, Officers and Directors, and the charters of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, and Nominating and Governance Committee of our Board of Directors.  Our filings with the SEC are posted on our website and are available free of charge as soon as reasonably practical after they are filed electronically with the SEC. You can also obtain copies of these documents free of charge by writing to us at: Corporate Secretary, Ooma, Inc., 1880 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303.

When we use the terms “Ooma,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” in this report, we are referring to Ooma, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiary unless the context requires otherwise.  Ooma PureVoice and the Ooma logo are trademarks of Ooma, Inc. All other company and product names may be trademarks of the respective companies with which they are associated.

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PART I

Item 1. Business

Overview

Ooma is a leading provider of innovative communications solutions and other connected services to small business, home, and mobile users. Our unique hybrid SaaS platform, consisting of our proprietary cloud, on-premise appliances, mobile applications, and end-point devices, provides the connectivity and functionality that power our solutions. Our communications solutions deliver our proprietary PureVoice HD voice quality, advanced features, and integration with mobile devices, at extremely competitive pricing and value. Our platform helps create smart workplaces and homes by providing value-added communications and other connected services and by integrating end-point devices to enable the Internet of Things. Our platform and solutions have the power to provide communications, productivity, automation, monitoring, safety, security, and networking infrastructure applications to our users.

We drive the adoption of our platform by providing communications solutions to the large and growing markets for small business, home, and mobile users and then accelerate growth by offering new and innovative connected services to our user base. Our small business and home customers adopt our platform by making a one-time purchase of one of our on-premise appliances, connecting the appliance to the internet, and activating subscription services, for which they primarily pay on a monthly basis. Our communications solutions are distinguished by the combination of our proprietary PureVoice HD voice quality, exceptional value, an advanced feature set enhanced by a number of end-point devices, and integration with mobile devices. We believe we have achieved high levels of customer retention and loyalty by delivering exceptional quality and customer satisfaction.

Our services run on our unique platform consisting of four proprietary elements: our multi-tenant cloud service, custom on-premise appliance, mobile applications, and end-point devices. Ooma’s cloud provides a high-quality, secure, managed, and reliable connection integrating every element of our platform. Our on-premise appliances incorporate both a custom-designed, Linux-based computer and a high speed network router, with several key features, including wireless connectivity to end-point devices and custom firmware and software applications that are remotely upgradable and extensible to new services. Our mobile applications enable customers to access our product features from anywhere, and our end-point devices enable additional functionality and services. Our platform powers all aspects of our business, not only providing the infrastructure for the communications portion of our business, but also enabling a number of other current and future valuable productivity, automation, monitoring, safety, security, and networking infrastructure applications.

We currently offer our solutions in the U.S. and Canadian markets. We believe that our differentiated platform and our long-term customer relationships uniquely position us to add new connected services and exploit adjacent markets, all without significant capital investment or high customer acquisition costs to drive their adoption. We offer and/or are developing connected services for the following applications:

 

Automation, monitoring, safety, and security. Our platform enables an ecosystem for connected services by integrating with other automation solutions. For example, we have integrated Ooma Telo with products from Nest Labs, Inc., a Google company, including the Nest Learning Thermostat and Nest Protect smoke and carbon monoxide detector, the Amazon Echo and Amazon Alexa voice service, and a variety of products integrated through the If This Then That (“IFTTT”) platform. By combining Ooma’s communications intelligence with these products’ functions, we enable innovative and valuable features. For example, if the Nest Protect device detects smoke or carbon monoxide when the user is away from home, we provide the ability for the user, through the user’s mobile device, to connect with emergency services from the user’s home phone number and address. This allows users to immediately speak with the correct emergency services personnel, saving valuable time. We continue to develop additional connected services for small businesses and homes to enable the Internet of Things. For example, we have introduced Ooma Internet Security powered by Zscaler, a real-time, cloud-based internet security service that protects all devices connected to the home network by blocking websites that contain viruses, malware and other online threats, and Ooma Home Security, a comprehensive do-it-yourself home security and monitoring solution that alerts users of events within their homes and provides the option to use the home phone number to dial 911 remotely in the event of an emergency.

 

Networking infrastructure. Our on-premise appliances include a high-speed router that has the capacity to provide networking infrastructure solutions. In the future, we expect to launch connected services with applications for networking infrastructure for small businesses and homes.

 

Productivity. We offer a small business productivity service, called “Business Promoter”, which provides lead generation services to businesses using proprietary techniques that leverage local, mobile and social media technologies and platforms to enable small businesses to be found, to engage with new prospects, and to receive telephone calls from qualified customer leads. In the future, we expect to launch additional connected services to enhance productivity for small businesses.

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We believe that our platform is particularly well-suited to enable the delivery of connected services because it is always on, monitored and interactive. We expect the adoption of our connected services to support the continued growth of our recurring revenue stream.

We have experienced significant revenue and user growth in recent periods, growing our “core users” from approximately 645,000 as of January 31, 2015 to approximately 933,000 as of January 31, 2017, representing a compound annual growth rate of approximately 20%. We define core users as the number of home user accounts, office user extensions, and standalone Business Promoter accounts. We believe that we have one of the lowest customer churn rates in the industry, with an average annual core user churn rate of approximately 7%, excluding Business Promoter for the 12-month period ended January 31, 2017. Additionally, we had more than 1.7 million and approximately 1.6 million Talkatone monthly active users as of January 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We have a predictable revenue model with growth in recurring revenue, with total revenue of $104.5 million, $88.8 million and $72.2 million in fiscal 2017, fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2015, respectively. Subscription and services revenue, which represents the recurring portion of our total revenue, has increased as a percentage of our total revenue over the last three years, from approximately 75% in fiscal 2015 to 87% in fiscal 2017. We have continued to make significant investments in research and development, brand marketing, and channel development, incurring net losses of $(12.9) million, $(14.1) million and $(6.4) million in fiscal 2017, fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2015, respectively. Our Adjusted EBITDA was $(1.4) million, $(6.5) million, $(3.5) million in fiscal 2017, fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2015, respectively. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Result of Operation” for a description of how we define Adjusted EBITDA and why we believe that it is useful to investors, and a reconciliation to our net loss, which is our most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP.

Our Products and Services

Ooma for Small Business

Ooma Office for Small Businesses

Ooma Office is a fully-featured multi-user communications system for small businesses, providing everything needed to manage communications in and out of the office with a suite of powerful features at an affordable price.

Unlike pure cloud-based phone services that only work with IP phones, our unique hybrid SaaS platform allows for the use of standard analog phones, mobile phones, and fax machines as well as select IP phones and internet fax. Ooma Office analog desktop extensions work wirelessly with no wiring infrastructure. This makes setup intuitive and easy enough for the user to install and manage without assistance from an IT professional.

Ooma Office consists of an on-premise appliance and an Ooma Linx end-point device, which wirelessly connects regular desktop telephones to the user’s high-speed internet connection. The user can configure the system online, using the Ooma Office Manager web portal. Ooma Office provides features not typically available to small businesses, including a virtual receptionist, music-on-hold, ring groups, a conference bridge, internet and analog fax capability, and mobility features, such as voicemail forwarding to a designated e-mail address.

The Ooma Office Mobile HD app allows users to remotely access their business communications system to make, receive and transfer phone calls and utilize many of the other features, as if they were in the office. The app is compatible with any iOS or Android mobile device and transmits calls over a Wi-Fi or cellular data connection.

 

Ooma Office

Mobile HD app

 

Ooma Office

and Linx

 

 

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Ooma Office customers can subscribe to the following calling plans to enhance their business:

 

Local numbers. Ooma allows businesses to select up to 20 local phone numbers to establish points of presence within a geographic area or for direct inward dialing to users of the system. Ooma offers phone numbers in all states and provinces in the U.S. and Canada, except the Northwest Territories of Canada.

 

Toll free numbers. Ooma toll-free numbers come with 500 minutes of inbound calling included each month. For businesses that expect a large number of toll-free calls, Ooma offers toll-free calling plans that include an additional 1,000 or 2,500 additional minutes each month at a low cost.

 

Prepaid. Ooma Office customers can save on international calling with everyday low rates from Ooma. International calls are charged against a prepaid account, which is automatically refilled as the balance runs low.

Business Promoter

Business Promoter is a service that helps businesses generate new customer leads. Business Promoter optimizes a business’s online presence, enabling potential customers to discover the business and engage with it without requiring time or expertise from the business. Business Promoter utilizes location, mobile and social technologies and platforms to generate customer leads by delivering phone calls from potential customers to a business. Ooma Office users can also sign-up for the Business Promoter service on a pay-per-lead basis. Under the pay-per-lead model, users generally pay a price per lead that originates from a qualified phone call to the business.

Business Promoter also operates on a white-label basis for digital marketing agencies representing tens of thousands of business locations.

Ooma for Residence

Ooma Telo for Home

Ooma Telo is a complete home communications solution designed to serve as the primary phone line in the home, delivering high-quality voice communications and unique and valuable features.

Users buy an Ooma Telo and plug it into a high-speed internet connection and standard home phone devices. Users have the option to transfer their existing phone number from their current provider for a one-time fee or to select a new number at no cost. We provide local phone numbers throughout the U.S. and Canada except in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Once set up, users have access to free nationwide calling, international calling with low rates, and standard features such as voicemail, call waiting, caller ID, network address book, and 911 calling, with text alerts when 911 is dialed from the home. The base service is free, but users are required to pay applicable taxes and fees typically ranging from approximately $3.77 to $9.48 per month, depending on the jurisdiction. Based on a typical monthly phone bill of $40 for standard landline service, we estimate that users can save approximately $1,000 in three years by using an Ooma Telo.

The Ooma Mobile HD app allows Ooma Telo users to make and receive phone calls and access Ooma features and settings with any iOS or Android device over a Wi-Fi or cellular data connection. The Ooma Mobile HD app is free for Ooma Telo users and includes unlimited outbound calls within the U.S. (subject to normal residential usage limitations). Another advantage of the Ooma Mobile HD app is it enables users to make international calls on their mobile devices using Ooma’s attractive international calling plan.

 

Ooma

Mobile HD app

 

Ooma Telo

 

 

 

 

 

5


 

Ooma End-Point Devices

The Ooma Telo and the Ooma Office support a line of end-point devices to expand the capabilities of the system to serve the needs of an entire household.

 

HD2 Handset

Linx

Safety Phone

Wireless + Bluetooth Adapter

 

 

 

 

 

The Ooma HD2 Handset is a sophisticated wireless handset with a color display that supports many enhanced Ooma features, including online contact list syncing, picture caller-ID, instant second line, voicemail screening, and musical ringtones.

 

The Ooma Linx is a remote phone jack that can be plugged into any electrical socket to allow the user to connect a phone, fax machine, alarm panel, or anything that requires a phone line to the Ooma phone service, all completely wirelessly.

 

The Ooma Safety Phone is a wireless, small form-factor, hands-free speakerphone that can be worn as a pendant. Two speed dial buttons can each be preset with up to three different numbers, including 911. The preset buttons can also be configured to trigger e-mails or SMS notification alerts when assistance is requested. The Safety Phone supports two-way voice communication and can also be used to answer phone calls.

 

Ooma Wireless + Bluetooth Adapter adds Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capability to Ooma Telo. With this adapter, users can install the Ooma Telo device anywhere in the home within range of their wireless network instead of hardwiring the device to a modem or router. Bluetooth is used to pair Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones to the Ooma Telo so that incoming calls on the user’s mobile phone can ring on the user’s home phones.

Ooma Premier Service for Telo

The Ooma Premier Service is a suite of over 25 advanced calling features that maximize the utility of the Ooma Telo on a monthly or annual subscription basis. The Ooma Premier Service helps our users enhance their privacy, stay connected on the go, better manage and access their voicemail, and expand calling options.

The most popular features of the Ooma Premier Service include:

 

Blacklists that block over eight hundred and fifty thousand telemarketers, robocallers, and spammers, as well as a user-configurable list of unwanted callers.

 

Instant Second Line that enables two household members to make calls simultaneously over the same phone number.

 

Nest Product Integration that provides integration of our communications solution with the Nest Protect: Smoke + Carbon Monoxide alarm and Nest Learning Thermostat, enabling a variety of features and services, including remote emergency calling from a user’s home number, event scheduling and alerts, and call forwarding based on occupancy sensors.

 

Multi-Ring that enables calls to ring simultaneously on the home phone, cell phone, and Ooma Mobile application.

 

Voicemail Monitoring that allows users to listen to and intercept calls as a voicemail message is being recorded.

 

Voicemail Forwarding that provides users the option to listen to voicemail messages from their e-mail inbox or smartphone.

 

Unlimited Free Mobile App Calling that allows users to make and receive unlimited phone calls within the U.S. from their mobile devices as if they were calling from their home number. The availability of unlimited phone calls within the U.S. is subject to normal residential usage limitations.

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Other Premium Services

We offer other premium subscription services to our customers, independent of the Ooma Premier Service, including the following services.

 

International calling plan. We offer an international calling plan that allows users to make unlimited calls to 61 countries around the world for a monthly or annual fee, or on a pre-paid basis. Calls can be made from the Ooma Telo, or from the Ooma Mobile HD app.

 

Voicemail transcription service. Users can have their voicemail messages converted into text and have it sent to the user via e-mail so they can read the content of the voicemail.

Talkatone App

Our Talkatone mobile app is available to anyone with an iOS or Android mobile device. Users download the app from the Apple App Store or Google Play for free. Users select a phone number that they can use to make free U.S. and Canada calls and texts using a Wi-Fi or cellular data connection within and out of network. Advertising is displayed within the Talkatone mobile app and users can purchase premium services such as ad-free usage and international calling plans.

 

Talkatone App Calling

Talkatone App Texting

 

 

Segment Information

We operate in one industry segment generating product and services revenue from the sale of on-premise appliances and end-point devices to our end-customers through our website and from sales through distributors, retailers and resellers.

Backlog

We generally sign monthly and annual contracts for our subscriptions and generally invoice our customers on a monthly basis for the services purchased. Products are shipped and billed shortly after receipt of an order. We do not believe that our product backlog at any particular time is meaningful because it is not necessarily indicative of future revenue in any given period as such orders may be rescheduled or cancelled by our partners, or end-user customers, without penalty prior to shipment. Additionally, the majority of our product revenue comes from orders that are received and shipped in the same quarter. Until such time as these amounts are invoiced, we do not recognize them as revenues. Accordingly, we believe that fluctuations in backlog are not a reliable indicator of future revenues and we do not utilize backlog as a key management metric internally.

7


 

Sales and Marketing

Our sales and marketing objective is to grow and retain our customer base, and sell them additional premium services using an integrated and multi-channel marketing approach. We continually test and refine our marketing and sales tactics to drive sales at a low customer acquisition cost.

We use television and radio advertising to build awareness and interest for our products and services, which benefits both the Ooma Office and Ooma Telo solutions. We believe that television advertising provides an opportunity to build the Ooma brand cost-effectively, educate prospects on Ooma’s unique combination of quality and value, and capture prospects’ attention. Small businesses and consumers who see our television advertising are directed to our web site and to key retail partners. Radio is used in a highly targeted manner primarily to reach small business owners and decision makers as they commute to and from their workplace.

We use online marketing including search engine marketing, search engine optimization, online video, display advertising, and social media to attract customers as they do online research for the products and services we offer. For those prospects who do not purchase immediately, we entice them to provide their e-mail address and/or phone number by offering helpful information, relevant case studies and demonstrative webinars to assist in making their purchase decision. We continue to reach out to our prospect leads over time using e-mail and telemarketing until they purchase or the lead is retired.

We actively mobilize our customers to spread word-of-mouth marketing by sharing Ooma news and information through social media and e-mail. We also encourage our customers to write product reviews on Amazon.com and other online retailer websites. We sell additional services to our existing customer base by offering free trials and promotional offers, as well as sending e-mail communications and leaving messages on their Ooma voicemail service.

Our small business and home products are sold through direct channels, retail and resellers, with the direct channel and resellers as our primary distribution channel for small business and the retail channel as our primary distribution channel for home customers. Our direct sales force is focused on small business sales and includes highly trained sales representatives located in the U.S. responding to inbound telephone calls and sales leads generated through marketing activity and our website. We consider our retail presence a competitive advantage and we are continuing to add retailers who share our growth objectives. Our retail distribution includes national and regional consumer electronics, big box retailers, and leading online retailers, including Amazon.com, Best Buy, Costco.com and others. Additionally, we have certain reseller partnerships with third parties who resell our home communications solution under their brand name. Our Ooma Business Promoter service is sold primarily to Ooma Office customers and through digital marketing agencies to businesses seeking to generate leads.

Customer Support

Our primary customer support objective is to delight our customers and educate them on the features and benefits of our products to optimize the overall user experience. In addition to providing support to our customers, we employ an active customer management strategy in which we drive incremental revenue through cross-selling of products and services. Our customer support teams also manage the porting process for our customers and our customer billing and payment activities.

We maintain two customer contact centers, one operated by us in Newark, California, which primarily houses our small business support for our Ooma Office customers, and one operated by our partner Telus in Manila, Philippines, which provides our customer support primarily for our Ooma Telo customers. In order to maximize customer convenience and ease of use, we utilize a variety of communication media to serve the needs of our customers including telephone, online chat, online tutorials, and e-mail.

Our Platform

Our unique hybrid SaaS platform consists of our proprietary cloud, on-premise appliances, mobile applications, and end-point devices. They work in concert to support our advanced features, high-quality, and the ability to offer customized connected services, which are vital to driving our high level of customer satisfaction and low customer churn.

We take an integrated approach to the development of our technology. Our extensive engineering resources span both hardware and software and our business scope encompasses the entire platform, giving us the ability to drive new integrated solutions for our customers. We believe our integrated engineering and business strategy is a significant competitive advantage and makes it feasible for us to leverage our platform to deliver a broad range of productivity, automation and infrastructure connected services.

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The integrated approach to our technology allows us to operate at a reduced cost and provides competitive advantages:

 

Because we designed our on-premise appliances and network elements to work in harmony, we are free to make optimizations that streamline and simplify the elements of the network.

 

Our platform enables us to automatically select, on a call-by-call basis, between over a dozen call termination providers based on call cost and quality. Likewise, our platform allows us to shift our customer base among a several origination vendors. This, combined with our rapid growth creates a favorable environment to demand low costs from our vendors without sacrificing quality.

 

The tight integration between our engineering and operations teams, combined with the functional nature of our on-premise appliances, facilitates our highly automated network operations, enabling us to efficiently scale our operations.

Cloud

Our multi-tenant cloud infrastructure provides a high-quality, secure, managed, and reliable suite of services integrating all elements of the platform. We have built a proprietary cloud in order to optimize quality of service, reliability and security, which are essential elements of our communications solutions. Our cloud simplifies the task of offering new services, and provides consistent performance and economies of scale for all of our connected services. Ooma’s key cloud capabilities include: telecommunications, custom hosted services, interconnections to third party services (cloud-to-cloud), on-premise appliance management, remote diagnostics support, and billing.

We have engineered our cloud infrastructure to enable:

 

Quality of Service through transcoding of data to/from our on-premise appliances, routing control, direct connection to internet transit providers, and strategic location of our data centers;

 

Security through AES128-encrypted media and provisioning information and layered defenses against malicious cyber-threats; and

 

Reliability through redundant data centers in Northern California and Virginia.

On-Premise Appliances

Our purpose-built on-premise appliances are both a custom-designed, Linux-based computer and a high speed network router, with several key features, including wireless connectivity to end-point devices and custom firmware and software applications that are remotely upgradable and extensible to new services.

 

 

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We harness the power of our on-premise appliances, operating in conjunction with our cloud, to deliver three core technology advantages:

 

PureVoice HD technology for improved call quality. A common cause of customer churn for internet communications solutions is poor voice quality, which is primarily caused by packet loss or jitter from internet bottlenecks. Our PureVoice HD technology addresses these issues with the following elements:

 

High-speed routing with hardware-based quality of service: Ooma’s on-premise appliances include network ports for both the local area network, or LAN, and the wide area network, or WAN, with a dedicated routing engine connecting the two. The routing engine is capable of routing 100Mbits per second and prioritizes voice traffic over other traffic in the business or home.

 

Advanced voice compression technology: The high processing power of our on-premise appliances makes it possible to employ an advanced voice compression technology that reduces the bandwidth required for carrying voice traffic over the customer’s internet connection by over 70%, while providing greater error concealment than more commonly used voice compression technologies.

 

Adaptive redundancy: Our cloud dynamically detects when packets are being lost or delayed and signals our on-premise appliances to send redundant data in succeeding packets. Our cloud then reassembles the packets it receives into the proper data stream in real time. The level of redundancy is dynamically determined based upon the quality of the customer’s internet connection, which optimizes the balance of latency and quality. Ooma business, home and mobile users can maintain three times packet redundancy while consuming virtually the same bandwidth as competing systems that use less advanced voice compression technology.

 

HD Voice: Our on-premise appliances double the sampling rate and sampling precision compared to a traditional voice call to capture a truer picture of the actual sound and provide a HD audio experience to the listener.

 

Encrypted data transfer: Signaling between our on-premise appliance and our cloud is embedded in an encrypted virtual private network, or VPN, making it very difficult to illicitly monitor. Likewise, we employ secure real-time protocol, or SRTP, to encrypt the media associated with voice conversations to and from our on-premise appliances.

 

Extensibility to new services. Our on-premise appliance incorporates extra processing power, networking capability and memory capacity to accommodate future services. We have also incorporated a USB port in the appliance for directly connecting other devices.

 

Hub for the Internet of Things. Our on-premise appliance supports a wireless networking protocol to facilitate connectivity to other end-point devices and enable the Internet of Things.

Mobile Applications

We have made significant investments in developing mobile applications for the iOS and Android operating systems. As a result, nearly every connected service and feature we deploy enhances or can be enhanced through integration with our customer’s mobile device. We are in the process of integrating our PureVoice HD technology into our Ooma Mobile HD app. We plan to continue enhancing our mobile apps to incorporate features related to our partners’ services (such as Nest Labs, Inc.) and other connected services.

End-Point Devices

Ooma has developed a range of end-point devices that together create a full communications solution for our customers. We also enable several proprietary features through our end-point devices, such as picture caller ID and address book sync/dial by name using the Ooma HD2 Handset and pre-programmed sequential dialing by the Ooma Safety Phone.

Operations and Manufacturing

We deliver our services through two separate data centers located in Northern California and Virginia, both hosted in facilities leased from Equinix, Inc. While our service operations are partially redundant, account provisioning and billing are operated out of the San Jose facility.

Our network operations and carrier operations teams are responsible for designing our core routing and switching infrastructure, managing growth and maintenance (including the introduction of new services) and orchestrating vendor relationships for hosted services, IP transit and carrier services and daily operation of our cloud and other services. The design of these services, and the tools for monitoring and managing them, are developed in combination with our engineering team.

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We contract with manufacturers in Taiwan that have a manufacturing facility in China to produce our on-premise appliances and end-point devices. We also contract with a manufacturer in Israel to produce components of our home security solutions. We configure and ship to our channel partners and end users through our internal manufacturing and logistics team based in Newark, California. Our internal logistics team also manages reverse logistics for channel and warranty returns and works closely with our engineering team to develop tooling and processes that bring new products into production.

Engineering, Research, and Development

We have invested significant time and resources into developing our engineering, research, and development team, resulting in a group with diverse skills, ranging from digital and radio frequency hardware design to embedded software, network software, telecommunications, database architecture, operations support systems, billing, security, web design and mobile app development. The team develops all aspects of our platform, including our hosted services, on-premise appliances, mobile applications, end-point devices, interconnections to third party services and tools and utilities that facilitate customer provisioning, debugging, billing and reporting. Because our engineering, research, and development team manages all aspects of our solutions, we are able to offer an integrated solution that works seamlessly between software and hardware and to respond to customer feedback to add in additional features and services that work across the entire platform.

The engineering, research and development team consists of a core set of engineers located primarily in Palo Alto, California, augmented by contract development teams in Canada, India, Ukraine, Russia, Serbia and New Zealand.

Competition

The market for communications solutions and other connected services for small business, home, and mobile users is complex, fragmented, and defined by constant shifts in technology and customer demands. We expect competition to continue increasing in the future. We believe that the defining factors driving competition in our market include:

 

Quality and consistency of communications services;

 

Lifetime value of initial investment and ongoing cost of services;

 

Breadth of features and capabilities;

 

System reliability, availability and performance;

 

Speed and ease of activation, setup, and configuration;

 

Ownership and control of the proprietary technology;

 

Integration with multiple end-point devices and mobile solutions; and

 

Customer satisfaction and brand loyalty.

We believe that we compete favorably on the basis of the factors listed above.

We face competition from a broad range of providers of communications solutions and other connected services for small business, home, and mobile users. Some of these competitors include:

 

established communications providers, such as AT&T Inc., Comcast Corporation and Verizon Communications Inc. in the U.S., and Rogers Communications Inc. and others in Canada, that resell on-premise hardware, software and hosted solutions;

 

other communications companies such as 8x8 Inc., magicJack VocalTec Ltd., RingCentral, Inc. and Vonage Holdings Corp.;

 

companies such as Broadsoft, Inc. and Microsoft Corporation;

 

traditional on-premise, hardware business communications providers such as Avaya Inc., Cisco Systems, Inc. and ShoreTel, Inc., any of which may now or in the future also host their solutions through the cloud, and their resellers;

 

mobile communications app companies providing “over-the-top” solutions, such as Grasshopper (Citrix, Inc.), LINE Corporation, Pinger, Inc., Viber (Rakuten, Inc.) and WhatsApp, Inc.; and

 

other large internet companies, such as Google Inc., any of which might launch its own cloud-based business communications services or acquire other cloud-based business communications companies in the future.

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Competition with Established Telephone and Cable Companies

Established telephone companies such as AT&T, Verizon and CenturyLink, and national cable companies such as Comcast and Cox Communications and Time Warner Cable represent a significant portion of our competition in the telecommunications market.  These competitors are many times larger and better capitalized than Ooma, continue to make substantial investments in competitive products, features and services, and take significant advantage of their existing business relationships with their very large customer bases.  For example, these cable and phone companies often bundle home phone service with Internet access and/or cable television access, and the pricing of these various “bundles” may imply a zero or very low price to the customer for home phone service.  While we believe that we compete favorably based upon our service features, quality and pricing, such aggressive pricing tactics make it more difficult for us to attract the existing customers of our large competitors.

Competition with Non-traditional Communications Providers

Non-traditional communication providers such as Facebook, Google Voice, WhatsApp and Pinger offer telephony services at little or no cost as an added benefit to their existing customers, and/or to attract additional users.  Some of these providers arguably are not in compliance with certain regulatory requirements, for example, to collect certain federal, state and local regulatory taxes and fees, or to provide 911 service, which means their costs to provide telephony services may be substantially less than ours.

Intellectual Property

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary technology and other intellectual property rights. We rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets, copyrights and trademarks, as well as contractual protections to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. We require our employees, consultants and other third parties to enter into confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements, we control access to our software, documentation and other proprietary information, and our software is protected by U.S. and international copyright laws. For example, we require our employees and independent contractors involved in the development of intellectual property on our behalf to enter into agreements acknowledging that all works or other intellectual property generated or conceived by them on our behalf belong to us, and assigning to us any rights, including intellectual property rights, that they may claim or otherwise have in those works or property, to the extent allowable under applicable law.

As of January 31, 2017, we had 13 issued patents, 15 patent applications pending for examination in the U.S., and five patent applications pending for examination in foreign jurisdictions, all of which are related to U.S. applications. Our issued patents will expire between 2028 and 2036. We cannot assure you whether any of our patent applications will result in the issuance of a patent or whether the examination process will require us to narrow our claims. Any issued patents may be contested, circumvented, found unenforceable or invalidated, and we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing them. We are also a party to various license agreements with third parties who typically grant us the right to use certain third-party technology in conjunction with our products and services, or to integrate software into our products, including open source software and other software available on commercially reasonable terms.

Although we rely on laws respecting intellectual property rights, including patent, trade secret, copyright and trademark laws, as well as contractual protections to establish and protect our intellectual property rights, we believe the technological and creative skills of our personnel, the development of new features and functionality and frequent enhancements to our products and services are the primary methods of establishing and maintaining our technology leadership position.

Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary technology and our intellectual property rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to misappropriate our rights or to copy or obtain and use our proprietary technology to develop products and services with the same functionality as ours. Policing unauthorized use of our technology and intellectual property rights is difficult, and enforcing our intellectual property rights is expensive and uncertain.

Employees and Contractors

As of January 31, 2017, we had 180 full-time employees, all of whom were located in the U.S., including 14 in manufacturing, 35 in customer support and service, 65 in research and development, 38 in sales and marketing, and 28 in general and administration. None of our employees are either represented by a labor union or subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We have not experienced any work stoppages and we believe that our employee relations are good.

We also contract with third-party contractors whose employees or subcontractors’ employees perform services for us. As of January 31, 2017, we had 368 of these third-party contractors, including 9 in manufacturing, 138 in customer support and service, 116 in research and development, 99 in sales and marketing, and 6 in general and administration. As of such date, 138 were located in the U.S. and 230 internationally.

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Facilities

Our corporate headquarters are located in Palo Alto, California and consist of approximately 18,000 square feet of office space pursuant to a lease agreement that expires November 30, 2017. We lease additional office space in Palo Alto consisting of approximately 2,379 square feet pursuant to a lease agreement that expires April 30, 2017 and a multi-use industrial space consisting of 13,800 square feet pursuant to a lease agreement that expires February 28, 2018. Outside of Palo Alto, we lease warehouse and office space totaling 16,200 square feet in Newark, California, and pursuant to co-location agreements, we lease space from third-party datacenter hosting facilities in Northern California and Virginia that support our cloud infrastructure. We believe that we will be able to obtain additional space at other locations at commercially reasonable terms to support our continuing expansion.

Regulatory Matters

Overview of Regulatory Environment

Traditional telephone service historically has been subject to extensive federal and state regulation, while Internet services generally have been subject to less regulation. Because some elements of VoIP resemble the services provided by traditional telephone companies and others resemble the services provided by internet service providers, the VoIP industry has not fit easily within the existing framework of telecommunications law and until recently has developed in an environment largely free from regulation.

The Federal Communications Commission, or FCC, the U.S. Congress and various regulatory bodies in the states and in foreign countries have begun to assert regulatory authority over VoIP providers and are continuing to evaluate how VoIP will be regulated in the future.

Federal Regulation

As a provider of internet communications services, we are subject to regulation in the U.S. by the FCC. Some of these regulatory obligations include contributing to the Federal Universal Service Fund (“USF”), the Telecommunications Relay Service Fund and federal programs related to number administration; providing access to E-911 services; protecting customer information; and porting phone numbers upon a valid customer request.

Our services are also subject to a number of other FCC regulations. Among others, we must comply (in whole or in part) with:

 

the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, or CALEA, which requires covered entities to assist law enforcement in undertaking electronic surveillance;

 

requirements to provide E-911 to our customers;

 

contributions to the USF, which requires that we pay a percentage of our interstate end-user telecommunications revenue to support certain federal programs;

 

payment of annual FCC regulatory fees based on our interstate and international revenue;

 

payment of Local Number Portability and North American Numbering Plan Administration fees;

 

rules pertaining to access to our services by people with disabilities and contributions to the Telecommunications Relay Services fund;

 

rules requiring reporting to the FCC of certain service outages;

 

rules requiring notice to the FCC before discontinuing service; and

 

FCC rules regarding CPNI and other proprietary information, which require, among other things, that we not use CPNI for marketing without customer approval, subject to certain exceptions, that we file annual reports regarding CPNI protections, and that we disclose breaches to law enforcement.

If we do not comply with any current or future rules or regulations that apply to our business, we could be subject to substantial fines and penalties, may have to restructure our service offerings, exit certain markets or raise the price of our services, any of which could ultimately harm our business and results of operations.

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Regulatory Classification of VoIP Services

To date, the FCC has regulated certain VoIP services without concluding that these services are telecommunications services subject to the traditional common carrier regulation. In various proceedings the FCC has nonetheless imposed certain regulation obligations on interconnected VoIP and certain non-interconnected VoIP services. The FCC may continue to impose additional regulations on these services without resolving their regulatory classification. The FCC could also at any time determine that interconnected VoIP or non-interconnected VoIP services are telecommunications services and thus subject to traditional common carrier regulation. Additional regulation would impose compliance costs and could increase our risk of enforcement or other liability.

VoIP E-911 Matters

The FCC requires internet voice communications providers, such as our company, to provide E-911 service in all geographic areas covered by the traditional wire line E-911 network. Under the FCC’s rules, Internet voice communications providers must transmit the caller’s phone number and registered location information to the appropriate Public Safety Answering Point, or PSAP, for the caller’s registered location.

In Canada, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (“CRTC”) has imposed similar requirements for fixed/non-native internet voice communications related to the provision of E-911 services in all areas of Canada where the wireline incumbent carrier offers such 911 services. In the case of nomadic internet voice communications, service providers are required to ensure that 911 calls are routed to a call center which routes these calls to the appropriate PSAP based on information provided by the caller or, if the caller is unable to provide location information, based on the last registered address of the caller. The CRTC also mandates certain customer notification requirements pursuant to which new customers are required to be notified of 911 service limitations and to consent to the same before their service with us commences and we are required to provide annual update notifications to our customers of the 911 limitations of our service.

We provide E-911 service in compliance with the CRTC and the FCC’s rules, as applicable, to substantially all of our customers’ interconnected VoIP lines. Our mobile platform also allows users to make emergency 911 calls from their mobile devices using their home phone number and address. In some circumstances, 911 calls may be routed to a national emergency call center that routes the call to the appropriate PSAP.

On August 8, 2014, the FCC adopted an Order setting text-to-911 requirements. The Order requires all Commercial Mobile Radio Services (“CMRS”) providers and all interconnected text messaging application providers to be able to deliver text messages to PSAPs, by December 31, 2014, and to begin sending text messages to a given PSAP within six months of a valid request. Compliance with this mandate and any additional 911 mandates placed on text messaging providers will impose costs on our business. If we fail to comply with these obligations, we may face significant enforcement liability or other liability risks.

In connection with the regulatory requirements that we provide E-911 to all of our interconnected VoIP customers, we must obtain from each customer, prior to the initiation of or changes to service, the physical locations at which the service will first be used for each VoIP line. For services that can be utilized from more than one physical location, we must provide customers one or more methods of updating their physical location and in Canada, these customers must be able to update their location online. Because we do not validate the physical address at each location where the services may be used by our customers, and because customers may use the services in locations that differ from the registered location without providing us with the updated information, it is possible that E-911 calls may be routed to the wrong public safety answering point, or PSAP. We are also aware that certain customer registered addresses are incorrect, or may not have been updated. If E-911 calls are not routed to the correct PSAP, and if the delay results in serious injury or death, we could be sued and the damages substantial.

We could be subject to enforcement action by the FCC or the CRTC for our customer lines that do not have E-911 service. This enforcement action could result in significant monetary penalties and restrictions on our ability to offer services.

Customers may in the future attempt to hold us responsible for any loss, damage, personal injury, or death suffered as a result of delayed, misrouted or uncompleted emergency service calls. The New and Emerging Technologies 911 Improvement Act of 2008 provides that internet voice communications providers have the same protections from liability for the operation of 911 services as traditional wire-line and wireless providers. Limitations on liability for the provision of 911 services are normally governed by state law, and these limitations typically are not absolute. It is also unclear under the FCC’s rules whether the limitations on liability would apply to those customer lines for which we do not provide E-911 service. In Canada, provincial consumer protection laws may constrain our ability to limit liability to our non-business customers for any liability caused due to the 911 shortfalls inherent in internet voice communications services.

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State Regulation

The FCC has preempted much regulation of internet voice communications services. However, a number of states have ruled that non-nomadic internet voice communications services may or do fall within the definition of “telecommunications services” or are otherwise within state telecommunications regulatory jurisdiction and therefore those states assert that they have authority to regulate the service. No states currently require certification for nomadic internet voice communications service providers. Nevertheless, a number of states have imposed certain traditional telecommunications requirements on such services, including assessing state USF or other surcharge requirements, E-911 support and fees and other surcharges on nomadic VoIP providers. A number of states require us to contribute to state USF and E-911, and pay other surcharges, while others are actively considering extending their public policy programs to include the services we provide. We pass USF, E-911 fees and other surcharges through to our customers, which may result in our services becoming more expensive or require that we absorb these costs. We expect that state public utility commissions will continue their attempts to apply state telecommunications regulations to internet voice communications services like ours. If the FCC determines that VoIP services are telecommunications services, the risk of state regulation will increase significantly.

International Regulation

As we expand internationally, we will be subject to laws and regulations in the countries in which we offer our services. Regulatory treatment of internet communications services outside the U.S. varies from country to country, is often unclear, and may be more onerous than imposed on our services in the U.S. In Canada, our service is regulated by the CRTC, which, among other things, imposes requirements similar to the U.S. related to the provision of E-911 services in all areas of Canada where the traditional telephone carrier offers such 911 services. Our regulatory obligations in foreign jurisdictions could have a material adverse effect on our ability to expand internationally, and on the use of our services in international locations. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for more information.

 

 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our current and prospective investors should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” before making investment decisions regarding our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below may not be the only ones we face, but include the most significant factors currently known by us. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, also may become important factors that affect us. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry

If we are unable to attract new users of our services on a cost-effective basis, our business will be materially and adversely affected.

In order to grow our business, we must continue to attract new users on a cost-effective basis. We use and periodically adjust the mix of advertising and marketing programs to promote our services. Significant increases in the pricing of one or more of our advertising channels could increase our advertising costs or may cause us to choose less expensive and perhaps less effective channels to promote our services. As we add to or change the mix of our advertising and marketing strategies, we may need to expand into channels with significantly higher costs than our current programs, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. We will incur advertising and marketing expenses in advance of when we anticipate recognizing any revenue generated by such expenses, and we may fail to experience an increase in revenue or brand awareness as a result of such expenditures. We have made in the past, and may make in the future, significant expenditures and investments in new advertising campaigns, and we cannot assure you that any such investments will lead to the cost-effective acquisition of additional customers. New users are drawn to our products and services by rankings circulated by organizations such as Amazon.com, Apple and Google app stores and highly regarded publications such as PC Magazine. If we are unable to maintain effective advertising programs and garner favorable rankings, our ability to attract new customers could be materially and adversely affected, our advertising and marketing expenses could increase substantially, and our results of operations may suffer.

We market our products and services principally to small businesses and households. Many of these consumers tend to be less technically knowledgeable and may be resistant to new technologies such as our cloud-based communications solutions and our connected services. Because our potential customers need to connect additional hardware at their location and take other technical steps not required for the use of traditional communications services such as telephone, fax and e-mail, these consumers may be reluctant to use our service. These customers may also lack sufficient resources, financial or otherwise, to invest in learning about our services, and therefore may be unwilling to adopt them. If these consumers choose not to adopt our services, our ability to grow our business will be limited.

Our customers may terminate their subscriptions for our service at any time without penalty, and increased customer turnover, or costs we incur to retain our customers and encourage them to add users and, in the future, to purchase additional functionalities and premium service editions, could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.

Our customers generally do not have long-term contracts with us, and they may terminate their subscription for our service at any time without penalty or early termination charges. We cannot accurately predict the rate of customer terminations or average monthly service cancellations or failures to renew, which we refer to as churn. Our Ooma Office customers may choose to reduce the number of lines or remove some of the solutions to which they subscribe. Additionally, our Ooma Telo customers subscribing to Premium Services have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for such services and may elect to terminate their subscription for any number of reasons, including changes in financial or employment status, perceived reduction in quality or value, and other unique and personal reasons.

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We may not be able to predict the renewal rates for our customers. In addition, small business customers generally pay more for their subscriptions than home or mobile customers, so any increased churn in small business customers could materially and adversely affect our financial performance and user churn, resulting in a significant impact on our results of operations, and an increase in the cost we incur in our efforts to retain our customers and encourage them to upgrade their services and increase their number of users. Our core user churn rate could increase in the future if customers are not satisfied with our service, the value proposition of our services or our ability to otherwise meet their needs and expectations. Churn and reductions in the number of users for whom a small business customer subscribes may also increase due to factors beyond our control. Because of churn and reductions in the number of users for whom a customer subscribes, we have to acquire new customers, or acquire new users within our existing customer base, on an ongoing basis simply to maintain our existing level of customers and revenue. If a significant number of customers terminate, reduce or fail to renew their subscriptions, we may need to incur significantly higher marketing expenditures than we currently anticipate in order to increase the number of new customers or to sell existing customers additional services, and such additional marketing expenditures could harm our business and results of operations. Different factors may affect the churn of business, home, and mobile customers, and Talkatone customers differently. As a result, our business is susceptible to a broad array of market forces, and any of our efforts to mitigate risk of customer churn due to one factor may divert management’s time and focus away from efforts to mitigate risk of customer churn due to other factors. This broad-based susceptibility to churn could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.

Our future success also depends in part on our ability to sell additional subscriptions and additional functionalities to our current customers. This may require increasingly sophisticated and costlier sales efforts and a longer sales cycle. Any increase in the costs necessary to upgrade, expand and retain existing customers could materially and adversely affect our financial performance. If our efforts to convince customers to add users and, in the future, to purchase additional functionalities are not successful, our business may suffer. In addition, such increased costs could cause us to increase our subscription rates, which could increase our turnover rate.

We face competition in our markets by our competitors and may lack sufficient financial or other resources to compete successfully.

The cloud-based communications and connected services industries are highly competitive. We face continued competition from (i) established communications providers, such as AT&T Inc., Comcast Corporation and Verizon Communications Inc. in the U.S., and Rogers Communications Inc. and others in Canada; (ii) other communications companies such as 8x8, Inc., magicJack VocalTec Ltd., RingCentral, Inc. and Vonage Holdings Corp.; (iii) companies such as Broadsoft, Inc. and Microsoft Corporation (that generally license their software) and their resellers; (iv) traditional on-premise, hardware communications providers, such as Avaya Inc., Cisco Systems, Inc., ShoreTel, Inc. and their resellers; (v) mobile communications app companies providing “over-the-top” solutions, such as LINE Corporation, Pinger, Inc., Viber (Rakuten, Inc.) and WhatsApp Inc.; and (vi) large internet companies, such as Google Inc. All of these companies currently or may in the future host their solutions through the cloud. In addition, as we expand our connected services, we face competition from lead-generation and internet search engine optimization companies and home automation companies.

Aggressive business tactics by our competitors may reduce our revenue.

Increased competition may result in aggressive business tactics by our competitors, including:

 

offering products similar to our platform and solutions on a bundled basis at no charge;

 

announcing competing products combined with extensive marketing efforts;

 

providing financial incentives to consumers; and

 

asserting intellectual property rights irrespective of the validity of the claims.

Our retail partners may offer the products and services of competing companies, which would adversely affect our business. Competition from other companies may also adversely affect our negotiations with service providers and suppliers, including, in some cases, requiring us to lower our prices. We may not be able to compete successfully with the offerings and sales tactics of other companies, which could result in the loss of customers and, as a result, our revenue and profitability could be adversely affected.

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Mergers or other strategic transactions involving our competitors could weaken our competitive position, which could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively and harm our results of operations; additionally, mergers or other strategic transactions we engage in may not be successful.

We believe that some of our existing competitors may consolidate or be acquired. In addition, some of our competitors may enter into new alliances with each other or may establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with systems integrators, third-party consulting firms or other parties. Any such consolidation, acquisition, alliance or cooperative relationship could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively and lead to pricing pressure and our loss of market share, and could result in a competitor with greater financial, technical, marketing, service and other resources, all of which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In the past we have decided, and in the future may decide, to enter into mergers or other strategic transactions in which we acquire other companies. We cannot guarantee we will be able to successfully integrate the teams, assets, or business of these target companies into our business, that we will be able to fully recover the costs of such transactions or that we will be successful in leveraging such strategic transactions into increased business for our products.

We rely significantly on retailers and reseller partnerships to sell our products; our failure to effectively develop, manage, and maintain our retail sales and reseller partnership channels could materially and adversely affect our revenue.

We currently sell our Ooma Telo and Ooma Office products through a combination of direct sales, leading retailers such as Amazon.com, Costco.com, Best Buy, Fry’s Electronics and Walmart, and our reseller partnerships and a significant portion of our product sales are made through our retail and reseller partnership channels. Similarly, to date, the vast majority of our Business Promoter accounts are obtained through a limited number of reseller partnerships. In addition, our Talkatone application relies significantly on the Apple and Google app stores for distribution. Our future success depends on our continued ability to establish and maintain a network of productive retailers, to maintain and expand our reseller partnership arrangements, and to maintain the ability of Talkatone to be distributed through the app stores and increase Talkatone’s visibility therein. We expect that we will need to maintain and expand our retail channel and reseller partnership sales and Talkatone’s distribution and visibility in the app stores as we seek to expand our customer base. We generally do not have long-term contracts with our retailers, distributors and reseller partners, and we have in the past and may in the future experience a loss of or reduction in sales through any of these third parties, which could materially reduce our revenue. For example, our reseller partnership with Vivint has not produced significant sales to end users and to our knowledge, Vivint is not currently reselling our home communications solution to new customers. In addition, if Apple or Google determine that Talkatone is non-compliant with their app store vendor policies, they may revoke our rights to sell Talkatone through their app store at any time. Our competitors may in some cases be effective in causing our current and potential retailers, and reseller partners to favor their services or prevent or reduce sales of our services. If we fail to maintain relationships with current retailers and reseller partners, fail to develop relationships with new retailers and reseller partners in new markets or expand the number of retailers and reseller partners in existing markets, fail to manage, train, or provide appropriate incentives to our existing retailers and reseller partners, or if they are not successful in their sales efforts, sales of our products and services may decrease and our results of operations would suffer.

We depend on a small number of vendors to manufacture the on-premise appliances, end-point devices and home security systems we sell, and any delay or interruption in manufacturing, configuring and delivering by these third parties would result in delayed or reduced shipments to our customers and may harm our business.

We primarily rely on Mitac Computing Technology Corporation for production of our on-premise appliances, Hualin Precision Technology Co., Ltd. (“Hualin”) for production of our end‑point devices, and Hualin and Crow Corporation for production of our home security systems we sell to our customers. We currently do not have long-term contracts with these vendors. As a result, these third parties are not obligated to provide products to or perform services for us for any specific period, in any specific quantities or at any specific price, except as may be provided in a particular purchase order. If these third parties are unable to deliver on‑premise appliances or end-point devices of acceptable quality or in a timely manner, our ability to bring services to market, the reliability of our services and our reputation could suffer. We expect that it could take several months to effectively transition to new third-party manufacturers or fulfillment agents. Additionally, several components used in our on-premise appliances and end-point devices are “single sourced” and any interruption in the suppliers of such components could cause our business to suffer as we identify alternative sources of components. In the past, labor strikes in West Coast ports have delayed shipments of our products from our manufacturers. Future repetition of such delays could negatively affect our ability to deliver product to our customers in a timely manner and may harm our business and hinder our growth.

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To deliver our services, we rely on third parties for our network connectivity and co‑location facilities for certain features in our services and for certain elements of providing our services.

We currently use the infrastructure of third-party service providers for hosting, internet access and other services that are vital to our service offering. Equinix, Inc. provides data center facilities; Comcast, NTT Inc. and others provide backbone internet access; and Bandwidth.com, Onvoy and others provide origination services. We also rely on third-party services for our SMS and speech-to-text services which are sole-sourced. Intrado is our sole provider of 911 services. We expect that we will continue to rely heavily on third-party network service providers to provide these services for the foreseeable future. If any of these network service providers stop providing us with access to their infrastructure, fail to provide these services to us on a cost-effective basis, cease operations, or otherwise terminate these services, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to another third-party network service provider, if one is available, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We may be required to transfer our servers to new data center facilities if we are unable to renew our leases on acceptable terms, if at all, or the owners of the facilities decide to close their facilities, and we may incur significant costs and possible service interruption in connection with doing so. In addition, any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy or foreclosure, faced by our third-party data center operators or any of the service providers with which we or they contract, may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict. Additionally, if our data centers are unable to keep up with our increasing needs for capacity, our ability to grow our business could be materially and adversely impacted.

If problems occur with any of these third-party network or service providers, it may cause errors or reduced quality in our services, and we could encounter difficulty identifying the source of the problem. The occurrence of errors or reduced quality in our service, whether caused by our systems or a third-party network or service provider, may result in the loss of our existing customers, delay or loss of market acceptance of our services, termination of our relationships and agreements with our resellers or liability for failure to meet service level agreements, and may seriously harm our business and results of operations.

We rely on purchased or leased hardware and software licensed from third parties in order to offer our service. In some cases, we integrate third-party licensed software components into our platform. This hardware and software may not continue to be available at reasonable prices or on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of this hardware or software could significantly increase our expenses and otherwise result in delays in the provisioning of our service until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained and integrated. Any errors or defects in third-party hardware or software could result in errors or a failure of our service which could harm our business.

We also contract with third parties to provide enhanced 911, or E-911, services, including assistance in routing emergency calls and terminating E-911 calls. Our providers operate a national call center that is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, to receive certain emergency calls and maintain public service answering point, or PSAP, databases for the purpose of deploying and operating E-911 services. On mobile devices, we generally rely on the underlying cellular or wireless carrier to provide E-911 services. Any failure to perform, including interruptions in service, by our vendors, could cause failures in our customers’ access to E-911 services and expose us to significant liability and damage our reputation.

Interruptions in our services could harm our reputation, result in significant costs to us and impair our ability to sell our services.

Because our technology platform is complex, incorporates a variety of new computer hardware, and the platform continues to evolve, our services may have errors or defects that are identified after customers begin using such services, which could result in unanticipated service interruptions. Although we test our services to detect and correct errors and defects before their initial release and before we make updates or other changes to such services, we have occasionally experienced significant service interruptions as a result of undetected errors or defects and may experience future interruptions of service if we fail to detect and correct errors and defects. For example, in April and May 2015 while working to upgrade our network, we encountered unexpected problems with the communications between our data centers, as well as certain server capacity issues, which led to multiple intermittent service outages, some of which lasted for up to approximately eight hours for some of our customers. While we have identified root causes of these service outages, and in each case were able to restore service to all of the affected customers, we continue to take corrective actions to address these root causes. We were able to correct such root causes without incurring material expenses, and the outages in April and May 2015 did not materially affect our results of operations. However, the costs incurred in correcting root causes for future service outages may be substantial and these and other related consequences could negatively impact our results of operations.

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We currently serve our customers from two data center hosting facilities located in Northern California and Virginia, where we lease space from Equinix, Inc. While we believe that the additional data center and certain procedures we have adopted will enable us to restore services quickly in the event of a service outage, these procedures and our data centers, by themselves, will not prevent future outages. Any damage to, or failure of, these facilities, the communications network providers with whom we or they contract or with the systems by which our communications providers allocate capacity among their customers, including us, could result in interruptions in our service. Additionally, in connection with the expansion or consolidation of our existing data center facilities, we may move or transfer our data and our customers’ data to other data centers. Despite precautions we take during this process, any unsuccessful data transfers may impair or cause disruptions in the delivery of our service.

Despite precautions taken at our hosting facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster or an act of terrorism or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our service. Even with the disaster recovery arrangements that we have in place, our service could be interrupted.

Any defects in, or unavailability of, the components of our platform that cause interruptions of our services could, among other things:

 

cause a reduction in revenue or a delay in market acceptance of our services;

 

require us to issue refunds to our customers or expose us to claims for damages;

 

cause us to lose existing customers and make it more difficult to attract new customers;

 

divert our development resources or require us to make extensive changes to our software, which would increase our expenses and slow innovation;

 

increase our technical support costs; and

 

harm our reputation and brand.

We rely on third parties for some of our software development, quality assurance and operations.

We currently depend on various third parties for some of our software development efforts, quality assurance and operations. Specifically, we outsource some of our software development and design, quality assurance and operations activities to third-party contractors that have employees and consultants located in Canada, China, India, New Zealand, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine. Our dependence on third-party contractors creates a number of risks, in particular, the risk that we may not maintain control or effective management with respect to these business operations.

Our agreements with these third-party contractors are either not terminable by them (other than at the end of the term or upon an uncured breach by us) or require at least 30 days’ prior written notice of termination. If we experience problems with our third-party contractors, the costs charged by our third-party contractors increase or our agreements with our third-party contractors are terminated, we may not be able to develop new solutions, enhance or operate existing solutions or provide customer support in an alternate manner that is equally or more efficient and cost-effective.

We anticipate we will continue to depend on these and other third-party relationships in order to grow our business for the foreseeable future. If we are unsuccessful in maintaining existing and, if needed, establishing new relationships with third parties, our ability to efficiently operate existing services or develop new services and provide adequate customer support could be impaired, and as a result, our competitive position or our results of operations could suffer.

We rely on third parties to provide the majority of our customer service and support representatives. If these third parties do not provide our customers with reliable, high‑quality service, our reputation will be harmed, and we may lose customers.

We offer customer support through both our online account management website and our toll-free customer support number. Our customer support is currently provided via a third-party provider located in the Philippines, as well as our employees in the U.S. We currently offer support almost exclusively in English. Our third-party providers generally provide customer service and support to our customers without identifying themselves as independent parties. The ability to support our customers may be disrupted by natural disasters, inclement weather conditions, civil unrest, strikes, acts of terrorism and other adverse events in the Philippines. Furthermore, as we expand our operations internationally, we may need to make significant expenditures and investments in our customer service and support to adequately address the complex needs of international customers, such as support in multiple foreign languages.

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If any of these third parties do not provide reliable, high-quality service, our reputation and our business will be harmed and we may be exposed to significant liability. In addition, a significant service outage may cause a high volume of customer support inquiries, and our third‑party customer service call center might be unable to respond to a significant spike in customer support inquiries in a timely manner. In addition, industry consolidation among providers of services to us may impact our ability to obtain these services or increase our costs for these services.

Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, which may increase the risk of investing in our stock.

Although we were incorporated in 2003, we did not formally introduce Ooma Telo until 2009 or Ooma Office until 2013. In addition, we acquired our Business Promoter business in 2012 and our Talkatone business in 2014. Our limited operating history limits our ability to plan for and model future growth. We have encountered and expect to continue encountering risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing markets. If our assumptions regarding these uncertainties are incorrect or change in reaction to changes in our markets, or if we do not manage or address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations, and our business could suffer. Any success we may experience in the future will depend, in large part, on our ability to, among other things:

 

retain and expand our customer base;

 

increase revenue from existing customers as they add users and, in the future, purchase additional functionalities and premium service subscriptions;

 

successfully acquire customers on a cost-effective basis;

 

improve the performance and capabilities of our services, applications, and hardware through research and development;

 

successfully expand our business domestically and internationally;

 

successfully compete in our markets;

 

continue to innovate and expand our service offerings;

 

continue our relationships with strategic partners like Amazon, Nest Labs, Inc. and our reseller partners;

 

continue our relationships with our current retail partners and develop relationships with additional retail partners;

 

continue our relationships with our digital marketing agency partners, advertising agencies and digital advertising networks;

 

continue our relationships with third-party vendors that enable our solutions;

 

successfully protect our intellectual property and defend against intellectual property infringement claims;

 

generate leads and convert potential customers into paying customers;

 

maintain and enhance our third-party data center hosting facilities to minimize interruptions in the use of our services;

 

determine appropriate prices for the marketplace; and

 

hire, integrate and retain professional and technical talent.

We have incurred significant losses and negative cash flows in the past and anticipate continuing to incur losses and negative cash flows for the foreseeable future, and we may therefore not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

We have incurred substantial net losses since our inception, including net losses of approximately $12.9 million, $14.1 million and $6.4 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. We had an accumulated deficit of $77.8 million and $64.8 million as of January 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We have spent considerable amounts of time and money since inception to develop new communications solutions and connected services. Additionally, we have incurred substantial losses and expended significant resources to market, promote, develop and sell our products and solutions. We also expect to continue investing for future growth, including for advertising, customer acquisition, technology infrastructure, storage capacity, services development and international expansion. In addition, as a public company, we may incur additional accounting, legal and other expenses.

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As a result of our increased expenditures, we may have negative operating cash flows for the foreseeable future and will have to generate and sustain increased revenue to achieve future profitability. Achieving profitability will require us to increase revenue, manage our cost structure and avoid significant liabilities. Revenue growth may slow, revenue may decline or we may incur significant losses in the future for a number of possible reasons, including general macroeconomic conditions, increasing competition (including competitive pricing pressures), a decrease in the growth of the markets in which we compete or failure for any reason to continue capitalizing on growth opportunities. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating expenses, difficulties, complications, delays, service delivery and quality problems and other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. If these losses exceed our expectations or our revenue growth expectations are not met in future periods, our financial performance will be harmed and our stock price could be volatile or decline.

Our business could suffer if we cannot obtain or retain direct inward dialing numbers, or DIDs, are prohibited from obtaining local or toll-free numbers, or are limited to distributing local or toll-free numbers to only certain customers.

Our future success depends on our ability to procure large quantities of local and toll-free DIDs in the U.S. and foreign countries in desirable locations at a reasonable cost and without restrictions. Our ability to procure and distribute DIDs depends on factors outside of our control, such as applicable regulations, the practices of the communications carriers that provide DIDs, the cost of these DIDs, and the level of demand for new DIDs. Due to their limited availability, there are certain popular area code prefixes we generally cannot obtain. Our inability to acquire DIDs for our operations would make our services less attractive to potential customers in the affected local geographic areas. In addition, future growth in our customer base, together with growth in the customer bases of other providers of internet-based business communications, has increased, which increases our dependence on needing sufficiently large quantities of DIDs.

If we are unable to effectively process local number and toll-free number portability provisioning in a timely manner, our growth may be negatively affected.

We support local number and toll-free number portability, which allows our customers to transfer to us and thereby retain their existing phone numbers when subscribing to our small business, home, and mobile services. Transferring numbers can be a manual process that can take up to 15 business days or longer to complete. A new customer of our services must maintain both our service and the customer’s existing phone service during the number transferring process. Any delay we experience in transferring these numbers typically results from the fact that we depend on third-party carriers to transfer these numbers, a process we do not control, and these third-party carriers may refuse or substantially delay the transfer of these numbers to us. Local number portability is considered an important feature by many potential customers, and if we fail to reduce any related delays, we may experience increased difficulty in acquiring new customers. Moreover, the FCC requires us to comply with specified number porting timeframes when customers leave our service for the services of another provider. In Canada, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, or CRTC, has imposed a similar number portability requirement on service providers like us. If we, or our third-party carriers, are unable to process number portability requests within the requisite timeframes, we could be subject to fines and penalties. Additionally, in the U.S., both customers and carriers may seek relief from the relevant state public utility commission, the FCC, or in state or federal court for violation of local number portability requirements.

If small businesses opt to perform advertising tasks on their own, demand for our lead‑generation services would decrease, thereby negatively affecting our revenue.

Large internet marketing providers such as Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft offer online advertising products to small businesses through self-service platforms. As small businesses become more familiar with such platforms, they may increasingly choose to actively manage their own internet presence and their demand for the lead-generation services may decrease. We cannot predict the evolving experiences and preferences of small businesses and cannot assure you that we can develop our lead generation business, or develop similar new services, in a manner that will suit their needs and expectations faster or more effectively than our competitors, or at all. If we are not able to do so, our results of operations would suffer.

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Our access to the majority of our lead-generation customers is currently through a limited number of digital agencies, which creates a significant risk that we could lose a majority of our lead generation service customers due to factors beyond our control.

We currently contract with several digital agencies to provide our lead-generation services as a component of their service to third parties who we include as our core users. If our relationship with these digital agencies degrades, they could elect not to use our lead-generation service, which would lead to the loss of a portion of our lead generation business revenue as well as a number of our core users. Also, for reasons beyond our control, the digital agencies we work with may lose their business relationships with third parties who purchase lead generation services for their customers, causing the digital agency to terminate its business relationship with us and the loss of such lead generation business revenue. The concentration of our access to lead generation customers creates volatility in our revenue and in the churn of our core users, which risk will remain unless and until we significantly grow the number of digital agencies we contract with, and/or increase the number of small businesses that obtain lead generation services directly from us.

If we fail to continue developing our brand or our reputation is harmed, our business may suffer.

We believe that continuing to strengthen our current brand will be critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our services and will require continued focus on active marketing efforts. The demand for and cost of online and traditional advertising have been increasing and may continue to increase. Accordingly, we may need to increase our investment in, and devote greater resources to, advertising, marketing, and other efforts to create and maintain brand loyalty among users. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue, and even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses incurred in building our brands. If we fail to promote and maintain our brand, or if we incur substantial expense in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brands, our business could be materially and adversely affected.

Our services, as well as those of our competitors, are regularly reviewed and commented upon by online and social media sources, as well as computer and other business publications. Negative reviews, or reviews in which our competitors’ products and services are rated more highly than our solutions, could negatively affect our brand and reputation. From time to time, our customers have expressed dissatisfaction with our services, including dissatisfaction with our customer support, our billing policies and the way our services operate. If we do not handle customer complaints effectively, our brand and reputation may suffer, we may lose our customers’ confidence, and they may choose to terminate, reduce or not to renew their subscriptions. In addition, many of our customers participate in social media and online blogs about internet-based services, including our services, and our success depends in part on our ability to minimize negative and generate positive customer feedback through such online channels where existing and potential customers seek and share information. If actions we take or changes we make to our services upset these customers, their blogging could negatively affect our brand and reputation. Complaints or negative publicity about our services or customer service could materially and adversely impact our ability to attract and retain customers and our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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A security breach could delay or interrupt service to our customers, compromise the integrity of our systems or data that we collect, result in the loss of our intellectual property or confidential information, harm our reputation, or subject us to significant liability.

Our operations depend on our ability to protect our network from interruption or damage resulting from unauthorized access or entry, computer viruses or malware or other events beyond our control. In the past, we may have been subject to undetected distributed denial-of-service, or DDOS, cyberattacks by hackers intent on bringing down our services, and we may be subject to DDOS and other forms of cyberattacks in the future. We cannot assure you that our backup systems, regular data backups, physical, technological and organizational security protocols and measures and other procedures that are currently in place, or that may be in place in the future, will be adequate to prevent unauthorized access to our systems, significant damage, system interruption, degradation or failure, or data loss or to respond to a cyberattack once launched. Additionally, hackers may attempt to directly gain access to a customer’s on-premise appliance, which may delay or interrupt services, or may subject our customers to further security risks, including in relation to any connected household devices a customer might have now or in the future, such as Nest devices or other household sensors, or to our network more generally. Also, our services are web-based, and the amount of data we store for our users on our servers has been increasing as our business has grown. Despite the implementation of security measures, our infrastructure may be vulnerable to hackers, computer viruses, worms, other malicious software programs or similar disruptive problems caused by our customers, employees, consultants or other internet users who attempt to invade public and private data networks. In some cases we do not have in place disaster recovery facilities for certain ancillary services, such as email delivery of messages. Currently, nearly all of our customers authorize us to bill their credit or debit card accounts directly for all transaction fees that we charge. We rely on encryption and authentication technology to ensure secure transmission of confidential information, including customer credit and debit card numbers. Despite our efforts to encrypt and secure customer payment card information, hackers with sufficiently sophisticated technology or methods may still be able to infiltrate our systems to gain unauthorized access to payment card information. Further, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or other developments may result in a compromise or breach of the technology we use to protect transaction data.

Additionally, third parties may attempt to fraudulently induce domestic and international employees, consultants or customers into disclosing sensitive information, such as user names, passwords or customer proprietary network information, or CPNI, or other information in order to gain access to our customers’ data or to our data. CPNI includes information such as the phone numbers called by a customer, the frequency, duration, and timing of such calls, and any services purchased by the customer, such as call waiting, call forwarding and caller ID, in addition to other information that may appear on a customer’s bill. Third parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees, consultants or customers into disclosing sensitive information regarding our intellectual property and other confidential business information, or our information technology systems. In addition, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, or to sabotage systems, change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Any system failure or security breach that causes interruptions or data loss in our operations or in the computer systems of our customers or leads to the misappropriation of our or our customers’ confidential or personal information, or CPNI, could result in significant liability to us. Such failure or breach could cause our service to be perceived as not being secure, subject us to regulatory requirements such as FCC notification, result in significant monetary costs, such as fines, legal fees and expenditures to improve and enhance our security measures, cause considerable harm to us and our reputation (including requiring notification to customers, regulators or the media) and deter current and potential customers from using our services. Additionally, we could incur significant costs, both monetary and with respect to management’s time and attention, to investigate and remediate a data security breach. Because our onboarding and billing functions are conducted primarily through a single data center, any security breach in that data center may cause an interruption in our business operations. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Failures in internet infrastructure or interference with broadband access could cause current or potential customers to believe that our systems are unreliable, leading our current customers to switch to our competitors or potential customers to avoid using our services.

Many of our services depend on our customers’ broadband access to the internet, usually provided through a cable or digital subscriber line, or DSL, connection. In addition, users who access our services and applications through mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, must have a high-speed connection, such as Wi-Fi, 3G, 4G or LTE, to use our services and applications. Currently, this access is provided by companies that have significant and increasing market power in the broadband and internet access marketplace, including incumbent phone companies, cable companies and wireless companies. Increasing numbers of users and increasing bandwidth requirements may degrade the performance of internet and mobile infrastructure, resulting in outages or deteriorations in connectivity and negatively impacting the quality with which we can deliver our solutions. As our customer base grows and their usage of communications capacity increases, we will be required to make additional investments in network capacity to maintain adequate data transmission speeds, the availability of which may be limited, or the cost of which may be on terms unacceptable to us. If adequate capacity is not available to us as our customers’ usage increases, our network may be unable to achieve or maintain sufficiently high data transmission capacity, reliability or performance. Furthermore, as the rate of adopting new technologies increases, the networks on which our services and applications rely may not be able to sufficiently adapt to the increased demand for these services, including ours. In the past, we have experienced disruptions to our service. For example, in August 2011, we experienced an outage for approximately three hours, and in April and May 2015, we experienced multiple intermittent service outages that lasted for up to eight hours for some of our customers. Frequent or persistent interruptions could cause current or potential users to believe that our systems or services are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid our services, and could permanently harm our reputation and brands. Because some of our services rely on integration between features that use both wired and wireless infrastructures, any of the aforementioned problems with either wired or wireless infrastructure may result in the inability of customers to take advantage of our integrated services and therefore may decrease the attractiveness of our collective services to current and potential customers.

The success of our business relies on customers’ continued and unimpeded access to broadband service. Providers of broadband services may be able to block our services or charge their customers more for using our services, which could adversely affect our revenue and growth.

Some of the providers of broadband internet access and high-speed mobile access, such as AT&T and Verizon, offer products and services that directly compete with our own offerings, which can potentially give such providers a competitive advantage. For example, these providers may market and sell a bundle of services to our current and potential customers that includes services directly competitive to ours, and our current and potential customers may prefer these bundled offerings. Some providers of broadband access, including providers outside of the U.S., may take measures that affect their customers’ ability to use our service, such as degrading the quality of the data packets we transmit over their lines, giving those packets low priority, giving other packets higher priority than ours, blocking our packets entirely or attempting to charge their customers more for also using our services. While actions like these by U.S. providers would violate the net neutrality rules recently adopted by the FCC and described below, most foreign countries have not adopted formal net neutrality or open internet rules, and there continues to be some uncertainty regarding whether the net neutrality rules will be upheld by courts or modified by legislative action.

On March 12, 2015 the FCC released new network neutrality and open internet rules that it had adopted on February 26, 2015. In that order, the FCC reclassified broadband Internet access services as a telecommunications service subject to some elements of common carrier regulation, including the obligation to provide service on just and reasonable terms, requirements related to customer privacy and requirements for accessibility for people with disabilities. The order also prohibits blocking or discriminating against lawful services and applications and prohibits “paid prioritization,” or providing faster speeds or other benefits in return for compensation. The order went into effect on June 12, 2015 and is the subject of pending appeals by several parties. The net neutrality rules could affect the market for broadband internet access service in a way that impacts our business, for example by increasing the cost of broadband internet service and thereby depressing demand for our services or by increasing the costs of services we purchase.

Our quarterly and annual results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may continue to do so in the future. As a result, we may fail to meet or to exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate.

Our quarterly and annual results of operations have varied historically from period to period, and we expect that they will continue to fluctuate due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:

 

our ability to retain existing customers and attract new customers;

 

our ability to sell premium solutions to our existing customers;

 

our ability to introduce new solutions;

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the actions of our competitors, including pricing changes or the introduction of new solutions;

 

our ability to effectively manage our growth;

 

our ability to successfully penetrate the communications and connected services markets for small businesses, home, and mobile;

 

the number of monthly and annual subscriptions at any given time;

 

the timing, cost and effectiveness of our advertising and marketing efforts;

 

the timing, operating cost and capital expenditures related to the operation, maintenance, and expansion of our business;

 

the timing of our decisions with regard to product resource allocation;

 

seasonality of consumers’ purchasing patterns and seasonality of advertising patterns;

 

service outages or security breaches and any related impact on our reputation;

 

our ability to accurately forecast revenue and appropriately plan our expenses;

 

costs associated with defending and resolving intellectual property infringement and other claims;

 

changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting rules;

 

the timing and cost of developing or acquiring technologies, services or businesses and our ability to successfully manage any such acquisitions; and

 

the impact of worldwide economic, industry, and market conditions.

Any one of the factors above, or the cumulative effect of some or all of the factors referred to above, may result in significant fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results of operations. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet our internal operating plan or the expectations of securities analysts or investors for any period, which could cause our stock price to decline. In addition, a significant percentage of our operating expenses is fixed in nature and is based on forecasted revenue trends. Accordingly, in the event of revenue shortfalls, we may not be able to mitigate the negative impact on net income (loss) and margins in the short term. If we fail to meet or exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, the market price of our shares could fall substantially and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class-action suits.

We may require additional capital to pursue our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances. If capital is not available to us or only under unfavorable terms, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

We intend to continue making expenditures and investments to support the growth of our business and may require additional capital to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, including the need to develop new solutions or enhance our existing solutions, enhance our operating infrastructure, and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. However, additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Our credit agreements include restrictive covenants and any debt financing we secure in the future could involve further restrictive covenants, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities.

In addition, volatility in the credit markets may have an adverse effect on our ability to obtain debt financing. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, our ability to continue pursuing our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances could be significantly limited, and our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

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Growth may place significant demands on our management and our infrastructure.

We have recently experienced substantial growth in our business, including an increase in the number of customers we consider to be our core users. This growth has placed and may continue to place significant demands on our management and our operational and financial infrastructure. As our operations grow in size, scope and complexity, we will need to increase our sales and marketing efforts and add additional sales and marketing personnel worldwide and to improve and upgrade our systems and infrastructure to attract, service, and retain an increasing number of users. For example, we expect the volume of simultaneous calls to increase significantly as our user base grows. Our network hardware and software may not be able to accommodate this additional simultaneous call volume. The expansion of our systems and infrastructure will require us to commit substantial financial, operational and technical resources in advance of an increase in the volume of business, with no assurance that the volume of business will increase. Any such additional capital investments will increase our cost base. Continued growth could also strain our ability to maintain reliable service levels for our users, develop and improve our operational, financial and management controls, enhance our reporting systems and procedures and recruit, train, and retain highly skilled personnel. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as we grow, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

Shifts in trends or the emergence of new technologies may render our solutions obsolete or require us to expend significant resources to develop, license, or acquire new services or applications on a timely and cost-effective basis in order to remain competitive.

The cloud-based communications and connected services industries are emerging markets characterized by rapid changes in customer requirements, frequent introductions of new and enhanced services, and continuing and rapid technological advancement. We cannot predict the effect of technological changes on our business. To compete successfully in these emerging markets, we must anticipate and adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards and continue to design, develop, manufacture and sell new and enhanced services that provide increasingly higher levels of performance and reliability at lower cost. We derived approximately 72% of our revenue from Ooma Telo for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2017. We expect Ooma Telo will continue to account for a majority of our revenue for the foreseeable future. However, our future success will also depend on our ability to introduce and sell new services, features and functionality that enhance or are beyond the voice, fax, text and connected services we currently offer, as well as to improve usability and support and increase customer satisfaction. Our failure to develop solutions that satisfy customer preferences in a timely and cost-effective manner may harm our ability to renew our subscriptions with existing customers and to create or increase demand for our services and may materially and adversely impact our results of operations.

The introduction of new services by competitors or the development of entirely new technologies to replace existing offerings could make our solutions obsolete or adversely affect our business and results of operations. Announcements of future releases and new services and technologies by our competitors or by us could cause customers to defer purchases of our existing services, which also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. We may experience difficulties with software development, operations, design or marketing that could delay or prevent our development, introduction or implementation of new or enhanced services and applications. We have in the past experienced delays in the planned release dates of new features and upgrades, and have discovered defects in new services and applications after their introduction. We cannot assure you that new features or upgrades will be released according to schedule, or that, when released, they will not contain defects. Either of these situations could result in adverse publicity, loss of revenue, delay in market acceptance or claims by customers brought against us, all of which could harm our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition. Moreover, the development of new or enhanced services or applications may require substantial investment, and we must continue to invest a significant amount of resources in our research and development efforts to develop these services and applications to remain competitive. We do not know whether these investments will be successful. If customers do not widely adopt any new or enhanced services and applications, we may not be able to realize a return on our investment. If we are unable to develop, license or acquire new or enhanced services and applications on a timely and cost‑effective basis, or if such new or enhanced services and applications do not achieve market acceptance, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our success depends on the public acceptance of our connected services and applications.

Our future growth depends on our ability to significantly increase revenue generated from our communications solutions and other connected services that integrate voice communications technology with other functions, such as business promotion, automation, security and others. The markets for cloud-based communications and connected services are evolving rapidly and are characterized by an increasing number of market entrants. As is typical of a rapidly evolving industry, the demand for, and market acceptance of, these applications is uncertain. If the markets for cloud-based communications solutions or for other connected services fail to develop, develop more slowly than we anticipate or develop in a manner different than we expect, our services could fail to achieve market acceptance, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business.

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Our future growth in the small business market depends on the continued use of voice communications by businesses, as compared to e-mail and other data-based methods. A decline in the overall rate of voice communications by businesses would harm our business. Furthermore, our continued growth depends on future demand for and adoption of internet voice communications systems and services and on future demand for connected communications services. Although the number of broadband subscribers worldwide has grown significantly in recent years, only a small percentage of businesses have adopted internet voice communications services to date. For demand and adoption of internet voice communications services by businesses to increase, internet voice communications networks must improve the quality of their service for real-time communications by managing the effects of and reducing packet loss, packet delay, and packet jitter, as well as unreliable bandwidth, so that high-quality service can be consistently provided. Additionally, the cost and feature benefits of internet voice communications must be sufficient to cause customers to switch from traditional phone service providers. We must devote substantial resources to educate potential customers about the benefits of internet voice communications solutions, in general, and of our services in particular. If any or all of these factors fail to occur, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Our Ooma Telo product and services are being sold to individuals and families. With the growth in cellular and other mobile technologies, many consumers have chosen to eliminate altogether their home telephone service. Our ability to continue growing our user base depends on our ability to convince our customers and potential customers that our service is sufficiently useful and cost-effective, such that it makes sense to maintain or reestablish home telephone services with us. Our growth could slow and our financial condition could be adversely affected if the trend of eliminating home telephone service continues or accelerates.

Our mobile platform, available to any consumer with a Wi-Fi or cellular data connected mobile device, operates in a market that is fragmented and difficult to get noticed by consumers. Many of our competitors in this market have been able to establish a significant user base and reputation in the market, which may make it more difficult for our products to be adopted. Furthermore, as new mobile devices are released, we may encounter difficulties supporting these devices and services, and we may need to devote significant resources to the creation, support, and maintenance of our mobile applications. Additionally, our competitors may allocate additional resources to marketing and promotion of their products, making it even more difficult to be noticed. It is also unclear how the adoption of “over-the-top” based communications will continue to grow. If the number of consumers using “over-the-top” based communications stagnates or declines, such movement may result in an intensified competition for consumers in this space.

Accusations of infringement of third-party intellectual property rights could materially and adversely affect our business.

There has been substantial litigation in the areas in which we operate regarding intellectual property rights. In the past, we have been sued by third parties claiming infringement of their intellectual property rights and we may be sued for infringement from time to time in the future. In the past, we have settled infringement litigation brought against us; however, we cannot assure you that we will be able to settle any future claims or, if we are able to settle any such claims, that the settlement will be on terms favorable to us. Our broad range of technology may increase the likelihood that third parties will claim that we infringe their intellectual property rights.

We have in the past received, and may in the future receive, notices of claims of infringement, misappropriation or misuse of other parties’ proprietary rights, such as the Deep Green Wireless Litigation described in Part II, Item 1 (Legal Proceedings). Notwithstanding their merits, accusations and lawsuits like these often require significant time and expense to defend, may negatively affect customer relationships, may divert management’s attention away from other aspects of our operations and, upon resolution, may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Certain technology necessary for us to provide our services may, in fact, be patented by other parties either now or in the future. If such technology were validly patented by another person, we would have to negotiate a license for the use of that technology. We may not be able to negotiate such a license at a price that is acceptable to us or at all. The existence of such a patent, or our inability to negotiate a license for any such technology on acceptable terms, could force us to cease using the technology and cease offering products and services incorporating the technology, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

If we were found to be infringing on the intellectual property rights of any third party, we could be subject to liability for such infringement, which could be material. We could also be prohibited from using or selling certain products or services, prohibited from using certain processes, or required to redesign certain products or services, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

These and other outcomes may:

 

result in the loss of a substantial number of existing customers or prohibit the acquisition of new customers;

 

cause us to pay license fees for intellectual property we are deemed to have infringed;

 

cause us to incur costs and devote valuable technical resources to redesigning our services;

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cause our cost of goods sold to increase;

 

cause us to accelerate expenditures to preserve existing revenue;

 

cause existing or new vendors to require prepayments or letters of credit;

 

materially and adversely affect our brand in the marketplace and cause a substantial loss of goodwill;

 

cause us to change our business methods or services;

 

require us to cease certain business operations or offering certain products, services or features; and

 

lead to our bankruptcy or liquidation.

Our limited ability to protect our intellectual property rights could materially and adversely affect our business.

We rely, in part, on patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret law to protect our intellectual property in the U.S. and abroad. We cannot assure you that the particular forms of intellectual property protection we seek, including business decisions about when to file patents and when to maintain trade secrets, will be adequate to protect our business. We seek to protect our technology, software, documentation and other information under trade secret and copyright law, which afford only limited protection. For example, we typically enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, third-party contractors, customers and vendors in an effort to control access to use and distribution of our technology, software, documentation and other information. These agreements may not effectively prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of such unauthorized use or disclosure, and it may be possible for a third party to legally reverse engineer, copy or otherwise obtain and use our technology without authorization. In addition, improper disclosure of trade secret information by our current or former employees, consultants, third-party contractors, customers or vendors to the public or others who could make use of the trade secret information would likely preclude that information from being protected as a trade secret.

We also rely, in part, on patent law to protect our intellectual property in the U.S. and internationally. Our intellectual property portfolio includes 13 issued U.S. patents, which we expect to expire between 2028 and 2036. We also have 15 patent applications pending for examination in the U.S. and five patent applications pending for examination in foreign jurisdictions, all of which are related to U.S. applications. We cannot predict whether such pending patent applications will result in issued patents or whether any issued patents will effectively protect our intellectual property. Even if a pending patent application results in an issued patent, the patent may be circumvented or its validity may be challenged in various proceedings in U.S. District Court, before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or before their foreign equivalents, such as reexamination, which may require legal representation and involve substantial costs and diversion of management time and resources. In addition, we cannot assure you that every significant feature of our solutions is protected by our patents, or that we will mark our products with any or all patents they embody. As a result, we may be prevented from seeking damages in whole or in part for infringement of our patents.

The unlicensed use of our brand, including domain names, by third parties could harm our reputation, cause confusion among our customers and impair our ability to market our products and services. To that end, we have registered numerous trademarks and service marks, have applied for registration of additional trademarks and service marks and have acquired a number of domain names in and outside the U.S. to establish and protect our brand names as part of our intellectual property strategy. If our applications receive objections or are successfully opposed by third parties, it will be difficult for us to prevent third parties from using our brand without our permission. Moreover, successful opposition to our applications might encourage third parties to make additional oppositions or commence trademark infringement proceedings against us, which could be costly and time consuming to defend against. There have been in the past, and may be in the future, instances where third parties have used our trade names, or have adopted confusingly similar trade names to ours. We have been successful in asserting our rights in our trade names and causing such third parties to cease such use, but we may not be successful in the future. If we are not successful in protecting our trademarks, our trademark rights may be diluted and subject to challenge or invalidation, which could materially and adversely affect our brand.

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Despite our efforts to implement our intellectual property strategy, we may not be able to protect or enforce our proprietary rights in the U.S. or internationally (where effective intellectual property protection may be unavailable or limited). For example, we have entered into agreements containing confidentiality and invention assignment provisions in connection with the outsourcing of certain software development, quality assurance and development activities to third-party contractors located in Canada, India, New Zealand, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine. We have also entered into an agreement containing a confidentiality provision with a third-party contractor located in the Philippines, where we have outsourced a significant portion of our customer support function. We cannot assure you that agreements with these third-party contractors or their agreements with their employees and contractors will adequately protect our proprietary rights in the applicable jurisdictions and foreign countries, as their respective laws may not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S. In addition, our competitors may independently develop technologies similar or superior to our technology, duplicate our technology in a manner that does not infringe our intellectual property rights or design around any of our patents. Furthermore, detecting and policing unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and resource-intensive. Moreover, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation, whether successful or not, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management time and resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We license technology from third parties we do not control and cannot be assured of retaining such licenses.

We rely upon certain technology, including hardware and software, licensed from third parties. There can be no assurance that the technology licensed by us will continue to provide competitive features and functionality or that the licenses for technology currently utilized by us or other technology which we may seek to license in the future, will be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or at all. The loss of, or inability to maintain, existing licenses could result in shipment delays or reductions until equivalent technology or suitable alternative products are developed, identified, licensed and integrated, and could harm our business. These licenses are typically offered on standard commercial terms made generally available by the companies providing the licenses. The cost and terms of these licenses individually are not material to our business.

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If we experience excessive fraudulent activity or cannot meet evolving credit card association merchant standards, we could incur substantial costs and lose the right to accept credit cards for payment, which could cause our customer base to decline significantly.

Nearly all of our customers authorize us to bill their credit card accounts directly for service fees that we charge. If people pay for our services with stolen credit cards, we could incur substantial third-party vendor costs for which we may not be reimbursed. Further, our customers provide us with credit card billing information online or over the phone, and we do not review the physical credit cards used in these transactions, which increases our risk of exposure to fraudulent activity. We also incur charges, which we refer to as chargebacks, from the credit card companies’ claims that the customer did not authorize the credit card transaction to purchase our service, something we have experienced in the past. If the number of unauthorized credit card transactions becomes excessive, we could be assessed substantial fines for excess chargebacks and we could lose the right to accept credit cards for payment. We have also been affected by the credit card breaches at various retail stores, which have caused millions of consumers to cancel credit cards as a result of the breach. We have found that some consumers do not renew their services after a card cancellation, which can have a material negative impact on our revenue. In addition, credit card issuers may change merchant standards, including data protection and documentation standards, required to utilize their services from time to time. We are currently not in compliance with all of the applicable technical requirements of the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, or PCI, but we are working to become fully compliant as soon as is practicable. If we fail to become compliant or maintain compliance with current merchant standards, such as PCI, or fail to meet new standards, the credit card associations may fine us or, while unusual, may impose certain restrictions on our ability to accept credit cards or terminate our agreements with them, rendering us unable to accept credit cards as payment for our services. Our services have been in the past, and may also be in the future, subject to fraudulent or abusive usage in violation of applicable law or our acceptable use policies, including but not limited to revenue share fraud, domestic traffic pumping, subscription fraud, premium text message scams, and other fraudulent schemes, any of which could result in our incurring substantial costs for the completion of calls. Although our customers are required to set passwords and Personal Identification Numbers, or PINs, to protect their accounts and may configure in which destinations international calling is enabled from their extensions, third parties have accessed and used our customers’ accounts and extensions through fraudulent means in the past, and they may do so in the future, which also could result in substantial call completion and other costs for us. In addition, third parties may have attempted in the past, and may attempt in the future, to fraudulently induce domestic and international employees or consultants into disclosing customer credentials and other account information. Communications fraud can result in unauthorized access to customer accounts and customer data, unauthorized use of customers’ services, and charges to customers for fraudulent usage and expenses we must pay to carriers. We may be required to pay for these charges and expenses with no reimbursement from the customer, and our reputation may be harmed if our services are subject to fraudulent usage. Although we implement multiple fraud prevention and detection controls, we cannot assure you that these controls will be adequate to protect against fraud. Substantial losses due to fraud or our inability to accept credit card payments, which could cause our paid customer base to significantly decrease, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and ability to grow our business.

Potential problems with our information systems could interfere with our business and operations.

We rely on our information systems and those of third parties for processing customer orders, distribution of our services, billing our customers, processing credit card transactions, customer relationship management, supporting financial planning and analysis, accounting functions and financial statement preparation and otherwise running our business. Information systems may experience interruptions, including interruptions of related services from third-party providers, which may be beyond our control. Such business interruptions could cause us to fail to meet customer requirements. All information systems, both internal and external, are potentially vulnerable to damage or interruption from a variety of sources, including without limitation, computer viruses, security breaches, energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication failures and employee or other theft, as well as third-party provider failures. Any disruption in our information systems and those of the third parties upon which we rely could have a significant impact on our business.

We may implement enhanced information systems in the future to meet the demands resulting from our growth and to provide additional capabilities and functionality. The implementation of new systems and enhancements is frequently disruptive to the underlying business of an enterprise, and can be time-consuming and expensive, increase management responsibilities and divert management attention. Any disruptions relating to our systems enhancements or any problems with the implementation, particularly any disruptions impacting our operations or our ability to accurately report our financial performance on a timely basis during the implementation period, could materially and adversely affect our business. Even if we do not encounter these material and adverse effects, the implementation of these enhancements may be much costlier than we anticipated. If we are unable to successfully implement the information systems enhancements as planned, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be negatively impacted.

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Our use of open source technology could impose limitations on our ability to commercialize our services.

We use open source software in our platform on which our services operate. There is a risk that the owners of the copyrights in such software may claim that such licenses impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to market or provide our services. If such owners prevail in such claim, we could be required to make the source code for our proprietary software (which contains our valuable trade secrets) generally available to third parties, including competitors, at no cost, to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our services, to re-engineer our technology, or to discontinue offering our services in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis or at all, any of which could cause us to discontinue our services, harm our reputation, result in customer losses or claims, increase our costs or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. If a copyright holder of such open source software were to allege we had not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from the sale of our solutions that contained the open source software and required to comply with the foregoing conditions, which could disrupt the distribution and sale of some of our solutions.

We depend largely on the continued services of our senior management and other key employees, the loss of any of whom could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our future performance depends on the continued services and contributions of our senior management and other key employees to execute on our business plan, and to identify and pursue opportunities and services innovations. The loss of services of senior management or other key employees could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives. In particular, we depend to a considerable degree on the vision, skills, experience and effort of our Chief Executive Officer, Eric B. Stang. All of our executive officers and senior management may terminate employment with us at any time with no advance notice. The replacement of any of these senior management personnel would likely involve significant time and costs, and such loss could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. Many members of our senior management have been our employees for many years and therefore have significant experience and understanding of our business that would be difficult to replace. Our inability to attract and retain the necessary personnel could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of business. We do not maintain key person insurance for any of our personnel.

If we are unable to hire, retain and motivate qualified personnel, our business will suffer.

Our future success depends, in part, on our continued ability to attract and retain highly skilled personnel. We believe there is, and will continue to be, intense competition for highly skilled technical and other personnel with experience in our industry in the San Francisco Bay Area, where our headquarters is located, and in other locations where we may maintain offices in the future. We must provide competitive compensation packages and a high-quality work environment to hire, retain and motivate employees. If we are unable to retain and motivate our existing employees or attract qualified personnel to fill key positions, we may be unable to manage our business effectively, including the development, marketing and sale of existing and new services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. To the extent we hire personnel from competitors, we may be subject to allegations such personnel have been improperly solicited or divulged proprietary or other confidential information.

We may expand through acquisitions of, or investments in, other companies, each of which may divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders, increase expenses, disrupt our operations and harm our results of operations.

Our business strategy may, from time to time, include acquiring or investing in complementary services, technologies or businesses. We cannot assure you we will successfully identify suitable acquisition candidates, integrate or manage disparate technologies, lines of business, personnel and corporate cultures, realize our business strategy or the expected return on our investment, or manage a geographically dispersed company. Any such acquisition or investment could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. Acquisitions and other strategic investments involve significant risks and uncertainties, including:

 

the potential failure to achieve the expected benefits of the combination or acquisition;

 

unanticipated costs and liabilities;

 

difficulties in integrating new products and services, software, businesses, operations and technology infrastructure in an efficient and effective manner;

 

difficulties in maintaining customer relations;

 

the potential loss of key employees of the acquired businesses;

 

the diversion of the attention of our senior management from the operation of our daily business;

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the potential adverse effect on our cash position to the extent that we use cash for the purchase price;

 

the potential significant increase of our interest expense, leverage, and debt service requirements if we incur additional debt to pay for an acquisition;

 

the potential issuance of securities that would dilute our stockholders’ percentage ownership;

 

the potential to incur large and immediate write-offs and restructuring and other related expenses; and

 

the inability to maintain uniform standards, controls, policies and procedures.

Any acquisition or investment could expose us to unknown liabilities. Moreover, we cannot assure you that we will realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition or investment. In addition, our inability to successfully operate and integrate newly acquired businesses appropriately, effectively, and in a timely manner could impair our ability to take advantage of future growth opportunities and other advances in technology, as well as on our revenue, gross margins and expenses.

We are expanding our international operations, which may expose us to significant risks.

To date, we have not generated significant revenue from outside of the U.S. and Canada, but we expect to grow our international revenue in the future. The future success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to expand our operations and customer base worldwide. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and will subject us to regulatory, economic and political risks different from those in the U.S. Because of our limited experience with international operations and developing and managing sales and distribution channels in international markets, our international expansion efforts may not be successful. In addition, we will face risks in doing business internationally that could materially and adversely affect our business, including:

 

our ability to comply with differing technical and environmental standards, data privacy and telecommunications regulations, and certification requirements outside the U.S.;

 

potential contractual and other liability to our business partners if we fail to meet their aggressive expansion schedules in new locations;

 

difficulties and costs associated with staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

potentially greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles;

 

the need to adapt and localize our services for specific countries;

 

the need to offer customer care in various native languages;

 

reliance on third parties over which we have limited control, including international resellers, for marketing and reselling our services;

 

availability of reliable broadband connectivity and wide area networks in targeted areas for expansion;

 

lower levels of adoption of credit or debit card usage for internet related purchases by foreign customers and compliance with various foreign regulations related to credit or debit card processing and data privacy requirements;

 

difficulties in understanding and complying with local laws, regulations, and customs in foreign jurisdictions;

 

export controls and trade and economic sanctions administered by the Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security and the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control;

 

tariffs and other non-tariff barriers, such as quotas and local content rules and the possibility of additional import tariffs imposed by the new administration;

 

compliance with various anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA;

 

limited protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

 

adverse tax consequences;

 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could increase the price of our services outside of the U.S., increase the expenses of our international operations, including expenses related to foreign contractors, and expose us to foreign currency exchange rate risk;

 

exchange control regulations, which might restrict or prohibit our conversion of other currencies into U.S. Dollars;

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restrictions on the transfer of funds;

 

deterioration of political relations between the U.S. and other countries; and

 

political or social unrest or economic instability in a specific country or region, which could have an adverse impact on our third-party software development and quality assurance operations there.

Our failure to manage any of these risks successfully could harm our future international operations and our overall business.

We may not be able to manage our inventory levels effectively, which may lead to excess inventory or inventory obsolescence that would force us to incur inventory write-downs.

Our vendor-supplied on-premise appliances and end-point devices have lead times of up to 32 weeks for delivery and are built to satisfy our demand forecasts that are necessarily imprecise. It is likely that from time to time we will have either excess or insufficient product inventory. In addition, because we rely on third-party vendors for the supply of our devices, our inventory levels are subject to the conditions regarding the timing of purchase orders and delivery dates not within our control. Excess inventory levels would subject us to the risk of inventory obsolescence, while insufficient levels of inventory may negatively affect relations with customers. For instance, our customers rely upon our ability to meet committed delivery dates, and any disruption in the supply of our services could result in loss of customers or harm to our ability to attract new customers. Retailers may elect to return any unsold inventory without any penalty, which could result in a write down for excess inventory. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our corporate headquarters, one of our data center and co-location facilities and our third-party customer service and support facility are located near known earthquake fault zones, and the occurrence of an earthquake, tsunami or other catastrophic disaster could damage our facilities or the facilities of our contractors, which could cause us to curtail our operations. Increased energy costs, power outages and limited availability of electrical resources may adversely affect our operating results.

Our corporate headquarters, one of our data center and our customer service call center for Ooma office are located in Northern California, our other customer service call center operated by our contractor is located in the Philippines, and our contract manufacturer facilities are located near the coast in China. All of these locations are on the Pacific Rim near known earthquake fault zones and, therefore, are vulnerable to damage from earthquakes and tsunamis. Additionally, our sole third-party customer service and support facility in the Philippines are located in areas subject to typhoons. We and our contractors are also vulnerable to other types of disasters, such as power loss, fire, floods, pandemics, cyber-attack, war, political unrest and terrorist attacks and similar events that are beyond our control. If any disasters were to occur, our ability to operate our business could be seriously impaired, and we may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, loss of intellectual property, delays in our services development, lengthy interruptions in our services, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, all of which could harm our future results of operations. In addition, we do not carry earthquake insurance and we may not have adequate insurance to cover our losses resulting from other disasters or other similar significant business interruptions. Any significant losses not recoverable under our insurance policies could seriously impair our business and financial condition.

Changes in effective tax rates, or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a number of factors, including:

 

changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;

 

expiration of, or lapses in, the research and development tax credit laws;

 

expiration or non-utilization of net operating loss carryforwards;

 

tax effects of share-based compensation;

 

certain non-deductible expenses as a result of acquisitions;

 

expansion into new jurisdictions;

 

potential challenges to and costs related to implementation and ongoing operation of our intercompany arrangements; and

 

changes in tax laws and regulations and accounting principles, or interpretations or applications thereof.

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As we expand our operations outside the U.S. and Canada, certain changes to U.S. tax laws, including limitations on the ability to defer U.S. taxation on earnings outside of the U.S. until those earnings are repatriated to the U.S. could affect the tax treatment of our foreign earnings.  Any changes in our effective tax rate could adversely affect our results of operations.

We may be unable to use some or all of our net operating loss carryforwards, which could materially and adversely affect our reported financial condition and results of operations.

As of January 31, 2017, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, of $72.9 million and $57.5 million, respectively, available to offset future taxable income. If not utilized, both the federal and California NOLs will begin to expire in 2030. We also have federal and California research and development tax credit carryforwards that will begin to expire in 2030. Realization of these net operating loss and research tax credit carryforwards depends on future income, and there is a risk that our existing carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes, such as research tax credits, in any taxable year may be limited if we experience an “ownership change.” A Section 382 “ownership change” generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders, who own at least 5% of our stock, increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We completed a Section 382 analysis through January 31, 2017 and determined that an ownership change, as defined under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, occurred in prior years. Based on the analysis, we determined that we had undergone four ownership changes. The first and second ownership changes occurred in April 2005, the third change occurred in February 2009 and the fourth change occurred in January 2017. NOLs presented account for any limited and potential lost attributes due to the ownership changes and their respective expiration dates.

No deferred tax assets have been recognized on our balance sheet related to these NOLs, as they are fully reserved by a valuation allowance. If we have previously had, or have in the future, one or more Section 382 “ownership changes”, or if we do not generate sufficient taxable income, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs, even if we achieve profitability. If we are limited in our ability to use our NOLs in future years in which we have taxable income, we will pay more taxes than if we were able to fully utilize our NOLs. This could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this report may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. The estimates and forecasts in this report relating to the size and expected growth of our market, including our estimated annual recurring revenue based on various assumptions, may prove to be inaccurate. Even if the market in which we compete meets the size estimates and growth forecasted in this report, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

Risks Related to Federal, State and International Regulation

Our services are subject to regulation and future legislative or regulatory actions could adversely affect our business and expose us to liability.

Federal Regulation

Our business is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission, or FCC. As a communications services provider, we are subject to FCC regulations relating to privacy, disability access, porting of numbers, Federal Universal Service Fund, or USF, contributions, E‑911, and other matters. If we do not comply with FCC rules and regulations, we could be subject to FCC enforcement actions, fines, loss of licenses, and possibly restrictions on our ability to operate or offer certain of our services. Any enforcement action by the FCC, which may include a public process, would hurt our reputation in the industry, possibly impair our ability to sell our services to customers and could have a materially adverse impact on our revenue.

If the FCC classifies interconnected VoIP service as a telecommunications service subject to common carrier regulation, we could be subject to additional regulation under federal and state telecommunications laws. Compliance with such laws could increase our cost of doing business.

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State Regulation

We are also subject to state consumer protection laws, as well as U.S. state, municipal and local sales, use, excise, utility user and ad valorem taxes, fees or surcharges. The imposition of such regulatory obligations or the imposition of additional taxes on our services could increase our cost of doing business and limit our growth.

International Regulation

As we expand internationally, we may be subject to telecommunications, consumer protection, data privacy and other laws and regulations in the foreign countries where we offer our services. For example, we are a provider of internet voice telecommunications services in Canada. As a provider of internet voice communications services, we are subject to regulation in Canada by the CRTC. We are also subject to Canadian federal privacy laws and provincial consumer protection legislation.

In addition, our international operations are potentially subject to country-specific governmental regulation and related actions that may increase our cost or impact our product and service offerings or prevent us from offering or providing our products and services in certain countries. Certain of our services may be used by customers located in countries where VoIP and other forms of IP communications may be illegal or require special licensing. In countries where local laws and regulations prohibit (or come to prohibit) the use of our products, users may continue to use our products and services, which could subject us to costly penalties or governmental action adverse to our business and damaging to our brand and reputation, our international expansion efforts, or our business and operating results.

The FCC continues to consider additional 911 requirements, including requiring us to deploy an E-911 service that automatically determines the location of our customers. The adoption of such requirements could increase our costs that could make our service more expensive, decrease our profit margins, or both.

The FCC is actively considering additional 911 requirements for interconnected VoIP providers, non-interconnected VoIP providers and texting providers. The outcome of the FCC’s proceedings cannot be determined at this time and we may or may not be able to comply with any such obligations that may be adopted. At present, we have no means to automatically identify the physical location of our customers on the internet. Changes to the FCC’s VoIP E‑911 rules may adversely affect our ability to deliver our service to new and existing customers in all geographic regions or to nomadic customers who move to a location where emergency calling services compliant with the FCC’s mandates are unavailable. Our compliance with the FCC’s VoIP E-911 order and related costs puts us at a competitive disadvantage to VoIP service providers who are either not subject to the requirements or have chosen not to comply with the FCC’s mandates. We cannot guarantee emergency calling service consistent with the VoIP E‑911 order will be available to all of our customers, especially those accessing our services on a mobile device or from outside of the U.S. The FCC’s current VoIP E-911 order or follow-on orders or clarifications, the impact on our customers due to service price increases or other factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.

The FCC order reforming the system of payments between regulated carriers we partner with to interface with the public switched telephone network, or PSTN, could increase our costs of providing service, which could result in increased rates for service, making our offerings less competitive than others in the marketplace, or reduce our profitability.

In 2011, the FCC reformed the system under which regulated providers of telecommunications services compensate each other for various types of traffic, including VoIP traffic that terminates on the PSTN and applied new call signaling requirements to VoIP and other service providers. The FCC’s rules concerning charges for transmission of VoIP traffic could result in an increased cost to terminate the traffic, could reduce the availability of services or increase the price of services from our underlying providers, or could otherwise impact the wholesale telecommunications market in a way that adversely impacts our business. To the extent that we transmit traffic not subject to a specific intercarrier compensation arrangement and another provider were to assert that the traffic we exchange with them is subject to higher levels of compensation than what we, or the third parties terminating our traffic to the PSTN, pay today (if any), our termination costs could increase.

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If we cannot comply with the FCC’s rules imposing call signaling requirements on VoIP providers like us, we may be subject to fines, cease and desist orders, or other penalties.

The FCC order reforming the system of compensation for various types of traffic also included rules to address calls for which identifying information is missing or masked in ways that impede billing for such traffic. The FCC’s rules require, among other things, interconnected VoIP providers like us, who originate interstate or intrastate traffic destined for the PSTN, to transmit the telephone number associated with the calling party to the next provider in the call path. Intermediate providers must pass unaltered calling party number or charge number signaling information they receive from other providers to subsequent providers in the call path. To the extent that we pass traffic that does not have appropriate calling party number or charge number information, we could be subject to fines, cease and desist orders, or other penalties.

We may not be able to comply with FCC rules governing completion of calls to rural areas and related reporting requirements.

On November 8, 2013, the FCC issued a Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking adopting rules to address problems with rural call completion and proposing additional requirements. The new rules apply to interconnected VoIP providers like us. The Commission imposed recording, retention, and reporting requirements to increase its ability to monitor and redress rural call completion problems. These new rules also support the Commission’s efforts to enforce restrictions on blocking, choking, reducing, or restricting calls. Under the rules, a covered provider must record and retain, for at least nine months, information about calls attempts to rural areas and must report that data to the FCC on a quarterly basis. If we cannot comply with these rules, we could be subject to investigation and enforcement action and could be exposed to substantial liability. In addition, complying with these rules may increase our cost of doing business and may also increase the cost of services we purchase from our underlying telecommunications providers. The FCC also has increased enforcement activity related to completion of calls to rural customers, and we could be subject to substantial fines and to conduct requirements that could increase our costs if we are the subject of an enforcement proceeding and cannot demonstrate calls from our customers to rural customers are completed at a satisfactory rate.

The FCC has continued to increase regulation of interconnected VoIP services and may at any time determine certain VoIP services are telecommunications services subject to traditional common carrier regulation.

The FCC is considering, in various proceedings, issues arising from the transition from traditional copper networks to IP networks. It has, among other things, launched a series of trials and experiments designed to gather data about this transition, and to support the FCC’s effort to ensure public safety, enable universal access, and protect consumers and competition. The FCC is also considering whether interconnected VoIP services should be treated as telecommunications services, which could subject interconnected VoIP services to additional common carrier regulation. The FCC’s efforts may result in additional regulation of IP network and service providers, which may negatively affect our business.

The FCC adopted rules concerning disabilities access requirements that may expand disabilities access requirements to additional services we offer.

In October 2010, the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act, or the CVAA, was signed into law. The CVAA and the FCC’s implementing rules imposes disability access, recordkeeping, certification, and other compliance obligations on interconnected VoIP providers and on providers of other Advanced Communications services, including non-interconnected VoIP and electronic messaging services. In addition, the CVAA and the FCC’s implementing rules include complaint filing procedures to address accessibility complaints. These new obligations could increase our expenses, which would have an adverse effect on our operating results. Failure to comply with these obligations could expose us to FCC enforcement actions and liability.

Reform of federal and state Universal Service Fund programs could increase the cost of our service to our customers, diminishing or eliminating our pricing advantage.

The FCC and a number of states are considering reform or other modifications to Universal Service Fund programs. The way we calculate our contribution may change if the FCC or certain states engage in reform or adopt other modifications. In April 2012, the FCC released a Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to consider reforms to the manner in which companies, like us, contribute to the federal Universal Service Fund program, and in August 2014, the FCC ordered the Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service to make a recommendation on how to reform the universal service contribution rules by April 7, 2015, although the recommendation has not been released as of the date hereof. In addition, the FCC is considering whether non-interconnected VoIP providers, texting providers, and broadband providers, among others, should contribute to the USF. We cannot predict the outcome of this proceeding nor its impact on our business at this time.

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Should the FCC or certain states adopt new contribution mechanisms or otherwise modify contribution obligations that increase our contribution burden, we will either need to raise the amount we currently collect from our customers to cover this obligation or absorb the costs, which would reduce our profit margins. Furthermore, the FCC has ruled that states can require us to contribute to state Universal Service Fund programs. A number of states already require us to contribute, while others are actively considering extending their programs to include the services we provide. We currently pass through Universal Service Fund contributions to our customers which may result in our services becoming less competitive as compared to those provided by others.

Our products must comply with industry standards, FCC regulations, state, local, country‑specific and international regulations, and changes may require us to modify existing products and/or services.

In addition to reliability and quality standards, the market acceptance of telephony over broadband IP networks is dependent upon the adoption of industry standards so that products from multiple manufacturers are able to communicate with each other. Our unique hybrid SaaS connectivity platform relies on communication standards such as SIP, SRTP and network standards such as TCP/IP and UDP to interoperate with other vendors’ equipment. There is currently a lack of agreement among industry leaders about which standard should be used for a particular application and about the definition of the standards themselves. These standards, as well as audio and video compression standards, continue to evolve. We also must comply with certain rules and regulations of the FCC regarding electromagnetic radiation and safety standards established by Underwriters Laboratories, as well as similar regulations and standards applicable in other countries. Standards are frequently modified or replaced. As standards evolve, we may be required to modify our existing products or develop and support new versions of our products. We must comply with certain federal, state and local requirements regarding how we interact with our customers, including marketing practices, consumer protection, privacy, and billing issues, the provision of 9-1-1 emergency service and the quality of service we provide to our customers. The failure of our products and services to comply, or delays in compliance, with various existing and evolving standards could delay or interrupt volume production of our VoIP telephony products, subject us to fines or other imposed penalties, or harm the perception and adoption rates of our service, any of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.

Failure to comply with communications and telemarketing laws could result in significant fines or place significant restrictions on our business.

We rely on a variety of marketing techniques, including telemarketing and email marketing campaigns. We also record certain telephone calls between our customers or potential customers and our sales and service representatives for training and quality assurance purposes. These activities are subject to a variety of state and federal laws such as the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 (also known as the Federal Do-Not-Call law, or the TCPA), the Telemarketing Sales Rule, the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 (also known as the CAN-SPAM Act) and various U.S. state laws regarding telemarketing and telephone call recording. These laws are subject to varying interpretations by courts and governmental authorities and often require subjective interpretation, making it difficult to predict their application and therefore making our compliance efforts more challenging. We cannot be certain our efforts to comply with these laws, rules and regulations will be successful, or, if they are successful, that the cost of such compliance will not be material to our business. Changes to these or similar laws, or to their application or interpretation, or new laws, rules and regulations governing our communication and marketing activities could adversely affect our business. In the event that any of these laws, rules or regulations significantly restricts our business, we may not be able to develop adequate alternative communication and marketing strategies. Further, non-compliance with these laws, rules and regulations carries significant financial penalties and the risk of class action litigation, which would adversely affect our financial performance and significantly harm our reputation and our business.

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We process, store, and use personal information and other data, which subjects us and our customers to a variety of evolving governmental regulation, industry standards and self‑regulatory schemes, contractual obligations, and other legal obligations related to privacy, which may increase our costs, decrease adoption and use of our products and services, and expose us to liability.

There are a number of U.S. federal, state and local, and foreign laws and regulations, as well as contractual obligations and industry standards, that provide for certain obligations and restrictions with respect to data privacy and security, and the collection, storage, retention, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing, disclosure, and protection of personal information and other customer data. The scope of these obligations and restrictions is changing, subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among countries or conflict with other rules, and their status remains uncertain. Within the European Union, or EU, strict laws already apply in connection with the collection, storage, retention, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing, disclosure, and protection of personal information and other customer data. The EU model has been replicated in many jurisdictions outside the U.S., including Asia‑Pacific Economic Cooperation countries. Regulators have the power to impose significant fines on non-compliant organizations. As internet commerce, communication technologies and the Internet of Things continue to evolve, increasing online service providers’ and network users’ capacity to collect, store, retain, protect, use, process and transmit large volumes of personal information, increasingly restrictive regulation by federal, state or foreign agencies becomes more likely. For example, a variety of regulations that would increase restrictions on online service providers in the area of data privacy are currently being proposed, both in the U.S. and in other jurisdictions, and we believe that the adoption of increasingly restrictive regulation in the field of data privacy and security is likely. In Canada, new anti-spam legislation prescribing certain rules regarding the use of electronic messages for commercial purposes took effect on July 1, 2014. This new law also contains provisions that took effect in January 2015, which impose certain restrictions on a service provider’s ability to electronically automatically update or change software used in a customer’s service without the customer’s consent. Penalties for non-compliance with the new Canadian anti-spam legislation are considerable, including administrative monetary penalties of up to $10 million and a private right of action. Obligations and restrictions imposed by current and future applicable laws, regulations, contracts and industry standards may affect our ability to provide all the current features of our small business, home and mobile products and services and our customers’ ability to use our products and services, and could require us to modify the features and functionality of our products and services. Such obligations and restrictions may limit our ability to collect, store, process, use, transmit and share data, and to allow our customers to collect, store, retain, protect, use, process, transmit, share and disclose data with others through our products and services. Compliance with such obligations and restrictions could increase the cost of our operations. Failure to comply with obligations and restrictions related to data privacy and security could subject us to lawsuits, fines, criminal penalties, statutory damages, consent decrees, injunctions, adverse publicity and other losses that could harm our business.

Our customers can use our services to store contact and other personal or identifying information, and to process, transmit, receive, store and retrieve a variety of communications and messages, including, for our Ooma Office customers, information about their own customers and other contacts. In addition, customers may use our services to transmit and store protected health information, or PHI, that is protected under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, or HIPAA. Noncompliance with laws and regulations relating to privacy such as HIPAA, as amended, and the HIPAA regulations, may lead to significant fines, penalties or liabilities. Our actual compliance, our customers’ perception of our compliance, costs of compliance with such regulations and customer concerns regarding their own compliance obligations (whether factual or in error) may limit the use and adoption of our service and reduce overall demand. Furthermore, privacy concerns, including the inability or impracticality of providing advance notice to customers of privacy issues related to the use of our services, may cause our customers’ customers to resist providing the personal data necessary to allow our customers to use our services effectively. Even the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our service in certain industries.

In addition to government activity, privacy advocacy groups and industry groups have adopted and are considering the adoption of various self-regulatory standards and codes of conduct that may place additional burdens on us and our customers, which may further reduce demand for our services and harm our business.

While we try to comply with all applicable data protection laws, regulations, standards, and codes of conduct, as well as our own posted privacy policies and contractual commitments to the extent possible, any failure by us to protect our users’ privacy and data, including as a result of our systems being compromised by hacking or other malicious or surreptitious activity, could result in a loss of user confidence in our services and ultimately in a loss of users, which could materially and adversely affect our business. Our customers may also accidentally disclose their passwords, store them on a mobile device that is lost or stolen, or otherwise fall prey to attacks outside our system, creating the perception that our systems are not secure against third-party access. Additionally, our third-party contractors in Canada, China, India, Philippines, New Zealand, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine may have access to customer data. If these or other third-party vendors violate applicable laws or our policies, such violations may also put our customers’ information at risk and could in turn have a material and adverse effect on our business.

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Use or delivery of our services may become subject to new or increased regulatory requirements, taxes or fees.

The increasing growth and popularity of internet voice communications heighten the risk that governments will regulate or impose new or increased fees or taxes on internet voice communications services. To the extent the use of our services continues to grow, regulators may be more likely to seek to regulate or impose new or additional taxes, surcharges or fees on our services. Similarly, advances in technology, such as improvements in locating the geographic origin of internet voice communications, could cause our services to become subject to additional regulations, fees or taxes, or could require us to invest in or develop new technologies, which may be costly. In addition, as we continue to expand our user base and offer more services, we may become subject to new regulations, taxes, surcharges or fees. Increased regulatory requirements, taxes, surcharges or fees on internet voice communications services, which could be assessed by governments retroactively or prospectively, would substantially increase our costs, and, as a result, our business would suffer. In addition, the tax status of our services could subject us to conflicting taxation requirements and complexity with regard to the collection and remittance of applicable taxes. Any such additional taxes could harm our results of operations.

We are subject to anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws with respect to our operations and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal and/or civil liability and harm our business.

We are subject to the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, and possibly other anti-bribery and anti‑money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees and third-party intermediaries from authorizing, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private sector. We use third-party representatives for product testing, customs, export, and import matters outside of the U.S. In addition, as we increase our international sales and business, we may engage with business partners and third party intermediaries to sell our products and services abroad and to obtain necessary permits, licenses, and other regulatory approvals. We or our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities.

Noncompliance with anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension and/or debarment from contracting with certain persons, the loss of export privileges, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially harmed. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources, significant defense costs and other professional fees. Enforcement actions and sanctions could further harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We are subject to governmental export and import controls, economic embargoes and trade sanctions that could impair our ability to expand our business to, and compete in, international markets and could subject us to liability if we are not in compliance with applicable laws.

Our products and services are subject to export and import laws and regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, U.S. Customs regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. Exports of our products and services must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. Obtaining the necessary authorizations, including any required license, for a particular sale may be time-consuming, is not guaranteed and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges, fines which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers, and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers.

Moreover, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions programs generally prohibit the export of certain products and services to countries, governments and persons subject to U.S. economic embargoes and trade sanctions unless a license, approval, or other authorization is obtained from the U.S. Government. Obtaining such licenses and authorizations may be time‑consuming and is not guaranteed. Any violations of such economic embargoes and trade sanctions regulations could have negative consequences, including government investigations, penalties and reputational harm.

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In addition, any changes in our products or services, or changes in applicable export, import, embargo and trade sanctions regulations, may create delays in the introduction and sale of our products and services in international markets or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products and services to certain countries, governments, or persons altogether. Any change in export, import, embargo, or trade sanctions regulations, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could also result in decreased use of our products and services, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products and services to existing or potential customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our products and services or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products and services would likely adversely affect our business.

We may be subject to liabilities on past services for taxes, surcharges and fees.

We collect and remit state or municipal sales, use, excise, utility user and ad valorem taxes, fees, or surcharges on the charges to our customers for our services or goods in only those jurisdictions where we believe we have a legal obligation to do so or for business reasons to reduce risk. In addition, we have historically substantially complied with the collection of certain California sales/use taxes and financial contributions to the California 9-1-1 system (the Emergency Telephone Users Surcharge) and federal USF. With limited exception, we believe we are generally not subject to taxes, fees, or surcharges imposed by other state and municipal jurisdictions or that such taxes, fees, or surcharges do not apply to our service. There is uncertainty as to what constitutes sufficient “in state presence” for a state or local municipality to levy taxes, fees and surcharges for sales made over the internet. Taxing authorities have in the past, and likely will in the future, challenge our position on the lack of enforceability of such taxes, fees and surcharges where we have no relevant presence, and audit our business and operations with respect to sales, use, telecommunications and other taxes, which could result in increased tax liabilities for us or our customers, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and our relationships with our customers. We have seen an increase recently in the number and frequency of such state and local tax authority challenges, audits and related demands, which we are defending against vigorously. Complaints were filed by the County of Berks, Pennsylvania and the State of Alabama on January 21, 2016 and November 12, 2015, respectively, alleging that we are subject to their taxes, fees and surcharges and have failed to remit the required 911 charges. In addition, on November 28, 2016, Ooma filed a complaint against the Oregon Department of Revenue contesting a tax assessment against the Company for the Oregon Emergency Communications Tax, to which the Department of Revenue alleges we are subject.

Finally, the application of other indirect taxes (such as sales and use tax, value added tax, or VAT, goods and services tax, business tax, and gross receipt tax) to e-commerce businesses, such as ours, is a complex and evolving area. In November 2007, the U.S. federal government enacted legislation extending the moratorium on states and other local authorities imposing access or discriminatory taxes on the internet through November 2014. This moratorium does not prohibit federal, state, or local authorities from collecting taxes on our income or from collecting taxes due under existing tax rules. The application of existing, new, or future laws, whether in the U.S. or internationally, could have adverse effects on our business, prospects, and results of operations. There have been, and will continue to be, substantial ongoing costs associated with complying with the various indirect tax requirements in the numerous markets in which we conduct or will conduct business.

Risks Related to Being a Public Company

If we fail to develop and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

We are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2017. This assessment includes disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. A “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

If we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting in the future, we will be unable to assert that our internal controls are effective. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if we are required to restate our financial statements as a result of ineffective internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which would cause the price of our common stock to decline.

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We are required to disclose material changes made in our internal control and procedures on a quarterly basis. To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we have undertaken various actions, such as implementing new internal controls and procedures and hiring of an internal audit firm. Our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act until the later of the year following our first annual report required to be filed with SEC, or the date we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” as defined by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (“JOBS Act”). At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating. Our remediation efforts may not enable us to avoid a material weakness in the future.

Our actual operating results may differ significantly from our guidance.

From time to time, we plan to release guidance in our quarterly earnings conference calls, quarterly earnings releases, or otherwise, regarding our future performance that represents our management’s estimates as of the date of release. This guidance, which will include forward‑looking statements, will be based on projections prepared by our management. These projections will not be prepared with a view toward compliance with published guidelines of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and neither our registered public accountants nor any other independent expert or outside party compiles or examines the projections. Accordingly, no such person will express any opinion or any other form of assurance with respect to the projections.

Projections are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that, while presented with numerical specificity, are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control and are based upon specific assumptions with respect to future business decisions, some of which will change. We intend to state possible outcomes as high and low ranges which are intended to provide a sensitivity analysis as variables are changed but are not intended to imply that actual results could not fall outside of the suggested ranges. The principal reason that we release guidance is to provide a basis for our management to discuss our business outlook with analysts and investors. We do not accept any responsibility for any projections or reports published by any such third parties.

Guidance is necessarily speculative in nature, and it can be expected that some or all of the assumptions underlying the guidance furnished by us will not materialize or will vary significantly from actual results. Accordingly, our guidance is only an estimate of what management believes is realizable as of the date of release. Actual results may vary from our guidance and the variations may be material. In light of the foregoing, investors are urged not to rely upon our guidance in making an investment decision regarding our common stock.

Any failure to successfully implement our operating strategy or the occurrence of any of the events or circumstances set forth in this “Risk Factors” section in this report could result in the actual operating results being different from our guidance, and the differences may be adverse and material.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention.

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd‑Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, the listing requirements of the New York Stock Exchange and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations has increased and will continue to increase our legal and financial compliance costs, and has made and will continue to make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and, if required, improve our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard, significant resources and management oversight may be required. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business and results of operations. Although we have already hired additional employees to comply with these requirements, we may need to hire more employees in the future or engage outside consultants, which will increase our costs and expenses.

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The expenses incurred by public companies for reporting and corporate governance purposes have increased dramatically over the past several years. We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs substantially and to make some activities more time consuming and costly. However, for as long as we remain an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we will take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, exemption from the requirement to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.”

We will cease to be an “emerging growth company” upon the earliest of (i) January 31, 2021, (ii) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenue exceeds $1.0 billion, (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities or (iv) as of the end of any fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700 million as of the end of the second quarter of that fiscal year.

As a result of filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition has become more visible, which we believe may result in more litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected, even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor. These claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We are an “emerging growth company,” and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and are taking advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock, and our stock price may be more volatile and may decline.

Risks Related to Owning Our Common Stock

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception these sales might occur, could cause our stock price to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception these sales might occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. At January 31, 2017, we had 17,995,555 shares of common stock outstanding of which 13,227,717 shares were freely tradable.

In addition, we have registered shares of common stock which we may issue under our 2015 Stock Plan and 2015 Employee Stock Purchase Plan and they may be sold freely in the public market upon issuance.

We may issue our shares of common stock or securities convertible into our common stock from time to time in connection with a financing, acquisition, and investments or otherwise. Any such issuance could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.

43


 

Worldview Technology Partners and its affiliates own a significant portion of our stock and may limit your ability to influence corporate matters.

As of January 31, 2017, Worldview Technology Partners beneficially owned approximately 19% of our outstanding voting securities. This significant concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price for our common stock because investors often perceive disadvantages in owning stock in companies with controlling stockholders. Also, Worldview Technology Partners will be able to control our management and affairs and matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and the approval of significant corporate transactions, such as mergers, consolidations or the sale of substantially all of our assets. Consequently, this concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control, including a merger, consolidation or other business combination involving us, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control, even if that change of control would benefit our other stockholders. In March 2017, Worldview Technology Partners sold an aggregate of 3,290,483 shares of our common stock in a secondary offering and thus owned less than 1% of our outstanding voting securities after this offering.

If securities analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about our business or if they publish negative evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock could decline.

We expect that the trading price for our common stock will be affected by any research or reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who elect to cover us downgrade their evaluations of our stock or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company, our stock may lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause its price to decline.

We have never paid cash dividends and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock.

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. If we do not pay cash dividends, you would receive a return on your investment in our common stock only if the market price of our common stock increases before you sell your shares. Furthermore, we are party to credit agreements which contain negative covenants that limit our ability to pay dividends.

Our charter documents and Delaware law could prevent a takeover that stockholders consider favorable and could also reduce the market price of our stock.

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control of our company. These provisions could also make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. These provisions include:

 

providing for a classified board of directors with staggered, three year terms;

 

authorizing the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that our board of directors could issue to increase the number of outstanding shares to discourage a takeover attempt;

 

prohibiting cumulative voting in the election of directors;

 

providing that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;

 

prohibiting stockholder action by written consent;

 

limiting the persons who may call special meetings of stockholders; and

 

requiring advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals.

These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporate Law govern us. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, from merging or combining with us for a certain period of time without the consent of our board of directors.

These and other provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our bylaws and under Delaware law could discourage potential takeover attempts, reduce the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock and result in the market price of our common stock being lower than it would be without these provisions.

44


 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. If a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions.

The market price of our common stock is likely to be volatile and could fluctuate or decline, resulting in a substantial loss of your investment.

The market price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to, among other things, the factors described in this “Risk Factors” section or otherwise, and other factors beyond our control, such as fluctuations in the valuations of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us.

Furthermore, the stock markets have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market fluctuations, as well as general economic, systemic, political and market conditions, such as recessions, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.

Factors that could cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate significantly include:

 

our operating and financial performance and prospects and the performance of other similar companies;

 

our quarterly or annual earnings or those of other companies in our industry;

 

conditions that impact demand for our services;

 

the public’s reaction to our press releases, financial guidance, and other public announcements, and filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC;

 

changes in earnings estimates or our failure to meet earnings estimates or the expectations of investors,

 

failure of securities analysts to cover or track our common stock;

 

market and industry perception of our success, or lack thereof, in pursuing our growth strategy;

 

strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;

 

changes in government and other regulations;

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;

 

arrival and departure of key personnel;

 

the number of shares to be publicly traded after the lock-up agreements expire;

 

sales of common stock by us, our investors or members of our management team; and

 

changes in general market, economic, and political conditions in the U.S. and global economies or financial markets, including those resulting from natural disasters, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, civil unrest in various parts of the world, acts of war, terrorist attacks, or other catastrophic events.

In the past, many companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have become subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could harm our business.

45


 

We are currently subject to securities class action litigation in connection with our initial public offering and may be subject to similar litigation in the future. If the outcome of this litigation is unfavorable, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

The Company, its directors, and certain officers have been named as defendants in a consolidated securities class actions (“the Securities Litigation”).  See Item 3 (“Legal Proceedings”) for a detailed description of the Securities Litigation and the allegations currently made therein. The Company is vigorously defending itself against the allegations in the Securities Litigation. However, as with all litigation, the Company cannot predict the outcome of the proceedings or estimate the losses that it may incur in connection with the Securities Litigation. The Company will, however, incur certain costs and fees associated with its defense, including costs related to its obligation to indemnify certain parties named in the action. While the Company carries insurance that may offset some of the costs associated with the Securities Litigation, the Company may incur substantial costs, expenses and burdens not covered by insurance. In addition, the pendency of the Securities Litigation may cause burdens and distractions to the Company’s management. Any adverse judgments, settlements, or consequences of the Securities Litigation could have a material, adverse effect on the Company’s business and financial condition.

In the future, especially following periods of volatility in the market price of our shares, other purported class action or derivative complaints may be filed against us. The outcome of the pending and potential future litigation is difficult to predict and quantify and the defense of such claims or actions can be costly. In addition to diverting financial and management resources and general business disruption, we may suffer from adverse publicity that could harm our brand or reputation, regardless of whether the allegations are valid or whether we are ultimately held liable. A judgment or settlement that is not covered by or is significantly in excess of our insurance coverage for any claims, or our obligations to indemnify the underwriters and the individual defendants, could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

46


 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our corporate headquarters are located in Palo Alto, California and consist of approximately 18,000 square feet of office space pursuant to a lease agreement that expires November 30, 2017. We lease additional office space in Palo Alto consisting of approximately 2,379 square feet pursuant to a lease agreement that expires April 30, 2017 and a multi-use industrial space consisting of 13,800 square feet pursuant to a lease agreement that expires February 28, 2018. Outside of Palo Alto, we lease warehouse and office space totaling 16,200 square feet in Newark, California, and pursuant to co-location agreements, we lease space from third-party datacenter hosting facilities in Northern California and Virginia that support our cloud infrastructure. We believe that we will be able to obtain additional space at other locations at commercially reasonable terms to support our continuing expansion.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Oregon Litigation

On August 30, 2016 the Oregon Department of Revenue (the “DOR”) issued tax assessments against the Company for the Oregon Emergency Communications Tax (the “Tax”), which the DOR alleges Ooma should have collected from its subscribers in Oregon and remitted to the DOR during the period starting on January 1, 2013 and ending on March 31, 2016 (collectively, the “Assessments”).  On November 28, 2016 the Company filed a complaint in the Oregon Tax Court, asserting that the Assessments against Ooma are in violation of applicable Oregon law and are barred by the United States Constitution, and asking the Oregon Tax Court to abate the Assessments in full (the “Complaint”, and such dispute, the “Oregon Tax Litigation”). On February 10, 2016 the DOR filed an answer to the Complaint. The Company believes that the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution bars the application of the Tax to the Company, since the Company has no employees, property or other indicia of a “substantial nexus” with the State of Oregon, and therefore the application of the Tax against Ooma and the Assessments are barred by the United States Constitution. The Company will continue to vigorously litigate the Complaint in pursuit of the full abatement of the Assessments. However, litigation is unpredictable and there can be no assurances that we will obtain a favorable final outcome or that we will be able to avoid unfavorable preliminary or interim rulings in the course of litigation that may significantly add to the expense of our defense and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources. Based on our current knowledge, we have determined that the amount of any material loss or range of material losses that is reasonably possible to result from the Oregon Tax Litigation is not reasonably estimable.

Deep Green Wireless Litigation

On June 8, 2016, plaintiff Deep Green Wireless LLC filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas against Ooma, Inc., alleging infringement of U.S. Patent No. RE42,714 (the “Deep Green Wireless Litigation”).  The complaint seeks unspecified monetary damages, costs, attorneys’ fees and other appropriate relief. On July 29, 2016 we filed our answer, affirmative defenses and counterclaims, on August 2, 2016 we filed a motion to transfer the case to the Northern District of California, and on February 21, 2017 magistrate judge Roy S. Payne granted our motion to transfer the case. Based upon our investigation, we do not believe that our products infringe any valid or enforceable claim of the aforementioned patent, and we plan to continue vigorously defending against the plaintiff’s claim. However, litigation is unpredictable and there can be no assurances that we will obtain a favorable final outcome or that we will be able to avoid unfavorable preliminary or interim rulings in the course of litigation that may significantly add to the expense of our defense and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources. Based on our current knowledge, we have determined that the amount of any material loss or range of any losses that is reasonably possible to result from the Deep Green Wireless Litigation is not reasonably estimable.

47


 

Securities Litigation

On January 14, 2016, Michael Barnett filed a purported stockholder class action in the San Mateo County Superior Court of the State of California (Case No. CIV536959) against Ooma, certain of its officers and directors, and certain of the underwriters of our Initial Public Offering on July 17, 2015 (the “IPO”). Since that time two additional purported class actions making substantially the same allegations against the same defendants were filed, and on May 18, 2016 all three complaints were combined into a “consolidated complaint” filed in the same court (the “Securities Litigation”). The consolidated complaint purports to be brought on behalf of all persons who purchased shares of common stock in our IPO in reliance upon the Registration Statement and Prospectus we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The consolidated complaint alleges that Ooma and the other defendants violated the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) by issuing the Registration Statement and Prospectus, which the plaintiffs allege contained material misstatements and omissions in violation of Sections 11, 12(a)(2) and 15 of the Securities Act. The plaintiffs seek class certification, compensatory damages, attorneys’ fees and costs, rescission or a rescissory measure of damages, equitable and/or injunctive relief, and such other relief as the court may deem proper. On July 1, 2016 Ooma filed its answer to the complaint, and on August 26, 2016 Ooma filed a motion for judgment on the pleadings. Ooma believes that the plaintiffs’ claims are without merit and we are vigorously defending against the Securities Litigation and will continue to do so. However, litigation is unpredictable and there can be no assurances that we will obtain a favorable final outcome or that we will be able to avoid unfavorable preliminary or interim rulings in the course of litigation that may significantly add to the expense of our defense and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources.  Based on our current knowledge, we have determined that the amount of any material loss or range of any losses that is reasonably possible to result from the Securities Litigation is not reasonably estimable.

Berks County Litigation

On January 21, 2016 the County of Berks, Pennsylvania filed a lawsuit in the Berks County Court of Common Pleas naming the Company and 113 other telephone service providers as defendants (the “Berks County Litigation”), alleging breach of fiduciary duty, fraud, and negligent misrepresentation in connection with alleged violations of the Pennsylvania 911 Emergency Communication Services Act, 35 Pa.C.S.A. §5301 et seq. (“PA 911 Act”) for failure to collect from subscribers and remit certain fees pursuant to the PA 911 Act.  The plaintiff seeks a declaratory judgment that we must comply with the PA 911 Act, compensatory and punitive damages, attorneys’ fees and costs, equitable and/or injunctive relief and such other relief as the court may deem proper. On May 17, 2016 the court issued an order overruling the defendants’ joint preliminary objections, which are, in essence, the Pennsylvania equivalent of a motion to dismiss. Notwithstanding such adverse order, the Company believes that the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution bars the application of the PA 911 Act to the Company, since the Company has no employees, property or other indicia of a “substantial nexus” with the State of Pennsylvania, and therefore the plaintiff’s claims are without merit. The Company intends to continue vigorously defending this lawsuit. However, litigation is unpredictable and there can be no assurances that we will obtain a favorable final outcome or that we will be able to avoid unfavorable preliminary or interim rulings in the course of litigation that may significantly add to the expense of our defense and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources. Based on our current knowledge, we have determined that the amount of any material loss or range of material losses that is reasonably possible to result from the Berks County Litigation is not reasonably estimable.

Alabama Litigation

On November 12, 2015 the Alabama Statewide 9-1-1 Board filed a lawsuit in the Circuit Court of Montgomery, Alabama against the Company (the “Alabama Litigation”). The lawsuit alleges that the Company has failed to collect from its subscribers and remit certain fees pursuant to the Alabama Emergency Telephone Services Act (the “AETS Act”). The plaintiff seeks a declaratory judgment that we must comply with the AETS Act, compensatory and punitive damages, attorneys’ fees and costs, equitable and/or injunctive relief and such other relief as the court may deem proper. The Company believes that the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution bars the application of the AETS Act to the Company, since the Company has no employees, property or other indicia of a “substantial nexus” with the State of Alabama, and therefore the plaintiff’s claims are without merit. On January 31, 2017 the Alabama Litigation was dismissed with prejudice pursuant to a confidential settlement agreement between the parties, without resulting in a material loss to the Company.

In addition to the litigation matters described above, from time to time, we may be involved in a variety of other claims, lawsuits, investigations, and proceedings relating to contractual disputes, intellectual property rights, employment matters, regulatory compliance matters, and other litigation matters relating to various claims that arise in the normal course of business. Defending such proceedings is costly and can impose a significant burden on management and employees, we may receive unfavorable preliminary or interim rulings in the course of litigation, and there can be no assurances that favorable final outcomes will be obtained.

48


 

We determine whether an estimated loss from a contingency should be accrued by assessing whether a loss is deemed probable and can be reasonably estimated. We assess our potential liability by analyzing specific litigation and regulatory matters using reasonably available information. We develop our views on estimated losses in consultation with inside and outside counsel, which involves a subjective analysis of potential results and outcomes, assuming various combinations of appropriate litigation and settlement strategies. Legal fees are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

Other than the Oregon Tax litigation, Deep Green Wireless Litigation, Securities Litigation and the Berks County Litigation we currently are not a party to any material litigation or other proceedings, and as of January 31, 2017, we did not have any material accrued liabilities recorded for loss contingencies in the condensed consolidated financial statements.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

None

 

 

49


 

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Our common stock has been trading on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE under the symbol “OOMA” since July 17, 2015.

Price Range of Our Common Stock

The following table sets forth for the periods indicated the high and low sales prices per share of our common stock as quoted on the NYSE:  

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

Fiscal Year Ended January 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourth Quarter

 

$

9.90

 

 

$

8.40

 

Third Quarter

 

$

9.92

 

 

$

8.03

 

Second Quarter

 

$

8.67

 

 

$

6.22

 

First Quarter

 

$

7.30

 

 

$

5.43

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended January 31, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourth Quarter

 

$

8.45

 

 

$

5.66

 

Third Quarter

 

$

11.45

 

 

$

6.18

 

Second Quarter (from July 17, 2015)

 

$

12.44

 

 

$

9.84

 

Holders of Record

As of January 31, 2017, there were approximately 107 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of our shares of common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid, and do not anticipate declaring or paying in the foreseeable future, any cash dividends on our capital stock. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

50


 

Stock Price Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or incorporated by reference into any filing of Ooma, Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing. The stock price performance on this performance graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

During the year ended January 31, 2017, we did not issue equity securities that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933.

Use of Proceeds from Public Offering of Common Stock

On July 17, 2015, our registration statement on Form S-1 was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the IPO of our common stock. In connection with the IPO, we issued 5,000,000 shares of our common stock at an offering price of $13.00 per share for aggregate net proceeds of $56.9 million, after deducting the underwriters’ discounts, commissions and offering costs. We used approximately $10.3 million of the proceeds to repay outstanding debt and $0.6 million to cash settle a warrant to purchase 70,287 shares of our convertible preferred stock. The remaining proceeds have been invested in money market funds and short-term marketable securities as of January 31, 2017.

51


 

ITEM 6. SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended January 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of January 31, 2017 and 2016 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report and should be read together with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, and Item 8, “Consolidated financial statements and Supplementary Data”. We derived selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended January 31, 2014 and 2013 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of January 31, 2015 and 2014 from audited financials not included in this report. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results in any future period.

 

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

 

 

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subscription and services

 

$

91,127

 

 

$

73,064

 

 

$

53,828

 

 

$

35,377

 

 

$

24,107

 

Product and other

 

 

13,397

 

 

 

15,711

 

 

 

18,373

 

 

 

18,288

 

 

 

15,126

 

Total revenue

 

 

104,524

 

 

 

88,775

 

 

 

72,201

 

 

 

53,665

 

 

 

39,233

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subscription and services

 

 

29,650

 

 

 

25,715

 

 

 

18,284

 

 

 

15,894

 

 

 

13,899

 

Product and other

 

 

15,545

 

 

 

16,150

 

 

 

18,440

 

 

 

15,573

 

 

 

11,590

 

Total cost of revenue (1)

 

 

45,195

 

 

 

41,865

 

 

 

36,724

 

 

 

31,467

 

 

 

25,489

 

Gross profit

 

 

59,329

 

 

 

46,910

 

 

 

35,477

 

 

 

22,198

 

 

 

13,744

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales and marketing (1)

 

 

33,768

 

 

 

28,534

 

 

 

22,276

 

 

 

13,192

 

 

 

7,471

 

Research and development (1)

 

 

24,239

 

 

 

18,502

 

 

 

12,290

 

 

 

7,888

 

 

 

7,023

 

General and administrative (1)

 

 

14,598

 

 

 

12,561

 

 

 

6,650

 

 

 

2,573

 

 

 

2,508

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

72,605

 

 

 

59,597

 

 

 

41,216

 

 

 

23,653

 

 

 

17,002

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(13,276

)

 

 

(12,687

)

 

 

(5,739

)

 

 

(1,455

)

 

 

(3,258

)

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income (expense), net

 

 

370

 

 

 

(881

)

 

 

(323

)

 

 

(269

)

 

 

(550

)

Change in fair value of warrants

 

 

 

 

 

(442

)

 

 

(795

)

 

 

(250

)

 

 

153

 

Other expense, net

 

 

(43

)

 

 

(42

)

 

 

(55

)

 

 

(26

)

 

 

(8

)

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(12,949

)

 

 

(14,052

)

 

 

(6,912

)

 

 

(2,000

)

 

 

(3,663

)

Income tax benefit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

502

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(12,949

)

 

$

(14,052

)

 

$

(6,410

)

 

$

(2,000

)

 

$

(3,663

)

Net loss per share of common stock:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted

 

$

(0.74

)

 

$

(1.38

)

 

$

(2.81

)

 

$

(1.18

)

 

$

(3.54

)

Weighted-average number of shares used in per share

   amounts:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted

 

 

17,490,448

 

 

 

10,173,095

 

 

 

2,284,241

 

 

 

1,688,846

 

 

 

1,035,957

 

 

(1)

Stock-based compensation and related taxes are included in our results of operations as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Total cost of revenue

 

$

1,038

 

 

$

437

 

 

$

36

 

 

$

7

 

 

$

11

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

1,455

 

 

 

611

 

 

 

41

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

1

 

Research and development

 

 

3,619

 

 

 

1,683

 

 

 

169

 

 

 

26

 

 

 

50

 

General and administrative

 

 

3,754

 

 

 

1,922

 

 

 

180

 

 

 

33

 

 

 

111

 

Total

 

$

9,866

 

 

$

4,653

 

 

$

426

 

 

$

72

 

 

$

173

 

52


 

 

 

 

As of January 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

3,990

 

 

$

27,413

 

 

$

9,133

 

 

$

6,364

 

Short-term investments

 

 

49,211

 

 

 

27,991

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Working capital (deficit)

 

 

34,299

 

 

 

35,891

 

 

 

(5,863

)

 

 

(6,959

)

Total assets

 

 

73,338

 

 

 

76,536

 

 

 

31,277

 

 

 

17,716

 

Convertible preferred stock warrant liability, current and

   non-current

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,217

 

 

 

361

 

Debt and lease obligations, current and non-current

 

 

 

 

 

632

 

 

 

11,960

 

 

 

2,415

 

Deferred revenue, current and non-current

 

 

16,030

 

 

 

15,072

 

 

 

14,383

 

 

 

10,356

 

Total liabilities

 

 

33,518

 

 

 

33,646

 

 

 

42,785

 

 

 

24,034

 

Convertible preferred stock (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33,637

 

 

 

33,541

 

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)